WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar pv systems

  1. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  2. Data monitoring system for PV solar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, M.; Katerski, A.; Williams, A.

    2000-01-01

    The two 1.5 kWp photovoltaic (PV) solar generators are installed and the new PC data monitoring system is developed by applying EC standards for European Solar Test Installation (ESTI). The schematic system diagram of PV generator is presented. The recording parameters for analytical and global monitoring are discussed. The meteorological data from ESTI sensors, temperature sensor and electrical data from inverter and calibrated shunt are stored via analog digital converters (ADC) on a hard disk of data storage PC. Data Logger and Monitor software for automatic data acquisition, treatment and visual distance control of all output PV data from PV solar generator has been created

  3. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  4. Developing solar: PV solar system markets in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asali, Karim

    2002-01-01

    Governments, NGO's and UN organisations are increasingly convinced that renewable energies not only help to solve energy problems in Africa but are indispensable in alleviating regional disparities, social problems and bridging the digital gap. Still, many years after introducing high efficiency solar PV systems the necessary breakthrough of implementing them on a mass scale is still not a reality. The author provides perspectives on developing solar PV in Africa. (Author)

  5. Integrating Solar PV in Utility System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A.; Botterud, A.; Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.; Hodge, B-M.; Heany, M.

    2013-10-31

    This study develops a systematic framework for estimating the increase in operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources, uses the framework to quantify the integration costs associated with sub-hourly solar power variability and uncertainty, and shows how changes in system operations may affect these costs. Toward this end, we present a statistical method for estimating the required balancing reserves to maintain system reliability along with a model for commitment and dispatch of the portfolio of thermal and renewable resources at different stages of system operations. We estimate the costs of sub-hourly solar variability, short-term forecast errors, and day-ahead (DA) forecast errors as the difference in production costs between a case with “realistic” PV (i.e., subhourly solar variability and uncertainty are fully included in the modeling) and a case with “well behaved” PV (i.e., PV is assumed to have no sub-hourly variability and can be perfectly forecasted). In addition, we highlight current practices that allow utilities to compensate for the issues encountered at the sub-hourly time frame with increased levels of PV penetration. In this analysis we use the analytical framework to simulate utility operations with increasing deployment of PV in a case study of Arizona Public Service Company (APS), a utility in the southwestern United States. In our analysis, we focus on three processes that are important in understanding the management of PV variability and uncertainty in power system operations. First, we represent the decisions made the day before the operating day through a DA commitment model that relies on imperfect DA forecasts of load and wind as well as PV generation. Second, we represent the decisions made by schedulers in the operating day through hour-ahead (HA) scheduling. Peaking units can be committed or decommitted in the HA schedules and online units can be redispatched using forecasts that are improved

  6. The possibility of developing hybrid PV/T solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrnjac, M.; Zivkovic, P.; Babic, V.

    2017-05-01

    An alternative and cost-effective solution to developing integrated PV system is to use hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar system. The temperature of PV modules increases due to the absorbed solar radiation that is not converted into electricity, causing a decrease in their efficiency. In hybrid PV/T solar systems the reduction of PV module temperature can be combined with a useful fluid heating. In this paper we present the possibility of developing a new hybrid PV/T solar system. Hybrid PV/T system can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We developed PV/T prototype consisted of commercial PV module and thermal panel with our original solution of aluminium absorber with special geometric shapes. The main advantages of our combined PV/T system are: removing of heat from the PV panel; extending the lifetime of photovoltaic cells; excess of the removing heat from PV part is used to heat the fluid in the thermal part of the panel; the possibility of using on the roof and facade constructions because less weight.

  7. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  8. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  9. Industrial application of PV/T solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, S.A.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) systems consist of PV modules and heat extraction units mounted together. These systems can simultaneously provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation than plain photovoltaics. Industries show high demand of energy for both heat and electricity and the hybrid PV/T systems could be used in order to meet this requirement. In this paper the application aspects in the industry of PV/T systems with water heat extraction is presented. The systems are analyzed with TRNSYS program for three locations Nicosia, Athens and Madison that are located at different latitudes. The system comprises 300 m 2 of hybrid PV/T collectors producing both electricity and thermal energy and a 10 m 3 water storage tank. The work includes the study of an industrial process heat system operated at two load supply temperatures of 60 deg. C and 80 deg. C. The results show that the electrical production of the system, employing polycrystalline solar cells, is more than the amorphous ones but the solar thermal contribution is slightly lower. A non-hybrid PV system produces about 25% more electrical energy but the present system covers also, depending on the location, a large percentage of the thermal energy requirement of the industry considered. The economic viability of the systems is proven, as positive life cycle savings are obtained in the case of hybrid systems and the savings are increased for higher load temperature applications. Additionally, although amorphous silicon panels are much less efficient than the polycrystalline ones, better economic figures are obtained due to their lower initial cost, i.e., they have better cost/benefit ratio

  10. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Distributed Generation Systems - Control and Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhehan

    This dissertation proposes a comprehensive control, power management, and fault detection strategy for solar photovoltaic (PV) distribution generations. Battery storages are typically employed in PV systems to mitigate the power fluctuation caused by unstable solar irradiance. With AC and DC loads, a PV-battery system can be treated as a hybrid microgrid which contains both DC and AC power resources and buses. In this thesis, a control power and management system (CAPMS) for PV-battery hybrid microgrid is proposed, which provides 1) the DC and AC bus voltage and AC frequency regulating scheme and controllers designed to track set points; 2) a power flow management strategy in the hybrid microgrid to achieve system generation and demand balance in both grid-connected and islanded modes; 3) smooth transition control during grid reconnection by frequency and phase synchronization control between the main grid and microgrid. Due to the increasing demands for PV power, scales of PV systems are getting larger and fault detection in PV arrays becomes challenging. High-impedance faults, low-mismatch faults, and faults occurred in low irradiance conditions tend to be hidden due to low fault currents, particularly, when a PV maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is in-service. If remain undetected, these faults can considerably lower the output energy of solar systems, damage the panels, and potentially cause fire hazards. In this dissertation, fault detection challenges in PV arrays are analyzed in depth, considering the crossing relations among the characteristics of PV, interactions with MPPT algorithms, and the nature of solar irradiance. Two fault detection schemes are then designed as attempts to address these technical issues, which detect faults inside PV arrays accurately even under challenging circumstances, e.g., faults in low irradiance conditions or high-impedance faults. Taking advantage of multi-resolution signal decomposition (MSD), a powerful signal

  11. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  12. Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, N.; Hernandez, J.; Gordillo, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I-V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I-V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well

  13. Development of a monitoring system for a PV solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forero, N. [Licenciatura en Fisica, Universidad Distrital, Bogota (Colombia); Hernandez, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Gordillo, G. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a system developed for monitoring PV solar plants using a novel procedure based on virtual instrumentation. The measurements and processing of the data are made using high precision I/O modular field point (FP) devices as hardware, a data acquisition card as software and the package of graphic programming, LabVIEW. The system is able to store and display both the collected data of the environmental variables and the PV plant electrical output parameters, including the plant I-V curve. A relevant aspect of this work is the development of a unit that allows automatic measuring of the solar plant I-V curve using a car battery as power supply. The system has been in operation during the last two years and all its units have functioned well. (author)

  14. Harmonic analysis and suppression in hybrid wind & PV solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tripti; Namekar, Swapnil

    2018-04-01

    The growing demand of electricity has led to produce power through non-conventional source of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, hydro power, energy through biogas and biomass etc. Hybrid system is taken to complement the shortcoming of either sources of energy. The proposed system is grid connected hybrid wind and solar system. A 2.1 MW Doubly fed Induction Generator (DFIG) has been taken for analysis of wind farm whose rotor part is connected to two back-to-back converters. A 250 KW Photovoltaic (PV) array taken to analyze solar farm where inverter is required to convert power from DC to AC since electricity generated through solar PV is in the form of DC. Stability and reliability of the system is very important when the system is grid connected. Harmonics is the major Power quality issue which degrades the quality of power at load side. Harmonics in hybrid system arise through the use of power conversion unit. The other causes of harmonics are fluctuation in wind speed and solar irradiance. The power delivered to grid must be free from harmonics and within the limits specified by Indian grid codes. In proposed work, harmonic analysis of the hybrid system is performed in Electrical Transient Analysis program (ETAP) and single tuned harmonic filter is designed to maintain the utility grid harmonics within limits.

  15. Development of solar energy for efficient PV application systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Aziz

    2006-01-01

    It is essential to increase research, development, awareness for the application of solar energy as an important source of life. The cost of PV systems has decreased due to the improvement in techniques of manufacturing and performance. In reality, photovoltaic is one technology that allows the production of electricity with only two components: technological, which is the PV module and environmental, which is the sun. The knowledge of the components market represents a critical parameters in establishing sustainable industrial applications on different activity sectors. This paper illustrates the advantages of using photovoltaic in rural area and their economic and environmental impact. In regions where petroleum or other fossil fuels are not available, and where these remote area are not connected to the electrical grid, there is a strong and increasing demand for the technologies related to photovoltaic application systems. Water extracting and pumping, telecommunication and lighting, irrigation systems, electrical driven cars and trucks represent some of these important applications. The paper also develops critical skills for the most useful PV application in Egypt and provide to the industry a development forecast for the new technology. Then an initiation contacts and cooperation on PV application between industries specially in North Africa Middle East in order to improve the reliability and to get cheaper systems.(Author)

  16. Solar PV energy for water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahar, F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction into understanding the relative merits, characteristics, including economics, of photovoltically powered water pumping systems. Although more than 10,000 photovoltaic pumping systems are known to be operating through out the world, many potential users do not know how to decide weather feasibility assessment, and system procurement so that the reader can made an informed decision about water pumping systems, especially those powered with photovoltaics. (author)

  17. Photovoltaic solar panel for a hybrid PV/thermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenko, R.; Licea-Jimenez, L.; Perez-Garcia, S.A.; Perez-Robles, J.F.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Vorobiev, Y. [CINVESTAV-Queretaro, (Mexico); Vorobiev, P. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria; Dehesa-Carrasco, U. [Instituto Tec. Del Istmo, Oaxaco (Mexico). Dep. de Ingenieria Electromecanica

    2004-05-01

    The hybrid PV-thermal system was studied, with the photovoltaic panel (PVP) area much smaller than that of the solar collector. Performance of the different panels in the system was investigated, in particular, those made of crystalline (c-) Si, {alpha}-Si and CuInSe{sub 2} as well as different materials and constructions for the thermal contact between the panel and the collector. Our conclusion is that the PVP for application in a hybrid system needs a special design providing efficient heat extraction from it. PVP was designed and made. Its study has shown that this design provides the high electrical and thermal efficiency of the hybrid system. (author)

  18. Building integrated multi PV/T/A solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ami Elazari

    2000-01-01

    Previous development in solar energy for residential applications proved that there is merit in further development and improvement of combined electricity and hot water and hot air collectors. The justification stems from the fact that waste heat is generated when PV cells are producing electricity but it decrease its efficiency dramatically, and any effective way to cool the cells can improve their efficiency and long while the heat that generated from this cooling process could be stored and used as standard solar hot water/air system. The core unit comprises of integrated PV cells mounted on a flat-plate collector for water and air, hot water storage tank hot air inlet pips to the house electric battery bank, inverter, connecting cables and controller. Double-glazing serving as solar trap to triple the amount of sun ray reaching the PV cells and other technical innovation make the system more cost effective and cost benefit for stand alone and grid connected domestic application. Two way interconnection with the electric grid like in all the roof top program may bring it to economic viability by selling excess electricity during the costly peak hours while buying low cost electricity during the night off-peak hours, and free electricity from the sun plus free hot water and hot air for domestic use as by-product. A basic domestic two-collector system may deliver up to 4 kWh of electricity and 12000 kcal of hot water and air daily. Some 22 systems are currently operating at various locations in Israel, some for 8 years with very good results. (Author)

  19. A Review of Hybrid Solar PV and Wind Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Badwawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that solar and wind power is intermittent and unpredictable in nature, higher penetration of their types in existing power system could cause and create high technical challenges especially to weak grids or stand-alone systems without proper and enough storage capacity. By integrating the two renewable resources into an optimum combination, the impact of the variable nature of solar and wind resources can be partially resolved and the overall system becomes more reliable and economical to run. This paper provides a review of challenges and opportunities / solutions of hybrid solar PV and wind energy integration systems. Voltage and frequency fluctuation, and harmonics are major power quality issues for both grid-connected and stand-alone systems with bigger impact in case of weak grid. This can be resolved to a large extent by having proper design, advanced fast response control facilities, and good optimization of the hybrid systems. The paper gives a review of the main research work reported in the literature with regard to optimal sizing design, power electronics topologies and control. The paper presents a review of the state of the art of both grid-connected and stand-alone hybrid solar and wind systems.

  20. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  1. The Development of Monitoring and Control System of the Low PV/T Solar System

    OpenAIRE

    Okhorzina Alena; Bikbulatov Alexander; Yurchenko Alexey; Bernhard Norbert; Aldoshina Oksana

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an autonomous PV/T solar installation. Installing converts solar energy into electricity and heat. The description of its components and elements that enhance its effectiveness shows. The description of the control program and control of the installation is given. The control system provides for tracking the sun and cooling the photovoltaic module.

  2. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  3. Use of Super-Capacitor to Enhance Charging Performance of Stand-Alone Solar PV System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.; Hsu, P. C.; Ho, P. Y

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The battery charging performance in a stand-alone solar PV system affects the PV system efficiency and the load operating time. The New Energy Center of National Taiwan University has been devoted to the development of a PWM charging

  4. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we examine some of the limits to large-scale deployment of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditional electric power systems. Specifically, we evaluate the ability of PV to provide a large fraction (up to 50%) of a utility system's energy by comparing hourly output of a simulated large PV system to the amount of electricity actually usable. The simulations use hourly recorded solar insolation and load data for Texas in the year 2000 and consider the constraints of traditional electricity generation plants to reduce output and accommodate intermittent PV generation. We find that under high penetration levels and existing grid-operation procedures and rules, the system will have excess PV generation during certain periods of the year. Several metrics are developed to examine this excess PV generation and resulting costs as a function of PV penetration at different levels of system flexibility. The limited flexibility of base load generators produces increasingly large amounts of unusable PV generation when PV provides perhaps 10-20% of a system's energy. Measures to increase PV penetration beyond this range will be discussed and quantified in a follow-up analysis

  5. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T. [Cascade Engineering, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  6. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Bhavesh; Tamboli, Adish; Wubhayavedantapuram, Nandan

    2017-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP) recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology) while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  7. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  8. A novel solar multifunctional PV/T/D system for green building roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Chaoqing; Zheng, Hongfei; Wang, Rui; Yu, Xu; Su, Yuehong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel transparent roof combines the solar PV/T/D system with green building design. • Novel photovoltaic-thermal roofing design can achieve excellent light control at noon. • The roof has no obvious influence on indoor light intensity in morning and afternoon. • Higher efficiency of solar energy utilization could be achieved with new roofing. - Abstract: A novel transparent roof which is made of solid CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) PV/T/D (Photovoltaic/Thermal/Day lighting) system is presented. It combines the solar PV/T/D system with green building design. The PV/T/D system can achieve excellent light control at noon and adjust the thermal environment in the building, such that high efficiency utilization of solar energy could be achieved in modern architecture. This kind of roof can increase the visual comfort for building occupants; it can also avoid the building interior from overheating and dazzling at noon which is caused by direct sunlight through transparent roof. Optical simulation software is used to track the light path in different incidence angles. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and steady state experiment have been taken to investigate the thermal characteristic of PV/T/D device. Finally, the PV/T/D experimental system was built; and the PV efficiency, light transmittance and air heating power of the system are tested under real sky conditions

  9. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.; Hsu, P. C.; Wu, M. S.; Chen, K.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system

  10. Grid Connected Solar PV System with SEPIC Converter Compared with Parallel Boost Converter Based MPPT

    OpenAIRE

    Bosco Raj, T. Ajith; Ramesh, R.; Maglin, J. R.; Vaigundamoorthi, M.; William Christopher, I.; Gopinath, C.; Yaashuwanth, C.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the behaviour of the solar PV systems and model the efficient Grid-connected solar power system. The DC-DC MPPT circuit using chaotic pulse width modulation has been designed to track maximum power from solar PV module. The conversion efficiency of the proposed MPPT system is increased when CPWM is used as a control scheme. This paper also proposes a simplified multilevel (seven level) inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The primary g...

  11. Power Generation Potential and Cost of a Roof Top Solar PV System in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjel, N.; Zhand, A.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a comparative study of the 3 most used solar PV module technologies in Nepal, which are Si-mono-crystalline, Si-poly-crystalline and Si-amorphous. The aim of the paper is to present and discuss the recorded Global Solar Radiation, received in the Kathmandu valley by three different, Si-mono-crystalline, Si-poly-crystalline and Si-amorphous calibrated solar cell pyranometers and to propose the best-suited solar PV module technology for roof top solar PV systems inside the Kathmandu valley. Data recorded over the course of seven months, thus covering most of the seasonal meteorological conditions determining Kathmandu valley's global solar radiation reception are presented. The results indicate that the Si-amorphous pyranometer captured 1.56% more global solar radiation than the Si-mono-crystalline and 18.4% more than Si-poly-crystalline pyranometer over the course of seven months. Among the three pyranometer technologies the maximum and minimum cell temperature was measured by the Si-mono-crystalline pyranometer. Following the technical data and discussion, an economical analysis, using the versatile software tool PVSYST V5.01is used to calculate the life cycle costs of a 1kW roof top solar PV RAPS system, with battery storage, and a 1kW roof top solar PV grid connected system with no energy storage facility, through simulations, using average recorded global solar radiation data for the KTM valley and investigated market values for each solar PV module and peripheral equipment costs.

  12. The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a combined solar photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric generator (TEG) system is examined using an analytical model for four different types of commercial PVs and a commercial bismuth telluride TEG. The TEG is applied directly on the back of the PV, so that the two devices have...... the same temperature. The PVs considered are crystalline Si (c-Si), amorphous Si (a-Si), copper indium gallium (di) selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) cells. The degradation of PV performance with temperature is shown to dominate the increase in power produced by the TEG, due to the low...... efficiency of the TEG. For c-Si, CIGS and CdTe PV cells the combined system produces a lower power and has a lower efficiency than the PV alone, whereas for an a-Si cell the total system performance may be slightly increased by the TEG....

  13. Integrating solar PV (photovoltaics) in utility system operations: Analytical framework and Arizona case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jing; Botterud, Audun; Mills, Andrew; Zhou, Zhi; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Heaney, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed to estimate the impact on operating costs due to uncertainty and variability in renewable resources. The framework quantifies the integration costs associated with sub-hourly variability and uncertainty as well as day-ahead forecasting errors in solar PV (photovoltaics) power. A case study illustrates how changes in system operations may affect these costs for a utility in the southwestern United States (Arizona Public Service Company). We conduct an extensive sensitivity analysis under different assumptions about balancing reserves, system flexibility, fuel prices, and forecasting errors. We find that high solar PV penetrations may lead to operational challenges, particularly during low-load and high solar periods. Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing integration costs and maintaining reliability. In a set of sensitivity cases where such flexibility is provided, in part, by flexible operations of nuclear power plants, the estimated integration costs vary between $1.0 and $4.4/MWh-PV for a PV penetration level of 17%. The integration costs are primarily due to higher needs for hour-ahead balancing reserves to address the increased sub-hourly variability and uncertainty in the PV resource. - Highlights: • We propose an analytical framework to estimate grid integration costs for solar PV. • Increased operating costs from variability and uncertainty in solar PV are computed. • A case study of a utility in Arizona is conducted. • Grid integration costs are found in the $1.0–4.4/MWh range for a 17% PV penetration. • Increased system flexibility is essential for minimizing grid integration costs

  14. MPPT Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) for Photovoltaic (PV) System in Solar Car

    OpenAIRE

    Aji, Seno; Ajiatmo, Dwi; Robandi, Imam; Suryoatmojo, Heri

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) for photovoltaic (PV) system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of MPPT based fuzzy logic controller (MPPT-FLC) is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. MPPT-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cy...

  15. Development of an Advanced Grid-Connected PV-ECS System Considering Solar Energy Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Habibur; Yamashiro, Susumu; Nakamura, Koichi

    In this paper, the development and the performance of a viable distributed grid-connected power generation system of Photovoltaic-Energy Capacitor System (PV-ECS) considering solar energy estimation have been described. Instead of conventional battery Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC) are used as storage device and Photovoltaic (PV) panel to generate power from solar energy. The system can generate power by PV, store energy when the demand of load is low and finally supply the stored energy to load during the period of peak demand. To realize the load leveling function properly the system will also buy power from grid line when load demand is high. Since, the power taken from grid line depends on the PV output power, a procedure has been suggested to estimate the PV output power by calculating solar radiation. In order to set the optimum value of the buy power, a simulation program has also been developed. Performance of the system has been studied for different load patterns in different weather conditions by using the estimated PV output power with the help of the simulation program.

  16. Thermal performance of a linear Fresnel reflector solar concentrator PV/T energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, Mohamed R. [State Engineering University of Armenia (Armenia)], E-Mail: Dmoh_elbehary@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    This is a report on an investigation of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. Solar energy conversion efficiency was increased by taking advantage of PV/T collectors and low solar concentration technologies, combined into a PV/T system operated at elevated temperature. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel mirror reflecting concentrator with a channel PV/T collector. Concentrator PV/T collectors can function at temperatures over 100 degrees celsius, and thus thermal energy can be made to drive processes such as refrigeration, desalination and steam production. Solar system analytical thermal performance gives efficiency values over 60%. Combined electric and thermal (CET) efficiency is high. A combined electric and heat power for the linear fresnel reflector approach that employs high performance CPV technology to produce both electricity and thermal energy at low to medium temperatures is presented. A well-functioning PV/T system can be designed and constructed with low concentration and a total efficiency of nearly 80% can be attained.

  17. Analysis of grid connected solar PV system in the Southeastern Part of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariful Islam; Fatema Akther Shima; Akhera Khanam

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is a potential site of implementing renewable energy system to reduce the severe power crisis throughout the year. According to this, Chittagong is the southeastern part of Bangladesh is also a potential site for implementing renewable energy system such as grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. Financial viability and green-house gas emission reduction of solar PV as an electricity generation source are assessed for 500 kW grid connected solar PV system at University of Chittagong, Chittagong. Homer simulation soft-ware and monthly average solar radiation data from NASA is used for this task. In the proposed system monthly electricity generation varies between 82.65 MW h and 60.3 MW h throughout the year with a mean value of 68.25 MW h depending on the monthly highest and lowest solar radiation data. It is found that per unit electricity production cost is US$ 0.20 based on project lifetime 25 years. The IRR, equity payback and benefit-cost ratio shows favorable condition for development of the proposed solar PV system in this site. A minimum 664 tones of green-house gas emissions can be reduced annually utilizing the proposed system. (authors)

  18. Explore the performance limit of a solar PV – thermochemical power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wenjia; Hao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Theoretical net solar-to-electric efficiency of 51.5% is attainable. •Design of efficient PVT systems is governed by at least 5 key considerations. •Concentration ratio has the most pronounced influence on PVT system efficiency. •Efficient PV, low emissivity and high concentration deliver the best performance. -- Abstract: Performance limit of a solar hybrid power generation system integrating efficient photovoltaic (PV) cells and methanol thermal (T) decomposition is explored from a thermodynamic perspective within the capability of state-of-the-art technologies. This type of PVT system features potentially high “net solar-to-electric efficiency” in general, primarily resulting from a key difference in the design of the thermal part compared with conventional PVT systems, i.e. replacing heat engines by a thermochemical power generation module for thermal energy utilization. Key design parameters of the system, including PV cell type, emissivity, solar concentration ratio and solar concentrator type, are individually studied. A system combining all such optimized aspects is projected to achieve net solar-to-electric efficiencies up to 51.5%, after taking all major (e.g. optical, radiative) losses into consideration. This study reveals important insights and enriches understanding on design principles of efficient PVT systems aimed at comprehensive and effective utilization of solar energy.

  19. A simple tracking system to monitor solar PV panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentaher, H.; Kaich, H.; Ayadi, N.; Ben Hmouda, M.; Maalej, A.; Lemmer, U.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We designed and constructed a solar tracking system based on light-dependent resistors (LDRs). • A study was made to determine the optimal angle of LDRs inducing the best precision of the device. • An experimental system was built to test different values of the angle between LDRs. • Results showed a good agreement between the experience and the predicted values. • The obtained results are useful for the design of new trackers based on the use of LDRs. - Abstract: The solar tracking systems are a center of interest of a big number of researchers from the fifties. The deflection of sun rays on a solar photovoltaic panel can reduce its power output until 50%. For concentrators solar trackers are master parts of the systems. A simple tracking system based on light dependent resistors was locally constructed, tested and optimized. Good agreement was recorded between numerical optimization results and experimental ones. These results are useful for the design and construction of new sun trackers

  20. MPPT Based on Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC for Photovoltaic (PV System in Solar Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seno Aji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control called Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT for photovoltaic (PV system in a solar car. The main purpose of this system is to extracts PV power maximally while keeping small losses using a simple design of converter. Working principle of MPPT based fuzzy logic controller (MPPT-FLC is to get desirable values of reference current and voltage. MPPT-FLC compares them with the values of the PV's actual current and voltage to control duty cycle value. Then the duty cycle value is used to adjust the angle of ignition switch (MOSFET gate on the Boost converter. The proposed method was shown through simulation performed using PSIM and MATLAB software. Simulation results show that the system is able to improve the PV power extraction efficiency significantly by approximately 98% of PV’s power.

  1. PV ready roofing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The integration of PV technology into roofs of houses has become very popular in the United States, Japan, Germany and The Netherlands. There could be a considerable market in the UK for these systems, given the large number of houses that are projected to be built in the next 10 years, and taking account of increased awareness of energy issues. A significant proportion of the market share of annual installed PV is for solar PV systems installed into homes (currently 15%), this is expected to rise to 23% (900MW) by 2010. The grid connected roof and building mounted facade systems represent the fastest growing market for PV systems in Europe. In conclusion, therefore, innovative approached for fixing PV technology onto roofs have been identified for both domestic roofs and for the commercial sector. With reference to production methodologies within the roofing industry, both approaches should be capable of being designed with PV-ready connections suitable for fixing PV modules at a later date. This will help overcome the key barriers of cost of installation, skills required and the lack of retrofit potential. Based on the results of this project, Sustainable Energy together with PV Systems are keen to take forward the full research and development of PV-ready systems for both the domestic and commercial sectors.

  2. Modeling and Control of DC/DC Boost Converter using K-Factor Control for MPPT of Solar PV System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangari, Adithya; Haribabu, Divyanagalakshmi; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on the design of a controller for the DC/DC boost converter using K factor control, which is based on modified PI control method, for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of solar PV system. A mathematical model for boost converter based on small signal averaging approach...... is presented. Design of the passive elements of the boost converter as per the system specifications is also illustrated. The performance of the proposed K factor control method is verified with the simulations for MPPT on solar PV system at different atmospheric conditions. A new circuit based model for solar...... PV array, which includes the effect of solar insolation and temperature on PV array output, for the application in power system transient simulations, is also presented. The performance of the PV array model is verified with simulations at different atmospheric conditions. A 160W PV module from BP...

  3. A stochastic simulation model for reliable PV system sizing providing for solar radiation fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplani, E.; Kaplanis, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar radiation data for European cities follow the Extreme Value or Weibull distribution. ► Simulation model for the sizing of SAPV systems based on energy balance and stochastic analysis. ► Simulation of PV Generator-Loads-Battery Storage System performance for all months. ► Minimum peak power and battery capacity required for reliable SAPV sizing for various European cities. ► Peak power and battery capacity reduced by more than 30% for operation 95% success rate. -- Abstract: The large fluctuations observed in the daily solar radiation profiles affect highly the reliability of the PV system sizing. Increasing the reliability of the PV system requires higher installed peak power (P m ) and larger battery storage capacity (C L ). This leads to increased costs, and makes PV technology less competitive. This research paper presents a new stochastic simulation model for stand-alone PV systems, developed to determine the minimum installed P m and C L for the PV system to be energy independent. The stochastic simulation model developed, makes use of knowledge acquired from an in-depth statistical analysis of the solar radiation data for the site, and simulates the energy delivered, the excess energy burnt, the load profiles and the state of charge of the battery system for the month the sizing is applied, and the PV system performance for the entire year. The simulation model provides the user with values for the autonomy factor d, simulating PV performance in order to determine the minimum P m and C L depending on the requirements of the application, i.e. operation with critical or non-critical loads. The model makes use of NASA’s Surface meteorology and Solar Energy database for the years 1990–2004 for various cities in Europe with a different climate. The results obtained with this new methodology indicate a substantial reduction in installed peak power and battery capacity, both for critical and non-critical operation, when compared to

  4. Solar eclipse. The rise and 'dusk' of the Dutch PV innovation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, S.O.; Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Vasseur, V. [International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development, University Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy technology in the Netherlands. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build-up of innovation systems. We show that large fluctuations are present in the processes related to guidance of the search and market formation. Surprisingly, entrepreneurial activities are not too much affected by fluctuating market formation activities. We relate this to market formation in neighbouring countries and discuss the implications for policy making.

  5. Grid Connected Solar PV System with SEPIC Converter Compared with Parallel Boost Converter Based MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ajith Bosco Raj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to study the behaviour of the solar PV systems and model the efficient Grid-connected solar power system. The DC-DC MPPT circuit using chaotic pulse width modulation has been designed to track maximum power from solar PV module. The conversion efficiency of the proposed MPPT system is increased when CPWM is used as a control scheme. This paper also proposes a simplified multilevel (seven level inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The primary goal of these systems is to increase the energy injected to the grid by keeping track of the maximum power point of the panel, by reducing the switching frequency, and by providing high reliability. The maximum power has been tracked experimentally. It is compared with parallel boost converter. Also this model is based on mathematical equations and is described through an equivalent circuit including a PV source with MPPT, a diode, a series resistor, a shunt resistor, and dual boost converter with active snubber circuit. This model can extract PV power and boost by using dual boost converter with active snubber. By using this method the overall system efficiency is improved thereby reducing the switching losses and cost.

  6. Design, Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Solar System Based on PV Panels and PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical and experimental analyses aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors. An experimental setup was purposely designed and constructed in order to compare the electrical performance of a PVT solar field with the one achieved by an identical solar field consisting of conventional photovoltaic (PV panels. The experimental analysis also aims at evaluating the potential advantages of PVT vs. PV in terms of enhancement of electrical efficiency and thermal energy production. The installed experimental set-up includes four flat polycrystalline silicon PV panels and four flat unglazed polycrystalline silicon PVT collectors. The total electrical power and area of the solar field are 2 kWe and 13 m2, respectively. The experimental set-up is currently installed at the company AV Project Ltd., located in Avellino (Italy. This study also analyzes the system from a numerical point of view, including a thermo-economic dynamic simulation model for the design and the assessment of energy performance and economic profitability of the solar systems consisting of glazed PVT and PV collectors. The experimental setup was modelled and partly simulated in TRNSYS environment. The simulation model was useful to analyze efficiencies and temperatures reached by such solar technologies, by taking into account the reference technology of PVTs (consisting of glazed collectors as well as to compare the numerical data obtained by dynamic simulations with the gathered experimental results for the PV technology. The numerical analysis shows that the PVT global efficiency is about 26%. Conversely, from the experimental point of view, the average thermal efficiency of PVT collectors is around 13% and the electrical efficiencies of both technologies are almost coincident and equal to 15%.

