WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar radiometric instrumentation

  1. Radiometric well logging instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The technical properties of well instruments for radioactive logging used in the radiometric logging complexes PKS-1000-1 (''Sond-1'') and PRKS-2 (''Vitok-2'') are described. The main features of the electric circuit of the measuring channels are given

  2. Radiometric characterization of space instrumentation; Radiometrische Charakterisierung von Weltrauminstrumentierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottwald, Alexander [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' UV- und VUV-Radiometrie' ; Klein, Roman; Krumrey, Michael; Mueller, Peter; Paustian, Wolfgang; Reichel, Thomas; Scholze, Frank; Thornagel, Reiner

    2014-09-15

    The calibration of detectors for space experiments using synchrotron radiation is described. Especially considered are spectrographs for the solar radiometry and instruments for X-ray astronomy. (HSI)

  3. Radiometric Calibration of Osmi Imagery Using Solar Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Han Lee

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available OSMI (Ocean Scanning Multi-Spectral Imager raw image data (Level 0 were acquired and radiometrically corrected. We have applied two methods, using solar & dark calibration data from OSMI sensor and comparing with the SeaWiFS data, to the radiometric correction of OSMI raw image data. First, we could get the values of the gain and the offset for each pixel and each band from comparing the solar & dark calibration data with the solar input radiance values, calculated from the transmittance, BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and the solar incidence angle (¥â,¥è of OSMI sensor. Applying this calibration data to OSMI raw image data, we got the two odd results, the lower value of the radiometric corrected image data than the expected value, and the Venetian Blind Effect in the radiometric corrected image data. Second, we could get the reasonable results from comparing OSMI raw image data with the SeaWiFS data, and get a new problem of OSMI sensor.

  4. Development of a portable ambient temperature radiometric assaying instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Ruhter, W.D.; Paulus, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a strong need for portable radiometric instrumentation that can accurately confirm the presence of nuclear materials and allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. To fulfill this need, the authors are developing a hand-held, non-cryogenic, low-power gamma- and X-ray measurement and analysis instrument that can both search and then accurately verify the presence of nuclear materials. The authors report on the use of cadmium zinc telluride detectors, signal processing electronics, and the new field-portable instrument based on the MicroNOMAD Multichannel Analyzer from EG and G ORTEC. They will also describe the isotopic analysis that allows uranium enrichment measurements to be made accurately in the field. The benefits of this work are realized in a wide spectrum of applications that include Arms Control, Nuclear Safeguards, Environmental Management, Emergency Response, and Treaty Verification

  5. The Pelindaba facility for calibrating radiometric field instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.; Toens, P.D.; Van As, D.; Vleggaar, C.M.; Richards, D.J.

    1979-04-01

    The tremendous upsurge in uranium exploration activity, experienced in recent years, has made the need for the standardisation and calibration of radiometric field instruments apparent. In order to fulfill this need, construction of a calibration facility at the National Nuclear Research Centre, Pelindaba, was commenced in 1972 and has since been extended according the the requirements of the mining industry. The facility currently comprises 11 surface standard sources suitable for the calibration, in terms of radio-element concentration, of portable scintillometers and spectrometers, and single uranium and thorium model-borehole sources which make possible the accurate calibration of borehole logging instruments both for gross-count and spectrometric surveys. Portable potassium, uranium and thorium sources are also available for the purposes of establishing airborne-spectrometer stripping ratios. The relevant physico-chemical properties of the standards are presented in this report and calibration procedures and data reduction techniques recommended. Examples are given of in situ measurements, both on surface and down-the-hole, which show that the derived calibration constants yield radiometric grades which are, on average, accurate to within 5% of the true radio-element concentrations. A secondary facility comprising single borehole- and surface-uranium sources has also been constructed in Beaufort West in the southern Karoo [af

  6. A new radiometric instrument designed to measure the parameters of bituminous coal on transport belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, P.

    1993-01-01

    A new radiometric instrument developed in Czechoslovakia, for the measurement of ash content of bituminous coal, and for the determination of approximate values of moisture and weight is described. (Author)

  7. Urease testing of mycobacteria with BACTEC radiometric instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, J.J.; Collins, M.T.; McClatchy, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 140 mycobacterial isolates from patients treated at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center or the National Jewish Hospital and Research Center and from animal specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory were tested by using a urease procedure modified for use with a BACTEC model 301. Mycobacterial suspensions were prepared by using Middlebrook 7H10 Tween broth. Of the 98 mycobacteria isolates which were urease positive utilizing standard methodology, all were positive using the radiometric procedures. Similarly, all 42 urease-negative isolates were also negative employing the new methodology. Although maximum radiometric readings were observed at 48 h, all positive strains were readily identified 24 h after inoculation without sacrificing either test sensitivity or specificity. Thus, urease testing of mycobacteria, using the modified BACTEC radiometric methodology, was as sensitive, as specific, and more rapid than conventional methods

  8. Effects of agrochemicals, ultra violet stabilisers and solar radiation on the radiometric properties of greenhouse films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Vox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agrochemicals, based on iron, sulphur and chlorine, generate by products that lead to a degradation of greenhouse films together with a decrease in their mechanical and physical properties. The degradation due to agrochemicals depends on their active principles, method and frequency of application, and greenhouse ventilation. The aim of the research was to evaluate how agrochemical contamination and solar radiation influence the radiometric properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer greenhouse films by means of laboratory and field tests. The films, manufactured on purpose with the addition of different light stabiliser systems, were exposed to natural outdoor weathering at the experimental farm of the University of Bari (Italy; 41° 05’ N in the period from 2006 to 2008. Each film was tested for two low tunnels: one low tunnel was sprayed from inside with the agrochemicals containing iron, chlorine and sulphur while the other one was not sprayed and served as control. Radiometric laboratory tests were carried out on the new films and on samples taken at the end of the trials. The experimental tests showed that both the natural weathering together with the agrochemicals did not modify significantly the radiometric properties of the films in the solar and in the photosynthetically active radiation wavelength range. Within six months of experimental field tests the variations in these radiometric characteristics were at most 10%. Significant variations, up to 70% of the initial value, were recorded for the stabilised films in the long-wave infrared radiation wavelength range.

  9. Design and use of concrete pads for the calibration of radiometric survey instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevborg, L.

    1984-10-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer for use in geological exploration possesses four stripping ratios and three window sensitivities which must be determined to make the instrumentation applicable for field assay or airborne measurement of potassium, uranium, and thorium contents in the ground. Survey organizations in many parts of the world perform the instrument calibration using large pads of concrete which simulate a plane ground of known radioelement concentration. Calibration and monitoring trials with twelve facilities in ten countries prove that moisture absorption, radon exhalation, and particle-size effects can offset a radiometric grade assigned to concrete whose aggregate contains an embedded radioactive mineral. These and other calibration problems are discussed from a combined theoretical and practical viewpoint

  10. Measuring instrument for the determination of dust concentrations. [air filter with. beta. radiometric gage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresia, H; Spohr, F

    1975-05-22

    The measuring instrument enables a continuous determination of the dust concentration or total dust content in gases on the basis of the radiometric mass determination of dusts. The partial current method is employed, with the gas fetched through a filter cell with a topped intake by a suction pump. A filter band to take up the dust deposit is continuously driven through the filter cell. The filter point and the measuring point with a ..beta..-radionuclide and a detector are both inside the filter cell. The filter cell is sealed all around, at the entrance and exit of the filter band. The band itself acts as a seal. The filter band also has borders strengthened with, e.g., plastic strips which engage the drive. The widths of the slits are adjustable in height.

  11. Radiometric and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) of environmental specimens: lacustrine sediments from Danube Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, Octavian G.

    2002-01-01

    specificity analytical methods such as Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) could evidence more than 40 different elements at concentrations about ppm or lower. Unwanted events as atmospheric nuclear tests and Chernobyl accident discharged a great amount of radioactive 137 Cs that once fixed into sediments represents an excellent tracer for natural processes such as sediment transport, accumulation and redistribution during the last 40-50 years. For multielemental investigation of environmental samples such as soil, sediments, water or various minerals INAA is one of the most suitable technique. Presumably pollutants elements such as Cr, Co, Zn, As, Sb and Br as well as REE that could be easily determined by INAA are helpful indicators of the source as well as of the mechanism of deposition and incorporation of these components. Investigated in correlation with radiocesium distribution as well as some natural trace elements such as REE, Sc or Hf, their vertical profiles in sediments allows a rapid reconstruction of the history of recent pollution processes. Radiometric and INAA measurements have been performed 'in tandem' for sediments collected from different lakes located in both Fluvial (western part) and Fluvio-maritime (eastern part and the Razelm-Sinoe lacustrine complex) sections of the Danube Delta, i.e. Lung, Mesteru, Matita, Furtuna and Merhei as well as Razelm and Leahova, respectively. A review of these investigations concerning the vertical profiles of 4 major elements (Na, K, Ca and Fe), 15 trace elements (Rb, Cs, Ba, Sc, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Th, U, Hf and Ta) as well as of 6 potential pollutants (Zn, Cr, Co, As, Sb and Br) in four lakes (Lung, Furtuna, Mester and Matita) together with anthropogenic 134 Cs and 137 Cs is presented. All these results reveal the great potential of radiometric as well as INAA in environmental as well as in geological investigations. (author)

  12. A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Determine Sensor Radiometric Response Coefficients for NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    Optical sensors aboard Earth orbiting satellites such as the next generation Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) assume that the sensors radiometric response in the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) is described by a quadratic polynomial, in relating the aperture spectral radiance to the sensor Digital Number (DN) readout. For VIIRS Flight Unit 1, the coefficients are to be determined before launch by an attenuation method, although the linear coefficient will be further determined on-orbit through observing the Solar Diffuser. In determining the quadratic polynomial coefficients by the attenuation method, a Maximum Likelihood approach is applied in carrying out the least-squares procedure. Crucial to the Maximum Likelihood least-squares procedure is the computation of the weight. The weight not only has a contribution from the noise of the sensor s digital count, with an important contribution from digitization error, but also is affected heavily by the mathematical expression used to predict the value of the dependent variable, because both the independent and the dependent variables contain random noise. In addition, model errors have a major impact on the uncertainties of the coefficients. The Maximum Likelihood approach demonstrates the inadequacy of the attenuation method model with a quadratic polynomial for the retrieved spectral radiance. We show that using the inadequate model dramatically increases the uncertainties of the coefficients. We compute the coefficient values and their uncertainties, considering both measurement and model errors.

  13. A New Radiometric Calibration Paradigm for the OMPS Nadir Total Column and Profile Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Donald; Georgiew, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    A fused silica Mie Scattering Diffuser (MSD) has been developed at Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. that has measured characteristics which could be used to increase the accuracy of the spectral albedo calibration of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Nadir ozone total column and profile instrument by almost an order of magnitude. Measurements have been made of the optical characteristics on both natural and synthetic forms of fused silica MSDs. Preliminary measurements suggest that MSDs are useable in the solar reflective wavelength region from 250 nm to 3.7 m. To date synthetic and natural MSDs have been irradiated for 60 hours of UV radiation from a solar simulator, and synthetic MSDs have been irradiated with increasing doses of Co-60 gamma rays at 30, 500 krads up to 1.5 Mrads, and 30 krads of 200 MeV protons. The principal effects have been small loses in transmittance at wavelengths < 350 nm. The high energy particle irradiation measurements were provided by Neal Nickles and Dean Spieth.

  14. Radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of natural radioactivity in uranium, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the nuclear property of radioactive decay of radionuclides at immutable rates has been effectively utilized in dating of varieties of naturally occurring geological matrices and the organisms which constantly replenish their "1"4C supply through respiration when alive on earth. During the period, applications of radiometric dating techniques have been extensively diversified and have enabled the geologists to indicate the absolute time scales of geological formations and the evolution of the solar system, the earth, meteorites, lunar rocks, etc. and the archaeologists to record the facts of history of several important events like dinosaur era, Iceman, the Shroud in Turin and many other ancient artefacts. In the development of dating methods, varieties of naturally occurring radio-isotopic systems with favorable half-lives ranging from about 10 years to over 100 billion years have been used as radiometric clocks. (author)

  15. Advance on solar instrumentation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The solar observing facilities in China are introduced with the emphasis on the development in recent years and future plans for both ground and space-based solar instrumentations. The recent solar instruments are as follows: A new generation Chinese Spectral Radioreliograph (CSRH) has been constructed at Mingantu Observing Station in Zhengxiangbaiqi, inner Mongolia of China since 2013 and is in test observations now. CSRH has two arrays with 40 × 4.5 m and 60 × 2 m parabolic antennas covering 0.4-2 GHz and 2-15 GHz frequency range. CSRH is renamed as MUSER (Mingantu Ultrawide Spectral Radiheliograph) after its accomplishment. A new 1 m vacuum solar telescope (NVST) has been installed in 2010 at Fuxian lake, 60 km away from Kunming, Yunana. At present it is the best seeing place in China. A new telescope called ONSET (Optical and NIR Solar Eruption Tracer) has been established at the same site as NVST in 2011. ONSET has been put into operation since 2013. For future ground-based plans, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope (CGST) with spatial resolution equivalent to 8m and effective area of 5m full-aperture telescope has been proposed and was formally listed into the National Plans of Major Science & Technology Infrastructures in China. The pre-study and site survey for CGST have been pursued. A 1-meter mid-infrared telescope for precise measurement of the solar magnetic field has been funded by NSFC in 2014 as a national major scientific instrument development project. This project will develop the first mid-infrared solar magnetic observation instrument in the world aiming at increasing the precision of the transverse magnetic field measurement by one order of magnitude. For future ground-based plans, we promote the Deep-space Solar Observatory (DSO) with 1-m aperture telescope to be formally funded. The ASO-S (an Advanced Space-based Solar Observatory) has been supported in background phase by Space Science Program as a small mission. Other related space solar

  16. Analysis of direct to diffuse partitioning of global solar irradiance at the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.; Cancillo, M. L.; Serrano, A.

    2010-09-01

    This study is aimed at the analysis of the partitioning of global solar irradiance into its direct and diffuse components at the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain). The detailed knowledge of the solar radiation field is of increasing interest in Southern Europe due to its use as renewable energy. In particular, the knowledge of the solar radiation partitioning into direct and diffuse radiation has become a major demand for the design and suitable orientation of solar panels in solar power plants. In this study the first measurements of solar diffuse irradiance performed in the radiometric station in Badajoz (Spain) are presented and analyzed in the framework of the partitioning of solar global radiation. Thus, solar global and diffuse irradiance were measured at one-minute basis from 23 November 2009 to 31 March 2010. Solar irradiances were measured by two Kipp&Zonen CMP11 pyranometers, using a Kipp&Zonen CM121 shadow ring for the measurements of solar diffuse irradiance. Diffuse measurements were corrected from the solid angle hidden by the ring and direct irradiance was calculated as the difference between global and diffuse measurements. Irradiance was obtained from the pyranomenters by applying calibration coefficients obtained in an inter-comparison campaign performed at INTA/El Arenosillo, in Huelva (Spain), last September 2009. There, calibration coefficients were calculated using as a reference a CMP11 pyranometer which had been previously calibrated by the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos/World Radiation Centre in Switzerland. In order to study the partitioning of the solar radiation, the global and diffuse irradiances have been analyzed for three typical different sky conditions: cloud-free, broken clouds and overcast. Particular days within the period of study have been selected by visual inspection. Along with the analysis of the global and diffuse irradiances themselves, ratios of these irradiances to the downward irradiance at the

  17. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caille, G.

    1960-01-01

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author) [fr

  18. Calibration of solar radiation measuring instruments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahm, R J; Nakos, J C

    1979-11-01

    A review of solar radiation measurement of instruments and some types of errors is given; and procedures for calibrating solar radiation measuring instruments are detailed. An appendix contains a description of various agencies who perform calibration of solar instruments and a description of the methods they used at the time this report was prepared. (WHK)

  19. Sterilization of instruments in solar ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjendbo Joergensen, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Odense (Denmark); Noehr, K. [Odense Technical College, Dept. of Metal, Odense (Denmark); Boisen, F. [The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration Funen, Dept. of Microbiology, Odense (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The sterilization of instruments in rural health clinics in less developed countries is an increasing problem because chemical methods can no longer be recommended and wood fuel is becoming more and more scarce. Thus, it seemed obvious to try to utilize solar energy for sterilization purposes. A solar oven was designed and manufactured using local materials and simple tools. The solar oven was tested by physical, chemical, and microbiological methods. A mathematical model for the sterilization effect was developed and programmed into a microprocessor that was connected to a thermocouple. The microprocessor switches on a green light when the sterilization is completed. After successful testing, the oven was built into the west-facing wall of a rural health clinic and used daily for sterilization. The oven was able to generate temperatures above 180 deg. C. On all days with direct sunlight the oven fulfilled the international recommendations for hot air sterilization because no growth could be detected from any of the test bacteria spores. The chemical indicators Brownes tubes types 3 and 5 also changed colours. The solar oven was easy to use for the clinic staff, but during the seasons with low sun position (in Tanzania, December and June) it was difficult to achieve a high enough temperature for sterilization. Therefore, if the method is to be used throughout the year the oven must be moved to collect the sun's rays from several directions, or the clinic must have more than one solar oven facing in different directions. We conclude that the solar oven is a realistic method for sterilization of instruments. (au)

  20. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR

  1. Advanced instrumentation for Solar System gravitational physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Roberto; Bellettini, G.; Berardi, S.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Coradini, A.; Currie, D. G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Fiorenza, E.; Garattini, M.; Iafolla, V.; Intaglietta, N.; Lefevre, C.; Lops, C.; March, R.; Martini, M.; Nozzoli, S.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Reale, A.; Santoli, F.; Tauraso, R.; Vittori, R.

    2010-05-01

    The Solar System is a complex laboratory for testing gravitational physics. Indeed, its scale and hierarchical structure make possible a wide range of tests for gravitational theories, studying the motion of both natural and artificial objects. The usual methodology makes use of tracking information related to the bodies, fitted by a suitable dynamical model. Different equations of motion are provided by different theories, which can be therefore tested and compared. Future exploration scenarios show the possibility of placing deep-space probes near the Sun or in outer Solar System, thereby extending the available experimental data sets. In particular, the Earth-Moon is the most accurately known gravitational three-body laboratory, which is undergoing a new, strong wave of research and exploration (both robotic and manned). In addition, the benefits of a synergetic study of planetary science and gravitational physics are of the greatest importance (as shown by the success of the Apollo program), especially in the Earth-Moon, Mars-Phobos, Jovian and Saturnian sub-suystems. This scenarios open critical issues regarding the quality of the available dynamical models, i.e. their capability of fitting data without an excessive number of empirical hypotheses. A typical case is represented by the non-gravitational phenomena, which in general are difficult to model. More generally, gravitation tests with Lunar Laser Ranging, inner or outer Solar System probes and the appearance of the so-called 'anomalies'(like the one indicated by the Pioneers), whatever their real origin (either instrumental effects or due to new physics), show the necessity of a coordinated improvement of tracking and modelization techniques. A common research path will be discussed, employing the development and use of advanced instrumentation to cope with current limitations of Solar System gravitational tests. In particular, the use of high-sensitivity accelerometers, combined with microwave and laser

  2. Functional Form of the Radiometric Equation for the SNPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands: An Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite is a passive scanning radiometer and an imager, observing radiative energy from the Earth in 22 spectral bands from 0.41 to 12 microns which include 14 reflective solar bands (RSBs). Extending the formula used by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instruments, currently the VIIRS determines the sensor aperture spectral radiance through a quadratic polynomial of its detector digital count. It has been known that for the RSBs the quadratic polynomial is not adequate in the design specified spectral radiance region and using a quadratic polynomial could drastically increase the errors in the polynomial coefficients, leading to possible large errors in the determined aperture spectral radiance. In addition, it is very desirable to be able to extend the radiance calculation formula to correctly retrieve the aperture spectral radiance with the level beyond the design specified range. In order to more accurately determine the aperture spectral radiance from the observed digital count, we examine a few polynomials of the detector digital count to calculate the sensor aperture spectral radiance.

  3. Solar Tower Experiments for Radiometric Calibration and Validation of Infrared Imaging Assets and Analysis Tools for Entry Aero-Heating Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Horvath, Thomas J.; Mercer, David C.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ross, Martin N.; Tietjen, Alan; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements assessment team has a task to perform radiometric calibration and validation of land-based and airborne infrared imaging assets and tools for remote thermographic imaging. The IR assets and tools will be used for thermographic imaging of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry aero-heating to provide flight boundary layer transition thermography data that could be utilized for calibration and validation of empirical and theoretical aero-heating tools. A series of tests at the Sandia National Laboratories National Solar Thermal Test Facility were designed for this task where reflected solar radiation from a field of heliostats was used to heat a 4 foot by 4 foot test panel consisting of LI 900 ceramic tiles located on top of the 200 foot tall Solar Tower. The test panel provided an Orbiter-like entry temperature for the purposes of radiometric calibration and validation. The Solar Tower provided an ideal test bed for this series of radiometric calibration and validation tests because it had the potential to rapidly heat the large test panel to spatially uniform and non-uniform elevated temperatures. Also, the unsheltered-open-air environment of the Solar Tower was conducive to obtaining unobstructed radiometric data by land-based and airborne IR imaging assets. Various thermocouples installed on the test panel and an infrared imager located in close proximity to the test panel were used to obtain surface temperature measurements for evaluation and calibration of the radiometric data from the infrared imaging assets. The overall test environment, test article, test approach, and typical test results are discussed.

  4. Impacts of the Angular Dependence of the Solar Diffuser BRDF Degradation Factor on the SNPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Band On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    Using an onboard sunlit solar diffuser (SD) as the primary radiance source, the visible infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite regularly performs radiometric calibration of its reflective solar bands (RSBs). The SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) value decreases over time. A numerical degradation factor is used to quantify the degradation and is determined by an onboard SD stability monitor (SDSM), which observes the sun and the sunlit SD at almost the same time. We had shown previously that the BRDF degradation factor was angle-dependent. Consequently, due to that the SDSM and the RSB view the SD at very different angles relative to both the solar and the SD surface normal vectors, directly applying the BRDF degradation factor determined by the SDSM to the VIIRS RSB calibration can result in large systematic errors. We develop a phenomenological model to calculate the BRDF degradation factor for the RSB SD view from the degradation factor for the SDSM SD view. Using the yearly undulations observed in the VIIRS detector gains for the M1-M4 bands calculated with the SD BRDF degradation factor for the SDSM SD view and the difference between the VIIRS detector gains calculated from the SD and the lunar observations, we obtain the model parameter values and thus establish the relation between the BRDF degradation factors for the RSB and the SDSM SD view directions.

  5. VIIRS Reflective Solar Band Radiometric and Stability Evaluation Using Deep Convective Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2016-01-01

    This work takes advantage of the stable distribution of deep convective cloud (DCC) reflectance measurements to assess the calibration stability and detector difference in Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective bands. VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDRs) from February 2012 to June 2015 are utilized to analyze the long-term trending, detector difference, and half angle mirror (HAM) side difference. VIIRS has two thermal emissive bands with coverage crossing 11 microns for DCC pixel identification. The comparison of the results of these two processing bands is one of the indicators of analysis reliability. The long-term stability analysis shows downward trends (up to approximately 0.4 per year) for the visible and near-infrared bands and upward trends (up to 0.5per year) for the short- and mid-wave infrared bands. The detector difference for each band is calculated as the difference relative to the average reflectance overall detectors. Except for the slightly greater than 1 difference in the two bands at 1610 nm, the detector difference is less than1 for other solar reflective bands. The detector differences show increasing trends for some short-wave bands with center wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm and remain unchanged for the bands with longer center wavelengths. The HAM side difference is insignificant and stable. Those short-wave bands from 400 to 600 nm also have relatively larger HAM side difference, up to 0.25.Comparing the striped images from SDR and the smooth images after the correction validates the analyses of detector difference and HAM side difference. These analyses are very helpful for VIIRS calibration improvement and thus enhance product quality

  6. Standard operational radiation protection instructions for process instrumentation and control engineering applying radiometric equipment containing sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    According to article 16(3) of the Ordinance on the Implementation of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection of 11 October 1984, operational radiation protection instructions have to be worked out for each type of nuclear energy application. Based on the valid legal provisions of the GDR and on experience and knowledge gained in practice, the most important operational instructions and procedures for the operation of radiometric equipment containing sealed sources were compiled. The example should enable the management to make the instructions directly applicable and, if necessary, to modify or supplement them

  7. Investigation of Pre- and Post-Flight Radiometric Calibration Uncertainties from Surface Based Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, D.F.; Wei, Z.Y.; Ahman, Z.

    1997-06-01

    A new technique has been developed for inferring column ozone amounts and aerosol optical depths from zenith sky observations. A new radiometric calibration technique for large aperture remote sensing instruments observing the earth through space has been validated which subsequently increased the accuracy of remote sensing measurements of ozone and vertical profiles using measurements of back-scattered ultraviolet solar radiation.

  8. Instrumentation at the Decade 80 solar house in Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Modifications, problems and solutions for the instrumentation system that occurred during the period from May through September, 1978, are described. The solar house was built to show the use of copper in home building and to demonstrate the use of solar energy to provide space heating and cooling and domestic hot water. The auxiliary energy sources are electrical resistance heating for the domestic hot water and a gas-fired boiler for space heating and operation of the adsorption air conditioning units.

  9. Radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring the characteristic values of a sample by radiation includes a humer of radiation measuring subsystems having different ratios of sensitivities to the elements of the sample and linearizing circuits having inverse function characteristics of calibration functions which correspond to the radiation measuring subsystems. A weighing adder operates a desirable linear combination of the outputs of the linearizing circuits. Operators for operating between two or more different linear combinations are included

  10. 8 years of Solar Spectral Irradiance Observations from the ISS with the SOLAR/SOLSPEC Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.; Bekki, S.; Pereira, N.; Cessateur, G.; Marchand, M.; Thiéblemont, R.; Foujols, T.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate measurements of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and of the impact of solar variability on climate (via Earth's atmospheric photochemistry). The acquisition of a top of atmosphere reference solar spectrum and of its temporal and spectral variability during the unusual solar cycle 24 is of prime interest for these studies. These measurements are performed since April 2008 with the SOLSPEC spectro-radiometer from the far ultraviolet to the infrared (166 nm to 3088 nm). This instrument, developed under a fruitful LATMOS/BIRA-IASB collaboration, is part of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload, externally mounted on the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The SOLAR mission, with its actual 8 years duration, will cover almost the entire solar cycle 24. We present here the in-flight operations and performances of the SOLSPEC instrument, including the engineering corrections, calibrations and improved know-how procedure for aging corrections. Accordingly, a SSI reference spectrum from the UV to the NIR will be presented, together with its UV variability, as measured by SOLAR/SOLSPEC. Uncertainties on these measurements and comparisons with other instruments will be briefly discussed.

  11. An instrument for collecting and processing data from radiometric experiments carried out in field and industrial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirowicz, J.; Owczarczyk, A.; Pienkos, J.; Swistowski, E.; Urbanski, P.

    2002-01-01

    The FIR-1 radiometer is designed to collect and process radiometric measurements carried out in industrial and field environment. A specialized software of the radiometer enables use of the collected measuring results for further processing e.g. modelling of dynamics of the objects. The main unit of the radiometer is the control block. The task of the block is control of the measuring cycles and its analysis as well as displaying and store of the measuring results. The investigated processes can be watched at LCD screen, the measuring results can be stored in the memory and can be sent for further processing to external PC. The radiometer is equipped with 4 pulse channels to which scintillation or GM detection probes can be connected depending on the measurements to be carried out. Additionally, the radiometer is equipped with the spectrometric channel with 256 channel analyser. The radiometer is powered from 6 V accumulator. The radiometer is based on up-to-date technology with large scale integrated circuits. Thanks to microprocessor system used in the radiometer the measurements can be highly automated. The software of the radiometer is based on MATLAB. (author)

  12. The VUV instrument SPICE for Solar Orbiter: performance ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Martin E.; Morris, Nigel; Griffin, Douglas K.; Eccleston, Paul; Anderson, Mark; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Bruzzi, Davide; Tustain, Samuel; Howe, Chris; Davenne, Jenny; Grundy, Timothy; Speight, Roisin; Sidher, Sunil D.; Giunta, Alessandra; Fludra, Andrzej; Philippon, Anne; Auchere, Frederic; Hassler, Don; Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, William T.; Schuehle, Udo H.; Meining, Stefan; Walls, Buddy; Phelan, P.; Dunn, Greg; Klein, Roman M.; Reichel, Thomas; Gyo, Manfred; Munro, Grant J.; Holmes, William; Doyle, Peter

    2017-08-01

    SPICE is an imaging spectrometer operating at vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths, 70.4 - 79.0 nm and 97.3 - 104.9 nm. It is a facility instrument on the Solar Orbiter mission, which carries 10 science instruments in all, to make observations of the Sun's atmosphere and heliosphere, at close proximity to the Sun, i.e to 0.28 A.U. at perihelion. SPICE's role is to make VUV measurements of plasma in the solar atmosphere. SPICE is designed to achieve spectral imaging at spectral resolution >1500, spatial resolution of several arcsec, and two-dimensional FOV of 11 x16arcmins. The many strong constraints on the instrument design imposed by the mission requirements prevent the imaging performance from exceeding those of previous instruments, but by being closer to the sun there is a gain in spatial resolution. The price which is paid is the harsher environment, particularly thermal. This leads to some novel features in the design, which needed to be proven by ground test programs. These include a dichroic solar-transmitting primary mirror to dump the solar heat, a high in-flight temperature (60deg.C) and gradients in the optics box, and a bespoke variable-line-spacing grating to minimise the number of reflective components used. The tests culminate in the systemlevel test of VUV imaging performance and pointing stability. We will describe how our dedicated facility with heritage from previous solar instruments, is used to make these tests, and show the results, firstly on the Engineering Model of the optics unit, and more recently on the Flight Model. For the keywords, select up to 8 key terms for a search on your manuscript's subject.

  13. Error Budget for a Calibration Demonstration System for the Reflected Solar Instrument for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Kurtis; McCorkel, Joel; McAndrew, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    A goal of the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission is to observe highaccuracy, long-term climate change trends over decadal time scales. The key to such a goal is to improving the accuracy of SI traceable absolute calibration across infrared and reflected solar wavelengths allowing climate change to be separated from the limit of natural variability. The advances required to reach on-orbit absolute accuracy to allow climate change observations to survive data gaps exist at NIST in the laboratory, but still need demonstration that the advances can move successfully from to NASA and/or instrument vendor capabilities for spaceborne instruments. The current work describes the radiometric calibration error budget for the Solar, Lunar for Absolute Reflectance Imaging Spectroradiometer (SOLARIS) which is the calibration demonstration system (CDS) for the reflected solar portion of CLARREO. The goal of the CDS is to allow the testing and evaluation of calibration approaches, alternate design and/or implementation approaches and components for the CLARREO mission. SOLARIS also provides a test-bed for detector technologies, non-linearity determination and uncertainties, and application of future technology developments and suggested spacecraft instrument design modifications. The resulting SI-traceable error budget for reflectance retrieval using solar irradiance as a reference and methods for laboratory-based, absolute calibration suitable for climatequality data collections is given. Key components in the error budget are geometry differences between the solar and earth views, knowledge of attenuator behavior when viewing the sun, and sensor behavior such as detector linearity and noise behavior. Methods for demonstrating this error budget are also presented.

  14. The Radiometric Bode's law and Extrasolar Planets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazio, T. J; Farrell, W. M; Dietrick, Jill; Greenlees, Elizabeth; Hogan, Emily; Jones, Christopher; Hennig, L. A

    2004-01-01

    We predict the radio flux densities of the extrasolar planets in the current census, making use of an empirical relation the radiometric Bode's law determined from the five "magnetic" planets in the solar system...

  15. Focal plane instrument for the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope aboard SOLAR-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Takeyama, Norihide

    2011-10-01

    It is presented the conceptual design of a focal plane instrument for the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT) aboard the next Japanese solar mission SOLAR-C. A primary purpose of the telescope is to achieve precise as well as high resolution spectroscopic and polarimetric measurements of the solar chromosphere with a big aperture of 1.5 m, which is expected to make a significant progress in understanding basic MHD processes in the solar atmosphere. The focal plane instrument consists of two packages: A filtergraph package is to get not only monochromatic images but also Dopplergrams and magnetograms using a tunable narrow-band filter and interference filters. A spectrograph package is to perform accurate spectro-polarimetric observations for measuring chromospheric magnetic fields, and is employing a Littrow-type spectrograph. The most challenging aspect in the instrument design is wide wavelength coverage from 280 nm to 1.1 μm to observe multiple chromospheric lines, which is to be realized with a lens unit including fluoride glasses. A high-speed camera for correlation tracking of granular motion is also implemented in one of the packages for an image stabilization system, which is essential to achieve high spatial resolution and high polarimetric accuracy.

  16. The SUVIT Instrument on the Solar-C Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi

    2014-06-01

    Solar-C is a new space mission being proposed to JAXA, with significant contributions anticipated from NASA, ESA, and EU countries. The main scientific objectives are to: reveal the mechanisms for heating and dynamics of the chromosphere and corona and acceleration of the solar wind; determine the physical origin of the large-scale explosions and eruptions that drive short-term solar, heliospheric, and geospace variability; use the solar atmosphere as a laboratory for understanding fundamental physical processes; make unprecedented observations of the polar magnetic fields. The unique approaches of Solar-C to achieve these goals are to: determine the properties and evolution of the 3-dimensional magnetic field, especially on small spatial scales, and for the first time observed in the crucial low beta plasma region; observe all the temperature regimes of the atmosphere seamlessly at the highest spatial resolution ever achieved; observe at high cadence the prevailing dynamics in all regions of the atmosphere; determine physical properties from high resolution spectroscopic measurements throughout the atmosphere and into the solar wind. The powerful suite of instruments onboard Solar-C will be sensitive to temperatures from the photosphere 5500 K) to solar flares 20 MK) with no temperature gap, with spatial resolution at all temperatures of 0.3″ or less (0.1″ in the lower atmosphere) and at high cadence. The purpose of the Solar UV-Visible-IR Telescope (SUVIT) is to obtain chromospheric velocity, temperature, density and magnetic field diagnostics over as wide arange of heights as possible, through high cadence spectral line profiles and vector spectro-polarimetry. SUVIT is a meter-class telescope currently under study at 1.4m in order to obtain sufficientresolution and S/N. SUVIT has two complementary focal plane packages, the Filtergraph that makes high cadence imaging observations with the highest spatial resolution and the Spectro-polarimeter that makes

  17. Cloud Instrument Powered by Solar Cell Sends Data to Pachube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Ursutiu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the economic downturn, there have been quite a few new developments in the world of remote measurements lately. Tag4M (www.tag4m.com introduced the concept of cloud instrument where sensors connected to WiFi tags send data to off-the-shelf Access Points which are part of the WiFi infrastructure that exists in enterprises, retail outlets, factories, and warehouses. Access Points route the data to the Internet where specialized web applications receive the information for processing and display. One of these specialized web applications is Pachube, (http://www.pachube.com which bills itself as a “real-time data brokerage platform”. Pachube enables people to tag and share real time sensor data from objects, devices and spaces around the world. This article presents the pachube cloud instrument where sensors connected to Tag4M WiFi tags send digitized data to www.pachube.com for public display. The article contains very detailed analysis of the solar cell power source that is used to continuously power the Tag4M tag during this application. Cloud Instruments powered by solar cells enable people around the world to share real time sensor data using web pages on the Internet. This is a very interesting and exciting technology development that we want to bring to your attention.

  18. An Interactive Multi-instrument Database of Solar Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykov, Viacheslav M; Kosovichev, Alexander G; Oria, Vincent; Nita, Gelu M [Center for Computational Heliophysics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Solar flares are complicated physical phenomena that are observable in a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves to γ -rays. For a more comprehensive understanding of flares, it is necessary to perform a combined multi-wavelength analysis using observations from many satellites and ground-based observatories. For an efficient data search, integration of different flare lists, and representation of observational data, we have developed the Interactive Multi-Instrument Database of Solar Flares (IMIDSF, https://solarflare.njit.edu/). The web-accessible database is fully functional and allows the user to search for uniquely identified flare events based on their physical descriptors and the availability of observations by a particular set of instruments. Currently, the data from three primary flare lists ( Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites , RHESSI , and HEK) and a variety of other event catalogs ( Hinode , Fermi GBM, Konus- W IND, the OVSA flare catalogs, the CACTus CME catalog, the Filament eruption catalog) and observing logs ( IRIS and Nobeyama coverage) are integrated, and an additional set of physical descriptors (temperature and emission measure) is provided along with an observing summary, data links, and multi-wavelength light curves for each flare event since 2002 January. We envision that this new tool will allow researchers to significantly speed up the search of events of interest for statistical and case studies.

  19. Interactive Multi-Instrument Database of Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Shubha S.; Spaulding, Ryan; Deardorff, Donald G.

    2018-01-01

    The fundamental motivation of the project is that the scientific output of solar research can be greatly enhanced by better exploitation of the existing solar/heliosphere space-data products jointly with ground-based observations. Our primary focus is on developing a specific innovative methodology based on recent advances in "big data" intelligent databases applied to the growing amount of high-spatial and multi-wavelength resolution, high-cadence data from NASA's missions and supporting ground-based observatories. Our flare database is not simply a manually searchable time-based catalog of events or list of web links pointing to data. It is a preprocessed metadata repository enabling fast search and automatic identification of all recorded flares sharing a specifiable set of characteristics, features, and parameters. The result is a new and unique database of solar flares and data search and classification tools for the Heliophysics community, enabling multi-instrument/multi-wavelength investigations of flare physics and supporting further development of flare-prediction methodologies.

  20. Environmental radiometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta C, R.

    1986-07-01

    This document stresses the importance of measuring the radioactivity of the environment in order to evaluate the radiological exposure of the population. The document emphasizes the necessity of detecting very low levels of radioactivity and the difficulties that it implies. The various components of its basis and the means for its reduction are mentioned. Information on the instruments required to identify and quantify the activities of the different radionuclides is given

  1. Design of autotrack detecting instrument for solar UV radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangtao; Mao, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jing

    2009-11-01

    In order to autotrack the object and detect the solar UV index, a reliable real-time high-precise instrument is proposed in this paper. This instrument involves two subsystems: the autotrack and detecting modules. The autotrack module consists of four-quadrant photo detector, multi-channel signal processing circuit and precise stepping system. The detecting module designed for dada measurement and acquisition is made up of the ultraviolet sensor UV460 and high precision A/D converter MAX1162. The key component of the entire instrument is ultralow-power microprocessor MSP430 which is used for entire system controlling and data processing. The lower system of autotracking and measurement is communicated with upper PC computer by RS232 module. In the experiment, the tracking precision of two-dimensional motion revolving stage is calibrated to be less than 0.05°. Experimental results indicate that the system designed could realize the precise autotracking and detecting function well, and the measure precision of system has reached the desirable target.

  2. Solar electric power for instruments at remote sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McChesney, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Small photovoltaic (PV) systems are the preferred method to power instruments operating at permanent locations away from the electric power grid. The low-power PV power system consists of a solar panel or small array of panels, lead-acid batteries, and a charge controller. Even though the small PV power system is simple, the job of supplying power at a remote site can be very demanding. The equipment is often exposed to harsh conditions. The site may be inaccessible part of the year or difficult and expensive to reach at any time. Yet the system must provide uninterrupted power with minimum maintenance at low cost. This requires good design. Successful small PV systems often require modifications by a knowledgeable fieldworker to adapt to conditions at the site. Much information is available in many places about solar panels, lead-acid batteries, and charging systems but very little of it applies directly to low power instrument sites. The discussion here aims to close some of the gap. Each of the major components is described in terms of this application with particular attention paid to batteries. Site problems are investigated. Finally, maintenance and test procedures are given. This document assumes that the reader is engaged in planning or maintaining low-power PV sites and has basic electrical and electronic knowledge. The area covered by the discussion is broad. To help the reader with the many terms and acronyms used, they are shown in bold when first used and a glossary is provided at the end of the paper.

  3. Training course on radiometric prospecting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A training course on radiometric prospecting techniques was presented by the Atomic Energy Board in collaboration with the South African Geophysical Association and the Geological Society of South Africa. Various aspects related to uranium prospecting were discussed e.g. the uranium supply and demand position, the basic physics of radioactivity, uranium geochemistry, mineralogy and mobility, the instrumentation and techniques used in uranium exploration, for example, borehole logging, radon emanometry and airborne radiometric surveys and also data processing and interpretation methods

  4. Instrument Design of the Large Aperture Solar UV Visible and IR Observing Telescope (SUVIT) for the SOLAR-C Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Takeyama, N.

    2012-12-01

    We present an instrumental design of one major solar observation payload planned for the SOLAR-C mission: the Solar Ultra-violet Visible and near IR observing Telescope (SUVIT). The SUVIT is designed to provide high-angular-resolution investigation of the lower solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the uppermost chromosphere, with enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric capability in wide wavelength regions from 280 nm (Mg II h&k lines) to 1100 nm (He I 1083 nm line) with 1.5 m class aperture and filtergraphic and spectrographic instruments.

  5. Simultaneous control of multiple instruments at the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik M.; Goodrich, Bret

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) is a 4-meter solar observatory under construction at Haleakala, Hawaii. The simultaneous use of multiple instruments is one of the unique capabilities that makes the ATST a premier ground based solar observatory. Control of the instrument suite is accomplished by the Instrument Control System (ICS), a layer of software between the Observatory Control System (OCS) and the instruments. The ICS presents a single narrow interface to the OCS and provides a standard interface for the instruments to be controlled. It is built upon the ATST Common Services Framework (CSF), an infrastructure for the implementation of a distributed control system. The ICS responds to OCS commands and events, coordinating and distributing them to the various instruments while monitoring their progress and reporting the status back to the OCS. The ICS requires no specific knowledge about the instruments. All information about the instruments used in an experiment is passed by the OCS to the ICS, which extracts and forwards the parameters to the appropriate instrument controllers. The instruments participating in an experiment define the active instrument set. A subset of those instruments must complete their observing activities in order for the experiment to be considered complete and are referred to as the must-complete instrument set. In addition, instruments may participate in eavesdrop mode, outside of the control of the ICS. All instrument controllers use the same standard narrow interface, which allows new instruments to be added without having to modify the interface or any existing instrument controllers.

  6. International Energy Agency instrumented facilities survey for solar assisted low energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    Compiled are surveys outlining the instrumentation of 38 active and passive solar projects in 9 countries (Denmark, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and West Germany). After the surveys themselves are presented, the data are rearranged to compare answers from similar survey questions for each of the projects. These questions address building, solar system and instrumentation descriptions and meteorological, solar system and building system instrumentatation capabilities. (LEW)

  7. 8 years of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variability Observed from the ISS with the SOLAR/SOLSPEC Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Bolsée, David; Meftah, Mustapha; Irbah, Abdenour; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bekki, Slimane; Pereira, Nuno; Cessateur, Marchand; Gäel; , Marion; et al.

    2016-10-01

    Accurate measurements of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and of the impact of solar variability on climate (via Earth's atmospheric photochemistry). The acquisition of a top of atmosphere reference solar spectrum and of its temporal and spectral variability during the unusual solar cycle 24 is of prime interest for these studies. These measurements are performed since April 2008 with the SOLSPEC spectro-radiometer from the far ultraviolet to the infrared (166 nm to 3088 nm). This instrument, developed under a fruitful LATMOS/BIRA-IASB collaboration, is part of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload, externally mounted on the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The SOLAR mission, with its actual 8 years duration, will cover almost the entire solar cycle 24. We present here the in-flight operations and performances of the SOLSPEC instrument, including the engineering corrections, calibrations and improved know-how procedure for aging corrections. Accordingly, a SSI reference spectrum from the UV to the NIR will be presented, together with its variability in the UV, as measured by SOLAR/SOLSPEC for 8 years. Uncertainties on these measurements and comparisons with other instruments will be briefly discussed.

  8. Radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.; Pereira, A.R.; Camargo, M.B.P. de; Fahl, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    The radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop, cv. NA56-79, are studied during the period of maximum leaf area index. The coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption of the incoming solar radiation were function of solar elevation and the waveband considered. The photosynthetically active radiation was always less reflected and transmitted but more absorved than the near infrared radiation. (M.A.C.) [pt

  9. INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASURING AND TRANSMISSION THE SOLAR RADIATION THROUGH EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan Toma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sun's energy is distributed over a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum and Sun behaves approximately like a "blackbody" radiating at a temperature of about 5800 K with maximum output in the green-yellow part of the visible spectrum, around 500 nm. Not all solar radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere reaches Earth's surface due to a various optical phenomena in regard to solar radiation crossing the Earth’s atmosphere. In order to investigate them, there are two general categories of instruments used to measure the transmission of solar radiation through Earth's atmosphere: instruments that measure radiation from the entire sky and instruments that measure only direct solar radiation. Within each of these categories, instruments can be further subdivided into those that measure radiation over a broad range of wavelengths and those that measure only specific wavelengths.

  10. A teacher's decade passed with pupils and a simple radiometric instrument. Could junior and senior high school pupils see the radiation with their eyes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The author, a teacher of Naragakuen Junior High School-High School in Nara Prefecture, looks back the history of his given education about radiation to 3rd year pupils for the decade from 2002. The main theme of the education includes an actual radiometric study of the already attained, naturally cleaned-up radioactivity derived from A-bomb from the ground of Hiroshima City, and an asking investigation to know how many people misunderstand, as pupils have done so, that Hiroshima ground surface is still radio-contaminated. In 2011, pupils stayed at Fukushima, not Hiroshima. For the radiometric study, pupils first learn the movement of substances in the ground by rain with a model of naturally abundant 40 KCl using a simple radiometer, HAKARUKUN. Then in Hiroshuma, they measure the ambient dose at >600 spots to compare with the doses in other cities like Nara and Kyoto, and the beta-ray of A-bomb-exposed buildings and air dust to see the same half life as that measured in Nara. Their asking investigation revealed that 32.2% and 31.5% of Hiroshima citizen and the resident in other cities, respectively, misunderstand that radiation in the City is higher than other cities. These results have been presented at the conference for pupils mainly held by the Kinki Branch of Chemical Society of Japan. The author expects the exchange of radiological information between learned pupils and parents who have probably not been taught about radiation as its education has been absent during these 30 years. Though, the education is to be given to all pupils hereafter in Japan. (T.T.)

  11. Solar UVR instrument inter-comparison focussing on measurement interval recording setting and solar zenith angle as important factors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, GY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available considerations, to make meaningful deductions from the data. By comparing two solar UVR instruments, namely, a UV biometer and a Davis Vantage Pro2 UVR Detector, we look at an important factor influencing ambient solar UVR, namely SZA, and its impact... Vantage Pro2 UV detector comprises a transducer which is a semiconductor photodiode with a spectral response that matches the McKinley/Diffey Erythemal Action Spectrum. It includes a diffuser which provides good cosine response and multiple hard...

  12. The MITRA as a solar and ionospheric instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeharry, G. K.

    2015-12-01

    The MITRA is an international/pan-African radioastronomy project which aims to do extremely wide field imaging with heterogeneous non coplanar arrays. It can be used for solar and ionospheric studies.

  13. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  14. Next Generation UV Coronagraph Instrumentation for Solar Cycle-24

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... New concepts for next generation instrumentation include imaging ultraviolet spectrocoronagraphs and large aperture ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometers. An imaging instrument would be the first to obtain absolute spectral line intensities of the extended corona over a wide field of view. Such images ...

  15. Modeling response variation for radiometric calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.L. II.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric calorimeters are widely used in the DOE complex for accountability measurements of plutonium and tritium. Proper characterization of response variation for these instruments is, therefore, vital for accurate assessment of measurement control as well as for propagation of error calculations. This is not difficult for instruments used to measure items within a narrow range of power values; however, when a single instrument is used to measure items over a wide range of power values, improper estimates of uncertainty can result since traditional error models for radiometric calorimeters assume that uncertainty is not a function of sample power. This paper describes methods which can be used to accurately estimate random response variation for calorimeters used to measure items over a wide range of sample powers. The model is applicable to the two most common modes of calorimeter operation: heater replacement and servo control. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  17. Automation of radiometric testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekalin, A.S.; Temnik, A.K.; Butakova, G.E.; Goncharov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    The main prerequisites for creation of automatic systems of radiometric testing as the means to increase the testing objectivity and quality have been considered, principles of their design being developed. The operating system is described for testing complex configuration products using RD-10R gamma flow detector as a sensor of initial information

  18. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats: instrument capabilities and early science analysis on the quiet Sun, active regions, and flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher S.; Woods, Tom; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; MinXSS Instrument Team, NIST-SURF Measurement Team

    2018-01-01

    Detection of soft X-rays (sxr) from the Sun provide direct information on coronal plasma at temperatures in excess of ~1 MK, but there have been relatively few solar spectrally resolved measurements from 0.5 – 10. keV. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat is the first solar science oriented CubeSat mission flown for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, and has provided measurements from 0.8 -12 keV, with resolving power ~40 at 5.9 keV, at a nominal ~10 second time cadence. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Instrument radiometric calibration was performed at the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) and spectral resolution determined from radioactive X-ray sources. The MinXSS spectra allow for determining coronal abundance variations for Fe, Mg, Ni, Ca, Si, S, and Ar in active regions and during flares. Measurements from the first of the twin CubeSats, MinXSS-1, have proven to be consistent with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 0.1 – 0.8 nm energy flux. Simultaneous MinXSS-1 and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations have provided the most complete sxr spectral coverage of flares in recent years. These combined measurements are vital in estimating the heating flare loops by non-thermal accelerated electrons. MinXSS-1 measurements have been combined with the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO-AIA) to further constrain the coronal temperature distribution during quiescent times. The structure of the temperature distribution (especially for T > 5 MK) is important for deducing heating processes in the solar atmosphere. MinXSS-1 observations yield some of the tightest constraints on the high temperature component of the coronal plasma, in the

  19. Gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalor, G.C.; Robotham, H.; Miller, J.M.; Simpson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a total gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica, carried out with car-borne instrumentation, are presented and the data compared with the contents of potassium, thorium and uranium in rocks and in surface (soil, stream-sediment, pan concentrate and water) samples obtained at six sites selected to be representative of the principal rock types and surface environments of Jamaica. The work formed part of an orientation study for a regional geochemical survey of the CARICOM countries of the Caribbean. The initial results indicate that enhanced gamma activity is correlated with enrichment in uranium and thorium, but not potassium, in terra rossa soils and/or bauxite deposits in limestone. Elsewhere, gamma levels are increased on the Above Rocks Cretaceous basement Inlier, where they correlate generally with the presence of volcanogenic sediments and a granodiorite intrusion. The lowest radioactivity was recorded in the vicinity of ultrabasic rocks in the Blue Mountains Inlier. (author)

  20. Solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements, instrumentation, intercomparisons and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorseth, Trond Morten

    2000-01-01

    The thesis reports studies of stabile instruments that are capable of detecting small alterations in ultraviolet irradiation over a long period. A central theme in the work has been to improve the measuring systems for continuous research based monitoring of natural variations in the ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. Methods for controlling the stability and continually secure the quality of the collected data. The causes of measuring errors are mapped and methods for the correction of collected data are developed. The methods and measuring systems for collecting the data have been adapted to the Norwegian climate and geography. The work has lead to an increased understanding of the natural variation in the ultraviolet radiation from the sun and what factors in the atmosphere that influences the process. The collected data and the developed methods for the quality control have increased the understanding of the ultraviolet irradiation climate in Europe

  1. Solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements, instrumentation, intercomparisons and interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorseth, Trond Morten

    2000-07-01

    The thesis reports studies of stabile instruments that are capable of detecting small alterations in ultraviolet irradiation over a long period. A central theme in the work has been to improve the measuring systems for continuous research based monitoring of natural variations in the ultraviolet irradiation from the sun. Methods for controlling the stability and continually secure the quality of the collected data. The causes of measuring errors are mapped and methods for the correction of collected data are developed. The methods and measuring systems for collecting the data have been adapted to the Norwegian climate and geography. The work has lead to an increased understanding of the natural variation in the ultraviolet radiation from the sun and what factors in the atmosphere that influences the process. The collected data and the developed methods for the quality control have increased the understanding of the ultraviolet irradiation climate in Europe.

  2. The moon as a radiometric reference source for on-orbit sensor stability calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    The wealth of data generated by the world's Earth-observing satellites, now spanning decades, allows the construction of long-term climate records. A key consideration for detecting climate trends is precise quantification of temporal changes in sensor calibration on-orbit. For radiometer instruments in the solar reflectance wavelength range (near-UV to shortwave-IR), the Moon can be viewed as a solar diffuser with exceptional stability properties. A model for the lunar spectral irradiance that predicts the geometric variations in the Moon's brightness with ???1% precision has been developed at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff, AZ. Lunar model results corresponding to a series of Moon observations taken by an instrument can be used to stabilize sensor calibration with sub-percent per year precision, as demonstrated by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The inherent stability of the Moon and the operational model to utilize the lunar irradiance quantity provide the Moon as a reference source for monitoring radiometric calibration in orbit. This represents an important capability for detecting terrestrial climate change from space-based radiometric measurements.

  3. Testing the Solar Probe Cup, an Instrument Designed to Touch the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Phyllis L.; Case, Anthony W.; Kasper, Justin Christophe; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Alterman, Ben; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Bookbinder, Jay; Korreck, Kelly E.; Stevens, Michael Louis

    2014-01-01

    Solar Probe Plus will be the first, fastest, and closest mission to the sun, providing the first direct sampling of the sub-Alfvenic corona. The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a unique re-imagining of the traditional Faraday Cup design and materials for immersion in this high temperature environment. Sending an instrument of this type into a never-seen particle environment requires extensive characterization prior to launch to establish sufficient measurement accuracy and instrument response. To reach this end, a slew of tests for allowing SPC to see ranges of appropriate ions and electrons, as well as a facility that reproduces solar photon spectra and fluxes for this mission. Having already tested the SPC at flight like temperatures with no significant modification of the noise floor, we recently completed a round of particle testing to see if the deviations in Faraday Cup design fundamentally change the operation of the instrument. Results and implications from these tests will be presented, as well as performance comparisons to cousin instruments such as those on the WIND spacecraft.

  4. RADIOMETRIC BLOCK ADJUSMENT AND DIGITAL RADIOMETRIC MODEL GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pros

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a radiometric block adjustment method that is related to geometric block adjustment and to the concept of a terrain Digital Radiometric Model (DRM as a complement to the terrain digital elevation and surface models. A DRM, in our concept, is a function that for each ground point returns a reflectance value and a Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF. In a similar way to the terrain geometric reconstruction procedure, given an image block of some terrain area, we split the DRM generation in two phases: radiometric block adjustment and DRM generation. In the paper we concentrate on the radiometric block adjustment step, but we also describe a preliminary DRM generator. In the block adjustment step, after a radiometric pre-calibraton step, local atmosphere radiative transfer parameters, and ground reflectances and BRDFs at the radiometric tie points are estimated. This radiometric block adjustment is based on atmospheric radiative transfer (ART models, pre-selected BRDF models and radiometric ground control points. The proposed concept is implemented and applied in an experimental campaign, and the obtained results are presented. The DRM and orthophoto mosaics are generated showing no radiometric differences at the seam lines.

  5. Thermal Modeling of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Solar Panel and Instruments during Aerobraking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, John A.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.; Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched on August 12, 2005 and started aerobraking at Mars in March 2006. During the spacecraft s design phase, thermal models of the solar panels and instruments were developed to determine which components would be the most limiting thermally during aerobraking. Having determined the most limiting components, thermal limits in terms of heat rate were established. Advanced thermal modeling techniques were developed utilizing Thermal Desktop and Patran Thermal. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo technique. Analysis established that the solar panels were the most limiting components during the aerobraking phase of the mission.

  6. Radiometric diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of this study confirm that rapid radiometric diagnostic tests such as the NAP selective inhibition test for the M. tuberculosis complex followed by the radiometric drug susceptibility tests are extremely reliable and compare favourably with conventional methodologies. This study also shows that referred cultures growing on solid medium can be processed by radiometric procedures without prior subculture. This circumstance by itself shortens the time needed for reporting. (Auth.)

  7. Columbia University OSO-8 instrument for stellar and solar X-ray spectroscopy and polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R S [Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Columbia Astrophysics Lab.

    1976-08-01

    A spectrometer and a polarimeter consisting of large-area panels of mosaic crystals have been constructed and prepared for use in the OSO-8 satellite. The instrumentation is planned for study of stellar and solar X-ray spectra between 1.8-8 keV and stellar X-ray polarization at 2.6 keV. Aspects of the design which enable the instrument to make measurements of the diverse range of stellar and solar phenomena are described. Some of the unique features, such as high sensitivity, high temporal resolution, and spectral range, are discussed. The applicability of the spectrometer and polarimeter to various current problems in X-ray astronomy is considered.

  8. Status of the Instrument Control Unit for EPD on-board Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Prieto, Sebastián; Da Silva, Antonio; Rodriguez Polo, Oscar; Parra Espada, Pablo; Gutierrez Molina, Oscar; Fernandez Salgado, Javier

    Solar Orbiter is the next heliospheric mission sponsored by ESA. The launch is planned for 2017 and it will be as close as 0.28 AU from the Sun. One of the instruments for Solar Orbiter is the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) responsible for measuring energies from 2 keV to 200 MeV/n. EPD consists of four detectors, Electron Proton Telescope (EPT), High Energy Telescope (HET), SupraThermal Electrons, Ions, & Neutrals (STEIN), and Suprathermal Ion Spectrograph (SIS), plus the Instrument Control Unit called ICU. The Space Research Group of the University of Alcalá in Spain is the responsible for developing the ICU. In this work we present the development status of the ICU after the Critical Design Review. We also address the planned activities for the next year including the development of the Engineering and Qualification Model (EQM) and Flight Model (PM). Special focus is paid to the software and verification & validation activities.

  9. Solar Spectral Lines with Special Polarization Properties for the Calibration of Instrument Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, W.; Casini, R.; Alemán, T. del Pino; Judge, P. G. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research 1, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We investigate atomic transitions that have previously been identified as having zero polarization from the Zeeman effect. Our goal is to identify spectral lines that can be used for the calibration of instrumental polarization of large astronomical and solar telescopes, such as the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope, which is currently under construction on Haleakala. We use a numerical model that takes into account the generation of scattering polarization and its modification by the presence of a magnetic field of arbitrary strength. We adopt values for the Landé factors from spectroscopic measurements or semi-empirical results, thus relaxing the common assumption of LS-coupling previously used in the literature. The mechanisms dominating the polarization of particular transitions are identified, and we summarize groups of various spectral lines useful for the calibration of spectropolarimetric instruments, classified according to their polarization properties.

  10. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  11. Radiometric determination in situ of the face grades in Witwatersrand gold and uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, C.J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A prototype collimated radiometric face scanner was tested in the Harmony Gold Mine. The results obtained during the pilot study indicate that in situ radiometric uranium assays are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained conventionally from channel chip samples. In addition, the study demonstrated that reasonably reliable gold estimates can be deduced from the radiometric measurements, by use of the ratio of gold to uranium within a mine. The instrumentation, calibration procedures, and background determination are described briefly

  12. Calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Bruce W.

    Various papers on the calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation are presented. Individual topics addressed include: on-board calibration device for a wide field-of-view instrument, calibration for the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer, cryogenic radiometers and intensity-stabilized lasers for EOS radiometric calibrations, radiometric stability of the Shuttle-borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer, ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser, requirements of a solar diffuser and measurements of some candidate materials, reflectance stability analysis of Spectralon diffuse calibration panels, stray light effects on calibrations using a solar diffuser, radiometric calibration of SPOT 23 HRVs, surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. Also addressed are: calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration, radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner, in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner, technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources, remote colorimetry and its applications, spatial sampling errors for a satellite-borne scanning radiometer, calibration of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability. (For individual items see A93-23576 to A93-23603)

  13. Evaluation of beam tracking strategies for the THOR-CSW solar wind instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, Johan; Lavraud, Benoit; Prech, Lubomir; Neefs, Eddy; Berkenbosch, Sophie; Beeckman, Bram; Maggiolo, Romain; Fedorov, Andrei; Baruah, Rituparna; Wong, King-Wah; Amoros, Carine; Mathon, Romain; Génot, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    We compare different beam tracking strategies for the Cold Solar Wind (CSW) plasma spectrometer on the ESA M4 THOR mission candidate. The goal is to intelligently select the energy and angular windows the instrument is sampling and to adapt these windows as the solar wind properties evolve, with the aim to maximize the velocity distribution acquisition rate while maintaining excellent energy and angular resolution. Using synthetic data constructed using high-cadence measurements by the Faraday cup instrument on the Spektr-R mission (30 ms resolution), we test the performance of energy beam tracking with or without angular beam tracking. The algorithm can be fed both by data acquired by the plasma spectrometer during the previous measurement cycle, or by data from another instrument, in casu the Faraday Cup (FAR) instrument foreseen on THOR. We verify how these beam tracking algorithms behave for different sizes of the energy and angular windows, and for different data integration times, in order to assess the limitations of the algorithm and to avoid situations in which the algorithm loses track of the beam.

  14. On-Orbit Performance of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager Instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, J. T.; Baldner, C. S.; Bush, R. I.; Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2018-03-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument is a major component of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft. Since commencement of full regular science operations on 1 May 2010, HMI has operated with remarkable continuity, e.g. during the more than five years of the SDO prime mission that ended 30 September 2015, HMI collected 98.4% of all possible 45-second velocity maps; minimizing gaps in these full-disk Dopplergrams is crucial for helioseismology. HMI velocity, intensity, and magnetic-field measurements are used in numerous investigations, so understanding the quality of the data is important. This article describes the calibration measurements used to track the performance of the HMI instrument, and it details trends in important instrument parameters during the prime mission. Regular calibration sequences provide information used to improve and update the calibration of HMI data. The set-point temperature of the instrument front window and optical bench is adjusted regularly to maintain instrument focus, and changes in the temperature-control scheme have been made to improve stability in the observable quantities. The exposure time has been changed to compensate for a 20% decrease in instrument throughput. Measurements of the performance of the shutter and tuning mechanisms show that they are aging as expected and continue to perform according to specification. Parameters of the tunable optical-filter elements are regularly adjusted to account for drifts in the central wavelength. Frequent measurements of changing CCD-camera characteristics, such as gain and flat field, are used to calibrate the observations. Infrequent expected events such as eclipses, transits, and spacecraft off-points interrupt regular instrument operations and provide the opportunity to perform additional calibration. Onboard instrument anomalies are rare and seem to occur quite uniformly in time. The instrument continues to perform very well.

  15. Thermal simulations of the STIX instrument for ESA Solar Orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agata; Severyn, Karol; Grassmann, Kamil; Orleańskii, Piotr; Skup, Konrad R.; Arnold, Nicolas; Gröbelbauer, Hans-Peter; Hurford, Gordon J.; Krucker, Samuel; Bauer, Svend-Marian; Mann, Gottfied; Önel, Hakan; Bernet, Adeline; Blecha, Luc; Grimm, Oliver; Limousin, Olivier; Martignac, Jerome; Meuris, Aline

    2013-07-01

    The ESA Solar Orbiter mission, planned to be launched in 2017, is going to study the Sun with ten different instruments including the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays - STIX. The thermal environment on the elliptical orbit around the Sun - 0.28 AU at perihelion and 0.952 AU at aphelion - is extreme, where at one point of the orbit is very hot, while on another very cold. That makes the requirements for the heat fluxes exchanged between each instrument and the spacecraft, as well as between the instrument - subsystems, very restrictive. Here the authors discuss the thermal design with respect to the defined requirements and present the results of the thermal analyses performed with ESATAN TMS software.

  16. Suprathermal ions in the solar wind from the Voyager spacecraft: Instrument modeling and background analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randol, B M; Christian, E R

    2015-01-01

    Using publicly available data from the Voyager Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instruments, we investigate the form of the solar wind ion suprathermal tail in the outer heliosphere inside the termination shock. This tail has a commonly observed form in the inner heliosphere, that is, a power law with a particular spectral index. The Voyager spacecraft have taken data beyond 100 AU, farther than any other spacecraft. However, during extended periods of time, the data appears to be mostly background. We have developed a technique to self-consistently estimate the background seen by LECP due to cosmic rays using data from the Voyager cosmic ray instruments and a simple, semi-analytical model of the LECP instruments

  17. Sterility test by radiometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruq, Muhammad

    1980-01-01

    Sterility test of pharmaceuticals can be carried out by the application of pharmacopoeia and radiometric technique. In Indonesia the application of pharmacopoeia technique is carried out through liquid germination for aerobacteria and for fungus and yeast. Radiometric technique is applied to autotrop and heterotrop bacteria. (SMN)

  18. Radiometric characterization of Landsat Collection 1 products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micijevic, Esad; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Mishra, Nischal

    2017-09-01

    Landsat data in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) archive are being reprocessed to generate a tiered collection of consistently geolocated and radiometrically calibrated products that are suitable for time series analyses. With the implementation of the collection management, no major updates will be made to calibration of the Landsat sensors within a collection. Only calibration parameters needed to maintain the established calibration trends without an effect on derived environmental records will be regularly updated, while all other changes will be deferred to a new collection. This first collection, Collection 1, incorporates various radiometric calibration updates to all Landsat sensors including absolute and relative gains for Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), stray light correction for Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), absolute gains for Landsat 4 and 5 Thematic Mappers (TM), recalibration of Landsat 1-5 Multispectral Scanners (MSS) to ensure radiometric consistency among different formats of archived MSS data, and a transfer of Landsat 8 OLI reflectance based calibration to all previous Landsat sensors. While all OLI/TIRS, ETM+ and majority of TM data have already been reprocessed to Collection 1, a completion of MSS and remaining TM data reprocessing is expected by the end of this year. It is important to note that, although still available for download from the USGS web pages, the products generated using the Pre-Collection processing do not benefit from the latest radiometric calibration updates. In this paper, we are assessing radiometry of solar reflective bands in Landsat Collection 1 products through analysis of trends in on-board calibrator and pseudo invariant site (PICS) responses.

  19. Metrology of the Solar Spectral Irradiance at the Top Of Atmosphere in the Near Infrared using Ground Based Instruments. Final results of the PYR-ILIOS campaign (Mauna Loa Observatory, June-July 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessateur, G.; Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of reference spectra for the Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) is important for the solar physics, the studies of planetary atmospheres and climatology. The near infrared (NIR) part of these spectra is of great interest for its main role for example, in the Earth's radiative budget. Until recently, some large and unsolved discrepancies (up to 10 %) were observed in the 1.6 μm region between space instruments, models and ground-based measurements. We designed a ground-based instrumentation for SSI measurements at the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) through atmospheric NIR windows using the Bouguer-Langley technique. The main instrument is a double NIR spectroradiometer designed by Bentham (UK), radiometrically characterized at the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. It was absolute calibrated against a high-temperature blackbody as primary standard for spectral irradiance at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany). The PYR-ILIOS campaign was carried out in June to July 2016 at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii, USA, 3396 m a.s.l.) follows the four-month IRESPERAD campaign which was carried out in the summer 2011 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (Canary Islands, 2367 m a.s.l.). We present here the results of the 3'week PYR-ILIOS campaign and compare them with the ATLAS 3 spectrum as well as from recently reprocessed NIR solar spectra obtained with SOLAR/SOLSPEC on ISS and SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT. The uncertainty budget of the PYR-ILIOS results will be discussed.

  20. Instrumentation strategies for energy conservation in broiler barns with ventilation air solar pre-heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeau, Sebastien; Barrington, Suzelle [Department of Bioresource Engineering, Macdonald Campus of McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore, Ste Anne de Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    At the present consumption rate, world fossil-fuel reserves are expected to be depleted by 2050 unless their consumption is optimized and supplemented with renewable energy sources. The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of a simple data acquisition system installed to conduct an energy balance and identify energy saving strategies in two commercial broilers barns with ventilation air solar pre-heaters. Located near Montreal, Canada, the two identical barns were instrumented for inside and outside air conditions, ventilation rate and energy recovery by the solar air pre-heaters. Whereas the temperature, relative humidity and radiation sensors were reliable, inside air temperature stratification complicated energy balance analyses and broiler heat production rate calculations. Lack of room air mixing resulted in the loss of 25 and 15% of the generated heater load and recovered solar energy. The proper monitoring of all environmental conditions required their measurement every 5 rather than 20 min. Instead of using a data transmission service found to be unreliable in rural areas, all data loggers were downloaded onto a portable computer every 45 days during regular instrument maintenance. Accordingly, room air mixing is recommended to facilitate energy balance studies and improve the efficient use of heating energies. (author)

  1. The Goldstone solar system radar: A science instrument for planetary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorsky, J. D.; Renzetti, N. A.; Fulton, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) station at NASA's Deep Space Communications Complex in California's Mojave Desert is described. A short chronological account of the GSSR's technical development and scientific discoveries is given. This is followed by a basic discussion of how information is derived from the radar echo and how the raw information can be used to increase understanding of the solar system. A moderately detailed description of the radar system is given, and the engineering performance of the radar is discussed. The operating characteristics of the Arcibo Observatory in Puerto Rico are briefly described and compared with those of the GSSR. Planned and in-process improvements to the existing radar, as well as the performance of a hypothetical 128-m diameter antenna radar station, are described. A comprehensive bibliography of referred scientific and engineering articles presenting results that depended on data gathered by the instrument is provided.

  2. Electrode materials for hydrobromic acid electrolysis in Texas Instruments' solar chemical converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttmer, J.D.; Konrad, D.; Trachtenberg, I.

    1985-05-01

    Texas Instruments has developed a solar chemical converter (SCC) which converts solar energy into chemical energy via the electrolysis of hydrobromic acid. Various materials were evaluated as anodes and cathodes for the electrolysis of the acid. Emphasis was placed on obtaining low overvoltage electrodes with good long-term stability. Sputtered platinum-iridium thin films were identified as the best choice as the cathode material, and sputtered iridium and iridium oxide thin films were identified as the best choice as anode materials. Electrochemical measurements indicate that low overvoltage losses are encountered on these materials at operating current densitities in the SCC. Accelerated corrosion tests of the materials predict acceptable electrode stability for 20 years in an environment representative of onthe-roof service.

  3. Decoupling Solar Variability and Instrument Trends Using the Multiple Same-Irradiance-Level (MuSIL) Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Harder, Jerald; Snow, Martin

    2018-05-01

    The solar spectral irradiance (SSI) dataset is a key record for studying and understanding the energetics and radiation balance in Earth's environment. Understanding the long-term variations of the SSI over timescales of the 11-year solar activity cycle and longer is critical for many Sun-Earth research topics. Satellite measurements of the SSI have been made since the 1970s, most of them in the ultraviolet, but recently also in the visible and near-infrared. A limiting factor for the accuracy of previous solar variability results is the uncertainties for the instrument degradation corrections, which need fairly large corrections relative to the amount of solar cycle variability at some wavelengths. The primary objective of this investigation has been to separate out solar cycle variability and any residual uncorrected instrumental trends in the SSI measurements from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission and the Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Ionosphere, Energetic, and Dynamics (TIMED) mission. A new technique called the Multiple Same-Irradiance-Level (MuSIL) analysis has been developed, which examines an SSI time series at different levels of solar activity to provide long-term trends in an SSI record, and the most common result is a downward trend that most likely stems from uncorrected instrument degradation. This technique has been applied to each wavelength in the SSI records from SORCE (2003 - present) and TIMED (2002 - present) to provide new solar cycle variability results between 27 nm and 1600 nm with a resolution of about 1 nm at most wavelengths. This technique, which was validated with the highly accurate total solar irradiance (TSI) record, has an estimated relative uncertainty of about 5% of the measured solar cycle variability. The MuSIL results are further validated with the comparison of the new solar cycle variability results from different solar cycles.

  4. The solar energy in Colombia, Atlas of solar radiation of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez P, F.

    1995-01-01

    This study was made by means of the Agreement inter-institutional subscribed between Mines Ministry and Energy, HIMAT and INEA and was published by CARBOCOL. In the evaluation of solar energy potential, the information of the radiometric net of the HIMAT taken in 203 stations distributed throughout all Country from 1980 until 1990, it was had in account. A meteorological station is an observation point where are located different instruments and equipment that serve to measure and study meteorological parameter as solar radiation (radiometer actinograph), Solar sheen (Campbell Stoke), Temperature (Thermograph), Moisture (hydrographer), Wind (Anemograph Anemometer) and Precipitation (Pluviograph)

  5. Radiometric enrichment of nonradioactive ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrousov, V.A.; Lileev, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Considered are the methods of mineral enrichment based on the use of the radioation of various types. The physical essence of enrichment processes is presented, their classification is given. Described are the ore properties influencing the efficiency of radiometric enrichment, methods of the properties study and estimation of ore enrichment. New possibilities opened by radiometric enrichment in the technology of primary processing of mineral raw materials are elucidated. A considerable attention is paid to the main and auxiliary equipment for radiometric enrichment. The foundations of the safety engineering are presented in a brief form. Presented are also results of investigations and practical works in the field of enrichment of ores of non-ferrous, ferrous and non-metallic minerals with the help of radiometric methods

  6. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, G.; Nadi, M.; Hedjiedj, A.; Weber, S.

    1995-01-01

    This second chapter on instrumentation gives little general consideration on history and classification of instrumentation, and two specific states of the art. The first one concerns NMR (block diagram of instrumentation chain with details on the magnets, gradients, probes, reception unit). The first one concerns precision instrumentation (optical fiber gyro-meter and scanning electron microscope), and its data processing tools (programmability, VXI standard and its history). The chapter ends with future trends on smart sensors and Field Emission Displays. (D.L.). Refs., figs

  7. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2000-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised

  8. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  9. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor

  10. Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

    2010-01-01

    OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge

  11. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described

  12. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  13. Validation of the Earth atmosphere models using the EUV solar occultation data from the CORONAS and PROBA 2 instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Kuzin, Sergey; Berghmans, David; Pertsov, Andrey; Dominique, Marie; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin

    Absorption in the atmosphere below 500 km results in attenuation of the solar EUV flux, variation of its spectra and distortion of solar images acquired by solar EUV instruments operating on LEO satellites even on solar synchronous orbits. Occultation measurements are important for planning of solar observations from these satellites, and can be used for monitoring the upper atmosphere as well as for studying its response to the solar activity. We present the results of the occultation measurements of the solar EUV radiation obtained by the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope at high solar activity (2002), by the CORONAS-Photon/TESIS telescope at low activity (2009), and by the SWAP telescope and LYRA radiometer onboard the PROBA 2 satellite at moderate activity (2010). The measured attenuation profiles and the retrieved linear extinction coefficients at the heights 200-500 km are compared with simulations by the NRLMSIS-00 and DTM2013 atmospheric models. It was shown that the results of simulations by the DTM2013 model are well agreed with the data of measurements at all stages of solar activity and in presence of the geomagnetic storm, whereas the results of the NRLMSISE-00 model significantly diverge from the measurements, in particular, at high and low activity. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under Grant Agreement “eHeroes” (project No.284461, www.eheroes.eu).

  14. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  15. Application of solar chargers to prospection instruments; Application des chargeurs solaires aux appareils de prospection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The use of conventional batteries has certain disadvantages, and for this reason high-voltage batteries have been gradually replaced in all prospection instruments by transistor supply systems, using less cumbersome sources of energy. All the same low voltages are still necessary, and in hot or damp countries the use of these batteries leads to consumptions out of all proportion to the services rendered. This is why the use of solar energy possesses real advantages. After a brief review of the basic ideas on semiconductors, this article describes a selenium solar battery which was developed by the Westinghouse brakes and signals society. (author) [French] L'utilisation de piles classiques presente certains inconvenients. C'est pourquoi, dans tous les appareils de prospection, les piles fournissant des tensions elevees ont ete remplacees au fur et a mesure par des alimentations a base de transistors, utilisant des sources d'energie moins encombrantes. Toutefois, il faut tout de meme avoir des tensions faibles et l'utilisation de ces piles entraine dans les pays chauds ou humides une consommation disproportionnee par rapport aux services rendus. C'est pourquoi l'emploi de l'energie solaire presente de reels avantages. Cet expose decrit, apres un rappel de notion de base sur les semi-conducteurs, une batterie solaire a base de selenium qui a ete realisee par la Societe des freins et signaux Westinghouse. (auteur)

  16. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umminger, K.

    2008-01-01

    A proper measurement of the relevant single and two-phase flow parameters is the basis for the understanding of many complex thermal-hydraulic processes. Reliable instrumentation is therefore necessary for the interaction between analysis and experiment especially in the field of nuclear safety research where postulated accident scenarios have to be simulated in experimental facilities and predicted by complex computer code systems. The so-called conventional instrumentation for the measurement of e. g. pressures, temperatures, pressure differences and single phase flow velocities is still a solid basis for the investigation and interpretation of many phenomena and especially for the understanding of the overall system behavior. Measurement data from such instrumentation still serves in many cases as a database for thermal-hydraulic system codes. However some special instrumentation such as online concentration measurement for boric acid in the water phase or for non-condensibles in steam atmosphere as well as flow visualization techniques were further developed and successfully applied during the recent years. Concerning the modeling needs for advanced thermal-hydraulic codes, significant advances have been accomplished in the last few years in the local instrumentation technology for two-phase flow by the application of new sensor techniques, optical or beam methods and electronic technology. This paper will give insight into the current state of instrumentation technology for safety-related thermohydraulic experiments. Advantages and limitations of some measurement processes and systems will be indicated as well as trends and possibilities for further development. Aspects of instrumentation in operating reactors will also be mentioned.

  17. The RTE inversion on FPGA aboard the solar orbiter PHI instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos Carrascosa, J. P.; Aparicio del Moral, B.; Ramos Mas, J. L.; Balaguer, M.; López Jiménez, A. C.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we propose a multiprocessor architecture to reach high performance in floating point operations by using radiation tolerant FPGA devices, and under narrow time and power constraints. This architecture is used in the PHI instrument that carries out the scientific analysis aboard the ESA's Solar Orbiter mission. The proposed architecture, in a SIMD flavor, is aimed to be an accelerator within the Data Processing Unit (it is composed by a main Leon processor and two FPGAs) for carrying out the RTE inversion on board the spacecraft using a relatively slow FPGA device - Xilinx XQR4VSX55-. The proposed architecture squeezes the FPGA resources in order to reach the computational requirements and improves the ground-based system performance based on commercial CPUs regarding time and power consumption. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of using this FPGA devices embedded in the SO/PHI instrument. With that goal in mind, we perform tests to evaluate the scientific results and to measure the processing time and power consumption for carrying out the RTE inversion.

  18. Design and Ground Calibration of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, J.; Scherrer, P. H.; Bush, R. I.; Wachter, R.; Couvidat, S.; Rabello-Soares, M. C.; Bogart, R. S.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation will study the solar interior using helioseismic techniques as well as the magnetic field near the solar surface. The HMI instrument is part of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) that was launched on 11 February 2010. The instrument is designed to measure the Doppler shift, intensity, and vector magnetic field at the solar photosphere using the 6173 Fe I absorption line. The instrument consists of a front-window filter, a telescope, a set of wave plates for polarimetry, an image-stabilization system, a blocking filter, a five-stage Lyot filter with one tunable element, two wide-field tunable Michelson interferometers, a pair of 4096(exo 2) pixel cameras with independent shutters, and associated electronics. Each camera takes a full-disk image roughly every 3.75 seconds giving an overall cadence of 45 seconds for the Doppler, intensity, and line-of-sight magnetic-field measurements and a slower cadence for the full vector magnetic field. This article describes the design of the HMI instrument and provides an overview of the pre-launch calibration efforts. Overviews of the investigation, details of the calibrations, data handling, and the science analysis are provided in accompanying articles.

  19. Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs

  20. Itinerant radiometric laboratory (IRL-76)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Domaratskij, V.P.; Kostikov, Yu.I.

    1978-01-01

    A mobile radiometric laboratory for routine radiation monitoring of the environment, personnel, and population is described. As compared to the previous models, this one incorporates a number of new features and is more informative and versatile. The design and main technical and operating characteristics of the laboratory are detailed

  1. Compact radiometric microwave calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wollack, E. J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Fixsen, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    The calibration methods for the ARCADE II instrument are described and the accuracy estimated. The Steelcast coated aluminum cones which comprise the calibrator have a low reflection while maintaining 94% of the absorber volume within 5 mK of the base temperature (modeled). The calibrator demonstrates an absorber with the active part less than one wavelength thick and only marginally larger than the mouth of the largest horn and yet black (less than -40 dB or 0.01% reflection) over five octaves in frequency

  2. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  3. Evaluation of broadband surface solar irradiance derived from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J.P.; Stammes, P.; Levelt, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Surface solar irradiance (SSI) data are important for planning and estimating the production of solar power plants. Long-term high quality surface solar radiation data are needed for monitoring climate change. This paper presents a new surface solar irradiance dataset, the broadband (0.2–4 ?m)

  4. Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.; Colsher, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the parameters which are important to positron-imaging instruments. It summarizes the options which various groups have explored in designing tomographs and the methods which have been developed to overcome some of the limitations inherent in the technique as well as in present instruments. The chapter is not presented as a defense of positron imaging versus single-photon or other imaging modality, neither does it contain a description of various existing instruments, but rather stresses their common properties and problems. Design parameters which are considered are resolution, sampling requirements, sensitivity, methods of eliminating scattered radiation, random coincidences and attenuation. The implementation of these parameters is considered, with special reference to sampling, choice of detector material, detector ring diameter and shielding and variations in point spread function. Quantitation problems discussed are normalization, and attenuation and random corrections. Present developments mentioned are noise reduction through time-of-flight-assisted tomography and signal to noise improvements through high intrinsic resolution. Extensive bibliography. (U.K.)

  5. Choosing of mode and calculation of multiple regression equation parameters in X-ray radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamikonyan, S.V.; Berezkin, V.V.; Lyubimova, S.V.; Svetajlo, Yu.N.; Shchekin, K.I.

    1978-01-01

    A method to derive multiple regression equations for X-ray radiometric analysis is described. Te method is realized in the form of the REGRA program in an algorithmic language. The subprograms included in the program are describe. In analyzing cement for Mg, Al, Si, Ca and Fe contents as an example, the obtainment of working equations in the course of calculations by the program is shown to simpliy the realization of computing devices in instruments for X-ray radiometric analysis

  6. Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 deg., 10 deg., and 30 deg.; scatter zenith angles from 0 deg. to 60 deg.; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 deg., 45 deg., 90 deg., 135 deg., and 180 deg.. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 deg. incident angle and 12% at 30 deg. incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable

  7. Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T; Butler, James J

    2008-06-20

    Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 degrees, 10 degrees, and 30 degrees; scatter zenith angles from 0 degrees to 60 degrees; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, 135 degrees, and 180 degrees. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 degrees incident angle and 12% at 30 degrees incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable.

  8. The Instruments and Capabilities of the Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher S.; Caspi, Amir; Woods, Thomas N.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Dennis, Brian R.; Jones, Andrew R.; Mason, James P.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2018-02-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat is the first solar science oriented CubeSat mission flown for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, with the main objective of measuring the solar soft X-ray (SXR) flux and a science goal of determining its influence on Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. These observations can also be used to investigate solar quiescent, active region, and flare properties. The MinXSS X-ray instruments consist of a spectrometer, called X123, with a nominal 0.15 keV full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) resolution at 5.9 keV and a broadband X-ray photometer, called XP. Both instruments are designed to obtain measurements from 0.5 - 30 keV at a nominal time cadence of 10 s. A description of the MinXSS instruments, performance capabilities, and relation to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 0.1 - 0.8 nm flux is given in this article. Early MinXSS results demonstrate the capability of measuring variations of the solar spectral soft X-ray (SXR) flux between 0.8 - 12 keV from at least GOES A5-M5 (5 × 10^{-8} - 5 ×10^{-5} W m^{-2}) levels and of inferring physical properties (temperature and emission measure) from the MinXSS data alone. Moreover, coronal elemental abundances can be inferred, specifically for Fe, Ca, Si, Mg, S, Ar, and Ni, when the count rate is sufficiently high at each elemental spectral feature. Additionally, temperature response curves and emission measure loci demonstrate the MinXSS sensitivity to plasma emission at different temperatures. MinXSS observations coupled with those from other solar observatories can help address some of the most compelling questions in solar coronal physics. Finally, simultaneous observations by MinXSS and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) can provide the most spectrally complete soft X-ray solar flare photon flux measurements to date.

  9. Solar radiation modeling and measurements for renewable energy applications: data and model quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Daryl R.

    2005-01-01

    Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data

  10. Solar radiation modeling and measurements for renewable energy applications: data and model quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data. (author)

  11. Validation of the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave system for off-grid medical instrument wet sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseman, Tremayne; Boubour, Jean; Schuler, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave used for the wet sterilization of medical instruments in off-grid settings where electrical power is not readily available. Twenty-seven trials of the solar-thermal powered system were run using an unmodified non-electric autoclave loaded with a simulated bundle of medical instruments and biological test agents. Results showed that in 100% of the trials the autoclave achieved temperatures in excess of 121°C for 30 minutes, indicator tape displayed visible reactions to steam sterilization, and biological tests showed that microbial agents had been eliminated, in compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requirements for efficacious wet sterilization.

  12. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  13. Radiometric weighing devices. Part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, M.

    1985-01-01

    Proceeding from the physical and mathematical fundamentals and from the types of radiometric weighing devices presently available, the radiation protection problems arising from the application of radiometric gages in industry and agriculture are discussed. Nuclear weighing devices have been found to be effective from economic point of view but in some cases gravimetric conveyor weighers are indispensable. Information and guidance is given especially for users of radiometric weighing devices. 91 refs., 69 figs., and 8 tabs

  14. Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most 238 Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size

  15. Comment on 'Intercalibration of solar wind instruments during the International Magnetospheric Study' by S. M. Petrinec and C. T. Russell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paularena, K. I.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    In their paper Petrinec and Russell (PR) (1993) claim to have developed a 'more homogeneous and accurate set of solar wind data' by 'correcting' the reported ion densities from three plasma instruments: the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion electrostatic analyzer on ISEE 3 and the LANL electrostatic analyzer and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Faraday cup plasma instrument on Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP 8). Their data manipulation techniques are examined. The foundations on which their data set are built, are discussed. Reanalysis by MIT on the MIT instrument (IMP 8) was done. Initial results have been issued. The Petrinec & Russell (1993) (PR) paper does not provide accurate density estimates and is an exercise that will only bring confusion to users of the data. The results of PR should be treated with skepticism.

  16. Radiometric and dosimetric characteristics of HgI2 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaletin, V.M.; Krivozubov, O.V.; Torlin, M.A.; Fomin, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The characteristics of HgI 2 detectors in x-ray and gamma detection in applications to radiometric and dosimetric monitoring and as portable instruments for such purposes was considered. Blocks with mosaic and sandwich structures were prepared and tested against each other and, for comparative purposes, against CdTe detectors for relative sensitivities at various gamma-quanta energies. Sensitivity dependencies on gamma radiation energy were plotted for the detector materials and structures as were current dependencies on the dose rate of x rays. Results indicated that the mercury iodide detectors could be used in radiometric and dosimetric measurements at gamma quantum energies up to and in excess of 1000 KeV

  17. Radiometric calipers for borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.; Wylie, A.W.; Jarrett, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Two versions of a radiometric-type caliper for measuring borehole diameter are described. One, based on the bow-spring principle, is suitable for percussion (exploration) drill holes. The other, which utilizes hemispherical wall contactors actuated by springs, is suitable for blast holes. Both utilize low-power radioactive sources and employ a scintillation detector to measure the 'inverse-square law' response of the device to changes in borehole radius. The performance of the device is examined and examples of its use are illustrated. (author)

  18. Radiometric survey in mammography: problems and challenges; Levantamento radiometrico em mamografia: problemas e desafios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, M.V.T.; Navarro, V.C.C.; Garcia, I.F.M.; Ferreira, M.J.; Macedo, E.M., E-mail: navarro@ifba.edu.br [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LABPROSAUD/IFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Laboratorio de Produtos para a Saude

    2015-07-01

    In addition to being mandatory, the radiometric survey is a necessity, especially in the Brazilian reality with the construction of smaller and smaller rooms. However, calibration conditions, the instrumentation and its use, can produce underestimated factors. Measures made at Labprosaud/IFBA, with five different instruments and the ISO N 25 radiation quality, show the possibility of the values presented in the radiometric surveys are underestimated by up to 10 times. The results indicate the need for meters to be calibrated in ISO N qualities, in mammography energy range, in integrated dose mode and exposure times shorter or equal to 1 s. (author)

  19. Instrument development for atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM): Status of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - extended Resolution (AERI-X), the Solar Radiance Transmission Interferometer (SORTI), and the Absolute Solar Transmission Inferometer (ASTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murcray, F.; Stephen, T.; Kosters, J. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes three instruments currently under developemnt for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the University of Denver: the AERI-X (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer-Extended Resolution) and the SORTI (Solar R adiance Transmission Interferometer), and ASTI (Absolute Solar transmission Interferometer).

  20. Localization of the solar flare SF900610 in X-rays with the WATCH instrument of the GRANAT observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terekhov, O.V.; Kuzmin, A.G.; Shevchenko, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    -ray source do not coincide with the coordinates of the Ha-line flare. The X-ray source moved over the solar disk during the flare. This probably implies that, as the X-ray emission was generated, different parts of one loop or a system of magnetic loops dominated at different flare times.......During the solar flare of June 10, 1990, the WATCH instrument of the GRANAT space observatory obtained 110 localizations of the X-ray source in the X-ray range 8-20 keV. Its coordinates were measured with an accuracy of similar to2 arcmin at a 3sigma confidence level. The coordinates of the X...

  1. Solar Hot Air Balloons: A Low Cost, Multi-hour Flight System for Lightweight Scientific Instrumentation Packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, D. C.; Albert, S.; Dexheimer, D.; Murphy, S.; Mullen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Existing scientific ballooning solutions for multi hour flights in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere are expensive and/or technically challenging. In contrast, solar hot air balloons are inexpensive and simple to construct. These balloons, which rely solely on sunlight striking a darkened envelope, can deliver payloads to 22 km altitude and maintain level flight until sunset. We describe an experimental campaign in which five solar hot air balloons launched in 45 minutes created a free flying infrasound (low frequency sound) microphone network that remained in the air for over 12 hours. We discuss the balloons' trajectory, maximum altitude, and stability as well as present results from the infrasound observations. We assess the performance and limitations of this design for lightweight atmospheric instrumentation deployments that require multi-hour flight times. Finally, we address the possibilities of multi day flights during the polar summer and on other planets.

  2. Contribution to the study of solar prominences from observations performed on the LPSP instrument aboard the OSO-8 satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, Jean-Claude

    1981-01-01

    Notably by reprinting various documents and articles, this research reports works undertaken from the design of an experiment performed with the LPSP instrument aboard the OSO-8 satellite, to its data processing and interpretation. This experiment aimed at the study of the chromosphere fine structure by means of simultaneous high resolution observations of the L α, L β, Mg II, Ca II, H and K lines. The first part presents the on-board LPSP instrument. The second part reports observations of active and quiescent solar prominences. The third part reports the transfer calculation for five resonance lines (H Lα, Mg II H and K, Ca II H and K), and the comparison with observations performed on OSO-8

  3. Inverting radiometric measurements with a neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measure, Edward M.; Yee, Young P.; Balding, Jeff M.; Watkins, Wendell R.

    1992-02-01

    A neural network scheme for retrieving remotely sensed vertical temperature profiles was applied to observed ground based radiometer measurements. The neural network used microwave radiance measurements and surface measurements of temperature and pressure as inputs. Because the microwave radiometer is capable of measuring 4 oxygen channels at 5 different elevation angles (9, 15, 25, 40, and 90 degs), 20 microwave measurements are potentially available. Because these measurements have considerable redundancy, a neural network was experimented with, accepting as inputs microwave measurements taken at 53.88 GHz, 40 deg; 57.45 GHz, 40 deg; and 57.45, 90 deg. The primary test site was located at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM. Results are compared with measurements made simultaneously with balloon borne radiosonde instruments and with radiometric temperature retrievals made using more conventional retrieval algorithms. The neural network was trained using a Widrow-Hoff delta rule procedure. Functions of date to include season dependence in the retrieval process and functions of time to include diurnal effects were used as inputs to the neural network.

  4. Radiometric geochronology of the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    The radiometric age data obtained by different dating methods have been interpreted in terms of possible orogenic activities prevailing in the Himalaya. In general, the age data confirm four main events, the Precambrian, the Late Precambrian-Cambrian Assyntian (Caledonian), the Late Palaeozoic-Hercynian and the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary Himalayan orogeny. The mineral dates are particularly significant in delineating different phases of the last i.e. the Himalayan orogeny which indicates main activity of the young Himalayan metamorphism around 70 to 50 Ma and followed by a momentous phase of major uplift during 25 to 10 Ma, which was responsible for the rise of the deeper part of the Himalaya into great folds and thrust slices and the formation of nappe structures. (author)

  5. Interplanetary variability recorded by the sled instrument aboard the Phobos spacecraft during that period of solar cycle 22 characterized by a transition from solar minimum- to solar maximum-dominated conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.M.P. (Saint Patrick' s Coll., Maynooth (Ireland)); Afonin, V.V.; Gringauz, K.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Space Research Inst.) (and others)

    Twin telescope particle detector systems SLED-1 and SLED-2, with the capability of monitoring electron and ion fluxes within an energy range spanning approximately 30 keV to a few megaelectron volts, were individually launched on the two spacecraft (Phobos-2 and Phobos-1, respectively) of the Soviet Phobos Mission to Mars and its moons in July 1988. A short description of the SLED instrument and a preliminary account of representative solar-related particle enhancements recorded by SLED-1 and SLED-2 during the Cruise Phase, and by SLED-1 in the near Martian environment (within the interval 25 July 1988-26 March 1989) are presented. These observations were made while the interplanetary medium was in the course of changing over from solar minimum- to solar maximum-dominated conditions and examples are presented of events associated with each of these phenomenological states. (author).

  6. LFI Radiometric Chain Assembly (RCA) data handling ``Rachel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, M.; Franceschi, E.; Battaglia, P.; Binko, P.; Butler, R. C.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fogliani, S.; Frailis, M.; Franceschet, C.; Galeotta, S.; Gasparo, F.; Gregorio, A.; Lapolla, M.; Leonardi, R.; Maggio, G.; Mandolesi, N.; Manzato, P.; Maris, M.; Meharga, M.; Meinhold, P.; Morisset, N.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Rohlfs, R.; Sandri, M.; Tomasi, M.; Türler, M.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    Planck's Low Frequency Instrument is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. Before integrating the overall array assembly, a first set of tests has been performed for each radiometer chain assembly (RCA), consisting of two radiometers. In this paper, we describe Rachel, a software application which has been purposely developed and used during the RCA test campaign to carry out both near-realtime on-line data analysis and data storage (in FITS format) of the raw output from the radiometric chains.

  7. LFI Radiometric Chain Assembly (RCA) data handling 'Rachel'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaspina, M; Franceschi, E; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N; Battaglia, P; Franceschet, C; Lapolla, M; Binko, P; Meharga, M; D'Arcangelo, O; Fogliani, S; Frailis, M; Galeotta, S; Gasparo, F; Maggio, G; Manzato, P; Maris, M; Gregorio, A; Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P

    2009-01-01

    Planck's Low Frequency Instrument is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. Before integrating the overall array assembly, a first set of tests has been performed for each radiometer chain assembly (RCA), consisting of two radiometers. In this paper, we describe Rachel, a software application which has been purposely developed and used during the RCA test campaign to carry out both near-realtime on-line data analysis and data storage (in FITS format) of the raw output from the radiometric chains.

  8. Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable, Wideband, Onboard Calibration Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.; Nolte, Scott H.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Knoll, Linley A.

    2013-01-01

    The Onboard Calibration (OBC) source incorporates a medical/scientific-grade halogen source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system, and a fiber-based intensity-monitoring feedback loop that results in radiometric and spectral stabilities to within less than 0.3 percent over a 15-hour period. The airborne imaging spectrometer systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory incorporate OBC sources to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The use of the OBC source will provide a significant increase in the quantitative accuracy, reliability, and resulting utility of the spectral data collected from current and future imaging spectrometer instruments.