  7. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoumah, Y; Yamegueu, D; Py, X

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original 'flexy energy' concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  8. Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

    2012-02-01

    Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

  9. Design development and testing of a solar PV pump based drip system for orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pande, P.C.; Singh, A.K.; Ansari, S.; Vyas, S.K.; Dave, B.K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

    2003-03-01

    A Solar Photovoltaic (PV) pump operated drip irrigation system has been designed and developed for growing orchards in arid region considering different design parameters like pumps size, water requirements, the diurnal variation in the pressure of the pump due to change in irradiance and pressure compensation in the drippers. The system comprising a PV pump with 900 W{sub p} PV array and 800 W dc motor-pump mono-block, microfilter, main and sub-mains and three open-able low-pressure compensating drippers on each plant was field tested. The emission uniformity was observed to be 92-94% with discharge of 3.8 l/h in the pressure range of 70-100 kPa provided by the pump and thus the system could irrigate some 1 ha area within 2 h. Based on the performance of the PV pump and the drip system, it was inferred that about 5 ha area of orchard could be covered. The projected benefit-cost ratio for growing pomegranate orchards with such a system was evaluated to be above 2 even with the costly PV pump and therefore the system was considered to be an appropriate technology for the development of arid region. (Author)

  10. What Factors Affect the Prices of Low-Priced U.S. Solar PV Systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemet, Gregory F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mercator Research Inst. on Global Commons and Climate Change, Berlin (Germany); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gillingham, Ken [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The price of solar PV systems has declined rapidly, yet there are some much lower-priced systems than others. This study explores the factors leading some systems to be so much lower priced than others. Using a data set of 42,611 residential-scale PV systems installed in the U.S. in 2013, we use quantile regressions to estimate the importance of factors affecting the installed prices for low-priced (LP) systems (those at the 10th percentile) in comparison to median-priced systems. We find that the value of solar to consumers–a variable that accounts for subsidies, electric rates, and PV generation levels–is associated with lower prices for LP systems but higher prices for median priced systems. Conversely, systems installed in new home construction are associated with lower prices at the median but higher prices for LP. Other variables have larger cost-reducing effects on LP than on median priced systems: systems installed in Arizona and Florida, as well as commercial and thin film systems. In contrast, the following have a smaller effect on prices for LP systems than median priced systems: tracking systems, self-installations, systems installed in Massachusetts, the system size, and installer experience. These results highlight the complex factors at play that lead to LP systems and shed light into how such LP systems can come about.

  11. An experimental study on energy generation with a photovoltaic (PV)-solar thermal hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdil, Erzat; Ilkan, Mustafa; Egelioglu, Fuat

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid system, composed of a photovoltaic (PV) module and a solar thermal collector is constructed and tested for energy collection at a geographic location of Cyprus. Normally, it is required to install a PV system occupying an area of about 10 m 2 in order to produce electrical energy; 7 kWh/day, required by a typical household. In this experimental study, we used only two PV modules of area approximately 0.6 m 2 (i.e., 1.3x0.47 m 2 ) each. PV modules absorb a considerable amount of solar radiation that generate undesirable heat. This thermal energy, however, may be utilized in water pre-heating applications. The proposed hybrid system produces about 2.8 kWh thermal energy daily. Various attachments that are placed over the hybrid modules lead to a total of 11.5% loss in electrical energy generation. This loss, however, represents only 1% of the 7 kWh energy that is consumed by a typical household in northern Cyprus. The pay-back period for the modification is less than 2 years. The low investment cost and the relatively short pay-back period make this hybrid system economically attractive

  12. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  13. Monitoring and evaluation of Solar Home Systems. Experiences with applications of solar PV for households in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhout, F.D.J.; Van Dijk, A.; Van Dijk, V.A.P.; Hirsch, D.; Lasschuit, P.E.; Van Roekel, G.; Arriaza, H.; Hankins, M.; Sharma, B.D.; Wade, H.

    2000-09-01

    Solar energy is a promising solution to meet demand for electricity services of rural households in remote locations in developing countries. After some early successes, more and more doubts have arisen about the effectiveness and suitability of small PV systems for rural development. Many organisational, financial and technical problems appear difficult to tackle. A literature survey has been conducted to make an inventory of experiences with solar photovoltaic applications for households in developing countries. The major conclusion from the extensive literature research performed during this study is that there is not enough information available about the performance of solar home systems and projects. This slows down further development and successful dissemination. refs

  14. Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid Tied Solar PV System with Active Power Filtering Using Power Balance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashi; Hussain, Ikhlaq; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, power quality features such as harmonics mitigation, power factor correction with active power filtering are addressed in a single-stage, single-phase solar photovoltaic (PV) grid tied system. The Power Balance Theory (PBT) with perturb and observe based maximum power point tracking algorithm is proposed for the mitigation of power quality problems in a solar PV grid tied system. The solar PV array is interfaced to a single phase AC grid through a Voltage Source Converter (VSC), which provides active power flow from a solar PV array to the grid as well as to the load and it performs harmonics mitigation using PBT based control. The solar PV array power varies with sunlight and due to this, the solar PV grid tied VSC works only 8-10 h per day. At night, when PV power is zero, the VSC works as an active power filter for power quality improvement, and the load active power is delivered by the grid to the load connected at the point of common coupling. This increases the effective utilization of a VSC. The system is modelled and simulated using MATLAB and simulated responses of the system at nonlinear loads and varying environmental conditions are also validated experimentally on a prototype developed in the laboratory.

  15. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  16. Use of Super-Capacitor to Enhance Charging Performance of Stand-Alone Solar PV System

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The battery charging performance in a stand-alone solar PV system affects the PV system efficiency and the load operating time. The New Energy Center of National Taiwan University has been devoted to the development of a PWM charging technique to continue charging the lead-acid battery after the overcharge point to increase the battery storage capacity by more than 10%. The present study intends to use the super-capacitor to further increase the charge capacity before the overcharge point of the battery. The super-capacitor is connected in parallel to the lead-acid battery. This will reduce the overall charging impedance during the charge and increase the charging current, especially in sunny weather. A system dynamics model of the lead-acid battery and super-capacitor was derived and the control system simulation was carried out to predict the charging performance for various weathers. It shows that the overall battery impedance decreases and charging power increases with increasing solar radiation. An outdoor comparative test for two identical PV systems with and without supercapacitor was carried out. The use of super-capacitor is shown to be able to increase the lead-acid charging capacity by more than 25% at sunny weather and 10% in cloudy weather. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  17. Dual-Axis Solar Tracking System for Maximum Power Production in PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd.Ikram Mohd. Rashid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The power developed in a solar energy system depends fundamentally upon the amount of sunlight captured by the photovoltaic modules/arrays. This paper describes a simple electro-mechanical dual axis solar tracking system designed and developed in a study. The control of the two axes was achieved by the pulses generated from the data acquisition (DAQ card fed into four relays. This approach was so chosen to effectively avoid the error that usually arises in sensor-based methods. The programming of the mathematical models of the solar elevation and azimuth angles was done using Borland C++ Builder. The performance and accuracy of the developed system was evaluated with a PV panel at latitude 3.53o N and longitude 103.5o W in Malaysia. The results obtained reflect the effectiveness of the developed tracking system in terms of the energy yield when compared with that generated from a fixed panel. Overall, 20%, 23% and 21% additional energy were produced for the months of March, April and May respectively using the tracker developed in this study.

  18. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  19. A high-performance stand-alone solar PV power system for LED lighting

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B. J.

    2010-06-01

    The present study developed a high-performance solar PV power technology for the LED lighting of a solar home system. The nMPPO (near-Maximum-Power- Point- Operation) design is employed in system design to eliminate MPPT. A feedback control system using pulse width modulation (PWM) technique was developed for battery charging control which can increase the charging capacity by 78%. For high-efficiency lighting, the LED is directly driven by battery using a PWM discharge control to eliminate a DC/DC converter. Two solar-powered LED lighting systems (50W and 100W LED) were built. The long-term outdoor tests have shown that the loss of load probability for full-night lighting requirement is zero for 50W LED and 3.6% for 100W LED. © 2010 IEEE.

  20. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    OpenAIRE

    Mya Su Kyi; Lu Maw; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area fall...

  1. Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Based Direct-Current Vector Control Strategy for Solar PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAMMALVAR, P.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper projects Parameter Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (PIPSO based direct current vector control technology for the integration of photovoltaic array in an AC micro-grid to enhance the system performance and stability. A photovoltaic system incorporated with AC micro-grid is taken as the pursuit of research study. The test system features two power converters namely, PV side converter which consists of DC-DC boost converter with Perturbation and Observe (P&O MPPT control to reap most extreme power from the PV array, and grid side converter which consists of Grid Side-Voltage Source Converter (GS-VSC with proposed direct current vector control strategy. The gain of the proposed controller is chosen from a set of three values obtained using apriori test and tuned through the PIPSO algorithm so that the Integral of Time multiplied Absolute Error (ITAE between the actual and the desired DC link capacitor voltage reaches a minimum and allows the system to extract maximum power from PV system, whereas the existing d-q control strategy is found to perform slowly to control the DC link voltage under varying solar insolation and load fluctuations. From simulation results, it is evident that the proposed optimal control technique provides robust control and improved efficiency.

  2. Effect of Different Solar Radiation Data Sources on the Variation of Techno-Economic Feasibility of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Aljaafar, A. A.; Kadhim, Mohammed; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the variation in techno-economic feasibility of PV power system under different data sources of solar radiation. HOMER simulation tool is used to predict the techno-economic feasibility parameters of PV power system in Baghdad city, Iraq located at (33.3128° N, 44.3615° E) as a case study. Four data sources of solar radiation, different annual capacity shortages percentage (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5), and wide range of daily load profile (10-100 kWh/day) are implemented. The analyzed parameters of the techno-economic feasibility are COE (/kWh), PV array power capacity (kW), PV electrical production (kWh/year), No. of batteries and battery lifetime (year). The main results of the study revealed the followings: (1) solar radiation from different data sources caused observed to significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters; therefore, careful attention must be paid to ensure the use of an accurate solar input data; (2) Average solar radiation from different data sources can be recommended as a reasonable input data; (3) it is observed that as the size and of PV power system increases, the effect of different data sources of solar radiation increases and causes significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters.

  3. Comparative Health Risk Assessment of CdTe Solar PV System and Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    In terms of national energy policy decision-making process, several key factors, including low production cost, negligible risk or impact to environment and population around the facility, must be considered. The purpose of this paper is to assess the public health risk in case of postulated nuclear power plant and CdTe solar PV system accident and compare the estimated public health risk. Both systems release toxic materials to the environment which adversely affect nearby population by exposure from the inhalation and ingestion of the toxic material transported via air. By simulating the airborne transport of released toxic material using Gaussian plume model and modeling exposure pathways to nearby population, average individual health risk is assessed and public health risk per power capacity of each system is compared. The result shows that the average public health risk per power capacity of NPP is less than the case of solar PV system. This implies that NPP has lower risk in terms of public health risk in case of severe accident while it can be used as more reliable energy source than renewable energy source so that NPP would take priority over other renewable energy sources in terms of national energy policy

  4. Voltage rise mitigation for solar PV integration at LV grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Guangya; Marra, Francesco; Juamperez Goñi, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy from photovoltaic (PV) is among the fastest developing renewable energy systems worldwide. Driven by governmental subsidies and technological development, Europe has seen a fast expansion of solar PV in the last few years. Among the installed PV plants, most of them are situated...

  5. Numerical investigation of dust pollution on a solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on an isolated building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Yuanhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of dust pollution on PV panels mounted on building roofs were investigated by CFD. • The dust deposition rates first increased and then decreased with the increase of dust size. • The gravity has different influences on dust deposition rates of large and small dusts. • The influence of released dust number on dust deposition rate is less than 8%. • A simple model was developed to estimate the PV efficiency reduction ratio by dust pollution. - Abstract: Dust deposition on a solar photovoltaic (PV) system mounted on the windward roof of an isolated building was investigated by CFD simulation. The SST k-ω turbulence model with UDF inlet profiles and the discrete particle model (DPM) were adopted to simulate the wind flow fields and the dust deposition behavior, respectively. The CFD wind flow velocity profiles around the building were in good agreement with experimental results reported in the literature. The effects of various dust particle sizes, differing quantities of released dust particles, and the force of gravity on the rates of dust deposition upon the PV panels were investigated in detail. It was found that the dust deposition rate first rose and then declined with the increase of dust particle size. The maximum deposition rate was about 0.28% for 10 μm dust, and the minimum deposition rate was about 0.13% for 50 μm dust. Gravity also had a significant effect on the rate of dust deposition for large-particle dust (d_p > 5 μm), and the rate could reach 75% for 50 μm dust. However, the effect of gravity on dust deposition was less than 5% for small-particle dust (d_p < 5 μm). The effect of releasing differing quantities of dust particles on the dust deposition rate was less than 8%. Moreover, the mechanisms by which dust was deposited on the PV roof were analyzed and discussed. Finally, a simple empirical model was developed to estimate the PV efficiency reduction ratios in relation to exposure time, as based on this

  6. The potential of solar PV in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    Canada has lagged behind other industrialized nations in the growth of solar energy markets. Currently, over 78 per cent of the global market for solar energy is for grid-connected applications where power is fed into the electrical distribution network. Less than 3.5 per cent of the Canadian solar market is grid-connected. This report investigated the potential size of the photovoltaic (PV) market in Ontario given adequate support from both governments and utilities. The forecast was based on sustainable growth levels that the solar industry as a whole might maintain over an extended period of time. It was suggested that it is technically feasible to install over 3000 MW of PV in single, detached homes in the province, which could generate over 3200 GWh each year. If the right policy conditions were put in place, the technical potential for PV on all buildings in Ontario is over 14,000 MW by 2025, which would generate over 13,000 GWh annually. Support mechanisms such as the Advanced Renewable Tariff (ART) or Standard Offer Contracts (SOC) will enable the PV industry to build capacity. Future markets for PV include new homes, commercial buildings and the existing housing stock. With a properly designed system, it is forecasted that the deployment of PV by 2025 could result in the involvement of 400,000 homes with over 1200 MW of installed capacity and over 290 MW installed annually by 2025. Recommendations to Ontario Power Authority's (OPA) report supply mix report focused on the use of SOCs as the appropriate support mechanism to start building solar capacity in Ontario, as projections using SOCs would see Ontario following the growth patterns of other nations. It was concluded that the OPA report does not acknowledge the current growth rates of PV globally, nor does it fully consider the potential of PV in Ontario. 9 refs., 8 figs

  7. Self-advertising: PV systems on solar factories; Werbung in eigener Sache. PV-Anlagen an Solarfabriken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojek, S.

    2007-10-02

    The contribution investigates if producers of solar systems are also users of solar systems; it looks into the systems installed by German and Japanese companies on their own buildings, into the uses made of the electric power generated, and the experience gained with their own systems. (orig.)

  8. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; SHI MingHeng

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermsl(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T sir system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed.The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m~2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency,exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  9. Numerical study on optical and electric-thermal performance for solar concentrating PV/T air system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal(PV/T)system with solar concentrator is an effective way to improve solar energy conversion efficiency.In this work,a single-pass PV/T air system with a three-trough compound parabolic concentrator(CPC)of concentration ratio 2.0 is designed and the solar incident distributions at the solar cell surface are calculated by ray tracing method.Based on energy balance,the heat transfer models of all main components in this system are developed.The effects of some main designing and operational parameters on the electric-thermal performance of the system are analyzed. The results show that the solar radiation intensity can be higher than 1200 W/m 2 at most area of the cell surface.The temperature of the air and cell surface increases along the length of the system.Thus the system efficiency of the CPC is higher than that of the system without the CPC.The thermal efficiency, exergy and electrical efficiency of this CPC system increase with increasing of the air mass flow rate and the length of the system.With increasing packing fraction the electrical efficiency increases,but the thermal efficiency decreases.The exergy efficiency increases slightly with the packing fraction rising.The data obtained in this work are valuable for the design and operation for this kind of solar concentrating PV/T systems.

  10. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society.

  11. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A. [TERI, Darbari Seth Block, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kandpal, T.C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Solar home systems are typically used for providing basic electricity services to rural households that are not connected to electric grid. Off-grid PV power plants with their own distribution network (micro/minigrids) are also being considered for rural electrification. A techno-economic comparison of the two options to facilitate a choice between them is presented in this study on the basis of annualised life cycle costs (ALCC) for same type of loads and load patterns for varying number of households and varying length and costs of distribution network. The results highlight that microgrid is generally a more economic option for a village having a flat geographic terrain and more than 500 densely located households using 3-4 low power appliances (e.g. 9 W CFLs) for an average of 4 h daily. The study analyses the viability of the two options from the perspectives of the user, an energy service company and the society. (author)

  12. Study of a solar PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system for a remotely located population near Rafha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Shafiqur; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a PV-diesel hybrid power system with battery backup for a village being fed with diesel generated electricity to displace part of the diesel by solar. The hourly solar radiation data measured at the site along with PV modules mounted on fixed foundations, four generators of different rated powers, diesel prices of 0.2-1.2US$/l, different sizes of batteries and converters were used to find an optimal power system for the village. It was found that a PV array of 2000 kW and four generators of 1250, 750, 2250 and 250 kW; operating at a load factor of 70% required to run for 3317 h/yr, 4242 h/yr, 2820 h/yr and 3150 h/yr, respectively; to produce a mix of 17,640 MWh of electricity annually and 48.33 MWh per day. The cost of energy (COE) of diesel only and PV/diesel/battery power system with 21% solar penetration was found to be 0.190$/kWh and 0.219$/kWh respectively for a diesel price of 0.2$/l. The sensitivity analysis showed that at a diesel price of 0.6$/l the COE from hybrid system become almost the same as that of the diesel only system and above it, the hybrid system become more economical than the diesel only system. (author)

  13. Modeling and simulation of a micro grid-connected solar PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameen AbdelHady

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy (MERE; began promoting the system of ‘Feed-in Tariff’ in billing. The introduced system allows the user to generate electricity through solar panels mounted on the roofs of residential buildings and governmental organizations and tied to the grid. To benefit from MERE’s approach, the National Water Research Center (NWRC (Qanatir, Egypt set up a pilot rooftop 91 kW PV system. All the generated electricity is fed into the 220 V, 50 Hz low voltage grid serving NWRC premises. In this manuscript a MATLAB Simulink model is constructed mimicking a detailed representation of the system tied either to the local low voltage grid or to the national high voltage grid. The aim of such modeling effort is to provide early evaluation of the system performance. The economical savings of both scenarios are compared based on the new billing system. Results show that the current system saves 100 thousand L.E./year, while tying the system to the national grid will save 235.8 thousand L.E./year.

  14. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  15. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-08

    Solar 'plus' refers to an emerging approach to distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment that uses energy storage and controllable devices to optimize customer economics. The solar plus approach increases customer system value through technologies such as electric batteries, smart domestic water heaters, smart air-conditioner (AC) units, and electric vehicles We use an NREL optimization model to explore the customer-side economics of solar plus under various utility rate structures and net metering rates. We explore optimal solar plus applications in five case studies with different net metering rates and rate structures. The model deploys different configurations of PV, batteries, smart domestic water heaters, and smart AC units in response to different rate structures and customer load profiles. The results indicate that solar plus improves the customer economics of PV and may mitigate some of the negative impacts of evolving rate structures on PV economics. Solar plus may become an increasingly viable model for optimizing PV customer economics in an evolving rate environment.

  16. Design and preliminary operation of a hybrid syngas/solar PV/battery power system for off-grid applications: A case study in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohsri, Sompol; Meechai, Apichart; Prapainainar, Chaiwat

    2018-01-01

    , in this study a customized hybrid power system integrating solar, biomass (syngas) power and battery storage system is evaluated a pilot scale for micro off-grid application. This paper shows that for a reliability of a hybrid syngas/solar PV system along with rechargeable batteries, the syngas generator can......Due to the irregular nature of solar resource, solar photovoltaic (PV) system alone cannot satisfy load on a 24/7 demand basis, especially with increasing regional population in developing countries such as Thailand. A hybrid solar PV/biomass based along with battery storage system has been drawing....... Furthermore, the generator has to be always synchronized during the commissioning time. Battery state of charge (SOC) in percent (%) connecting with syngas is greater than solar PV and the charging time appears significantly shorter than that one. All possible combinations between an innovation and existing...

  17. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  18. Design construction and analysis of solar ridge concentrator photovoltaic (PV) system to improve battery charging performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimman, Kalaiselvan; Selvarasan, Iniyan

    2016-05-01

    A ridge concentrator photovoltaic system for a 10W multi-crystalline solar panel was designed with the concentration ratios of 1X and 2X. The ray tracing model of ridge concentrator photovoltaic system was carried out using Trace-Pro simulation. The optimum tilt angle for the concentrator PV system throughout the year was computed. The electrical parameters of the 3 panels were analyzed. The effect of temperature on the electrical performance of the panel was also studied. The reduction of voltage due to increasing panel temperature was managed by MPES type Charge controller. Glass reflector with reflectivity 0.95 was chosen as the ridge wall for the concentrator system. The maximum power outputs for the 1X and 2X panel reached were 9W and 10.5W with glass reflector. The percentage of power improvement for 1X and 2X concentrations were 22.3% and 45.8% respectively. The 2X concentrated panel connected battery takes lower time to charge compared with normal panel connected battery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Techno-economic assessment of a solar PV, fuel cell, and biomass gasifier hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest of power is expanding step by step all through the world. Because of constrained measure of fossil fuel, it is vital to outline some new non-renewable energy frameworks that can diminish the reliance on ordinary energy asset. A hybrid off-grid renewable energy framework might be utilized to reduction reliance on the traditional energy assets. Advancement of crossover framework is a procedure to choose the best mix of part and there cost that can give shabby, solid and successful option energy resource. In this paper sun oriented photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass gasifier generator set, battery backup and power conditioning unit have been simulated and optimized for educational institute, energy centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The area of the study range on the guide situated of 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitude. In this framework, the essential wellspring of power is sun based solar photovoltaic system and biomass gasifier generator set while fuel cell and batteries are utilized as reinforcement supply. HOMER simulator has been utilized to recreate off the grid and it checks the specialized and financial criteria of this hybrid energy system. The execution of every segment of this framework is dissected lastly delicate examination has been performing to enhance the mixture framework at various conditions. In view of the recreation result, it is found that the cost of energy (COE of a biomass gasifier generator set, solar PV and fuel cell crossover energy system has been found to be 15.064 Rs/kWh and complete net present cost Rs.51,89003. The abundance power in the proposed framework is observed to be 36 kWh/year with zero rates unmet electrical burden.

  20. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a 1 MW Grid Connected Rooftop Solar PV System for Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sanjib; Hosain, Rubayet; Rahman, Toufiqur; Rabbi, Ahmead Fazle

    This paper evaluates the potentiality of a 1 MW grid connected rooftop solar PV system for an Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh, which was estimated by utilizing NASA SSE solar radiation data, PVsyst simulation software and RETScreen simulation software. Economic and environmental viability for a ten-storied building with roof area of 6,500 m2 in the Capital City of Bangladesh, Dhaka was assessed by using the RETScreen simulation software. The yearly electricity production of the proposed system was 1,581 MWh estimated by PVsyst where the technical prospective of gird-connected solar PV in Bangladesh was calculated as about 50,174 MW. The economic assessments were determined the simple payback in such a way that the generated electricity first fulfills the demand of the building, and then the rest of the energy is supplied to the grid. The result indicates that the roof top solar PV system for an Energy efficient building in Dhaka city has a favorable condition for development both in economic and environmental point of view.

  1. Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of cooling on solar PV performance have been experimentally investigated. • As a solar panel is cooled down, the electric output can have significant increase. • A cooled solar PV system has been proposed for resident application. • Life cycle assessment suggests the cost payback time of cooled PV can be reduced. - Abstract: As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.

  2. Optimized design and control of an off grid solar PV/hydrogen fuel cell power system for green buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenai, C.; Bettayeb, M.

    2017-11-01

    Modelling, simulation, optimization and control strategies are used in this study to design a stand-alone solar PV/Fuel Cell/Battery/Generator hybrid power system to serve the electrical load of a commercial building. The main objective is to design an off grid energy system to meet the desired electric load of the commercial building with high renewable fraction, low emissions and low cost of energy. The goal is to manage the energy consumption of the building, reduce the associate cost and to switch from grid-tied fossil fuel power system to an off grid renewable and cleaner power system. Energy audit was performed in this study to determine the energy consumption of the building. Hourly simulations, modelling and optimization were performed to determine the performance and cost of the hybrid power configurations using different control strategies. The results show that the hybrid off grid solar PV/Fuel Cell/Generator/Battery/Inverter power system offers the best performance for the tested system architectures. From the total energy generated from the off grid hybrid power system, 73% is produced from the solar PV, 24% from the fuel cell and 3% from the backup Diesel generator. The produced power is used to meet all the AC load of the building without power shortage (system produces 18.2% excess power that can be used to serve the thermal load of the building. The proposed hybrid power system is sustainable, economically viable and environmentally friendly: High renewable fraction (66.1%), low levelized cost of energy (92 /MWh), and low carbon dioxide emissions (24 kg CO2/MWh) are achieved.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar System with Different Cooling Methods and a Bi-Reflector PV System (BRPVS: An Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adil Khan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the price of solar photovoltaic (PV systems has been a constant challenge. Despite recent advances, solar PV systems are still more costly than conventional energy resources. For the first time, this study examines the effectiveness of three different structures/materials: (i silvered glass plane mirror; (ii convex spherical mirrors; and (iii aluminum (Al foil as reflector. Comparative analysis of four different cooling techniques, i.e., water sprinkling system, passive heat sink method, active air fan method, and closed loop method, for enhancement of output power was performed. A novel Bi reflector solar PV system (BRPVS was suggested to control the working of the reflectors. The Al foil enhanced the power output compared to the others. In addition, the effect of using a reflector on the temperature of a solar PV system was studied. High operating temperatures resulted in a decrease in the maximum output power under the same solar radiation conditions. The combined enhancement of the output power by both Al foil BRPVS system and cooling system was almost 22.75–38.55%. An optimal control algorithm to use cooling and BRPVS in an efficient manner is described.

  4. Hybrid PV/diesel solar power system design using multi-level factor analysis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Joshua P.

    Solar power systems represent a large area of interest across a spectrum of organizations at a global level. It was determined that a clear understanding of current state of the art software and design methods, as well as optimization methods, could be used to improve the design methodology. Solar power design literature was researched for an in depth understanding of solar power system design methods and algorithms. Multiple software packages for the design and optimization of solar power systems were analyzed for a critical understanding of their design workflow. In addition, several methods of optimization were studied, including brute force, Pareto analysis, Monte Carlo, linear and nonlinear programming, and multi-way factor analysis. Factor analysis was selected as the most efficient optimization method for engineering design as it applied to solar power system design. The solar power design algorithms, software work flow analysis, and factor analysis optimization were combined to develop a solar power system design optimization software package called FireDrake. This software was used for the design of multiple solar power systems in conjunction with an energy audit case study performed in seven Tibetan refugee camps located in Mainpat, India. A report of solar system designs for the camps, as well as a proposed schedule for future installations was generated. It was determined that there were several improvements that could be made to the state of the art in modern solar power system design, though the complexity of current applications is significant.

  5. Heritage plaza parking lots improvement project- Solar PV installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooks, Todd [Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, Palm Springs, CA (United States)

    2017-03-31

    The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians (ACBCI or the “Tribe”) installed a 79.95 kW solar photovoltaic (PV) system to offset the energy usage costs of the Tribal Education and Family Services offices located at the Tribe's Heritage Plaza office building, 90I Tahquitz Way, Palm Springs, CA, 92262 (the "Project"). The installation of the Solar PV system was part of the larger Heritage Plaza Parking Lot Improvements Project and mounted on the two southern carport shade structures. The solar PV system will offset 99% of the approximately 115,000 kWh in electricity delivered annually by Southern California Edison (SCE) to the Tribal Education and Family Services offices at Heritage Plaza, reducing their annual energy costs from approximately $22,000 annually to approximately $200. The total cost of the proposed solar PV system is $240,000.

  6. Energetic and exergetic performances analysis of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system tested and simulated under to Tunisian (North Africa) climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Riahi, Ali; Mehdaoui, Farah; Nouicer, Omeima; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    The endeavor of this paper is to study the potential offered by the expenditure of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system in Tunisian households. This investigation is performed according to two-folded approaches. Firstly, outdoor experiments were carried out during July 2014 for both passive and active mode. An exhaustive energy and exergy analysis was then performed to evaluate the instantaneous thermal and the electrical exergy outputs of the PV/T solar system. The results showed that the maximum instantaneous thermal and electric energy efficiency in active mode are about 50 and 15%, respectively. It was found also that the maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were about 50 and 14.8%, respectively. The second approach is the evaluation of the monthly/annual performances of the PV/T solar system under typical climate area of Tunisia by using TRNSYS program. The results showed that the active mode enhances the electric efficiency and the exergy of the PV/T system by 3 and 2.5% points, respectively. The results showed that the optimized PV/T solar system covert the major part of the hot water and the electric needs of Tunisian household's with an expected annual average gain of about 14.60 and 5.33%, respectively. An economic appraisal was performed. - Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using PV/T solar collector in Tunisian. • The maximum thermal and electric efficiencies are 50 and 15%, respectively. • The maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were 50 and 14.8%. • The results showed that the expected annual gain are 14.60 and 5.33%. • The PV/T is compared to a high quality commercial solar collectors and a PV panel.

  7. Simulation model of ANN based maximum power point tracking controller for solar PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Anil K.; Singh, Bhupal [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad 201009 (India); Kaushika, N.D.; Agarwal, Niti [School of Research and Development, Bharati Vidyapeeth College of Engineering, A-4 Paschim Vihar, New Delhi 110063 (India)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper the simulation model of an artificial neural network (ANN) based maximum power point tracking controller has been developed. The controller consists of an ANN tracker and the optimal control unit. The ANN tracker estimates the voltages and currents corresponding to a maximum power delivered by solar PV (photovoltaic) array for variable cell temperature and solar radiation. The cell temperature is considered as a function of ambient air temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. The tracker is trained employing a set of 124 patterns using the back propagation algorithm. The mean square error of tracker output and target values is set to be of the order of 10{sup -5} and the successful convergent of learning process takes 1281 epochs. The accuracy of the ANN tracker has been validated by employing different test data sets. The control unit uses the estimates of the ANN tracker to adjust the duty cycle of the chopper to optimum value needed for maximum power transfer to the specified load. (author)

  8. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  9. Studying the Impact of Distributed Solar PV on Power Systems using Integrated Transmission and Distribution Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Himanshu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krad, Ibrahim [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-24

    This paper presents the results of a distributed solar PV impact assessment study that was performed using a synthetic integrated transmission (T) and distribution (D) model. The primary objective of the study was to present a new approach for distributed solar PV impact assessment, where along with detailed models of transmission and distribution networks, consumer loads were modeled using the physics of end-use equipment, and distributed solar PV was geographically dispersed and connected to the secondary distribution networks. The highlights of the study results were (i) increase in the Area Control Error (ACE) at high penetration levels of distributed solar PV; and (ii) differences in distribution voltages profiles and voltage regulator operations between integrated T&D and distribution only simulations.