  9. Off-line radiometric analysis of Planck-LFI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasi, M; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Galeotta, S; Maris, M [LFI-DPC INAF-OATs, Via Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Lowe, S R [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Mendes, L [Planck Science Office, European Space Agency, ESAC, P.O. box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Villa, F; Sandri, M; Cuttaia, F; Terenzi, L; Valenziano, L; Butler, R C [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti, 101, 40129, Bologna (Italy); Cappellini, B [INAF-IASF Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gregorio, A [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Via Valerio, 2 Trieste I-34127 (Italy); Salmon, M J [Departamento de IngenierIa de Comunicaciones, Universidad de Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n. 39005 Santander (Spain); Binko, P [ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics, University of Geneva, ch. d' Ecogia 16, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); D' Arcangelo, O, E-mail: tomasi@lambrate.inaf.i [IFP-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, Milano (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers on-board the Planck satellite to measure temperature and polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in three frequency bands (30, 44 and 70 GHz). To calibrate and verify the performances of the LFI, a software suite named LIFE has been developed. Its aims are to provide a common platform to use for analyzing the results of the tests performed on the single components of the instrument (RCAs, Radiometric Chain Assemblies) and on the integrated Radiometric Array Assembly (RAA). Moreover, its analysis tools are designed to be used during the flight as well to produce periodic reports on the status of the instrument. The LIFE suite has been developed using a multi-layered, cross-platform approach. It implements a number of analysis modules written in RSI IDL, each accessing the data through a portable and heavily optimized library of functions written in C and C++. One of the most important features of LIFE is its ability to run the same data analysis codes both using ground test data and real flight data as input. The LIFE software suite has been successfully used during the RCA/RAA tests and the Planck Integrated System Tests. Moreover, the software has also passed the verification for its in-flight use during the System Operations Verification Tests, held in October 2008.

  10. Off-line radiometric analysis of Planck-LFI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, M; Mennella, A; Bersanelli, M; Galeotta, S; Maris, M; Lowe, S R; Mendes, L; Leonardi, R; Meinhold, P; Villa, F; Sandri, M; Cuttaia, F; Terenzi, L; Valenziano, L; Butler, R C; Cappellini, B; Gregorio, A; Salmon, M J; Binko, P; D'Arcangelo, O

    2009-01-01

    The Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) is an array of 22 pseudo-correlation radiometers on-board the Planck satellite to measure temperature and polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in three frequency bands (30, 44 and 70 GHz). To calibrate and verify the performances of the LFI, a software suite named LIFE has been developed. Its aims are to provide a common platform to use for analyzing the results of the tests performed on the single components of the instrument (RCAs, Radiometric Chain Assemblies) and on the integrated Radiometric Array Assembly (RAA). Moreover, its analysis tools are designed to be used during the flight as well to produce periodic reports on the status of the instrument. The LIFE suite has been developed using a multi-layered, cross-platform approach. It implements a number of analysis modules written in RSI IDL, each accessing the data through a portable and heavily optimized library of functions written in C and C++. One of the most important features of LIFE is its ability to run the same data analysis codes both using ground test data and real flight data as input. The LIFE software suite has been successfully used during the RCA/RAA tests and the Planck Integrated System Tests. Moreover, the software has also passed the verification for its in-flight use during the System Operations Verification Tests, held in October 2008.

  11. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution

  12. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-11-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution.

  13. Digital solar edge tracker for the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, L. E., III; Moore, A. S.; Stump, C. W.; Mayo, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    The optical and electronic design of the Halogen Occultation Experiment (Haloe) elevation sun sensor is described. The Haloe instrument is a gas-correlation radiometer now being developed at NASA Langley for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The system uses a Galilean telescope to form a solar image on a linear silicon photodiode array. The array is a self-scanned monolithic CCD. The addresses of both solar edges imaged on the array are used by the control/pointing system to scan the Haloe science instantaneous field of view (IFOV) across the vertical solar diameter during instrument calibration and then to maintain the science IFOV 4 arcmin below the top edge during the science data occultation event. Vertical resolution of 16 arcsec and a radiometric dynamic range of 100 are achieved at the 700-nm operating wavelength. The design provides for loss of individual photodiode elements without loss of angular tracking capability.

  14. Preliminary Assessment of Suomi-NPP VIIRS On-orbit Radiometric Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudrari, Hassan; DeLuccia, Frank; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Xiao-xiong; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft that was launched on October 28th 2011. VIIRS was designed to provide moderate and imaging resolution of most of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370.and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 11m and 12.01 11m, including 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and 1 day-night band (ON B). VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EORs). This paper will briefly describe NPP VIIRS calibration strategies performed by the independent government team, for the initial on-orbit Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) activities. In addition, this paper will provide an early assessment of the sensor on-orbit radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dual gain transition verification, dynamic range and linearity, reflective bands calibration based on the solar diffuser (SO) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SOSM), and emissive bands calibration based on the on-board blackbody calibration (OBC). A comprehensive set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to VIIRS on-orbit early performance, and a plan for future cal/val activities and performance enhancements will be presented.

  15. Ash content of lignites - radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Thuemmel, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The quality of lignites is governed by the ash content varying in dependence upon the geologic conditions. Setup and function of the radiometric devices being used for ash content analysis in the GDR are briefly described

  16. Modified and reverse radiometric flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Ba, H; Khin, M M; Aung, K; Thida, [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-06-01

    Determination of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 60]Co by using modified and reverse radiometric flow injection analysis is described. Two component RFIA was also realized using [sup 60]Co and [sup 137]Cs radionuclides. (author) 2 refs.; 5 figs.

  17. Detecting payload performance based on relative radiometric characteristic: case of the optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Li, Shengyang; Zhang, Tao; Qin, Bangyong

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for accurately estimating the degree of radiometric non-uniformity in remote sensing images. The algorithm was tested on high-quality images and heavily striping images, and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the performance for each band by measuring the radiometric non-uniformity of the images. The results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm exhibits high accuracy and stability compared with traditional algorithms. The radiometric performance of TianGong-1 short-wave infrared images was calculated using this new method, and it was highly correlated with the solar angle, pitch angle and refrigerator thermal according to the Apriori algorithm. Based on these results, we have proposed a strategy for restricting increases in striping.

  18. RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarska Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is widely used passive remote sensing technique. The radiometric calibration of ALS data is presented in this article. This process is a necessary element in data processing since it eliminates the influence of the external factors on the obtained values of radiometric features such as range and incidence angle. The datasets were captured with three different laser scanners; since each of these operates at a different wavelength (532, 106 4 and 1550 nm) th...

  19. Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.C.; Kaslow, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with [32P]ATP and glycerokinase, residual [32P]ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free [32P]phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard dose-response curves were linear from 50 to 3000 pmol glycerol with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Of the substances tested for interference, only dihydroxyacetone gave a slight false positive signal at high concentration. When used to measure glycerol concentrations in serum and in media from incubated adipose tissue, the radiometric glycerol assay correlated well with a commonly used spectrophotometric assay. The radiometric glucose assay is similar to the glycerol assay, except that glucokinase is used instead of glycerokinase. Dose response was linear from 5 to 3000 pmol glucose with less than 3% SD in triplicate measurements. Glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine gave false positive signals when equimolar to glucose. When glucose concentrations in serum were measured, the radiometric glucose assay agreed well with hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H/GDH)-based and glucose oxidase/H2O2-based glucose assays. The radiometric method for glycogen measurement incorporates previously described isolation and digestion techniques, followed by the radiometric assay of free glucose. When used to measure glycogen in mouse epididymal fat pads, the radiometric glycogen assay correlated well with the H/GDH-based glycogen assay. All three radiometric assays offer several practical advantages over spectral assays

  20. Analysis of time dependent phenomena observed with the LPSP OSO-8 instrument. [solar chromosphere and photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibacher, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Data obtained by the Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire's ultraviolet spectrometer onboard the OSO-8 spacecraft were analyzed in an effort to dynamically model the solar chromosphere as an aid in enhancing knowledge of the dynamical processes themselves and of spectral line formation in the dynamic chromosphere. Repeated spectral scans of strong, optically thick resonance lines formed in the solar chromosphere were examined for indications of oscillatory velocities and intensities among other indications of velocity which were studied, the blue peak is reasonably well defined, and the position of a parabolic filter fitted by the least squares method was used to define it. Observed chromospheric oscillation periods are discussed as well as the variations in altitude of the emitting region which result primarily from the motion up and down during the oscillation.

  1. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV-Development of an insolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Recognizing a need for a coordinated approach to resolve energy problems, certain members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) met in September 1974 and agreed to develop an International Energy Program. The International Energy Agency (IEA) was established within the OECD to administer, monitor and execute this International Energy Program. In July 1975, Solar Heating and Cooling was selected as one of the sixteen technology fields for multilateral cooperation. Five project areas, called tasks, were identified for cooperative activities within the IEA Program to Develop and Test Solar Heating and Cooling Systems. The objective of one task was to obtain improved basic resource information for the design and operation of solar heating and cooling systems through a better understanding of the required insolation (solar radiation) and related weather data, and through improved techniques for measurement and evaluation of such data. At the February 1976 initial experts meeting in Norrkoeping, Sweden, the participants developed the objective statement into two subtasks. (1) an insolation handbook; and (2) a portable meteorological instrument package. This handbook is the product of the first subtask. The objective of this handbook is to provide a basis for a dialogue between solar scientists and meteorologists. Introducing the solar scientist to solar radiation and related meteorological data enables him to better express his scientific and engineering needs to the meteorologist; and introducing the meteorologist to the special solar radiation and meteorological data applications of the solar scientist enables him to better meet the needs of the solar energy community.

  2. Automated radiometric detection of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, J.R.

    1974-01-01

    A new radiometric method called BACTEC, used for the detection of bacteria in cultures or in supposedly sterile samples, was discussed from the standpoint of methodology, both automated and semi-automated. Some of the results obtained so far were reported and some future applications and development possibilities were described. In this new method, the test sample is incubated in a sealed vial with a liquid culture medium containing a 14 C-labeled substrate. If bacteria are present, they break down the substrate, producing 14 CO 2 which is periodically extracted from the vial as a gas and is tested for radioactivity. If this gaseous radioactivity exceeds a threshold level, it is evidence of bacterial presence and growth in the test vial. The first application was for the detection of bacteria in the blood cultures of hospital patients. Data were presented showing typical results. Also discussed were future applications, such as rapid screening for bacteria in urine industrial sterility testing and the disposal of used 14 C substrates. (Mukohata, S.)

  3. Basing of principles and methods of operation of radiometric control and measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Six basic stages of optimization of radiometric systems, methods of defining the preset components of total error and the choice of principles and methods of measurement are described in succession. The possibility of simultaneous optimization of several stages, turning back to the already passed stages, is shown. It is suggested that components of the total error should be preset as identical ones for methodical, instrument, occasional and representativity errors and the greatest of the components should be decreased first of all. Comparative table for 64 radiometric methods of measurement by 11 indices of the methods quality is presented. 2 refs., 1 tab

  4. The Orbitrap mass analyzer as a space instrument for the understanding of prebiotic chemistry in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, Véronique; Briois, Christelle; Makarov, Alexander

    Over the past decade, it has become apparent that organic molecules are widespread in our Solar System and beyond. The better understand of the prebiotic chemistry leading to their formation is a primary objective of many ongoing space missions. Cassini-Huygens revealed the existence of very large molecular structures in Titan's atmosphere as well as on its surface, in the form of dune deposits, but their exact nature remains elusive. One key science goal of the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover is to assess the presence of organics on the red planet. Rosetta will characterize the elemental and isotopic composition of the gas and dust ejected from comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, while amino acids have been detected in meteorites. This search for complex organics relies heavily on mass spectrometry, which has the remarkable ability to analyze and quantify species from almost any type of sample (provided that the appropriate sampling and ionizing method is used). Because of the harsh constraints of the spatial environment, the mass resolution of the spectrometers onboard current space probes is quite limited compared to laboratory instruments, leading to significant limitations in the scientific return of the data collected. Therefore, future in situ solar system exploration missions would significantly benefit from instruments relying on High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS). Since 2009, 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) involved in the chemical investigation of solar system bodies form a Consortium to develop HRMS for future space exploration, based on the use of the Orbitrap technology (C. Briois et al., 2014, to be submitted). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercializes Orbitrap based laboratory instruments. The Orbitrap is an electrostatic mass analyzer, it is compact, lightweight, and can reach a good sensitivity and dynamic range. A prototype is under development at

  5. MTG infrared sounder detection chain: first radiometric test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumestier, D.; Pistone, F.; Dartois, T.; Blazquez, E.

    2017-11-01

    Europe's next fleet of geostationary meteorological satellites, MeteoSat Third Generation, will introduce new functions in addition to continuity of high-resolution meteorological data. The atmosphere Infrared Sounder (IRS), as high -end instrument, is part of this challenging program. IRS principle is a Fourier Transform Interferometer, which allows recomposing atmospheric spectrum after infrared photons detection. Transmission spectrums will be used to support numerical weather prediction. IRS instrument is able to offer full disk coverage in one hour, an on-ground resolution of 4 by 4 km, in two spectral bands (MWIR: 1600 to 2175cm-1 and LWIR: 700 to 1210cm-1) with a spectral resolution of 0.6cm-1. Among critical technologies and processes, IRS detection chain shall offer outstanding characteristics in terms of radiometric performance like Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), dynamic range and linearity. Selected detectors are HgCdTe two-dimensions arrays, cooled at 55 Kelvins, hybridized on snapshot silicon read-out circuit at 160x160 format. Video electronics present 16 bits resolution, and the whole detection chain (Detectors and electronics) permits to reach SNR between 2 000 and 10 000 as requested by the application. Radiometric onground test results performed on design representative detection chains are presented and are confirming the challenging phase A design choices.

  6. Recent advances in airborne radiometric technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Since its inception, the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory has made dramatic innovations in airborne radiometric technology. In the past few years there have been at least four major changes in operational philosophy. (1) The helicopter is now the prime radiation survey vehicle. Surveys are conducted at low speed and low altitude, with lines spaced only a few hundred feet apart. Radiation anomalies and subtle changes in background can be readily identified. (2) Much greater emphasis is now placed on accurate, detailed analysis and interpretation of radiation data. Dramatic improvements in survey hardware and software provide much more data of considerably better quality. (3) Recent Laboratory research has been concentrated on error-free, positive identification of point radiation sources. In the past, the extent and magnitude of dispersed sources were the major concerns. (4) Integrated remote sensing has been strongly emphasized at the Laboratory in recent years. This involves the simultaneous use of radiation detectors, aerial cameras, and the multispectral scanner imagery. The synergistic effects of such data correlation are of significantly greater value in analyzing the terrestrial environment. Many of the changes in operational philosophy are directly traceable to new or dramatically improved hardware and software employed at the Laboratory. Six items have been instrumental in the above technological advances: (1) the UHF Transponder System and its predecessor, the Microwave Ranging System; (2) Model IC of the REDAR data acquisition system; (3) the development of the search algorithm; (4) continued improvements in the REDACA data analysis system; (5) deployment of polyscin sodium iodide radiation detectors; and (6) development of the Graphic Overview System

  7. The James Webb Space Telescope's Plan for Operations and Instrument Capabilities for Observations in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John A.; Sonneborn, George; Thomas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is optimized for observations in the near- and mid-infrared and will provide essential observations for targets that cannot be conducted from the ground or other missions during its lifetime. The state-of-the-art science instruments, along with the telescope's moving target tracking, will enable the infrared study, with unprecedented detail, for nearly every object (Mars and beyond) in the Solar System. The goals of this special issue are to stimulate discussion and encourage participation in JWST planning among members of the planetary science community. Key science goals for various targets, observing capabilities for JWST, and highlights for the complementary nature with other missions/observatories are described in this paper.

  8. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  9. Caliste-SO X-ray micro-camera for the STIX instrument on-board Solar Orbiter space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, A.; Hurford, G.; Bednarzik, M.; Limousin, O.; Gevin, O.; Le Mer, I.; Martignac, J.; Horeau, B.; Grimm, O.; Resanovic, R.; Krucker, S.; Orleański, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is an instrument on the Solar-Orbiter space mission that performs hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy of solar flares. It consists of 32 collimators with grids and 32 spectrometer units called Caliste-SO for indirect Fourier-transform imaging. Each Caliste-SO device integrates a 1 cm 2 CdTe pixel sensor with a low-noise low-power analog front-end ASIC and circuits for supply regulation and filtering. The ASIC named IDeF-X HD is designed by CEA/Irfu (France) whereas CdTe-based semiconductor detectors are provided by the Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). The design of the hybrid, based on 3D Plus technology (France), is well suited for STIX spectroscopic requirements (1 keV FWHM at 6 keV, 4 keV low-level threshold) and system constraints (4 W power and 5 kg mass). The performance of the sub-assemblies and the design of the first Caliste-SO prototype are presented.

  10. Evolution and dynamics of orphan penumbrae in the solar photosphere: Analysis from multi-instrument observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccarello, Francesca; Guglielmino, Salvo L.; Romano, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics and magnetic properties of orphan penumbrae observed in the solar photosphere to understand the formation process of such structures. We observed two orphan penumbrae in active region NOAA 11089 during a coordinated observing campaign carried out in 2010 July, involving the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), benefiting also from continuous observations acquired by the SDO satellite. We follow their evolution during about three days. The two structures form in different ways: one seems to break off the penumbra of a nearby sunspot, the other is formed through the emergence of new flux. Then they fragment while evolving. The SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager measurements indicate the presence of strong line-of-sight motions in the regions occupied by these orphan penumbrae, lasting for several hours and decreasing with time. This is confirmed by SOT spectro-polarimetric measurements of the Fe I 630.2 nm pair. The latter also show that Stokes parameters exhibit significant asymmetries in the orphan penumbral regions, typical of an uncombed filamentary structure. The orphan penumbrae lie above polarity inversion lines, where peculiar plasma motions take place with velocities larger than ±3 km s –1 . The vector magnetic field in these regions is highly inclined, with the average magnetic field strength decreasing with time. The DOT observations in the Hα line and SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly measurements in the He II 30.4 nm line indicate that there is no counterpart for the orphan penumbrae at midchromospheric heights or above. Our findings suggest that in at least one of the features investigated the emerging flux may be trapped in the low atmospheric layers by the overlying pre-existing fields, forming these filamentary structures.

  11. Evolution and dynamics of orphan penumbrae in the solar photosphere: Analysis from multi-instrument observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccarello, Francesca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Guglielmino, Salvo L.; Romano, Paolo, E-mail: fzu@oact.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the dynamics and magnetic properties of orphan penumbrae observed in the solar photosphere to understand the formation process of such structures. We observed two orphan penumbrae in active region NOAA 11089 during a coordinated observing campaign carried out in 2010 July, involving the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), benefiting also from continuous observations acquired by the SDO satellite. We follow their evolution during about three days. The two structures form in different ways: one seems to break off the penumbra of a nearby sunspot, the other is formed through the emergence of new flux. Then they fragment while evolving. The SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager measurements indicate the presence of strong line-of-sight motions in the regions occupied by these orphan penumbrae, lasting for several hours and decreasing with time. This is confirmed by SOT spectro-polarimetric measurements of the Fe I 630.2 nm pair. The latter also show that Stokes parameters exhibit significant asymmetries in the orphan penumbral regions, typical of an uncombed filamentary structure. The orphan penumbrae lie above polarity inversion lines, where peculiar plasma motions take place with velocities larger than ±3 km s{sup –1}. The vector magnetic field in these regions is highly inclined, with the average magnetic field strength decreasing with time. The DOT observations in the Hα line and SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly measurements in the He II 30.4 nm line indicate that there is no counterpart for the orphan penumbrae at midchromospheric heights or above. Our findings suggest that in at least one of the features investigated the emerging flux may be trapped in the low atmospheric layers by the overlying pre-existing fields, forming these filamentary structures.

  12. Evolution and Dynamics of Orphan Penumbrae in the Solar Photosphere: Analysis from Multi-instrument Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarello, Francesca; Guglielmino, Salvo L.; Romano, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics and magnetic properties of orphan penumbrae observed in the solar photosphere to understand the formation process of such structures. We observed two orphan penumbrae in active region NOAA 11089 during a coordinated observing campaign carried out in 2010 July, involving the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and Dutch Open Telescope (DOT), benefiting also from continuous observations acquired by the SDO satellite. We follow their evolution during about three days. The two structures form in different ways: one seems to break off the penumbra of a nearby sunspot, the other is formed through the emergence of new flux. Then they fragment while evolving. The SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager measurements indicate the presence of strong line-of-sight motions in the regions occupied by these orphan penumbrae, lasting for several hours and decreasing with time. This is confirmed by SOT spectro-polarimetric measurements of the Fe I 630.2 nm pair. The latter also show that Stokes parameters exhibit significant asymmetries in the orphan penumbral regions, typical of an uncombed filamentary structure. The orphan penumbrae lie above polarity inversion lines, where peculiar plasma motions take place with velocities larger than ±3 km s-1. The vector magnetic field in these regions is highly inclined, with the average magnetic field strength decreasing with time. The DOT observations in the Hα line and SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly measurements in the He II 30.4 nm line indicate that there is no counterpart for the orphan penumbrae at midchromospheric heights or above. Our findings suggest that in at least one of the features investigated the emerging flux may be trapped in the low atmospheric layers by the overlying pre-existing fields, forming these filamentary structures.

  13. A new radiometric unit of measure to characterize SWIR illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A.; Hübner, M.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a new radiometric unit of measure we call the `swux' to unambiguously characterize scene illumination in the SWIR spectral band between 0.8μm-1.8μm, where most of the ever-increasing numbers of deployed SWIR cameras (based on standard InGaAs focal plane arrays) are sensitive. Both military and surveillance applications in the SWIR currently suffer from a lack of a standardized SWIR radiometric unit of measure that can be used to definitively compare or predict SWIR camera performance with respect to SNR and range metrics. We propose a unit comparable to the photometric illuminance lux unit; see Ref. [1]. The lack of a SWIR radiometric unit becomes even more critical if one uses lux levels to describe SWIR sensor performance at twilight or even low light condition, since in clear, no-moon conditions in rural areas, the naturally-occurring SWIR radiation from nightglow produces a much higher irradiance than visible starlight. Thus, even well-intentioned efforts to characterize a test site's ambient illumination levels in the SWIR band may fail based on photometric instruments that only measure visible light. A study of this by one of the authors in Ref. [2] showed that the correspondence between lux values and total SWIR irradiance in typical illumination conditions can vary by more than two orders of magnitude, depending on the spectrum of the ambient background. In analogy to the photometric lux definition, we propose the SWIR irradiance equivalent `swux' level, derived by integration over the scene SWIR spectral irradiance weighted by a spectral sensitivity function S(λ), a SWIR analog of the V(λ) photopic response function.

  14. Compact and Light-Weight Solar Spaceflight Instrument Designs Utilizing Newly Developed Miniature Free-Standing Zone Plates: EUV Radiometer and Limb-Scanning Monochromator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, J. F.; McMullin, D. R.; Bremer, J.; Chang, C.; Sakdinawat, A.; Jones, A. R.; Vest, R.

    2014-12-01

    Two solar instrument designs are presented that utilize newly developed miniature free-standing zone plates having interconnected Au opaque bars and no support membrane resulting in excellent long-term stability in space. Both instruments are based on a zone plate having 4 mm outer diameter and 1 to 2 degree field of view. The zone plate collects EUV radiation and focuses a narrow bandpass through a pinhole aperture and onto a silicon photodiode detector. As a miniature radiometer, EUV irradiance is accurately determined from the zone plate efficiency and the photodiode responsivity that are calibrated at the NIST SURF synchrotron facility. The EUV radiometer is pointed to the Sun and measures the absolute solar EUV irradiance in high time cadence suitable for solar physics and space weather applications. As a limb-scanning instrument in low earth orbit, a miniature zone-plate monochromator measures the extinction of solar EUV radiation by scattering through the upper atmosphere which is a measure of the variability of the ionosphere. Both instruments are compact and light-weight and are attractive for CubeSats and other missions where resources are extremely limited.

  15. Tracking instrument and control for solar concentrators. Final technical report, October 1979-January 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J; Kuhlman, J

    1981-01-31

    The tracker uses a single photo sensor, and a rotating aperature to obtain tracking accuracies better than 1.5 mrads (0.1 degs). Peak signal detection is used to eliminate tracking of false sources, i.e., clouds, etc. A prism is employed to obtain an extended field of view (150 degs axially - 360 degs radially). The tracker digitally measures the Suns displacement angle relative to the concentrator axis, and repositions it incrementally. This arrangement permits the use of low cost non-servo motors. The local controller contains microprocessor based electronics, incorporating digital signal processing. A single controller may be time shared by a maximum of sixteen trackers, providing a high performance, cost effective solar tracking system, suitable for both line and point focus concentrators. An installation may have the local controller programmed as a standalone unit or slaved to a central controller. When used with a central controller, dynamic data monitoring and logging is available, together with the ability to change system modes and parameters, as desired.

  16. Panay carborne radiometric and geochemical surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    A carborne radiometric survey and stream sediments collection were conducted in Panay and Guimaras Islands. An area in Nabas, Aklan, situated in the northwestern tip of Panay (Buruanga Peninsula) which indicated 2 to 3 times above background radioactivity was delineated. Uranium content in the stream sediment samples collected from Buruanga Peninsula was generally higher than those obtained in other parts of the island. Radioactivity measurements and uranium content in stream sediments were found to be within background levels. It is recommended that follow-up radiometric and geochemical surveys be undertaken in Buruanga Peninsula and additional stream sediments samples be collected in Panay to achieve better sampling density and coverage. (author)

  17. Radiometric study of creep in ingot rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, P.; Zamyslovsky, Z.; Uherek, J.

    The radiometric study of creep during ingot rolling performed in the rolling mill of the Vitkovice Iron and Steel Works and the first results are described. Selected sites in 3 to 8 ton ingots were labelled with 2 to 3.7x10 5 Bq of 60 Co and after rolling into blocks, the transposition of the labelled sites of the ingots was investigated. The results indicate creep during rolling, local extension in certain sites under study and help to determine the inevitable bottom crop incurred in the forming. Finally, the requirements put on the radiometric apparatus for the next stages of technological research are presented. (author)

  18. RADIOMETRIC TECHNIQUES IN HEAVY MINERAL EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEMEIJER, RJ; TANCZOS, IC; STAPEL, C

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the Environmental Research Group of the KVI has been developing a number of radiometric techniques that may be employed in mineral sand exploration. These techniques involve: radiometric fingerprinting for assessing sand provenances and mineralogical composition; thermoluminescence

  19. Initial Radiometric Characteristics of KOMPSAT-3A Multispectral Imagery Using the 6S Radiative Transfer Model, Well-Known Radiometric Tarps, and MFRSR Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Min Yeom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available On-orbit radiometric characterization of the multispectral (MS imagery of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI’s Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A, which was launched on 25 March 2015, was conducted to provide quantitative radiometric information about KOMPSAT-3A. During the in-orbit test (IOT, vicarious radiometric calibration of KOMPSAT-3A was performed using the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S radiative transfer model. The characteristics of radiometric tarps, the atmospheric optical depth from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR measurements, and sun–sensor–geometry were carefully considered, in order to calculate the exact top of atmosphere (TOA radiance received by KOMPSAT-3A MS bands. In addition, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF behaviors of the radiometric tarps were measured in the laboratory with a two-dimensional hyperspectral gonioradiometer, to compensate for the geometry discrepancy between the satellite and the ASD FieldSpec® 3 spectroradiometer. The match-up datasets between the TOA radiance and the digital number (DN from KOMPSAT-3A were used to determine DN-to-radiance conversion factors, based on linear least squares fitting for two field campaigns. The final results showed that the R2 values between the observed and simulated radiances for the blue, green, red, and near-infrared (NIR bands, are greater than 0.998. An approximate error budget analysis for the vicarious calibration of KOMPSAT-3A showed an error of less than 6.8%. When applying the laboratory-based BRDF correction to the case of higher viewing zenith angle geometry, the gain ratio was improved, particularly for the blue (1.3% and green (1.2% bands, which exhibit high sensitivity to the BRDF of radiometric tarps during the backward-scattering phase. The calculated gain ratio between the first and second campaigns showed a less than 5% discrepancy, indicating that

  20. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.).

  1. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, K.

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.)

  2. Radiometric measuring method for egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forberg, S; Svaerdstroem, K

    1973-02-01

    A description is given of a fast nondestructive radiometric method for registration of the thickness of egg shells of the tawny owl, hen, osprey, and Canada goose. Certain errors are discussed. Measurement of the thickness of egg shells (mineral content per cm/sup 2/) with an accuracy better than 1% is possible in less than one minute under field conditions. (auth)

  3. KERNEL MAD ALGORITHM FOR RELATIVE RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The multivariate alteration detection (MAD algorithm is commonly used in relative radiometric normalization. This algorithm is based on linear canonical correlation analysis (CCA which can analyze only linear relationships among bands. Therefore, we first introduce a new version of MAD in this study based on the established method known as kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA. The proposed method effectively extracts the non-linear and complex relationships among variables. We then conduct relative radiometric normalization experiments on both the linear CCA and KCCA version of the MAD algorithm with the use of Landsat-8 data of Beijing, China, and Gaofen-1(GF-1 data derived from South China. Finally, we analyze the difference between the two methods. Results show that the KCCA-based MAD can be satisfactorily applied to relative radiometric normalization, this algorithm can well describe the nonlinear relationship between multi-temporal images. This work is the first attempt to apply a KCCA-based MAD algorithm to relative radiometric normalization.

  4. Engineering aspects of radiometric logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppert, P.

    1982-01-01

    Engineering problems encountered in the development of nuclear borehole logging techniques are discussed. Spectrometric techniques require electronic stability of the equipment. In addition the electronics must be capable of handling high count rates of randomly distributed pulses of fast rise time from the detector and the systems must be designed so that precise calibration is possible under field operating conditions. Components of a logging system are discussed in detail. They include the logging probe (electronics, detector, high voltage supply, preamplifier), electronic instrumentation for data collection and processing and auxiliary equipment

  5. Determination of degree of compacting and of moisture content by radiometric probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinec, J.; Paul, P.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of radiometric probes used for measuring bulk density and moisture content. Surface probes are used in depths of up to 20 cm with an accuracy of 10%, drive-in probes are used to depths of up to 50 cm with a 4% error, depth probes are used for measuring in depths of 30 to 50 cm with an accuracy of roughly 5% and bulk density in depths of 10 to 150 cm may be measured with an accuracy of 2% using a lysimeter. Changes in the bulk density and soil moisture of the subsoil of an airport runway were studied radiometrically in dependence on time and depth. The dependence is represented graphically. The results of radiometric measurements were compared with the conventional method using a lysimeter probe; the comparison showed that the results were lower by about 7% for the moisture content and higher by about 8% for the bulk density. Radiometric measurements for determining bulk density and soil moisture are advantageous in that they allow the measurement of a great number of sites without any major disturbance of the measured material and results are available immediately on measurement. The economic effect is significant in a large number of measurements carried out on a surface having the same chemical composition and similar grain size which does not necessitate calibration of the instruments to be made more than once a week. The NZK-201 probe by Tesla does not provide sufficiently accurate information on the moisture and density of the earths probed

  6. Use of Radiometric Survey Data for Environmental Study: The Case of Northern Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjokrokardono, S; Ramadanus; Sustarman, H

    1998-01-01

    The convertion of old radiometric data obtained from former uranium exploration activities in northem sumatra into radiation exposure has been evaluated. The objective of the study is to find an alternative way for cheaper and faster compilation of radiation exposure database for environmental study purposes. The old radiometric data measure from the outcrops has been plotted 1;250.000, 1;100.000, and 1;50.000 map scales. The data are translated into 1;1000.000 map scale before they are converted into 1;1000.000 radiation exposure rate map using a graphic method. The radiation exposure rate in northem sumatera falls between 25 R/hour to 40 R/hour. The benefit offered using this method is that it provides a cheaper and faster production of radiation exposure rate map from old radiometric map. However, the problems arising from such a production is that the radiometric data provide unhomogeneous data distributions and densities among the area. As a conclusion it is recommended to recollect some of the data at designated area using well calibrated SPP2NF and gamma ray spectrometer instruments

  7. Radiometric survey in the sites of Regional office in Fortaleza, research gallery and camp in Itataia, CE (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The radiometric survey in Regional officer sites in Fortaleza, Brazil, research gallery and camp in Itataia is presented. The measurings to be done, the instrumentation used and results obtained are described as well as the conclusions and recommendations. (C.M.) [pt

  8. The Impact of Indoor and Outdoor Radiometer Calibration on Solar Measurements: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Andreas, Afshin; Reda, Ibrahim; Robinson, Justin

    2016-07-01

    Accurate solar radiation data sets are critical to reducing the expenses associated with mitigating performance risk for solar energy conversion systems, and they help utility planners and grid system operators understand the impacts of solar resource variability. The accuracy of solar radiation measured by radiometers depends on the instrument performance specification, installation method, calibration procedure, measurement conditions, maintenance practices, location, and environmental conditions. This study addresses the effect of calibration methodologies and the resulting calibration responsivities provided by radiometric calibration service providers such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and manufacturers of radiometers. Some of these radiometers are calibrated indoors, and some are calibrated outdoors. To establish or understand the differences in calibration methodology, we processed and analyzed field-measured data from these radiometers. This study investigates calibration responsivities provided by NREL's broadband outdoor radiometer calibration (BORCAL) and a few prominent manufacturers. The reference radiometer calibrations are traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. These different methods of calibration demonstrated 1% to 2% differences in solar irradiance measurement. Analyzing these values will ultimately assist in determining the uncertainties of the radiometer data and will assist in developing consensus on a standard for calibration.

  9. Substoichiometric method in the simple radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, N.; Noguchi, K.

    1979-01-01

    The substoichiometric method is applied to simple radiometric analysis. Two methods - the standard reagent method and the standard sample method - are proposed. The validity of the principle of the methods is verified experimentally in the determination of silver by the precipitation method, or of zinc by the ion-exchange or solvent-extraction method. The proposed methods are simple and rapid compared with the conventional superstoichiometric method. (author)

  10. OSIRIS (Observing System Including PolaRisation in the Solar Infrared Spectrum) instrument: a multi-directional, polarized radiometer in the visible and shortwave infrared, airborne prototype of 3MI / EPS-SG Eumetsat - ESA mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, C.; Auriol, F.; Nicolas, J. M.; Parol, F.; Riedi, J.; Djellali, M. S.; Cornet, C.; Waquet, F.; Catalfamo, M.; Delegove, C.; Loisil, R.

    2017-12-01

    OSIRIS instrument largely inherits from the POLDER concept developed and operated between 1991 (first airborne prototype) and 2013 (end of the POLDER-3/PARASOL space-borne mission). It consists in two optical systems, one covering the visible to near infrared range (440, 490, 670, 763, 765, 870, 910 and 940 nm) and a second one for the shortwave infrared (940, 1020, 1240, 1360, 1620 and 2200 nm). Each optical system is composed of a wide field-of-view optics (114° and 105° respectively) associated to two rotating wheels with interferential filters (spectral) and analyzers filters (polarization) respectively, and a 2D array of detectors. For each channel, radiance is measured once without analyzer, followed by sequential measurements with the three analyzers shifted by an angle of 60° to reconstruct the total and polarized radiances. The complete acquisition sequence for all spectral channels last a couple of seconds according to the chosen measurement protocol. Thanks to the large field of view of the optics, any target is seen under several viewing angles during the aircraft motion. In a first step we will present the new ground characterization of the instrument based on laboratory measurements (linearity, flat-field, absolute calibration, induced polarization, polarizers efficiency and position), the radiometric model and the Radiometric Inverted Model (RIM) used to develop the Level 1 processing chain that is used to produce level 1 products (normalized radiances, polarized or not, with viewing geometries) from the instrument generated level 0 files (Digital Counts) and attitude information from inertial system. The stray light issues will be specifically discussed. In a second step we will present in-flight radiometric and geometric methods applied to OSIRIS data in order to control and validate ground-based calibrated products: molecular scattering method and sun-glint cross-band method for radiometric calibration, glories, rainbows and sun-glint targets

  11. GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC EVALUATION OF RASAT IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RASAT, the second remote sensing satellite of Turkey, was designed and assembled, and also is being operated by TÜBİTAK Uzay (Space Technologies Research Institute (Ankara. RASAT images in various levels are available free-of-charge via Gezgin portal for Turkish citizens. In this paper, the images in panchromatic (7.5 m GSD and RGB (15 m GSD bands in various levels were investigated with respect to its geometric and radiometric characteristics. The first geometric analysis is the estimation of the effective GSD as less than 1 pixel for radiometrically processed level (L1R of both panchromatic and RGB images. Secondly, 2D georeferencing accuracy is estimated by various non-physical transformation models (similarity, 2D affine, polynomial, affine projection, projective, DLT and GCP based RFM reaching sub-pixel accuracy using minimum 39 and maximum 52 GCPs. The radiometric characteristics are also investigated for 8 bits, estimating SNR between 21.8-42.2, and noise 0.0-3.5 for panchromatic and MS images for L1R when the sea is masked to obtain the results for land areas. The analysis show that RASAT images satisfies requirements for various applications. The research is carried out in Zonguldak test site which is mountainous and partly covered by dense forest and urban areas.

  12. Solar radiophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)

  13. Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) for JPSS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Elena; Priestley, Kory; Dunn, Barry; Cageao, Richard; Barki, Anum; Osmundsen, Jim; Turczynski, Craig; Abedin, Nurul

    2015-01-01

    Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) will be one of five instruments flying aboard the JPSS-2 spacecraft, a polar-orbiting sun-synchronous satellite in Low Earth Orbit. RBI is a passive remote sensing instrument that will follow the successful legacy of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments to make measurement of Earth's short and longwave radiation budget. The goal of RBI is to provide an independent measurement of the broadband reflected solar radiance and Earth's emitted thermal radiance by using three spectral bands (Shortwave, Longwave, and Total) that will have the same overlapped point spread function (PSF) footprint on Earth. To ensure precise NIST-traceable calibration in space the RBI sensor is designed to use a visible calibration target (VCT), a solar calibration target (SCT), and an infrared calibration target (ICT) containing phase change cells (PCC) to enable on-board temperature calibration. The VCT is a thermally controlled integrating sphere with space grade Spectralon covering the inner surface. Two sides of the sphere will have fiber-coupled laser diodes in the UV to IR wavelength region. An electrical substitution radiometer on the integrating sphere will monitor the long term stability of the sources and the possible degradation of the Spectralon in space. In addition the radiometric calibration operations will use the Spectralon diffusers of the SCT to provide accurate measurements of Solar degradation. All those stable on-orbit references will ensure that calibration stability is maintained over the RBI sensor lifetime. For the preflight calibration the RBI will view five calibration sources - two integrating spheres and three CrIS (Cross-track Infrared Sounder ) -like blackbodies whose outputs will be validated with NIST calibration approach. Thermopile are the selected detectors for the RBI. The sensor has a requirement to perform lunar calibration in addition to solar calibration in space in a way similar to CERES

  14. JPSS-1 VIIRS Pre-Launch Radiometric Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Efremova, Boryana; Ji, Jack; Lee, Shihyan; Schwarting, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on-board the first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) completed its sensor level testing on December 2014. The JPSS-1 (J1) mission is scheduled to launch in December 2016, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) mission. VIIRS instrument was designed to provide measurements of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 kilometers) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370 and 740 meters at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It covers the wavelength spectrum from reflective to long-wave infrared through 22 spectral bands [0.412 microns to 12.01 microns]. VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EDRs). This paper will briefly describe J1 VIIRS characterization and calibration performance and methodologies executed during the pre-launch testing phases by the independent government team, to generate the at-launch baseline radiometric performance, and the metrics needed to populate the sensor data record (SDR) Look-Up-Tables (LUTs). This paper will also provide an assessment of the sensor pre-launch radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, bands spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS), near field and stray light responses. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to the SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  15. Mobile Solar Tracker Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST's mobile solar tracking facility is used to characterize the electrical performance of photovoltaic panels. It incorporates meteorological instruments, a solar...

  16. The radiometric industries of the countries of the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeper, Burkhardt

    1975-01-01

    The economic development of the radiometric industries in the EEC and the USA since 1960 is studied on the basis of sales statistics. The study covers the supply and the use of radioisotopes, the application of radiometric techniques, the scope and the development of the foreign trade as well as the structure of the firms concerned. The future need for radiometric apparatus is estimated as regards radiation protection, laboratories, industry, nuclear power plants and medicine

  17. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L B; Strahler, Alan H; Schaaf, Crystal B; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-03-02

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna(®) Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρ(app)), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρ(app) are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρ(app) error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρ(app) from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars.

  18. Heating of the quiet solar corona from measurements of the FET/TESIS instrument on-board the KORONAS-FOTON satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybák, J.; Gömöry, P.; Benz, A.; Bogachev, P.; Brajša, R.

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the first results of the observations of time evolution of the quiet solar corona brightenings obtained due to very rapid photography of the corona with full-disk EUV telescopes of the FET/TESIS instrument onboard the KORONA FOTON satellite. The measurements were performed simultaneously in the emission of the Fe IX / X 17.1 and Fe VIII 13.1 spectral lines with 10 second temporal cadence and spatial scale of 1.7 arc seconds within one hour. This test observation, carried out on 15 July 2009, was analyzed in order to determine whether this type of observation can be used to identify individual microevents in the solar corona heating that are above the tresholds of spatial and temporal resolutions of the observations of non-active regions in the solar atmosphere. For this purpose, a simple method was used involving cross-correlation of the plasma emission time evolution at different temperatures, each time from observations of identical elements. The results obtained are confronted with the expected observable manifestations of the corona heating via nanoflares. TESIS is a set of instruments for the Sun photography developed in the Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences that was launched into orbit in January 2009.

  19. JPSS-1 VIIRS Pre-Launch Radiometric Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudrari, Hassan; Mcintire, Jeffrey; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James; Ji, Qiang; Schwarting, Tom; Zeng, Jinan

    2015-01-01

    The first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS-1 or J1) mission is scheduled to launch in January 2017, and will be very similar to the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) mission. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the J1 spacecraft completed its sensor level performance testing in December 2014. VIIRS instrument is expected to provide valuable information about the Earth environment and properties on a daily basis, using a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer. The design covers the wavelength spectrum from reflective to long-wave infrared through 22 spectral bands, from 0.412 m to 12.01 m, and has spatial resolutions of 370 m and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. This paper will provide an overview of pre-launch J1 VIIRS performance testing and methodologies, describing the at-launch baseline radiometric performance as well as the metrics needed to calibrate the instrument once on orbit. Key sensor performance metrics include the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dynamic range, reflective and emissive bands calibration performance, polarization sensitivity, bands spectral performance, response-vs-scan (RVS), near field response, and stray light rejection. A set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to the sensor requirements and to SNPP VIIRS pre-launch performance.

  20. Radiometric survey in sampling areas of Itataia mine ore and radiometric monitoring in Itataia project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This radiometric survey was done by CDTN, in Itataia sites, on July/82 and it aimed fundamentally to evaluate local radiological conditions, as for aspect of occupational radiation protection. Besides of results obtained, this report has informations of general aspects that ought to serve as subsidies for elaboration of radiological protection program of local. (author) [pt

  1. Multi-instrument observations of the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 and its effects on the ionosphere over Belgium and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Stanimir M.; Bergeot, Nicolas; Berghmans, David; Bolsée, David; Bruyninx, Carine; Chevalier, Jean-Marie; Clette, Frédéric; De Backer, Hugo; De Keyser, Johan; D'Huys, Elke; Dominique, Marie; Lemaire, Joseph F.; Magdalenić, Jasmina; Marqué, Christophe; Pereira, Nuno; Pierrard, Viviane; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Seaton, Daniel B.; Stegen, Koen; Van der Linden, Ronald; Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; West, Matthew J.

    2017-08-01

    A total solar eclipse occurred on 20 March 2015, with a totality path passing mostly above the North Atlantic Ocean, which resulted in a partial solar eclipse over Belgium and large parts of Europe. In anticipation of this event, a dedicated observational campaign was set up at the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The objective was to perform high-quality observations of the eclipse and the associated effects on the geospace environment by utilising the advanced space- and ground-based instrumentation available to the STCE in order to further our understanding of these effects, particularly on the ionosphere. The study highlights the crucial importance of taking into account the eclipse geometry when analysing the ionospheric behaviour during eclipses and interpreting the eclipse effects. A detailed review of the eclipse geometry proves that considering the actual obscuration level and solar zenith angle at ionospheric heights is much more important for the analysis than at the commonly referenced Earth's surface or at the plasmaspheric heights. The eclipse occurred during the recovery phase of a strong geomagnetic storm which certainly had an impact on (some of) the ionospheric characteristics and perhaps caused the omission of some "low-profile" effects. However, the analysis of the ionosonde measurements, carried out at unprecedented high rates during the eclipse, suggests the occurrence of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). Also, the high temporal and spatial resolution measurements proved very important in revealing and estimating some finer details of the delay in the ionospheric reaction and the ionospheric disturbances.

  2. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for non-thermal parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.

  3. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Application of microcomputer to X-ray radiometric ore separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neverov, A.D.; Aleksandrov, P.S.; Kotler, N.I.

    1988-01-01

    The practical use of microcomputers as universal means for converting information for solving applied problems of X-ray radiometric ore separation method is considered. Laboratory tests of two metals - tungsten and tin manifested high efficiency of the developed system. X-ray radiometric separator software is developed

  5. Tasmanian tin and tungsten granites - their radiometric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radiometric survey of Tasmanian granites has shown, with one exception, that tin and tungsten-bearing granites have high radioactivity, largely owing to increased uranium. Many have a high uranium/thorium ratio as well. Radiometric measurements can also delineate different granite types within composite bodies

  6. A simple radiometric in vitro assay for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A radiometric method for screening acetylcholinesterase inhibitors has been described. The method is based on the production of [ 14 C]carbon dioxide from the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) values for several known acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were in agreement with literature values. The new radiometric method is simple, inexpensive, and has the potential for automation

  7. New age radiometric ore sorting - the elegant solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, H.P.; Heuer, T.

    2000-01-01

    Radiometric ore sorting technology and application are described in two parts. Part I reviews the history of radiometric sorting in the minerals industry and describes the latest developments in radiometric sorting technology. Part II describes the history, feasibility study and approach used in the application of the new technology at Rossing Uranium Limited. There has been little progress in the field of radiometric sorting since the late 1970s. This has changed with the development of a high capacity radiometric sorter designed to operate on low-grade ore in the +75mm / -300mm size fraction. This has been designed specifically for an application at Rossing. Rossing has a long history in radiometric sorting dating back to 1968 when initial tests were conducted on the Rossing prospect. Past feasibility studies concluded that radiometric sorting would not conclusively reduce the unit cost of production unless sorting was used to increase production levels. The current feasibility study shows that the application of new radiometric sorter technology makes sorting viable without increasing production, and significantly more attractive with increased production. A pilot approach to confirm sorter performance is described. (author)

  8. Field radiometric methods of prospecting and exploration for uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbushina, L.V.; Savenko, E.I.; Serdyukova, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The textbook includes two main chapters which describe gamma- and emanation field radiometric methods. The textbook is intended for geology and geophysics students having training practice in field radiometric methods and is additional to the course of lectures. The textbook can be used in the''Radiometry'' course which is studied in appropriate geological and technical colleges

  9. Results from the radiometric validation of Sentinel-3 optical sensors using natural targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougnie, Bertrand; Desjardins, Camille; Besson, Bruno; Bruniquel, Véronique; Meskini, Naceur; Nieke, Jens; Bouvet, Marc

    2016-09-01

    The recently launched SENTINEL-3 mission measures sea surface topography, sea/land surface temperature, and ocean/land surface colour with high accuracy. The mission provides data continuity with the ENVISAT mission through acquisitions by multiple sensing instruments. Two of them, OLCI (Ocean and Land Colour Imager) and SLSTR (Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer) are optical sensors designed to provide continuity with Envisat's MERIS and AATSR instruments. During the commissioning, in-orbit calibration and validation activities are conducted. Instruments are in-flight calibrated and characterized primarily using on-board devices which include diffusers and black body. Afterward, vicarious calibration methods are used in order to validate the OLCI and SLSTR radiometry for the reflective bands. The calibration can be checked over dedicated natural targets such as Rayleigh scattering, sunglint, desert sites, Antarctica, and tentatively deep convective clouds. Tools have been developed and/or adapted (S3ETRAC, MUSCLE) to extract and process Sentinel-3 data. Based on these matchups, it is possible to provide an accurate checking of many radiometric aspects such as the absolute and interband calibrations, the trending correction, the calibration consistency within the field-of-view, and more generally this will provide an evaluation of the radiometric consistency for various type of targets. Another important aspect will be the checking of cross-calibration between many other instruments such as MERIS and AATSR (bridge between ENVISAT and Sentinel-3), MODIS (bridge to the GSICS radiometric standard), as well as Sentinel-2 (bridge between Sentinel missions). The early results, based on the available OLCI and SLSTR data, will be presented and discussed.

  10. Joint implementation as an instrument for the market introduction of solar thermal power plants; Joint Implementation als Instrument zur Markteinfuehrung Solarthermischer Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trieb, F.; Nitsch, J.; Fischedick, M.; Luhmann, H.J.

    1997-12-31

    The term ``Joint implementation`` (JI) describes an international manageable tool to reduce the global emission of greenhouse gases, especially carbondioxide (CO{sub 2}). The principle idea of JI is based on the insight that it is of no importance where on earth CO{sub 2} is emitted or conserved. Hence it is only recommendable from the economic point of view to make investments at those locations where the highest conservation can be achieved by an equal use of capital. JI would help industrial countries to fulfil cost-effectively part of their obligation to reduce CO{sub 2} by higher investments in other countries (e.g. for the improvement of energy efficiency). Solar power plants meet all criteria of a successful JI-project approach and show several positive ecological and socio-economic side effects, which can lead in the medium term to environmentally friendly and economic electricity supply. One precondition is that the phase of market introduction will be soon followed by a phase of mass production which fully uses the present potential of this technology to reduce costs by approx. 50 %. The project THESUS on Crete is an important step towards market introduction and shows the importance of solar thermal power plants for climate protection. Above all it is an important European step towards a long-term energy supply. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Der Begriff `Joint Implementation` (JI) beinhaltet ein international handhabbares Instrumentarium zur Minderung des globalen Ausstosses von Treibhausgasen, insbesondere des Kohlendioxids (CO{sub 2}). Die Grundidee von JI beruht auf der Erkenntnis, dass es ohne Belang ist, an welcher Stelle der Erdoberflaeche CO{sub 2} emitiert oder eingespart wird. Aus oekonomischer Sichtweise liegt es daher nahe, Investitionen dort vorzunehmen, wo bei gleichem Kapitaleinsatz die groessten Einsparungen erzielt werden koennen. Mit JI koennten die Industrielaender einen Teil ihrer Verpflichtungen zur CO{sub 2}-Minderung durch verstaerkte

  11. Determination of the sun area in sky camera images using radiometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Batlles, F.J.; Villarroel, C.; Ayala, Rosa; Burgaleta, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have developed a model for the determination of solar area on sky camera imagery. • An estimation of direct normal irradiance is given for cloudless sky. • The presented model resolves the problem of saturation of pixels in the solar area. • The model allows to identify clouds in the solar area of sky camera imagery. • Developed model has an 92% of agreement between processed and observed images. - Abstract: Due to the increasing development and expansion of solar power plants, it is necessary to have complete and absolute knowledge of all factors and occurrences that can affect the dynamics and quality of their production. The importance of clouds in the attenuation of solar radiation is a transcendental and decisive factor in the incident energy from the sun. Detecting clouds with sky cameras is a very problematic issue. The captured solar area in the images exhibits a pronounced saturation of pixels as a consequence of sunlight penetration and the appearance of various atmospheric features. The present article reports a methodology based on radiometric data that is used to determine the causes of saturation in the solar zone and its vicinity on images from a TSI-880 model sky camera. The correct method identifies the presence or absence of clouds in the saturated zone with 92% success

  12. Temporal dynamics of sand dune bidirectional reflectance characteristics for absolute radiometric calibration of optical remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Craig A.; Logie, Gordon S. J.

    2018-01-01

    Attempts to use pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICS) for establishing absolute radiometric calibration of Earth observation (EO) satellites requires high-quality information about the nature of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the surfaces used for these calibrations. Past studies have shown that the PICS method is useful for evaluating the trend of sensors over time or for the intercalibration of sensors. The PICS method was not considered until recently for deriving absolute radiometric calibration. This paper presents BRDF data collected by a high-performance portable goniometer system to develop a temporal BRDF model for the Algodones Dunes in California. By sampling the BRDF of the sand surface at similar solar zenith angles to those normally encountered by EO satellites, additional information on the changing nature of the surface can improve models used to provide absolute radiometric correction. The results demonstrated that the BRDF of a reasonably simple sand surface was complex with changes in anisotropy taking place in response to changing solar zenith angles. For the majority of observation and illumination angles, the spectral reflectance anisotropy observed varied between 1% and 5% in patterns that repeat around solar noon.

  13. A new semiquantitative radiometric opsonin assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, M.; Valdimarsson, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new semiquantitative radiometric opsonin assay is described. It was found that the opsonin activity generated by incubating brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in medium containing less than 5% human serum was exclusively complement dependent. In contrast, C.albicans was effectively opsonized in the absence of complement. Antibodies and the early classical complement pathway did not contribute to the opsonization of S.cerevisiae and neither did C5-9. The brewer's yeast assay can therefore be used for measuring selectively the opsonizing capacity of the alternative pathway. Sera from approximately 7% of apparently healthy adult controls consistently failed to generate significant opsonin activity while 8 out of 26 patients with suspected immune deficiency of unknown cause were defective in this assay. All opsonin deficient sera so far tested had haemolytically normal alternative pathway and Factor B activity. (author)

  14. Radiometric sorting of Rio Algom uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristovici, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    An ore sample of about 0.2 percent uranium from Quirke Mine was subjected to radiometric sorting by Ore Sorters Limited. Approximately 60 percent of the sample weight fell within the sortable size range: -150 + 25 mm. Rejects of low uranium content ( 2 (2 counts/in 2 ) but only 7.6 percent of the ore, by weight, was discarded. At 0.8-0.9 counts/cm 2 (5-6 counts/in 2 ) a significant amount of rejects was removed (> 25 percent) but the uranium loss was unacceptably high (7.7 percent). Continuation of the testwork to improve the results is proposed by trying to extend the sortable size range and to reduce the amount of fines during crushing

  15. Importance of radiometric survey in radiodiagnosis installationscalculated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyton, Fernando; Alarcon, Luis; Zapata, Victor H.; Ortega, Dulia; Ramirez, Alfredo; Aravena, Gonzalo; Ubeda, Carlos; Oyarzun, Carlos; Inzulza, Alonso

    2005-01-01

    A radiometric survey was conducted in two services of imaging with a total of 7 evaluated radiology rooms. The Quality Control Protocol methodology was used in Radiology ARCAL (Regional Agreement of cooperation for the promotion of nuclear science and technology in Latin America and the Caribbean) XLIX of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The effective dose in different positions of interest rates were calculated, from the point of view of radiation protection. All evaluated rooms have rates of effective doses that meet the values limits set in the Protocol ARCAL XLIX, for 82% of the positions evaluated. However operators located in the position A (controlled area) exceed on average 370% with a range of [1-870] the limit proposed by ARCAL XLIX

  16. Spectrometric devices of itinerant radiometric laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Moroz, G.L.; Shchedrin, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Scintillation gamma-spectrometer is described designed for mobile radiometric laboratory for individual monitoring of internal γ-radiation of members of the general population and service personnel as well as for analysis of the isotopic composition of radiocontaminants in the environment. Description and technical features of device are given. The detection unit consists of detectors made on the basis of NaI(Tl) monocrystals 63 x 63 mm in size. The unit permits measurement of various levels of gamma-emitting nuclides throughout the body and in the thyroid and lungs of man. Provision is made for measuring samples with high specific activities (more than 10 -5 Cu/g) and for examining individuals having high levels of incorporated radionuclides

  17. Radiometric monitoring outdoor municipality Pocinhos-PB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinalli Araujo Costa, Michelle; Araujo dos Santos Junior, Jose; Dos Santos Amaral, Romilton

    2015-01-01

    Studies on human exposure to terrestrial radionuclides are important for human health. Therefore, this investigation presents aimed at making radiometric dosimetry Pocinhos municipality in the state of Paraiba. Monitoring was performed in 50 points in urban and rural areas Pocinhos. The estimated external effective dose rate in outdoor environments was obtained in triplicate using a portable gamma spectrometer, to 1.0 m away from the Earth's surface and time set acquisition in terms of environmental radiation levels. The values of these dose rates outdoor environments ranging from 0.53 to 3.94 mSv.y -1 . the arithmetic mean was 0.79 mSv.y -1 , which exceeds the value 0.07 mSv.y -1 corresponding to the global average in outdoor environments. In the city, found a higher radioactivity in rural areas that were uninhabited at the time of the survey. (Author)

  18. PCA determination of the radiometric noise of high spectral resolution infrared observations from spectral residuals: Application to IASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serio, C.; Masiello, G.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Jacquette, E.; Vandermarcq, O.; Bermudo, F.; Coppens, D.; Tobin, D.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of characterizing and estimating the instrumental or radiometric noise of satellite high spectral resolution infrared spectrometers directly from Earth observations is addressed in this paper. An approach has been developed, which relies on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with a suitable criterion to select the optimal number of PC scores. Different selection criteria have been set up and analysed, which is based on the estimation theory of Least Squares and/or Maximum Likelihood Principle. The approach is independent of any forward model and/or radiative transfer calculations. The PCA is used to define an orthogonal basis, which, in turn, is used to derive an optimal linear reconstruction of the observations. The residual vector that is the observation vector minus the calculated or reconstructed one is then used to estimate the instrumental noise. It will be shown that the use of the spectral residuals to assess the radiometric instrumental noise leads to efficient estimators, which are largely independent of possible departures of the true noise from that assumed a priori to model the observational covariance matrix. Application to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) has been considered. A series of case studies has been set up, which make use of IASI observations. As a major result, the analysis confirms the high stability and radiometric performance of IASI. The approach also proved to be efficient in characterizing noise features due to mechanical micro-vibrations of the beam splitter of the IASI instrument.

  19. Evaluation of conventional and high-performance routine solar radiation measurements for improved solar resource, climatological trends, and radiative modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueymard, Christian A. [Solar Consulting Services, P.O. Box 392, Colebrook, NH 03576 (United States); Myers, Daryl R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, CO 80401-3305 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The solar renewable energy community depends on radiometric measurements and instrumentation for data to design and monitor solar energy systems, and develop and validate solar radiation models. This contribution evaluates the impact of instrument uncertainties contributing to data inaccuracies and their effect on short-term and long-term measurement series, and on radiation model validation studies. For the latter part, transposition (horizontal-to-tilt) models are used as an example. Confirming previous studies, it is found that a widely used pyranometer strongly underestimates diffuse and global radiation, particularly in winter, unless appropriate corrective measures are taken. Other types of measurement problems are also discussed, such as those involved in the indirect determination of direct or diffuse irradiance, and in shadowband correction methods. The sensitivity of the predictions from transposition models to inaccuracies in input radiation data is demonstrated. Caution is therefore issued to the whole community regarding drawing detailed conclusions about solar radiation data without due attention to the data quality issues only recently identified. (author)

  20. The OCO-3 Mission: Science Objectives and Instrument Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldering, A.; Basilio, R. R.; Bennett, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory 3 (OCO-3) will continue global CO2 and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) using the flight spare instrument from OCO-2. The instrument is currently being tested, and will be packaged for installation on the International Space Station (ISS) (launch readiness in early 2018.) This talk will focus on the science objectives, updated simulations of the science data products, and the outcome of recent instrument performance tests. The low-inclination ISS orbit lets OCO-3 sample the tropics and sub-tropics across the full range of daylight hours with dense observations at northern and southern mid-latitudes (+/- 52º). The combination of these dense CO2 and SIF measurements provides continuity of data for global flux estimates as well as a unique opportunity to address key deficiencies in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. The instrument utilizes an agile, 2-axis pointing mechanism (PMA), providing the capability to look towards the bright reflection from the ocean and validation targets. The PMA also allows for a snapshot mapping mode to collect dense datasets over 100km by 100km areas. Measurements over urban centers could aid in making estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emissions. Similarly, the snapshot mapping mode can be used to sample regions of interest for the terrestrial carbon cycle. In addition, there is potential to utilize data from ISS instruments ECOSTRESS (ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station) and GEDI (Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation), which measure other key variables of the control of carbon uptake by plants, to complement OCO-3 data in science analysis. In 2017, the OCO-2 instrument was transformed into the ISS-ready OCO-3 payload. The transformed instrument was thoroughly tested and characterized. Key characteristics, such as instrument ILS, spectral resolution, and radiometric performance will be described. Analysis of direct sun measurements taken during testing

  1. A Satellite Data Analysis and CubeSat Instrument Simulator Tool for Simultaneous Multi-spacecraft Measurements of Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannitsen, Jordan; Rizzitelli, Federico; Wang, Kaiti; Segret, Boris; Juang, Jyh-Ching; Miau, Jiun-Jih

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a Multi-satellite Data Analysis and Simulator Tool (MDAST), developed with the original goal to support the science requirements of a Martian 3-Unit CubeSat mission profile named Bleeping Interplanetary Radiation Determination Yo-yo (BIRDY). MDAST was firstly designed and tested by taking into account the positions, attitudes, instruments field of view and energetic particles flux measurements from four spacecrafts (ACE, MSL, STEREO A, and STEREO B). Secondly, the simulated positions, attitudes and instrument field of view from the BIRDY CubeSat have been adapted for input. And finally, this tool can be used for data analysis of the measurements from the four spacecrafts mentioned above so as to simulate the instrument trajectory and observation capabilities of the BIRDY CubeSat. The onset, peak and end time of a solar particle event is specifically defined and identified with this tool. It is not only useful for the BIRDY mission but also for analyzing data from the four satellites aforementioned and can be utilized for other space weather missions with further customization.

  2. Systems approach to the design of the CCD sensors and camera electronics for the AIA and HMI instruments on solar dynamics observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, N.; Beardsley, S.; Clapp, M.; Lang, J.; Jerram, P.; Pool, P.; Auker, G.; Morris, D.; Duncan, D.

    2017-11-01

    Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is imaging the Sun in many wavelengths near simultaneously and with a resolution ten times higher than the average high-definition television. In this paper we describe our innovative systems approach to the design of the CCD cameras for two of SDO's remote sensing instruments, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Both instruments share use of a custom-designed 16 million pixel science-grade CCD and common camera readout electronics. A prime requirement was for the CCD to operate with significantly lower drive voltages than before, motivated by our wish to simplify the design of the camera readout electronics. Here, the challenge lies in the design of circuitry to drive the CCD's highly capacitive electrodes and to digitize its analogue video output signal with low noise and to high precision. The challenge is greatly exacerbated when forced to work with only fully space-qualified, radiation-tolerant components. We describe our systems approach to the design of the AIA and HMI CCD and camera electronics, and the engineering solutions that enabled us to comply with both mission and instrument science requirements.

  3. Aerothermal Instrumentation Loads To Implement Aeroassist Technology in Future Robotic and Human Missions to MARS and Other Locations Within the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Shams, Qamar A.

    2002-01-01

    The strategy of NASA to explore space objects in the vicinity of Earth and other planets of the solar system includes robotic and human missions. This strategy requires a road map for technology development that will support the robotic exploration and provide safety for the humans traveling to other celestial bodies. Aeroassist is one of the key elements of technology planning for the success of future robot and human exploration missions to other celestial bodies. Measurement of aerothermodynamic parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acceleration is of prime importance for aeroassist technology implementation and for the safety and affordability of the mission. Instrumentation and methods to measure such parameters have been reviewed in this report in view of past practices, current commercial availability of instrumentation technology, and the prospects of improvement and upgrade according to the requirements. Analysis of the usability of each identified instruments in terms of cost for efficient weight-volume ratio, power requirement, accuracy, sample rates, and other appropriate metrics such as harsh environment survivability has been reported.

  4. Radiometric determination of density of fresh shielding concrete (in situ) in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of radiometric determination of density have been in recent years elaborated in detail and successfully. But on the market no instruments are available for measuring fresh concrete when it is possible to repair inhomogeneities, if any, even before hardening, and thus to guarantee safety of biological protection of nuclear reactors. The paper describes an analog and digital radiation density meter and their application in the inspection of radiation protection concrete walls. By repairing defective, insufficiently dense locations still in the course of concrete placement it is possible to attain a laboratory quality of the concrete even under on-site conditions

  5. State of the art and trends of radiometric methods for measuring the mass per unit area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, R.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of the mass per unit area by means of transmission or backscattering methods is one of the traditional radioisotope applications. Microelectronics have essentially contributed to the noticeable progress achieved in the development of radiometric instruments for mass per unit area measurements. The use of microcomputers led to both a reliable solution of the main problem of processing the measured data - the correlation of the mass per unit area value with the detector signal under nonlinear calibration conditions - and a considerable increase in the efficiency of the measuring equipment

  6. CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF SMALL-SCALE FLUX EMERGENCE AS OBSERVED WITH NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE AND HINODE INSTRUMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Abramenko, V. I.; Chae, J.; Cao, W.; Andic, A.; Ahn, K.

    2010-01-01

    With the ever-increasing influx of high-resolution images of the solar surface obtained at a multitude of wavelengths, various processes occurring at small spatial scales have become a greater focus of our attention. Complex small-scale magnetic fields have been reported that appear to have enough stored energy to heat the chromosphere. While significant progress has been made in understanding small-scale phenomena, many specifics remain elusive. We present here a detailed study of a single event of disappearance of a magnetic dipole and associated chromospheric activity. Based on New Solar Telescope Hα data and Hinode photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms and Ca II H images, we report the following. (1) Our analysis indicates that even very small dipoles (elements separated by about 0.''5 or less) may reach the chromosphere and trigger non-negligible chromospheric activity. (2) Careful consideration of the magnetic environment where the new flux is deposited may shed light on the details of magnetic flux removal from the solar surface. We argue that the apparent collision and disappearance of two opposite polarity elements may not necessarily indicate their cancellation (i.e., reconnection, emergence of a 'U' tube, or submergence of Ω loops). In our case, the magnetic dipole disappeared by reconnecting with overlying large-scale inclined plage fields. (3) Bright points (BPs) seen in off-band Hα images are very well correlated with the Ca II H BPs, which in turn are cospatial with G-band BPs. We further speculate that, in general, Hα BPs are expected to be cospatial with photospheric BPs; however, a direct comparison is needed to refine their relationship.

  7. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    CERN Document Server

    Beard, L P

    2000-01-01

    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  8. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, G.; Tanase, M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  9. Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopfer, R.L.; Orengo, A.; Chesnut, S.; Wenglar, M.

    1980-01-01

    During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, blind subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts

  10. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Albert van der

    1987-01-01

    De Engelse titel van dit proegschrift \\"Radiometric Dating by Alpha Spectometry on Uranium Series Nuclides\\" kan in het Nederlands wellicht het best worden weergegeven door \\"ouderdomsdbepalingen door stralingsmeting aan kernen uit de uraniumreeks met behulp van alfaspectometrie\\". In dit laatste

  11. Radiometric flow injection analysis with an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Win, N; San, K; Han, B; Myoe, K M [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-07-01

    Radiometric Flow Injection Analysis of a radioactive ([sup 131]I) sample is described. For analysis an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used. (author) 5 refs.; 3 figs.

  12. Data acquisition and processing - helicopter radiometric survey, Krageroe, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, Les P.; Mogaard, John Olav

    2000-07-01

    On 07 October 1998 a helicopter radiometric survey was flown in the vicinity of Krageroe municipality. The purpose of the survey was to provide radiometric information to help assess radon hazard from radioactive rocks in the area. A total of 60 line-kilometres of radiometric data were acquired in a single flight, covering an area of approximately 3 square km with a 50-m line spacing. The data were collected by Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) personnel and processed at NGU. Radiometric data were reduced using the three-channel procedure recommended by the International Atomic Energy Association. All data were gridded using square cells with 30-m sides and geophysical maps were produced at a scale of 1:5000. This report covers aspects of data acquisition and processing (Author)

  13. Sky camera imagery processing based on a sky classification using radiometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Batlles, F.J.; López, G.; Ternero, A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the development and expansion of CSP (concentrated solar power) technology, one of the most important operational requirements is to have complete control of all factors which may affect the quantity and quality of the solar power produced. New developments and tools in this field are focused on weather forecasting improving both operational security and electricity production. Such is the case with sky cameras, devices which are currently in use in some CSP plants and whose use is expanding in the new technology sector. Their application is mainly focused on cloud detection, estimating their movement as well as their influence on solar radiation attenuation indeed, the presence of clouds is the greatest factor involved in solar radiation attenuation. The aim of this work is the detection and analysis of clouds from images taken by a TSI-880 model sky. In order to obtain accurate image processing, three different models were created, based on a previous sky classification using radiometric data and representative sky conditions parameters. As a consequence, the sky can be classified as cloudless, partially-cloudy or overcast, delivering an average success rate of 92% in sky classification and cloud detection. - Highlights: • We developed a methodology for detection of clouds in total sky imagery (TSI-880). • A classification of sky is presented according to radiometric data and sky parameters. • The sky can be classified as cloudless, partially cloudy and overcast. • The images processing is based on the sky classification for the detection of clouds. • The average success of the developed model is around 92%

  14. Radiometric calibration of a polarization-sensitive sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.P.; Markham, B.L.

    1992-01-01

    The radiometric accuracy of a sensor is adversely affected by scene polarization if its optical system is sensitive to polarization. Tests performed on the reflective bands of the NS001 Thematic Mapper simulator, an aircraft multispectral scanner, show that it is very sensitive to the polarization state of the incoming radiations. For 100 percent linearly polarized light, errors in the measured intensity vary from -40 to +40 percent, depending on the scan angle and spectral band. To estimate polarization-induced errors in the intensity measured at aircraft level, the intensity and polarization of the atmospheric radiances were simulated using a realistic earth-atmosphere radiative transfer model. For the polarization of atmospheric radiances in the solar meridian plane over a vegetated target, intensity errors may range from -10 to + 10 percent. The polarization-induced errors are highest in the shortest NS001 spectral band (0.450-0.525 microns) because of large atmospheric polarizations contributed by Rayleigh particles and small diluting effects caused by the small contributions of weakly polarized radiations coming from aerosols and the surface. Depending on the illumination and view angles, the errors in derived surface reflectance due to the radiance errors can be very large. In particular, for large off-nadir view angles in the forward scattered direction when the sun is low, the relative errors in the derived surface reflectance can be as large as 4 to 5 times the relative error in the radiances. Polarization sensitivity errors cannot be neglected for the shorter wavelengths when the surface reflectance contribution to atmospheric radiances is very small. 40 refs

  15. Radiometric determination of monoethanolamine with 65ZnSo4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadan, R.; Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Determination of milligram amounts of monoethanolamine (MEA) with zinc(II) by radiometric titration is described. When MEA is added to a zinc(II) solution containing sulphate ions at 25 degC, a white solid complex is formed. The formation of this complex is employed for the radiometric determination of MEA with 65 Zn. The amount of MEA is directly proportional to the activity of the complex formed. The method is simple, rapid and accurate. (author)

  16. Complex optimization of radiometric control and measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Fundamentals of a new approach to increase in the accuracy of radiometric systems of control and measurements are presented in succession. Block diagram of the new concept of radiometric system optimization is provided. The approach involving radical increase in accuracy and envisages ascertaining of controlled parameter by the totality of two intelligence signals closely correlated with each other. The new concept makes use of system analysis as a unified one-piece object, permitting euristic synthesis of the system. 4 refs., 3 figs

  17. Radiometric and spectral calibrations of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) using principle component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw GIFTS interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. The radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. The absolute radiometric performance of the instrument is affected by several factors including the FPA off-axis effect, detector/readout electronics induced nonlinearity distortions, and fore-optics offsets. The GIFTS-EDU, being the very first imaging spectrometer to use ultra-high speed electronics to readout its large area format focal plane array detectors, operating at wavelengths as large as 15 microns, possessed non-linearity's not easily removable in the initial calibration process. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts remaining after the initial radiometric calibration process, thus, further enhance the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is

  18. Calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, J. K.; Schildkraut, Elliot Robert; Bauldree, Russell S.; Goodrich, Shawn M.

    1996-06-01

    The calibrated infrared ground/air radiometric spectrometer (CIGARS) is a new high performance, multi-purpose, multi- platform Fourier transform spectrometer (FPS) sensor. It covers the waveband from 0.2 to 12 micrometer, has spectral resolution as fine as 0.3 cm-1, and records over 100 spectra per second. Two CIGARS units are being used for observations of target signatures in the air or on the ground from fixed or moving platforms, including high performance jet aircraft. In this paper we describe the characteristics and capabilities of the CIGARS sensor, which uses four interchangeable detector modules (Si, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe) and two optics modules, with internal calibration. The data recording electronics support observations of transient events, even without precise information on the timing of the event. We present test and calibration data on the sensitivity, spectral resolution, stability, and spectral rate of CIGARS, and examples of in- flight observations of real targets. We also discuss plans for adapting CIGARS for imaging spectroscopy observations, with simultaneous spectral and spatial data, by replacing the existing detectors with a focal plane array (FPA).

  19. Quality charter. Instrumentation of solar and wind powered electricity generating systems in isolated sites. A preliminary functional analysis; Charte de qualite. Instrumentation des systemes de production d`electricite en sites isoles a base d`energie photovoltaique et eolienne. Premiere analyse fonctionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A.; Mauras, P.; Jacquin, P.

    1996-10-01

    This document is intended to become one of the Quality Charter documents. It presents the functions which must be provided by the instrumentation systems designed for use in solar and wind powered electricity generating systems in isolated designed for use in solar and wind powered electricity generating systems in isolated sites and should be viewed in close conjunction with the `Typology` and `Energy Management` documents covering the same systems of electricity generation in isolated sites; Together, these documents provide the definition of a range of eight energy management systems and four instrumentation systems specially adapted to the different types of facilities and requirements. (authors)

  20. Radiometric probe design for the measurement of heat flux within a solid rocket motor nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Charles L.; Laughlin, William T.; Popper, Leslie A.

    1996-11-01

    Improvements to solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzle designs and material performance is based on the ability to instrument motors during test firings to understand the internal combustion processes and the response of nozzle components to the severe heating environment. Measuring the desired parameters is very difficult because the environment inside of an SRM is extremely severe. Instrumentation can be quickly destroyed if exposed to the internal rocket motor environment. An optical method is under development to quantify the heating of the internal nozzle surface. A radiometric probe designed for measuring the thermal response and material surface recession within a nozzle while simultaneously confining the combustion products has been devised and demonstrated. As part of the probe design, optical fibers lead to calibrated detectors that measure the interior nozzle thermal response. This two color radiometric measurement can be used for a direct determination of the total heat flux impinging on interior nozzle surfaces. This measurement has been demonstrated using a high power CO2 laser to simulate SRM nozzle heating conditions on carbon phenolic and graphite phenolic materials.

  1. The radiometric performances of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer for Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, E.; Colangeli, L.; Formisano, V.; Piccioni, G.; Cafaro, N.; Moroz, V.

    1999-04-01

    The Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) is a Fourier transform interferometer, operating in the range 1.2-45 μm. The instrument, previously included in the payload of the failed mission Mars ‧96, is proposed for the future space mission Mars Express, under study by ESA. The present paper is aimed at presenting the radiometric performances of PFS. The two channels (LW and SW) forming PFS were analysed and characterised in terms of sensitivity and noise equivalent brightness. To cover the wide spectral range of PFS, different blackbodies were used for calibration. The built-in blackbodies, needed for the in-flight calibrations, were also characterised. The results show that the LW channel is comparable with IRIS Mariner 9 in terms of noise equivalent brightness. The SW channel performances, while satisfactorily, could be improved by lowering the sensor operative temperature. A simple model of the Mars radiance is used in order to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio on the spectra in typical observation conditions. The computed signal-to-noise ratio for the LW channel varies between 430 and 40, while for the SW channel it ranges from 150 to 30. The radiometric analyses confirm that PFS performances are compliant with the design requirements of the instrument. PFS is fully validated for future remote exploration of the atmosphere and the surface of Mars.

  2. Results of molten salt panel and component experiments for solar central receivers: Cold fill, freeze/thaw, thermal cycling and shock, and instrumentation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, J.E.; Ralph, M.E.; Chavez, J.M.; Dunkin, S.R.; Rush, E.E.; Ghanbari, C.M.; Matthews, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted with a molten salt loop at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM to resolve issues associated with the operation of the 10MW{sub e} Solar Two Central Receiver Power Plant located near Barstow, CA. The salt loop contained two receiver panels, components such as flanges and a check valve, vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters, and an impedance pressure transducer. Tests were conducted on procedures for filling and thawing a panel, and assessing components and instrumentation in a molten salt environment. Four categories of experiments were conducted: (1) cold filling procedures, (2) freeze/thaw procedures, (3) component tests, and (4) instrumentation tests. Cold-panel and -piping fill experiments are described, in which the panels and piping were preheated to temperatures below the salt freezing point prior to initiating flow, to determine the feasibility of cold filling the receiver and piping. The transient thermal response was measured, and heat transfer coefficients and transient stresses were calculated from the data. Freeze/thaw experiments were conducted with the panels, in which the salt was intentionally allowed to freeze in the receiver tubes, then thawed with heliostat beams. Slow thermal cycling tests were conducted to measure both how well various designs of flanges (e.g., tapered flanges or clamp type flanges) hold a seal under thermal conditions typical of nightly shut down, and the practicality of using these flanges on high maintenance components. In addition, the flanges were thermally shocked to simulate cold starting the system. Instrumentation such as vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters were tested alongside each other, and compared with flow measurements from calibration tanks in the flow loop.

  3. Innovative instrumentation for detecting optical transients in the hypothesis of a new improved mirror at solar furnace of Almeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, D.; Bartolini, C.; Cosentino, G.; Guarnieri, A.; Piccioni, A.; Beskin, G.; La Padula, C.

    2002-07-01

    The improvement of the solar Furnace mirror as light collector, with an expected Point Spread Function (PSF) of about less than 0.1 degree centigree, could provide a sufficient image definition for astronomical observations of Optical Transients (OTs). Wide-angle large aperture optics, combined with a finely pixelated imaging camera located in the focal plane 7.50 meters away from the mirrors, could offer a field of view (FOV) of 3 degree centigree diameter (30cm length). All these requirements involve the filling of focal plane by means of light having a spatial resolution of few millimeters and a time-resolution of the imager in the range of 50-1000 frame/s. A realistic approach, with regard to such demanding resolution, could be reached exploring properties of devices alternative to Photo-Multipliers tube (PMT) such as Multi Anode Photomultiplier tubes (MAPMT), semiconductor and hybrid devices (CCD, CMOS, HPD, Amorphous silicon detector etc.). These sensors, that during the last years have had a rapid development triggered by scientific, industrial and medical requirement, used or individually or coupled with optical field de magnifier (e. g. Tapers), present an efficient photon detection and a very high spatial resolution. (Author) 12 refs.

  4. Providing Consistent (A)ATSR Solar Channel Radiometry for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Latter, B. G.; Poulsen, C.

    2012-04-01

    Data from the solar reflectance channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) series of instruments are being used in applications for monitoring trends in clouds and aerosols. In order to provide quantitative information, the radiometric calibrations of the sensors must be consistent, stable and ideally traced to international standards. This paper describes the methods used to monitor the calibrations of the ATSR instruments to provide consistent Level 1b radiometric data sets. Comparisons of the in-orbit calibrations are made by reference to data from quasi stable sites such as DOME-C in Antarctica or Saharan Desert sites. Comparisons are performed either by time coincident match-ups of the radiometric data for sensors having similar spectral bands and view/solar geometry and overpass times as for AATSR and MERIS; or via a reference BRDF model derived from averages of measurements over the site from a reference sensor where there is limited or no temporal overlap (e.g. MODIS-Aqua, ATSR-1 and ATSR-2). The results of the intercomparisons provide values of the long term calibration drift and systematic biases between the sensors. Look-up tables based on smoothed averages of the drift measurements are used to provide the corrections to Level 1b data. The uncertainty budgets for the comparisons are provided. It is also possible to perform comparisons of measurements against high spectral resolution instruments that are co-located on the same platform, i.e. AATSR/SCIA on ENVISAT and ATSR-2/GOME on ERS-2. The comparisons are performed by averaging the spectrometer data to the spectral response of the filter radiometer, and averaging the radiometer data to the spatial resolution of the spectrometer. In this paper, the authors present the results of the inter-comparisons to achieve a consistent calibration for the solar channels of the complete ATSR dataset. An assessment of the uncertainties associated with the techniques will be discussed. The impacts of the

  5. Report on the feasibility of the in situ radiometric determination of uranium grade in Witwatersrand gold and uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, C.J.B.; Wesolinski, E.S.; Corner, B.

    1982-08-01

    The chip-sampling technique currently employed by the South African gold and uranium-mining industry, for the prediction of face grade, has several drawbacks, namely: 1) it is labour-intensive; 2) sample volumes are often unrepresentative and prone to human error; and 3) the uranium mineralisation may be very erratic along the reef. In situ radiometric assaying for uranium along the reef, on the other hand, is a rapid, essentially one-man operation, enabling a much larger and hence a more representative sample volume to be measured. The high radiometric background inherent in any uranium mine necessitates some form of high-density shielding in order to facilitate quantitative in situ assaying. This report, therefore, briefly outlines the origin, nature, detection and shielding of gamma rays. Results obtained with a frontally shielded total-count instrument showed that radiometric estimates of uranium grade are comparable to those obtained by batch mining and can be used for the prediction of face grades, provided that the ore is in radiometric equilibrium and that thorium and potassium are either not present, or vary sympathetically with the uranium grade. Spectral analysis showed, however, that these circumstances will also permit the use of a collimated (side-shielded) detector of acceptable weight, provided that only the low-energy portion of the spectrum is measured. The advantages of a collimated detector over a frontally shielded detector are also noteworthy, viz.: 1) only one reading is taken per sample point rather than two, as is the case with the frontally shielded system, thus improving counting statistics; and 2) the shielding is permanently fixed to the detector. Comprehensive design considerations for a compact, portable instrument are suggested and methods for determining background radiation as applicable to a collimated detector are described

  6. Synthesis, radiometric determination of functional groups, complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction behavior of humic acids with uranium(VI) and the influence of humic substances on the migration behavior of uranium was investigated. A main focus of this work was the synthesis of four different humic acid model substances and their characterization and comparison to the natural humic acid from Aldrich. A radiometric method for the determination of humic acid functional groups was applied in addition to conventional methods for the determination of the functionality of humic acids. The humic acid model substances show functional and structural properties comparable to natural humic acids. Modified humic acids with blocked phenolic OH were synthesized to determine the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids. A synthesis method for 14 C-labeled humic acids with high specific activity was developed. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural humic acids with uranium(VI) was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthetic model substances show an interaction behavior with uranium(VI) that is comparable to natural humic acids. This points to the fact that the synthetic humic acids simulate the functionality of their natural analogues very well. For the first time the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids was investigated by applying a modified humic acid with blocked phenolic OH groups. The formation of a uranyl hydroxy humate complex was identified by laserspectroscopic investigations of the complexation of Aldrich humic acid with uranium(VI) at pH 7. The migration behavior of uranium in a sandy aquifer system rich is humic substances was investigated in column experiments. A part of uranium migrates non-retarded through the sediment, bound to humic colloids. The uranium migration behavior is strongly influenced by the kinetically controlled interaction processes of uranium with the humic colloids

  7. Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  8. Radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The contributions contain informations concerning the present state and development of radiometric measurement techniques in metallurgy and foundry technology as well as their application to the solution of various problems. The development of isotope techniques is briefly described. Major applications of radiometric equipment in industrial measurement are presented together with the use of isotopes to monitor processes of industrial production. This is followed by a short description of numerous laboratory-scale applications. Another contribution deals with fundamental problems and methods of moisture measurement by neutrons. A complex moisture/density measurement device the practical applicability of which has been tested is described here. Possibilities for clay determination in used-up moulding materials are discussed in a further contribution. The clay content can be determined by real-time radiometric density measurement so that the necessary moisture or addition of fresh sand can be controlled. (orig.) With 20 figs., 9 tabs., 178 refs [de

  9. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced 14 CO 2 from L-[U- 14 C] malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 μg niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays

  10. Testing of X-ray radiometric enrichnment of polymetallic ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, N.I.; Panova, N.I.; Kirbitova, N.V.; Shramm, E.O.; Efremov, Yu.G.

    1987-01-01

    Testing of X-ray radiometric method of sorting of polymetallic ores using the developed X-ray radiometric device was conducted. It was shown that introduction of preliminary concentration at the factory made the method of fragment separation to be the perspective one, enabling to elevate the factory production with respect to commercial ore and reduce the cost of ore processing. In the case of preliminary concentration, conducted at the mine, it is advisable to perform ore sorting in the flow formed to monolayer

  11. Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

    2009-01-01

    The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM

  12. Total solar irradiance as measured by the SOVAP radiometer onboard PICARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meftah Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the SOlar VAriability PICARD (SOVAP space-based radiometer, we obtained a new time series of the total solar irradiance (TSI during Solar Cycle 24. Based on SOVAP data, we obtained that the TSI input at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere at a distance of one astronomical unit from the Sun is 1361.8 ± 2.4 W m−2 (1σ representative of the 2008 solar minimum period. From 2010 to 2014, the amplitude of the changes has been of the order of ± 0.1%, corresponding to a range of about 2.7 W m−2. To determine the TSI from SOVAP, we present here an improved instrument equation. A parameter was integrated from a theoretical analysis that highlighted the thermo-electrical non-equivalence of the radiometric cavity. From this approach, we obtained values that are lower than those previously provided with the same type of instrument. The results in this paper supersede the previous SOVAP analysis and provide the best SOVAP-based TSI-value estimate and its temporal variation.

  13. Exploring a Black Body Source as an Absolute Radiometric Calibration Standard and Comparison with a NIST Traced Lamp Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Chrien, Thomas; Sarture, Chuck

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) is required for the scientific research and application objectives pursued with the spectroscopic measurements. Specifically calibration is required for: inter-comparison of AVIRIS data measured at different locations and at different times; analysis of AVIRIS data with data measured by other instruments; and analysis of AVIRIS data in conjunction with computer models. The primary effect of radiometric calibration is conversion of AVIRIS instrument response values (digitized numbers, or DN) to units of absolute radiance. For example, a figure shows the instrument response spectrum measured by AVIRIS over a portion of Rogers Dry Lake, California, and another figure shows the same spectrum calibrated to radiance. Only the calibrated spectrum may be quantitatively analyzed for science research and application objectives. Since the initial development of the AVIRIS instrument-radiometric calibration has been based upon a 1000-W irradiance lamp with a calibration traced to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are several advantages to this irradiance-lamp calibration approach. First, the considerable effort of NIST backs up the calibration. Second, by changing the distance to the lamp, the output can closely span the radiance levels measured by AVIRIS. Third, this type of standard is widely used. Fourth, these calibrated lamps are comparatively inexpensive. Conversely, there are several disadvantages to this approach as well. First, the lamp is not a primary standard. Second, the lamp output characteristics may change in an unknown manner through time. Third, it is difficult to assess, constrain, or improve the calibration uncertainty delivered with the lamp. In an attempt to explore the effect and potentially address some of these disadvantages a set of analyses and measurements comparing an irradiance lamp with a black-body source have been completed

  14. THE FUTURE SPACEBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGER ENMAP: ITS IN-FLIGHT RADIOMETRIC AND GEOMETRIC CALIBRATION CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The German Aerospace Center DLR – namely the Earth Observation Center EOC and the German Space Operations Center GSOC – is responsible for the establishment of the ground segment of the future German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program. The Earth Observation Center has long lasting experiences with air- and spaceborne acquisition, processing, and analysis of hyperspectral image data. In the first part of this paper, an overview of the radiometric in-flight calibration concept including dark value measurements, deep space measurements, internal lamps measurements and sun measurements is presented. Complemented by pre-launch calibration and characterization these analyses will deliver a detailed and quantitative assessment of possible changes of spectral and radiometric characteristics of the hyperspectral instrument, e.g. due to degradation of single elements. A geometric accuracy of 100 m, which will be improved to 30 m with respect to a used reference image, if it exists, will be achieved by ground processing. Therfore, and for the required co-registration accuracy between SWIR and VNIR channels, additional to the radiometric calibration, also a geometric calibration is necessary. In the second part of this paper, the concept of the geometric calibration is presented in detail. The geometric processing of EnMAP scenes will be based on laboratory calibration results. During repeated passes over selected calibration areas images will be acquired. The update of geometric camera model parameters will be done by an adjustment using ground control points, which will be extracted by automatic image matching. In the adjustment, the improvements of the attitude angles (boresight angles, the improvements of the interior orientation (view vector and the improvements of the position data are estimated. In this paper, the improvement of the boresight angles is presented in detail as an example. The other

  15. The Future Spaceborne Hyperspectral Imager Enmap: its In-Flight Radiometric and Geometric Calibration Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M.; Müller, R.; Krawzcyk, H.; Bachmann, M.; Storch, T.; Mogulsky, V.; Hofer, S.

    2012-07-01

    The German Aerospace Center DLR - namely the Earth Observation Center EOC and the German Space Operations Center GSOC - is responsible for the establishment of the ground segment of the future German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program). The Earth Observation Center has long lasting experiences with air- and spaceborne acquisition, processing, and analysis of hyperspectral image data. In the first part of this paper, an overview of the radiometric in-flight calibration concept including dark value measurements, deep space measurements, internal lamps measurements and sun measurements is presented. Complemented by pre-launch calibration and characterization these analyses will deliver a detailed and quantitative assessment of possible changes of spectral and radiometric characteristics of the hyperspectral instrument, e.g. due to degradation of single elements. A geometric accuracy of 100 m, which will be improved to 30 m with respect to a used reference image, if it exists, will be achieved by ground processing. Therfore, and for the required co-registration accuracy between SWIR and VNIR channels, additional to the radiometric calibration, also a geometric calibration is necessary. In the second part of this paper, the concept of the geometric calibration is presented in detail. The geometric processing of EnMAP scenes will be based on laboratory calibration results. During repeated passes over selected calibration areas images will be acquired. The update of geometric camera model parameters will be done by an adjustment using ground control points, which will be extracted by automatic image matching. In the adjustment, the improvements of the attitude angles (boresight angles), the improvements of the interior orientation (view vector) and the improvements of the position data are estimated. In this paper, the improvement of the boresight angles is presented in detail as an example. The other values and combinations

  16. A study on the radiometric method for evaluating element migration from plastic packagings to its contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, problems related to food contamination by substances or elements that can be a risk to human health have became a concern, not only to government authorities, but to the general population as well. Within this context, plastic packaging can constitute a source of food contamination since plastic manufacturing processes involve the use of catalysts and different types of additives that may contain toxic elements. When food comes into contact with this packaging, components of the package may migrate to the food. In order to control the material used as food packaging, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in Brazil, has established boundary values of migrant substances and procedures to determine migration from plastic packagings to food. In this study the radiometric method was evaluated for element migration determination from plastic packaging to food simulating or to the food itself. This radiometric method consisted in irradiating plastic packaging samples with a thermal neutron flux from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor in order to produce radionuclides of elements present in the packagings. The irradiated plastic was then exposed to food simulant or food for element migration. Gamma ray spectrometry was used to measure radioactivity in the simulant or food in order to quantify the migration. The food simulating types and experimental conditions were established according to the ANVISA regulations. Element migration was studied for plastic packaging used for soft drinks, drinking water, milk, dairy products, juices and fatty foods. In the instrumental neutron activation analysis of these packagings the presence of As, Cd, Cr, Co and Sb II was verified. Results obtained from the migration experiments by the radiometric method indicated that Cd, Co, Cr and Sb present in these plastics migrated to the simulant or to the food. In some packagings, the migration of only some of these elements was observed. In these cases the

  17. Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westwater, Edgeworth

    2011-05-06

    The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of

  18. Discrepancy between growth of Coccidioides immitis in bacterial blood culture media and a radiometric growth index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampel, N.M.; Wieden, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Spherules of Coccidioides immitis grew readily after inoculation in vented trypticase soy broth, biphasic brain heart infusion media, and aerobic tryptic soy broth bottles used in a radiometric system (BACTEC). However, visible growth was not accompanied by a significant radiometric growth index. Growth of C. immitis can be visually detected in routine bacterial blood culture media while the radiometric growth index remains negative

  19. Determination of molybdenite leaching degree by x-ray radiometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibinov, S.A.; Gladyshev, V.P.; Yarmolik, A.S.; Kim, A.Ch.; Sokur, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    A express chemical X-ray radiometric method for determination of leaching degree and analysis of molybdenite products is developed. The method comprises chemical preparation and the following X-ray radiometric determination of molyb bdenum. Total duration of the analysis is 1-1.5 h. The best reproductivity is btained at X-ray radiometric analysis as compared with the chemical one

  20. Radiometric densimeter for measuring and automatic control of liquid density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajs, J.

    1982-01-01

    A performance rule of the radiometric densimeter produced by ''POLON ''Works is presented. A simplified analysis of the correction of density indication changes due to liquid temperature variations is described. A method of replacing the measuring pipe carrying the liquid being measured by suitable standards is given. The method is for automatic systems control. (A.S.)

  1. Pukaki 1-01 : initial luminescence dating and radiometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2001-01-01

    Core from Pukaki 1-01 was sampled for luminescence dating and radiometric measurements on 14 March 2001 in the dark room laboratory at Victoria University. Seven samples were taken to get an overview of the crater history, and laboratory work was completed in August 2001. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. A review of recent developments in radiometric calibration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Two new developments concerning radiometric calibration facilities are described in this presentation. The first is the result of the international programme for the monitoring and cross-reference of existing calibration facilities, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The second development that is discussed concerns the accuracy of the stripping ratios derived at Pelindaba and has important implications for in situ assaying

  3. Assessment of Aero-radiometric Data of Southern Anambra Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High-resolution aero-radiometric data from three radio-elements (Uranium, Potassium and Thorium) were used and processed independently to investigate the Southern Anambra basin for the prospect of producing radiogenic heat. The rock types in the study area were outlined while processing the elements in each rock ...

  4. PLEIADES-HR INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR RADIOMETRIC IMAGE QUALITY COMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Blanchet

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The first Pleiades-HR satellite, part of a constellation of two, has been launched on December 17, 2011. This satellite produces high resolution optical images. In order to achieve good image quality, Pleiades-HR should first undergo an important 6 month commissioning phase period. This phase consists in calibrating and assessing the radiometric and geometric image quality to offer the best images to end users. This new satellite has benefited from technology improvements in various fields which make it stand out from other Earth observation satellites. In particular, its best-in-class agility performance enables new calibration and assessment techniques. This paper is dedicated to presenting these innovative techniques that have been tested for the first time for the Pleiades- HR radiometric commissioning. Radiometric activities concern compression, absolute calibration, detector normalization, and refocusing operations, MTF (Modulation Transfer Function assessment, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR estimation, and tuning of the ground processing parameters. The radiometric performances of each activity are summarized in this paper.

  5. preliminary geological and radiometric studies of granitoids of zing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    laboratory of Geology Department, Federal University of. Technology, Yola where they were thin sectioned and petrographically studied using a high magnification polarising microscope. Canada balsam was used as the mounting medium. Radiometric survey was carried out using a McPhar model TC-33A portable gamma ...