  10. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  11. Is rooftop solar PV at socket parity without subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerman, Shelly; Jaramillo, Paulina; Morgan, M. Granger

    2016-01-01

    Installations of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, in large part because of state and federal subsidies. In the future, such subsidies may be reduced or eliminated. From the homeowner's perspective, solar PV is competitive when it can produce electricity at a cost equivalent to the retail electricity rate, a condition sometimes referred to as “socket parity”. In assessing the economic viability of residential solar PV, most existing literature considers only a few locations and fails to consider the differences in PV system cost and electricity prices that exist across the U.S. We combined insolation data from more than 1000 locations, installation costs by region, and county-level utility rates to provide a more complete economic assessment of rooftop solar PV across the U.S. We calculated the break-even electricity prices and evaluated the reductions in installed costs needed to reach socket parity. Among the scenarios considered, we estimate that only Hawaii has achieved socket parity without the use of subsidies. With subsidies, six states reach socket parity, yet widespread parity is still not achieved. We find that high installation costs and financing rates are two of the largest barriers to socket parity. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic viability of residential rooftop solar PV across the U.S. • Widespread socket parity has not been achieved in the U.S. without subsidies. • Net metering may be critical for the economic viability of rooftop solar PV.

  12. Assessment of global solar radiation to examine the best locations to install a PV system in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkilani, Kaouther; Ben Othman, Afef; Besbes, Mongi

    2018-02-01

    The study of the solar radiation is the starting point of any investigation for a new energy, to study and search the best location to install a PV system. A very important factor in the assessment of solar potential is the availability of data for global solar radiation that must be coherent and of high quality. In this paper, we analyze the estimation result of the monthly global solar radiation for three different locations, Bizerte in Northern Tunisia, Kairouan in Middle Eastern Tunisia, and Tozeur in Southern Tunisia, measured on the surface by the National Institute of Meteorology and the meteorological year irradiation based on satellite imagery result PVGIS radiation databases. To get the right measurements with minimum error, we propose a numerical model used to calculate the global solar radiation in the indicated three sites. The results show that the model can estimate the global solar radiation (kWh/m²) at a specific station and over most area of Tunisia. The model gives a good estimation for solar radiation where error between the measured values and those calculated are negligible.

  13. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  14. Multivariate Statistics and Supervised Learning for Predictive Detection of Unintentional Islanding in Grid-Tied Solar PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Vyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV generation with power distribution networks leads to many operational challenges and complexities. Unintentional islanding is one of them which is of rising concern given the steady increase in grid-connected PV power. This paper builds up on an exploratory study of unintentional islanding on a modeled radial feeder having large PV penetration. Dynamic simulations, also run in real time, resulted in exploration of unique potential causes of creation of accidental islands. The resulting voltage and current data underwent dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis (PCA which formed the basis for the application of Q statistic control charts for detecting the anomalous currents that could island the system. For reducing the false alarm rate of anomaly detection, Kullback-Leibler (K-L divergence was applied on the principal component projections which concluded that Q statistic based approach alone is not reliable for detection of the symptoms liable to cause unintentional islanding. The obtained data was labeled and a K-nearest neighbor (K-NN binomial classifier was then trained for identification and classification of potential islanding precursors from other power system transients. The three-phase short-circuit fault case was successfully identified as statistically different from islanding symptoms.

  15. Rating of roofs’ surfaces regarding their solar potential and suitability for PV systems, based on LiDAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukač, Niko; Žlaus, Danijel; Seme, Sebastijan; Žalik, Borut; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new method for estimating and rating buildings roofs’ solar potential is presented. ► Considering LiDAR geospatial data together with pyranometer measurements. ► Use of multi-resolution shadowing model with new heuristic vegetation shadowing. ► High correlation between estimated solar potential and onsite measurements. -- Abstract: The roof surfaces within urban areas are constantly attracting interest regarding the installation of photovoltaic systems. These systems can improve self-sufficiency of electricity supply, and can help to decrease the emissions of greenhouse gases throughout urban areas. Unfortunately, some roof surfaces are unsuitable for installing photovoltaic systems. This presented work deals with the rating of roof surfaces within urban areas regarding their solar potential and suitability for the installation of photovoltaic systems. The solar potential of a roof’s surface is determined by a new method that combines extracted urban topography from LiDAR data with the pyranometer measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiances. Heuristic annual vegetation shadowing and a multi-resolution shadowing model, complete the proposed method. The significance of different influential factors (e.g. shadowing) was analysed extensively. A comparison between the results obtained by the proposed method and measurements performed on an actual PV power plant showed a correlation agreement of 97.4%.

  16. Design of direct solar PV driven air conditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-12-05

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Solar air conditioning system directly driven by stand-alone solar PV is studied. The air conditioning system will suffer from loss of power if the solar PV power generation is not high enough. It requires a proper system design to match the power consumption of air conditioning system with a proper PV size. Six solar air conditioners with different sizes of PV panel and air conditioners were built and tested outdoors to experimentally investigate the running probabilities of air conditioning at various solar irradiations. It is shown that the instantaneous operation probability (OPB) and the runtime fraction (RF) of the air conditioner are mainly affected by the design parameter rpL (ratio of maximum PV power to load power). The measured OPB is found to be greater than 0.98 at instantaneous solar irradiation IT > 600 W m-2 if rpL > 1.71 RF approaches 1.0 (the air conditioner is run in 100% with solar power) at daily-total solar radiation higher than 13 MJ m-2 day-1, if rpL > 3.

  17. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Li, Xueping [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  18. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  19. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called 'technology action plans (TAPs)', which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donor-led market for institutional systems). The paper finds that governments' strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development.

  20. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  1. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  2. Design and Analysis of Stepped DC Link Hybrid Converter for Solar PV Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Uthirasamy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A structure of single phase DC Link Multilevel H-Bridge Inverter (DCLMLHBI is proposed for symmetrical Photo Voltaic (PV systems. Voltage stress across the inverter switches, Power Spectral Density (PSD, voltage and current harmonics are reduced in the proposed configuration. Compared with conventional 13-level Cascaded Multilevel Inverter (CMLI configuration, the proposed system configuration is structured with less number of series connected power switches and gate drive circuits. None of the passive components are utilized in the proposed inverter configuration, which highlight the significance of the proposed system. The performance parameters are investigated through Phase Opposition Pulse Width Modulation (POD-PWM switching scheme and its results are validated with computer simulation and prototype hardware models.

  3. Hybrid PV and solar-thermal systems for domestic heat and power provision in the UK: Techno-economic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrando, María; Markides, Christos N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable heat and power generation in UK homes with PVT systems studied. • PVT/w generation: 2.3 MW_e h/yr (51% of demand) and 1.0 MW_t_h h/yr (36% hot water). • Optimised PVT/w system has 9–11 year payback periods (PV-only: 6.8 years). • Same system allows 16.0-t CO_2 reduction and 14-t primary fossil-fuel saving. • With a ∼2:1 support (£/W_e h:£/W_t_h h), PVT and PV have similar payback periods. - Abstract: A techno-economic analysis is undertaken to assess hybrid PV/solar-thermal (PVT) systems for distributed electricity and hot-water provision in a typical house in London, UK. In earlier work (Herrando et al., 2014), a system model based on a PVT collector with water as the cooling medium (PVT/w) was used to estimate average year-long system performance. The results showed that for low solar irradiance levels and low ambient temperatures, such as those associated with the UK climate, a higher coverage of total household energy demands and higher CO_2 emission savings can be achieved by the complete coverage of the solar collector with PV and a relatively low collector cooling flow-rate. Such a PVT/w system demonstrated an annual electricity generation of 2.3 MW h, or a 51% coverage of the household’s electrical demand (compared to an equivalent PV-only value of 49%), plus a significant annual water heating potential of to 1.0 MW h, or a 36% coverage of the hot-water demand. In addition, this system allowed for a reduction in CO_2 emissions amounting to 16.0 tonnes over a life-time of 20 years due to the reduction in electrical power drawn from the grid and gas taken from the mains for water heating, and a 14-tonne corresponding displacement of primary fossil-fuel consumption. Both the emissions and fossil-fuel consumption reductions are significantly larger (by 36% and 18%, respectively) than those achieved by an equivalent PV-only system with the same peak rating/installed capacity. The present paper proceeds further, by

  4. How China became a leader in solar PV : An innovation system analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Ping; Negro, Simona O.; Hekkert, Marko P.; Bi, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we focus on understanding the rapid rise of the Chinese PV industry and its profound impact on the global PV industry. We investigate how it is possible that a nation that is still focusing on catching up in terms of industry, innovation and technology has been able to bring

  5. SolarChill - a solar PV refrigerator without battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.H.; Poulsen, S.; Katic, I. [Danish Technological Inst., Taastrup (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    A solar powered refrigerator (SolarChill) has been developed in an international project involving Greenpeace International, GTZ, UNICEF, UNEP, WHO, industrial partners and Danish Technological Institute. The refrigerator is able to operate directly on solar PV panels, without battery or additional electronics, and is therefore suitable for locations where little maintenance and reliable operation is mandatory. The main objective of the SolarChill Project is to help deliver vaccines and refrigeration to the rural poor. To achieve this objective, the SolarChill Project developed - and plans to make freely available a versatile refrigeration technology that is environmentally sound, technologically reliable, and affordable. SolarChill does not use any fluorocarbons in its cooling system or in the insulation. For domestic and small business applications, another type of solar refrigerator is under development. This is an upright type, suitable for cool storage of food and beverages in areas where grid power is non-existent or unstable. The market potential for this type is thus present in industrialised countries as well as in countries under development. The unique feature of SolarChill is that energy is stored in ice instead of in batteries. An ice compartment keeps the cabinet at desired temperatures during the night. The paper describes the product development, possible SolarChill applications and experience with the two types of solar refrigerators, as well as results from the laboratory and field test. (orig.)

  6. Firefighter Safety for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic (PV) systems is that as long as the PV panels are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters that is independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch...

  7. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  8. Prospect of solar-PV/biogas/diesel generator hybrid energy system of an off-grid area in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Soumya; Yasmin, Hosna; Sarker, M. R. I.; Beg, M. R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The study presents an analysis and suggests about how renewable sources of energy can be an alternative option to produce electricity in an off-grid area. A case study is done by surveying 235 households in an off-grid area. Techno-economic analysis of the hybrid energy system is employed by using Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software. Four solar-PV modules (each of 1kW), two biogas generators (each of 3kW), three diesel generators (each of 5kW), five batteries (each of 160 Ah) and 5kW converter is found to be the best configuration in terms of Cost of Energy (COE), environmental conditions and Renewable Fraction (RF). The Cost of Energy (COE), Net Present Cost (NPC), capital cost of this configuration is found BDT15.382, BDT10007224, and BDT2582433 respectively. The renewable fraction of this system is found 75% which indicates a lower emission compared with thegrid based system and stand-alone diesel system. Although the COE is higher than grid electricity, this system offers a cheaper option than using kerosene oil and solar home systems (SHSs).

  9. Analysis of a Hybrid PV/Thermal Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System for Sports Center Water Heating Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the TRNSYS 16 computation environment and the energy performance was evaluated based on year round simulation results. The results show that the system COP can reach 4.1 under the subtropical climate of Hong Kong, and as compared to the conventional heating system, a high fractional factor of energy saving at 67% can be obtained. The energy performances of the same system under different climatic conditions, that include three other cities in France, were analyzed and compared. Economic implications were also considered in this study.

  10. A new method for estimating insolation based on PV-module currents in a cluster of stand-alone solar systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhout, F; van der Borg, N; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the performance of solar home systems (SHSs), data on local insolation is a prerequisite. We present a new method to estimate insolation if direct measurements are unavailable. This method comprises estimation of daily irradiation by correlating photovoltaic (PV) module currents

  11. Solar pv fed stand-alone excitation system of a synchronous machine for reactive power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, N.; Jain, Siddhartha; Jyotheeswara Reddy, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a model of a stand-alone solar energy conversion system based on synchronous machine working as a synchronous condenser in overexcited state. The proposed model consists of a Synchronous Condenser, a DC/DC boost converter whose output is fed to the field of the SC. The boost converter is supplied by the modelled solar panel and a day time variable irradiance is fed to the panel during the simulation time. The model also has one alternate source of rechargeable batteries for the time when irradiance falls below a threshold value. Also the excess power produced when there is ample irradiance is divided in two parts and one is fed to the boost converter while other is utilized to recharge the batteries. A simulation is done in MATLAB-SIMULINK and the obtained results show the utility of such modelling for supplying reactive power is feasible.

  12. Boost Converter Fed High Performance BLDC Drive for Solar PV Array Powered Air Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Rani Depuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the utilization of a DC-DC boost converter as a mediator between a Solar Photovoltaic (SPV array and the Voltage Source Inverters (VSI in an SPV array powered air cooling system to attain maximum efficiency. The boost converter, over the various common DC-DC converters, offers many advantages in SPV based applications. Further, two Brushless DC (BLDC motors are employed in the proposed air cooling system: one to run the centrifugal water pump and the other to run a fan-blower. Employing a BLDC motor is found to be the best option because of its top efficiency, supreme reliability and better performance over a wide range of speeds. The air cooling system is developed and simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink environment considering the steady state variation in the solar irradiance. Further, the efficiency of BLDC drive system is compared with a conventional Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC motor drive system and from the simulated results it is found that the proposed system performs better.

  13. Solar charge regulator and operation management for PV island systems with modern memory-programmable control (SPS); Solarladeregler und Betriebsmanagement fuer PV-Inselsysteme mit moderner Speicherprogrammierbarer Steuerung (SPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlen, K. v.; Nussberger, B. [ENNOS Gesellschaft fuer Innovative Energiesysteme mbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    Modern memory programmable controls (SPS) are good value for money, powerful and have such a low power consumption that they are suitable for control and regulation purposes in PV island systems. The development of the solar charge regulators and operation management on the basis of an SPS shown in the article was carried out with the super-imposed target of increasing the use of proven standard industrial products in their construction and simplifying their operation and raising their reliability. [Deutsch] Moderne Speicherprogrammierbare Steuerungen (SPS) sind preiswert, leistungsfaehig und besitzen inzwischen eine so niedrige Leistungsaufnahme, dass sie zu Steuer- und Regelzwecken in PV-Inselsystemen geeignet sind. Die Entwicklung des im Beitrag vorgestellten Solarladereglers und Betriebsmanagement auf der Basis einer SPS stand unter der uebergeordneten Zielsetzung, PV-Anlagen durch den Einsatz von bewaehrten Standard-Industrieprodukten in ihrem Aufbau und der Bedienung zu vereinfachen und in ihrer Zuverlaessigkeit zu steigern. (orig.)

  14. Preliminary investigation into the use of solar PV systems for residential application in Bandar Sri Iskandar, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimas, F.A.; Gillani, S.I.; Ans, M.S. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    In the near future, Malaysia is expected to be a net importer of oil, and the nation will have to face issues related to the security of supply and economic consequences. It is also anticipated that the energy demand for the country will increase with the increase in population and GDP. Realizing the situation, it is important that further emphasis is given into the diversification of energy resources. One method is the exploitation of renewable energy to minimize the effects of global warming. Photovoltaic technology is widely used around the world in locations with scarce power generation options. It is used for various applications and Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system is one of them. However, photovoltaic is still expensive compared to conventional methods of generating electricity. So a careful design of the system is required to ensure economic viability. This study describes a preliminary investigation of a solar PV system for residential applications in Bandar Sri Iskandar. Sizing procedures based on the peak sun hour concept is described for a Malaysian typical terraced house. Current and voltage measurements of the solar panel were carried out to predict the output under actual conditions at the site.

  15. Multifunctional a-Si PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K; Lund, P; Vartiainen, E [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The optimal use of the various forms of solar energy (passive, active, daylighting, photovoltaics) in buildings calls for an optimal integration of the technologies. As energy conservation potential in space heating may soon be exhausted, electricity efficiency and on-site generation will play an increasing role in energy-conscious building design. There, dispersed PV systems integrated into buildings show a significant market potential, due to a number of benefits: no extra land area is required, PV-array may replace conventional cladding materials and become a building element. Moreover, the produced PV-electricity is more valuable for the building owner than for an electric utility

  16. Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, L.; Sawyer, A.; Grove, J.

    2011-02-01

    This handbook is intended as a road map for project planners and solar advocates who want to convert interest into action, to break through market barriers and permanently transform the market for residential solar installations in their communities. It describes the key elements of the Solarize campaigns in Portland, and offers several program refinements from projects beyond Portland. The handbook provides lessons, considerations, and step-by-step plans for project organizers to replicate the success of Solarize Portland.

  17. Review of Solar PV Market Development in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    to understanding these effects by reviewing the development of markets for solar PV in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, focusing on how the differences in market development have been explained in the literature. The paper finds that, although Tanzania and Uganda are rapidly catching up, Kenya is still leading......While the diffusion of solar home systems in Kenya has been market-based for some years, the diffusion of PV in most other Sub-Saharan African countries has been driven by government and donor-supported projects aimed at serving specific needs for electricity while at the same time creating...

  18. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  19. PV Thermal systems: PV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van W.G.J.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    With PV Thermal panels sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneously. Per unit area the total efficiency of a PVT panel is higher than the sum of the efficiencies of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. During the last 20 years research into PVT techniques and concepts

  20. Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    This guidebook is intended as a road map for project planners and solar advocates who want to convert 'interest' into 'action,' to break through market barriers and permanently transform the market for residential solar installations in their communities. It describes the key elements of the Solarize campaigns in Portland, and offers several program refinements from projects beyond Portland. The guidebook provides lessons, considerations, and step-by-step plans for project organizers to replicate the success of Solarize Portland.

  1. PV System Component Fault and Failure Compilation and Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Lavrova, Olga; Gooding, Renee Lynne

    2018-02-01

    This report describes data collection and analysis of solar photovoltaic (PV) equipment events, which consist of faults and fa ilures that occur during the normal operation of a distributed PV system or PV power plant. We present summary statistics from locations w here maintenance data is being collected at various intervals, as well as reliability statistics gathered from that da ta, consisting of fault/failure distributions and repair distributions for a wide range of PV equipment types.

  2. Replacing diesel by solar in the Amazon: short-term economic feasibility of PV-diesel hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, A.L.; Hoffmann, C.A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Energy planning in the Brazilian Amazon faces two major challenges. One is that of helping the off-grid population improve a situation of discomfort, environmental risks and high lighting costs. Another is that of cutting fuel subsidies in the local utility grids supplied by diesel generators. Simulation shows that PV systems with energy storage connected to existing diesel generators, allowing them to be turned of during the day, provide the lowest energy costs. Implementation potential of that choice is evaluated for local grids up to 100 kW, where transportation costs cause maximal wholesale diesel prices for Northern Brazil to be increased of 15% and more, it is economical to convert diesel systems up to 50 kW peak power into hybrid systems. In locations where the costs increase is of 45% and more, systems up to 100 kW turn economical. A new legal mechanism for subrogation of diesel subsidies to renewable energy projects changes those limits to 0% and 21%, respectively. Therefore, the actors in power generation are motivated to consider solar energy. A program with the scope described should give the Brazilian photovoltaic industry a relevant push and launch a transition towards a sustainable power supply for the region

  3. Development of a low cost integrated 15 kW A.C. solar tracking sub-array for grid connected PV power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M.; West, R.; Fourer, G.; Whalen, W.; Van Loo, M.; Duran, G.

    1997-02-01

    Utility Power Group has achieved a significant reduction in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems. The two part technical approach focused on 1) The utilization of a large area factory assembled PV panel, and 2) The integration and packaging of all sub-array power conversion and control functions within a single factory produced enclosure. Eight engineering prototype 15kW ac single axis solar tracking sub-arrays were designed, fabricated, and installed at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's Hedge Substation site in 1996 and are being evaluated for performance and reliability. A number of design enhancements will be implemented in 1997 and demonstrated by the field deployment and operation of over twenty advanced sub-array PV power systems.

  4. Microgrid-Ready Solar PV - Planning for Resiliency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Samuel S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-17

    This fact sheet provides background information on microgrids with suggested language for several up-front considerations that can be added to a solar project procurement or request for proposal (RFP) that will help ensure that PV systems are built for future microgrid connection.

  5. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Yang, P.E.; Lin, Y.P.; Lin, B.Y.; Chen, H.J.; Lai, R.C.; Cheng, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well

  6. High Penetration Solar PV Deployment Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeker, Rick [Nhu Energy, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Steurer, Mischa [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Faruque, MD Omar [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Langston, James [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Schoder, Karl [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Ravindra, Harsha [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Hariri, Ali [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Moaveni, Houtan [New York Power Authority (NYPA), New York (United States); University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (Unitied States); Click, Dave [ESA Renewables, LLC, Sanford, FL (United States); University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Reedy, Bob [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The report provides results from the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) high penetration solar PV deployment project led by Florida State University’s (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS). FSU CAPS and industry and university partners have completed a five-year effort aimed at enabling effective integration of high penetration levels of grid-connected solar PV generation. SUNGRIN has made significant contributions in the development of simulation-assisted techniques, tools, insight and understanding associated with solar PV effects on electric power system (EPS) operation and the evaluation of mitigation options for maintaining reliable operation. An important element of the project was the partnership and participation of six major Florida utilities and the Florida Reliability Coordinating Council (FRCC). Utilities provided details and data associated with actual distribution circuits having high-penetration PV to use as case studies. The project also conducted foundational work supporting future investigations of effects at the transmission / bulk power system level. In the final phase of the project, four open-use models with built-in case studies were developed and released, along with synthetic solar PV data sets, and tools and techniques for model reduction and in-depth parametric studies of solar PV impact on distribution circuits. Along with models and data, at least 70 supporting MATLAB functions have been developed and made available, with complete documentation.

  7. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weng, Dean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  8. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enbar, Nadav [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Weng, Dean [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  9. Concentrated solar power plants impact on PV penetration level and grid flexibility under Egyptian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, Ibrahim; Elbaset, Adel A.; El Dein, Adel Z.; Qudaih, Yaser; Mitani, Yasunori

    2018-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system integration in the electric grid has been increasing over the past decades. However, the impact of PV penetration on the electric grid, especially during the periods of higher and lower generation for the solar system at the middle of the day and during cloudy weather or at night respectively, limit the high penetration of solar PV system. In this research, a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) with Thermal Energy Storage (TES) has been aggregated with PV system in order to accommodate the required electrical power during the higher and lower solar energy at all timescales. This paper analyzes the impacts of CSP on the grid-connected PV considering high penetration of PV system, particularly when no energy storages in the form of batteries are used. Two cases have been studied, the first when only PV system is integrated into the electric grid and the second when two types of solar energy (PV and CSP) are integrated. The System Advisor Model (SAM) software is used to simulate the output power of renewable energy. Simulation results show that the performance of CSP has a great impact on the penetration level of PV system and on the flexibility of the electric grid. The overall grid flexibility increases due to the ability of CSP to store and dispatch the generated power. In addition, CSP/TES itself has inherent flexibility. Therefore, CSP reduces the minimum generation constraint of the conventional generators that allows more penetration of the PV system.

  10. The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used as an energy-active building envelope material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhara, H.; Milko, J.; Danielewicz, J.; Sayegh, M.A.; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M.; Ramos, J.B.; Lester, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel flat heat pipe design has been developed and utilised as a building envelope and thermal solar collector with and without (PV) bonded directly to its surface. The design of the new solar collector has been validated through full scale testing in Cardiff, UK where solar/thermal, uncooled PV and PV/T tests were carried out on three identical systems, simultaneously. The tests showed a solar/thermal energy conversion efficiency of around 64% for the collector with no PV and 50% for the system with the PV layer on it. The effect of cooling on the solar/electrical energy conversion efficiency was also investigated and an efficiency increase of about 15% was recorded for the cooled PV system due to the provided homogenous cooling. The new flat heat pipe solar collector is given the name “heat mat” and, in addition to being an efficient solar collector type, it is also designed to convert a building envelope materials to become energy-active. A full size roof that utilise this new building envelope material is reported in this paper to demonstrate the way this new collector is integrated as a building envelope material to form a roof. A thermal absorption test, in a controlled environment, from the ambient to the heat mat with no solar radiation is also reported. The test has proved the heat mat as an efficient thermal absorber from the ambient to the intermediate fluid that deliver the heat energy to the heat pump system. - Highlights: • A new flat heat pipe PV/T system that can be used as building materials is reported. • The new solar collector enhanced the performance of the PV by about 15%. • The new solar collector is capable of absorbing heat from ambient efficiently. • The new system is efficient from the solar/thermal conversion point of view.

  11. Financing PV solar home systems; A market intervention model from a case study in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Risoe National Laboratory (Denmark); Usher, E. [Energy and Ozon Action Unit - Division of Technology, Industry and Economics - United Nations Environment Programme, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Renewable Energy is expected to contribute significantly in future to World Energy Supply. It holds tremendous potential for countries like India where approximately seventy percent of the rural households are still without access to electricity. These households continue to rely on less efficient and polluting energy sources, typically biomass for cooking and heating and kerosene for lighting. Even when connected to grid, problems of capacity shortages and inconsistent quality plague the power supply, especially in rural and semi urban areas in most parts of India. Despite high initial costs, Solar Home Systems (SHS) emerge as an attractive option in the context of costly or unreliable alternatives and escalating grid power tariffs. Barrier to the growth of SHS market include a lack of access to financing, awareness, and risk perception associated with the technology, new to the customers of SHS and financing community. Consultations with stakeholders were held and an intervention was designed to address these barriers through creation of a credit facility in partnership with two banks having wide reach to the potential customers. The facility provides loan to the customers and a small subsidy to buy down high cost of the credit, which is designed to reduce over the three-year operation of the facility, with a target to reach market rates of interest at the end of the project. Technical support, awareness raising strategies and training were included as a part of the overall strategy. The credit facility was launched between April and June 2003 by the two banks. Early indications on sales have been very encouraging and the facility is expected to surpass the target of 5000 SHS sales in two years well in advance. Feedback mechanisms such as customer surveys, new initiatives to reach the poor households, and ongoing consultations with stakeholders etc. are also part of the market development strategy. (orig.)

  12. Financial mechanism for PV solar home systems market development. An Indian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painuly, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Rural electrification through grid extension has not made electricity available to the rural households in India, where still approximately seventy percent of them have no access to electricity. These households continue to rely on less efficient and polluting energy sources, typically biomass for cooking and heating and kerosene for lighting. Even though some of them are connected to grid, problems of capacity shortages and inconsistent quality plague the power supply, especially in rural and semi urban areas in most parts of India. Despite high initial costs, Solar Home Systems (SHS) emerge as an attractive option in the context of costly or unreliable alternatives and escalating grid power tariffs. Barrier to the growth of SHS market include a lack of access to financing, awareness, and risk perception associated with the technology, new to the customers of SHS and financing community. To address these barriers, consultations with stakeholders were held, that included manufacturers, financing institutions, and others. An intervention was designed based on the discussions and a credit facility created in partnership with two banks having wide reach to the potential customers in Karnataka State of India. The facility provides loan to the customers and a small subsidy to buy down high cost of the credit, which is designed to reduce over the three-year operation of the facility, with a target to reach market rates of interest at the end of the project. Technical support, awareness raising strategies and training were included as a part of the overall strategy. The credit facility was launched between April and June 2003 by the two partner banks. Early indications on sales have been very encouraging and the facility has already surpassed the target of 5000 SHS sales in two years within a year. Feedback mechanisms such as customer surveys, new initiatives to reach the poor households, and ongoing consultations with stakeholders etc. are also part of the market

  13. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  14. Better or worse? The role of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in sustainable development. Case studies of remote atoll communities in Kiribati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mala, Kirti; Schlaepfer, August; Pryor, Trevor [School of Electrical, Energy and Process Engineering, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150 (Australia)

    2009-02-15

    The Republic of Kiribati, formerly known as the Gilbert Islands, is a Micronesian (One of the three groups of islands in the Pacific. The eight territories that make up Micronesia are Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Kiribati, Republic of the Marshall Islands, Republic of Nauru, Republic of Palau, Territory of Guam and Territory of Wake Island. The other two groups of islands in the Pacific are Melanesia and Polynesia) country in the Pacific. The energy sources utilised in Kiribati include petroleum products, biomass, solar energy and wind power. Solar energy was introduced in Kiribati in the early 1980s (Wade H. Survey of RESCO projects - prepared for OPRET, Fiji Department of Energy, 2003; p. 36). Currently, it makes a very insignificant (less than 1%) contribution to the total annual primary energy supply (South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP). Pacific Islands Renewable Energy Project (PIREP) - Pacific Regional Energy Assessment (PREA) 2004. Kiribati national report, Vol. 5, 2005). Solar energy in Kiribati is used mostly in the form of solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies for the provision of lighting and electricity. This study examines the role of PV technologies in the sustainable development process in Kiribati, with particular reference to remote atoll communities. Initial results from on-site surveys carried out are reported in this paper. These surveys have sought to identify the reasons why people use or do not use PV systems. (author)

  15. Integrated photovoltaic (PV) monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinder Singh, Balbir Singh; Husain, NurSyahidah; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this research work is to design an accurate and reliable monitoring system to be integrated with solar electricity generating system. The performance monitoring system is required to ensure that the PVEGS is operating at an optimum level. The PV monitoring system is able to measure all the important parameters that determine an optimum performance. The measured values are recorded continuously, as the data acquisition system is connected to a computer, and data is stored at fixed intervals. The data can be locally used and can also be transmitted via internet. The data that appears directly on the local monitoring system is displayed via graphical user interface that was created by using Visual basic and Apache software was used for data transmission The accuracy and reliability of the developed monitoring system was tested against the data that captured simultaneously by using a standard power quality analyzer device. The high correlation which is 97% values indicates the level of accuracy of the monitoring system. The aim of leveraging on a system for continuous monitoring system is achieved, both locally, and can be viewed simultaneously at a remote system.

  16. Numerical study of PV/T-SAHP system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang PEI; Jie JI; Ke-liang LIU; Han-feng HE; Ai-guo JIANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy effectively and to achieve a higher electrical efficiency by limiting the operating temperature of the photovoltaic (PV) panel, a novel photovoltaic/thermal solar-assisted heat pump (PV/T-SAHP) system was proposed and constructed. The hybrid solar system generates electricity and thermal energy simultaneously. A distributed parameters model of the PV/T-SAHP system was developed and applied to analyze the system dynamic performance in terms of PV action, photothermal action and Rankine cycle processes. The simulation results indicated that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the proposed PV/T-SAHP can be much better than that of the conventional heat pump. Both PV-efficiency and photothermic efficiency have been improved considerably. The results also showed that the performance of this PV/T-SAHP system was strongly influenced by the evaporator area, tube pitch and tilt angle of the PV/T evaporator, which are the key factors in PV/T-SAHP system optimization and PV/T evaporator design.

  17. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Ding, W.L.; Huang, Y.C.

    2011-01-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand

  18. Solar PV resource for higher penetration through a combined spatial aggregation with wind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, ST

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available between wind and solar PV and how these would be reflected in the power system. The benefits of spatial distribution of renewables are well understood, but the impact of the combined spatial aggregation of wind and solar PV is central to the design...

  19. Experimental grid connected PV system power analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaoui, Smail; Abdeladim, Kamel; Arab, Amar Hadj; Boulahchich, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2018-05-01

    Almost 80 % of Algerian territory is appropriate for the exploitation of solar energy. The Algerian energetic strategy provides a substantial injection of PV electricity to the national grid. Currently, about 344 MWp of PV arrays which corresponds approximately to 2,34 km2 of module surfaces, are connected on electricity grid over the national territory. The Algerian Northern regions are characterized by strong pollution and high humidity. These phenomena affect the energetic productivity of PV generator. The objective of our study is to analyze experimental grid connected PV system power in coastal locations. Hence, experiments have been conducted on three identical PV systems to determine the electrical performances. Transformer-less inverters are the most attractive for the ground-based photovoltaic (PV) system due to their efficiencies, reduced cost and weight. Besides, the absence of the galvanic isolation generates problems of capacitive leakage current on the AC side and the degradation of the insulation resistance on the DC side of the inverter. In this work, experimental study of the behavior of single-phase inverters without transformers is presented. The main objective of this work is to study the degradation of the insulation resistance at the input of the inverter, and the capacitive leakage current at the output of the inverter. This study was achieved at the CDER on a rainy day of 15/03/2017, on the first PV plant connected to the low voltage network in Algeria. This investigation can help forecasting the PV array energetic production by taking into account natural conditions.

  20. Performance optimization of solar PV systems to meet school's power requirements. A case study of Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Karnataka State - India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsundar, S.; Kayungilo, Shaaban S.

    2007-07-01

    The use of solar PV systems to provide power for lighting and other applications in India's rural areas has became popular due to the well established promotion and subsidies system adopted by the government to popularize the PV technology. However, there are limited mechanisms put to monitor the performance of the various PV systems once they are installed to ensure that designed output is delivered by the systems. This is important in giving confidence and trust of the technology to end-users and hence further popularization of the PV technology among larger population, increasing the penetration rate and tapping the real benefits of the technology itself like reduced dependence on fossil fuels (kerosene, diesel or electricity generated from coal power plants) and thus saving the environment. This paper describes the results of the study made at Viveka Tribal School at Hosahally Village, Mysore District of Karnataka State-India. The study was carried out to investigate the possibility for the school to become energy-self sufficient based on renewable energy technologies, thus becoming a role model in the use and promotion of renewable energy sources within Mysore District and Karnataka State at large. (orig.)

  1. Solar PV-based rooftop power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar, B.; Kumar, Chaitanya; Patel, C.B.; Pattanaik, B.R.; Panda, P.K.; Kaul, S.K.; Mishra, H.

    2017-01-01

    Technical Services Division (TSD) is responsible for providing reliable power supply to various operating reactors, laboratories and facilities of BARC. The power supply to BARC is derived from TATA Power at 110 KV and 22 KV at an average HT tariff of Rs.8.49 per unit at present. Peak power demand of BARC in summer season goes up to 23 MW. TSD has implemented several energy conservation measures to reduce the energy consumption and as well taken initiatives to install solar PV based rooftop power plants to reduce the cost of energy consumption in BARC

  2. Distributed solar radiation fast dynamic measurement for PV cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xuefen; Yang, Yi; Cui, Jian; Du, Xingjing; Zheng, Tao; Sardar, Muhammad Sohail

    2017-10-01

    To study the operating characteristics about PV cells, attention must be given to the dynamic behavior of the solar radiation. The dynamic behaviors of annual, monthly, daily and hourly averages of solar radiation have been studied in detail. But faster dynamic behaviors of solar radiation need more researches. The solar radiation random fluctuations in minute-long or second-long range, which lead to alternating radiation and cool down/warm up PV cell frequently, decrease conversion efficiency. Fast dynamic processes of solar radiation are mainly relevant to stochastic moving of clouds. Even in clear sky condition, the solar irradiations show a certain degree of fast variation. To evaluate operating characteristics of PV cells under fast dynamic irradiation, a solar radiation measuring array (SRMA) based on large active area photodiode, LoRa spread spectrum communication and nanoWatt MCU is proposed. This cross photodiodes structure tracks fast stochastic moving of clouds. To compensate response time of pyranometer and reduce system cost, the terminal nodes with low-cost fast-responded large active area photodiode are placed besides positions of tested PV cells. A central node, consists with pyranometer, large active area photodiode, wind detector and host computer, is placed in the center of the central topologies coordinate to scale temporal envelope of solar irradiation and get calibration information between pyranometer and large active area photodiodes. In our SRMA system, the terminal nodes are designed based on Microchip's nanoWatt XLP PIC16F1947. FDS-100 is adopted for large active area photodiode in terminal nodes and host computer. The output current and voltage of each PV cell are monitored by I/V measurement. AS62-T27/SX1278 LoRa communication modules are used for communicating between terminal nodes and host computer. Because the LoRa LPWAN (Low Power Wide Area Network) specification provides seamless interoperability among Smart Things without the

  3. Simulation study on reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption in residential houses with solar thermal and PV systems; Taiyo energy riyo jutaku no fuka heijunka oyobi energy sakugen koka no simulation ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T. [Yokohama City Office, Yokohama (Japan); Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-11-20

    In this study, taking the all factors involved in the energy consumption in residential houses as subjects, the effectiveness of the solar PV system and solar thermal utilizing system in residential houses has been studied by simulating a model residential house considering the improvement of the residual environment in the future. Therefore, a model residual house is assumed, 18 kinds of combinations of construction style, cooling and heating type and solar energy utilizing form are assumed and year round simulation is carried out. The conclusions obtained by the simulation are as follows. The energy consumption in residential houses may decrease greatly by using a solar hot water supplying system. If combined with a solar PV system, the energy consumption in one year is about 8.7 to 9.7 MWh. The combined use of a solar thermal utilizing system and a PV system is more effective to reduce the second-time energy in comparison with the PV system only. 36% of the space heating energy consumption may be decreased by using the solar space heating system, but the decrease effect of the energy consumption of the solar space heating system is smaller than the solar hot water supplying system. 12 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Reconciling Consumer and Utility Objectives in the Residential Solar PV Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael R.

    Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses---utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses---to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations---Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle---with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location---solar insolation and load profile---was also found to affect the time of year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

  5. Solar Plus: A Holistic Approach to Distributed Solar PV | Solar Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    customer economics. Illustration titled "The Solar Plus Home," showing depicting the relationship rate structures that affect the customer value of PV generation. At the same time, increasing PV . These issues have prompted the PV industry to consider new ways to optimize the customer value of

  6. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Working Group: Best Practices in PV System Installation; Version 1.0, March 2015; Period of Performance, October 2014 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, C. [IBTS and Dividend Solar, Austin, TX (United States). Dividend Solar; Truitt, A. [Acuity Power Group, Denver, CO (United States); Inda, D. [Clean Power Finance, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lawrence, R. [North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners, Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lockhart, R. [Acuity Power Group, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Golden, M. [Efficiency.org and IBTS, Sausalito, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The following Photovoltaics Installation Best Practices Guide is one of several work products developed by the Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group, which works to open capital market investment. SAPC membership includes over 450 leading solar developers, financiers and capital managers, law firms, rating agencies, accounting and engineering firms, and other stakeholders engaged in solar asset deployment. SAPC activities are directed toward foundational elements necessary to pool project cash flows into tradable securities: standardization of power purchase and lease contracts for residential and commercial end customers; development of performance and credit data sets to facilitate investor due diligence activities; comprehension of risk perceived by rating agencies; and the development of best practice guides for PV system installation and operations and maintenance (O&M) in order to encourage high-quality system deployment and operation that may improve lifetime project performance and energy production. This PV Installation Best Practices Guide was developed through the SAPC Installation Best Practices subcommittee, a subgroup of SAPC comprised of a wide array of solar industry leaders in numerous fields of practice. The guide was developed over roughly one year and eight months of direct engagement by the subcommittee and two working group comment periods.

  7. Impact of Rooftop Solar PV on Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    Increased environmental awareness in recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources especially solar PV and wind. Among them, small scale solar PV has been gaining more momentum especially at residential level. Even today moderate penetration of grid tied rooftop solar PV has...... become reality in many countries. In spite of various benefits, higher penetration of rooftop PVs might come up with number of detrimental effects, with power quality and overcurrent protection being the major ones. Therefore, it is reasonable to quantify both drawback and benefits of rooftop PV...

  8. Impact of high penetration of wind and solar PV generation on the country power system load: The case study of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komušanac, Ivan; Ćosić, Boris; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 69 scenarios of wind and solar PV as a base technology are analysed with EnergyPLAN model. • Pareto analysis is used for selection of the optimal scenario. • Multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. • Results shows optimal mix of 1.65 GW of wind and 1.6 GW of solar PV. - Abstract: Even though the Republic of Croatia is on track of achieving goals set in the Europe 2020 strategy, to achieve the goals set in the 2030 European framework for climate and energy policies will require more effort. The new 2030 framework calls for a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% compared to the 1990 level, yet the Republic of Croatia does not have such an ambitious plan. In times when wind plants and photovoltaic systems have reached grid parity in the majority of European countries, this paper analysed the influence of construction of wind and photovoltaic power plants in order to present the optimal constructing ratio of such systems on the Croatian power system load. Simulations have been conducted in the EnergyPLAN model for the year 2012. After the simulation presented promising scenarios, applying the Pareto analysis showed the optimal scenario for generating electricity from renewables, scenario with the lowest import of electricity, scenario with the lowest CO 2 emissions and with the lowest critical excess electricity production. In addition, all of the scenarios were subjected to a multiple criteria decision analysis in order to find the best overall scenario. After showing that the best overall scenario was 1.65 GW of wind power plants and 1.6 GW of installed PV capacity, a multi-criteria analysis was performed in order to observe the behaviour of grading the scenarios. Indeed, all of the simulations proved that PV will have a bigger role in the Republic of Croatia than expected.

  9. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...

  10. A new design for luminescent solar concentrating PV roof tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doudart de la Gree, G.C.H.; Papadopoulos, A.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Krumer, Z.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Rosemann, A.L.P.

    2015-01-01

    In our paper we explore the opportunity of combining luminescent solar concentrating (LSC) materials and crystalline PV solar cells in a new design for a roof tile by design-driven research on the energy performance of various configurations of the LSC PV device and on the aesthetic appeal in a roof

  11. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  12. Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cáceres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels’ surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.

  13. The case for a single-axis tracking solar PV array system to mitigate against the time-of-use tariff

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available peak tariff is from 6:00pm to 8:00pm. A fixed-axis PV system generates peak electricity when the sun is overhead of the PV array. A single-axis PV tracking system allows for maximum production of electricity by tracking the sun soon after it appears...

  14. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    The lead-acid battery which is widely used in stand-alone solar system is easily damaged by a poor charging control which causes overcharging. The battery charging control is thus usually designed to stop charging after the overcharge point. This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first-order system dynamics model of lead-acid battery at different operating points near the overcharge voltage was derived experimentally, from which a charging control system based on PI algorithm was developed using PWM charging technique. The feedback control system for battery charging after the overcharge point (14 V) was designed to compromise between the set-point response and the disturbance rejection. The experimental results show that the control system can suppress the battery voltage overshoot within 0.1 V when the solar irradiation is suddenly changed from 337 to 843 W/m2. A long-term outdoor test for a solar LED lighting system shows that the battery voltage never exceeded 14.1 V for the set point 14 V and the control system can prevent the battery from overcharging. The test result also indicates that the control system is able to increase the charged energy by 78%, as compared to the case that the charging stops after the overcharge point (14 V). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Residential Solar PV Quote Data to Analyze the Relationship Between Installer Pricing and Firm Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-19

    We use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the role of firm size in PV installer pricing. We find that large installers (those that installed more than 1,000 PV systems in any year from 2013 to 2015) quote higher prices for customer-owned systems, on average, than do other installers. The results suggest that low prices are not the primary value proposition of large installers.

  16. The energy roof - Photovoltaics and solar collectors combined; PV und Kollektoren schoen kombiniert. Das Energiedach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-07-01

    In this Interview with Giorgio Hefti, CEO of the Swiss Tritec group, the company's aims and the products offered are discussed. These include mains-connected and island-operated photovoltaic (PV) systems. The history of the company is briefly discussed, as is co-operation with local installers and the company's function as a general contractor for large installations. These include, amongst others, the PV-installation on the 'Stade de Suisse' football stadium in Berne. PV systems for single-family homes and their costs are examined. Also, mounting systems for combining PV and solar collectors (combined power and heat generation) are discussed, as are combinations of PV and heat-pumps. Hybrid PV-solar-collectors and their disadvantages are discussed as is the future of the Tritec group, which has grown continuously over the years and is active in several European countries.

  17. Techno-economic analysis of stand alone solar pv systems for remote base stations in Ghana. (a case study at Abofrem vodafone cell site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkyira, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) have become an important part of today’s global economy. ICT infrastructural development is developing at a very fast pace in Ghana. Growth is above the 1.1% average for Sub-Saharan Africa. The growth in the sector has meant a massive investment in telecommunication infrastructure such as base stations from telecom companies such as Vodafone, Millicom, Glo, Espresso, MTN etc. Hundreds of base stations have been installed all over the country. Currently base stations depend mainly on the national grid, with diesel generators as backups, for its power requirement. In some remote or hilly areas where there are no grid supplied electricity, base stations are usually powered with diesel fuelled generators since lengthy grid extensions may not be cost effective. In addition to high fuel delivery and consumption costs, maintenance of the generators can also be expensive in terms of parts and labour time working on the unit. There are also concerns about environmental pollution using diesel generators. Photovoltaic technology has the ability to convert solar energy into electricity consuming no fossil fuels, using no moving parts, creating no pollution and noise, and lasting for years with little maintenance. The environmental, noise, reliability and power availability benefits of the PV system make it an attractive option. Ghana, being a few degrees north of the equator, is endowed with enormous solar energy resource spread across the entire country. Daily solar radiation level ranges from 4 kWh/m 2 to 6 kWh/m 2 . The annual sunshine duration ranges between 1800 to 3000 hours offering very high potential for grid connected and off grid applications. In this thesis work, the use of solar PV technology as a cost effective source of power for cellular base stations in remote or hilly areas, far off the national grid, is reviewed. RETScreen software is used to determine the technical and financial viability of the PV system

  18. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  19. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  20. Solar radiation - to - power generation models for one-axis tracking PV system with on-site measurements from Eskisehir, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filik, Tansu; Başaran Filik, Ümmühan; Nezih Gerek, Ömer

    2017-11-01

    In this study, new analytic models are proposed for mapping on-site global solar radiation values to electrical power output values in solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. The model extraction is achieved by simultaneously recording solar radiation and generated power from fixed and tracking panels, each with capacity of 3 kW, in Eskisehir (Turkey) region. It is shown that the relation between the solar radiation and the corresponding electric power is not only nonlinear, but it also exhibits an interesting time-varying characteristic in the form of a hysteresis function. This observed radiation-to-power relation is, then, analytically modelled with three piece-wise function parts (corresponding to morning, noon and evening times), which is another novel contribution of this work. The model is determined for both fixed panels and panels with a tracking system. Especially the panel system with a dynamic tracker produces a harmonically richer (with higher values in general) characteristic, so higher order polynomial models are necessary for the construction of analytical solar radiation models. The presented models, characteristics of the hysteresis functions, and differences in the fixed versus solar-tracking panels are expected to provide valuable insight for further model based researches.

  1. Operation of Grid-tied 5 kWDC solar array to develop Laboratory Experiments for Solar PV Energy System courses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jaime [Univ. of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX (United States)

    2012-12-14

    To unlock the potential of micro grids we plan to build, commission and operate a 5 kWDC PV array and integrate it to the UTPA Engineering building low voltage network, as a micro grid; and promote community awareness. Assisted by a solar radiation tracker providing on-line information of its measurements and performing analysis for the use by the scientific and engineering community, we will write, perform and operate a set of Laboratory experiments and computer simulations supporting Electrical Engineering (graduate and undergraduate) courses on Renewable Energy, as well as Senior Design projects.

  2. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) markets are relatively non-transparent: PV price and product information is not readily available, searching for this information is costly (in terms of time and effort), and customers are mostly unfamiliar with the new technology. Quote aggregation, where third-party companies collect PV quotes on behalf of customers, may be one way to increase PV market transparency. In this paper, quote aggregation data are analyzed to study the value of transparency for distributed solar PV markets. The results suggest that easier access to more quotes results in lower prices. We find that installers tend to offer lower prices in more competitive market environments. We supplement the empirical analysis with key findings from interviews of residential PV installers.

  3. Methodology for predicting sequences of mean monthly clearness index and daily solar radiation data in remote areas: Application for sizing a stand-alone PV system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellit, A. [Department of Electronics, Institute of Sciences Engineering, Centre University of Medea, Medea 26000 (Algeria); Department of Electronics, Faculty of Science Engineering, Blida University, Blida 09000 (Algeria); Kalogirou, S.A. [Higher Technical Institute, P.O. Box 20423, Nicosia 2152 (Cyprus); Shaari, S. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Salhi, H. [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Science Engineering, Blida University, Blida 09000 (Algeria); Hadj Arab, A. [Development Centre of Renewable Energy (CDER), P.O. Box 62, Bouzareah, Algiers 16000 (Algeria); Departamento de Energias Renerables, CIEMAT, Arda Complutense, 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, a suitable adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model is presented for estimating sequences of mean monthly clearness index (anti K{sub t}) and total solar radiation data in isolated sites based on geographical coordinates. The magnitude of solar radiation is the most important parameter for sizing photovoltaic (PV) systems. The ANFIS model is trained by using a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) based on fuzzy logic (FL) rules. The inputs of the ANFIS are the latitude, longitude, and altitude, while the outputs are the 12-values of mean monthly clearness index anti K{sub t}. These data have been collected from 60 locations in Algeria. The results show that the performance of the proposed approach in the prediction of mean monthly clearness index anti K{sub t} is favorably compared to the measured values. The root mean square error (RMSE) between measured and estimated values varies between 0.0215 and 0.0235 and the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is less than 2.2%. In addition, a comparison between the results obtained by the ANFIS model and artificial neural network (ANN) models, is presented in order to show the advantage of the proposed method. An example for sizing a stand-alone PV system is also presented. This technique has been applied to Algerian locations, but it can be generalized for any geographical position. It can also be used for estimating other meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity and wind speed. (author)

  4. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Winfried [RWE SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2006-11-23

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  5. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  6. Interrogating protective space : shielding, nurturing and empowering Dutch solar PV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, B.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Veraart, F.C.A.; Smith, A.G.; Kern, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments of solar photovoltaic technology in the Netherlands. Despite the recent boom in PV industries and deployment around the globe, the Dutch have until now not experienced major growth in the diffusion of PV electricity generation. But this is only part of the story.

  7. Facilitating Deployment of Community Solar PV systems on Rooftops and Vacant Land in Northeast IL - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Deborah [Cook County, Chicago, IL (United States); Oakleaf, Laura [Cook County, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-12-31

    The Cook County Community Solar project set out to unlock the potential of community solar in the Chicago region with lessons that could be applied nationally. One of the first steps was to prove out the potential market. This was done through an opportunity assessment which showed there is over 9,000 megawatts worth of site capacity available for community solar projects in Cook County – nearly enough to offset all of Cook County’s residential electricity use. The assessment also showed that almost 75% of Cook County households are not able to invest directly in solar photovoltaic systems due to a variety of issues from physical barriers such as shading, or condition of the roof, to financial barriers such as lack of roof ownership, or the up-front costs of installation. Because of these barriers, community solar is an essential part of making the benefits of renewable energy available to all of the residents of Cook County. In addition to the opportunity assessment the project team also worked with the over 200 individuals who participated in the stakeholder advisory group to develop a number of other products including: 1) an Economic & Policy Barriers Resolutions and Work Plan document which laid out best practices to address the policy barriers that existed at the time (May of 2016) 2) Value Proposition Report I and Report II which summarize the value of community solar to potential developers and subscribers, 3) The Community Solar Business Case Tool, which provides a flexible financial model that projects the costs and befits to the system developer and subscriber for a project, 4) Bill Crediting Analysis and the 5) Final Report. The Final Report contains 15 case studies which prove that community solar projects are economically feasible in Cook County with a variety of sites, solar designs, ownership and subscriber models.

  8. Review of solar PV policies, interventions and diffusion in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    from donor and government-based support to market-driven diffusion of solar PV; and (ii) a transition from small-scale, off-grid systems towards mini-grids and large-scale, grid-connected solar power plants. The paper points out three generic factors that have contributed to encouraging SHS diffusion......Previous research on the diffusion of solar PV in Africa has mainly focused on solar home systems (SHS) in individual countries and thus overlooked developments in other PV market segments that have recently emerged. In contrast this paper adopts a regional perspective by reviewing developments...... in supportive policies, donor programs and diffusion status in all PV market segments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, as well as identifying the key factors put forward in the literature to explain differences in the diffusion of SHS in these three countries. The paper finds two emerging trends: (i) a movement...

  9. Environmental and exergy benefit of nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassani, Samir; Saidur, R.; Mekhilef, Saad; Taylor, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Environmental and ExPBT analysis of different PV/T configurations is presented. • The exergy payback time of nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is about 2 years. • Nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is a reliable solution for pollution prevention. • Nanofluid-based hybrid PV/T system is highly recommended at high solar concentration. - Abstract: Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems, which produce both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously, represent a method to achieve very high conversion rates of sunlight into useful energy. In recent years, nanofluids have been proposed as efficient coolants and optical filter for PV/T systems. Aim of this paper is to theoretically analyze the life cycle exergy of three different configurations of nanofluids-based PV/T hybrid systems, and compare their performance to a standard PV and PV/T system. Electrical and thermal performance of the analyzed solar collectors was investigated numerically. The life cycle exergy analysis revealed that the nanofluids-based PV/T system showed the best performance compared to a standard PV and PV/T systems. At the optimum value of solar concentration C, nanofluid-based PV/T configuration with optimized optical and thermal properties produces ∼1.3 MW h/m 2 of high-grade exergy annually with the lowest exergy payback time of 2 years, whereas these are ∼0.36, ∼0.79 MW h/m 2 and 3.48, 2.55 years for standard PV and PV/T systems, respectively. In addition, the nanofluids-based PV/T system can prevent the emissions of about 448 kg CO 2 eq m −2 yr −1 . Overall, it was found that the nanofluids-based PV/T with optimized optical and thermal properties has potential for further development in a high-concentration solar system.

  10. Simulation of transcontinental wind and solar PV generation time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2018-01-01

    to the technical characteristics of individual installations spread across large regions. The proposed methodology is validated using actual power data in Europe and can be applied to represent intermittent generation in network development plans, reliability and market studies, as well as operational guidelines.......The deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is driving modern power systems towards a fundamental green transition. In this regard, there is a need to develop models to accurately capture the variability of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power, at different geographical and temporal scales...

  11. Recent advances in flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Adnan; Othman, Mohd Yusof; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Mat, Sohif; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector produces both thermal energy and electricity simultaneously. This paper presents the state-of-the-art on flat plate PV/T collector classification, design and performance evaluation of water, air and combination of water and/or air based. This review also covers the future development of flat plate PV/T solar collector on building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) applications. Different designs feature and performance of flat plate PV/T solar collectors have been compared and discussed. Future research and development (R and D) works have been elaborated. The tube and sheet design is the simplest and easiest to be manufactured, even though, the efficiency is 2% lower compared to other types of collectors such as, channel, free flow and two-absorber. It is clear from the review that for both air and water based PV/T solar collectors, the important key factors that influenced the efficiency of the system are the area where the collector covered, the number of passes and the gap between the absorber collector and solar cells. From the literature review, it is obvious that the flat plate PV/T solar collector is an alternative promising system for low-energy applications in residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Other possible areas for the future works of BIPVT are also mentioned. (author)

  12. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The prospects for cost competitive solar PV power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelstein, Stefan; Yorston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations have grown globally at a rapid pace in recent years. We provide a comprehensive assessment of the cost competitiveness of this electric power source. Based on data available for the second half of 2011, we conclude that utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. In contrast, commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in the sense that the generating cost of power from solar PV is comparable to the retail electricity prices that commercial users pay, at least in certain parts of the U.S. This conclusion is shown to depend crucially on both the current federal tax subsidies for solar power and an ideal geographic location for the solar installation. Projecting recent industry trends into the future, we estimate that utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade. Furthermore, commercial-scale installations could reach “grid parity” in about ten years, if the current federal tax incentives for solar power were to expire at that point. - Highlights: ► Assessment of the cost competitiveness of new solar Photovoltaic (PV) installations. ► Utility-scale PV installations are not yet cost competitive with fossil fuel power plants. ► Commercial-scale installations have already attained cost parity in certain parts of the U.S. ► Utility-scale solar PV facilities are on track to become cost competitive by the end of this decade

  14. A comparison of diesel, biodiesel and solar PV-based water pumping systems in the context of rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Pokharel, Govind Raj; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    Nepal is heavily dependent on the traditional energy sources and imported fossil fuel, which has an adverse impact on the environment and economy. Renewable energy technologies promoted in the country are regarded as a means of satisfying rural energy needs of the country for operating different...... using petro-diesel, jatropha-based biodiesel and solar photovoltaic pumps. The technical system design consists of system sizing of prime mover (engine, solar panel and pumps) and estimation of reservoir capacity, which are based on the annual aggregate water demand modelling. With these investigations......, incentives on the investments, which have effects on the cost of pumped water. Likewise, in case of biodiesel-based system, different yield rate of jatropha plants is also considered in estimating the cost of producing biodiesel. It is found that for operating a biodiesel-based pumping system for the study...

  15. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices - Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John R. [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Keating, T. J. [SunSpec Alliance, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  16. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices – Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John R. [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Keating, T. J. [SunSpec Alliance, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  17. Performance Parameters for Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, B.; Adelstein, J.; Boyle, K.; Hayden, H.; Hammond, B.; Fletcher, T.; Canada, B.; Narang, D.; Shugar, D.; Wenger, H.; Kimber, A.; Mitchell, L.; Rich, G.; Townsend, T.

    2005-02-01

    The use of appropriate performance parameters facilitates the comparison of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems that may differ with respect to design, technology, or geographic location. Four performance parameters that define the overall system performance with respect to the energy production, solar resource, and overall effect of system losses are the following: final PV system yield, reference yield, performance ratio, and PVUSA rating. These performance parameters are discussed for their suitability in providing desired information for PV system design and performance evaluation and are demonstrated for a variety of technologies, designs, and geographic locations. Also discussed are methodologies for determining system a.c. power ratings in the design phase using multipliers developed from measured performance parameters.The use of appropriate performance parameters facilitates the comparison of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems that may differ with respect to design, technology, or geographic location. Four performance parameters that define the overall system performance with respect to the energy production, solar resource, and overall effect of system losses are the following: final PV system yield, reference yield, performance ratio, and PVUSA rating. These performance parameters are discussed for their suitability in providing desired information for PV system design and performance evaluation and are demonstrated for a variety of technologies, designs, and geographic locations. Also discussed are methodologies for determining system a.c. power ratings in the design phase using multipliers developed from measured performance parameters.

  18. Impacts of Solar PV Arrays on Physicochemical Properties of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, A.; Choi, C. S.; Macknick, J.; Ravi, S.; Bickhart, R.

    2017-12-01

    The deployment of renewable energy technologies, such as solar photovoltaics (PV), is rapidly escalating. While PV can provide clean, renewable energy, there is uncertainty regarding its potential positive and/or negative impacts on the local environment. Specifically, its effects on the physicochemical properties of the underlying soil have not been systematically quantified. This study facilitates the discussion on the effects of PV installations related to the following questions: i. How do soil moisture, infiltration rates, total organic carbon, and nitrogen contents vary spatially under a PV array? ii. How do these physicochemical properties compare to undisturbed and adjacent land covered in native vegetation? iii. Are these variations statistically significant to provide insight on whether PV installations have beneficial or detrimental impacts on soil? We address these questions through field measurements of soil moisture, infiltration, grain particle size distribution, total organic carbon, and nitrogen content at a 1-MW solar PV array located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. We collect data via multiple transects underneath the PV array as as well as in an adjacent plot of undisturbed native vegetation. Measurements are taken at four positions under the solar panels; the east-facing edge, center area under the panel, west-facing edge, and interspace between panel rows to capture differences in sun exposure as well as precipitation runoff of panels. Measurements are collected before and after a precipitation event to capture differences in soil moisture and infiltration rates. Results of this work can provide insights for research fields associated with the co-location of agriculture and PV installations as well as the long term ecological impacts of solar energy development. Trends in physicochemical properties under and between solar panels can affect the viability of co-location of commercial crops in PV arrays, the

  19. 基于模拟太阳辐射强度对自然循环式PV/T系统的实验研究%Simulation Experiment Study of the Effect of Solar Radiation Intensity on PV/T System with Natural Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红岩; 杨洪兴; 吕建; 李宪莉

    2015-01-01

    为提高太阳能的利用率同时得到可资利用的电能和热能,对辐射强度对光伏光热建筑热电联供系统的影响进行实验研究。在太阳能模拟实验室进行了自然循环模式下,太阳辐射强度对系统的发电效率、热效率以及综合效率和一次能源节约率的影响进行分析,结果表明:太阳辐射强度是影响PV/T系统的主要因素。%For the improvement of the availability of solar energy and the obtaining of the available electrical and thermal energy,an experimental study of the effect of radiation intensity on solar hybrid photovoltaic and thermal system(PV/T)is conducted. An analysis of the effect of solar radiation intensity on the power generation efficiency and the thermal effi-ciency,overall efficiency and primary energy saving ratio of the PV/T system is carried out under the circulation pattern at different radiation intensity in the photovoltaic solar simulation laboratory. The result shows that the solar radiation intensity is the major influence factor of PV/T system.

  20. A Non-Modeling Exploration of Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Adoption and Non-Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moezzi, Mithra [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Ingle, Aaron [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzenhiser, Loren [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Although U.S. deployment of residential rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has accelerated in recent years, PV is still installed on less than 1 percent of single-family homes. Most research on household PV adoption focuses on scaling initial markets and modeling predicted growth rather than considering more broadly why adoption occurs. Among the studies that have investigated the characteristics of PV adoption, most collected data from adopters, sometimes with additional non-adopter data, and rarely from people who considered but did not adopt PV. Yet the vast majority of Americans are non-adopters, and they are a diverse group - understanding their ways of evaluating PV adoption is important. Similarly, PV is a unique consumer product, which makes it difficult to apply findings from studies of other technologies to PV. In addition, little research addresses the experience of households after they install PV. This report helps fill some of these gaps in the existing literature. The results inform a more detailed understanding of residential PV adoption, while helping ensure that adoption is sufficiently beneficial to adopters and even non-adopters.

  1. Comparison of the Energy Conversion Efficiency of a Solar Chimney and a Solar PV-Powered Fan for Ventilation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Klimeš

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A study into the performance of a solar chimney and a solar photovoltaic (PV-powered fan for ventilation applications was carried out using numerical simulations. The performance of the solar chimney was compared with that of a direct current (DC fan powered by a solar PV panel. The comparison was carried out using the same area of the irradiated surface—the area of the solar absorber plate in the case of the solar chimney and the area of the solar panel in the case of the photovoltaic-powered fan. The two studied cases were compared under various solar radiation intensities of incident solar radiation. The results indicate that the PV-powered fans significantly outperform solar chimneys in terms of converting solar energy into the kinetic energy of air motion. Moreover, ventilation with PV-powered fans offers more flexibility in the arrangement of the ventilation system and also better control of the air flow rates in the case of battery storage.

  2. Model validation of solar PV plant with hybrid data dynamic simulation based on fast-responding generator method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a significant number of large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV plants have been put into operation or been under planning around the world. The model accuracy of solar PV plant is the key factor to investigate the mutual influences between solar PV plants and a power grid. However, this problem has not been well solved, especially in how to apply the real measurements to validate the models of the solar PV plants. Taking fast-responding generator method as an example, this paper presents a model validation methodology for solar PV plant via the hybrid data dynamic simulation. First, the implementation scheme of hybrid data dynamic simulation suitable for DIgSILENT PowerFactory software is proposed, and then an analysis model of solar PV plant integration based on IEEE 9 system is established. At last, model validation of solar PV plant is achieved by employing hybrid data dynamic simulation. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in solar PV plant model validation.