  6. Space Object Radiometric Modeling for Hardbody Optical Signature Database Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Introduction This presentation summarizes recent activity in monitoring spacecraft health status using passive remote optical nonimaging ...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Space Object Radiometric Modeling for Hardbody Optical Signature Database Generation...It is beneficial to the observer/analyst to understand the fundamental optical signature variability associated with these detection and

  7. A study of elemental migration from poly(ethylene terephthalate) of food packagings to simulated solutions by radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez; Saki, Mitiko; Silva, Leonardo G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Brazilian plastic production for food packagings, in recent years, has grown in the same proportion as food consumption. Considering that the plastic manufacturing involves catalytic processes and the use of additives, when the foods are in direct contact with these materials, the components present in plastics may migrate to the food. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has established boundary-values of migrants as well as procedures to evaluate migration of elements and substances from plastic packaging to food. In this study elemental composition of poly (ethylene terephthalate) - PET - packaging and results of elemental migration were obtained. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to determine elemental concentrations in PET packagings and the radiometric method was applied for elemental migration determination. This radiometric method consisted of irradiating the PET samples with neutrons, followed by migration exposition and radioactivity measurement in food-simulated solution. Experimental conditions used for migration were 10 days exposure period at 40 deg C. Migration was evaluated for soft drink, juice and water PET packaging. The analytical results indicated that PET packagings contain Co and Sb and those elements are transferred to the simulated solutions. However, these migration results were lower than the maximum tolerance values established by ANVISA. The migration detection limits also indicated high sensitivity of the radiometric method. (author)

  8. SOLAR VARIABILITY FROM 240 TO 1750 nm IN TERMS OF FACULAE BRIGHTENING AND SUNSPOT DARKENING FROM SCIAMACHY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagaran, J.; Weber, M.; Burrows, J.

    2009-01-01

    The change of spectral decomposition of the total radiative output on various timescales of solar magnetic activity is of large interest to terrestrial and solar-stellar atmosphere studies. Starting in 2002, SCIAMACHY was the first satellite instrument to observe daily solar spectral irradiance (SSI) continuously from 230 nm (UV) to 1750 nm (near-infrared; near-IR). In order to address the question of how much UV, visible (vis), and IR spectral regions change on 27 day and 11 year timescales, we parameterize short-term SSI variations in terms of faculae brightening (Mg II index) and sunspot darkening (photometric sunspot index) proxies. Although spectral variations above 300 nm are below 1% and, therefore, well below the accuracy of absolute radiometric calibration, relative accuracy for short-term changes is shown to be in the per mill range. This enables us to derive short-term spectral irradiance variations from the UV to the near-IR. During Halloween solar storm in 2003 with a record high sunspot area, we observe a reduction of 0.3% in the near-IR to 0.5% in the vis and near-UV. This is consistent with a 0.4% reduction in total solar irradiance (TSI). Over an entire 11 year solar cycle, SSI variability covering simultaneously the UV, vis, and IR spectral regions have not been directly observed so far. Using variations of solar proxies over solar cycle 23, solar cycle spectral variations have been estimated using scaling factors that best matched short-term variations of SCIAMACHY. In the 300-400 nm region, which strongly contributes to TSI solar cycle change, a contribution of 34% is derived from SCIAMACHY observations, which is lower than the reported values from SUSIM satellite data and the empirical SATIRE model. The total UV contribution (below 400 nm) to TSI solar cycle variations is estimated to be 55%.

  9. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza G. Kashani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR systems also record “intensity”, loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of “normalization”, “correction”, or “calibration” techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  10. A Review of LIDAR Radiometric Processing: From Ad Hoc Intensity Correction to Rigorous Radiometric Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Alireza G; Olsen, Michael J; Parrish, Christopher E; Wilson, Nicholas

    2015-11-06

    In addition to precise 3D coordinates, most light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems also record "intensity", loosely defined as the strength of the backscattered echo for each measured point. To date, LIDAR intensity data have proven beneficial in a wide range of applications because they are related to surface parameters, such as reflectance. While numerous procedures have been introduced in the scientific literature, and even commercial software, to enhance the utility of intensity data through a variety of "normalization", "correction", or "calibration" techniques, the current situation is complicated by a lack of standardization, as well as confusing, inconsistent use of terminology. In this paper, we first provide an overview of basic principles of LIDAR intensity measurements and applications utilizing intensity information from terrestrial, airborne topographic, and airborne bathymetric LIDAR. Next, we review effective parameters on intensity measurements, basic theory, and current intensity processing methods. We define terminology adopted from the most commonly-used conventions based on a review of current literature. Finally, we identify topics in need of further research. Ultimately, the presented information helps lay the foundation for future standards and specifications for LIDAR radiometric calibration.

  11. A radiometric model of an earth radiation budget radiometer optical system with diffuse-specular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is to fly on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and on NOAA F and NOAA G. Large spatial scale earth energy budget data will be derived primarily from measurements made by the ERBE nonscanning instrument (ERBE-NS). A description is given of a mathematical model capable of simulating the radiometric response of any of the ERBE-NS earth viewing channels. The model uses a Monte Carlo method to accurately account for directional distributions of emission and reflection from optical surfaces which are neither strictly diffuse nor strictly specular. The model computes radiation exchange factors among optical system components, and determines the distribution in the optical system of energy from an outside source. Attention is also given to an approach for implementing the model and results obtained from the implementation.

  12. The Second Flight of the Sunrise Balloon-borne Solar Observatory: Overview of Instrument Updates, the Flight, the Data, and First Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, S. K.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Barthol, P.; Danilovic, S.; Deutsch, W.; Doerr, H.-P.; Feller, A.; Gandorfer, A.; Germerott, D.; Gizon, L.; Grauf, B.; Heerlein, K.; Hirzberger, J.; Kolleck, M.; Lagg, A.; Meller, R.; Tomasch, G.; Noort, M. van [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco; Blesa, J. L. Gasent, E-mail: solanki@mps.mpg.de [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); and others

    2017-03-01

    The Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory, consisting of a 1 m aperture telescope that provides a stabilized image to a UV filter imager and an imaging vector polarimeter, carried out its second science flight in 2013 June. It provided observations of parts of active regions at high spatial resolution, including the first high-resolution images in the Mg ii k line. The obtained data are of very high quality, with the best UV images reaching the diffraction limit of the telescope at 3000 Å after Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution reconstruction accounting for phase-diversity information. Here a brief update is given of the instruments and the data reduction techniques, which includes an inversion of the polarimetric data. Mainly those aspects that evolved compared with the first flight are described. A tabular overview of the observations is given. In addition, an example time series of a part of the emerging active region NOAA AR 11768 observed relatively close to disk center is described and discussed in some detail. The observations cover the pores in the trailing polarity of the active region, as well as the polarity inversion line where flux emergence was ongoing and a small flare-like brightening occurred in the course of the time series. The pores are found to contain magnetic field strengths ranging up to 2500 G, and while large pores are clearly darker and cooler than the quiet Sun in all layers of the photosphere, the temperature and brightness of small pores approach or even exceed those of the quiet Sun in the upper photosphere.

  13. Evaluation of Radiometric and Atmospheric Correction Algorithms for Aboveground Forest Biomass Estimation Using Landsat 5 TM Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablito M. López-Serrano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is affected by absorption and emission phenomena during its downward trajectory from the Sun to the Earth’s surface and during the upward trajectory detected by satellite sensors. This leads to distortion of the ground radiometric properties (reflectance recorded by satellite images, used in this study to estimate aboveground forest biomass (AGB. Atmospherically-corrected remote sensing data can be used to estimate AGB on a global scale and with moderate effort. The objective of this study was to evaluate four atmospheric correction algorithms (for surface reflectance, ATCOR2 (Atmospheric Correction for Flat Terrain, COST (Cosine of the Sun Zenith Angle, FLAASH (Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes and 6S (Second Simulation of Satellite Signal in the Solar, and one radiometric correction algorithm (for reflectance at the sensor ToA (Apparent Reflectance at the Top of Atmosphere to estimate AGB in temperate forest in the northeast of the state of Durango, Mexico. The AGB was estimated from Landsat 5 TM imagery and ancillary information from a digital elevation model (DEM using the non-parametric multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. Field reference data for the model training were collected by systematic sampling of 99 permanent forest growth and soil research sites (SPIFyS established during the winter of 2011. The following predictor variables were identified in the MARS model: Band 7, Band 5, slope (β, Wetness Index (WI, NDVI and MSAVI2. After cross-validation, 6S was found to be the optimal model for estimating AGB (R2 = 0.71 and RMSE = 33.5 Mg·ha−1; 37.61% of the average stand biomass. We conclude that atmospheric and radiometric correction of satellite images can be used along with non-parametric techniques to estimate AGB with acceptable accuracy.

  14. OCRA radiometric cloud fractions for GOME-2 on MetOp-A/B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Ronny; Loyola, Diego; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Romahn, Fabian

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes an approach for cloud parameter retrieval (radiometric cloud-fraction estimation) using the polarization measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) onboard the MetOp-A/B satellites. The core component of the Optical Cloud Recognition Algorithm (OCRA) is the calculation of monthly cloud-free reflectances for a global grid (resolution of 0.2° in longitude and 0.2° in latitude) to derive radiometric cloud fractions. These cloud fractions will serve as a priori information for the retrieval of cloud-top height (CTH), cloud-top pressure (CTP), cloud-top albedo (CTA) and cloud optical thickness (COT) with the Retrieval Of Cloud Information using Neural Networks (ROCINN) algorithm. This approach is already being implemented operationally for the GOME/ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT sensors and here we present version 3.0 of the OCRA algorithm applied to the GOME-2 sensors. Based on more than five years of GOME-2A data (April 2008 to June 2013), reflectances are calculated for ≈ 35 000 orbits. For each measurement a degradation correction as well as a viewing-angle-dependent and latitude-dependent correction is applied. In addition, an empirical correction scheme is introduced in order to remove the effect of oceanic sun glint. A comparison of the GOME-2A/B OCRA cloud fractions with colocated AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) geometrical cloud fractions shows a general good agreement with a mean difference of -0.15 ± 0.20. From an operational point of view, an advantage of the OCRA algorithm is its very fast computational time and its straightforward transferability to similar sensors like OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on Sentinel 5 Precursor, as well as Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5. In conclusion, it is shown that a robust, accurate and fast radiometric cloud-fraction estimation for GOME-2 can be achieved with OCRA using polarization measurement devices (PMDs).

  15. Radiometric Correction of Close-Range Spectral Image Blocks Captured Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with a Radiometric Block Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Honkavaara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAV equipped with novel, miniaturized, 2D frame format hyper- and multispectral cameras make it possible to conduct remote sensing measurements cost-efficiently, with greater accuracy and detail. In the mapping process, the area of interest is covered by multiple, overlapping, small-format 2D images, which provide redundant information about the object. Radiometric correction of spectral image data is important for eliminating any external disturbance from the captured data. Corrections should include sensor, atmosphere and view/illumination geometry (bidirectional reflectance distribution function—BRDF related disturbances. An additional complication is that UAV remote sensing campaigns are often carried out under difficult conditions, with varying illumination conditions and cloudiness. We have developed a global optimization approach for the radiometric correction of UAV image blocks, a radiometric block adjustment. The objective of this study was to implement and assess a combined adjustment approach, including comprehensive consideration of weighting of various observations. An empirical study was carried out using imagery captured using a hyperspectral 2D frame format camera of winter wheat crops. The dataset included four separate flights captured during a 2.5 h time period under sunny weather conditions. As outputs, we calculated orthophoto mosaics using the most nadir images and sampled multiple-view hyperspectral spectra for vegetation sample points utilizing multiple images in the dataset. The method provided an automated tool for radiometric correction, compensating for efficiently radiometric disturbances in the images. The global homogeneity factor improved from 12–16% to 4–6% with the corrections, and a reduction in disturbances could be observed in the spectra of the object points sampled from multiple overlapping images. Residuals in the grey and white reflectance panels were less than 5% of the

  16. Radiometric measurements on the fabrication of non-destructive assay standards for WIPP-Performance Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Marshall, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The Inorganic Elemental Analysis Group of LANL has prepared several different sets of working reference materials (WRMs). These WRMs are prepared by blending quantities of nuclear materials (plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium) with diatomaceous earth. The blends are encapsulated in stainless steel cylinders. These WRMs are being measured as blind controls in neutron and gamma based non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. Radiometric measurements on the blending homogeneity and verification on a set of sixty three plutonium based WRMs are discussed in this paper

  17. A simple and effective radiometric correction method to improve landscape change detection across sensors and across time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Vierling, Lee; Deering, D.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite data offer unrivaled utility in monitoring and quantifying large scale land cover change over time. Radiometric consistency among collocated multi-temporal imagery is difficult to maintain, however, due to variations in sensor characteristics, atmospheric conditions, solar angle, and sensor view angle that can obscure surface change detection. To detect accurate landscape change using multi-temporal images, we developed a variation of the pseudoinvariant feature (PIF) normalization scheme: the temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method. Image data were acquired on June 9, 1990 (Landsat 4), June 20, 2000 (Landsat 7), and August 26, 2001 (Landsat 7) to analyze boreal forests near the Siberian city of Krasnoyarsk using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and reduced simple ratio (RSR). The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) centers were identified via a point density map of collocated pixel VIs from the base image and the target image, and a normalization regression line was created to intersect all TIC centers. Target image VI values were then recalculated using the regression function so that these two images could be compared using the resulting common radiometric scale. We found that EVI was very indicative of vegetation structure because of its sensitivity to shadowing effects and could thus be used to separate conifer forests from deciduous forests and grass/crop lands. Conversely, because NDVI reduced the radiometric influence of shadow, it did not allow for distinctions among these vegetation types. After normalization, correlations of NDVI and EVI with forest leaf area index (LAI) field measurements combined for 2000 and 2001 were significantly improved; the r 2 values in these regressions rose from 0.49 to 0.69 and from 0.46 to 0.61, respectively. An EVI "cancellation effect" where EVI was positively related to understory greenness but negatively related to forest canopy coverage was evident across a

  18. Geometric Calibration and Radiometric Correction of the Maia Multispectral Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, E.; Dubbini, M.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Gattelli, M.; Covi, D.

    2017-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is a widely used remote sensing technique, whose applications range from agriculture to environmental monitoring, from food quality check to cultural heritage diagnostic. A variety of multispectral imaging sensors are available on the market, many of them designed to be mounted on different platform, especially small drones. This work focuses on the geometric and radiometric characterization of a brand-new, lightweight, low-cost multispectral camera, called MAIA. The MAIA camera is equipped with nine sensors, allowing for the acquisition of images in the visible and near infrared parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Two versions are available, characterised by different set of band-pass filters, inspired by the sensors mounted on the WorlView-2 and Sentinel2 satellites, respectively. The camera details and the developed procedures for the geometric calibrations and radiometric correction are presented in the paper.

  19. Radiometric analyzer with plural radiation sources and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, S.; Oda, M.; Miyashita, K.; Takada, M.

    1977-01-01

    A radiometric analyzer for measuring characteristics of a material by radiation comprises a plurality of systems in which each consists of a radiation source and a radiation detector which are the same in number as the number of elements of the molecule of the material and a linear calibration circuit having inverse response characteristics (calibration curve) of the respective systems of detectors, whereby the measurement is carried out by four fundamental rules by operation of the mutual outputs of said detector system obtained through said linear calibration circuit. One typical embodiment is a radiometric analyzer for hydrocarbons which measures the density of heavy oil, the sulfur content and the calorific value by three detector systems which include a γ-ray source (E/sub γ/ greater than 50 keV), a soft x-ray source (Ex approximately 20 keV), and a neutron ray source. 2 claims, 6 figures

  20. Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from [14C] dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates

  1. High speed radiometric measurements of IED detonation fireballs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidell, Matthew T.; Gordon, J. Motos; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-04-01

    Continuum emission is predominant in fireball spectral phenomena and in some demonstrated cases, fine detail in the temporal evolution of infrared spectral emissions can be used to estimate size and chemical composition of the device. Recent work indicates that a few narrow radiometric bands may reveal forensic information needed for the explosive discrimination and classification problem, representing an essential step in moving from "laboratory" measurements to a rugged, fieldable system. To explore phenomena not observable in previous experiments, a high speed (10μs resolution) radiometer with four channels spanning the infrared spectrum observed the detonation of nine home made explosive (HME) devices in the 0.98) using blast model functional forms, suggesting that energy release could be estimated from single-pixel radiometric detectors. Comparison of radiometer-derived fireball size with FLIR infrared imagery indicate the Planckian intensity size estimates are about a factor of two smaller than the physical extent of the fireball.

  2. Study of a new radiometric sterility test in radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez P, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    A new radiometric method is studied for the determination of sterility. It is based on a culture marked with carbon-14 and the measurement by liquid scintillation of the radioactivity of the gaseous products released after a short period of incubation. The studied samples consisted in nonradioactive solutions and different radiopharmaceuticals, through a regulated current of nitrogen there is a transportation of gaseous and volatile products produced in each flask, which were received in a liquid scintillation vial. The experimental data permit to conclude that through the radiometric method the results can be obtained after 24 hours or less of incubation, instead of a period of several days which was necessary with the traditional process. Due to the sensitivity of the method it is possible to inoculate a minimum volume of sample, this is important in the case of the preparation of little parts for injection as it occurs generally with the pharmaceuticals. (author)

  3. Radiometric microbiologic assay for the biologically active forms of niacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertcher, J.A.; Guilarte, T.R.; Chen, M.F.; Rider, A.A.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1979-05-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay has been developed for the determination of niacin in biologic fluids. Lactobacillus plantarum produced /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from L-(U-/sup 14/C) malic acid in quantities proportional to the amount of niacin present. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of niacin in humans. Thirty normal hemolysates were analyzed and the values ranged from 13.0 to 17.8 ..mu..g niacin/ml RBC (mean = 15.27 +- 1.33 s.d.). Good recovery and reproducibility studies were obtained with this assay. On thirty blood samples, correlation was excellent between the radiometric and the conventional turbidimetric assays.

  4. Detection and recovery of mycobacteria by a radiometric procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Foster, V.

    1983-01-01

    During a 6-month period, 5,375 clinical specimens were cultured on Middlebrook-Cohn 7H10 medium, on Lowenstein-Jensen medium, and in Middlebrook 7H12 medium containing [ 14 C]palmitic acid. More mycobacteria were recovered when all three media were used than when either the conventional method with 7H10 agar and Lowenstein-Jensen slants or the radiometric method with 7H12 broth was used alone

  5. Processing data collected from radiometric experiments by multivariate technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P.; Kowalska, E.; Machaj, B.; Jakowiuk, A.

    2005-01-01

    Multivariate techniques applied for processing data collected from radiometric experiments can provide more efficient extraction of the information contained in the spectra. Several techniques are considered: (i) multivariate calibration using Partial Least Square Regression and Artificial Neural Network, (ii) standardization of the spectra, (iii) smoothing of collected spectra were autocorrelation function and bootstrap were used for the assessment of the processed data, (iv) image processing using Principal Component Analysis. Application of these techniques is illustrated on examples of some industrial applications. (author)

  6. A Preliminary Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Radiometric Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C.; Fusco, L.; Mehl, W.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA raw (BT) product, the radiometrically corrected (AT) product, and the radiometrically and geometrically corrected (PT) product of a TM scene were analyzed examine the frequency distribution of the digital data; the statistical correlation between the bands; and the variability between the detectors within a band. The analyses were performed on a series of image subsets from the full scence. Results are presented from one 1024 c 1024 pixel subset of Realfoot Lake, Tennessee which displayed a representative range of ground conditions and cover types occurring within the full frame image. From this cursory examination of one of the first seven channel TM data sets, it would appear that the radiometric performance of the system is most satisfactory and largely meets pre-launch specifications. Problems were noted with Band 5 Detector 3 and Band 2 Detector 4. Differences were observed between forward and reverse scan detector responses both for the BT and AT products. No systematic variations were observed between odd and even detectors.

  7. Ultra-sensitive radionuclide spectrometry. Radiometrics and mass spectrometry synergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in radiometrics and mass spectrometry techniques for ultra-sensitive analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment are reviewed. In the radiometrics sector the dominant development has been the utilization of large HPGe detectors in underground laboratories with anti-cosmic or anti-Compton shielding for the analysis of short and medium-lived radionuclides in the environment. In the mass spectrometry sector, applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the analysis of long-lived radionuclides in the environment are the most important recent achievements. The recent developments do not only considerably decrease the detection limits for several radionuclides (up to several orders of magnitude), but they also enable to decrease sample volumes so that sampling, e.g., of the water column can be much easier and more effective. A comparison of radiometrics and mass spectrometry results for the analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment shows a reasonable agreement - within quoted uncertainties, for wide range of activities and different sample matrices analyzed. (author)

  8. Multielemental X-ray radiometric analysis of ferromanganese concretions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelev, A.Yu.; Grigor'ev, A.I.; Rakita, K.A.; Mamaenko, M.V.; Ivanenko, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Ferromanganese concretions are promising mineral resources of the ocean. Most often, they are analyzed by atomic-absorption, spectra, X-ray spectral, neutron-activation, and X-ray radiometric methods. Note that X-ray radiometric analysis (XRRA) allows the sufficiently rapid determination of a great number of elements in ferromanganese concretions. The possibility of using XRRA with saturated and thin layers was shown; however, the data on the precision and accuracy of the technique was not given. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the basic performance characteristics of the multielemental X-ray radiometric analysis of ferromanganese concretions (Pacific Ocean). Determinations for K,Ca and Ti content were made using a 55 Fe source and for Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, and Mo contents by using a 109 Cd source. The precision and accuracy of the method was investigated by using reference concretions; it was found the confidence intervals overlap for all of the elements except Ca and Pb. The relative standard deviation was 1-5%, indicating the high precision of the method. The described technique is successfully used on research vessels of the Far East Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and in South Pacific Ocean geological expeditions of PO open-quotes Dal'morgeologiyaclose quotes

  9. Laboratory-Based BRDF Calibration of Radiometric Tarps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study provides the remote sensing community with important high accuracy laboratory-based BRDF calibration of radiometric tarps. The results illustrate the dependence of tarps' weft and warp threads orientation on BRDF. The study was done at incident angles of 0deg, 10deg, and 30deg; scatter zenith angles from 0deg to 60deg, and scatter azimuth angles of 0deg, 45deg, 90deg, 135deg, and 180deg. The wavelengths were 485nm, 550nm, 633nm and 800nm. The dependence is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. It can be as high as 8% at 0deg incident angle and 2% at 30deg incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps is reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well pronounced forward scatter. The BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps can be successfully extended to other structured surface fabric samples. The results are NIST traceable.

  10. OBSERVING THE FINE STRUCTURE OF LOOPS THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL RAIN WITH THE CRISP INSTRUMENT AT THE SWEDISH SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, P.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2012-01-01

    Observed in cool chromospheric lines, such as Hα or Ca II H, coronal rain corresponds to cool and dense plasma falling from coronal heights. Considered as a peculiar sporadic phenomenon of active regions, it has not received much attention since its discovery more than 40 years ago. Yet, it has been shown recently that a close relationship exists between this phenomenon and the coronal heating mechanism. Indeed, numerical simulations have shown that this phenomenon is most likely due to a loss of thermal equilibrium ensuing from a heating mechanism acting mostly toward the footpoints of loops. We present here one of the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain, performed with the CRisp Imaging Spectro Polarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope. This work constitutes the first attempt to assess the importance of coronal rain in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field in active regions. With the present resolution, coronal rain is observed to literally invade the entire field of view. A large statistical set is obtained in which dynamics (total velocities and accelerations), shapes (lengths and widths), trajectories (angles of fall of the blobs), and thermodynamic properties (temperatures) of the condensations are derived. Specifically, we find that coronal rain is composed of small and dense chromospheric cores with average widths and lengths of ∼310 km and ∼710 km, respectively, average temperatures below 7000 K, displaying a broad distribution of falling speeds with an average of ∼70 km s –1 , and accelerations largely below the effective gravity along loops. Through estimates of the ion-neutral coupling in the blobs we show that coronal rain acts as a tracer of the coronal magnetic field, thus supporting the multi-strand loop scenario, and acts as a probe of the local thermodynamic conditions in loops. We further elucidate its potential in coronal heating. We find that the cooling in neighboring strands

  11. X-Ray and Radiometrics in Geo-Ecological and Geochemical Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedyanin, S. N. [Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Combinat (Uzbekistan)

    2014-05-15

    Monitoring of tailing pits of uranium ore conversion products and reserve supplies of low-grade ores stored in dumps is traditionally based on radiation environment on these sites and adjacent territories. The results of gamma-ray spectrometry of solid fractions and radon concentration measurement in liquid and gas phases of technogenic formations are used in radiation hazard evaluation. Radiometric testing practice of low-activity field formations in loose and lump masses shows that due to high emanating ability it is necessary to use dual-channel radiometer for ionizing radiation background record and compensation. Thus gamma-radiometry is not the direct method of uranium content determination and alfa- and beta-radiometry can be correctly used only for sample analysis in laboratory environment. Consequently, distant express testing with the help of X-ray radiometric (XRM) instruments (on calcium, iron, manganese, titanium, copper, arsenic, lead, strontium, selenium, molybdenum, uranium, etc.) is recommended for additional introduction in field observations of radio-ecological environment in mining and processing production tailing and dumps of low-grade ore reserve supplies. Thanks to preliminary areal schemes of geochemical zonality as per XRM data XRM application allows to use the sample limit, given for a wide range of laboratory analyses rationally. Sampling places and their number as well as kinds of laboratory analyses are chosen based on XRM data.It is rather effective to use laboratory variant of atomic absorptive analysis on mercury and stibium in gases (GA), generated in the process of grated samples calcination in muffle furnaces. During the presentation of the report In order to prove the effectiveness of XRM and GA presentation graphics with the results of areal mapping using the above methods and geochemical testing on the territories of Tashkent (Uzbekistan) and Chimkent (Kazakhstan) regions within the framework of the geological and ecological

  12. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization.

  13. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  14. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  15. Analysis of differential method for compensating fluctuations in product thickness when radiometric testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovskij, A.V.; Kvasnitsa, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Given are the estimates of information capabilities of the differential method for measuring radiation flux in radiation defectoscopy as well as efficiency of application of automatic radiation facilities to control taking into account the statistical regularities of product thickness fluctuations. Dependences of signal to noise ratio on the regularities of product thickness fluctuations have been found and optimization, on this basis, of the design and parameters of processing instrumentation was carried out. It is shown, that with 60-80 mm interval of product thickness fluctuations correlation (welded joints) it is expedient to use two radiation beams with their crossing on a mean product plane. When the interval of correlation of thickness fluctuations is great it is effective to use the geometry of radioscopy with parallel radiation beams. This permits to use only one radiation source without significant reducing the compensation efficiency, that in most cases simplifies the development and application of radiometric systems. Thus the efficiency of applying the differential method for radiation beam detection to compensate product thickness fluctuations is primarily determined by statistical regularities of the given fluctuations. The account of the regularities in the development of the processing instrumentation results in the most complete extraction of useful information, containing in the radiation beams being detected

  16. Crosstalk in solar polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, E. A.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.

    1992-01-01

    The instrumental crosstalk associated with the Marshall Space Flight Center Vector Magnetograph and the solar crosstalk created by the magnetic field are described and their impact on the reconstruction of the solar vector magnetic field is analyzed. It is pointed out that identifying and correcting the crosstalk is important in the development of realistic models describing the solar atmosphere. Solar crosstalk is spatially dependent on the structure of the magnetic field while instrumental crosstalk is dependent on the position of the analyzer.

  17. Nuclear instrumentation for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Ch. V.N.; Sarma, C.V.R.; Sreehari, R.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumentation required for uranium exploration may be broadly classified based on surface and sub-surface measurement of gamma-ray intensity. Surface measurement of gross and spectral gamma intensity are carried out by employing portable Geiger Mueller/scintillation counters and four-channel spectrometers. Measurement of thoron ( 220 Rn) and radon ( 222 Rn) in the soil gas is being carried out by closed circuit technique using radon measuring system. Radiometric mapping of trenches, pits and mine-faces are carried out using shielded probe with 2π source geometry, whereas logging sonde with instruments through the steel armoured cable are employed for point to 4π geometry. Spectral borehole logging system with built-in multi-channel analyser (MCA) has been developed for the uranium exploration programme for AMD. Note-book PC based high sensitivity air-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey system has been designed, developed and test flown. (author)

  18. IASI instrument: technical description and measured performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Ph.; Blumstein, D.; Buil, C.; Carlier, T.; Chalon, G.; Astruc, P.; Clauss, A.; Siméoni, D.; Tournier, B.

    2017-11-01

    IASI is an infrared atmospheric sounder. It will provide meteorologist and scientific community with atmospheric spectra. The IASI system includes 3 instruments that will be mounted on the Metop satellite series, a data processing software integrated in the EPS (EUMETSAT Polar System) ground segment and a technical expertise centre implemented in CNES Toulouse. The instrument is composed of a Fourier transform spectrometer and an associated infrared imager. The optical configuration is based on a Michelson interferometer and the interferograms are processed by an on-board digital processing subsystem, which performs the inverse Fourier transforms and the radiometric calibration. The infrared imager co-registers the IASI soundings with AVHRR imager (AVHRR is another instrument on the Metop satellite). The presentation will focus on the architectures of the instrument, the description of the implemented technologies and the measured performance of the first flight model. CNES is leading the IASI program in association with EUMETSAT. The instrument Prime is ALCATEL SPACE.

  19. Radiometric system for clinical applications in the National Health System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa Perez, G.; Arteche Diaz, R.; Camejo Batista, A.; Fonfria Bragado, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper it is presented the radiometric detection system SRNIC-02, manufactured at CEADEN. The system has three major components: a well-type Nal(TI) scintillator detector with its collimator, a measurement module, and the application software, which allows fixing the working parameters of the system, as well as the acquisition and processing of data. The system has two main applications in the National Health System, one for the quality control in Radiopharmacy, and in RIA/IRMA blood tests. There are 16 systems installed, in 13 provinces of the country up to this date. (Author)

  20. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with 14 C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques

  1. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  2. Virtual and remote experiments for radiometric and photometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoms, L-J; Girwidz, R

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of spectra is fundamental to our modern understanding of wave optics and colour perception. Since spectrometers are expensive, and accurate calibration is necessary to achieve high quality spectra, we developed a remote lab on optical spectrometry. With this tool, students can carry out real experiments over the Internet. In this article the pros and cons of remote labs, the physical background of optical spectrometry, and the development and use of a radiometric remote lab for higher education are discussed. The remote lab is freely accessible to everyone at http://virtualremotelab.net. (paper)

  3. A report of airbone radiometric and magnetic test survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.H.; Park, Y.S.; Woo, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    By the end of Oct. 1981, a complete set of GeoMetrics' air-borne radiometric and magnetic survey system was purchased by KIER using the ADB loan, and it took one week from Nov. 11 1981 to install the system on a Bell 206 B helicopter (HL 9102) owned by Asia Aeroservice Company. The test survey was flown over an area including Hongseong, Daecheon, Seosan and Manripo Sheets, from Nov. 19 to Dec. 14 1981. A Hongseong air-strip was used as the base. (Author)

  4. Notes on the radiometric and geochemical survey of Leyte Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements using the Scintrex GIS-4 portable scintillometer were conducted along the periphery of the island. These radiometric readings as well as sediments were obtained along the streams draining into the sea. A total of 174 stream sediments samples were collected. Minus 80 mesh sediment fraction was analyzed for mobile or extractable uranium. Results indicated that the background values of radioactivity and uranium in stream sediments were 25 counts per second (cps) and 0.3 ppm, respectively. The San Isidro and Vilaba areas which are located in the northern part of Leyte have greater than 3 times above background radioactivity and uranium in the stream sediments. (author)

  5. Process system of radiometric and magnetometric aerial information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazua Rueda, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    The author has been working first in the National Institute of Nuclear Energy (Mexico) and then in URAMEX (Uranio Mexicano) since 1975 to 1983, integrated to radiometric and magnetometric aerial prospecting projects in computerized processing of information aspects. During this period the author participated in the work out of computing systems, information processing and mathematical procedures definition for the geophysical reduction of the calibration equipment data. With cumulated experience, in this thesis are presented aspects concerning to management and operation of computerized processing of information systems. Operation handbooks of the majority of modules are presented. Program lists are not included. (Author)

  6. Virtual and remote experiments for radiometric and photometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, L.-J.; Girwidz, R.

    2017-09-01

    The analysis of spectra is fundamental to our modern understanding of wave optics and colour perception. Since spectrometers are expensive, and accurate calibration is necessary to achieve high quality spectra, we developed a remote lab on optical spectrometry. With this tool, students can carry out real experiments over the Internet. In this article the pros and cons of remote labs, the physical background of optical spectrometry, and the development and use of a radiometric remote lab for higher education are discussed. The remote lab is freely accessible to everyone at http://virtualremotelab.net.

  7. On the lower of limit detection of radiometric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamburov, H.; Boneva, S.

    1983-01-01

    The existing definitions of the quantity Asub(min), the lower detection limit, introduced as a characteristic of the sensitivity of radiometric systems are reviewed. A convenient way is found for comparing the different definitions by showing that each definition is connected with a specific value of the probability a of Type I error. The detection limits are calculated for a normal and Poisson distributions of the measured quantities. A criterion is proposed for the applicability of the normal distiribution to the problem of determining the lower detection limit

  8. A comparison of radiometric correction techniques in the evaluation of the relationship between LST and NDVI in Landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok Chooi; Lim, Hwee San; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric corrections for multi-temporal optical satellite images are necessary, especially in change detection analyses, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) rationing. Abrupt change detection analysis using remote-sensing techniques requires radiometric congruity and atmospheric correction to monitor terrestrial surfaces over time. Two atmospheric correction methods were used for this study: relative radiometric normalization and the simplified method for atmospheric correction (SMAC) in the solar spectrum. A multi-temporal data set consisting of two sets of Landsat images from the period between 1991 and 2002 of Penang Island, Malaysia, was used to compare NDVI maps, which were generated using the proposed atmospheric correction methods. Land surface temperature (LST) was retrieved using ATCOR3_T in PCI Geomatica 10.1 image processing software. Linear regression analysis was utilized to analyze the relationship between NDVI and LST. This study reveals that both of the proposed atmospheric correction methods yielded high accuracy through examination of the linear correlation coefficients. To check for the accuracy of the equation obtained through linear regression analysis for every single satellite image, 20 points were randomly chosen. The results showed that the SMAC method yielded a constant value (in terms of error) to predict the NDVI value from linear regression analysis-derived equation. The errors (average) from both proposed atmospheric correction methods were less than 10%.

  9. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Samy A.

    2008-01-01

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined

  10. Parameterization models for solar radiation and solar technology applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Samy A. [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Solar and Space Department, Marsed Street, Helwan, 11421 Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-08-15

    Solar radiation is very important for the evaluation and wide use of solar renewable energy systems. The development of calibration procedures for broadband solar radiation photometric instrumentation and the improvement of broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy have been done. An improved diffuse sky reference and photometric calibration and characterization software for outdoor pyranometer calibrations are outlined. Parameterizations for direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation and solar radiation technology are briefly reviewed. The uncertainties for various broadband solar radiations of solar energy and atmospheric effects are discussed. The varying responsivities of solar radiation with meteorological, statistical and climatological parameters and possibility atmospheric conditions was examined. (author)

  11. Frequency agile solar radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Tim S.

    2003-02-01

    The Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) is a solar-dedicated, ground based, interferometric array optimized to perform broadband imaging spectroscopy from ~ 0.1-30+ GHz. It will do so with the angular, spectral, and temporal resolution required to exploit radio emission from the Sun as a diagnostic of the wide variety of astrophysical processes that occur there. FASR represents a major advance over existing radioheliographs, and is expected to remain the world's premier solar radio instrument for two decades or more after completion. FASR will be a versatile and powerful instrument, providing unique data to a broad users community. Solar, solar-terrestrial, and space physicists will exploit FASR to attack a broad science program, including problems of fundamental interest: coronal magnetography, solar flares and particle acceleration, drivers of space weather, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. A design study and implementation planning are underway. Recent progress is reviewed here.

  12. Blood culture cross contamination associated with a radiometric analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.R.; Miller, A.D.; Davis, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    During a 9-day period in August 1980 in a New Jersey hospital, three pairs of consecutively numbered blood cultures from different patients were identified as positive for the same organism, for each pair, both cultures were positive in the same atmosphere, both organisms had the same sensitivities, and the second of each pair grew at least 2 days after the first and was the only positive blood culture obtained from the patient. When the hospital laboratory discontinued use of its radiometric culture analyzer for 15 days, no more consecutive pairs of positive cultures occurred. Subsequent use of the machine for 9 days with a new power unit but the original circuit boards resulted in one more similar consecutive pair (Staphylococcus epidermidis). After replacement of the entire power unit, there were no further such pairs. Examination of the machine by the manufacturer revealed a defective circuit board which resulted in inadequate needle sterilization. Laboratories which utilize radiometric analyzers should be aware of the potential for cross contamination. Recognition of such events requires alert microbiologists and infection control practitioners and a record system in the bacteriology laboratory designed to identify such clusters

  13. Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Roessner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data.

  14. Radiometric calibration of digital cameras using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Michael; Laube, Pascal; Schall, Martin; Umlauf, Georg; Franz, Matthias O.

    2017-08-01

    Digital cameras are used in a large variety of scientific and industrial applications. For most applications, the acquired data should represent the real light intensity per pixel as accurately as possible. However, digital cameras are subject to physical, electronic and optical effects that lead to errors and noise in the raw image. Temperature- dependent dark current, read noise, optical vignetting or different sensitivities of individual pixels are examples of such effects. The purpose of radiometric calibration is to improve the quality of the resulting images by reducing the influence of the various types of errors on the measured data and thus improving the quality of the overall application. In this context, we present a specialized neural network architecture for radiometric calibration of digital cameras. Neural networks are used to learn a temperature- and exposure-dependent mapping from observed gray-scale values to true light intensities for each pixel. In contrast to classical at-fielding, neural networks have the potential to model nonlinear mappings which allows for accurately capturing the temperature dependence of the dark current and for modeling cameras with nonlinear sensitivities. Both scenarios are highly relevant in industrial applications. The experimental comparison of our network approach to classical at-fielding shows a consistently higher reconstruction quality, also for linear cameras. In addition, the calibration is faster than previous machine learning approaches based on Gaussian processes.

  15. A COMPARISON OF LIDAR REFLECTANCE AND RADIOMETRICALLY CALIBRATED HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Roncat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to retrieve results comparable under different flight parameters and among different flight campaigns, passive remote sensing data such as hyperspectral imagery need to undergo a radiometric calibration. While this calibration, aiming at the derivation of physically meaningful surface attributes such as a reflectance value, is quite cumbersome for passively sensed data and relies on a number of external parameters, the situation is by far less complicated for active remote sensing techniques such as lidar. This fact motivates the investigation of the suitability of full-waveform lidar as a “single-wavelength reflectometer” to support radiometric calibration of hyperspectral imagery. In this paper, this suitability was investigated by means of an airborne hyperspectral imagery campaign and an airborne lidar campaign recorded over the same area. Criteria are given to assess diffuse reflectance behaviour; the distribution of reflectance derived by the two techniques were found comparable in four test areas where these criteria were met. This is a promising result especially in the context of current developments of multi-spectral lidar systems.

  16. Automated gamma spectrometry and data analysis on radiometric neutron dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, W.Y.

    1983-01-01

    An automated gamma-ray spectrometry system was designed and implemented by the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to analyze radiometric neutron dosimeters. Unattended, automatic, 24 hour/day, 7 day/week operation with online data analysis and mainframe-computer compatible magnetic tape output are system features. The system was used to analyze most of the 4000-plus radiometric monitors (RM's) from extensive reactor characterization tests during startup and initial operation of th Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The FFTF, operated by HEDL for the Department of Energy, incorporates a 400 MW(th) sodium-cooled fast reactor. Aumomated system hardware consists of a high purity germanium detector, a computerized multichannel analyzer data acquisition system (Nuclear Data, Inc. Model 6620) with two dual 2.5 Mbyte magnetic disk drives plus two 10.5 inch reel magnetic tape units for mass storage of programs/data and an automated Sample Changer-Positioner (ASC-P) run with a programmable controller. The ASC-P has a 200 sample capacity and 12 calibrated counting (analysis) positions ranging from 6 inches (15 cm) to more than 20 feet (6.1 m) from the detector. The system software was programmed in Fortran at HEDL, except for the Nuclear Data, Inc. Peak Search and Analysis Program and Disk Operating System (MIDAS+)

  17. Radiometric titration of thallium(III) with EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.R.S.; Pulla Rao, Ch.; Tataiah, G.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive solutions containing very small amounts of thallium(III) can be determined by radiometric titration using ammonia as hydrolysing agent. Aqueous solution of thallium(I) (both inactive and radioactive) is treated with bromine water till the appearance of the brown colour of bromine, and the solution is warmed to 80 deg C to expel the excess bromine. By this procedure all thallium(I) is quantitatively oxidised to thallium(III). An aqueous solution of ammonia is added to precipitate thallium(III) as thallic oxide. It is then filtered, washed with water to free it from bromide and then dissolved in 2N HCl and the solution is then standardised. 2 ml of this solution is transferred to a 20 ml volumetric flask, 1 ml of radioactive thallium(III) solution to be standardised is added as well as incremental amounts of EDTA solution and mixed thoroughly. Uncomplexed thallium(III) is then precipitated by the addition of an ammonia solution and diluted to 20 ml. Required amount of this mixture is centrifuged. The beta activity of the supernatant aliquot is measured using a GM counter. Quantitative determination of Tl(III) in the range of 1-10 μM can be carried out. The interference of cations such as Au(III), iron(III), Ga(III) can be eliminated by pretreatment of the Tl(III) solution before carrying out radiometric titration. The results obtained are reproducible and accurate to +-3%. (T.I.)

  18. Air Kerma above environmental radiometric calibration facility for field equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, C.C.; Sachett, I.A.; Bertelli, L.; Lopes, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The use of gamma ray spectrometers broadened the aims of gamma ray surveys, stead of measuring only the gross radiation, as was done with the GM tubes, it is now possible to be used for uranium exploration, geological mapping as an aid to the exploration of non radioactive ores like gold and tin, radiation background measurements to identify hot spots for radiation hazard evaluation and environmental monitoring of fallout from radiological and nuclear accidents. It became necessary to carefully and precisely calibrate the field equipment to be used to get all the information from such uses. There is an environmental radiometric calibration facility for field equipment, consisting of eight radioactive concrete sources, at the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry - IRD (CNEN/Brazil). These sources are cylindrical with 3 m diameter, 0.5 m thick and weigh about 7.5 tons each. The amount and type of the radioactive material, 238 U and 232 Th and 40 K ores in secular radioactive equilibrium, added to the concrete to simulate rock outcrops, varies in order to obtain different gamma fields, varying in both energy and intensity. These different radiation fields were measured with a HPGe portable detector, specifically calibrated for spectrum stripping, and the air kerma energy distribution was determined for each concrete source and compared with the total air kerma calculated from the nuclide concentration and by others radiometric methods. (author)

  19. Reduction of Radiometric Miscalibration—Applications to Pushbroom Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogaß, Christian; Spengler, Daniel; Bochow, Mathias; Segl, Karl; Lausch, Angela; Doktor, Daniel; Roessner, Sigrid; Behling, Robert; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Kaufmann, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of hyperspectral images is an important task in Remote Sensing. Foregoing radiometric calibration results in the assignment of incident electromagnetic radiation to digital numbers and reduces the striping caused by slightly different responses of the pixel detectors. However, due to uncertainties in the calibration some striping remains. This publication presents a new reduction framework that efficiently reduces linear and nonlinear miscalibrations by an image-driven, radiometric recalibration and rescaling. The proposed framework—Reduction Of Miscalibration Effects (ROME)—considering spectral and spatial probability distributions, is constrained by specific minimisation and maximisation principles and incorporates image processing techniques such as Minkowski metrics and convolution. To objectively evaluate the performance of the new approach, the technique was applied to a variety of commonly used image examples and to one simulated and miscalibrated EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) scene. Other examples consist of miscalibrated AISA/Eagle VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) and Hawk SWIR (Short Wave Infrared) scenes of rural areas of the region Fichtwald in Germany and Hyperion scenes of the Jalal-Abad district in Southern Kyrgyzstan. Recovery rates of approximately 97% for linear and approximately 94% for nonlinear miscalibrated data were achieved, clearly demonstrating the benefits of the new approach and its potential for broad applicability to miscalibrated pushbroom sensor data. PMID:22163960

  20. Development of instrumentation for airborne radiometric surveys in the Atomic Minerals Division: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreehari, R.

    1993-01-01

    A high-sensitivity airborne gamma-ray spectrometric and magnetic survey system, using Na(Tl) detector volume of 50,000 cc for 4π and 4195 cc for 2π geometry applications, was designed, developed, and fabricated in 1978 and was flown for airborne surveys in various parts of India for over a decade. A compact complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuit based high-sensitivity airborne gamma-ray spectrometric and magnetic survey system with high noise-immunity using Na(Tl) detector volume of 50,000 cc for 4π and 12,500 cc for 2π geometry applications was developed and interfaced to an Inertial Navigation System in 1988. The system currently in use was flown extensively for airborne surveys in various parts of India for the Atomic Minerals Division, Oil and Natural Gas Commission, and Nuclear Power Corporation. The design aspects of the present system have been discussed. A microprocessor based DDAS and multichannel analysers, having on-line micro terminal and on-line corrections for Compton scatter, and background radiation to obtain corrected analog profiles for the spectrometric data, are currently under development. The design aspects of these units are described and evaluated for future high-sensitivity airborne gamma-ray spectrometric surveys with Nal(Tl) detector volumes similar to those of the present system. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Portable instrument for acquisition and processing data from radiometric experiments performed in the field industrial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, P; Mirowicz, J.; Owczarczyk, A.; Pienkos, E.; Swistowski, E.; Machaj, B.

    2004-01-01

    To facilitate radiotracer investigations in field or industrial environment a battery operated FIR-1 Field Industrial Radiometer has been developed. The radiometer is equipped with 4 splash-proof NaI(Tl) operating in counting mode, 4 water-proof GM probes, 1 splash-proof spectrometric scintillation probe NaI(Tl) Φ50 x 50 mm equipped with 256 channel analyser. The detectors are connected to controller by means of 4 water-proof connecting cables 100 m long, or 4 splash-proof connecting cables 100 m long. Pulses originating from gamma radiation are periodically counted and stored in non-volatile memory. The measured count rate against time is displayed on graphic display. Radiation spectra measured with spectrometric probe are also stored in the memory and are displayed on graphic display. Total count number in selected range of energy of the spectrum can be computed. Stored in memory measuring data are transmitted to an external computer employing serial port RS232. (author)

  2. Radiometric titration of diethanolamine with 65ZnSO4 and determination of mono and diethanolamines in a mixture by a radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadan, R.; Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiometric titration of diethanolamine with 65 ZnSO 4 is reported. Determination of individual amounts of mono- and diethanolamines in a mixture is described. The procedure is simple, rapid and accurate. (author)

  3. Radiometric titration of diethanolamine with /sup 65/ZnSO/sub 4/ and determination of mono and diethanolamines in a mixture by a radiometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadan, R.; Sriman Narayanan, S.; Rao, V.R.S. (Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras. Dept. of Chemistry)

    1984-08-16

    Radiometric titration of diethanolamine with /sup 65/ZnSO/sub 4/ is reported. Determination of individual amounts of mono- and diethanolamines in a mixture is described. The procedure is simple, rapid and accurate.

  4. Characterization of the Sonoran desert as a radiometric calibration target for Earth observing sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Chander, Gyanesh; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Wu, Aisheng

    2011-01-01

    To provide highly accurate quantitative measurements of the Earth's surface, a comprehensive calibration and validation of the satellite sensors is required. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Characterization Support Team, in collaboration with United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, has previously demonstrated the use of African desert sites to monitor the long-term calibration stability of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). The current study focuses on evaluating the suitability of the Sonoran Desert test site for post-launch long-term radiometric calibration as well as cross-calibration purposes. Due to the lack of historical and on-going in situ ground measurements, the Sonoran Desert is not usually used for absolute calibration. An in-depth evaluation (spatial, temporal, and spectral stability) of this site using well calibrated L7 ETM+ measurements and local climatology data has been performed. The Sonoran Desert site produced spatial variability of about 3 to 5% in the reflective solar regions, and the temporal variations of the site after correction for view-geometry impacts were generally around 3%. The results demonstrate that, barring the impacts due to occasional precipitation, the Sonoran Desert site can be effectively used for cross-calibration and long-term stability monitoring of satellite sensors, thus, providing a good test site in the western hemisphere.