  3. System dynamic model and charging control of lead-acid battery for stand-alone solar PV system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.; Hsu, P.C.; Wu, M.S.; Ho, P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    . This will reduce the storage energy capacity and reduce the service time in electricity supply. The design of charging control system however requires a good understanding of the system dynamic behaviour of the battery first. In the present study, a first

  4. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobson, Arne [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ga Rick [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Alstone, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Khare, Amit [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  5. Solar Energy: Incentives to Promote PV in EU27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del P. Pablo-Romero

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth in the use of renewable energies in the EU has been remarkable. Among these energies is PV. The average annual growth rate for the EU-27 countries in installed PV capacity in the period 2005-2012 was 41.2%. While the installed capacity of PV has reached almost 82 % of National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP targets for the EU-27 countries for 2020, it is still far from being used at its full potential. Over recent years, several measures have been adopted in the EU to enhance and promote PV. This paper undertakes a complete review of the state of PV power in Europe and the measures taken to date to promote it in EU-27. 25 countries have adopted measures to promote PV. The most widespread measure to promote PV use is Feed- in Tariffs. Tariffs are normally adjusted, in a decreasing manner, annually. Nevertheless, currently, seven countries have decided to accelerate this decrease rate in view of cost reduction of the installations and of higher efficiencies. The second instrument used to promote PV in the EU-27 countries is the concession of subsidies. Nevertheless, subsidies have the disadvantage of being closely linked to budgetary resources and therefore to budgetary constraints. In most EU countries, subsidies for renewable energy for PV are being lowered. Twelve EU-27 countries adopted tax measures. Low-interest loans and green certificate systems were only sparingly used.

  6. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  7. A Simple PV Inverter Power Factor Control Method Based on Solar Irradiance Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gökmen, Nuri; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    There has been a significant rise in photovoltaic (PV) system installations throughout the last decade. This has posed some technical challenges to the distribution grid operators. Unfamiliar impacts of these relatively new energy sources now should be handled more comprehensively. The rigidity...... of these impacts mostly depends on PV penetration level, grid and weather characteristics as well as the interaction of load and generation. In this study, a reactive power control method is proposed benefitting from solar irradiance measurements in weather stations. Accordingly, power factors of PV inverters...

  8. Models for a stand-alone PV system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Hansen, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    are based on the model descriptions found in the literature. The battery model is developed at UMASS and is known as the Kinetic Battery Model(KiBaM). The other component models in the PV system are based on simple electrical knowledge. The implementation is done using Matlab/Simulink, a simulation program......This report presents a number of models for modelling and simulation of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system with a battery bank verified against a system installed at Risø National Laboratory. The work has been supported by the Danish Ministry ofEnergy, as a part of the activities in the Solar...... Energy Centre Denmark. The study is carried out at Risø National Laboratory with the main purpose to establish a library of simple mathematical models for each individual element of a stand-alone PVsystem, namely solar cells, battery, controller, inverter and load. The models for PV module and battery...

  9. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office (SETO) residential 2030 photovoltaics (PV) cost target of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour by identifying could influence system costs in key market segments. This report examines two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof

  10. Long-term field test of solar PV power generation using one-axis 3-position sun tracker

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-09-01

    The 1 axis-3 position (1A-3P) sun tracking PV was built and tested to measure the daily and long-term power generation of the solar PV system. A comparative test using a fixed PV and a 1A-3P tracking PV was carried out with two identical stand-alone solar-powered LED lighting systems. The field test in the particular days shows that the 1A-3P tracking PV can generate 35.8% more electricity than the fixed PV in a partly-cloudy weather with daily-total solar irradiation HT=11.7MJ/m2day, or 35.6% in clear weather with HT=18.5MJ/m2day. This indicates that the present 1A-3P tracking PV can perform very close to a dual-axis continuous tracking PV (Kacira et al., 2004). The long-term outdoor test results have shown that the increase of daily power generation of 1A-3P tracking PV increases with increasing daily-total solar irradiation. The increase of monthly-total power generation for 1A-3P sun tracking PV is between 18.5-28.0%. The total power generation increase in the test period from March 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011, is 23.6% in Taipei (an area of low solar energy resource). The long-term performance of the present 1X-3P tracking PV is shown very close to the 1-axis continuous tracking PV in Taiwan (Chang, 2009). If the 1A-3P tracking PV is used in the area of high solar energy resource with yearly-average HT>17MJ/m2day, the increase of total long-term power generation with respect to fixed PV will be higher than 37.5%. This is very close to that of dual-axis continuous tracking PV. The 1A-3P tracker can be easily mounted on the wall of a building. The cost of the whole tracker is about the same as the regular mounting cost of a conventional rooftop PV system. This means that there is no extra cost for 1A-3P PV mounted on buildings. The 1A-3P PV is quite suitable for building-integrated applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Design procedures of hybrid PV/SMES system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, Ismail; El-Sayas, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents accurate procedures to determine the design parameters of an autonomous hybrid PV/SMES system. Integrating Superconductive magnetic energy storage as a recent storage technology with photovoltaic power system enhances the PV output utilization during the solar radiation fluctuations period. this is because of SMES fast response to any PV output fluctuation. The load demand is supplied either from PV plant or through SMES or from both. Imposed to the technical and economical constrains, the optimum solar cells area and the proper capacity and rating of SMES system are assessed. Regarding solar radiation profile, clear and cloudy days are accurately considered for investigation. Three indices are suggested to express the cloudy and fluctuations conditions. These indices represent the non-utilized PV energy due to clouds (x), fluctuation period (T f ) and location of fluctuations period(t s t). The incremental changes in the design parameters are computed for any variation in these indices. Differentiation between the role of BS and SMES in affecting the results is determined and quantitatively analyzed. The results of clear day condition with SMES are the bas quantities for these changes. Complete analysis of the most effective parameters is presented. Eventually, mathematical models are deduced for each parameter which assists in predicting its behavior against the independent variable.(Author)

  12. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    This study uses data on over 900,000 solar PV installations to summarize the evolving market structure of the U.S. residential solar PV installation industry. Over 8,000 companies have installed residential PV systems in the United States. The vast majority of these installers are small local companies. At the same time, a subset of national-scale high-volume PV installation companies hold high market shares. This study examines the factors behind these trends in market concentration, including the role of customer financing options.

  13. Effect of wind speed and solar irradiation on the optimization of a PV-Wind-Battery system to supply a telecommunications station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Lujano, Juan; Zubi, Ghassan [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Electrical Engineerign Dept.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the optimization of a PV-Wind hybrid system with batteries storage to supply the electrical power to a small telecommunications station. The load demanded by the station is 100 W continuously. We have considered 6 different wind speed profiles, from 2 m/s average speed (low wind speed in many places in Spain) to 8 m/s average (very high wind speed, in few places in Spain) and 3 different irradiation profiles, from the lowest average daily irradiation in Spain, about 2.5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day, to the highest one in Spain, about 5 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. Therefore we have considered 6 x 3 = 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles. For each combination of wind speed and irradiation profiles, we have optimized the PV-Wind-Battery system to supply the power demand, considering some different PV panels, wind turbines and batteries. We have also considered in the optimization non-hybrid systems (PV-Battery systems and Wind-Battery systems). The simulation of the system performance has been done hourly. The optimal system for each combination of wind speed and irradiation is the one which can supply the whole demand of the telecommunications station with the lowest Net Present Cost of the system. Simulation and optimization has been done using HOGA (Hybrid Optimization by Genetic Algorithms) software, developed by some of the authors. The results show that, with actual prices of PV panels and wind turbines, in 13 of the 18 combinations of wind speed and irradiation profiles the optimal system is a hybrid system (it includes PV panels, wind turbine and batteries). In the other 5 combinations (the ones with lowest wind speed and/or highest irradiation), the optimal system is PV-Battery, i.e., without wind turbine. We conclude that, in most of the places in Spain, the optimal system to supply the demand of a communications station (with continous demand profile) is a hybrid system (PV-Wind-Batteries) instead of a PV-Batteries system or a Wind

  14. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The installed cost of solar photovoltaics (PV) has fallen rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue declining in the future. In this report, we focus on the potential for continued PV cost reductions in the residential market. From 2010 to 2017, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for residential PV declined from 52 cents per kilowatt-hour (cents/kWh) to 16 cents/kWh (Fu et al. 2017). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) recently set new LCOE targets for 2030, including a target of 5 cents/kWh for residential PV. We present a roadmap for achieving the SETO 2030 residential PV target. Because the 2030 target likely will not be achieved under business-as-usual trends (NREL 2017), we examine two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof replacement and installing PV as part of the new home construction process. Within both market segments, we identify four key cost-reduction opportunities: market maturation, business model integration, product innovation, and economies of scale. To assess the potential impact of these cost reductions, we compare modeled residential PV system prices in 2030 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) quarter one 2017 (Q1 2017) residential PV system price benchmark (Fu et al. 2017). We use a bottom-up accounting framework to model all component and project-development costs incurred when installing a PV system. The result is a granular accounting for 11 direct and indirect costs associated with installing a residential PV system in 2030. All four modeled pathways demonstrate significant installed-system price savings over the Q1 2017 benchmark, with the visionary pathways yielding the greatest price benefits. The largest modeled cost savings are in the supply chain, sales and marketing, overhead, and installation labor cost categories. When we translate these

  15. Vestas Power Plant Solutions Integrating Wind, Solar PV and Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Hesselbæk, Bo; Martinez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses a value proposition and feasible system topologies for hybrid power plant solutions integrating wind, solar PV and energy storage and moreover provides insights into Vestas hybrid power plant projects. Seen from the perspective of a wind power plant developer, these hybrid...... solutions provide a number of benefits that could potentially reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy and enable entrance to new markets for wind power and facilitate the transition to a more sustainable energy mix. First, various system topologies are described in order to distinguish the generic concepts...... for the electrical infrastructure of hybrid power plants. Subsequently, the benefits of combining wind and solar PV power as well as the advantages of combining variable renewable energy sources with energy storage are elaborated. Finally, the world’s first utility-scale hybrid power plant combining wind, solar PV...

  16. Using Residential Solar PV Quote Data to Analyze the Relationship Between Installer Pricing and Firm Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of U.S. residential solar PV installers are small local-scale companies, however the industry is relatively concentrated in a few large national-scale installers. We develop a novel approach using solar PV quote data to study the price behavior of large solar PV installers in the United States. Through a paired differences approach, we find that large installer quotes are about higher, on average, than non-large installer quotes made to the same customer. The difference is statistically significant and robust after controlling for factors such as system size, equipment quality, and time effects. The results suggest that low prices are not the primary value proposition of large installer systems. We explore several hypotheses for this finding, including that large installers are able to exercise some market power and/or earn returns from reputations.

  17. PSA Solar furnace: A facility for testing PV cells under concentrated solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Reche, J.; Canadas, I.; Sanchez, M.; Ballestrin, J.; Yebra, L.; Monterreal, R.; Rodriguez, J.; Garcia, G. [Concentration Solar Technologies, Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT P.O. Box 22, Tabernas, E-04200 (Almeria) (Spain); Alonso, M.; Chenlo, F. [Photovoltaic Components and Systems, Renewable Energies Department-CIEMAT Avda. Complutense, 22, Madrid, E-28040 (Spain)

    2006-09-22

    The Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), the largest centre for research, development and testing of concentration solar thermal technologies in Europe, has started to apply its knowledge, facilities and resources to development of the Concentration PV technology in an EU-funded project HiConPV. A facility for testing PV cells under solar radiation concentrated up to 2000x has recently been completed. The advantages of this facility are that, since it is illuminated by solar radiation, it is possible to obtain the appropriate cell spectral response directly, and the flash tests can be combined with prolonged PV-cell irradiation on large surfaces (up to 150cm{sup 2}), so the thermal response of the PV cell can be evaluated simultaneously. (author)

  18. Leaf Roof – designing luminescent solar concentrating PV roof tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Doudart de la Grée, G.C.H.; Papadopoulos, A.; Rosemann, A.L.P.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Krumer, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The Leaf Roof project on the design features of PV roof tiles using Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) technology has resulted in a functional prototype . The results are presented in the context of industrial product design with a focus on the aesthetic aspects of LSCs. This paper outlines the

  19. Leaf Roof - Designing Luminescent Solar Concentrating PV Roof Tiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Doudart de la Gree, G.; Papadopoulos, A..; Rosemann, A.; Debije, M.G.; Cox, M.; Krumer, Zachar

    2016-01-01

    The Leaf Roof project on the design features of PV roof tiles using Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) technology [1] has resulted in a functional prototype. The results are presented in the context of industrial product design with a focus on the aesthetic aspects of LSCs [2]. This paper outlines

  20. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  1. A reduced-form approach for representing the impacts of wind and solar PV deployment on the structure and operation of the electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nils; Strubegger, Manfred; McPherson, Madeleine; Parkinson, Simon C.; Krey, Volker; Sullivan, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    In many climate change mitigation scenarios, integrated assessment models of the energy and climate systems rely heavily on renewable energy technologies with variable and uncertain generation, such as wind and solar PV, to achieve substantial decarbonization of the electricity sector. However, these models often include very little temporal resolution and thus have difficulty in representing the integration costs that arise from mismatches between electricity supply and demand. The global integrated assessment model, MESSAGE, has been updated to explicitly model the trade-offs between variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment and its impacts on the electricity system, including the implications for electricity curtailment, backup capacity, and system flexibility. These impacts have been parameterized using a reduced-form approach, which allows VRE integration impacts to be quantified on a regional basis. In addition, thermoelectric technologies were updated to include two modes of operation, baseload and flexible, to better account for the cost, efficiency, and availability penalties associated with flexible operation. In this paper, the modeling approach used in MESSAGE is explained and the implications for VRE deployment in mitigation scenarios are assessed. Three important stylized facts associated with integrating high VRE shares are successfully reproduced by our modeling approach: (1) the significant reduction in the utilization of non-VRE power plants; (2) the diminishing role for traditional baseload generators, such as nuclear and coal, and the transition to more flexible technologies; and (3) the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen electrolysis in facilitating the deployment of VRE.

  2. Potential of Securitization in Solar PV Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mendelsohn, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This report aims to demonstrate, hypothetically and at a high level, what volumes of solar deployment could be supported given solar industry access to the capital markets in the form of security issuance. Securitization is not anticipated to replace tax equity in the near- to mid-term, but it could provide an additional source of funds that would be comparatively inexpensive and could reduce the weighted average cost of capital for a given solar project or portfolio. Thus, the potential to securitize solar assets and seek financing in the capital markets could help to sustain the solar industry when the investment tax credit (ITC) -- one of the federal incentives that has leveraged billions of dollars of private capital in the solar industry -- drops from 30% to 10% at the close of 2016. The report offers analysis on the size of the U.S. third-party financed solar market, as well as on the volumes (in MW) of solar asset origination possible through a $100 million securitization fund (assuming no overcollateralization). It also provides data on the size of the relevant securities markets and how the solar asset class may fit into these markets.

  3. Design of Solar PV Cell Based Inverter for Unbalanced and Distorted Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Ananth D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PV cell is getting importance in low and medium power generation due to easy installation, low maintenance and subsidies in price from respective nation. Most of the loads in distribution system are unbalanced and distorted, due to which there will be unbalanced voltage and current occur at load and may disturb its overall performance. Due to these loads voltage unbalance, distorted voltage and current and variable power factors in each phase can be observed. An efficient algorithm to mitigate unbalanced and distorted load and source voltage and current in solar photo voltaic (PV inverter for isolated load system was considered. This solar PV system can be applicable to remote located industrial loads like heating, welding and small arc furnace type distorted loads and also for unbalanced loads. The PV inverter is designed such that it will maintain nearly constant voltage magnitude and can mitigate harmonics in voltage and current near the load terminals. A MATLAB/ SIMULINK based solar PV inverter was simulated and results are compared with standard AC three phase grid connected system. The proposed shows that the inverter is having very less voltage and current harmonic content and can maintain nearly constant voltage profile for highly unbalanced system.

  4. National solar technology roadmap: Organic PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, Dave [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses all forms of solar cells that use organic molecules—including polymers, dendrimers, small molecules, and dyes—as absorbers or transporters, either in fully organic devices or in devices that also contain inorganic nanostructures.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Based MPPT Controller for a PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Robles Algarín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The output power of a photovoltaic (PV module depends on the solar irradiance and the operating temperature; therefore, it is necessary to implement maximum power point tracking controllers (MPPT to obtain the maximum power of a PV system regardless of variations in climatic conditions. The traditional solution for MPPT controllers is the perturbation and observation (P&O algorithm, which presents oscillation problems around the operating point; the reason why improving the results obtained with this algorithm has become an important goal to reach for researchers. This paper presents the design and modeling of a fuzzy controller for tracking the maximum power point of a PV System. Matlab/Simulink (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA was used for the modeling of the components of a 65 W PV system: PV module, buck converter and fuzzy controller; highlighting as main novelty the use of a mathematical model for the PV module, which, unlike diode based models, only needs to calculate the curve fitting parameter. A P&O controller to compare the results obtained with the fuzzy control was designed. The simulation results demonstrated the superiority of the fuzzy controller in terms of settling time, power loss and oscillations at the operating point.

  6. Basic study on dynamic reactive-power control method with PV output prediction for solar inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryunosuke Miyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To effectively utilize a photovoltaic (PV system, reactive-power control methods for solar inverters have been considered. Among the various methods, the constant-voltage control outputs less reactive power compared with the other methods. We have developed a constant-voltage control to reduce the reactive-power output. However, the developed constant-voltage control still outputs unnecessary reactive power because the control parameter is constant in every waveform of the PV output. To reduce the reactive-power output, we propose a dynamic reactive-power control method with a PV output prediction. In the proposed method, the control parameter is varied according to the properties of the predicted PV waveform. In this study, we performed numerical simulations using a distribution system model, and we confirmed that the proposed method reduces the reactive-power output within the voltage constraint.

  7. Statistical Analysis of Solar PV Power Frequency Spectrum for Optimal Employment of Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Sharma, Isha [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL; Fugate, David L [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a statistical analysis of the frequency spectrum of solar photovoltaic (PV) power output is conducted. This analysis quantifies the frequency content that can be used for purposes such as developing optimal employment of building loads and distributed energy resources. One year of solar PV power output data was collected and analyzed using one-second resolution to find ideal bounds and levels for the different frequency components. The annual, seasonal, and monthly statistics of the PV frequency content are computed and illustrated in boxplot format. To examine the compatibility of building loads for PV consumption, a spectral analysis of building loads such as Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) units and water heaters was performed. This defined the bandwidth over which these devices can operate. Results show that nearly all of the PV output (about 98%) is contained within frequencies lower than 1 mHz (equivalent to ~15 min), which is compatible for consumption with local building loads such as HVAC units and water heaters. Medium frequencies in the range of ~15 min to ~1 min are likely to be suitable for consumption by fan equipment of variable air volume HVAC systems that have time constants in the range of few seconds to few minutes. This study indicates that most of the PV generation can be consumed by building loads with the help of proper control strategies, thereby reducing impact on the grid and the size of storage systems.

  8. A Software Tool for Optimal Sizing of PV Systems in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Khatib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a MATLAB based user friendly software tool called as PV.MY for optimal sizing of photovoltaic (PV systems. The software has the capabilities of predicting the metrological variables such as solar energy, ambient temperature and wind speed using artificial neural network (ANN, optimizes the PV module/ array tilt angle, optimizes the inverter size and calculate optimal capacities of PV array, battery, wind turbine and diesel generator in hybrid PV systems. The ANN based model for metrological prediction uses four meteorological variables, namely, sun shine ratio, day number and location coordinates. As for PV system sizing, iterative methods are used for determining the optimal sizing of three types of PV systems, which are standalone PV system, hybrid PV/wind system and hybrid PV/diesel generator system. The loss of load probability (LLP technique is used for optimization in which the energy sources capacities are the variables to be optimized considering very low LLP. As for determining the optimal PV panels tilt angle and inverter size, the Liu and Jordan model for solar energy incident on a tilt surface is used in optimizing the monthly tilt angle, while a model for inverter efficiency curve is used in the optimization of inverter size.

  9. Effect of wind speed on performance of a solar-pv array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thousands of solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays have been installed over the past few years, but the effect of wind speed on the predicted performance of PV arrays is not usually considered by installers. An increase in wind speed will cool the PV array, and the electrical power of the PV modules will ...

  10. Solar PV leasing in Singapore: enhancing return on investments with options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Poh, K. L.

    2017-05-01

    Renewable energy is getting more important nowadays as an alternative to traditional energies. Solar energy, according to Energy Market Authority, is the most viable in the context of Singapore compared to other renewable energy sources due to land constraints. In light of the increasing adoption of solar power in Singapore, this paper focuses on solar PV leasing using a case study. This paper assesses the prospect for solar PV leasing companies in Singapore through the lens of embedded real options. The recent news that solar power is becoming the cheapest form of new electricity presents the leasing company an option to expand the scale of solar PV system. Taking into account this option, the Net Present Value (NPV) of the investment increased significantly compared to the case without real options. Technological developments result in a continuously changing environment with uncertainties. Thus, decision makers need to be aware of the inherent risk associated and identify options to maximize NPV. This upside potential is realized by exercising the managerial flexibility and exploiting the uncertainty. The paper enables solar energy planners to consider possible managerial flexibilities under uncertainties, showing how option thinking can be incorporated in the valuation of solar energy.

  11. National Energy with Weather System Simultator (NEWS) Sets Bounds on Cost Effective Wind and Solar PV Deployment in the USA without the Use of Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. In 2009, we began a large-scale investigation into the characteristics of weather-driven renewables. The project utilized the best available weather data assimilation model to compute high spatial and temporal resolution power datasets for the renewable resources of wind and solar PV. The weather model used is the Rapid Update Cycle for the years of 2006-2008. The team also collated a detailed electrical load dataset for the contiguous USA from the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for the same three-year period. The coincident time series of electrical load and weather data allows the possibility of temporally correlated computations for optimal design over large geographic areas. The past two years have seen the development of a cost optimization mathematic model that designs electric power systems. The model plans the system and dispatches it on an hourly timescale. The system is designed to be reliable, reduce carbon, reduce variability of renewable resources and move the electricity about the whole domain. The system built would create the infrastructure needed to reduce carbon emissions to 0 by 2050. The advantages of the system is reduced water demain, dual incomes for farmers, jobs for construction of the infrastructure, and price stability for energy. One important simplified test that was run included existing US carbon free power sources, natural gas power when needed, and a High Voltage Direct Current power transmission network. This study shows that the costs and carbon emissions from an optimally designed national system decrease with geographic size. It shows that with achievable estimates of wind and solar generation costs, that the US could decrease its carbon emissions by up to 80% by the early 2030s, without an

  12. Electrification of rural areas by solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, D.

    1992-01-01

    More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

  13. Interharmonics from Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration level of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems increases, the power quality is one of the major concerns for system operators and the demands are becoming even stricter. The impact of interharmonics on the grid has been acknowledged in recent research when considering a large......-scale adoption of PV inverters. However, the origins of interharmonics remain unclear. Thus, this paper performs tests on a commercial PV inverter to explore interharmonic generation and more important investigates the mechanism of interharmonic emission. The investigation reveals that the perturbation...... of the solutions. Simulation results indicate that the constant-voltage MPPT method is the most suitable solution to the mitigation of interharmonics introduced by the MPPT operation, as it avoids the perturbation in the PV voltage during operation....

  14. Comparison of PV system design software packages for urban applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharakhani Siraki, Arbi; Pillay, Pragasen

    2010-09-15

    A large number of software packages are available for solar resource evaluation and PV system design. However, few of them are suitable for urban applications. In this paper a comparison has been made between two specifically designed solar tools known as the Ecotect 2010 and the PVsyst 5.05. Conclusions have been made for proper use of these packages based on their specifications and privileges. Moreover, the calculations have been repeated with HOMER software package (which is a generic tool) for the same location. The results suggest that a generic solar software tool should not be used for an urban application.

  15. Key technical and non-technical challenges for mass deployment of photovoltaic solar energy (PV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    2001-12-01

    Photovoltaic solar energy (PV) is used for direct conversion of sunlight into electricity. It is not to be confused with low-temperature thermal solar energy (e.g. solar domestic hot water systems) and with solar electricity production using a conventional high-temperature steam cycle (using parabolic troughs or 'power towers'). Important features of PV are: inherently renewable; sustainable if well designed, manufactured, used, and disposed; no moving parts, quiet; reliable if well designed and engineered; modular (from milliwatts to multi-megawatts); suitable for a wide variety of applications (stand-alone and grid-connected); large potential (regionally and globally); intermittent; capacity factor (ratio of average system power to installed (=peak) power) =0.08-0.24. PV is among the major renewable energy technologies in all well known energy scenarios, although a substantial role in % of the total energy production can only be achieved on the long term (typically 40-60 years years). Fortunately, long before that the PV market may be a rapidly growing, multi-billion euro business, providing enormous economic opportunities and many jobs

  16. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key...

  17. Distributed measurement system for long term monitoring of clouding effects on large PV plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, K. M.; Nymand, M.; Haase, F.

    2013-01-01

    A recording system for the generation of current-voltage characteristics of solar panels is presented. The system is intended for large area PV power plants. The recorded curves are used to optimize the energy output of PV power plants, which are likely to be influenced by passing clouds...

  18. IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme Task 16: PV in Buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, A.J.N.; Van der Weiden, T.C.J.

    1993-10-01

    In the title program (SHCP), initiated in 1977, twenty countries, including the European Union, participate in a broad spectrum of subjects in the field of thermal, photovoltaic (PV) and passive solar energy. Nineteen Tasks were started so far, of which eleven Tasks are finished. Task 16 deals with the architectural and electrotechnical integration of PV in buildings, aiming at a maximal contribution of solar energy to the energy supply of a building, knowledge increase and transfer with respect to the relation of PV with other components of the energy system of a building, and economic optimization. Task 16 is planned for the period 1990-1995 and is divided in Sub-Tasks A: System Design and Development; B: Building Integration; C: PV-Demonstration Buildings; and D: Technology Communication. In this report the Dutch activities of Task 16, coordinated by Ecofys, are discussed. Reports of 4 Expert Meetings and 3 Workshops are presented. A description (in English) of the first Dutch IEA Demonstration Building, the energy autonomous house in Woubrugge, is given. Finally attention is paid to the activities regarding the Ideas Competition for the design of buildings or urban areas with integrated PV systems. 6 appendices

  19. Optimal design of PV and HP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, Bjarke Christian; Rasmussen, Theis Bo

    2015-01-01

    Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution is descr...... that the thermal storage with a BT is a better investment than a PV system without HP or no investment. Furthermore, it showed that the optimization model developed in this project is capable of finding the optimal combination of component sizes based on our data.......Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution...... is described, where the thermal energy is stored in a buffer tank (BT) capable of dispersing heat to either the heating system of a house or a hot water tank, for later use. The thermal storage solution including a BT can increase the self-consumption of residentially produced PV power and thereby shift...

  20. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed

  1. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  2. The value of electric energy storage in electricity systems with high shares of wind and solar PV: the case of France in the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of ambitious targets for variable renewable energies (VRE) such as wind and solar has important effects on the technical and economic operation of power systems. Increasing shares of VRE will in particular require the deployment of more flexible and responsive technologies. Key flexibility providers in the scope are demand side management (DSM) and different forms of electric energy storage (EES) such as pumped hydroelectric (PHS), Li-ion batteries (Li-ion), and compressed air (CAES), among others. It have been previously showed how the value and the deployment of such new flexibility providers depended on the shares of VRE shares introduced into the system (Brijs et al., 2016; Van Stiphout et al., 2015; Villavicencio, 2017). Building on this works, this paper explores the value of storage in the context of a realistic Brownfield model calibrated on the existing French electricity system. In particular, this paper compares the value of storage (a) in a system corresponding to the target of 27% VRE production formulated by the French government in its 2015 Energy Transition Act by 2020 and (b) in a system corresponding to the target of 40% VRE production formulated in the same Act by 2030. The latter case will necessarily reflect the additional target which by 2025 limits the share of nuclear power to 50% of electricity production. In 2020, 4.7 GW of DSM are sufficient to provide the required flexibility and no EES investments will be needed. By 2030, however, in addition to a comparable level of DSM, 3.2 GW of additional EES investments are required. These storage solutions will generate an economic value of euro 350 million per year and will increases overall welfare by euro 670 million per year by 2030. The modeling yields a number of additional policy relevant results. First, limiting nuclear production will open opportunities for alternative base and mid-load providers, mainly gas, implying a threefold increase of CO_2 emissions compared to 2020

  3. Operation of TUT Solar PV Power Station Research Plant under Partial Shading Caused by Snow and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Torres Lobera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A grid connected solar photovoltaic (PV research facility equipped with comprehensive climatic and electric measuring systems has been designed and built in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TUT. The climatic measuring system is composed of an accurate weather station, solar radiation measurements, and a mesh of irradiance and PV module temperature measurements located throughout the solar PV facility. Furthermore, electrical measurements can be taken from single PV modules and strings of modules synchronized with the climatic data. All measured parameters are sampled continuously at 10 Hz with a data-acquisition system based on swappable I/O card technology and stored in a database for later analysis. The used sampling frequency was defined by thorough analyses of the PV system time dependence. Climatic and electrical measurements of the first operation year of the research facility are analyzed in this paper. Moreover, operation of PV systems under partial shading conditions caused by snow and building structures is studied by means of the measured current and power characteristics of PV modules and strings.

  4. Scheduled Operation of PV Power Station Considering Solar Radiation Forecast Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Satoshi; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takamitsu; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji

    Massive penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) power stations may cause some serious impacts on a power system operation due to their volatile and unpredictable output. Growth of uncertainty may require larger operating reserve capacity and regulating capacity. Therefore, in order to utilize a PV power station as an alternative for an existing power plant, improvement in controllability and adjustability of station output become very important factor. Purpose of this paper is to develop the scheduled operation technique using a battery system (NAS battery) and the meteorological forecast. The performance of scheduled operation strongly depends on the accuracy of solar radiation forecast. However, the solar radiation forecast contains error. This paper proposes scheduling method and rescheduling method considering the trend of forecast error. More specifically, the forecast error scenario is modeled by means of the clustering analysis of the past actual forecast error. Validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is ascertained through computational simulations using the actual PV generation data monitored at the Wakkanai PV power station and solar radiation forecast data provided by the Japan Weather Association.

  5. Sizing procedures for sun-tracking PV system with batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerek Ömer Nezih

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deciding optimum number of PV panels, wind turbines and batteries (i.e. a complete renewable energy system for minimum cost and complete energy balance is a challenging and interesting problem. In the literature, some rough data models or limited recorded data together with low resolution hourly averaged meteorological values are used to test the sizing strategies. In this study, active sun tracking and fixed PV solar power generation values of ready-to-serve commercial products are recorded throughout 2015–2016. Simultaneously several outdoor parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wind speed/direction, pressure are recorded with high resolution. The hourly energy consumption values of a standard 4-person household, which is constructed in our campus in Eskisehir, Turkey, are also recorded for the same period. During sizing, novel parametric random process models for wind speed, temperature, solar radiation, energy demand and electricity generation curves are achieved and it is observed that these models provide sizing results with lower LLP through Monte Carlo experiments that consider average and minimum performance cases. Furthermore, another novel cost optimization strategy is adopted to show that solar tracking PV panels provide lower costs by enabling reduced number of installed batteries. Results are verified over real recorded data.

  6. Sizing procedures for sun-tracking PV system with batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezih Gerek, Ömer; Başaran Filik, Ümmühan; Filik, Tansu

    2017-11-01

    Deciding optimum number of PV panels, wind turbines and batteries (i.e. a complete renewable energy system) for minimum cost and complete energy balance is a challenging and interesting problem. In the literature, some rough data models or limited recorded data together with low resolution hourly averaged meteorological values are used to test the sizing strategies. In this study, active sun tracking and fixed PV solar power generation values of ready-to-serve commercial products are recorded throughout 2015-2016. Simultaneously several outdoor parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity, wind speed/direction, pressure) are recorded with high resolution. The hourly energy consumption values of a standard 4-person household, which is constructed in our campus in Eskisehir, Turkey, are also recorded for the same period. During sizing, novel parametric random process models for wind speed, temperature, solar radiation, energy demand and electricity generation curves are achieved and it is observed that these models provide sizing results with lower LLP through Monte Carlo experiments that consider average and minimum performance cases. Furthermore, another novel cost optimization strategy is adopted to show that solar tracking PV panels provide lower costs by enabling reduced number of installed batteries. Results are verified over real recorded data.

  7. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  8. Comparative Study on KNN and SVM Based Weather Classification Models for Day Ahead Short Term Solar PV Power Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solar photovoltaic (PV power forecasting is an essential tool for mitigating the negative effects caused by the uncertainty of PV output power in systems with high penetration levels of solar PV generation. Weather classification based modeling is an effective way to increase the accuracy of day-ahead short-term (DAST solar PV power forecasting because PV output power is strongly dependent on the specific weather conditions in a given time period. However, the accuracy of daily weather classification relies on both the applied classifiers and the training data. This paper aims to reveal how these two factors impact the classification performance and to delineate the relation between classification accuracy and sample dataset scale. Two commonly used classification methods, K-nearest neighbors (KNN and support vector machines (SVM are applied to classify the daily local weather types for DAST solar PV power forecasting using the operation data from a grid-connected PV plant in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. We assessed the performance of SVM and KNN approaches, and then investigated the influences of sample scale, the number of categories, and the data distribution in different categories on the daily weather classification results. The simulation results illustrate that SVM performs well with small sample scale, while KNN is more sensitive to the length of the training dataset and can achieve higher accuracy than SVM with sufficient samples.

  9. System performance of a three-phase PV-grid-connected system installed in Thailand. Data monitored analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonmee, Chaiyant; Watjanatepin, Napat; Plangklang, Boonyang

    2009-01-01

    PV-grid-connected systems are worldwide installed because it allows consumer to reduce energy consumption from the electricity grid and to feed the surplus energy back into the grid. The system needs no battery so therefore the system price is very cheap comparing to other PV systems. PV-grid-connected systems are used in buildings that already hooked up to the electrical grid. Finding efficiency of the PV-grid-connected system can be done by using a standard instrument which needs to disconnect the PV arrays from the grid before measurement. The measurement is also difficult and we lose energy during the measurement. This paper will present the system performance of a PV-grid-connected system installed in Thailand by using a monitoring system. The monitored data are installed by acquisition software into a computer. Analysis of monitored data will be done to find out the system performance without disconnecting the PV arrays from the system. The monitored data include solar radiation, PV voltage, PV current, and PV power which has been recorded from a 5 kWp system installed of amorphous silicon PV at Rajamangala University of Technology Suvarnabhumi, Nonthaburi, Thailand. The system performance of the system by using the data monitored is compared to the standard instrument measurement. The paper will give all details about system components, monitoring system, and monitored data. The result of data analysis will be fully given. (author)

  10. Design of a Net-Metering and PV Exhibit for the 2005 Solar Decathlon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wassmer, M.; Warner, C.

    2005-01-01

    In the 2005 Solar Decathlon competition, 19 collegiate teams will design, build, and operate grid-independent homes powered by photovoltaic (PV) arrays on the National Mall. The prominence of grid-interconnected systems in the marketplace has provided the impetus for the development of a net-metering exhibit to be installed and operated during the competition. The exhibit will inform the visiting public about PV basics and appropriate alternatives to grid-independent systems. It will consist of four interactive components. One will be designed to educate people about the principles of net metering using a small PV array, a grid-interactive inverter, and a variable load. Additional components of the exhibit will demonstrate the effects of orientation, cloud cover, and nighttime on performance. The nighttime component will discuss appropriate storage options for different applications.

  11. Models for a stand-alone PV system[Photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P.; Hansen, L.H.; Bindner, H.

    2000-12-01

    This report presents a number of models for modelling and simulation of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system with a battery bank verified against a system installed at Risoe National Laboratory. The work has been supported by the Danish Ministry of Energy, as a part of the activities in the Solar Energy Centre Denmark. The study is carried out at Risoe National Laboratory with the main purpose to establish a library of simple mathematical models for each individual element of a stand-alone PV system, namely solar cells, battery, controller, inverter and load. The models for PV module and battery are based on the model descriptions found in the literature. The battery model is developed at UMASS and is known as the Kinetic Battery Model (KiBaM). The other component models in the PV system are based on simple electrical knowledge. The implementation is done using Matlab/Simulink, a simulation program that provides a graphical interface for building models as modular block diagrams. The non-linear behaviour of the battery, observed in the measurements, is investigated and compared to the KiBaM model's performance. A set of linear Black box models are estimated based on the battery measurements. The performance of the best linear Black box model is compared to the KiBaM model. A validation of each of the implemented mathematical model is performed by an interactive analysis and comparison between simulation results and measurements, acquired from the stand-alone PV system at Risoe. (au)

  12. Photovoltaic module with integrated power conversion and interconnection system - the European project PV-MIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Henze, N.; Engler, A.; Zacharias, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the 6th framework program funded by the European Commission the project PV-MIPS (Photovoltaic Module with Integrated Power Conversion System) was launched in November 2004. Together with eleven European partners from Germany, Austria, Greece and the Netherlands a solar module with integrated in-verter shall be developed that can feed solar electricity directly into the grid. The challenging objective of the project is to reduce the total costs of a PV system. At the same time lifetime ...

  13. Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nugent, Daniel; Sovacool, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically screens 153 lifecycle studies covering a broad range of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies to identify 41 of the most relevant, recent, rigorous, original, and complete assessments so that the dynamics of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...... profiles can be determined. When viewed in a holistic manner, including initial materials extraction, manufacturing, use and disposal/decommissioning, these 41 studies show that both wind and solar systems are directly tied to and responsible for GHG emissions. They are thus not actually emissions free......, this article uncovers best practices in wind and solar design and deployment that can better inform climate change mitigation efforts in the electricity sector...

  14. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  15. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper. PMID:26230694

  16. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Molina-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors. Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  17. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C

    2015-07-29

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  18. City and County Solar PV Training Program, Module 2: Screening and Identifying PV Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-09

    When screening and identifying PV projects, cities and counties should understand the different factors that impact the technical and economic potential of a PV project, the steps of the PV screening process, and how to use REopt Lite to screen a site for PV and storage project potential.

  19. CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF EMBEDDED Z-SOURCE INVERTER WITH FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR SOLAR PV APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Midde Mahesh*, K. Leleedhar Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of Embedded Z –source inverter system with fuzzy controller for Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) applications with adjustable speed drives. Closed loop operation FUZZY control strategies of EZSI system are proposed. EZSI produces the same voltage gain as Z-source inverter (ZSI) but due to the DC sources embedded within the X- shaped impedance network, it has the added advantage of inherent source filtering capability and also reduced capacitor sizing. This can be achiev...

  20. Multilevel governance and deployment of solar PV panels in U.S. cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Yi, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) installations have been growing rapidly in the United States over the last few years, incentivized by policies from federal, state and local governments. The complex relationships between solar policies at multiple levels of government and solar deployment are questions of importance to policy makers and scholars. Extant literature on solar policies pays less attention to the role of local governments and policies than to their federal and state counterparts. Local governments and policies play indispensable roles in the deployment of solar PVs. This paper studies the multilevel governance of solar development in the U.S. by evaluating the relative effectiveness of state and local policy tools in stimulating solar PV installations, with an emphasis on local solar policies. With a regression analysis on a national sample of 186 U.S. cities, we find that cities with local financial incentives deploy 69% more solar PV capacities than cities without such policies. We also find that cities subject to RPS requirements have 295% more solar PV capacity, compared with cities not regulated by state RPS. - Highlights: • This study evaluates state and local solar PV policies. • State RPS has positive impacts on local solar PV capacity. • Local financial incentives matter for solar PV deployment

  1. 新型PV/T太阳能利用复合系统的实验研究%Experimental Study on A Novel Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光明; 刘祖明; 李景天; 廖华; 朱勋梦; 张卫东

    2013-01-01

    A novel hybrid photovoltaic /thermal solar system,which combining flat stainless steel box as solar heat collectors with aluminum alloy backplane monocrystalline silicon PV components,and using the thermally conductive silica-gel for adhesion,was designed to improve the energy efficiency and to supply hot water and electricity.The system performed good adhesion,insulation and heat conduction between the collector and PV module.The electrical and thermal efficiency of the system are tested through experiments conducted in Kunming area with different water mass and under different conditions.The results show that the total efficiency and general energy efficiency of novel PV/T system is higher in 75kg water mass sunny weather.Its electrical efficiency,thermal efficiency,total efficiency and general energy efficiency are 14%,37%,51%,and 70.72%,respectively.Compared with in 50kg water mass sunny or 75kg water mass cloudy weather,the general efficiency has been enhanced by 11.86% or 2.09%.Compared with pure PV system or the nature circulation of the solar water collector,The novel PV/T systems has several advantages,including smaller occupied area,higher utilization of solar energy and lower expenditure.%为提高PV/T系统太阳能利用率,同时获得可利用的热水和电力,将铝合金背板型单晶硅光伏组件和自行设计制作的不锈钢扁盒式集热板相结合,用导热硅胶加以粘接制成新型光伏光热一体化(PV/T)复合系统,该系统实现了光伏组件与集热板之间良好的粘接性、绝缘性和热传导,并在昆明地区对系统进行测试,分析了系统在不同水箱水容量及不同天气工况下运行的光电光热性能.结果表明,系统在75kg水箱水容量(m)晴天工况下运行效率更高,系统的平均电效率、热效率、综合效率及综合性能效率分别在14%、37%、51%、70.72%左右,与系统在50kg水箱水容量晴天或75kg水箱水容量多云工况下运行相比,

  2. Lighting rural and peri-urban homes of the Gambia using solar photovoltaics (PV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanneh, E.S.; Hu, A.H. [National Taipei Univ. of Technology, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Environmental Engineering Technology

    2009-07-01

    The main fuel supplies of Gambia are fuel woods, petroleum products, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This study considered the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) as a principal source of power for rural and peri-urban communities in Gambia. The country currently has high rates of poverty and malnutrition, and it is expected that the provision of electricity to communities will encourage economic growth. Gambia is also heavily dependent on foreign imports of oil. To date, PV systems have been used for water pumping, refrigeration, and telecommunications projects. The study showed that better access to sustainable energy services is needed at the micro-level to stimulate businesses and income-generating activities, as well as at the macro level to foster economic growth. Financing methods for developing solar energy in Gambia include credit financing; PV market transformative initiatives; revolving loan funds; and government-granted renewable energy concessions for institutionally-owned and maintained systems. A pilot program has been established to investigate the acceptability of PV lighting systems for rural populations. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Solar Photovoltaic Economic Development: Building and Growing a Local PV Industry, August 2011 (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. photovoltaic (PV) industry is forecast to grow, and it represents an opportunity for economic development and job creation in communities throughout the United States. This report helps U.S. cities evaluate economic opportunities in the PV industry. It serves as a guide for local economic development offices in evaluating their community?s competitiveness in the solar PV industry, assessing the viability of solar PV development goals, and developing strategies for recruiting and retaining PV companies to their areas.

  4. Life cycle cost analysis of single slope hybrid (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the life cycle cost analysis of the single slope passive and hybrid photovoltaic (PV/T) active solar stills, based on the annual performance at 0.05 m water depth. Effects of various parameters, namely interest rate, life of the system and the maintenance cost have been taken into account. The comparative cost of distilled water produced from passive solar still (Rs. 0.70/kg) is found to be less than hybrid (PV/T) active solar still (Rs. 1.93/kg) for 30 years life time of the systems. The payback periods of the passive and hybrid (PV/T) active solar still are estimated to be in the range of 1.1-6.2 years and 3.3-23.9 years, respectively, based on selling price of distilled water in the range of Rs. 10/kg to Rs. 2/kg. The energy payback time (EPBT) has been estimated as 2.9 and 4.7 years, respectively. (author)

  5. Measures for the Diffusion of Solar PV are Aligned in Technology Action Plans for Six Countries in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2014-01-01

    African countries from 2010 to 2013, dedicated government committees have prioritized climate change mitigation technologies and developed action plans for the diffusion of the selected technologies. The project results show that solar PV is high on the agenda in Africa. Six out of ten countries...... in the region prioritized solar PV, and action plans for the diffusion of solar home systems were put forward in Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya, Mali and Senegal, while the implementation of grid-connected systems was proposed in Rwanda, Mali and Senegal. The project reports and technology action plans prepared...... in these six countries are used as the basis for comparing how solar PV is perceived in these countries and how policy measures enabling environmental adjustments and investment programmes are being planned to promote diffusion of the technology in these different contexts....

  6. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplanis, S., E-mail: kaplanis@teipat.gr; Kaplani, E., E-mail: kaplanis@teipat.gr [Renewable Energy Systems Lab., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece, Koukouli 26 334, Patra (Greece)

    2014-10-06

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, β, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m{sup 2°}C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, v{sub W}>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m{sup 2°}C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  7. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2014-10-01

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, β, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m2°C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, vW>7m/s, up to around 0.05 m2°C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system.

  8. On the relationship factor between the PV module temperature and the solar radiation on it for various BIPV configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplanis, S.; Kaplani, E.

    2014-01-01

    Temperatures of c-Si, pc-Si and a-Si PV modules making part of a roof in a building or hanging outside windows with various inclinations were measured with respect to the Intensity of the solar radiation on them under various environmental conditions. A relationship coefficient f was provided whose values are compared to those from a PV array operating in a free standing mode on a terrace. A theoretical model to predict f was elaborated. According to the analysis, the coefficient f takes higher values for PV modules embedded on a roof compared to the free standing PV array. The wind effect is much stronger for the free standing PV than for any BIPV configuration, either the PV is part of the roof, or placed upon the roof, or is placed outside a window like a shadow hanger. The f coefficient depends on various parameters such as angle of inclination, wind speed and direction, as well as solar radiation. For very low wind speeds the effect of the angle of inclination, β, of the PV module with respect to the horizontal on PV temperature is clear. As the wind speed increases, the heat transfer from the PV module shifts from natural flow to forced flow and this effect vanishes. The coefficient f values range from almost 0.01 m 2° C/W for free standing PV arrays at strong wind speeds, v W >7m/s, up to around 0.05 m 2° C/W for the case of flexible PV modules which make part of the roof in a BIPV system

  9. New York Solar Smart DG Hub-Resilient Solar Project: Economic and Resiliency Impact of PV and Storage on New York Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Kate; Burman, Kari; Simpkins, Travis; Helson, Erica; Lisell, Lars, Case, Tria

    2016-06-01

    Resilient PV, which is solar paired with storage ('solar-plus-storage'), provides value both during normal grid operation and power outages as opposed to traditional solar PV, which functions only when the electric grid is operating. During normal grid operations, resilient PV systems help host sites generate revenue and/or reduce electricity bill charges. During grid outages, resilient PV provides critical emergency power that can help people in need and ease demand on emergency fuel supplies. The combination of grid interruptions during recent storms, the proliferation of solar PV, and the growing deployment of battery storage technologies has generated significant interest in using these assets for both economic and resiliency benefits. This report analyzes the technical and economic viability for resilient PV on three critical infrastructure sites in New York City (NYC): a school that is part of a coastal storm shelter system, a fire station, and a NYCHA senior center that serves as a cooling center during heat emergencies. This analysis differs from previous solar-plus-storage studies by placing a monetary value on resiliency and thus, in essence, modeling a new revenue stream for the avoided cost of a power outage. Analysis results show that resilient PV is economically viable for NYC's critical infrastructure and that it may be similarly beneficial to other commercial buildings across the city. This report will help city building owners, managers, and policymakers better understand the economic and resiliency benefits of resilient PV. As NYC fortifies its building stock against future storms of increasing severity, resilient PV can play an important role in disaster response and recovery while also supporting city greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and relieving stress to the electric grid from growing power demands.

  10. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Market structure refers to the number of firms and the distribution of market shares among firms within an industry. In The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016, we examine market structure in the context of residential solar PV. We find that over 8,000 companies have installed at least one residential PV system, with about 2,900 companies active in 2016. The majority of residential PV installers are relatively small companies, with about half of installers installing fewer than five systems. At the same time, a subset of high-volume installers accumulated market share, especially beginning around 2010 with the emergence of alternative customer financing options.

  11. Technical model for optimising PV/diesel/battery hybrid power systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tazvinga, Henerica

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available A solar-based power supply system, such as a photovoltaic (PV)-diesel-battery system, is a particularly attractive option for decentralised power supply in southern Africa where solar radiation is ubiquitous in most countries. Such systems can make...

  12. Concentrating PV/T Hybrid System for Simultaneous Electricity and Usable Heat Generation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longzhou Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV power generation is one of the attractive choices for efficient utilization of solar energy. Considering that the efficiency and cost of PV cells cannot be significantly improved in near future, a relatively cheap concentrator to replace part of the expensive solar cells could be used. The photovoltaic thermal hybrid system (PV/T, combining active cooling with thermal electricity and providing both electricity and usable heat, can enhance the total efficiency of the system with reduced cell area. The effect of nonuniform light distribution and the heat dissipation on the performance of concentrating PV/T was discussed. Total utilization of solar light by spectral beam splitting technology was also introduced. In the last part, we proposed an integrated compound parabolic collector (CPC plate with low precision solar tracking, ensuring effective collection of solar light with a significantly lowered cost. With the combination of beam splitting of solar spectrum, use of film solar cell, and active liquid cooling, efficient and full spectrum conversion of solar light to electricity and heat, in a low cost way, might be realized. The paper may offer a general guide to those who are interested in the development of low cost concentrating PV/T hybrid system.

  13. The power of PV: one US company shows the potential of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.

    2005-01-01

    A California-based company, PowerLight, has grown from a one-man shop in 1991 to a company with 100 employees, an annual turnover of $100 million and an impressive client list. The company is one of the USA's fastest growing companies and a leader in large-scale, grid-connected solar systems. Its patented PowerGuard offers a lightweight solar rooftop assembly, while its PowerTracker product is a ground-mounted PV system. Details of some of the company's large projects are given and its plans for new markets highlighted

  14. Optimum Design Of On Grid Pv System Using Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mansour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fossil fuel is a main issue in the world due to the increase of fossil fuel cost and the depletion of the fossil fuel with continuous increasing demand on electricity. With continuous decrease of PV panels cost it is interesting to consider generation of electricity from PV system. To provide electric energy to a load in a remote area where electric grid utility is not available or connection with grid utility is available there are two approaches of photovoltaic system PV without tracking system Fixed System and PV with tracking systems. The result shows that the energy production by using PV with tracking system generates more energy in comparison with fixed panels system. However the cost per produced KWH is less in case of using fixed panels. This is the backbone in choice between two approaches of photovoltaic system. In this work a system design and cost analysis for two approaches of photovoltaic system are considered.

  15. Performance of a directly-coupled PV water pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokeddem, Abdelmalek; Midoun, Abdelhamid; Kadri, D.; Hiadsi, Said; Raja, Iftikhar A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Directly coupled PV water pumping system installed and performance studied. → Configured for two static heads, operate without electronic control and auxiliary power. → The system attains steady state soon after any abrupt change. → Cost effective and useful for low head communicating wells system. - Abstract: This paper describes the experimental study carried out to investigate the performance of a simple, directly coupled dc photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping system. The system comprises of a 1.5 kWp PV array, dc motor and a centrifugal pump. The experiment was conducted over a period of 4 months and the system performance was monitored under different climatic conditions and varying solar irradiance with two static head configurations. Although the motor-pump efficiency did not exceed 30%, which is typical for directly-coupled photovoltaic pumping systems, such a system is clearly suitable for low head irrigation in the remote areas, not connected to the national grid and where access to water comes as first priority issue than access to technology. The system operates without battery and complex electronic control, therefore not only the initial cost is low but also maintenance, repairing and replacement cost can be saved. The study showed that directly coupled system attains steady state soon after any abrupt change.

  16. Comparative analysis of different supporting measures for the production of electrical energy by solar PV and Wind systems. Four representative European cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campoccia, A.; Dusonchet, L.; Telaretti, E.; Zizzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    In the 9th of March 2007, the European Council decided a fixing goal of 20% contribution of the renewable energy sources (RES) on the total European electric energy production in 2020. In order to reach such an ambitious goal, all the European countries are adopting different support policies for encouraging the installations of RES-based generation systems. In this paper, after a brief review on the main support policies for RES in Europe, the specific situations of four representative countries (France, Germany, Italy and Spain) are examined, with the purpose of putting into evidence the main differences in the support policies adopted for Photovoltaic (PV) and Wind systems. In particular, a comparison based on the calculation of the pay-back-period (PBP), the net present value (NPV) and the internal rate of return (IRR), for different sized PV and Wind systems, shows that in some situations a support policy can be not convenient for the owner of the RES-based generation system and that, in many cases, the differences between the way of implementation of the same support policy in different countries, can give place to significantly different results. (author)

  17. Assessment of MPPT Techniques During the Faulty Conditions of PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhukya Krishna Naick

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Distributed Generation (DG systems like wind energy systems and solar Photovoltaic (PV systems on the generation of electricity has increased. Out of these DG systems, the PV systems have gained wide popularity, because of the availability of solar energy throughout the day. Depending on the size of PV installations, a large number of PV modules can be interconnected in the form of series and parallel connection. Since a large number of modules are interconnected, it is possible for the faults in a PV array to occur due to the failure of protection system, which can cause damage to the PV module and also the decrease in the output power. This paper presents the tracking of a maximum power point under the faulty conditions of 12x5 PV array. The fault conditions that have been considered in the PV array are open circuit fault, line to ground, line to line and failure of bypass diodes. Perturb and observe, incremental conductance and fuzzy logic controller are the maximum power point tracking techniques that have been implemented. For each of the fault conditions, the results have been presented in terms of the maximum power tracked, tracking time and tracking efficiency.

  18. Factors responsible for solar PV adoption at household level : A case of Lahore, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qureshi, Tahir Masood; Ullah, Kafait; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    The crisis in electricity generation sector of Pakistan is causing load shedding. All sectors including household-domestic, commercial and industrial activities get severely affected by such power outages which could be minimized by adopting modern technologies such as solar PV. The use of solar PV

  19. Data acquisition and PV module power production in upgraded TEP/AzRISE solar test yard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Whit E.; Fishgold, Asher D.; Lai, Teh; Potter, Barrett G.; Simmons-Potter, Kelly

    2017-08-01

    The Tucson Electric Power (TEP)/University of Arizona AzRISE (Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy) solar test yard is continuing efforts to improve standardization and data acquisition reliability throughout the facility. Data reliability is ensured through temperature-insensitive data acquisition devices with battery backups in the upgraded test yard. Software improvements allow for real-time analysis of collected data, while uploading to a web server. Sample data illustrates high fidelity monitoring of the burn-in period of a polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module test string with no data failures over 365 days of data collection. In addition to improved DAQ systems, precision temperature monitoring has been implemented so that PV module backside temperatures are routinely obtained. Weather station data acquired at the test yard provides local ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed, and irradiance measurements that have been utilized to enable characterization of PV module performance over an extended test period

  20. The German experience with grid-connected PV-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erge, T.; Hoffmann, V.U.; Kiefer, K.

    2001-01-01

    Grid-connected photovoltaics experienced increasing attention in Germany in recent years and are expected to face a major boost at the beginning of the new millennium. Highlights like the German 100,000-Roofs-Solar-Programme, PV programmes at schools financed by utilities and governments (e.g. 'SONNEonline' by PreussenElektra, 'Sonne in der Schule' by BMWi and 'Sonne in der Schule' by Bayernwerk) and large centralised installations of MW size ('Neue Messe Munchen' by Bayernwerk and 'Energiepark Mont-Cenis' by state Nordrhein-Westfalen, Stadtwerke Herne and European Union) count for the potential of grid-connected PV. Today in Germany a typical grid-connected PV installation of 1 kW nominal power produces average annual energy yields of 700 kWh (dependent on location and system components) and shows a high operating availability. The price per kWh from PV installations is still significantly higher than the price for conventional energy, but new funding schemes and cost models (like the large increase of feed-in tariff in Germany due to the Act on Granting Priority to Renewable Energy Sources in 2000) give optimism about the future. (Author)

  1. A New Controller to Enhance PV System Performance Based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy A AbdelRassoul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a radical increase of photovoltaic (PV power generators installation took place because of increased efficiency of solar cells, as well as the growth of manufacturing technology of solar panels. This paper shows the operation and modeling of photovoltaic systems, particularly designing neural controller to control the system. Neural controller is optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO   leads to getting the best performance of the designed PV system. Using neural network the maximum overshoot and rise time obtained become 0.00001% and 0.1798 seconds, respectively also this paper introduce a comparison between some kind of controller for PV system.In recent years, a radical increase of photovoltaic (PV power generators installation took place because of increased efficiency of solar cells, as well as the growth of manufacturing technology of solar panels. This paper shows the operation and modeling of photovoltaic systems, particularly designing neural controller to control the system. Neural controller is optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO   leads to getting the best performance of the designed PV system. Using neural network the maximum overshoot and rise time obtained become 0.00001% and 0.1798 seconds, respectively also this paper introduce a comparison between some kind of controller for PV system.

  2. Streamline, Organizational, Legislative and Administrative Response to Permitting, PV Market Share, and Solar Energy Costs (Broward Go SOLAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, Jeffery D. [Broward County, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)

    2013-08-28

    Broward County and its partners (the Go SOLAR Team), operating under a Department of Energy Rooftop Solar Challenge Agreement, designed, developed and implemented an online permitting system for rooftop solar PV systems. This is a single web based system with a single permit fee that will issue a permit, with a set of design plans preapproved by partner building officials, within one hour. The system is currently available at gosolar.broward.org for use within any of the partner Authorities Having [permitting] Jurisdiction (AHJ). Additionally, the Go SOLAR Team researched, developed and to the extent feasible, implemented three best management practices to make a fertile environment for the new online permit system. These included Net Metering and Interconnection Standards, Solar-Friendly Financing, and Planning and Zoning Ordinances. Finally, the team implemented a substantial outreach effort to advocate for the development of solar in Broward County, with an emphasis on Solar Rights, concluding with a Go SOLAR Fest day and a half conference with over 1,200 attendees and 50 exhibitors. The Go SOLAR project was completed on time, under DOE’s budgeted amount, and all project objectives were met or exceeded.

  3. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the design of the systems, along with expected load profile. A hybrid power model is also developed for battery operation according to the power balance between generators and loads used in the software, to anticipate performances for the different systems according to the different weather conditions. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Using proposed procedure, a 1.2 kWp PV-wind hybrid system was designed for Izmir, and simulated and measured results are presented.

  4. Comparative Study Between Wind and Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Wesam

    This paper reviews two renewable energy systems; wind and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The common debate between the two of them is to conclude which one is better, in terms of cost and efficiency. Therefore, comparative study, in terms of cost and efficiency, is attempted. Regarding total cost of both, wind and PV systems, many parameters must be taken into consideration such as availability of energy (either wind or solar), operation and maintenance, availability of costumers, political influence, and the components used in building the system. The main components and parameters that play major role in determining the overall efficiency of wind systems are the wind turbine generator (WTG), gearbox and control technologies such as power, and speed control. On the other hand, in grid-connected PV systems (GCPVS), converter architecture along with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm and inverter topologies are the issues that affects the efficiency significantly. Cost and efficiency analyses of both systems have been carried out based on the statistics available till today and would be useful in the progress of renewable energy penetration throughout the world.

  5. Design And Simulation Of A PV System With Battery Storage Using Bidirectional DC-DC Converter Using Matlab Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Mursalin Iqbal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PV Photovoltaic systems are one of the most renowned renewable green and clean sources of energy where power is generated from sunlight converting into electricity by the use of PV solar cells. Unlike fossil fuels solar energy has great environmental advantages as they have no harmful emissions during power generation. In this paper a PV system with battery storage using bidirectional DC-DC converter has been designed and simulated on MATLAB Simulink. The simulation outcomes verify the PV systems performance under standard testing conditions.

  6. Rooftop PV system. PV:BONUS Phase 3B, final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Under the PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar developed, demonstrated and commercialized two new lightweight, flexible BIPV modules specifically designed as replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and can be used to address the even larger roofing-replacement market. An important design feature of these modules, which minimizes the installation and balance-of-system costs, is their ability to be installed by conventional roofing contractors without special training. The modules are fabricated from high-efficiency, triple-junction spectrum-splitting a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible stainless steel substrates and encapsulated with polymer materials. The Phase 3 program began in August 1995. The principal tasks and goals of this program, which have all been successfully completed by ECD and United Solar, are described in the body and appendices of this report.

  7. Optimization of a PV/T (photovoltaic/thermal) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeedi, F.; Sarhaddi, F.; Behzadmehr, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimization of a PV/T (photovoltaic/thermal) active solar still is carried out. Analytical expressions for glass cover temperature, basin temperature, brackish water temperature and fresh water productivity are obtained by writing energy balance for different components of PV/T active solar still. The output electrical power of PV/T active solar still is calculated by four-parameter I–V (current–voltage) model. Objective function in present study is the energy efficiency of PV/T active solar still. A computer simulation program has been developed in order to obtain thermal and electrical parameters, respectively. The simulation results of the present study are in fair agreement with the experimental data of previous literatures. Finally, the optimization of PV/T active solar still has been carried out and the optimized value of mass flow rate, number of PV/T collector and the objective function have been obtained. Furthermore, the effect of various operating parameters on energy efficiency have been investigated. - Highlights: • The comprehensive optimization of a PV/T active solar still is carried out. • Present study is based on numerical simulation. • A modified energy efficiency for PV/T active solar still is obtained. • The effect of design and operating parameters is investigated on energy efficiency

  8. Industry consultation on grid connection of small PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, J.; Thorneycroft, J.; Cotterell, M.; Gambro, S.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents the results of consultation within the PV industry and the electricity supply industry concerning guidelines for the connection of small PV systems to the electricity network. (author)

  9. Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) Model: Documentation and Sample Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Margolis, R.

    2009-09-01

    The Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model is a bottom-up, market penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of photovoltaics (PV) on residential and commercial rooftops in the continental United States through 2030. NREL developed SolarDS to examine the market competitiveness of PV based on regional solar resources, capital costs, electricity prices, utility rate structures, and federal and local incentives. The model uses the projected financial performance of PV systems to simulate PV adoption for building types and regions then aggregates adoption to state and national levels. The main components of SolarDS include a PV performance simulator, a PV annual revenue calculator, a PV financial performance calculator, a PV market share calculator, and a regional aggregator. The model simulates a variety of installed PV capacity for a range of user-specified input parameters. PV market penetration levels from 15 to 193 GW by 2030 were simulated in preliminary model runs. SolarDS results are primarily driven by three model assumptions: (1) future PV cost reductions, (2) the maximum PV market share assumed for systems with given financial performance, and (3) PV financing parameters and policy-driven assumptions, such as the possible future cost of carbon emissions.

  10. Investigations on the performance of a double pass, hybrid - type (PV/T) solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, M.; Jayaraj, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2013-07-01

    A solar hybrid energy system having photovoltaic and thermal (PV/T) devices, which produces both thermal and electrical energies simultaneously is considered for analysis. A double pass hybrid solar air (PV/T) heater with slats is designed and fabricated to study its thermal and electrical performance. Air as a heat removing fluid is made to flow through upper and lower channels of the collector. The collector is designed in such a way that the absorber plate is partially covered by solar cells. The raise in temperature of the solar cell is expected to decrease its electrical performance. Thin metallic strips called slats are attached longitudinally at the bottom side of the absorber plate to improve the system performance by increasing the cooling rate of the absorber plate. Thermal and electrical performances of the whole system at varying cooling conditions are presented. An artificial neural network model is used for forecasting the system performance at any desired conditions. The proposed model can be successfully used for evaluating the effect of different operating parameters under different ambient conditions for predicting the overall performance of the system.