  5. Radiometric ratio characterization for low-to-mid CPV modules operating in variable irradiance conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan; Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Kostuk, Raymond

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) design methodology is proposed which aims to maximize system efficiency for a given irradiance condition. In this technique, the acceptance angle of the system is radiometrically matched to the angular spread of the site's average irradiance conditions using a simple geometric ratio. The optical efficiency of CPV systems from flat-plate to high-concentration is plotted at all irradiance conditions. Concentrator systems are measured outdoors in various irradiance conditions to test the methodology. This modeling technique is valuable at the design stage to determine the ideal level of concentration for a CPV module. It requires only two inputs: the acceptance angle profile of the system and the site's average direct and diffuse irradiance fractions. Acceptance angle can be determined by raytracing or testing a fabricated prototype in the lab with a solar simulator. The average irradiance conditions can be found in the Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) database. Additionally, the information gained from this technique can be used to determine tracking tolerance, quantify power loss during an isolated weather event, and do more sophisticated analysis such as I-V curve simulation.

  6. Paleomagnetic, paleontologic and radiometric study of the Uquia Formation (Plio-Pleistocene) in Esquina Blanca (Jujuy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, Ana M.; Orgeira, Maria J.; Vilas, Juan F.A.; Kelley, Shari; Jordan, Teresa

    1998-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Uquia Formation has been performed. The results of the paleontologic, paleomagnetic, radiometric and stratigraphic analyses suggest that the superior levels of the formation are equivalent to the 'Marplatense Superior', while the basic ones should be considered older. Radiometric ages have been determined by fission tracks in zircons

  7. Radiometric mass flow probes for belt weighers - the state of the art and possibilities of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, M.

    1986-01-01

    The setup of radiometric belt weighers is described in principle and compared with conventional ones. Fields of application are mentioned and a list is given of equipment comercially available. The comparison shows that the radiometric systems are advantageous in general, but in special cases (measuring error lower than 1%, chemical composition varies several 10%) gravimetric systems are indispensable

  8. Overview of intercalibration of satellite instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Hewison, T.J.; Fox, N.; Wu, X.; Xiong, X.; Blackwell, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Inter-calibration of satellite instruments is critical for detection and quantification of changes in the Earth’s environment, weather forecasting, understanding climate processes, and monitoring climate and land cover change. These applications use data from many satellites; for the data to be inter-operable, the instruments must be cross-calibrated. To meet the stringent needs of such applications requires that instruments provide reliable, accurate, and consistent measurements over time. Robust techniques are required to ensure that observations from different instruments can be normalized to a common scale that the community agrees on. The long-term reliability of this process needs to be sustained in accordance with established reference standards and best practices. Furthermore, establishing physical meaning to the information through robust Système International d'unités (SI) traceable Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) is essential to fully understand the parameters under observation. The processes of calibration, correction, stability monitoring, and quality assurance need to be underpinned and evidenced by comparison with “peer instruments” and, ideally, highly calibrated in-orbit reference instruments. Inter-calibration between instruments is a central pillar of the Cal/Val strategies of many national and international satellite remote sensing organizations. Inter-calibration techniques as outlined in this paper not only provide a practical means of identifying and correcting relative biases in radiometric calibration between instruments but also enable potential data gaps between measurement records in a critical time series to be bridged. Use of a robust set of internationally agreed upon and coordinated inter-calibration techniques will lead to significant improvement in the consistency between satellite instruments and facilitate accurate monitoring of the Earth’s climate at uncertainty levels needed to detect and attribute the mechanisms

  9. Level 0 to 1 processing of the imaging Fourier transform spectrometer GLORIA: generation of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kleinert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA is an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer that is capable of operating on various high-altitude research aircraft. It measures the atmospheric emission in the thermal infrared spectral region in limb and nadir geometry. GLORIA consists of a classical Michelson interferometer combined with an infrared camera. The infrared detector has a usable area of 128 × 128 pixels, measuring up to 16 384 interferograms simultaneously. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometers impose a number of challenges with respect to instrument calibration and algorithm development. The optical setup with extremely high optical throughput requires the development of new methods and algorithms for spectral and radiometric calibration. Due to the vast amount of data there is a high demand for scientifically intelligent optimisation of the data processing. This paper outlines the characterisation and processing steps required for the generation of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated spectra. Methods for performance optimisation of the processing algorithm are presented. The performance of the data processing and the quality of the calibrated spectra are demonstrated for measurements collected during the first deployments of GLORIA on aircraft.

  10. Map of natural gamma radiation in Spain: radiometric characterization of different types of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Mahou, E.; Fernandez Amigot, J.A.; Botas Medina, J.

    1997-01-01

    The gamma radioactivity flowing from ground and rocks is due to the presence in these of uranium, thorium and potassium-40. The method of radiometric characterization depends on the purpose of the undertaking. Radiometric characterization can be realized on big surfaces (tens or hundreds of square kilometres studied on a national scale), medium size surfaces (50 to 1000 square kilometres, for example, in epidemiological or biological studies in areas with a determined radiometric background) small surfaces of less than 50 square kilometres (industrial sites, pre-operational studies, etc.). This article considers aspects of radiometric characterization on surfaces of interest and describes the contribution of the MARNA (Natural Provisional Radiation Map of Spain) Project selection and radiometric characterization

  11. Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable Wide-Band on Board Calibration Source for In-Flight Data Validation in Imaging Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, J. B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Kroll, Linley A.; Nolte, Scott H.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the quantitative spectral data collected by an imaging spectrometer instrument is critically dependent upon the accuracy of the spectral and radiometric calibration of the system. In order for the collected spectra to be scientifically useful, the calibration of the instrument must be precisely known not only prior to but during data collection. Thus, in addition to a rigorous in-lab calibration procedure, the airborne instruments designed and built by the NASA/JPL Imaging Spectroscopy Group incorporate an on board calibrator (OBC) system with the instrument to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The output of the OBC source illuminates a target panel on the backside of the foreoptics shutter both before and after data collection. The OBC and in-lab calibration data sets are then used to validate and post-process the collected spectral image data. The resulting accuracy of the spectrometer output data is therefore integrally dependent upon the stability of the OBC source. In this paper we describe the design and application of the latest iteration of this novel device developed at NASA/JPL which integrates a halogen-cycle source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system and a fiber-based intensity monitoring feedback loop. The OBC source in this Airborne Testbed Spectrometer was run over a period of 15 hours while both the radiometric and spectral stabilities of the output were measured and demonstrated stability to within 1% of nominal.

  12. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar continuous operation. More than 75 instruments contribute to the Baseline Measurement System by recording

  13. Solar diffusers in Earth observation instruments with an illumination angle of up to 70°: design and verification of performance in BRDF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gür, B.; Bol, H.; Xu, P.; Li, B.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the challenging diffuser design and verification activities of TNO under contract of a customer for an earth observation instrument with observation conditions that require feasible BRDF under large angles of incidence of up to 70° with respect to the surface normal. Not

  14. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  15. Method for radiometric calibration of an endoscope's camera and light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Lav; Higgins, William E.

    2008-03-01

    An endoscope is a commonly used instrument for performing minimally invasive visual examination of the tissues inside the body. A physician uses the endoscopic video images to identify tissue abnormalities. The images, however, are highly dependent on the optical properties of the endoscope and its orientation and location with respect to the tissue structure. The analysis of endoscopic video images is, therefore, purely subjective. Studies suggest that the fusion of endoscopic video images (providing color and texture information) with virtual endoscopic views (providing structural information) can be useful for assessing various pathologies for several applications: (1) surgical simulation, training, and pedagogy; (2) the creation of a database for pathologies; and (3) the building of patient-specific models. Such fusion requires both geometric and radiometric alignment of endoscopic video images in the texture space. Inconsistent estimates of texture/color of the tissue surface result in seams when multiple endoscopic video images are combined together. This paper (1) identifies the endoscope-dependent variables to be calibrated for objective and consistent estimation of surface texture/color and (2) presents an integrated set of methods to measure them. Results show that the calibration method can be successfully used to estimate objective color/texture values for simple planar scenes, whereas uncalibrated endoscopes performed very poorly for the same tests.

  16. Retrieval of effective cloud field parameters from radiometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulescu, Marius; Badescu, Viorel; Brabec, Marek

    2017-06-01

    Clouds play a key role in establishing the Earth's climate. Real cloud fields are very different and very complex in both morphological and microphysical senses. Consequently, the numerical description of the cloud field is a critical task for accurate climate modeling. This study explores the feasibility of retrieving the effective cloud field parameters (namely the cloud aspect ratio and cloud factor) from systematic radiometric measurements at high frequency (measurement is taken every 15 s). Two different procedures are proposed, evaluated, and discussed with respect to both physical and numerical restrictions. None of the procedures is classified as best; therefore, the specific advantages and weaknesses are discussed. It is shown that the relationship between the cloud shade and point cloudiness computed using the estimated cloud field parameters recovers the typical relationship derived from measurements.

  17. Regional radiometric map of Syria, using gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.; Nasser, R.

    2005-01-01

    The regional radiometric gamma-ray spectrometry map of Syria, scaled 1/1000000, for surficial concentration of the total radioactivity (Ur), eU, eTh and %K was completely achieved after normalizing the airborne and carbon data sets to match each other. It worthy notice that, the anomalies found to be closely related to either phosphate and/or glauconite deposits. It is worth mentioning that throughout the survey work many scattered occurrences of secondary uranium mineralization were found as spots in some formations and phosphate rocks. Where this phenomena attributes to chemical and physical disseminating instead of accumulating the radioelements. So, that leads to a weak expectation for usual surface uranium deposits where attributed to the oxidizing condition. Then this expectation remains, as an open question requires answering through planning to subsurface prospecting. (Author)

  18. Mixing geometric and radiometric features for change classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Alexandre; Descombes, Xavier; Zerubia, Josiane

    2008-02-01

    Most basic change detection algorithms use a pixel-based approach. Whereas such approach is quite well defined for monitoring important area changes (such as urban growth monitoring) in low resolution images, an object based approach seems more relevant when the change detection is specifically aimed toward targets (such as small buildings and vehicles). In this paper, we present an approach that mixes radiometric and geometric features to qualify the changed zones. The goal is to establish bounds (appearance, disappearance, substitution ...) between the detected changes and the underlying objects. We proceed by first clustering the change map (containing each pixel bitemporal radiosity) in different classes using the entropy-kmeans algorithm. Assuming that most man-made objects have a polygonal shape, a polygonal approximation algorithm is then used in order to characterize the resulting zone shapes. Hence allowing us to refine the primary rough classification, by integrating the polygon orientations in the state space. Tests are currently conducted on Quickbird data.

  19. Analysis of the radiometric survey during the Argonauta reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Eara de S.L.; Cardozo, Katia K.M.; Silva, Joao Carlos P.; Santos, Joao Regis dos

    2013-01-01

    The Argonaut reactor at the Institute of Nuclear Engineering-IEN/CNEN, operates normally, the powers between 1.7 and 340 W on neutrongraphy procedures, production of radionuclides and experimental reactor physics lessons to postgraduate courses. The doses from neutrons and gamma radiation are measured when the reactor is critical, inside the reactor hall and surrounding regions. A study of the data obtained was performed to evaluate the daily need of this survey in the reactor hall. Taking into account the principle ALARA, which aims to optimize and minimize the dose received by the individual, we propose, in this work, through an analysis of the acquired data in occupational radiometric surveys, a reformulation of the area monitoring routine practiced by the team of radiological protection of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering - IEN/CNEN-RJ, whereas other monitoring routines regarding the radiological protection are also applied in the routine of the reactor. The operations under review occurred with the reactor operating 340 W power at intervals of 60, 120 and 180 minutes, in monitoring points in controlled areas, supervised and free. The results showed significant dose values in the output of the J-Channel 9 when the operation occurs with this open. With 180 minutes of operation, the measured values of dose rate were lower than the values at 60 min and 120 operations min. At the point in the supervised area, offsite to the reactor hall, situated in the direction of the J-Channel 9, the value reduces more than 14% in any operating time in relation to the dose rate measured at the point opposite the canal. There is a 50% reduction in the dose rates for operations with and J-9 closed. The results suggest a new frequency of radiometric survey whose mode of operation is maintained in similar conditions, since combined with other relevant practices of radiation protection

  20. Accelerator physics and radiometric properties of superconducting wavelength shifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Subject of this thesis is the operation of wave-length shifters at electron storage rings and their use in radiometry. The basic aspects of the radiometry, the technical requirements, the influence of wave-length shifters on the storage ring, and results of first measurements are presented for a device installed at BESSY. Most of the calculations are carried out by the program WAVE, which has been developed within this thesis. WAVE allows to calculate the synchrotron radiation spectra of wavelength shifters within an relative uncertainty of 1/100000. The properties of wave-length shifters in terms of accelerator physics as well as a generating function for symplectic tracking calculations can also be calculated by WAVE. The later was implemented in the tracking code BETA to investigate the influence of insertion devices on the dynamic aperture and emittance of the storage ring. These studies led to the concept of alternating low- and high-beta-sections at BESSY-II, which allow to operate superconducting insertion devices without a significant distortion of the magnetic optics. To investigate the experimental aspects of the radiometry at wave-length shifters, a program based on the Monte-Carlo-code GEANT4 has been developed. It allows to simulate the radiometrical measurements and the absorption properties of detectors. With the developed codes first radiometrical measurements by the PTB have been analysed. A comparison of measurements and calculations show a reasonable agreement with deviations of about five percent in the spectral range of 40-60 keV behind a 1-mm-Cu filter. A better agreement was found between 20 keV and 80 keV without Cu filter. In this case the measured data agreed within a systematic uncertainty of two percent with the results of the calculations. (orig.)

  1. Statistical survey of type III radio bursts at long wavelengths observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)/Waves instruments: radio flux density variations with frequency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kontar, E. P.; Cecconi, B.; Hoang, S.; Krupařová, Oksana; Souček, Jan; Reid, H.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 8 (2014), s. 3121-3135 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394; GA ČR GP13-37174P; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar radio emissions * plasma radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11207-014-0522-x

  2. Statistical survey of type III radio bursts at long wavelengths observed by the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO)/Waves instruments: goniopolarimetric properties and radio source locations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Maksimovic, M.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cecconi, B.; Krupařová, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 289, č. 12 (2014), s. 4633-4652 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-37174P; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : plasma radiation * solar radio emissions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.039, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11207-014-0601-z

  3. RapidEye constellation relative radiometric accuracy measurement using lunar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, Joe; Tyc, George; Beckett, Keith; Hashida, Yoshi

    2009-09-01

    The RapidEye constellation includes five identical satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Each satellite has a 5-band (blue, green, red, red-edge and near infrared (NIR)) multispectral imager at 6.5m GSD. A three-axes attitude control system allows pointing the imager of each satellite at the Moon during lunations. It is therefore possible to image the Moon from near identical viewing geometry within a span of 80 minutes with each one of the imagers. Comparing the radiometrically corrected images obtained from each band and each satellite allows a near instantaneous relative radiometric accuracy measurement and determination of relative gain changes between the five imagers. A more traditional terrestrial vicarious radiometric calibration program has also been completed by MDA on RapidEye. The two components of this program provide for spatial radiometric calibration ensuring that detector-to-detector response remains flat, while a temporal radiometric calibration approach has accumulated images of specific dry dessert calibration sites. These images are used to measure the constellation relative radiometric response and make on-ground gain and offset adjustments in order to maintain the relative accuracy of the constellation within +/-2.5%. A quantitative comparison between the gain changes measured by the lunar method and the terrestrial temporal radiometric calibration method is performed and will be presented.

  4. Radiometric studies on the oxidation of (I-14C) fatty acids by drug-susceptible and drug-resistant mycobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Kopajtic, T.M.; Hopkins, G.K.; Cannon, N.P.; Wagner Junior, H.N.

    1987-01-01

    A radiometric assay system has been used to study oxidation patterns of (l - 14 C) fatty acids by drug-susceptible and drug-resistant organisms of the genus Mycobacterium (M. tuberculosis - H 37 Rv and Erdman, M. bovis, M. avium, M. intracellulare, M.Kansasii and M. chelonei). The organisms were inoculated in sterile reaction vials containing liquid 7H9 medium, 10% ADC enrichment and 1.0 uli of one of the (l- 14 C) fatty acids (butyric, hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic). Vials were incubated at 37 0 C and the 14 CO 2 envolved was measured daily for 3 days with a Bactec R-301 instrument. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. The use of radiometric ore sorting on South African gold mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.C.; Freer, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper refers to the radiometric sorting tests reported during the 7th CMMI Congress, and then describes the photometric and radiometric sorter installations in operation and under construction in South Africa at present. As radiometric sorting of gold ores uses the radiation from the uranium content as a tracer, it is essential that the sortability of the ore should be reliably determined before sorting is adopted. The method of obtaining the important ore characteristics is described, with examples. The possible increase in gold production from a hypothetical plant as a result of sorting is shown

  6. Evidence of cracks in austenitic pipe weldings with a radiometric inspection system; Nachweis von Rissen in austenitischen Rohrleitungsnaehten mit einem radiometrischen Pruefsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.J.; Wuensch, W. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    1999-08-01

    The paper reports the development of a radiometric prototype device and its application to inspection of austenitic weldings with intercrystalline crack defects. The device initially was intended to be used for supplemental inspection for clarification of contradictory or unclear testing results, but the results obtained justify to consider the possibility of using it as an independent, full-scope testing instrument. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Berichtet wird ueber die Entwicklung eines Prototypes eines Radiometrie-Geraetes zur Pruefung von austenitischen Schweissnaehten mit interkristalliner Rissbildung, zunaechst als Entscheidungshilfe bei unklaren bzw. sich widersprechenden Pruefresultaten. Zwischenzeitlich wird auch daran gedacht, ein solches Geraet fuer eine vollstaendige Pruefung weiter zu entwickeln. (orig./DGE)

  7. Solar Probe Cup: Laboratory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, M. L.; Larson, D. E.; Wright, K. H., Jr.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whittlesey, P. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Solar Probe Cup (SPC) is a Faraday Cup instrument that will fly on the Paker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft, orbiting the Sun at as close as 9.86 solar radii. The SPC instrument is designed to measure the thermal solar wind plasma (protons, alphas, and electrons) that will be encountered throughout its close encounter with the Sun. Due to the solar wind flow being primarily radial, the SPC instrument is pointed directly at the Sun, resulting in an extreme thermal environment that must be tolerated throughout the primary data collection phase. Laboratory testing has been performed over the past 6 months to demonstrate the instrument's performance relative to its requirements, and to characterize the measurements over the expected thermal range. This presentation will demonstrate the performance of the instrument as measured in the lab, describe the operational configurations planned for flight, and discuss the data products that will be created.

  8. Radiometric Cross-Calibration of the Chilean Satellite FASat-C Using RapidEye and EO-1 Hyperion Data and a Simultaneous Nadir Overpass Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Barrientos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The absolute radiometric calibration of a satellite sensor is the critical factor that ensures the usefulness of the acquired data for quantitative applications on remote sensing. This work presents the results of the first cross-calibration of the sensor on board the Sistema Satelital de Observación de la Tierra (SSOT Chilean satellite or Air Force Satellite FASat-C. RapidEye-MSI was chosen as the reference sensor, and a simultaneous Nadir Overpass Approach (SNO was applied. The biases caused by differences in the spectral responses of both instruments were compensated through an adjustment factor derived from EO-1 Hyperion data. Through this method, the variations affecting the radiometric response of New AstroSat Optical Modular Instrument (NAOMI-1, have been corrected based on collections over the Frenchman Flat calibration site. The results of a preliminary evaluation of the pre-flight and updated coefficients have shown a significant improvement in the accuracy of at-sensor radiances and TOA reflectances: an average agreement of 2.63% (RMSE was achieved for the multispectral bands of both instruments. This research will provide a basis for the continuity of calibration and validation tasks of future Chilean space missions.

  9. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  10. Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Victor R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Infrared Sky Imager (IRSI) deployed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is a Solmirus Corp. All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer. The IRSI is an automatic, continuously operating, digital imaging and software system designed to capture hemispheric sky images and provide time series retrievals of fractional sky cover during both the day and night. The instrument provides diurnal, radiometrically calibrated sky imagery in the mid-infrared atmospheric window and imagery in the visible wavelengths for cloud retrievals during daylight hours. The software automatically identifies cloudy and clear regions at user-defined intervals and calculates fractional sky cover, providing a real-time display of sky conditions.

  11. Well logging instrumental and methodological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrassy, L.; Barath, I.; Dorko, R.

    1983-01-01

    This part of the Annual Report of the Roland Eoetvoes Geophysical Institute (ELGI) of Hungary for 1982, summarizes the well logging instrumental and methodological researches of ELGI. The theoretical neutron diffusion fluxes for black and brown coals of Hungarian mines were calculated. A coal probe was developed and tested in boreholes using computerized data processing and interpretation. An X-ray radiometric method was used for the determination of Cu and Fe contents of minerals. Researches in the field of magnetic susceptibility and induced polarization logging are also summarized. A rapid analyzer for bauxite mining and a photorecorder for petroleum industry were developed by ELGI. (D.Gy.)

  12. Atomic Layer Deposition Re Ective Coatings For Future Astronomical Space Telescopes And The Solar Corona Viewed Through The Minxss (Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer) Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel

    2017-11-01

    Advances in technology and instrumentation open new windows for observing astrophysical objects. The first half of my dissertation involves the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings to create high reflectivity UV mirrors for future satellite astronomical telescopes. Aluminum (Al) has intrinsic reflectance greater than 80% from 90 – 2,000 nm, but develops a native aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layer upon exposure to air that readily absorbs light below 250 nm. Thus, Al based UV mirrors must be protected by a transmissive overcoat. Traditionally, metal-fluoride overcoats such as MgF2 and LiF are used to mitigate oxidation but with caveats. We utilize a new metal fluoride (AlF3) to protect Al mirrors deposited by ALD. ALD allows for precise thickness control, conformal and near stoichiometric thin films. We prove that depositing ultra-thin ( 3 nm) ALD ALF3 to protect Al mirrors after removing the native oxide layer via atomic layer etching (ALE) enhances the reflectance near 90 nm from 5% to 30%.X-ray detector technology with high readout rates are necessary for the relatively bright Sun, particularly during large flares. The hot plasma in the solar corona generates X-rays, which yield information on the physical conditions of the plasma. The second half of my dissertation includes detector testing, characterization and solar science with the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats. The MinXSS CubeSats employ Silicon Drift Diode (SDD) detectors called X123, which generate full sun spectrally resolved ( 0.15 FWHM at 5.9 keV) measurements of the sparsely measured, 0.5 – 12 keV range. The absolute radiometric calibration of the MinXSS instrument suite was performed at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) and spectral resolution determined from radioactive sources. I used MinXSS along with data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Reuven Ramaty

  13. Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of Radiometric Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.; Andreas, A.; Konings, J.

    2014-11-01

    Evaluating the performance of photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays that form large solar deployments relies on accurate measurements of the available solar resource. Therefore, determining the accuracy of these solar radiation measurements provides a better understanding of investment risks. This paper provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements by radiometers using methods that follow the International Bureau of Weights and Measures Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty (GUM). Standardized analysis based on these procedures ensures that the uncertainty quoted is well documented.

  14. Signal noise ratio analysis and on-orbit performance estimation of a solar occultation Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bicen; Xu, Pengmei; Hou, Lizhou; Wang, Caiqin

    2017-10-01

    Taking the advantages of high spectral resolution, high sensitivity and wide spectral coverage, space borne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTS) plays more and more important role in atmospheric composition sounding. The combination of solar occultation and FTS technique improves the sensitivity of instrument. To achieve both high spectral resolution and high signal to noise ratio (SNR), reasonable allocation and optimization for instrument parameters are the foundation and difficulty. The solar occultation FTS (SOFTS) is a high spectral resolution (0.03 cm-1) FTS operating from 2.4 to 13.3 μm (750-4100cm-1), which will determine the altitude profile information of typical 10-100km for temperature, pressure, and the volume mixing ratios for several dozens of atmospheric compositions. As key performance of SOFTS, SNR is crucially important to high accuracy retrieval of atmospheric composition, which is required to be no less than 100:1 at the radiance of 5800K blackbody. Based on the study of various parameters and its interacting principle, according to interference theory and operation principle of time modulated FTS, a simulation model of FTS SNR has been built, which considers satellite orbit, spectral radiometric features of sun and atmospheric composition, optical system, interferometer and its control system, measurement duration, detector sensitivity, noise of detector and electronic system and so on. According to the testing results of SNR at the illuminating of 1000 blackbody, the on-orbit SNR performance of SOFTS is estimated, which can meet the mission requirement.

  15. Signature modelling and radiometric rendering equations in infrared scene simulation systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The development and optimisation of modern infrared systems necessitates the use of simulation systems to create radiometrically realistic representations (e.g. images) of infrared scenes. Such simulation systems are used in signature prediction...

  16. Radiometric-microbiologic assay fo vitamin B-6: analysis of plasma samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for the analysis of vitamin B-6 in plasma was developed. The method is based on the measurement of 14CO2 generated from the metabolism of DL-l-14C-valine (L-l-14C-valine) by Kloeckera brevis. The assay is specific for the biologically active forms of the vitamin, that is, pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine, and their respective phosphorylated forms. The biologically inert vitamin B-6 metabolite (4-pyridoxic acid) did not generate a response at concentrations tested. The radiometric technique was shown to be sensitive to the 1 nanogram level. Reproducibility and recovery studies gave good results. Fifteen plasma samples were assayed using the radiometric and turbidimetric techniques. The correlation coefficient was r . 0.98. Turbid material or precipitated debris did not interfere with the radiometric microbiologic assay, thus allowing for simplification of assay procedure

  17. MER 1 MARS NAVCAM 3 RADIOMETRIC RDR SCI V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains radiometrically calibrated MER-1 Navcam data. The calibration has removed bias, dark current, and flatfield effects from the raw Navcam data,...

  18. Microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase comparison of the direct, indirect and radiometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, M.S.; Murray, M.; Wilkinson, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The direct fluorometric assay of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxlyase has been compared to the more commonly used indirect fluorometric and radiometric assays. Although rat hepatic microsomal activities measured by the direct assay were consistently higher than those obtained by the other assays, the relative changes in activity following enzyme induction and/or inhibition were similar. The direct assay provides an accurate and rapid measure of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity and avoids several problems inherent in the indirect and radiometric assays. 2 tables

  19. Radiometric and signal-to-noise ratio properties of multiplex dispersive spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Recent theoretical investigations have shown important radiometric disadvantages of interferential multiplexing in Fourier transform spectrometry that apparently can be applied even to coded aperture spectrometers. We have reexamined the methods of noninterferential multiplexing in order to assess their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance, relying on a theoretical modeling of the multiplexed signals. We are able to show that quite similar SNR and radiometric disadvantages affect multiplex dispersive spectrometry. The effect of noise on spectral estimations is discussed.

  20. The perspectives of development of radiometric techniques for welded joints testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, V.A.; Dovzhenko, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The perspectives of development of radiometric techniques in non-destructive testing are presented. The problems of computer tomography, radiometric introscopy, electrorentgenography (xeroradiography) are reviewed. The aspects of application of low-silver detectors are also analysed. The studies on the problems mentioned above will be continued in order to eliminate expensive radiographic films and having in mind making the testing process faster. The design of individual dosemeters is also demonstrated. (author)

  1. Radiometric determination of monoethanolamine with /sup 65/ZnSo/sub 4/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadan, R; Sriman Narayanan, S; Rao, V R.S. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay. Dept. of Chemistry

    1984-05-07

    Determination of milligram amounts of monoethanolamine (MEA) with zinc(II) by radiometric titration is described. When MEA is added to a zinc(II) solution containing sulphate ions at 25 degC, a white solid complex is formed. The formation of this complex is employed for the radiometric determination of MEA with /sup 65/Zn. The amount of MEA is directly proportional to the activity of the complex formed. The method is simple, rapid and accurate. 8 refs.

  2. Determination of reliability of express forecasting evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of non-ferrous ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirpishchikov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Use of the data of nuclear physical methods of sampling and logging enables to improve reliability of evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of ores, as well as to evaluate quantitatively this reliability. This problem may be solved by using some concepts of geostatistics. The presented results enable to conclude, that the data of nuclear-physical methods of sampling and logging can provide high reliability of evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of non-ferrous ores and their geometrization by technological types

  3. SORCE: Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Robert; Rottman, Gary; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Contents include the following: Understanding the Sun's influence on the Earth; How the Sun affect Earth's climate; By how much does the Sun's radiation very; Understanding Solar irradiance; History of Solar irradiance observations; The SORCE mission; How do the SORCE instruments measure solar radiation; Total irradiance monitor (TIM); Spectral irradiance monitor (SIM); Solar stellar irradiance comparison experiment (SOLSTICE); XUV photometer system (XPS).

  4. Empirical Radiometric Normalization of Road Points from Terrestrial Mobile Lidar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tee-Ann Teo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lidar data provide both geometric and radiometric information. Radiometric information is influenced by sensor and target factors and should be calibrated to obtain consistent energy responses. The radiometric correction of airborne lidar system (ALS converts the amplitude into a backscatter cross-section with physical meaning value by applying a model-driven approach. The radiometric correction of terrestrial mobile lidar system (MLS is a challenging task because it does not completely follow the inverse square range function at near-range. This study proposed a radiometric normalization workflow for MLS using a data-driven approach. The scope of this study is to normalize amplitude of road points for road surface classification, assuming that road points from different scanners or strips should have similar responses in overlapped areas. The normalization parameters for range effect were obtained from crossroads. The experiment showed that the amplitude difference between scanners and strips decreased after radiometric normalization and improved the accuracy of road surface classification.

  5. Evaluation of relative radiometric correction techniques on Landsat 8 OLI sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Antonio; Caradonna, Grazia; Tarantino, Eufemia

    2016-08-01

    The quality of information derived from processed remotely sensed data may depend upon many factors, mostly related to the extent data acquisition is influenced by atmospheric conditions, topographic effects, sun angle and so on. The goal of radiometric corrections is to reduce such effects in order enhance the performance of change detection analysis. There are two approaches to radiometric correction: absolute and relative calibrations. Due to the large amount of free data products available, absolute radiometric calibration techniques may be time consuming and financially expensive because of the necessary inputs for absolute calibration models (often these data are not available and can be difficult to obtain). The relative approach to radiometric correction, known as relative radiometric normalization, is preferred with some research topics because no in situ ancillary data, at the time of satellite overpasses, are required. In this study we evaluated three well known relative radiometric correction techniques using two Landsat 8 - OLI scenes over a subset area of the Apulia Region (southern Italy): the IR-MAD (Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection), the HM (Histogram Matching) and the DOS (Dark Object Subtraction). IR-MAD results were statistically assessed within a territory with an extremely heterogeneous landscape and all computations performed in a Matlab environment. The panchromatic and thermal bands were excluded from the comparisons.

  6. Solar and interplanetary disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Alurkar, S K

    1997-01-01

    Over the last three decades, a spate of solar wind observations have been made with sophisticated ground-based and space-borne instruments. Two highly successful space missions of the Skylab and the twin spacecraft Helios 1 and 2 have amassed an invaluable wealth of information on the large scale structure of the inner heliosphere, the solar and interplanetary magnetic field, coronal holes, interplanetary dust, solar windflows, etc.Solar and interplanetary propagating phenomena have been extensively studied during the last two decades. Very recently, a new simple model based on results from a

  7. Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 μm. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 μm, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following

  8. Radiometric analyses of floodplain sediments at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower, M.W.

    1987-09-01

    A Comprehensive Cooling Water Study to assess the effects of reactor cooling water discharges and related reactor area liquid releases to onsite streams and the nearby Savannah River has been completed at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP). Extensive radiometric analyses of man-made and naturally occurring gamma-emitting radionuclides were measured in floodplain sediment cores extracted from onsite surface streams at SRP and from the Savannah River. Gamma spectrometric analyses indicate that reactor operations contribute to floodplain radioactivity levels slightly higher than levels associated with global fallout. In locations historically unaffected by radioactive releases from SRP operations, Cs-137 concentrations were found at background and fallout levels of about 1 pCi/g. In onsite streams that provided a receptor for liquid radioactive releases from production reactor areas, volume-weighted Cs-137 concentrations ranged by core from background levels to 55 pCi/g. Savannah River sediments contained background and atmospheric fallout levels of Cs-137 only. 2 refs., 5 figs

  9. A precise, efficient radiometric assay for bacterial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    The two-compartment radiometric assay for bacterial growth promised major advantages over systems in clinical use, but poor reproducibility and counting efficiency limited its application. In this method, 14-CO/sub 2/ produced by bacterial metabolism of C-14-glucose is trapped and counted on filter paper impregnated with NaOH and fluors. The authors sought to improve assay efficiency and precision through a systematic study of relevant physical and chemical factors. Improvements in efficiency (88% vs. 10%) and in precision (relative S.D. 5% vs. 40%) were produced by a) reversing growth medium and scintillator chambers to permit vigorous agitation, b) increasing NaOH quantity and using a supersaturated PPO solution and c) adding detergent to improve uniformity of NaOH-PPO mixture. Inoculum size, substrate concentration and O/sub 2/ transfer rate affected assay sensitivity but not bacterial growth rate. The authors' assay reliably detects bacterial growth for inocula of 10,000 organisms in 1 hour and for 25 organisms within 4 1/2 hours, thus surpassing other existing clinical and research methods

  10. Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

  11. Iodine sorption of bentonite - radiometric and polarographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konirova, R.; Vinsova, H.; Koudelkova, M.; Ernestova, M.; Jedinakova-Krizova, V.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments focused on kinetics of iodine retardation on bentonite, influence of aqueous phase pH, buffering properties of bentonite, etc. were carried out by batch method. Distribution coefficient KD was the criterion applied for evaluation of iodine interaction with solid phase. High sorption potential of bentonite to cationic forms of various radionuclides, resulting from relatively high cation exchange capacity, is generally known. On the other hand the inorganic anions are not adsorbed strongly to mineral surface of clays thus uptake of iodine (occurring mainly at iodide (I - ) or iodate (IO 3 - ) form under oxoic conditions) is limited. The distribution coefficients of iodine anions' sorption on bentonite R reach order of magnitude 10 -1 mL/g. In order to increase the sorption capacity of the solid phase, several additives were added to bentonite. Most of them didn't provide satisfactory results except of the addition of activated carbon, which has high surface area. Electromigration and polarographic methods were used for investigation of the redox state of iodine in aqueous phase and determination of KD values as well. Acquired results were compared with data obtained by radiometric measurements. (authors)

  12. Study and characterization of porous germanium for radiometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkari, E.; Benachour, Z.; Touayar, O.; Benbrahim, J. [Activites de Recherche, Metrologie des Rayonnements, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie, INSAT, Tunis (Tunisia); Aouida, S.; Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Nanomateriaux et des Systemes de l' Energie, LaNSE, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, CRTEn, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2009-07-15

    The aim of this article is to study and realize a new detector based on a porous germanium (pGe) photodiode to be used as a standard for radiometric measurement in the wavelength region between 800 nm and 1700 nm. We present the development and characterization of a porous structure realized on a single-crystal substrate of p-type germanium (Ga doped) and of crystallographic orientation (100). The obtained structure allows, on the one hand, to trap the incident radiation, and on the other hand, to minimize the fluctuations of the front-face reflection coefficient of the photodiode. The first studies thus made show that it is possible to optimize, respectively, the electrical current density and the electrochemical operation time necessary for obtaining exploitable porous structures. The obtained results show that for 50 mA/cm{sup 2} and 5 min as operational parameters, we obtain a textured aspect of the porous samples that present a pyramidal form. The reflectivity study of the front surface shows a constant value of around 38% in a spectral range between 800 nm and 1700 nm approximately. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Effects of integration time on in-water radiometric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Davide; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Kajiyama, Tamito

    2018-03-05

    This work investigates the effects of integration time on in-water downward irradiance E d , upward irradiance E u and upwelling radiance L u profile data acquired with free-fall hyperspectral systems. Analyzed quantities are the subsurface value and the diffuse attenuation coefficient derived by applying linear and non-linear regression schemes. Case studies include oligotrophic waters (Case-1), as well as waters dominated by Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and Non-Algal Particles (NAP). Assuming a 24-bit digitization, measurements resulting from the accumulation of photons over integration times varying between 8 and 2048ms are evaluated at depths corresponding to: 1) the beginning of each integration interval (Fst); 2) the end of each integration interval (Lst); 3) the averages of Fst and Lst values (Avg); and finally 4) the values weighted accounting for the diffuse attenuation coefficient of water (Wgt). Statistical figures show that the effects of integration time can bias results well above 5% as a function of the depth definition. Results indicate the validity of the Wgt depth definition and the fair applicability of the Avg one. Instead, both the Fst and Lst depths should not be adopted since they may introduce pronounced biases in E u and L u regression products for highly absorbing waters. Finally, the study reconfirms the relevance of combining multiple radiometric casts into a single profile to increase precision of regression products.

  14. Radiometric determination of uniformity of putting paraffin on textile threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridel', Z.; Kherrmann, Eh.; Shefer, I.; Tseiner, A.

    1979-01-01

    To improve processing of the natural and synthetic fiber threads on stocking-frames, they are treated by paraffin. Paraffin is applied in the amounts nearly equal to 0.1 -1.0 g for 10 4 m of the thread's length. To determine amount of paraffin on thread and to determine uniformity if its application, a radiometric method has been developed. As a radioactive label, didocilephosphate of rare earths was used. This compound has good solubility in hydrocarbons and does not change physical properties of paraffin in the investigated field of its application as well as its concentration. It is possible to add to paraffin this radioactive label or a non-active label with subsequent its activation. Amount of paraffin, applied on a thread is determined by means of measurement of activity of thread samples of different length. Information about uniformity of paraffin application on thread have been obtained by means of autoradiography. It has been found that paraffin in mainly applied on the thread's bulges [ru

  15. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  16. The Charged Particle Environment on the Surface of Mars induced by Solar Energetic Particles - Five Years of Measurements with the MSL/RAD instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C.; Guo, J.; Lee, C. O.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Appel, J. K.; Boehm, E.; Boettcher, S. I.; Brinza, D. E.; Burmeister, S.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Matthiae, D.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission has now been operating in Gale crater on the surface of Mars for five years. On board MSL, the Radiation Assessment Detector (MSL/RAD) is measuring the Martian surface radiation environment, providing insights on its intensity and composition. This radiation field is mainly composed of primary Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and secondary particles created by the GCRs' interactions with the Martian atmosphere and soil. However, on shorter time scales the radiation environment can be dominated by contributions from Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Due to the modulating effect of the Martian atmosphere shape and intensity of these SEP spectra will differ significantly between interplanetary space and the Martian surface. Understanding how SEP events influence the surface radiation field is crucial to assess associated health risks for potential human missions to Mars. Here, we present updated MSL/RAD results for charged particle fluxes measured on the surface during SEP activity from the five years of MSL operations on Mars. The presented results incorporate updated analysis techniques for the MSL/RAD data and yield the most robust particle spectra to date. Furthermore, we compare the MSL/RAD SEP-induced fluxes to measurements from other spacecraft in the inner heliosphere and, in particular, in Martian orbit. Analyzing changes of SEP intensities from interplanetary space to the Martian surface gives insight into the modulating effect of the Martian atmosphere, while comparing timing profiles of SEP events between Mars and different points in interplanetary space can increase our understanding of SEP propagation in the heliosphere.

  17. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Ipatov, Sergei; Li Jianyang; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Wellnitz, Dennis; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Thomas, Peter; Hampton, Donald; Lisse, Carey

    2008-01-01

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [∼1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of ∼9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is ∼1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to ∼1%. Spectrometer read noise is ∼2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to ∼10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of ∼2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to ∼0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  18. Invited Article: Deep Impact instrument calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, Kenneth P; A'Hearn, Michael F; Baca, Michael; Delamere, Alan; Desnoyer, Mark; Farnham, Tony; Groussin, Olivier; Hampton, Donald; Ipatov, Sergei; Li, Jianyang; Lisse, Carey; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; McLaughlin, Stephanie; Sunshine, Jessica; Thomas, Peter; Wellnitz, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    Calibration of NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft instruments allows reliable scientific interpretation of the images and spectra returned from comet Tempel 1. Calibrations of the four onboard remote sensing imaging instruments have been performed in the areas of geometric calibration, spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and radiometric response. Error sources such as noise (random, coherent, encoding, data compression), detector readout artifacts, scattered light, and radiation interactions have been quantified. The point spread functions (PSFs) of the medium resolution instrument and its twin impactor targeting sensor are near the theoretical minimum [ approximately 1.7 pixels full width at half maximum (FWHM)]. However, the high resolution instrument camera was found to be out of focus with a PSF FWHM of approximately 9 pixels. The charge coupled device (CCD) read noise is approximately 1 DN. Electrical cross-talk between the CCD detector quadrants is correctable to <2 DN. The IR spectrometer response nonlinearity is correctable to approximately 1%. Spectrometer read noise is approximately 2 DN. The variation in zero-exposure signal level with time and spectrometer temperature is not fully characterized; currently corrections are good to approximately 10 DN at best. Wavelength mapping onto the detector is known within 1 pixel; spectral lines have a FWHM of approximately 2 pixels. About 1% of the IR detector pixels behave badly and remain uncalibrated. The spectrometer exhibits a faint ghost image from reflection off a beamsplitter. Instrument absolute radiometric calibration accuracies were determined generally to <10% using star imaging. Flat-field calibration reduces pixel-to-pixel response differences to approximately 0.5% for the cameras and <2% for the spectrometer. A standard calibration image processing pipeline is used to produce archival image files for analysis by researchers.

  19. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  20. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  1. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  2. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. Precise quantitation of PAIgG: A new radiometric microtechnique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, K.A.; Gauger, J.A.; Davis, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    We report the development of a radiometric assay for platelet-bound IgG that is both sensitive and quantitative. The assay utilized 96-well millititer plates incorporating a 0.2 microns filter membrane in the bottom. A 125I-labeled monoclonal antihuman IgG, as a secondary antibody, detected the platelet-bound human IgG. Since 5 x 10(6) platelets were used for each assay, tests for platelet-bound IgG can be performed on persons with severe thrombocytopenia. For the detection of circulating antiplatelet alloantibodies, as little as 10 microliters of platelet-free plasma per assay is required. Antiplatelet IgG was quantitated by using anti-PIA1 antibody that was purified with affinity and elution and DEAE chromatography. This purified antiplatelet antibody was labeled with 125I and was used to determine the binding ratio of secondary antibody to primary antibody. Under our standard conditions, this ratio was found to be stable at approximately 0.35 over the sensitivity range of the assay. The assay can detect approximately 200 molecules of human IgG per platelet (0.1 ng of secondary antibody bound per 5 x 10(6) platelets). It has a linear range from 0 to 7,000 molecules per platelet. Quantitation of anti-PIA1 binding for platelets stored for up to 6 months under refrigeration showed no change in number of PIA1 binding sites. Clinical studies showed that 18 of 19 ITP patients had an increased number of IgG molecules per platelet as did patients with malignancy and drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. Patients who had received multiple platelet transfusions had antiplatelet antibody in their plasma. Normal amounts of PAIgG were observed in platelets and plasma of patients with nonimmune thrombocytopenia

  4. Wafer-level radiometric performance testing of uncooled microbolometer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Denis G.; Topart, Patrice; Tremblay, Bruno; Julien, Christian; Martin, Louis; Vachon, Carl

    2014-03-01

    A turn-key semi-automated test system was constructed to perform on-wafer testing of microbolometer arrays. The system allows for testing of several performance characteristics of ROIC-fabricated microbolometer arrays including NETD, SiTF, ROIC functionality, noise and matrix operability, both before and after microbolometer fabrication. The system accepts wafers up to 8 inches in diameter and performs automated wafer die mapping using a microscope camera. Once wafer mapping is completed, a custom-designed quick insertion 8-12 μm AR-coated Germanium viewport is placed and the chamber is pumped down to below 10-5 Torr, allowing for the evaluation of package-level focal plane array (FPA) performance. The probe card is electrically connected to an INO IRXCAM camera core, a versatile system that can be adapted to many types of ROICs using custom-built interface printed circuit boards (PCBs). We currently have the capability for testing 384x288, 35 μm pixel size and 160x120, 52 μm pixel size FPAs. For accurate NETD measurements, the system is designed to provide an F/1 view of two rail-mounted blackbodies seen through the Germanium window by the die under test. A master control computer automates the alignment of the probe card to the dies, the positioning of the blackbodies, FPA image frame acquisition using IRXCAM, as well as data analysis and storage. Radiometric measurement precision has been validated by packaging dies measured by the automated probing system and re-measuring the SiTF and Noise using INO's pre-existing benchtop system.

  5. Radiometric Cross-Calibration of GF-4 in Multispectral Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixia Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The GaoFen-4 (GF-4, launched at the end of December 2015, is China’s first high-resolution geostationary optical satellite. A panchromatic and multispectral sensor (PMS is onboard the GF-4 satellite. Unfortunately, the GF-4 has no onboard calibration assembly, so on-orbit radiometric calibration is required. Like the charge-coupled device (CCD onboard HuanJing-1 (HJ or the wide field of view sensor (WFV onboard GaoFen-1 (GF-1, GF-4 also has a wide field of view, which provides challenges for cross-calibration with narrow field of view sensors, like the Landsat series. A new technique has been developed and used to calibrate HJ-1/CCD and GF-1/WFV, which is verified viable. The technique has three key steps: (1 calculate the surface using the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF characterization of a site, taking advantage of its uniform surface material and natural topographic variation using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+/Operational Land Imager (OLI imagery and digital elevation model (DEM products; (2 calculate the radiance at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA with the simulated surface reflectance using the atmosphere radiant transfer model; and (3 fit the calibration coefficients with the TOA radiance and corresponding Digital Number (DN values of the image. This study attempts to demonstrate the technique is also feasible to calibrate GF-4 multispectral bands. After fitting the calibration coefficients using the technique, extensive validation is conducted by cross-validation using the image pairs of GF-4/PMS and Landsat-8/OLI with similar transit times and close view zenith. The validation result indicates a higher accuracy and frequency than that given by the China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application (CRESDA using vicarious calibration. The study shows that the new technique is also quite feasible for GF-4 multispectral bands as a routine long-term procedure.

  6. English/Russian terminology on radiometric calibration of space-borne optoelectronic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privalsky, V.; Zakharenkov, V.; Humpherys, T.; Sapritsky, V.; Datla, R.

    The efficient use of data acquired through exo-atmospheric observations of the Earth within the framework of existing and newly planned programs requires a unique understanding of respective terms and definitions. Yet, the last large-scale document on the subject - The International Electrotechnical Vocabulary - had been published 18 years ago. This lack of a proper document, which would reflect the changes that had occurred in the area since that time, is especially detrimental to the developing international efforts aimed at global observations of the Earth from space such as the Global Earth Observations Program proposed by the U.S.A. at the 2003 WMO Congress. To cover this gap at least partially, a bi-lingual explanatory dictionary of terms and definitions in the area of radiometric calibration of space-borne IR sensors is developed. The objectives are to produce a uniform terminology for the global space-borne observations of the Earth, establish a unique understanding of terms and definitions by the radiometric communities, including a correspondence between the Russian and American terms and definitions, and to develop a formal English/Russian reference dictionary for use by scientists and engineers involved in radiometric observations of the Earth from space. The dictionary includes close to 400 items covering basic concepts of geometric, wave and corpuscular optics, remote sensing technologies, and ground-based calibration as well as more detailed treatment of terms and definitions in the areas of radiometric quantities, symbols and units, optical phenomena and optical properties of objects and media, and radiometric systems and their properties. The dictionary contains six chapters: Basic Concepts, Quantities, Symbols, and Units, Optical phenomena, Optical characteristics of surfaces and media, Components of Radiometric Systems, Characteristics of radiometric system components, plus English/Russian and Russian/Inglish indices.

  7. Solar system objects in the ISOPHOT 170 mu m serendipity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T. G.; Hotzel, S.; Stickel, M.