  11. Sizing PV-wind hybrid energy system for lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Engin; Dilşad Engin

    2012-01-01

    Sizing of wind and photovoltaic generators ensures lower operational costs and therefore, is considered as an important issue. An approach for sizing along with a best management technique for a PV-wind hybrid system with batteries is proposed in this paper, in which the best size for every component of the system could be optimized according to the weather conditions and the load profile. The average hourly values for wind speed and solar radiation for Izmir, Turkey has been used in the desi...

  12. The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing the historical evolution of South Korea's solar PV policies from the 1970's until today. An in-depth analysis of different policy instruments has been conducted to understand the PV policy context and the consequences of public policies in the PV sector in terms of patents, manufacturing capacity, PV installations, and impacts on the national economy and energy transition. Also, the key success factors and barriers in South Korea's past PV policies have been identified to make recommendations for future development

  13. Identifying Potential Area and Financial Prospects of Rooftop Solar Photovoltaics (PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawut Ninsawat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In an urban area, the roof is the only available surface that can be utilized for installing solar photovoltaics (PV, and the active surface area depends on the type of roof. Shadows on a solar panel can be caused by nearby tall buildings, construction materials such as water tanks, or the roof configuration itself. The azimuth angle of the sun varies, based on the season and the time of day. Therefore, the simulation of shadow for one or two days or using the rule of thumb may not be sufficient to evaluate shadow effects on solar panels throughout the year. In this paper, a methodology for estimating the solar potential of solar PV on rooftops is presented, which is particularly applicable to urban areas. The objective of this method is to assess how roof type and shadow play a role in potentiality and financial benefit. The method starts with roof type extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery, using Object Base Image Analysis (OBIA, the generation of a 3D structure from height data and roof type, the simulation of shadow throughout the year, and the identification of potential and financial prospects. Based on the results obtained, the system seems to be adequate for calculating the financial benefits of solar PV to a very fine scale. The payback period varied from 7–13 years depending on the roof type, direction, and shadow impact. Based on the potentiality, a homeowner can make a profit of up to 200%. This method could help homeowners to identify potential roof area and economic interest.

  14. Copenhagen's solar co-op. Denmark promotes a new model of PV financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, E. [PV Cooperative, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2006-01-15

    Denmark is widely recognized as a world leader in the wind industry, but has so far not achieved the same success in the use of solar power. The author reports that a new system of co-operative ownership seems to he getting the nation's capital on board. reports. Currently only around 1% of Danish electricity production is based on solar power, compared to around 18.5% generated from wind. In order to encourage the use of other types of renewable energy, and particularly solar, a new way of organizing and promoting PV-Installations is being introduced in Copenhagen. The City of Copenhagen is member of the European Solar Cities Initiative (ESCI). The aim of this programme is to support European energy and climate policy by stimulating the interest of 'high performance' European cities and their surrounding regions (prospective 'Solar Cities'), as well as the European research community and the European sustainable energy industry, in investing in solar power. One of the strategies of the initiative is to find efficient and rapid ways to implement Renewable Energy Systems (RES) and the Rational Use of Energy (RUE) in European cities through research, development, demonstration and information dissemination activities, and through stakeholder participation (citizen and others).The goal is to transform European cities into green and efficient places. A working definition of a Solar City is a city that aims to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to a climate-stable and thus sustainable level by 2050, through a holistic strategy for the introduction of RES and RUE. The success of the Copenhagen PV Co-operative is helping to increase the interest of local people in the Solar Stock Exchange, which in turn - it is hoped - will encourage the development of more PV installations. The experience gained from the first co-operatively owned PV-installation has shown that once people are informed of possibilities to improve their quality of life by

  15. The Moroccan solar plan. A comparative analysis of CSP and PV utilization until 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richts, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The present master thesis conducts technical and economic simulations of large-scale Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants for the Moroccan Solar Plan. It provides a database of performance indicators such as energy yields, capacity factors, typical efficiencies and losses of technical components, LCOE, and difference costs (DC: LCOE minus avoided costs of the conventional power system) for fixed tilted, 1-axis horizontal, 1-axis vertical and 2-axis tracking PV and CSP with no, 6, 12 and 18 full load hours of thermal storage. HelioClim irradiation data of 2005 for the sites in Ouarzazate, Ain Ben Mathar, Boujdour, Laayoune and Tarfaya is used ranging between 1,927 - 2,428 kWh/m 2 /y (DNI) and 1,968 - 2,154 kWh/m 2 /y (GHI). In the base scenario minimum LCOE are 9.6 - 5.4 EURct/kWh for PV (2012 - 2020) varying between 0.90 - 1.55 EURct/kWh among sites and technologies. CSP reaches 12.8 - 9.2 EURct/kWh and a bandwidth of 2.3 - 1.6 EURct/kWh. Average DC are lowest for horizontal 1-axis tracking (0.4 and -7.7 EURct/kWh for plants built in 2012 and 2020 respectively) and CSP with 6 hours of storage (1.3 and -3.5 EURct/kWh). PV is cheaper for all sites and technologies due to higher learning curves and less initial investment, but cannot contribute to coverage of the daily evening peak in Morocco. Four different MSP-scenarios with 2000 MW of solar energy require total investments of 3.7 - 7.5 billion EUR and yield 7.9% - 12.8% of the electricity demand in 2020 (given a growth 7%/y) depending on the ratio of PV and CSP utilization. The average LCOE are 8.3 - 11.7 EURct/kWh and the total discounted DC (10%/y) are -254 - 391 million EUR. Thus, solar energy is partly less expensive than a business-as-usual scenario. An extensive sensitivity analysis for WACC and price escalation of conventional energy shows that for only PV and only CSP scenarios in 55 and 22 out of 72 cases the DC are negative - although no environmental costs for conventional

  16. The Moroccan solar plan. A comparative analysis of CSP and PV utilization until 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richts, Christoph

    2012-02-15

    The present master thesis conducts technical and economic simulations of large-scale Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants for the Moroccan Solar Plan. It provides a database of performance indicators such as energy yields, capacity factors, typical efficiencies and losses of technical components, LCOE, and difference costs (DC: LCOE minus avoided costs of the conventional power system) for fixed tilted, 1-axis horizontal, 1-axis vertical and 2-axis tracking PV and CSP with no, 6, 12 and 18 full load hours of thermal storage. HelioClim irradiation data of 2005 for the sites in Ouarzazate, Ain Ben Mathar, Boujdour, Laayoune and Tarfaya is used ranging between 1,927 - 2,428 kWh/m{sup 2}/y (DNI) and 1,968 - 2,154 kWh/m{sup 2}/y (GHI). In the base scenario minimum LCOE are 9.6 - 5.4 EURct/kWh for PV (2012 - 2020) varying between 0.90 - 1.55 EURct/kWh among sites and technologies. CSP reaches 12.8 - 9.2 EURct/kWh and a bandwidth of 2.3 - 1.6 EURct/kWh. Average DC are lowest for horizontal 1-axis tracking (0.4 and -7.7 EURct/kWh for plants built in 2012 and 2020 respectively) and CSP with 6 hours of storage (1.3 and -3.5 EURct/kWh). PV is cheaper for all sites and technologies due to higher learning curves and less initial investment, but cannot contribute to coverage of the daily evening peak in Morocco. Four different MSP-scenarios with 2000 MW of solar energy require total investments of 3.7 - 7.5 billion EUR and yield 7.9% - 12.8% of the electricity demand in 2020 (given a growth 7%/y) depending on the ratio of PV and CSP utilization. The average LCOE are 8.3 - 11.7 EURct/kWh and the total discounted DC (10%/y) are -254 - 391 million EUR. Thus, solar energy is partly less expensive than a business-as-usual scenario. An extensive sensitivity analysis for WACC and price escalation of conventional energy shows that for only PV and only CSP scenarios in 55 and 22 out of 72 cases the DC are negative - although no environmental costs for conventional

  17. A novel PV/T-air dual source heat pump water heater system: Dynamic simulation and performance characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jingyong; Ji, Jie; Wang, Yunyun; Zhou, Fan; Yu, Bendong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The PV/T evaporator and air source evaporator connect in parallel and operate simultaneously. • A dynamic model is developed to simulate the behavior of the system. • The thermal and electrical characteristics of the PV/T evaporator are evaluated. • The contribution of the air source evaporator and PV/T evaporator has been discussed. - Abstract: To enable the heat pump water heater maintain efficient operation under diverse circumstances, a novel PV/T-air dual source heat pump water heater (PV/T-AHPWH) has been proposed in this study. In the PV/T-AHPWH system, a PV/T evaporator and an air source evaporator connect in parallel and operate simultaneously to recover energy from both solar energy and environment. A dynamic model is presented to simulate the behavior of the PV/T-AHPWH system. On this basis, the influences of solar irradiation, ambient temperature and packing factor have been discussed, and the contributions of air source evaporator and PV/T evaporator are evaluated. The results reveal that the system can obtain efficient operation with the average COP above 2.0 under the ambient temperature of 10 °C and solar irradiation of 100 W/m 2 . The PV/T evaporator can compensate for the performance degradation of the air source evaporator caused by the increasing condensing temperature. As the evaporating capacity in PV/T evaporator remains at relatively low level under low irradiation, the air source evaporator can play the main role of recovering heat. Comparing the performance of dual source heat pump system employing PV/T collector with that utilizing normal solar thermal collector, the system utilizing PV/T evaporator is more efficient in energy saving and performance improvement.

  18. Mathematical modeling of photovoltaic thermal PV/T system with v-groove collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, M.; Fudholi, A.; Ruslan, M. H.; Sopian, K.

    2017-07-01

    The use of v-groove in solar collector has a higher thermal efficiency in references. Dropping the working heat of photovoltaic panel was able to raise the electrical efficiency performance. Electrical and thermal efficiency were produced by photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system concurrently. Mathematical modeling based on steady-state thermal analysis of PV/T system with v-groove was conducted. With matrix inversion method, the energy balance equations are explained by means of the investigative method. The comparison results show that in the PV/T system with the V-groove collector is higher temperature, thermal and electrical efficiency than other collectors.

  19. An investigation of the maximum penetration level of a photovoltaic (PV) system into a traditional distribution grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Although solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have remained the fastest growing renewable power generating technology, variability as well as uncertainty in the output of PV plants is a significant issue. This rapid increase in PV grid-connected generation presents not only progress in clean energy but also challenges in integration with traditional electric power grids which were designed for transmission and distribution of power from central stations. Unlike conventional electric generators, PV panels do not have rotating parts and thus have no inertia. This potentially causes a problem when the solar irradiance incident upon a PV plant changes suddenly, for example, when scattered clouds pass quickly overhead. The output power of the PV plant may fluctuate nearly as rapidly as the incident irradiance. These rapid power output fluctuations may then cause voltage fluctuations, frequency fluctuations, and power quality issues. These power quality issues are more severe with increasing PV plant power output. This limits the maximum power output allowed from interconnected PV plants. Voltage regulation of a distribution system, a focus of this research, is a prime limiting factor in PV penetration levels. The IEEE 13-node test feeder, modeled and tested in the MATLAB/Simulink environment, was used as an example distribution feeder to analyze the maximum acceptable penetration of a PV plant. The effect of the PV plant's location was investigated, along with the addition of a VAR compensating device (a D-STATCOM in this case). The results were used to develop simple guidelines for determining an initial estimate of the maximum PV penetration level on a distribution feeder. For example, when no compensating devices are added to the system, a higher level of PV penetration is generally achieved by installing the PV plant close to the substation. The opposite is true when a VAR compensator is installed with the PV plant. In these cases, PV penetration levels over 50% may be

  20. Productivity Enhancement of Solar Still with PV Powered Heating Coil and Chamber Step-Wise Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abdallah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong need to improve the productivity of single slope solar still. PV generator powered electrical heater and chamber step-wise design were introduced to the conventional solar still. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of adding the above mentioned modifications on the output parameters of the modified solar still. The inclusion of PV-powered heating coil and chamber step-wise design enhanced the productivity of distiller by up to 1098%.

  1. Higher order statistical moment application for solar PV potential analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Mohd Juhari Mat; Abdullah, Samizee; Azrulhisham, Engku Ahmad; Harun, Khairulezuan

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic energy could be as alternative energy to fossil fuel, which is depleting and posing a global warming problem. However, this renewable energy is so variable and intermittent to be relied on. Therefore the knowledge of energy potential is very important for any site to build this solar photovoltaic power generation system. Here, the application of higher order statistical moment model is being analyzed using data collected from 5MW grid-connected photovoltaic system. Due to the dynamic changes of skewness and kurtosis of AC power and solar irradiance distributions of the solar farm, Pearson system where the probability distribution is calculated by matching their theoretical moments with that of the empirical moments of a distribution could be suitable for this purpose. On the advantage of the Pearson system in MATLAB, a software programming has been developed to help in data processing for distribution fitting and potential analysis for future projection of amount of AC power and solar irradiance availability.

  2. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reflects on photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in South Africa, and whether it is a cheaper alternative to current generated electricity in the country. It is projected that by 2019 the installed capacity of PV could...

  3. Performance of PV panels for solar energy conversion at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeran, Syed M.

    Expanding research facilities at the Amundson-Scott South pole station require increased electric power generation. Presently, electric power generation is by diesel generators using the JP8 fuel. As the station is accessible only for a short supply period during the austral summer, there are limitations upon the supply of fuel for power generation. This makes it necessary to seriously consider the use of the renewable energy sources. Although there is no sunlight for six months in the year, abundant solar energy is available during the remaining 6 months because of the clear skies, the clarity of air and the low humidity at the south pole. As the buildings at the south pole are built either without windows or with only porthole type windows, large areas on the walls and the roof are available for mounting the photovoltaic (PV) panels. In addition there is unlimited space around the station for constructing a PV panel 'farm'. In this paper four types of PV panels are evaluated; the 2-axis tracking panels, vertical 1-axis tracking panels, fixed vertical panels on the walls of buildings and mounted outdoors, and fixed horizontal panels on the roofs of the buildings. Equations are developed for the power output in KW/sq. ft and annual energy in kWh/sq. ft for each type of panel. The equations include the effects of the inclination of the sun above the horizon, the movement of the sun around the horizon, the direct, reflected and diffused components of the solar radiation, the characteristics of the solar cells and the types of dc/ac inverters used to interface the output of the cells with the existing ac power. A conceptual design of a 150-kW PV generation system suitable for the south pole is also discussed in this paper.

  4. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar PV at the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Atlas Industrial Park in Duluth, Minnesota, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of solar renewable energy generation at the Atlas Industrial Park. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV configurations. In addition, the study evaluates financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  5. Large Scale Solar Power Integration in Distribution Grids : PV Modelling, Voltage Support and Aggregation Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samadi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Long term supporting schemes for photovoltaic (PV) system installation have led to accommodating large numbers of PV systems within load pockets in distribution grids. High penetrations of PV systems can cause new technical challenges, such as voltage rise due to reverse power flow during light load

  6. An Emulated PV Source Based on an Unilluminated Solar Panel and DC Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review on various PV simulator technologies as well as presents a novel equivalent photovoltaic (PV source that was constructed by using un-illuminated solar panels and a DC power supply that operates in current source mode. The constructed PV source was used for testing photovoltaic converters and various maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms required for capturing the maximum possible output power. The mathematical model and electrical characteristics of the constructed PV source were defined and analyzed in detail in the paper. The constructed PV source has the advantages of high bandwidth over the switching circuit based PV simulators. The constructed PV source has been used for testing various power electronics converters and various control techniques effectively in laboratory environments for researchers and university students.

  7. High-Performance Constant Power Generation in Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    An advanced power control strategy by limiting the maximum feed-in power of PV systems has been proposed, which can ensure a fast and smooth transition between maximum power point tracking and Constant Power Generation (CPG). Regardless of the solar irradiance levels, high-performance and stable...... operation are always achieved by the proposed control strategy. It can regulate the PV output power according to any set-point, and force the PV systems to operate at the left side of the maximum power point without stability problems. Experimental results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed CPG...

  8. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  9. Estimating insolation based on PV-module currents in a cluster of stand-alone solar systems: Introduction of a new method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhout, F; van den Borg, N.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    In order to evaluate the performance of solar home systems (SHS), data on local insolation is a prerequisite. We present the outline of a new method to estimate insolation if direct measurements are unavailable. This method comprises estimation of daily irradiation by correlating photovoltaic

  10. Integrated application of combined cooling, heating and power poly-generation PV radiant panel system of zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Baoquan

    2018-02-01

    A new type of combined cooling, heating and power of photovoltaic radiant panel (PV/R) module was proposed, and applied in the zero energy buildings in this paper. The energy system of this building is composed of PV/R module, low temperature difference terminal, energy storage, multi-source heat pump, energy balance control system. Radiant panel is attached on the backside of the PV module for cooling the PV, which is called PV/R module. During the daytime, the PV module was cooled down with the radiant panel, as the temperature coefficient influence, the power efficiency was increased by 8% to 14%, the radiant panel solar heat collecting efficiency was about 45%. Through the nocturnal radiant cooling, the PV/R cooling capacity could be 50 W/m2. For the multifunction energy device, the system shows the versatility during the heating, cooling and power used of building utilization all year round.

  11. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  12. Final Report: Towards an Emergent Model of Technology Adoption for Accelerating the Diffusion of Residential Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-15

    This project sought to enable electric utilities in Texas to accelerate diffusion of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by systematically identifying and targeting existing barriers to PV adoption. A core goal of the project was to develop an integrated research framework that combines survey research, econometric modeling, financial modeling, and implementation and evaluation of pilot projects to study the PV diffusion system. This project considered PV diffusion as an emergent system, with attention to the interactions between the constituent parts of the PV socio-technical system including: economics of individual decision-making; peer and social influences; behavioral responses; and information and transaction costs. We also conducted two pilot projects, which have yielded new insights into behavioral and informational aspects of PV adoption. Finally, this project has produced robust and generalizable results that will provide deeper insights into the technology-diffusion process that will be applicable for the design of utility programs for other technologies such as home-energy management systems and plug-in electric vehicles. When we started this project in 2013 there was little systematic research on characterizing the decision-making process of households interested in adopting PV. This project was designed to fill that research gap by analyzing the PV adoption process from the consumers' decision-making perspective and with the objective to systematically identifying and addressing the barriers that consumers face in the adoption of PV. The two key components of that decision-making process are consumers' evaluation of: (i) uncertainties and non-monetary costs associated with the technology and (ii) the direct monetary cost-benefit. This project used an integrated approach to study both the non-monetary and the monetary components of the consumer decision-making process.

  13. Measured efficiency of a luminescent solar concentrator PV module called Leaf Roof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angèle H.M.E; Debije, Michael G.; Rosemann, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A functional prototype of a luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic (LSC PV) module, called Leaf Roof, aims at demonstrating the design features of LSC PV technologies such as coloring, transparency, and flexibility in physical shape. In this paper, the prototype is presented and the first

  14. A strategic research agenda for photovoltaic solar energy technology : report of the EU PV technology platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, W.C.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Ballif, C.; Bett, A.; Dimmler, B.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.; Fath, P.; Ferrazza, F.; Gabler, H.-J.; Hall, M.; Marti, A.; Mason, N.; Mellikov, E.; Milner, A.; Mogensen, P.; Panhuber, C.; Pearsall, N.; Poortmans, J.; Protogeropoulos, C.; Sarre, G.; Sarti, D.; Strauss, P.; Topic, M.; Zdanowicz, T.

    2007-01-01

    The EU PV Technology Platform [1] aims at joining forces on a European level to contribute to the further development of photovoltaic solar energy into a competitive technology that can be applied on a large scale and to the strengthening of the position of the European PV industry on the global

  15. Solar PV electricity and market characteristics: two Canadian case-studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether solar electricity (that is, electricity generated by photovoltaics) is, on an average, more valuable - in market terms - than the electricity generated in power systems as a whole, this article investigates the extent to which solar resource availability in two Canadian locations is associated with peak electricity market demand and peak electricity market price. More specifically, solar radiation and electricity market data for the period 1 May 2002 to 30 April 2004 are examined for Calgary, Alta. and Guelph, Ont. A variety of visual and statistical investigations reveal that solar radiation values coincide closely with peak electricity market demand and, though to a somewhat lesser extent, peak electricity market prices during the summertime in each location. While more detailed investigation is needed in order to determine the specific impact of different levels of PV penetration upon provincial electricity markets, the article provides ample encouragement for further research. The article also shows how different techniques can be used-in any location-to investigate the relationship among solar electricity potential, system-wide demand and market prices. With electricity industries being restructured around the world, it continues to be important for solar energy proponents to participate in discussions regarding economic costs and benefits. Techniques used in this article can help them advance the solar electricity case more effectively and thus catalyse the deployment of photovoltaics in markets around the world. (author)

  16. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  17. Dynamic modelling of a PV pumping system with special consideration on water demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evaluation of water demand and solar energy is essential for PV pumping system. ► The design for a PV water pumping system has been optimized based on dynamic simulations. ► It is important to conduct dynamic simulations to check the matching between water demand and water supply. ► AC pump driven by the fixed PV array is the most cost-effective solution. - Abstract: The exploitation of solar energy in remote areas through photovoltaic (PV) systems is an attractive solution for water pumping for irrigation systems. The design of a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) strictly depends on the estimation of the crop water requirements and land use since the water demand varies during the watering season and the solar irradiation changes time by time. It is of significance to conduct dynamic simulations in order to achieve the successful and optimal design. The aim of this paper is to develop a dynamic modelling tool for the design of a of photovoltaic water pumping system by combining the models of the water demand, the solar PV power and the pumping system, which can be used to validate the design procedure in terms of matching between water demand and water supply. Both alternate current (AC) and direct current (DC) pumps and both fixed and two-axis tracking PV array were analyzed. The tool has been applied in a case study. Results show that it has the ability to do rapid design and optimization of PV water pumping system by reducing the power peak and selecting the proper devices from both technical and economic viewpoints. Among the different alternatives considered in this study, the AC fixed system represented the best cost effective solution

  18. Energy and Cost Saving of a Photovoltaic-Phase Change Materials (PV-PCM System through Temperature Regulation and Performance Enhancement of Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research seeks to maintain high photovoltaic (PV efficiency and increased operating PV life by maintaining them at a lower temperature. Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM are integrated into PV panels to absorb excess heat by latent heat absorption mechanism and regulate PV temperature. Electrical and thermal energy efficiency analysis of PV-PCM systems is conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in two different climates. Finally costs incurred due to inclusion of PCM into PV system and the resulting benefits are discussed in this paper. The results show that such systems are financially viable in higher temperature and higher solar radiation environment.

  19. Self-control system in storage unit of PV plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Shaban, Saad; Mohmoud, Ali [Hadhramout Univ. of Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Mukalla (Yemen)

    2000-04-01

    A new system for self-controlling of storage batteries being charged by PV plants has been developed. This provides enhanced system reliability, lower system cost, and simpler operation for the user. In this system, the only requirement is to design and select PV panels so that their voltage-sensitive region (on the I-V curve) coincides with that required for a simpler remote PV plant and for long periods. (Author)

  20. Performance power evaluation of DC fan cooling system for PV panel by using ANSYS CFX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiqah, Z.; Amin, N. A. M.; Irwan, Y. M.; Irwanto, M.; Leow, W. Z.; Amelia, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    A research has been conducted to find the optimum combination for DC fan air cooling system of photovoltaic (PV) panel. During normal operation of PV panel, it is estimated that only 15 % of solar radiation is converted into electrical energy. Meanwhile, the rest of the solar radiation is converted into heat energy which affects the performance of the PV panel. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the performance power evaluation of DC fan cooling system for PV panel by using ANSYS CFX. The effect of airflow configuration of DC fan has been investigated. This is to analyze whether the airflow circulation of DC fan cause a change towards the maximum temperature of PV panel. Besides, the impact of varying number of DC fans attached at the back of PV panel is evaluated. The result of airflow circulation of DC fan has been discussed. Meanwhile, with the increment number of DC fans, the PV panel temperature drops significantly. As a conclusion, the optimum number of DC fans is two with the combination of inlet airflow.

  1. Quasi-static time-series simulation using OpenDSS in IEEE distribution feeder model with high PV penetration and its impact on solar forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Touseef Ahmed Faisal

    Since 2000, renewable electricity installations in the United States (excluding hydropower) have more than tripled. Renewable electricity has grown at a compounded annual average of nearly 14% per year from 2000-2010. Wind, Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) and solar Photo Voltaic (PV) are the fastest growing renewable energy sectors. In 2010 in the U.S., solar PV grew over 71% and CSP grew by 18% from the previous year. Globally renewable electricity installations have more than quadrupled from 2000-2010. Solar PV generation grew by a factor of more than 28 between 2000 and 2010. The amount of CSP and solar PV installations are increasing on the distribution grid. These PV installations transmit electrical current from the load centers to the generating stations. But the transmission and distribution grid have been designed for uni-directional flow of electrical energy from generating stations to load centers. This causes imbalances in voltage and switchgear of the electrical circuitry. With the continuous rise in PV installations, analysis of voltage profile and penetration levels remain an active area of research. Standard distributed photovoltaic (PV) generators represented in simulation studies do not reflect the exact location and variability properties such as distance between interconnection points to substations, voltage regulators, solar irradiance and other environmental factors. Quasi-Static simulations assist in peak load planning hour and day ahead as it gives a time sequence analysis to help in generation allocation. Simulation models can be daily, hourly or yearly depending on duty cycle and dynamics of the system. High penetration of PV into the power grid changes the voltage profile and power flow dynamically in the distribution circuits due to the inherent variability of PV. There are a number of modeling and simulations tools available for the study of such high penetration PV scenarios. This thesis will specifically utilize OpenDSS, a open source

  2. Battery storage for PV power systems: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaurey, A; Deambi, S [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

    1992-06-01

    Batteries used in photovoltaic applications are required to have particular properties in order to minimize the system cost, in addition to meeting stringent reliability requirements associated with PV system installations. The battery sizing, installations, operation and maintenance, thus, are fundamentally different from those used in several other energy storage applications. The current paper gives an overview of battery systems commonly used in PV installation, as well as several new options which are found suitable or have been modified suitably to meet PV energy storage requirements. The systems are discussed briefly with respect to their construction, performance characteristics and compatibility with PV systems. The battery sizing procedures are also reviewed. (Author).

  3. Sensitivity of portuguese electricity market prices to solar PV penetration : an analysis of 2016 prices

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro De Sousa, João

    2017-01-01

    The reduction in price of solar PV technology led, in the recent years, multiple investors to apply for installing new solar PV power plants in Portugal which would operate without subsidies or feed-in-tari s. In 2016 it was reported the approval of construction of such power plants and given the low variable cost of this technology it is expected that their penetration would reduce the electricity market prices. Hence, before doing the economic assessment of potential new sola...

  4. Solar PV Power Forecasting Using Extreme Learning Machine and Information Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cadre , Hélène; Aravena , Ignacio; Papavasiliou , Anthony

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We provide a learning algorithm combining distributed Extreme Learning Machine and an information fusion rule based on the ag-gregation of experts advice, to build day ahead probabilistic solar PV power production forecasts. These forecasts use, apart from the current day solar PV power production, local meteorological inputs, the most valuable of which is shown to be precipitation. Experiments are then run in one French region, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, to evaluate ...

  5. Solar PV power forecasting using extreme machine learning and experts advice fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Cadre, Hélène; Aravena Solís, Ignacio Andrés; Papavasiliou, Anthony; European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks, Computational Intelligence and Machine Learning

    2015-01-01

    We provide a learning algorithm combining distributed Extreme Learning Machine and an information fusion rule based on the aggregation of experts advice, to build day ahead probabilistic solar PV power production forecasts. These forecasts use, apart from the current day solar PV power production, local meteorological inputs, the most valuable of which is shown to be precipitation. Experiments are then run in one French region, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, to evaluate the algorithm performance...

  6. Experimental study of the effect of fully shading on the Solar PV module performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-chaderchi, Monadhil; Sopain, K.; Alghoul, M. A.; Salameh, T.

    2017-11-01

    Experimental tests were performed to study the effects of shading for different string inside the photovoltaic (PV) panels, power equipped with different number of diodes from the same manufacturer as of solar panel. The IV curve for all cases were recorded to see how the bypass diodes will reduce the effects of shading .The case for 3 by pass diode show the best performance of solar PV module under shading phenomena.

  7. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed M.; El-arini, Mahdi M. M.; Ghitas, Ahmed; Fathy, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV) systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O) algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  8. Realworld maximum power point tracking simulation of PV system based on Fuzzy Logic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Othman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the solar energy becomes one of the most important alternative sources of electric energy, so it is important to improve the efficiency and reliability of the photovoltaic (PV systems. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT plays an important role in photovoltaic power systems because it maximize the power output from a PV system for a given set of conditions, and therefore maximize their array efficiency. This paper presents a maximum power point tracker (MPPT using Fuzzy Logic theory for a PV system. The work is focused on the well known Perturb and Observe (P&O algorithm and is compared to a designed fuzzy logic controller (FLC. The simulation work dealing with MPPT controller; a DC/DC Ćuk converter feeding a load is achieved. The results showed that the proposed Fuzzy Logic MPPT in the PV system is valid.

  9. Optimal Placement and Sizing of PV-STATCOM in Power Systems Using Empirical Data and Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sirjani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a source of free, clean energy which avoids the destructive effects on the environment that have long been caused by power generation. Solar energy technology rivals fossil fuels, and its development has increased recently. Photovoltaic (PV solar farms can only produce active power during the day, while at night, they are completely idle. At the same time, though, active power should be supported by reactive power. Reactive power compensation in power systems improves power quality and stability. The use during the night of a PV solar farm inverter as a static synchronous compensator (or PV-STATCOM device has recently been proposed which can improve system performance and increase the utility of a PV solar farm. In this paper, a method for optimal PV-STATCOM placement and sizing is proposed using empirical data. Considering the objectives of power loss and cost minimization as well as voltage improvement, two sub-problems of placement and sizing, respectively, are solved by a power loss index and adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO. Test results show that APSO not only performs better in finding optimal solutions but also converges faster compared with bee colony optimization (BCO and lightening search algorithm (LSA. Installation of a PV solar farm, STATCOM, and PV-STATCOM in a system are each evaluated in terms of efficiency and cost.

  10. Sizing and Simulation of PV-Wind Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Engin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sizing procedure is developed for hybrid system with the aid of mathematical models for photovoltaic cell, wind turbine, and battery that are readily present in the literature. This sizing procedure can simulate the annual performance of different kinds of photovoltaic-wind hybrid power system structures for an identified set of renewable resources, which fulfills technical limitations with the lowest energy cost. The output of the program will display the performance of the system during the year, the total cost of the system, and the best size for the PV-generator, wind generator, and battery capacity. Security lightning application is selected, whereas system performance data and environmental operating conditions are measured and stored. This hybrid system, which includes a PV, wind turbine, inverter, and a battery, was installed to supply energy to 24 W lamps, considering that the renewable energy resources of this site where the system was installed were 1700 Wh/m2/day solar radiation and 3.43 m/s yearly average wind speed. Using the measured variables, the inverter and charge regulator efficiencies were calculated as 90% and 98%, respectively, and the overall system’s electrical efficiency is calculated as 72%. Life cycle costs per kWh are found to be $0.89 and LLP = 0.0428.