    2002-07-01

    The ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (ISOSS) covered approximately 15% of the sky at a wavelength of 170 mu m while the ISO satellite was slewing from one target to the next. By chance, ISOSS slews went over many solar system objects (SSOs). We identified the comets, asteroids and planets in the slews through a fast and effective search procedure based on N-body ephemeris and flux estimates. The detections were analysed from a calibration and scientific point of view. Through the measurements of the well-known asteroids Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta and the planets Uranus and Neptune it was possible to improve the photometric calibration of ISOSS and to extend it to higher flux regimes. We were also able to establish calibration schemes for the important slew end data. For the other asteroids we derived radiometric diameters and albedos through a recent thermophysical model. The scientific results are discussed in the context of our current knowledge of size, shape and albedos, derived from IRAS observations, occultation measurements and lightcurve inversion techniques. In all cases where IRAS observations were available we confirm the derived diameters and albedos. For the five asteroids without IRAS detections only one was clearly detected and the radiometric results agreed with sizes given by occultation and HST observations. Four different comets have clearly been detected at 170 mu m and two have marginal detections. The observational results are presented to be used by thermal comet models in the future. The nine ISOSS slews over Hale-Bopp revealed extended and asymmetric structures related to the dust tail. We attribute the enhanced emission in post-perihelion observations to large particles around the nucleus. The signal patterns are indicative of a concentration of the particles in the trail direction. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the

  8. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubbes, W.F.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Instrumentation is developed for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to meet several different (and sometimes conflicting) objectives. This paper addresses instrumentation development for data needs that are related either directly or indirectly to a repository site, but does not touch on instrumentation for work with waste forms or other materials. Consequently, this implies a relatively large scale for the measurements, and an in situ setting for instrument performance. In this context, instruments are needed for site characterization to define phenomena, develop models, and obtain parameter values, and for later design and performance confirmation testing in the constructed repository. The former set of applications is more immediate, and is driven by the needs of program design and performance assessment activities. A host of general technical and nontechnical issues have arisen to challenge instrumentation development. Instruments can be classed into geomechanical, geohydrologic, or other specialty categories, but these issues cut across artificial classifications. These issues are outlined. Despite this imposing list of issues, several case histories are cited to evaluate progress in the area

  9. RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION OF LARGE AIRBORNE IMAGE DATA SETS ACQUIRED BY DIFFERENT SENSOR TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gehrke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Generating seamless mosaics of aerial images is a particularly challenging task when the mosaic comprises a large number of im-ages, collected over longer periods of time and with different sensors under varying imaging conditions. Such large mosaics typically consist of very heterogeneous image data, both spatially (different terrain types and atmosphere and temporally (unstable atmo-spheric properties and even changes in land coverage. We present a new radiometric normalization or, respectively, radiometric aerial triangulation approach that takes advantage of our knowledge about each sensor’s properties. The current implementation supports medium and large format airborne imaging sensors of the Leica Geosystems family, namely the ADS line-scanner as well as DMC and RCD frame sensors. A hierarchical modelling – with parameters for the overall mosaic, the sensor type, different flight sessions, strips and individual images – allows for adaptation to each sensor’s geometric and radiometric properties. Additional parameters at different hierarchy levels can compensate radiome-tric differences of various origins to compensate for shortcomings of the preceding radiometric sensor calibration as well as BRDF and atmospheric corrections. The final, relative normalization is based on radiometric tie points in overlapping images, absolute radiometric control points and image statistics. It is computed in a global least squares adjustment for the entire mosaic by altering each image’s histogram using a location-dependent mathematical model. This model involves contrast and brightness corrections at radiometric fix points with bilinear interpolation for corrections in-between. The distribution of the radiometry fixes is adaptive to each image and generally increases with image size, hence enabling optimal local adaptation even for very long image strips as typi-cally captured by a line-scanner sensor. The normalization approach is implemented in

  10. Vicarious absolute radiometric calibration of GF-2 PMS2 sensor using permanent artificial targets in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaokai; Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Wang, Ning; Qian, Yonggang; Tang, Lingli

    2016-10-01

    GF-2, launched on August 19 2014, is one of the high-resolution land resource observing satellite of the China GF series satellites plan. The radiometric performance evaluation of the onboard optical pan and multispectral (PMS2) sensor of GF-2 satellite is very important for the further application of the data. And, the vicarious absolute radiometric calibration approach is one of the most useful way to monitor the radiometric performance of the onboard optical sensors. In this study, the traditional reflectance-based method is used to vicarious radiometrically calibrate the onboard PMS2 sensor of GF-2 satellite using three black, gray and white reflected permanent artificial targets located in the AOE Baotou site in China. Vicarious field calibration campaign were carried out in the AOE-Baotou calibration site on 22 April 2016. And, the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients were determined with in situ measured atmospheric parameters and surface reflectance of the permanent artificial calibration targets. The predicted TOA radiance of a selected desert area with our determined calibrated coefficients were compared with the official distributed calibration coefficients. Comparison results show a good consistent and the mean relative difference of the multispectral channels is less than 5%. Uncertainty analysis was also carried out and a total uncertainty with 3.87% is determined of the TOA radiance.

  11. THE EUROSDR PROJECT "RADIOMETRIC ASPECTS OF DIGITAL PHOTOGRAMMETRIC IMAGES" – RESULTS OF THE EMPIRICAL PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Honkavaara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the empirical research carried out in the context of the multi-site EuroSDR project "Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images" and provides highlights of the results. The investigations have considered the vicarious radiometric and spatial resolution validation and calibration of the sensor system, radiometric processing of the image blocks either by performing relative radiometric block equalization or into absolutely reflectance calibrated products, and finally aspects of practical applications on NDVI layer generation and tree species classification. The data sets were provided by Leica Geosystems ADS40 and Intergraph DMC and the participants represented stakeholders in National Mapping Authorities, software development and research. The investigations proved the stability and quality of evaluated imaging systems with respect to radiometry and optical system. The first new-generation methods for reflectance calibration and equalization of photogrammetric image block data provided promising accuracy and were also functional from the productivity and usability points of view. The reflectance calibration methods provided up to 5% accuracy without any ground reference. Application oriented results indicated that automatic interpretation methods will benefit from the optimal use of radiometrically accurate multi-view photogrammetric imagery.

  12. Limulus test for pyrogens and radiometric sterility tests on radiopharmaceuticals. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, N.G.S.

    1976-10-01

    Sterility testing of radiopharmaceuticals prepared at BARC were carried out using the radiometric technique (Radiometric detection of the metabolic product 14 Co 2 ). Batches of different radiopharmaceuticals were tested for pyrogen using the limulus lysate method and the results were compared with the rabbit method. The results of sterility test on 202 batches of 19 different radiopharmaceuticals show that the radiometric method can be used for sterility testing of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with 35 S, 51 Cr, 57 Co, 59 Fe, 82 Br, 86 Rb, sup(99m)Tc, sup(113m)In, 125 I and 169 Yb. The radiometric test proves to be more rapid than the conventional one for the sterility testing of such radiopharmaceuticals. Detection time is between 6-21 hours. In the case of 131 I-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and in the case of chlormerodrin-Hg-203, it was found an interference due to volatile species (sup(131m)Xe in the case of 131 I and some volatile mercury form in the case of chlormerodrin). In these cases it would be possible to carry out the radiometric sterility test after separation of the microorganisms from the radioactive material (by filtration). The limulus lysate method can be employed for control of various pyrogen-prone raw materials and radiopharmaceuticals. Such method is the only method at present available for detecting the low level pyrogen contamination in intrathecal injections. The limulus test is more rapid than the rabbit test

  13. Radiometric inter-sensor cross-calibration uncertainty using a traceable high accuracy reference hyperspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorroño, Javier; Banks, Andrew C.; Fox, Nigel P.; Underwood, Craig

    2017-08-01

    Optical earth observation (EO) satellite sensors generally suffer from drifts and biases relative to their pre-launch calibration, caused by launch and/or time in the space environment. This places a severe limitation on the fundamental reliability and accuracy that can be assigned to satellite derived information, and is particularly critical for long time base studies for climate change and enabling interoperability and Analysis Ready Data. The proposed TRUTHS (Traceable Radiometry Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio-Studies) mission is explicitly designed to address this issue through re-calibrating itself directly to a primary standard of the international system of units (SI) in-orbit and then through the extension of this SI-traceability to other sensors through in-flight cross-calibration using a selection of Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) recommended test sites. Where the characteristics of the sensor under test allows, this will result in a significant improvement in accuracy. This paper describes a set of tools, algorithms and methodologies that have been developed and used in order to estimate the radiometric uncertainty achievable for an indicative target sensor through in-flight cross-calibration using a well-calibrated hyperspectral SI-traceable reference sensor with observational characteristics such as TRUTHS. In this study, Multi-Spectral Imager (MSI) of Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) is evaluated as an example, however the analysis is readily translatable to larger-footprint sensors such as Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). This study considers the criticality of the instrumental and observational characteristics on pixel level reflectance factors, within a defined spatial region of interest (ROI) within the target site. It quantifies the main uncertainty contributors in the spectral, spatial, and temporal domains. The resultant tool

  14. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  15. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  16. LOFT instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixby, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    A description of instrumentation used in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) large break Loss-of-Coolant Experiments is presented. Emphasis is placed on hydraulic and thermal measurements in the primary system piping and components, reactor vessel, and pressure suppression system. In addition, instrumentation which is being considered for measurement of phenomena during future small break testing is discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 BRE [de

  17. Solar Probe Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Solar Probe Plus mission is planned to be launched in 2018 to study the upper solar corona with both.in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation. The mission will utilize 6 Venus gravity assist maneuver to gradually lower its perihelion to 9.5 Rs below the expected Alfven pOint to study the sub-alfvenic solar wind that is still at least partially co-rotates with the Sun. The detailed science objectives of this mission will be discussed. SPP will have a strong synergy with The ESA/NASA Solar orbiter mission to be launched a year ahead. Both missions will focus on the inner heliosphere and will have complimentary instrumentations. Strategies to exploit this synergy will be also presented.

  18. (abstract) Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid,and precipitation , emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band becausecommunication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of watervapor-induced prop agation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity waveexperiments, and r adio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation mode development, supp orted planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily

  19. Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The US DOE continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. To this end, the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE OST sponsors the Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDP). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) LSDDP generated a list of statements defining specific needs or problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One of the stated needs was for developing technologies that would reduce costs and shorten DDOE/EM--0552DOE/EM--0552 and D schedules by providing radiological characterizations to meet the free-release criteria. The Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner (GPRS system shown in Figure 1) utilizes a detection system; a portable computer, a differential global positioning system (d-gps), and a four wheel drive vehicle. Once the survey data has been collected, a software program called GeoSofttrademark generates a graphical representation of the radiological contamination extent. Baseline technology involves gridding the area and hand surveying each grid. This demonstration investigated the associated costs and the required time to evaluate the radiological characterization data from the GPRS with respect to the baseline technology. The GPRS system performs in-situ, real-time analyses to identify the extent of radiological contamination. Benefits expected from using the new innovative technology (GPRS) include: Reduced labor hours associated with performing the survey; Increased number of survey data points; Reduced

  20. Nondestructive evaluation of reinforced plastics by a radiometric measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entine, Gerald; Afshari, Sia; Verlinden, Matt

    1990-01-01

    The demand for new high-performance plastics has greatly increased with advances in the performance characteristics of sophisticated reinforced engineering resins. However, conventional methods for the evaluation of the glass and filler contents of reinforced plastics are destructive, labor intensive, and time consuming. We have developed a new instrument, to address this problem, which provides for the rapid, accurate, and nondestructive measurement of glass or filler content in reinforced plastics. This instrument utilizes radiation transmission and scattering techniques for analytical measurement of glass, graphite and other fillers used in reinforced plastics. (author)

  1. Studies of Earth Space Environment and Sudden Disappearances of Solar Prominences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Tian-Sen

    2005-01-01

    With the support from AFOSR's Minority University Program, we worked on research of Sun-Earth space environment, conducted daily solar observation programs, improved solar instruments, and established...

  2. Merging airborne and carborne radiometric data for surveying the Deir Az-Zor area, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jubeli, Y.M.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    1997-01-01

    To complete the radiometric map of Syria, and to estimate the natural background radiation levels for environmental monitoring, a carborne survey was undertaken over the Deir Az-Zor area. This area was not covered by a previous airborne survey, except for peripheral regions in the south and west. To complete the radiometric map, results of the carborne and airborne surveys had to be merged. This paper presents the merging procedure which was used after normalizing the two data sets to match each other. No anomalies suitable for radioelement exploration were found. However, the overall radiometric maps resulting from the present work were consistent with the maps of the areas covered by the airborne survey. (author)

  3. Evaluation of Two Absolute Radiometric Normalization Algorithms for Pre-processing of Landsat Imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hanqiu

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate radiometric normalization techniques, two image normalization algorithms for absolute radiometric correction of Landsat imagery were quantitatively compared in this paper, which are the Illumination Correction Model proposed by Markham and Irish and the Illumination and Atmospheric Correction Model developed by the Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory of the Utah State University. Relative noise, correlation coefficient and slope value were used as the criteria for the evaluation and comparison, which were derived from pseudo-invariant features identified from multitemtween the normalized multitemporal images were significantly reduced when the seasons of multitemporal images were different. However, there was no significant difference between the normalized and unnormalized images with a similar seasonal condition. Furthermore, the correction results of two algorithms are similar when the images are relatively clear with a uniform atmospheric condition. Therefore, the radiometric normalization procedures should be carried out if the multitemporal images have a significant seasonal difference.

  4. Lack of clinical relevance in routine final subcultures of radiometrically negative BACTEC blood culture vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plorde, J.J.; Carlson, L.G.; Dau, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    During a 38-month period, 10,106 blood specimens were received in the laboratory for culture. These were inoculated into 26,424 vials and processed using the BACTEC radiometric detection system. Of these vials, 1,914 were eventually found to be microbiologically positive. Isolates from 836 vials were judged to be contaminants. In the remaining 1,078 vials, growth was first detected visually or radiometrically in 1,062 and by final subculture in 16. Growth from these sixteen bottles represented 12 clinically significant bacteremic episodes in as many patients. In nine of these episodes, other culture vials from the same patient were positive radiometrically. Therefore, 358 of 361 (99.2%) bacteremic episodes were detected without the benefit of routine final subcultures. The three patients whose bacteremia was missed were diagnosed clinically and placed on appropriate therapy prior to the detection of the bacteremias by final subculture

  5. RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF MARS HiRISE HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY BASED ON FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the large data amount of HiRISE imagery, traditional radiometric calibration method is not able to meet the fast processing requirements. To solve this problem, a radiometric calibration system of HiRISE imagery based on field program gate array (FPGA is designed. The montage gap between two channels caused by gray inconsistency is removed through histogram matching. The calibration system is composed of FPGA and DSP, which makes full use of the parallel processing ability of FPGA and fast computation as well as flexible control characteristic of DSP. Experimental results show that the designed system consumes less hardware resources and the real-time processing ability of radiometric calibration of HiRISE imagery is improved.

  6. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  7. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  8. Remote sensing, airborne radiometric survey and aeromagnetic survey data processing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiuzhen; Liu Dechang; Ye Fawang; Xuan Yanxiu

    2009-01-01

    Taking remote sensing data, airborne radiometric data and aero magnetic survey data as an example, the authors elaborate about basic thinking of remote sensing data processing methods, spectral feature analysis and adopted processing methods, also explore the remote sensing data combining with the processing of airborne radiometric survey and aero magnetic survey data, and analyze geological significance of processed image. It is not only useful for geological environment research and uranium prospecting in the study area, but also reference to applications in another area. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of a radiometric method for studying bacterial activity in the presence of antimicrobial agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, R.R.; Wilson, P.; Clarke, F.V. (Newham District Microbiology Labs., St. Andrews Hospital, London (UK))

    1989-06-01

    In a study involving 2760 tests, the BACTEC semi-automatic radiometric method which measures bacterial metabolic activity and produces a BACTEC growth index, was compared with two conventional methods commonly used for determining growth, absorbance and viable counts. In 92% of radiometry tests the suppression of growth was inversely related to the antibiotic concentration. This compared with 83% for absorbance and 63% for viable counts. The radiometric method was found to be more rapid, easier to use and more reproducible in determining the effect of antibiotics on the activity of bacteria than viable counting or absorbance methods. (author).

  10. A practical intercomparison of non-radiometric methods for the determination of low levels of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, A.W.

    1991-01-01

    Non-Radiometric, methods of elemental analysis have been assessed as alternatives to radiometric methods for the determination of low levels of radionuclides. The methods have been assessed in a practical intercomparison, using a set of samples containing known, low levels of analytes in a variety of matrices. It was found that all of the methods considered have a role to play and are to some extent complementary in terms of cost, rate of sample throughput, elemental coverage, imaging capability sensitivity and quantitative capabilities. Techniques based on mass spectrometry have most to offer in this application, allowing sensitive isotope specific determinations. (author)

  11. X-ray radiometric separation of low-grade tin ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, N.I.; Neverov, A.D.; Konovalov, V.M.; Mironov, I.I.; Zakharov, S.N.

    1984-10-01

    The investigations on evaluation of X-ray radiometric separation of off-grade tin ores of one of the deposits are carried out. The experiments have been performed at loboratory and pilot-commerical plants. /sup 241/Am has been used as a radiation source. In the course of facility commercial the ore has been separated by means of a device comprising a separator and gate separatin device. The results of X-ray radiometric separation have shown its high productive efficiency. Concentrates with higher tin content at high extraction from ores are obtained.

  12. X-ray radiometric separation of low-grade tin ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, N.I.; Neverov, A.D.; Konovalov, V.M.; Mironov, I.I.; Zakharov, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The investigations on evaluation of X-ray radiometric separation of off-grade tin ores of one of the deposits are carried out. The experiments have been performed at loboratory and pilot-commerical plants. 241 Am has been used as a radiation source. In the course of facility commercial the ore has been separated by means of a device comprising a separator and gate separatin device. The results of X-ray radiometric separation have shown its high productive efficiency. Concentrates with higher tin content at high extraction from ores are obtained

  13. Evaluation of a radiometric method for studying bacterial activity in the presence of antimicrobial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, R.R.; Wilson, P.; Clarke, F.V.

    1989-01-01

    In a study involving 2760 tests, the BACTEC semi-automatic radiometric method which measures bacterial metabolic activity and produces a BACTEC growth index, was compared with two conventional methods commonly used for determining growth, absorbance and viable counts. In 92% of radiometry tests the suppression of growth was inversely related to the antibiotic concentration. This compared with 83% for absorbance and 63% for viable counts. The radiometric method was found to be more rapid, easier to use and more reproducible in determining the effect of antibiotics on the activity of bacteria than viable counting or absorbance methods. (author)

  14. SOLAR-ISS: A new reference spectrum based on SOLAR/SOLSPEC observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Hauchecorne, A.; Pereira, N.; Sluse, D.; Cessateur, G.; Irbah, A.; Bureau, J.; Weber, M.; Bramstedt, K.; Hilbig, T.; Thiéblemont, R.; Marchand, M.; Lefèvre, F.; Sarkissian, A.; Bekki, S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Since April 5, 2008 and up to February 15, 2017, the SOLar SPECtrometer (SOLSPEC) instrument of the SOLAR payload on board the International Space Station (ISS) has performed accurate measurements of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) from the middle ultraviolet to the infrared (165 to 3088 nm). These measurements are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and the impact of solar variability on climate. In particular, a new reference solar spectrum (SOLAR-ISS) is established in April 2008 during the solar minima of cycles 23-24 thanks to revised engineering corrections, improved calibrations, and advanced procedures to account for thermal and aging corrections of the SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrument. Aims: The main objective of this article is to present a new high-resolution solar spectrum with a mean absolute uncertainty of 1.26% at 1σ from 165 to 3000 nm. This solar spectrum is based on solar observations of the SOLAR/SOLSPEC space-based instrument. Methods: The SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrument consists of three separate double monochromators that use concave holographic gratings to cover the middle ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) domains. Our best ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectra are merged into a single absolute solar spectrum covering the 165-3000 nm domain. The resulting solar spectrum has a spectral resolution varying between 0.6 and 9.5 nm in the 165-3000 nm wavelength range. We build a new solar reference spectrum (SOLAR-ISS) by constraining existing high-resolution spectra to SOLAR/SOLSPEC observed spectrum. For that purpose, we account for the difference of resolution between the two spectra using the SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrumental slit functions. Results: Using SOLAR/SOLSPEC data, a new solar spectrum covering the 165-3000 nm wavelength range is built and is representative of the 2008 solar minimum. It has a resolution better than 0.1 nm below 1000 nm and 1 nm in the 1000-3000 nm wavelength range. The new

  15. A Novel Nonintrusive Method to Resolve the Thermal Dome Effect of Pyranometers: Radiometric Calibration and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji. Q.; Tsay, S.-C.; Lau, K. M.; Hansell, R. A.; Butler, J. J.; Cooper, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally the calibration equation for pyranometers assumes that the measured solar irradiance is solely proportional to the thermopile s output voltage; therefore, only a single calibration factor is derived. This causes additional measurement uncertainties because it does not capture sufficient information to correctly account for a pyranometer s thermal effect. In our updated calibration equation, temperatures from the pyranometer's dome and case are incorporated to describe the instrument's thermal behavior, and a new set of calibration constants are determined, thereby reducing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we demonstrate why a pyranometer's uncertainty using the traditional calibration equation is always larger than a few percent, but with the new approach can become much less than 1% after the thermal issue is resolved. The highlighted calibration results are based on NIST traceable light sources under controlled laboratory conditions. The significance of the new approach lends itself to not only avoiding the uncertainty caused by a pyranometer's thermal effect but also the opportunity to better isolate and characterize other instrumental artifacts, such as angular response and nonlinearity of the thermopile, to further reduce additional uncertainties. We also discuss some of the implications, including an example of how the thermal issue can potentially impact climate studies by evaluating aerosol s direct radiative effect using field measurements with and without considering the pyranometer s thermal effect. The results of radiative transfer model simulation show that a pyranometer s thermal effect on solar irradiance measurements at the surface can be translated into a significant alteration of the calculated distribution of solar energy inside the column atmosphere.

  16. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  17. Innovative instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all

  18. Innovative instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1983-11-15

    At this year's particle physics conference at Brighton, a parallel session was given over to instrumentation and detector development. While this work is vital to the health of research and its continued progress, its share of prime international conference time is limited. Instrumentation can be innovative three times — first when a new idea is outlined, secondly when it is shown to be feasible, and finally when it becomes productive in a real experiment, amassing useful data rather than operational experience. Hyams' examples showed that it can take a long time for a new idea to filter through these successive stages, if it ever makes it at all.

  19. Instrumental aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Navid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Every neutron scattering experiment requires the choice of a suited neutron diffractometer (or spectrometer in the case of inelastic scattering with its optimal configuration in order to accomplish the experimental tasks in the most successful way. Most generally, the compromise between the incident neutron flux and the instrumental resolution has to be considered, which is depending on a number of optical devices which are positioned in the neutron beam path. In this chapter the basic instrumental principles of neutron diffraction will be explained. Examples of different types of experiments and their respective expectable results will be shown. Furthermore, the production and use of polarized neutrons will be stressed.

  20. Solar weather monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hochedez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs, flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  1. Radiometric Evaluation of SNPP VIIRS Band M11 via Sub-Kilometer Intercomparison with Aqua MODIS Band 7 over Snowy Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Chu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A refined intersensor comparison study is carried out to evaluate the radiometric stability of the 2257 nm channel (M11 of the first Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP satellite. This study is initiated as part of the examination into the performance of key shortwave infrared (SWIR bands for SNPP VIIRS ocean color data processing and applications, with Band M11 playing key role over turbid and inland waters. The evaluation utilizes simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs to compare SNPP VIIRS Band M11 against Band 7 of the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in the Aqua satellite over concurrently observed scenes. The standard result of the radiance comparison is a seemingly uncontrolled and inconsistent time series unsuitable for further analyses, in great contrast to other matching band-pairs whose radiometric comparisons are typically stable around 1.0 within 1% variation. The mismatching relative spectral response (RSR between the two respective bands, with SNPP VIIRS M11 at 2225 to 2275 nm and Aqua MODIS B7 at 2125 to 2175 nm, is demonstrated to be the cause of the large variation because of the different dependence of the spectral responses of the two bands over identical scenes. A consistent radiometric comparison time series, however, can be extracted from SNO events that occur over snowy surfaces. A customized selection and analysis procedure successfully identifies the snowy scenes within the SNO events and builds a stable comparison time series. Particularly instrumental for the success of the comparison is the use of the half-kilometer spatial resolution data of Aqua MODIS B7 that significantly enhances the statistics. The final refined time series of Aqua MODIS B7 radiance over the SNPP VIIRS M11 radiance is stable at around 0.39 within 2.5% showing no evidence of drift. The radiometric ratio near 0.39 suggests the strong presence of medium

  2. The SOLAR-C Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Solar-C is a Japan-led international solar mission planned to be launched in mid2020. It is designed to investigate the magnetic activities of the Sun, focusing on the study in heating and dynamical phenomena of the chromosphere and corona, and also to develop an algorithm for predicting short and long term solar evolution. Since it has been revealed that the different parts of the magnetized solar atmosphere are essentially coupled, the SOLAR-C should tackle the spatial scales and temperature regimes that need to be observed in order to achieve a comprehensive physical understanding of this coupling. The science of Solar-C will greatly advance our understanding of the Sun, of basic physical processes operating throughout the universe. To dramatically improve the situation, SOLAR-C will carry three dedicated instruments; the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVST) and the High Resolution Coronal Imager (HCI), to jointly observe the entire visible solar atmosphere with essentially the same high spatial resolution (0.1-0.3 arcsec), performing high resolution spectroscopic measurements over all atmospheric regions and spectro-polarimetric measurements from the photosphere through the upper chromosphere. In addition, Solar-C will contribute to our understanding on the influence of the Sun-Earth environments with synergetic wide-field observations from ground-based and other space missions. Some leading science objectives and the mission concept, including designs of the three instruments aboard SOLAR-C will be presented.

  3. Surgical Instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Horeman, T.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a surgical instrument for minimall-invasive surgery, comprising a handle, a shaft and an actuating part, characterised by a gastight cover surrounding the shaft, wherein the cover is provided with a coupler that has a feed- through opening with a loskable seal,

  4. Weather Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  5. A design of an on-orbit radiometric calibration device for high dynamic range infrared remote sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yicheng; Jin, Weiqi; Dun, Xiong; Zhou, Feng; Xiao, Si

    2017-10-01

    With the demand of quantitative remote sensing technology growing, high reliability as well as high accuracy radiometric calibration technology, especially the on-orbit radiometric calibration device has become an essential orientation in term of quantitative remote sensing technology. In recent years, global launches of remote sensing satellites are equipped with innovative on-orbit radiometric calibration devices. In order to meet the requirements of covering a very wide dynamic range and no-shielding radiometric calibration system, we designed a projection-type radiometric calibration device for high dynamic range sensors based on the Schmidt telescope system. In this internal radiometric calibration device, we select the EF-8530 light source as the calibration blackbody. EF-8530 is a high emittance Nichrome (Ni-Cr) reference source. It can operate in steady or pulsed state mode at a peak temperature of 973K. The irradiance from the source was projected to the IRFPA. The irradiance needs to ensure that the IRFPA can obtain different amplitude of the uniform irradiance through the narrow IR passbands and cover the very wide dynamic range. Combining the internal on-orbit radiometric calibration device with the specially designed adaptive radiometric calibration algorithms, an on-orbit dynamic non-uniformity correction can be accomplished without blocking the optical beam from outside the telescope. The design optimizes optics, source design, and power supply electronics for irradiance accuracy and uniformity. The internal on-orbit radiometric calibration device not only satisfies a series of indexes such as stability, accuracy, large dynamic range and uniformity of irradiance, but also has the advantages of short heating and cooling time, small volume, lightweight, low power consumption and many other features. It can realize the fast and efficient relative radiometric calibration without shielding the field of view. The device can applied to the design and

  6. Assessment and Correction of on-Orbit Radiometric Calibration for FY-3 VIRR Thermal Infrared Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Xu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available FengYun-3 (FY-3 Visible Infrared Radiometer (VIRR, along with its predecessor, Multispectral Visible Infrared Scanning Radiometer (MVISR, onboard FY-1C&D have had continuous global observation more than 14 years. This data record is valuable for weather prediction, climate monitoring, and environment research. Data quality is vital for satellite data assimilations in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP and quantitative remote sensing applications. In this paper, the accuracies of radiometric calibration for VIRR onboard FY-3A and FY-3B, in thermal infrared (TIR channels, are evaluated using the Low Earth Orbit (LEO-LEO simultaneous nadir overpass intercalibration method. Hyperspectral and high-quality observations from Infrared Atmosphere Sounding Instrument (IASI onboard METOP-A are used as reference. The biases of VIRR measurements with respect to IASI over one-and-a-half years indicate that the TIR calibration accuracy of FY-3B VIRR is better than that of FY-3A VIRR. The brightness temperature (BT measured by FY-3A/VIRR is cooler than that measured by IASI with monthly mean biases ranging from −2 K to −1 K for channel 4 and −1 K to 0.2 K for channel 5. Measurements from FY-3B/VIRR are more consistent with that from IASI, and the annual mean biases are 0.84 ± 0.16 K and −0.66 ± 0.18 K for channels 4 and 5, respectively. The BT biases of FY-3A/VIRR show scene temperature-dependence and seasonal variation, which are not found from FY-3B/VIRR BT biases. The temperature-dependent biases are shown to be attributed to the nonlinearity of detectors. New nonlinear correction coefficients of FY-3A/VIRR TIR channels are reevaluated using various collocation samples. Verification results indicate that the use of the new nonlinear correction can greatly correct the scene temperature-dependent and systematic biases.

  7. Experiences with radiometric solid matter determination in the WOLPRYLA-65 fibre production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, M.; Traeber, K.

    1977-01-01

    Proceeding from the technology of WOLPRYLA-65 fibre fabrication the applicability of radiometric density measurements for acrylonitrile determination in a dimethylformamide bath has been studied. The measuring equipment and measuring positions are described and further details, such as calibration procedures, measuring accuracy, benefit of continuous and contactless measurements, maintenance efforts, and radiation protection measures are outlined

  8. Pyrotechnic countermeasures: IV. Radiometric performance of a sulphur-based Flare composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ernst-Christian [NATO Munitions Safety Information Analysis Center (MSIAC), Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-10-15

    Radiometric performance of a sulphur-based flare composition has been investigated. Composition comprising sulphur, potassium perchlorate and antimony sulphide has acceptable band ratio but an order of magnitude weaker spectral efficiency than typical carbon-based compositions. The use of other sulphur compounds with potential for increased performance is discussed. For part III see Ref. [1]. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Liquid scintillation vial for radiometric assay of lymphocyte carbohydrate metabolism in response to mitogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    We have demonstrated that mitogens--i.e., PHA and Con.A--stimulate lymphocyte carbohydrate metabolism using a liquid-scintillation vial with conventional liquid-scintillation detectors. The results showed that this enclosed system can be useful for development of rapid in vitro tests of lymphocytes immune responsiveness, as well as for radiometric detection of bacterial growth in various gaseous atmospheres

  10. Reverse radiometric flow injection analysis (RFIA) of radioactive waste-waters with an ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Win, N; San, K; Han, B; Myoe, K M [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry; Toelgyessy, J [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Science

    1994-07-01

    A new application of reverse radiometric flow injection analysis is described. RFIA was used for the analysis of radioactive wastewaters. ASIA (Ismatec) analyzer with NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used in the study of analysis of [sup 131]I containing waste-aster. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.

  11. Radiometric control of the position of blind holes axes in graphite blocks of high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaine, J.L.; Bujas, R.; Lemonnier, A.; Tortel, J.

    1976-01-01

    The principles of a radiometric method intended for controlling the positions of blind hole axes are given. A comparison is made between radiometry and radiography and the performances obtained using a thulium 170 source are described. The automation capabilities are discussed [fr

  12. Radiometric characteristics of heavy mineral deposits along the west coast of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macdonald, W.G.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.

    During the last decade, exploration and mining of modern-Tertiary heavy mineral beach and raised beach sands along the west coast of South Africa has developed into a major industry. High resolution radiometric techniques have demonstrated their use as a quantitative indicator of total heavy mineral

  13. Automatic Radiometric Normalization of Multitemporal Satellite Imagery with the Iteratively Re-weighted MAD Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton John; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2008-01-01

    A recently proposed method for automatic radiometric normalization of multi- and hyper-spectral imagery based on the invariance property of the Multivariate Alteration Detection (MAD) transformation and orthogonal linear regression is extended by using an iterative re-weighting scheme involving no...

  14. Radiation balances and the solar constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crommelynck, D.

    1981-01-01

    The radiometric concepts are defined in order to consider various types of radiation balances and relate them to the diabetic form of the energy balance. Variability in space and time of the components of the radiation field are presented. A specific concept for sweeping which is tailored to the requirements is proposed. Finally, after establishing the truncated character of the present knowledge of the radiation balance. The results of the last observations of the solar constant are given. Ground and satellite measurement techniques are discussed.

  15. Frontier of solar observation. Solar activity observed by 'HINODE' mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    After launched in September 2006, solar observation satellite 'HINODE' has been a solar observatory on orbit with the scientific instruments well operated and its continuous observation was conducted steadily on almost all solar atmospheres from photosphere to corona. 'HINODE' was equipped with the solar optical telescope, extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer and x-ray telescope and aimed at clarifying the mystery of solar physics related with coronal heating and magnetic reconnection. Present state of 'HINODE' was described from observations made in initial observation results, which have made several discoveries, such as Alfven waves in the corona, unexpected dynamics in the chromosphere and photosphere, continuous outflowing plasma as a possible source of solar wind, and fine structures of magnetic field in sunspots and solar surface. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Optical Properties from Combined Airborne- and Ground-Based Direct and Diffuse Radiometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Dubovik, O.; King, M. D.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for simultaneously retrieving aerosol and surface reflectance properties from combined airborne and ground-based direct and diffuse radiometric measurements. The method is based on the standard Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) method for retrieving aerosol size distribution, complex index of refraction, and single scattering albedo, but modified to retrieve aerosol properties in two layers, below and above the aircraft, and parameters on surface optical properties from combined datasets (Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) and AERONET data). A key advantage of this method is the inversion of all available spectral and angular data at the same time, while accounting for the influence of noise in the inversion procedure using statistical optimization. The wide spectral (0.34-2.30 m) and angular range (180 ) of the CAR instrument, combined with observations from an AERONET sunphotometer, provide sufficient measurement constraints for characterizing aerosol and surface properties with minimal assumptions. The robustness of the method was tested on observations made during four different field campaigns: (a) the Southern African Regional Science Initiative 2000 over Mongu, Zambia, (b) the Intercontinental Transport Experiment-Phase B over Mexico City, Mexico (c) Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Central Facility, Oklahoma, USA, and (d) the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) over Elson Lagoon in Barrow, Alaska, USA. The four areas are dominated by different surface characteristics and aerosol types, and therefore provide good test cases for the new inversion method.

  17. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  18. Divided Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Although the division of the zodiac into 360° probably derives from Egypt or Assyria around 2000 BC, there is no surviving evidence of Mesopotamian cultures embodying this division into a mathematical instrument. Almost certainly, however, it was from Babylonia that the Greek geometers learned of the 360° circle, and by c. 80 BC they had incorporated it into that remarkably elaborate device gener...

  19. Instrumentation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Areas being investigated for instrumentation improvement during low-level pollution monitoring include laser opto-acoustic spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, optical fluorescence spectroscopy, liquid crystal gas detectors, advanced forms of atomic absorption spectroscopy, electro-analytical chemistry, and mass spectroscopy. Emphasis is also directed toward development of physical methods, as opposed to conventional chemical analysis techniques for monitoring these trace amounts of pollution related to energy development and utilization

  20. Lessons Learned from GOSAT; Instrument Design, Calibration, Operation, Data Processing, and International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Shiomi, K.; Nakajima, M.

    2012-12-01

    Advantage of satellite observation is its ability to monitor long term and global distribution with a single instrument. Ozone observation from space has been successful for long term monitoring purposes. Monitoring gradual increase and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere with sub-percent accuracy has become a challenging subject. Interference of cloud and aerosol in radiative transfer has to be corrected for troposphere measurement. Accurate O2-A band measurement can retrieve surface pressure and aerosol distribution property. We have selected a Fourier Transform spectrometer (FTS) to achieve high throughput and wide spectral coverage with uniform spectral resolution. On the other hand, it is difficult to modulate short wave such as 0.76μm and avoid micro vibration interference. Prelaunch, we took special care to select optical components of excellent surface quality and isolate vibration. Design parameters such as IFOV, spectral resolution, observation interval within limited satellite resources must be carefully optimized. Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global high spectral resolution data for almost 4 years. Instrument performance, radiometric calibration, radiative transfer calculation and laboratory spectroscopy are all important. The first step was to reduce bias of column-averaged dry air mole fractions (the Level 2 product) of CO2 and CH4 (XCO2 and XCH4) and validate using well calibrated data such as TCCON. After 2 years of operation, latitudinal distribution of zonal mean and seasonal variation at these sites can be measured with better than 2ppm accuracy. However, validations are limited to ideal conditions. Next step is to evaluate consistency of measured values from long periods since launch, different surface types, and various input radiance with different instrument gain. For long term radiometric calibration, we have uses vicarious, onboard solar diffuser, and lunar calibration data. Over the ocean

  1. Instrumentation maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-09-01

    It is essential to any research activity that accurate and efficient measurements be made for the experimental parameters under consideration for each individual experiment or test. Satisfactory measurements in turn depend upon having the necessary instruments and the capability of ensuring that they are performing within their intended specifications. This latter requirement can only be achieved by providing an adequate maintenance facility, staffed with personnel competent to understand the problems associated with instrument adjustment and repair. The Instrument Repair Shop at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is designed to achieve this end. The organization, staffing and operation of this system is discussed. Maintenance policy should be based on studies of (1) preventive vs. catastrophic maintenance, (2) records indicating when equipment should be replaced rather than repaired and (3) priorities established to indicate the order in which equipment should be repaired. Upon establishing a workable maintenance policy, the staff should be instructed so that they may provide appropriate scheduled preventive maintenance, calibration and corrective procedures, and emergency repairs. The education, training and experience of the maintenance staff is discussed along with the organization for an efficient operation. The layout of the various repair shops is described in the light of laboratory space and financial constraints

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE RADIOMETRIC RESPONSE OF ORANGE TREE CROWN IN HYPERSPECTRAL UAV IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Imai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High spatial resolution remote sensing images acquired by drones are highly relevant data source in many applications. However, strong variations of radiometric values are difficult to correct in hyperspectral images. Honkavaara et al. (2013 presented a radiometric block adjustment method in which hyperspectral images taken from remotely piloted aerial systems – RPAS were processed both geometrically and radiometrically to produce a georeferenced mosaic in which the standard Reflectance Factor for the nadir is represented. The plants crowns in permanent cultivation show complex variations since the density of shadows and the irradiance of the surface vary due to the geometry of illumination and the geometry of the arrangement of branches and leaves. An evaluation of the radiometric quality of the mosaic of an orange plantation produced using images captured by a hyperspectral imager based on a tunable Fabry-Pérot interferometer and applying the radiometric block adjustment method, was performed. A high-resolution UAV based hyperspectral survey was carried out in an orange-producing farm located in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. A set of 25 narrow spectral bands with 2.5 cm of GSD images were acquired. Trend analysis was applied to the values of a sample of transects extracted from plants appearing in the mosaic. The results of these trend analysis on the pixels distributed along transects on orange tree crown showed the reflectance factor presented a slightly trend, but the coefficients of the polynomials are very small, so the quality of mosaic is good enough for many applications.

  3. Enhanced radiometric detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by using filter-concentrated bovine fecal specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, M.T.; Kenefick, K.B.; Sockett, D.C.; Lambrecht, R.S.; McDonald, J.; Jorgensen, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    A commercial radiometric medium, BACTEC 12B, was modified by addition of mycobactin, egg yolk suspension, and antibiotics (vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid). Decontaminated bovine fecal specimens were filter concentrated by using 3-microns-pore-size, 13-mm-diameter polycarbonate filters, and the entire filter was placed into the radiometric broth. Comparison of the radiometric technique with conventional methods on 603 cattle from 9 Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-infected herds found that of 75 positive specimens, the radiometric technique detected 92% while conventional methods detected 60% (P less than 0.0005). Only 3.9% of radiometric cultures were contaminated. To measure the effect of filter concentration of specimens on the detection rate, 5 cattle with minimal and 5 with moderate ileum histopathology were sampled weekly for 3 weeks. M. paratuberculosis was detected in 33.3% of nonfiltered specimens and 76.7% of filtered specimens (P less than 0.005). Detection rates were directly correlated with the severity of disease, and the advantage of specimen concentration was greatest on fecal specimens from cattle with low-grade infections. Detection times were also correlated with infection severity: 13.4 +/- 5.9 days with smear-positive specimens, 27.9 +/- 8.7 days with feces from cows with typical subclinical infections, and 38.7 +/- 3.8 days with fecal specimens from cows with low-grade infections. Use of a cocktail of vancomycin, amphotericin B, and nalidixic acid for selective suppression of nonmycobacterial contaminants was better than the commercial product PANTA (Becton Dickinson Microbiologic Systems, Towson, Md.) only when specimens contained very low numbers of M. paratuberculosis

  4. Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

    1984-01-01

    Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on 14 CO 2 evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of 14 CO 2 evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III

  5. ANALYZING SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SHADOW AREA FROM ADS-40 HIGH RADIOMETRIC RESOLUTION AERIAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-T. Hsieh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shadows in optical remote sensing images are regarded as image nuisances in numerous applications. The classification and interpretation of shadow area in a remote sensing image are a challenge, because of the reduction or total loss of spectral information in those areas. In recent years, airborne multispectral aerial image devices have been developed 12-bit or higher radiometric resolution data, including Leica ADS-40, Intergraph DMC. The increased radiometric resolution of digital imagery provides more radiometric details of potential use in classification or interpretation of land cover of shadow areas. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze the spectral properties of the land cover in the shadow areas by ADS-40 high radiometric resolution aerial images, and to investigate the spectral and vegetation index differences between the various shadow and non-shadow land covers. According to research findings of spectral analysis of ADS-40 image: (i The DN values in shadow area are much lower than in nonshadow area; (ii DN values received from shadowed areas that will also be affected by different land cover, and it shows the possibility of land cover property retrieval as in nonshadow area; (iii The DN values received from shadowed regions decrease in the visible band from short to long wavelengths due to scattering; (iv The shadow area NIR of vegetation category also shows a strong reflection; (v Generally, vegetation indexes (NDVI still have utility to classify the vegetation and non-vegetation in shadow area. The spectral data of high radiometric resolution images (ADS-40 is potential for the extract land cover information of shadow areas.

  6. Personal computer as a part of radiometric gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1992-01-01

    Following the world tendency in the application of microcomputers in measuring instrumentation, standard personal computer, compatible with IBM PC/XT, was employed in the isotope gauges developed lately in the Institute. The are: beta backscatter coating thickness gauge, X-ray fluorescence multilayer coating thickness gauge with X-ray tube as radiation source, and automatic airborne dust pollution gauge. A simple interface containing: address decoder, programmable pulse counter, some buffers and latches was sufficient to connect the computer to the measuring head of the gauges. Thanks to the possibility of programming in higher level language (turbo Pascal), the gauges were developed in much shorter time than required for classical electronics. The experience gained during development of the gauges shows, that even in case of a simple instrument such as the beta backscatter coating thickness gauge, it is more economical to employ ready-made personal computer than to elaborate specific electronics for it, unless the gauge is produced in large numbers. The use of personal computer is particularly advantageous, when processing of the signal or control of the measuring cycle is more sophisticated, as in the case of the two other gauges. Block diagrams of the gauges and their interfaces are presented in the paper. In case of the airborne dust pollution gauge, flow chart of the computer program is also given. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs

  7. Simulation of Wake Vortex Radiometric Detection via Jet Exhaust Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an analysis of the potential of an airborne hyperspectral imaging IR instrument to infer wake vortices via turbine jet exhaust as a proxy. The goal was to determine the requirements for an imaging spectrometer or radiometer to effectively detect the exhaust plume, and by inference, the location of the wake vortices. The effort examines the gas spectroscopy of the various major constituents of turbine jet exhaust and their contributions to the modeled detectable radiance. Initially, a theoretical analysis of wake vortex proxy detection by thermal radiation was realized in a series of simulations. The first stage used the SLAB plume model to simulate turbine jet exhaust plume characteristics, including exhaust gas transport dynamics and concentrations. The second stage used these plume characteristics as input to the Line By Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) to simulate responses from both an imaging IR hyperspectral spectrometer or radiometer. These numerical simulations generated thermal imagery that was compared with previously reported wake vortex temperature data. This research is a continuation of an effort to specify the requirements for an imaging IR spectrometer or radiometer to make wake vortex measurements. Results of the two-stage simulation will be reported, including instrument specifications for wake vortex thermal detection. These results will be compared with previously reported results for IR imaging spectrometer performance.

  8. Relações radiométricas de uma cultura de cana-de-açucar Radiometric relations of a sugarcane crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caruso Machado

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período de máximo índice de área foliar de uma cultura de cana-de-açúcar, cv. NA56-79, os coeficientes de reflexão, transmissão e absorção da radiação solar incidente variaram em função do ângulo de incidência dos raios solares e da faixa espectral considerada. A radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (PAR foi sempre menos refletida e transmitida e mais absorvida que a radiação do infravermelho próximo (NIR. Em geral, para as frações consideradas, obtiveram-se as seguintes relações radiométricas: (1 radiação disponível, NPAR = 1,2 NNIR; (2 radiação refletida, RPAR = 0,1 RNIR; (3 radiação transmitida, TPAR = 0,2 TNIR; (4 radiação absorvida, APAR = 1,6 ANIR.During the period of maximum leaf area index of a sugarcane crop, cv. NA56-79, the coefficients of reflection, transmission and absorption of the incoming solar radiation were function of solar elevation and the waveband considered. The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR was always less reflected and transmitted but more absorbed than the near infrared radiation (NIR. In general, for the wavebands considered, the following radiometric relations were obtained: (1 net solar radiation, NPAR = 1.2 NNIR; (2 reflected radiation, RPAR = 0.1 RNIR; (3 transmitted radiation, TPAR = 0.2 TNIR; (4 absorbed radiation, APAR = 1.6 ANIR.

  9. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  10. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  11. Automatic radiometric analyzer for nuclides in nuclear reactor water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Masao; Tokoi, Hiromi; Kitaguchi, Hiroshi; Ozawa, Yoshihiro; Urata, Megumu.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To shorten the processing time and improve the accuracy for processing water sampled from reactor coolants, as well as simplify the mechanism of the apparatus. Constitution: Reactor water sampled from reactor coolants, after filtered out with insoluble solids, is stored in an ion exchange container. Thereafter, the amount of ion exchanged water is regulated by the coarse measurement of radioactivity concentration by a monitor. Further, ion exchange resins are charged from a resin tank, agitated by gases and dispersed into sampled water. Then, all of the radioactive iodines contained in the sample are collected in the resins. The resins are recovered through evacuation into instrumenting vessels for measurement of radioactivity. Since ion exchange resins are dispersed in the sampled water in this system, the processing time can be shortened. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. Gamma-spectrometric correction in radiometric determination of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gejsler, M.

    1979-01-01

    The method is described of determination of potassium in mixed fertilizers in production conditions on a chemical enterprise in the GDR. Potassium content was determined according to the value of measured radiation from potassium-40. For measurement probes were used with radiation counters. While changing raw material, coming to the enterprise has been established that in raw phosphate, supplied from Morocco, there is low enough concentration of the natural radioactive isotopes of the uranium-radium series. In this connection, the two-cannel gamma-spectroscopy method has been developed taking into account influence of the background from these isotopes. Principles are explained of the method used and descriptions are given of the instruments used and sources of errors are listed. Relative standard deviation of the potassiun determination by this method equals nearly to 5% [ru

  13. Planck 2013 results. II. The Low Frequency Instrument data processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) data processing centre (DPC) to create and characterize full-sky maps based on the first 15.5 months of operations at 30, 44, and 70 GHz. In particular, we discuss the various steps involved in reducing the data......) is employed to combine radiometric data and pointing information into sky maps, minimizing the variance of correlated noise. Noise covariance matrices, required to compute statistical uncertainties on LFI and Planck products, are also produced. Main beams are estimated down to the approximate to-20 dB level...

  14. Accuracy assessment of ALOS optical instruments: PRISM and AVNIR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadono, Takeo; Shimada, Masanobu; Iwata, Takanori; Takaku, Junichi; Kawamoto, Sachi

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the updated results of calibration and validation to assess the accuracies for optical instruments onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi"), which was successfully launched on January 24th, 2006 and it is continuously operating very well. ALOS has an L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar called PALSAR and two optical instruments i.e. the Panchromatic Remotesensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type-2 (AVNIR-2). PRISM consists of three radiometers and is used to derive a digital surface model (DSM) with high spatial resolution that is an objective of the ALOS mission. Therefore, geometric calibration is important in generating a precise DSM with stereo pair images of PRISM. AVNIR-2 has four radiometric bands from blue to near infrared and uses for regional environment and disaster monitoring etc. The radiometric calibration and image quality evaluation are also important for AVNIR-2 as well as PRISM. This paper describes updated results of geometric calibration including geolocation determination accuracy evaluations of PRISM and AVNIR-2, image quality evaluation of PRISM, and validation of generated PRISM DSM. These works will be done during the ALOS mission life as an operational calibration to keep absolute accuracies of the standard products.

  15. Solar coronal non-thermal processes (Solar Maximum Mission). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, H.S.

    1983-02-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission was used to study solar coronal phenomena in hard X-radiation, since its instrument complement included the first solar hard X-ray telescope. Phenomena related to those discovered from OSO-5 and OSO-7 observations were emphasized

  16. Nuclear Instrumentation Module (NIM) standard logic processor as a portal signal analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minges, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    A general purpose electronic logic processor has been designed into a 2 wide NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) bin module. The unit utilizes a microprocessor to achieve necessary versatility. The processor's first use is as a new generation signal analyzer for use in radiometric personnel and vehicle portal monitors. Significant improvements have been obtained in sensitivity and stability over existing analog discriminators. The new analyzer is presently being used to update personnel and vehicle portal monitoring systems

  17. MISR L1B3 Radiometric Camera-by-camera Cloud Mask Product subset for the RICO region V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask dataset over the RICO region. It is used to determine whether a scene is classified as clear or...

  18. A new relative radiometric consistency processing method for change detection based on wavelet transform and a low-pass filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The research purpose of this paper is to show the limitations of the existing radiometric normalization approaches and their disadvantages in change detection of artificial objects by comparing the existing approaches,on the basis of which a preprocessing approach to radiometric consistency,based on wavelet transform and a spatial low-pass filter,has been devised.This approach first separates the high frequency information and low frequency information by wavelet transform.Then,the processing of relative radiometric consistency based on a low-pass filter is conducted on the low frequency parts.After processing,an inverse wavelet transform is conducted to obtain the results image.The experimental results show that this approach can substantially reduce the influence on change detection of linear or nonlinear radiometric differences in multi-temporal images.

  19. Anomalies jointing in the Laguna Blanca area (Rocha district) about of radiometric anomaly sector with thorium characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the following lines are sumarized the prospection works carried out on anomalous radiometric sectors located at the Department of Rocha (Uruguay) Its toriferous feature and the likely metallogenetic model to which they are associated are also developed

  20. Development of absolute radiometric response functions for HyPlant & G-LiHT using SIRCUS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to provide absolute radiometric and cross-calibrated spectral characterizations for G-LiHT and HyPlant.  The objectives are: (i) to...

  1. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  2. Radiometric--microbiologic assay of vitamin B-6: application to food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Shane, B.; McIntyre, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiometric microbiologic assay for vitamin B-6 was applied to food analysis. The method was shown to be specific, reproducible and simpler than the standard turbidimetric microbiologic technique. The analysis of seven commercially available breakfast cereals was compared to a high performance liquid chromatography method. Three out of the seven cereals agreed when assayed with both methods (P greater than 0.1). Four cereals, however, differed in value considerably (P less than 0.05). Further studies are required to determine whether these differences were due to different extraction procedures used. The study showed that the new radiometric-microbiologic method can be used to measure total vitamin B-6 or, combined with a column separation procedure, to analyze for specific forms of the vitamin

  3. Geologic and radiometric study of the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonora Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez M, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of the radiometrical anomaly, discovered in the Santa Rosalia area, Arizpe Department, Sonota, is defined in this study through topographical and geological surveying of the area by the outline and systematical survey of rocks for sampling and registration of the radioactivity. Two radioactive anomalies were defined and called IIIA and IIIB, identifying the existence of secondary uranium minerals (Torbernite) in the IIIB anomaly. According to the results of the work which was carried out we can't deduce that both localities present signs of the existence of important uranium concentrations. We can conclude that the presence of uranium minerals obliges us to realize a more detailed exploration, suggesting the opening of little excavations and ditches and stretching out of the geochemical, geological and radiometrical exploration to adjacent areas. (author)

  4. Radiometric Performance of the TerraSAR-X Mission over More Than Ten Years of Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Schwerdt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The TerraSAR-X mission, based on two satellites, has produced SAR data products of high quality for a number of scientific and commercial applications for more than ten years. To guarantee the stability and the reliability of these highly accurate SAR data products, both systems were first accurately calibrated during their respective commissioning phases and have been permanently monitored since then. Based on a short description of the methods applied, this paper focuses on the radiometric performance including the gain and phase properties of the transmit/receiver modules, the antenna pattern checked by evaluating scenes acquired over uniformly distributed targets and the radiometric stability derived from permanently deployed point targets. The outcome demonstrates the remarkable performance of both systems since their respective launch.

  5. Monitoring of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams. Chapter II: principles and theory of radiometric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.; Notea, A.; Segal, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The interpretation of a count rate distribution obtained from radiometric assay of a given waste items population in terms of source strength distribution is discussed. A model for the evaluation of errors, arising from non uniform source density distribution (Pu) within the item volume and heterogeneity of matrix materials, is presented. Points concerning calibration procedures and representativity of reference materials are dealt with. Qualification procedures for possible monitoring systems are outlined on the basis of comparison with reference systems. The latter are composed of reference monitors based on high resolution gamma spectrometry and passive and active neutron techniques. The importance of information upon the elemental composition and density distribution of matrix materials for the interpretation of radiometric assay of solid wastes is stressed

  6. Digital image integration technique of multi-geoscience information dominated by aerial radiometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dechang; Sun Maorong; Zhu Deling; Zhang Jingbo; He Jianguo; Dong Xiuzhen

    1992-02-01

    The geologic metallogenetic environment of uranium at Lian Shan Guan region has been studied by using digital image integration technique of multi-geoscience information with aerial radiometric measurements. It includes the classification of uranium-bearing rock, recognizing patterns of ore-forming and geologic mapping in ore field. Some new tectonic structure was found in this region that gives significant information for further exploring of uranium ore. After multi-parameters screening of aerial radiometric data, patterns recognizing and multi-geoscience information integration analysis, four prospective metallogenetic zones were predicted, and the predication was proved by further geologic survey. Three of the four zones are very encouraging, where ore-forming structures, hydrothermal deposits, wall-rock alteration, primary and secondary uranium ore and rich uranium mineralization are discovered. The department of geologic exploring has decided that these zones will enjoy priority in the examination for further prospecting of uranium ores

  7. Recent understanding of the Svalbard basement in the light of new radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Several tectonothermal events in the pre-Carboniferous basement of Svalbard during Caledonian and Proterozoic times have been dated recently by radiometric age determinations. Three or four stages have been recognized in the Caledonian period; a post-orogentic graben formation during the Devonian, a late Caledonian event in the Middle Silurian, an earely Caledonian event in the Middle Ordovician and possibly an earliest event in the Middle to Late Cambrian. The Grenvillian event, 950-1270 Ma, has been well established by both radiometric ages and unconformities in Nordaustlandet and southwestern Spitsbergen. Sveco-Karelian ages, 1670-1750 Ma, also have been obtained from Ny Friesland, northerneastern Spitsbergen. Two even older ages (zircon U-Pb) upper intercept ages), 2.1 and 3.2 Ga, may suggest the presence of still older crust in Svalbard and adjacent areas. 40 refs., 2 figs

  8. Rapid detection and identification of pathogenic mycobacteria by combining radiometric and nucleic acid probe methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellner, P.D.; Kiehn, T.E.; Cammarata, R.; Hosmer, M.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of radiometric methodology (BACTEC 12B) and probe technology for recovery and identification of mycobacteria was studied in two large hospital laboratories. The sediment from vials with positive growth indices was tested with DNA probes specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium intracellulare. The sensitivity of the radiometric method and the specificity of the probes resulted in a marked reduction in the time to the final report. Biochemical testing could be eliminated on isolates giving a positive reaction with one of the probes. Some 176 isolates of M. tuberculosis, 110 of M. avium, and 5 of M. intracellulare were recovered. Two-thirds of these isolates were detected and identified within 2 weeks of inoculation and the remainder was detected by 4 weeks, a reduction of 5 to 7 weeks to the final report

  9. Geological and radiometric study of the anomaly ''San Martin'' municipality of Sierra Mojada, Coahuila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra Mora, P.

    1975-01-01

    When it first became known that there were uranium ores at the mine known as San Martin (72 hectares, Mining Agency, Sabinas, Mexico), exploration work was started with the sinking of two wells at the sites of maximum radiometric intensity. A short while afterwards, however, this work was suspended. In 1974, the work required for evaluation of the locality was begun. Geological and radiometric studies carried out both at the surface and underground pointed to the conclusion that the San Martin anomaly, down to the depth explored (40 metres), is a stockwork-type deposit or a tabular seam of the fissure type. It was concluded that in view of the grades obtained (0.0227%U 3 O 6 ) down to 40 metres, the deposit cannot be considered of econimic importance at the present time. (author)

  10. An equivalent method of mixed dielectric constant in passive microwave/millimeter radiometric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinlong; Tian, Yan; Hu, Fei; Gui, Liangqi; Cheng, Yayun; Peng, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Dielectric constant is an important role to describe the properties of matter. This paper proposes This paper proposes the concept of mixed dielectric constant(MDC) in passive microwave radiometric measurement. In addition, a MDC inversion method is come up, Ratio of Angle-Polarization Difference(RAPD) is utilized in this method. The MDC of several materials are investigated using RAPD. Brightness temperatures(TBs) which calculated by MDC and original dielectric constant are compared. Random errors are added to the simulation to test the robustness of the algorithm. Keywords: Passive detection, microwave/millimeter, radiometric measurement, ratio of angle-polarization difference (RAPD), mixed dielectric constant (MDC), brightness temperatures, remote sensing, target recognition.

  11. Determination of in vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to cephalosporins by radiometric and conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, L.B.; Iseman, M.D.; Cook, J.L.; Lindholm-Levy, P.J.; Drupa, I.

    1985-01-01

    Among eight cephalosporins and cephamycins tested in preliminary in vitro screening against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the most promising for further study was found to be ceforanide, followed by ceftizoxime, cephapirin, and cefotaxime. Moxalactam, cefoxitin, cefamandole, and cephalothin were found to be not active enough against M. tuberculosis to be considered for further in vitro studies. The antibacterial activity of various ceforanide concentrations was investigated by three methods: (i) the dynamics of radiometric readings (growth index) in 7H12 broth; (ii) the number of CFU in the same medium; and (iii) the proportion method on 7H11 agar plates. There was a good correlation among the results obtained with these methods. The MIC for most strains ranged from 6.0 to 25.0 micrograms/ml. The BACTEC radiometric method is a reliable, rapid, and convenient method for preliminary screening and determination of the level of antibacterial activity of drugs not commonly used against M. tuberculosis

  12. Radiometric assessment of the sensitivity to antituberculotics of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and Mycobacterium xenopi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubin, M.; Lindholm-Levy, P.; Heifets, L. B.

    1994-01-01

    The macrodilution radiometric method using Middlebrook's 7H12 liquid medium enriched with 14 C-palmitic acid, where the growth activity is monitored by measuring liberated 14 CO 2 , was applied to 25 strains of the Mycobacterium avium complex and to 20 strains of Mycobacterium xenopi to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the following chemotherapeutical agents: ciprofloxacine, clofazimine, rifampin, cycloserine, kanamycin, etionamide, ethambutol, and amikacin. In the case of the M. avium complex, slightly or completely resistant strains were found for the majority of drugs. The sensitive strain proportion was highest with clofazimine and amikacin. The M. xenopis strains exhibited generally lower minimal inhibitory concentrations than the avian mycobacteria for all drugs except for cycloserine and ethambutol. The radiometric method using the BACTEC system was found suitable for the determination of the sensitivity of mycobacteria to chemotherapeutic agents: the results are obtained rapidly, within 8 days following inoculation, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations can be evaluated quantitatively. 1 tab., 8 refs

  13. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Libonati, J.P.; Middlebrook, G.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14 C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  14. Mississippi exploration field trials using microbial, radiometrics, free soil gas, and other techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.S.; Brown, L.R.; Thieling, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Mississippi Office of Geology has conducted field trials using the surface exploration techniques of geomicrobial, radiometrics, and free soil gas. The objective of these trials is to determine if Mississippi oil and gas fields have surface hydrocarbon expression resulting from vertical microseepage migration. Six fields have been surveyed ranging in depth from 3,330 ft to 18,500 ft. The fields differ in trapping styles and hydrocarbon type. The results so far indicate that these fields do have a surface expression and that geomicrobial analysis as well as radiometrics and free soil gas can detect hydrocarbon microseepage from pressurized reservoirs. All three exploration techniques located the reservoirs independent of depth, hydrocarbon type, or trapping style.

  15. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.; Schiller, P.; Toelgyessy, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the determination of citric, tartaric and undecylenic acids based on radiometric titration with 0.1 or 0.05 mole.l -1 NaOH was developed. As an indicator of the end point, radioactive kryptonate of glass was used. Experimental technique, results of determinations as well as other possible applications of the radioactive kryptonate of glass for end point determination in alkalimetric analyses of officinal pharmaceuticals are discussed. (author)

  16. Impact of the cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determining spectral reflectance coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orych, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Zdunek, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Nowadays remote sensing plays a very important role in many different study fields, i.e. environmental studies, hydrology, mineralogy, ecosystem studies, etc. One of the key areas of remote sensing applications is water quality monitoring. Understanding and monitoring of the water quality parameters and detecting different water contaminants is an important issue in water management and protection of whole environment and especially the water ecosystem. There are many remote sensing methods to monitor water quality and detect water pollutants. One of the most widely used method for substance detection with remote sensing techniques is based on usage of spectral reflectance coefficients. They are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements. These however can be very time consuming, therefore image-based methods are used more and more often. In order to work out the proper methodology of obtaining spectral reflectance coefficients from hyperspectral and multispectral images, it is necessary to verify the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determination of them. This paper presents laboratory experiments that were conducted using two monochromatic XEVA video sensors (400-1700 nm spectral data registration) with two different radiometric resolutions (12 and 14 bits). In view of determining spectral characteristics from images, the research team used set of interferometric filters. All data collected with multispectral digital video cameras were compared with spectral reflectance coefficients obtained with spectroradiometer. The objective of this research is to find the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on reflectance values in chosen wavelength. The main topic of this study is the analysis of accuracy of spectral coefficients from sensors with different radiometric resolution. By comparing values collected from images acquired with XEVA sensors and with the curves obtained with spectroradiometer it

  17. Radiometric detection of metabolic activity of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and its susceptibility to amphotericin B and Diethylstilbestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Sato, M.K.; Del Negro, G.M.B.; Lacaz, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    A radiometric assay system has been applied to study the metabolic activity and the effect of drugs (amphotericin B and diethylstilbestrol) on the fungus Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis ''in vitro''. The Y form of the yeast, grown in liquid Sabouraud medium was inoculated into sterile reaction vials containing the 6B aerobic medium along with 2.0μCi of 14 C-substrates. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Conceptual basis for the radiometric dye film dose meter as a test of particle track theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    This report is a summary of a lecture held at the Danish-Polish Symposium on Radiation Chemistry in Warsaw, October 1979, describing an initiated work connected to the particle track theory worked out by R. Katz and coworkers. A short description is given of the theory and the applicability of the theory in the use of the radiometric dye cyanide film dose meter as a detector in radiation of different qualities. A few experimental results are given. (author)

  19. Far-ir heterodyne radiometric measurements with quasioptical Schottky diode mixers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, H.R.; Tannenwald, P.E.; Clifton, B.J.; Parker, C.D.; Fitzgerald, W.D.; Erickson, N.R.

    1978-01-01

    We have made heterodyne radiometric measurements with GaAs Schottky diode mixers, mounted in a corner-reflector configuration, over the spectral range 170 μm to 1 mm. At 400 μm, system noise temperatures of 9700 K DSB (NEP=1.4 x 10 - 19 W/Hz) and mixer noise temperatures of 5900 K have been achieved. This same quasioptical mixer has also been used to generate 10 - 7 W of tunable radiation suitable for spectroscopic applications

  20. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  1. Radiometric and ultrasonic testing of vibrating roller compacting effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikryl, F.; Habarta, J.; Kovarikova, E.

    1977-01-01

    A hole was filled with two layers of concrete mixture. Each layer was compacted using a Dynapac CA 25 vibrating roller 10,000 kg in weight, operating with a frequency of 30 Hz. A concrete block thus produced had dimensions of 11.0x2.5 m and a height of 1.6 m. After the concrete block hardening (roughly 120 days) drill cores were bored and bulk density was determined using nondestructive methods. Bulk density determination of the concrete between the drill cores was conducted using a 137 Cs emitter of an activity of 89 GBq, a FHZ-88b Geiger-Mueller counter was used as the detector. The emitter and detector were placed to touch the bore wall and were lowered to different depths in 10 cm increments. 10 count rate values were measured in each depth. The measurement time was chosen such that the decay statistical error did not exceed 1;. Bulk density of the individual segments of the drill cores was determined using 60 Co of an activitBy of 55 Mq as the radiation source and a TESLA 20/100 GWl GM counter as the detector. The detector operating voltage was 1240 V. Ultrasonic measurements were conducted using the USME-5 instrument. The measured bulk density values show that the compacting of a concrete layer 80 cm in thickness using a vibrating roller is sufficiently efficient. Both nondestructive methods were well proven, the results show that bulk density values in different depths differ due to concrete moisture content. (J.P.)

  2. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  3. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  4. Relative Radiometric Normalization and Atmospheric Correction of a SPOT 5 Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Rumeau

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-temporal images acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution are an important tool for detecting change and analyzing trends, especially in agricultural applications. However, to insure a reliable use of this kind of data, a rigorous radiometric normalization step is required. Normalization can be addressed by performing an atmospheric correction of each image in the time series. The main problem is the difficulty of obtaining an atmospheric characterization at a given acquisition date. In this paper, we investigate whether relative radiometric normalization can substitute for atmospheric correction. We develop an automatic method for relative radiometric normalization based on calculating linear regressions between unnormalized and reference images. Regressions are obtained using the reflectances of automatically selected invariant targets. We compare this method with an atmospheric correction method that uses the 6S model. The performances of both methods are compared using 18 images from of a SPOT 5 time series acquired over Reunion Island. Results obtained for a set of manually selected invariant targets show excellent agreement between the two methods in all spectral bands: values of the coefficient of determination (r² exceed 0.960, and bias magnitude values are less than 2.65. There is also a strong correlation between normalized NDVI values of sugarcane fields (r² = 0.959. Despite a relative error of 12.66% between values, very comparable NDVI patterns are observed.

  5. Improved detection of Mycobacterium avium complex with the Bactec radiometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffner, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    A reconsideration of the laboratory methods used for primary isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis is needed due to the increasingly recognized importance of such mycobacterial infections in immunocompromised patients. One example of this is the severe opportunistic infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex among AIDS patients. In this study, the Bactec radiometric system was compared to conventional culture on solid medium for the detection of M. avium complex in 3,612 selected clinical specimens, mainly of extrapulmonary origin. Of a total number of 63 M. avium complex isolates, the Bactec system detected 58 (92%), compared to 37 (59%) for conventional culture. A much more rapid detection was attained with radiometric technique than with conventional culture. The mean detection time for the cultures positive with both methods was 7.1 and 28.3 days, respectively. The Bactec radiometric system achieves a rapid and significantly more sensitive detection and seems to be an excellent complement to conventional culture in the laboratory diagnosis of infections with the M. avium complex

  6. Geologic and radiometric study in the Picacho, Arizpe's Municipality, Sorora (Mexico) area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia y Barragan, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    This research work was aimed chiefly at studying the geology and radiometry of the El Picacho area in order to establish its uranium mineralization potential. Another purpose was to ascertain the factors favouring deposition of radioactive material in areas bordering on the Sierra del Manzanal, where the work was carried out. Detailed geological-radiometric surveys were made, both inside the El Picacho mine and at the surface. The geological surveys were carried out by means of compass bearings and stadia, while scintillometers and spectrometers were used for the radiometric studies. The work was supported by a general geological exploration of the central part of the Serra del Manzanal. To ascertain the radiometric anomalies, the distribution of the population of values was determined by statistical methods, the frequency, cumulative frequency and frequency percentage being evaluated for that purpose. The geological survey at the El Picacho mine revealed a group of fractures enclosing the following minerals: torbernite, iriginite and autunite. These fractures are no thicker than 5 cm and tend to wedge out after 3 meters. Primary uraniferous ore is likely to be found in this zone, so surveys based on (a) radon gas emanometry and (b) sediment geochemistry in the Siera del Manzanal are recommended. The basic data relating to this area could be supplemented by mineragraphic and X-ray studies, which would provide a fuller picture of the class of mineralogical species and of the paragenesis of radioactive material presnent in the zone. (author)

  7. Evaluation of element migration from food plastic packagings into simulated solutions using radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez; Saiki, Mitiko; Wiebeck, Helio

    2005-01-01

    In the present study a radiometric method was established to determine the migration of elements from food plastic packagings to a simulated acetic acid solution. This radiometric method consisted of irradiating plastic samples with neutrons at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor for a period of 16 hours under a neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 and, then to expose them to the element migration into a simulated solution. The radioactivity of the activated elements transferred to the solutions was measured to evaluate the migration. The experimental conditions were: time of exposure of 10 days at 40 deg C and 3% acetic acid solution was used as simulated solution, according to the procedure established by the National Agency of Sanitary Monitoring (ANVISA). The migration study was applied for plastic samples from soft drink and juice packagings. The results obtained indicated the migration of elements Co, Cr and Sb. The advantage of this methodology was no need to analyse the blank of simulantes, as well as the use of high purity simulated solutions. Besides, the method allows to evaluate the migration of the elements into the food content instead of simulated solution. The detention limits indicated high sensitivity of the radiometric method. (author)

  8. kCCA Transformation-Based Radiometric Normalization of Multi-Temporal Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiation normalization is an essential pre-processing step for generating high-quality satellite sequence images. However, most radiometric normalization methods are linear, and they cannot eliminate the regular nonlinear spectral differences. Here we introduce the well-established kernel canonical correlation analysis (kCCA into radiometric normalization for the first time to overcome this problem, which leads to a new kernel method. It can maximally reduce the image differences among multi-temporal images regardless of the imaging conditions and the reflectivity difference. It also perfectly eliminates the impact of nonlinear changes caused by seasonal variation of natural objects. Comparisons with the multivariate alteration detection (CCA-based normalization and the histogram matching, on Gaofen-1 (GF-1 data, indicate that the kCCA-based normalization can preserve more similarity and better correlation between an image-pair and effectively avoid the color error propagation. The proposed method not only builds the common scale or reference to make the radiometric consistency among GF-1 image sequences, but also highlights the interesting spectral changes while eliminates less interesting spectral changes. Our method enables the application of GF-1 data for change detection, land-use, land-cover change detection etc.

  9. Radiometric installations for automatic control of industrial processes and some possibilities of the specialized computers application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzino, S.; Shandru, P.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that application of radioisotope devices in circuits for automation of some industrial processes permits to obtain the on-line information about some parameters of these processes. This information being passed to a computer, controlling the process, permits to obtain and maintain some optimum technological perameters of this process. Some elements of the automation stem projecting are given from the poin of wiev of the radiometric devices tuning, calibration of the radiometric devices with the purpose to get a digital answer in the on-line regime with the preset accuracy and thrustworthyness levels for supplying them to the controlling computer; determination of the system's reaction on the base of the preset statistical criteria; development, on the base of the data obtained from the computer, of an algorithm for the functional checking of radiometric devices' characteristics, - stability and reproductibility of readings in the operation regime as well as determination of the value threshold of an answer, depending on the measured parameter [ru

  10. Rain attenuation studies from radiometric and rain DSD measurements at two tropical locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Tuhina; Adhikari, Arpita; Maitra, Animesh

    2018-05-01

    Efficient use of satellite communication in tropical regions demands proper characterization of rain attenuation, particularly, in view of the available popular propagation models which are mostly based on temperate climatic data. Thus rain attenuations at frequencies 22.234, 23.834 and 31.4/30 GHz over two tropical locations Kolkata (22.57°N, 88.36°E, India) and Belem (1.45°S, 48.49° W, Brazil), have been estimated for the year 2010 and 2011, respectively. The estimation has been done utilizing ground-based disdrometer observations and radiometric measurements over Earth-space path. The results show that rain attenuation estimations from radiometric data are reliable only at low rain rates (measurements show good agreement with the ITU-R model, even at high rain rates (upto100 mm/h). Despite having significant variability in terms of drop size distribution (DSD), the attenuation values calculated from DSD data (disdrometer measurements) at Kolkata and Belem differ a little for the rain rates below 30 mm/h. However, the attenuation values, obtained from radiometric measurements at the two places, show significant deviations ranging from 0.54 dB to 3.2 dB up to a rain rate of 30 mm/h, on account of different rain heights, mean atmospheric temperatures and climatology of the two locations.

  11. Statistical Techniques Applied to Aerial Radiometric Surveys (STAARS): cluster analysis. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirkle, F.L.; Stablein, N.K.; Howell, J.A.; Wecksung, G.W.; Duran, B.S.

    1982-11-01

    One objective of the aerial radiometric surveys flown as part of the US Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was to ascertain the regional distribution of near-surface radioelement abundances. Some method for identifying groups of observations with similar radioelement values was therefore required. It is shown in this report that cluster analysis can identify such groups even when no a priori knowledge of the geology of an area exists. A method of convergent k-means cluster analysis coupled with a hierarchical cluster analysis is used to classify 6991 observations (three radiometric variables at each observation location) from the Precambrian rocks of the Copper Mountain, Wyoming, area. Another method, one that combines a principal components analysis with a convergent k-means analysis, is applied to the same data. These two methods are compared with a convergent k-means analysis that utilizes available geologic knowledge. All three methods identify four clusters. Three of the clusters represent background values for the Precambrian rocks of the area, and one represents outliers (anomalously high 214 Bi). A segmentation of the data corresponding to geologic reality as discovered by other methods has been achieved based solely on analysis of aerial radiometric data. The techniques employed are composites of classical clustering methods designed to handle the special problems presented by large data sets. 20 figures, 7 tables

  12. Radiometric Correction of Multitemporal Hyperspectral Uas Image Mosaics of Seedling Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelin, L.; Honkavaara, E.; Näsi, R.; Viljanen, N.; Rosnell, T.; Hakala, T.; Vastaranta, M.; Koivisto, T.; Holopainen, M.

    2017-10-01

    Novel miniaturized multi- and hyperspectral imaging sensors on board of unmanned aerial vehicles have recently shown great potential in various environmental monitoring and measuring tasks such as precision agriculture and forest management. These systems can be used to collect dense 3D point clouds and spectral information over small areas such as single forest stands or sample plots. Accurate radiometric processing and atmospheric correction is required when data sets from different dates and sensors, collected in varying illumination conditions, are combined. Performance of novel radiometric block adjustment method, developed at Finnish Geospatial Research Institute, is evaluated with multitemporal hyperspectral data set of seedling stands collected during spring and summer 2016. Illumination conditions during campaigns varied from bright to overcast. We use two different methods to produce homogenous image mosaics and hyperspectral point clouds: image-wise relative correction and image-wise relative correction with BRDF. Radiometric datasets are converted to reflectance using reference panels and changes in reflectance spectra is analysed. Tested methods improved image mosaic homogeneity by 5 % to 25 %. Results show that the evaluated method can produce consistent reflectance mosaics and reflectance spectra shape between different areas and dates.

  13. Radiometric, SEM and XRD investigation of the Chituc black sands, southern Danube Delta, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margineanu, R.M.; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Celarel, Aurelia; Gomoiu, Claudia-Mariana; Costea, C.; Dumitras, Delia; Ion, Adriana; Duliu, O.G.

    2014-01-01

    The black sand of the Chituc marine sand bank, northern of the city of Navodari (Romania), presents anomalous high radioactivity. Field measurements recorded in some places dose rate up to 200 nSv/h, significantly overpassing the average value of 44 ± 20 nSv/h along the entire Southern sector of Romanian Black Sea shore. Gamma ray spectrometry performed on both Slanic-Prahova Underground Low Background Laboratory and Geological Institute of Romania Radiometric Facilities showed with clarity the dominance of 228 Ac radioisotope in the 50 microns fraction together with the 226 Ra and traces of 40 K. No significant amount of anthropogenic 137 Cs was identified. Based on radiometric as well as on SEM–EDAX and XRD determinations we come to the conclusion that the evidenced radioactivity could be attributed to both uranium and thorium series in the zircon and monazite fractions and to a lesser extent to potassium in the feldspars. - Highlights: • High background radioactivity (up to 200 nSv/h) evidenced. • Radiometric measurements showed a maximum radioactivity of U and Th confined to 50–100 μm fraction. • XRD and SEM–EDAX data revealed the presence of k-feldspars, ilmenite, zircone, monazite and garnets

  14. Synoptic view of the different domains of application of airborne radiometric and spectrometric surveys in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Airborne radiometric survey has been applied for more than three decades in egypt. Experience gained from the acquired data over different geological environments has revealed the importance of this geophysical tool in: 1. disclosure of anomalies of potential uranium deposits, 2. geological mapping, 3. environmental monitoring of natural radiometric background around nuclear facilities, as well as the detection of nuclear fallout resulting from local or foreign nuclear activities. The advent of recording of the discriminated gamma ray energies in the airborne 256-channel spectrometer has eventually resulted in the quantitative detection of uranium, thorium, and potassium and their elemental ratios in the rocks. This has greatly widened the scope of geophysical and geochemical application. When this type is coupled with airborne magnetometry, the geological and structural configuration is appreciably revealed in three dimensions. The important role played by the statistical method of analysis is also shown. Case histories from the eastern desert, and sinai peninsula, are exhibited to help manifest the wide variety of applications of radiometric and spectrometric surveys

  15. The use of radiometric-logging techniques to determine uranium grade in certain mineralised Karoo boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.; De Beer, G.P.

    1976-05-01

    During the period September-October 1975, 22 mineralised boreholes in nine different Karoo uranium occurrences were logged radiometrically with the aim of determining to what accuracy the actual uranium grade could be predicted from the gamma logs. The true uranium grades of the mineralised zones logged were known from existing chemical analyses. The results showed that the uranium grades could be predicted to an accuracy of better than 10% through the use of gamma-logging equipment calibrated at Pelindaba, provided that the ore was in equilibrium and that little or no thorium was present. Disequilibrium is, however, prevalent in the Karoo, and in the holes logged it occurred by depletion of uranium relative to its gamma-emitting daughter products. Such effects were mostly confined to the zone above the water table, and it is concluded that for Karoo-type occurrences, the high radiometric background levels observed over extended distances in some boreholes were indicative of radon-gas buildup, and hence of disequilibrium. It is further concluded that radiometric borehole logging can largely replace chemical analyses in the determination of uranium grade for ore-reserve calculations, although chemical checks for disequilibrium would always be necessary [af

  16. RADIOMETRIC CORRECTION OF MULTITEMPORAL HYPERSPECTRAL UAS IMAGE MOSAICS OF SEEDLING STANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Markelin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel miniaturized multi- and hyperspectral imaging sensors on board of unmanned aerial vehicles have recently shown great potential in various environmental monitoring and measuring tasks such as precision agriculture and forest management. These systems can be used to collect dense 3D point clouds and spectral information over small areas such as single forest stands or sample plots. Accurate radiometric processing and atmospheric correction is required when data sets from different dates and sensors, collected in varying illumination conditions, are combined. Performance of novel radiometric block adjustment method, developed at Finnish Geospatial Research Institute, is evaluated with multitemporal hyperspectral data set of seedling stands collected during spring and summer 2016. Illumination conditions during campaigns varied from bright to overcast. We use two different methods to produce homogenous image mosaics and hyperspectral point clouds: image-wise relative correction and image-wise relative correction with BRDF. Radiometric datasets are converted to reflectance using reference panels and changes in reflectance spectra is analysed. Tested methods improved image mosaic homogeneity by 5 % to 25 %. Results show that the evaluated method can produce consistent reflectance mosaics and reflectance spectra shape between different areas and dates.

  17. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  18. Seismic instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The aim of this RFS is to define the type, location and operating conditions for seismic instrumentation needed to determine promptly the seismic response of nuclear power plants features important to safety to permit comparison of such response with that used as the design basis

  19. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  20. Neutron activation and radiometric investigation of Kazakhstan soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwozdz, R.; Popov, J.V.; Shishkov, I.A.; Poznyak, V.; Solodukhin, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Great diversity of radio-ecological problems requires measurement of materials with vastly differing chemical composition and density, and varying volume. In case of gamma spectrometry such variation in composition, density and volume changes the response of a measuring system quite drastically. A necessary correction is usually achieved by applying one of the four correction methods. The first one is applying a standard with composition as close to the measured sample as possible. The second method needs some previous knowledge about the chemical composition of the sample and a subsequent calculation of the mass absorption coefficient. The third method, an intensity ratio of two gamma lines, can only be applied when an isotope in the investigated sample has two measurable gamma lines. The fourth method consists in an additional gamma transmission measurement, using an isotopic source. Application of the first two methods to samples collected in Kazakhstan is evaluated and the results achieved are described. Instrumental neutron activation analysis by either long, or short irradiation was applied to three groups of samples. The first 15 samples were from the Semipalatinsk area, the next 15 from the area north for the Kara-Tau range. The third group of 5 samples was from the Syr-Darya valley. The Kara-Tau and Syr-Darya samples originate from the area adjacent to an uranium mining site. Only two samples are collected at cultivated soil, all the other are collected at the steppe or semi-desert areas, In the additional group measured there were ten sub-samples of the environmental soil standard, prepared at the Institute of Nuclear Physics. Activation analysis was applied as well to Soil-6 and Soil IAEA-375, two reference materials distributed by IAEA. Determination of concentration of about 40 elements in very sample enabled computation of mass absorption coefficients for all the investigated samples. Results of calculation and experimental testing prove

  1. Deciphering Solar Magnetic Activity: Spotting Solar Cycle 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2017-06-26

    We present observational signatures of solar cycle 25 onset. Those signatures are visibly following a migratory path from high to low latitudes. They had starting points that are asymmetrically offset in each hemisphere at times that are 21–22 years after the corresponding, same polarity, activity bands of solar cycle 23 started their migration. Those bands define the so-called “extended solar cycle.” The four magnetic bands currently present in the system are approaching a mutually cancelling configuration, and solar minimum conditions are imminent. Further, using a tuned analysis of the daily band latitude-time diagnostics, we are able to utilize the longitudinal wave number (m = 1) variation in the data to more clearly reveal the presence of the solar cycle 25 bands. This clarification illustrates that prevalently active longitudes (different in each hemisphere) exist at mid-latitudes presently, lasting many solar rotations, that can be used for detailed study over the next several years with instruments like the Spectrograph on IRIS, the Spectropolarimeter on Hinode, and, when they come online, similar instruments on the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) as we watch those bands evolve following the cancellation of the solar cycle 24 activity bands at the equator late in 2019.

  2. Radiological instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Seibentritt, C.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring radiation, particularly nuclear radiation, comprising: a radiation sensitive structure pivoted toward one end and including a pair of elongated solid members contiguously joined together along their length dimensions and having a common planar interface therebetween. One of the pairs of members is comprised of radiochromic material whose index of refraction changes due to anomolous dispersion as a result of being exposed to nuclear radiation. The pair of members further has mutually different indices of refraction with the member having the larger index of refraction further being transparent for the passage of light and of energy therethrough; means located toward the other end of the structure for varying the angle of longitudinal elevation of the pair of members; means for generating and projecting a beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction. The beam of light is projected toward the planar interface where it is reflected out of the other end of the same member as a first output beam; means projecting a portion of the beam of light into one end of the member having the larger index of refraction where it traverses therethrough without reflection and out of the other end of the same member as a second output beam; and means adjacent the structure for receiving the first and second output beams, whereby a calibrated change in the angle of elevation of the structure between positions of equal intensity of the first and second output beams prior to and following exposure provides a measure of the radiation sensed due to a change of refraction of the radiochromic material

  3. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  4. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  5. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  6. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Solar radiation alert system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Solar Radiation Alert (SRA) system continuously evaluates measurements of high-energy protons made by instruments on GOES satellites. If the measurements indicate a substantial elevation of effective dose rates at aircraft flight altitudes, the C...

  8. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  9. Qualification and recovering of solar radiation data measured at Florianopolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil; Qualificacao e recuperacao de dados de radiacao solar medidos em Florianopolis - Santa Catarina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Samuel L. de; Colle, Sergio; Almeida, Anand P.; Mantelli Neto, Sylvio Luiz [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar]. E-mail: samuel@emc.ufsc.br; colle@emc.ufsc.br; anand@labsolar.ufsc.br; sylvio@labsolar.ufsc.br

    2000-07-01

    The incident solar radiation is one of the most important inputs for simulation programs of solar thermal systems and of thermal behavior of buildings. Actually, these kind of data are well known for countries where long-term measurements of incident solar radiation are available. This fact allows the use of statistical procedures to generate typical meteorological years for simulation. In Brazil, solar radiation data are measured in sites spread all over the country by individual efforts. These data are usually measured only during short periods of time, does not have any standardization, and also are not easy to access. The present work describes the steps of qualification and data-filling used to handle the raw data measured in a specific location. The present data were measured in the radiometric station of the Solar Energy Laboratory (Federal University of Santa Catarina) in Florianopolis, for the period of 1990 to 1999. (author)

  10. Solar and infrared radiation measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Vignola, Frank; Michalsky, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The rather specialized field of solar and infrared radiation measurement has become more and more important in the face of growing demands by the renewable energy and climate change research communities for data that are more accurate and have increased temporal and spatial resolution. Updating decades of acquired knowledge in the field, Solar and Infrared Radiation Measurements details the strengths and weaknesses of instruments used to conduct such solar and infrared radiation measurements. Topics covered include: Radiometer design and performance Equipment calibration, installation, operati

  11. Solar Image Analysis and Visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, J

    2009-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of papers on the state of the art of image enhancement, automated feature detection, machine learning, and visualization tools in support of solar physics that focus on the challenges presented by new ground-based and space-based instrumentation. The articles and topics were inspired by the Third Solar Image Processing Workshop, held at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland but contributions from other experts have been included as well. This book is mainly aimed at researchers and graduate students working on image processing and compter vision in astronomy and solar physics.

  12. Solar Special

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Roekel, A.; Osborne, J.; Schroeter, S.; De Jong, R.; De Saint Jacob, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Solar power is growing much faster than most policymakers and analysts realise. As costs come down and feed-in tariffs go up across Europe, a number of countries have started in pursuit of market leader Germany. But in Germany criticism is growing of the multi-billion-euro support schemes that keep the solar industry booming. In this section of the magazine several articles are dedicated to developments in solar energy in Europe. The first article is an overview story on the strong growing global market for solar cells, mainly thanks to subsidy schemes. The second article is on the position of foreign companies in the solar market in Italy. Article number three is dedicated to the conditions for solar technology companies to establish themselves in the German state of Saxony. Also the fifth article deals with the development of solar cells in Saxony: scientists, plant manufacturers and module producers in Saxony are working on new technologies that can be used to produce solar electricity cost-effectively. The goal is to bring the price down to match that of conventionally generated electricity within the next few years. The sixth article deals with the the solar power market in Belgium, which may be overheated or 'oversubsidized'. Article seven is on France, which used to be a pioneer in solar technology, but now produces only a fraction of the solar output of market leader Germany. However, new attractive feed-in-tariffs are changing the solar landscape drastically

  13. Direct observations of low-energy solar electrons associated with a type 3 solar radio burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    On 6 April 1971 a solar X-ray flare and a type 3 solar radio noise burst were observed with instrumentation on the eccentric-orbiting satellite IMP 6. The type 3 solar radio noise burst was detected down to a frequency of 31 kHz. A highly anisotropic packet of low-energy solar electron intensities arrived at the satellite approximately 6000 seconds after the onset of the solar flare. This packet of solar electron intensities was observed for 4200 seconds. Maximum differential intensities of the solar electrons were in the energy range of one to several keV. The frequency drift rate of the type 3 radio noise at frequencies below 178 kHz also indicated an average particle speed corresponding to that of a 3-keV electron. The simultaneous observations of these solar electron intensities and of the type 3 solar radio burst are presented, and their interrelationships are explored.

  14. A novel solution for car traffic control based on radiometric microwave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Denisov, Alexander; Speziale, Victor

    2014-05-01

    The significant problem of traffic in big cities, connected with huge and building up quantity of automobile cars, demands for novel strategies, based on nonconventional solutions, in order to improve system traffic control, especially at crossroads. As well known, the usual solution is based on the time relay, which requires the installation of a fixed traffic interval (signal light switching) at a crossroad; this solution is low cost, but does not account for the actual traffic conditions. Therefore, in the recent years, attention is towards to new designs, where the monitoring of the and control of traffic is carried out by using various methods including, optical, the infrared, magnetic, radar tracking, acoustical ones. In this work, we discuss the deployment of high sensitivity radiometric systems and radiometers(sensor) in the microwave range [1, 2]. In fact, the radiometer as "sensor" can provide an always updated information about the car traffic in any weather condition and in absence or low visibility conditions. In fact, the radiometric sensor detects the cars thanks to the different behavior of the car roofs which reflect the cold sky whereas the road asphalt is visible as warm object (at around outside temperature). [1] A. G. Denisov, V. P. Gorishnyak, S. E. Kuzmin et al., "Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8mm wave imaging system," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (ISSTT '09), Charlottesville, Va, USA, April 2009. [2] F. Soldovieri, A. Natale, V. Gorishnyak, A. Pavluchenko, A. Denisov, and L. Chen, "Radiometric Imaging for Monitoring and Surveillance Issues," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 272561, 8 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/272561.

  15. Spatial and radiometric characterization of multi-spectrum satellite images through multi-fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmelo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Zúñiga, Ignacio; Benito, Rosa M.

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have shown that vegetation indexes can be used to estimate root zone soil moisture. Earth surface images, obtained by high-resolution satellites, presently give a lot of information on these indexes, based on the data of several wavelengths. Because of the potential capacity for systematic observations at various scales, remote sensing technology extends the possible data archives from the present time to several decades back. Because of this advantage, enormous efforts have been made by researchers and application specialists to delineate vegetation indexes from local scale to global scale by applying remote sensing imagery. In this work, four band images have been considered, which are involved in these vegetation indexes, and were taken by satellites Ikonos-2 and Landsat-7 of the same geographic location, to study the effect of both spatial (pixel size) and radiometric (number of bits coding the image) resolution on these wavelength bands as well as two vegetation indexes: the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In order to do so, a multi-fractal analysis of these multi-spectral images was applied in each of these bands and the two indexes derived. The results showed that spatial resolution has a similar scaling effect in the four bands, but radiometric resolution has a larger influence in blue and green bands than in red and near-infrared bands. The NDVI showed a higher sensitivity to the radiometric resolution than EVI. Both were equally affected by the spatial resolution. From both factors, the spatial resolution has a major impact in the multi-fractal spectrum for all the bands and the vegetation indexes. This information should be taken in to account when vegetation indexes based on different satellite sensors are obtained.

  16. Solar Flare Aimed at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    At the height of the solar cycle, the Sun is finally displaying some fireworks. This image from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows a large solar flare from June 6, 2000 at 1424 Universal Time (10:24 AM Eastern Daylight Savings Time). Associated with the flare was a coronal mass ejection that sent a wave of fast moving charged particles straight towards Earth. (The image was acquired by the Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), one of 12 instruments aboard SOHO) Solar activity affects the Earth in several ways. The particles generated by flares can disrupt satellite communications and interfere with power transmission on the Earth's surface. Earth's climate is tied to the total energy emitted by the sun, cooling when the sun radiates less energy and warming when solar output increases. Solar radiation also produces ozone in the stratosphere, so total ozone levels tend to increase during the solar maximum. For more information about these solar flares and the SOHO mission, see NASA Science News or the SOHO home page. For more about the links between the sun and climate change, see Sunspots and the Solar Max. Image courtesy SOHO Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope, ESA/NASA

  17. Solar UV Variations During the Decline of Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLand, Matthew, T.; Cebula, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of temporal and spectral variations in solar ultraviolet irradiance over a solar cycle is essential for understanding the forcing of Earth's atmosphere and climate. Satellite measurements of solar UV variability for solar cycles 21, 22, and 23 show consistent solar cycle irradiance changes at key wavelengths (e.g. 205 nm, 250 nm) within instrumental uncertainties. All historical data sets also show the same relative spectral dependence for both short-term (rotational) and long-term (solar cycle) variations. Empirical solar irradiance models also produce long-term solar UV variations that agree well with observational data. Recent UV irradiance data from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) and Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instruments covering the declining phase of Cycle 23 present a different picture oflong-term solar variations from previous results. Time series of SIM and SOLSTICE spectral irradiance data between 2003 and 2007 show solar variations that greatly exceed both previous measurements and predicted irradiance changes over this period, and the spectral dependence of the SIM and SOLSTICE variations during these years do not show features expected from solar physics theory. The use of SORCE irradiance variations in atmospheric models yields substantially different middle atmosphere ozone responses in both magnitude and vertical structure. However, short-term solar variability derived from SIM and SOLSTICE UV irradiance data is consistent with concurrent solar UV measurements from other instruments, as well as previous results, suggesting no change in solar physics. Our analysis of short-term solar variability is much less sensitive to residual instrument response changes than the observations of long-term variations. The SORCE long-term UV results can be explained by under-correction of instrument response changes during the first few years of measurements

  18. Radiometric sampling of bucked copper-nickel ores for determining chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlev, V.N.; Eliseev, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    Presented are the results and the technique of experimental-methodical works on radiometric sampling of bucked copper-nickel ores for determining chemical composition with their selection and analysis by the neutron-gamma method and by the gamma-gamma method. The error is estimated according to the chosen conditions of sampling. It is found that the gamma-gamma method being more rapid but less accurate is applied for rapid control of ore current, whereas the neutron-gamma method is applied for quality control of ores extracted

  19. Use of HPLC with flow-through radiometric detection for low level environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, J.; Fackler, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    High Performance Liquid Chromatography with flow-through radiometric detection (HPLC-RAM) is increasingly becoming a standard analytical technique in pharmaceutical, agricultural and chemical industries for monitoring radiolabeled analytes. This paper focuses on the applications of this flow-through radiochromatographic technique for low level aquatic toxicology and environmental fate testing. Examples include parts per billion water, sediment/soil and fish tissue analyses using reverse phase as well as normal phase HPLC. The applications of both homogeneous (liquid) and heterogeneous (solid) flow cell scintillation counting are addressed. Compounds discussed are primarily pesticides and pharmaceuticals

  20. Radiometric titration of officinal radiopharmaceuticals using radioactive kryptonates as end-point indicators. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Dillinger, P.; Harangozo, M.; Jombik, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the determination of salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in officinal pharmaceutical based on radiometric titration with 0.1 mol.l -1 NaOH was developed. The end-point was detected with the aid of radioactive glass kryptonate. After the end-point, the excess titrant attacks the glass surface layers and this results in releasing 85 Kr, and consequently, in decreasing the radioactivity of the kryptonate employed. The radioactive kryptonate used as an indicator was prepared by the bombardment of glass with accelerated 85 Kr ions. The developed method is simple, accurate and correct. (author)