  11. Evolution of consumer information preferences with market maturity in solar PV adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale Reeves, D.; Rai, Varun; Margolis, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Residential adoption of solar photovoltaics (PV) is spreading rapidly, supported by policy initiatives at the federal, state, and local levels. Potential adopters navigate increasingly complex decision-making landscapes in their path to adoption. Much is known about the individual-level drivers of solar PV diffusion that steer adopters through this process, but relatively little is known about the evolution of these drivers as solar PV markets mature. By understanding the evolution of emerging solar PV markets over time, stakeholders in the diffusion of solar PV can increase policy effectiveness and reduce costs. This analysis uses survey data to compare two adjacent markets across a range of relevant characteristics, then models changes in the importance of local vs cosmopolitan information sources by combining theory relating market maturity to adopter behavior with event-history techniques. In younger markets, earlier, innovative adoptions that are tied to a preference for cosmopolitan information sources are more prevalent than expected, suggesting a frustrated demand for solar PV that segues into adoptions fueled by local information preferences contemporary with similar adoptions in older markets. The analysis concludes with policy recommendations to leverage changing consumer information preferences as markets mature.

  12. Energy performance of water hybrid PV/T collectors applied to combisystems of Direct Solar Floor type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraisse, G.; Johannes, K. [Laboratoire Optimisation de la Conception et Ingenierie de l' Environnement, Ecole Superieure d' Ingenieurs de Chambery, Campus Scientifique Savoie Technolac, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac Cedex (France); Menezo, C. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon, Domaine Scientifique de La Doua, Bat. Freyssinet, 20, Avenue A. Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2007-11-15

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) modules in buildings allows one to consider a multifunctional frame and then to reduce the cost by substitution of components. In order to limit the rise of the cell operating temperature, a photovoltaics/thermal (PV/T) collector combines a solar water heating collector and PV cells. The recovered heat energy can be used for heating systems and domestic hot water. A combination with a Direct Solar Floor is studied. Its low operating temperature level is appropriate for the operating conditions of the mono- or poly-crystalline photovoltaic modules which are selected in that study. However, for a system including a glass covered collector and localised in Macon area in France, we show that the annual photovoltaic cell efficiency is 6.8% which represents a decrease of 28% in comparison with a conventional non-integrated PV module of 9.4% annual efficiency. This is obviously due to a temperature increase related to the cover. On the other hand, we show that without a glass cover, the efficiency is 10% which is 6% better than a standard module due to the cooling effect. Moreover, in the case of a glazed PV/T collector with a conventional control system for Direct Solar Floor, the maximum temperature reached at the level of the PV modules is higher than 100{sup o}C. This is due to the oversize of the collectors during the summer when the heating needs are null, i.e. without a heated swimming pool for example. This temperature level does not allow the use of EVA resin (ethylene vinyl acetate) in PV modules due to strong risks of degradation. The current solution consists of using amorphous cells or, if we do not enhance the thermal production, uncovered PV/T collector. Further research led to water hybrid PV/T solar collectors as a one-piece component, both reliable and efficient, and including the thermal absorber, the heat exchanger and the photovoltaic functions. (author)

  13. Design and Implementation of an Innovative Residential PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najm, Elie Michel

    This work focuses on the design and implementation of an innovative residential PV system. In chapter one, after an introduction related to the rapid growth of solar systems' installations, the most commonly used state of the art solar power electronics' configurations are discussed, which leads to introducing the proposed DC/DC parallel configuration. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the power electronics' configurations are deliberated. The scope of work in the power electronics is defined in this chapter to be related to the panel side DC/DC converter. System integration and mechanical proposals are also within the scope of work and are discussed in later chapters. Operation principle of a novel low cost PV converter is proposed in chapter 2. The proposal is based on an innovative, simplified analog implementation of a master/slave methodology resulting in an efficient, soft-switched interleaved variable frequency flybacks, operating in the boundary conduction mode (BCM). The scheme concept and circuit configuration, operation principle and theoretical waveforms, design equations, and design considerations are presented. Furthermore, design examples are also given, illustrating the significance of the newly derived frequency equation for flybacks operating in BCM. In chapters 3, 4, and 5, the design implementation and optimization of the novel DC/DC converter illustrated in chapter 2 are discussed. In chapter 3, a detailed variable frequency BCM flyback design model leading to optimizing the component selections and transformer design, detailed in chapter 4, is presented. Furthermore, in chapter 4, the method enabling the use of lower voltage rating switching devices is also discussed. In chapter 5, circuitry related to Start-UP, drive for the main switching devices, zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) as well as turn OFF soft switching and interleaving control are fully detailed. The experimental results of the proposed DC/DC converter are presented in

  14. System modelling and energy management for grid connected PV systems associated with storage

    OpenAIRE

    Riffonneau , Yann; DELAILLE , Arnaud; Barruel , Franck; Bacha , Seddik

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents the modelling and energy management of a grid connected PV system associatedwith storage. Within the economic, energetic and environmental context, objective of the system is to ensure loadssupply at the least cost by optimising the use of solar power. Therefore, due to the complicated operating patterns, anenergy management system which decides on energy flow for any moment is necessary. First, we present the systemstudied. Based on an AC bus typol...

  15. Economic Comparison of Two Business Models for Implementation of Small Integrated PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matak, N.; Krajacic, G.; Jerkic, E.; Duic, N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared two different models for the implementation of small photovoltaic solar systems in the Croatia. The new prosumer model presented in the new Croatian law on the Renewable Energy Sources and Highly Efficient Cogeneration (OG 100/15) and PV ESCO model which is similar to net metering. The PV ESCO model is developed from authors to determine possibility to raise payback period of small integrated PV systems. The comparison was done on a 15-minute basis and there were compared values of Simple Payback Period (SPP) for different locations and systems size considering electricity demand and market prices. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) were compared for 4 different cases. Conducted comparison showed that PV ESCO model is always more favourable for the owner of PV system in terms of lower SPP and higher IRR and NPV. It has been noticed that for systems higher than 5 kWp use of PV ESCO model is recommended. For smaller systems it is not always clear which model should be used, since some losses are generated in the system on the side of the electricity supply company. For smaller systems from 2 to 5 kWp, PV ESCO model has SPP from 7.5 to 13 years and SPP value for the prosumer model is 8.7 to 15 years. This difference is higher when comparing PV system from 6 to 10 kWp. SPP for PV ESCO model, in that case, is from 10 to 13 years and in the prosumer model is from 17.5 to 28 years.(author).

  16. PV Status Report 2008. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-09-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report is to combine international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact-finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last five years were on average more than 40%, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict that the market volume will increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  17. PV Status Report 2010. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2010-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate Electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report combines international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were on average more than 40 %, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  18. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K. [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  19. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  20. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  1. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  2. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics; PV-Obelisk Orientierungssystem mit Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed.

  3. Analysis of the influences of grid-connected PV power system on distribution grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Popandron

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of producing an electric power of 2.8 MW using a solar photovoltaic plant. The PV will be grid connected to the distribution network. The study is focused on the influences of connecting to the grid of a photovoltaic system, using modern software for analysis, modeling and simulation in power systems.

  4. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, K; Coddington, M; Burman, K; Hayter, S; Kroposki, B; Watson, and A

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to networks in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and

  5. Highlight of Grid-connected PV systems in administrative buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy applications are becoming increasingly common in Egypt. The abundant sunshine in Egypt, as well as the increasing competitiveness of solar energy systems including- but not limited to photovoltaic (PV, – predicts that these technologies could be weighed to be raised in Egypt.PV systems are installed on roof tiles or other parts of building structures to supplement grid utility, reduce electric bills, and provide emergency back–up energy. Moreover, they simultaneously reduce significant amounts of CO2 emissions. It is foreseen, a number of residential and public buildings in Egypt are using solar power to cut electric utility bills significantly. The approximately payback period to recover the investment costs for PV systems is up to about 5 years.  In addition, it is more economical to use PV system than grid utility systems. The two components that determine the total initial price of a grid- connected PV system are the modules and the balance of systems (BOS. The BOS includes different components such as mounting frames, inverters and site- specific installation hardware.The Government of Egypt (GOE has endorsed the deployment of PV systems through three approaches. It started with a prime minister decree to install PV projects on one-thousand of the governmental buildings. This was followed by as an initiative called "Shamsk ya Masr", and finally the Feed-in Tariff (FiT projects.Following the prime minster decree the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC and its affiliated companies took the lead to install PV systems at the top roof of their administrative buildings and interconnect these systems to the electricity network where the suitable locations have been selected for mounting them. About 90 PV systems have been already mounted with about a capacity of 9 MW. On the other hand, "Shamsk ya Masr" has considered energy efficiency (EE so as to complement the PV systems, which will be installed on administrative

  6. Efficiency improvement of the maximum power point tracking for PV systems using support vector machine technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kareim, Ameer A; Mansor, Muhamad Bin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve efficiency of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for PV systems. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) was proposed to achieve the MPPT controller. The theoretical, the perturbation and observation (P and O), and incremental conductance (IC) algorithms were used to compare with proposed SVM algorithm. MATLAB models for PV module, theoretical, SVM, P and O, and IC algorithms are implemented. The improved MPPT uses the SVM method to predict the optimum voltage of the PV system in order to extract the maximum power point (MPP). The SVM technique used two inputs which are solar radiation and ambient temperature of the modeled PV module. The results show that the proposed SVM technique has less Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and higher efficiency than P and O and IC methods.

  7. Design, fabrication and performance of a hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shiv; Tiwari, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Two solar stills (single slope passive and single slope photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) active solar still) were fabricated and tested at solar energy park, IIT New Delhi (India) for composite climate. Photovoltaic operated DC water pump was used between solar still and photovoltaic (PV) integrated flat plate collector to re-circulate the water through the collectors and transfer it to the solar still. The newly designed hybrid (PV/T) active solar still is self-sustainable and can be used in remote areas, need to transport distilled water from a distance and not connected to grid, but blessed with ample solar energy. Experiments were performed for 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 m water depth, round the year 2006-2007 for both the stills. It has been observed that maximum daily yield of 2.26 kg and 7.22 kg were obtained from passive and hybrid active solar still, respectively at 0.05 m water depth. The daily yield from hybrid active solar still is around 3.2 and 5.5 times higher than the passive solar still in summer and winter month, respectively. The study has shown that this design of the hybrid active solar still also provides higher electrical and overall thermal efficiency, which is about 20% higher than the passive solar still.

  8. Design and optimization of cascaded DCG based holographic elements for spectrum-splitting PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Pelaez, Silvana Ayala; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the technique of designing and optimizing broadband volume transmission holograms using dichromate gelatin (DCG) is summarized for solar spectrum-splitting application. Spectrum splitting photovoltaic system uses a series of single bandgap PV cells that have different spectral conversion efficiency properties to more fully utilize the solar spectrum. In such a system, one or more high performance optical filters are usually required to split the solar spectrum and efficiently send them to the corresponding PV cells. An ideal spectral filter should have a rectangular shape with sharp transition wavelengths. DCG is a near ideal holographic material for solar applications as it can achieve high refractive index modulation, low absorption and scattering properties and long-term stability to solar exposure after sealing. In this research, a methodology of designing and modeling a transmission DCG hologram using coupled wave analysis for different PV bandgap combinations is described. To achieve a broad diffraction bandwidth and sharp cut-off wavelength, a cascaded structure of multiple thick holograms is described. A search algorithm is also developed to optimize both single and two-layer cascaded holographic spectrum splitters for the best bandgap combinations of two- and three-junction SSPV systems illuminated under the AM1.5 solar spectrum. The power conversion efficiencies of the optimized systems under the AM1.5 solar spectrum are then calculated using the detailed balance method, and shows an improvement compared with tandem structure.

  9. Residential consumers’ experiences in the adoption and use of solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, Jeff; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2017-01-01

    Public policy in many nations is seeking to transition energy generation towards renewable sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV). Reviews of past policy aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of renewable energy sources have identified that policy implementation may not align with policy objectives of energy professionals. The research and analysis of consumers and their interaction with solar PV policy is important in assessing policy outcomes and how these can be better delivered or adapted. This paper reports on an in depth qualitative analysis of 22 persons under different feed-in tariff (FiT) policy settings to explore consumer experiences in acquiring solar PV and their energy use behaviour. The responses of participants indicate there were different motivations and energy use behaviour that were based on the policy in which solar PV was acquired and these may provide insight into policy development or follow up studies. - Highlights: • Consumer acceptance of renewable energy sources (RES) are vital to GHG mitigation. • Different policy settings have encouraged consumer uptake of solar PV. • Qualitative study examines two cohorts of consumers under different solar feed-in tariff (FiT) settings. • Level of FiT identified as linked to behaviours that can alter policy outcomes.

  10. Simulation of Power Produced by a Building Added PV System in Indonesia using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a PV system will be simulated using virtual reality software for PV system simulations -called VR4PV - to show the effectiveness of the modelling of PV systems on buildings which are placed in the tropics. The PV system used for this study has been installed in Papua, Indonesia and

  11. Architecturally integrated PV system at the Ford Bridgend Engine Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, K.; Phillips, R.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the project was to design and install a solar photovoltaic (PV) plant that could be retrofitted into an existing factory and to evaluate the cost and advantages of using the most recent advances in photovoltaic technology as follows: to demonstrate the use of the latest mono crystalline silicon technology within a large scale manufacturing environment, with the long term view of designing a state of the art installation for use in an environmentally sensitive {sup F}actory of the Future{sup .} To determine the performance and operating costs of a photovoltaic plant in northern latitudes thus providing data for the potential use of similar integrated systems elsewhere in the UK and Northern Europe. To evaluate the long term behaviour of an integrated system and its component parts. To demonstrate the feasibility of retrofitting PV roof lights into a fully operational manufacturing plant. To provide natural daylight into the manufacturing facility thereby improving the working environment, enhancing productivity and reducing the electrical lighting load within the plant during daylight hours. (author)

  12. Solar home systems in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryson, Jessica; Haakansson, Teresa

    1999-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and environmentally friendly technology that does not require any fuels. The high reliability of operation and little need for maintenance makes it ideally suited for rural areas. Today PV systems are used in Nepal to power telecommunications centres, navigational aids, in pumping systems for irrigation and drinking water, and for household electrification. A solar home system consists of a PV module, a battery, a charge controller and 3-4 fluorescent light bulbs with fixture. The system provides power for lighting and operation of household appliances for several hours. The success of donor supported programs have shown that solar home systems can be a practical solution for many rural households. In 1996 the Government of Nepal launched a subsidy program for solar home systems, which dramatically has increased the demand for solar home systems among rural customers. This report includes a survey of 52 households with solar home systems in two villages. The field-study shows that the villagers are very happy with their systems and the technical performance of the systems in both villages is satisfactory. The study also shows the positive impact electricity has on education, health, income generation and quality of life. The beneficiaries of introducing electricity in remote areas are the children and the women 39 refs, 18 tabs. Examination paper

  13. Market Transformation Pathways for Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar PV in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, Ross [Fresh Energy, St. Paul, MN (United States); Ross, Brian [CR Planning, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-06-03

    This report presents the market and policy findings of the Minnesota Solar Challenge program. The report draws on information collected from state agencies, local government units, solar industry participants, rooftop photovoltaic (PV) adopters (sometimes called customer-generators), state and national experts, the Commerce distributed generation stakeholder process, and the numerous reports and data sets referenced herein.

  14. A review of sustainable solar irrigation systems for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Wazed, S.; Hughes, B.R.; O’Connor, D.; Kaiser Calautit, J.

    2018-01-01

    This investigation focused on the research undertaken on solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies for pumping water generally for irrigation of remote rural farms specifically considering the Sub-Saharan African region. Solar PV systems have been researched extensively for irrigation purposes due to the rise in Oil prices and the upscaling in commercialisation of PV technology. Based on the literature the most effective PV system is presented for the irrigation of a small scare ...

  15. Why did the price of solar PV Si feedstock fluctuate so wildly in 2004–2009?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yang; Song Yuhua; Bao Haibo

    2012-01-01

    Great attention has been paid to the origin of observed wild price fluctuations of solar PV Si feedstock in both contract and spot markets during 2004–2009. This paper sheds light on this issue and tries to resolve it by addressing the following questions: what kind of structural shock is underlying the price fluctuations of PV Si feedstock? How can we quantify the magnitude, timing and relative importance of these shocks? What are their dynamic effects on the real price of PV Si feedstock? By carefully studying development conditions, the structural decomposition of the real price of PV Si feedstock is proposed: exchange rate shocks, production cost shocks, aggregate demand shocks and demand shocks specific to feedstock markets. With a Structural Vector Autoregression model, the paper quantifies and verifies the impact of structural shocks on PV Si feedstock real price changes. Based on national data, an analysis is further taken to confirm the essential role of demand shocks specific to feedstock markets in determining sharper price fluctuations during 2004–2009. The results of this study have important implications for national solar PV development, which can be better promoted and administrated if structural shocks in feedstock markets can be carefully evaluated and understood. - Highlights: ► The determination of solar PV Si feedstock price fluctuation is identified and quantified. ► Systematic structural shocks well explain 2004–2009 price fluctuations of PV Si feedstock. ► Production cost and aggregated demand shocks take longer effects on feedstock price. ► Exchange rate and feedstock specific demand shocks explain sharper price fluctuations. ► Development of national PV power should consider effects of structure shocks.

  16. MPPT Schemes for PV System under Normal and Partial Shading Condition: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Sameeullah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic system is one of the renewable energy device, which directly converts solar radiation into electricity. The I-V characteristics of PV system are nonlinear in nature and under variable Irradiance and temperature, PV system has a single operating point where the power output is maximum, known as Maximum Power Point (MPP and the point varies on changes in atmospheric conditions and electrical load. Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT is used to track MPP of solar PV system for maximum efficiency operation. The various MPPT techniques together with implementation are reported in literature. In order to choose the best technique based upon the requirements, comprehensive and comparative study should be available. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of various MPPT techniques for uniform insolation and partial shading conditions. Furthermore, the comparison of practically accepted and widely used techniques has been made based on features, such as control strategy, type of circuitry, number of control variables and cost. This review work provides a quick analysis and design help for PV systems. Article History: Received March 14, 2016; Received in revised form June 26th 2016; Accepted July 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Sameeullah, M. and Swarup, A. (2016. MPPT Schemes for PV System under Normal and Partial Shading Condition: A Review. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 79-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.79-94 

  17. Comparison and selection of off-grid PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmailov, Andrey Yu.; Lobachevsky, Yakov P.; Shepovalova, Olga V.

    2018-05-01

    This work deals with comparison, evaluation and selection of PV systems of the same type based on their technical parameters either indicated in their technical specifications or calculated ones. Stand-alone and grid backed up photoelectric systems have been considered. General requirements for photoelectric system selection and evaluation have been presented that ensure system operability and required efficiency in operation conditions. Generic principles and definition of photoelectric systems characteristics have been considered. The described method is mainly targeted at PV engineering personnel and private customers purchasing PV systems. It can be also applied in the course of project contests, tenders, etc.

  18. Assessing the influence of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on self-consumption and sizing of PV-battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.; Kondziella, H.; Huard, G.; Bruckner, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP optimization model for operation and investment of PV-battery systems. • Use of high resolution (10 s) electrical household load and PV generation profiles. • Analysis of influence of temporal resolution on self-consumption and optimal sizing. • Electrical load profile characteristics influence required temporal resolution. - Abstract: The interest in self-consumption of electricity generated by rooftop photovoltaic systems has grown in recent years, fueled by decreasing levelized costs of electricity and feed-in tariffs as well as increasing end customer electricity prices in the residential sector. This also fostered research on grid-connected PV-battery storage systems, which are a promising technology to increase self-consumption. In this paper a mixed-integer linear optimization model of a PV-battery system that minimizes the total discounted operating and investment costs is developed. The model is employed to study the effect of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on the rate of self-consumption and the optimal sizing of PV and PV-battery systems. In contrast to previous studies high resolution (10 s) measured input data for both PV generation and electrical load profiles is used for the analysis. The data was obtained by smart meter measurements in 25 different households in Germany. It is shown that the temporal resolution of load profiles is more critical for the accuracy of the determination of self-consumption rates than the resolution of the PV generation. For PV-systems without additional storage accurate results can be obtained by using 15 min solar irradiation data. The required accuracy for the electrical load profiles depends strongly on the load profile characteristics. While good results can be obtained with 60 s for all electrical load profiles, 15 min data can still be sufficient for load profiles that do not exhibit most of their electricity consumption at power levels above 2 k

  19. Analysis of Long-Term Performance of PV Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordmann, T.; Clavadetscher, L.; van Sark, Wilfried; Green, M.

    This report describes the activities, conclusions and continued efforts undertaken in Subtask 1 by the participating countries in IEA-PVPS Task 13. Subtask 1 examines the PV power plant as a system. It collects and studies the data supplied from installed operating PV plants from different countries

  20. PVSOFT99 - Photovoltaic (PV) System Sizing And Simulation Software

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer program (PVSOFT99) has been developed for sizing and simulation of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. Two distinct PV sizing algorithms, one based on the worst case and the other on the reliability concept, have been incorporated in the program. The reliability concept is generalized in that variation of ...

  1. Optical and mechanical tolerances in hybrid concentrated thermal-PV solar trough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Liliana Ruiz; Cocilovo, Byron; Miles, Alexander; Pan, Wei; Blanche, Pierre-Alexandre; Norwood, Robert A

    2018-05-14

    Hybrid thermal-PV solar trough collectors combine concentrated photovoltaics and concentrated solar power technology to harvest and store solar energy. In this work, the optical and mechanical requirements for optimal efficiency are analyzed using non-sequential ray tracing techniques. The results are used to generate opto-mechanical tolerances that can be compared to those of traditional solar collectors. We also explore ideas on how to relieve tracking tolerances for single-axis solar collectors. The objective is to establish a basis for tolerances required for the fabrication and manufacturing of hybrid solar trough collectors.

  2. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-02-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  3. Global solar PV installations grew in 2015 and will continue this trend over the coming years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    According to preliminary numbers from GTM Research, 59 GW of solar PV were installed globally in 2015, representing a 34% increase over 2014 total. The fourth quarter of 2015 showed that global PV demand is very much at the mercy of government support, which can often be unpredictable and idiosyncratic, frequently leading to negative, although occasionally positive, outcomes. By the end of 2016, cumulative installations will reach 321 GW. (Author)

  4. CFD Simulation of Turbulent Wind Effect on an Array of Ground-Mounted Solar PV Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irtaza, Hassan; Agarwal, Ashish

    2018-06-01

    Aim of the present study is to determine the wind loads on the PV panels in a solar array since panels are vulnerable to high winds. Extensive damages of PV panels, arrays and mounting modules have been reported the world over due to high winds. Solar array of dimension 6 m × 4 m having 12 PV panels of size 1 m × 2 m on 3D 1:50 scaled models have been simulated using unsteady solver with Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations of computational fluid dynamics techniques to study the turbulent wind effects on PV panels. A standalone solar array with 30° tilt angle in atmospheric surface layer with the Renormalized Group (RNG) turbulence closure subjected to incident wind varied from - 90° to 90°. The net pressure, drag and lift coefficients are found to be maximum when the wind is flowing normally to the PV panel either 90° or - 90°. The tilt angle of solar arrays the world over not vary on the latitude but also on the seasons. Keeping this in mind the ground mounted PV panels in array with varying tilt angle from 10° to 60° at an interval of 10° have been analyzed for normal wind incident i.e. 90° and - 90° using unsteady RNG turbulence model. Net pressure coefficients have been calculated and found to be increasing with increase in array tilting angle. Maximum net pressure coefficient was observed for the 60° tilted PV array for 90° and - 90° wind incident having value of 0.938 and 0.904 respectively. The results can be concluded that the PV panels are subjected to significant lift and drag forces under wind loading, which needs to be quantified with sufficient factor of safety to avoid damages.

  5. Performance test of a grid-tied PV system to power a split air conditioner system in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, E.

    2017-11-01

    Air conditioner for cooling air is one of the major needs for those who live in hot climate area such as Indonesia. This work presents the performance test of a grid-tied PV system to power air conditioner under a hot tropical climate in Surabaya, Indonesia. A 800 WP grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) system was used, and its performance was tested to power a 0.5 pk of split air conditioner system. It was found that about 3.5 kWh daily energy was consumed by the tested air conditioner system, and about 80% it could be supplied from the PV system. While the other 20% was supplied by the grid during periods of low solar irradiation, 440 Wh of energy was fed into the grid during operation out of office hours. By using the grid-tied PV system, the energy production by PV system did not need to match the consumption of the air conditioner. However, a larger capacity of PV system would mean that a higher percentage of the load would be covered by PV system.

  6. Photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar collectors: Features and performance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atienza-Márquez, Antonio; Bruno, Joan Carles; Coronas, Alberto; Korolija, Ivan; Greenough, Richard; Wright, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the electrical efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells ranges between 5–25%. One of the most important parameters that affects the electrical efficiency of a PV collector is the temperature of its cells: the higher temperature, the lower is the efficiency. Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) technology is a potential solution to ensure an acceptable solar energy conversion. The PV/T technology produces both electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. It is suitable for low temperature applications (25–40 o C) and overall efficiency increases compared to individual collectors. This paper describes an installation in a single-family house where PV/T collectors are coupled with a ground heat exchanger and a heat pump for domestic hot water and space heating purposes. The aim of this work is twofold. First, the features of the PV/T technology are analyzed. Second, a model of a flat-plate PV/T water collector was developed in TRNSYS in order to analyze collectors performance. (author)

  7. The role of PV electricity generation in fully renewable energy supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, H.; Peter, S.

    2004-01-01

    A sustainable energy supply will be based on renewable energies and it must use available resources efficiently. Earlier or later the energy supply will rely completely on renewable sources. A solar energy system that provides a reliable energy supply throughout the year includes the consistent use of local renewable energy sources (e.g. PV) wherever possible. Using Japan as a example it was shown that the vision of a full renewable energy supply, even with high shares of domestic sources is possible. Detailed simulations of such a system show that the PV systems play an important role delivering electricity at peak demand times. (authors)

  8. On the field performance of PV water pumping system in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbeta, M.; Sasi, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the measured performance of an experimental PV water pumping system of 1200Wp installed in the north-east of Libya. Both the monthly and hourly measured data of the system performance are presented and analised, and the over-all system efficiency has been calculated as monthly and daily averages. The monthly average output of the system has been estimated and compared with measured data. The economic analysis of the system has been carried out and the specific water discharge cost (SDC) has been determined, the obtained SDC was very competitive with the published SDC of the PV water pumping projects in some countries. The obtained results have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of using the PV systems for water pumping especially in the remote areas of high potential of solar insolation.(author)

  9. PV systems: Things are improving again. Medium-sized enterprises are getting into the solar module business; Photovoltaik: Nach Talfahrt wieder aufwaerts. Mittelstaendische Firmen steigen ins Solarmodulgeschaeft ein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemme, H.

    1996-06-25

    At the 11th `Symposium for Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion`, which was held at Banz Monastery, the drastic decline of the German solar celll production was discussed. Especially the closing down of ASE Wedel gave rise to dark speculations. However, some experts think the problem will be solved now that several medium-sized enterprises have entered the solar market. (HW) [Deutsch] Auf dem elften `Symposium photovoltaische Solarenergie` im Kloster Benz wurde der drastische Rueckgang der deutschen Solarzellenproduktion diskutiert. Insbesondere bereitete die Schliessung des Wedeler ASE-Werkes einige Sorgen. Nach Meinung verschiedener Fachleute scheint sich das Problem jedoch zu loesen, nachdem mehrere mittelstaendische Betriebe auf dem Solarsektor eingestiegen sind. (HW)

  10. Economic impacts of the solar PV sector in Ontario 2008-2018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    Over the next 20 years most of the electricity generating facilities in Ontario will need to be replaced or refurbished and the electricity demand will rise by 15%. The province has adopted a long term energy plan (LTEP) to prepare for these changes; its objectives are to reduce demand and to produce electricity from nuclear power and renewable energy sources by 2030. The LTEP foresees the installation of 3,000 MW solar photovoltaic (PV) energy by 2018 in Ontario and the aim of this report is to determine the economic effects of this development on investments, job creation and cost to customers. Over 150 interviews and 100 surveys were carried out with solar PV stakeholders. It was found that the solar PV market in Ontario will drive $13 billion of private investment, create 74,000 jobs at a cost of $5 per month to electricity customers by 2018.

  11. Development of an economical model to determine an appropriate feed-in tariff for grid-connected solar PV electricity in all states of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Australia is a country with a vast amount of natural resources including sun and wind. Australia lies between latitude of 10-45 S and longitude of 112-152 E, with a daily solar exposure of between less than 3 MJ/(m 2 day) in winter and more than 30 MJ/(m 2 day) in summer. Global solar radiation in Australia varies between minimum of 3285 MJ/(m 2 year) in Hobart to 8760 MJ/(m 2 year) in Northern Territory. As a result of this wide range of radiation level there will be a big difference between costs of solar PV electricity in different locations. A study we have recently conducted on the solar PV electricity price in all states of Australia. For this purpose we have developed an economical model and a computer simulation to determine the accurate unit price of grid-connected roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity in A$/kWh for all state of Australia. The benefit of this computer simulation is that we can accurately determine the most appropriate feed-in tariff of grid-connected solar PV energy system. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of this study. A further objective of this paper is to present the details of the unit price of solar PV electricity in the state of Victoria in each month and then to compare with electricity price from conventional power systems, which is currently applied to this state. The state Victoria is located south of Australia and in terms of sun radiation is second lowest compared with the other Australian states. The computer simulation developed for this study makes it possible to determine the cost of grid-connected solar PV electricity at any location in any country based on availability of average daily solar exposure of each month as well as economical factors of the country. (author)

  12. A new hybrid bee pollinator flower pollination algorithm for solar PV parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, J. Prasanth; Babu, T. Sudhakar; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Rajasekar, N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new Bee Pollinator Flower Pollination Algorithm (BPFPA) is proposed for Solar PV Parameter extraction. • Standard RTC France data is used for the experimentation of BPFPA algorithm. • Four different PV modules are successfully tested via double diode model. • The BPFPA method is highly convincing in accuracy to convergence at faster rate. • The proposed BPFPA provides the best performance among the other recent techniques. - Abstract: The inaccurate I-V curve generation in solar PV modeling introduces less efficiency and on the other hand, accurate simulation of PV characteristics becomes a mandatory obligation before experimental validation. Although many optimization methods in literature have attempted to extract accurate PV parameters, all of these methods do not guarantee their convergence to the global optimum. Hence, the authors of this paper have proposed a new hybrid Bee pollinator Flower Pollination Algorithm (BPFPA) for the PV parameter extraction problem. The PV parameters for both single diode and double diode are extracted and tested under different environmental conditions. For brevity, the I_0_1, I_0_2, I_p_v for double diode and I_0_,I_p_v for single diode models are calculated analytically where the remaining parameters ‘R_s, R_p, a_1, a_2’ are optimized using BPFPA method. It is found that, the proposed Bee Pollinator method has all the scope to create exploration and exploitation in the control variable to yield a less RMSE value even under lower irradiated conditions. Further for performance validation, the parameters arrived via BPFPA method is compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Pattern Search (PS), Harmony Search (HS), Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) and Artificial Bee Swarm Optimization (ABSO). In addition, various outcomes of PV modeling and different parameters influencing the accurate PV modeling are critically analyzed.

  13. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets | Solar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes. Context Prospective PV customers are relatively non-transparent; customers are largely unaware of market prices and may not obtain the lowest available price. PV customers that use quote aggregators-third-party companies that collect quotes

  14. GIS methodology and case study regarding assessment of the solar potential at territorial level: PV or thermal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Quiquerez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based methodology for assessing solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal potentials in urban environment. The consideration of spatial and temporal dimensions of energy resource and demand allows, for two different territories of the Geneva region, to determine the suitable building roof areas for solar installations, the solar irradiance on these areas and, finally, the electrical and/or thermal energy potentials related to the demand. Results show that the choice of combining PV and solar thermal for domestic hot water (DHW is relevant in both territories. Actually, the installation of properly sized solar thermal collectors doesn’t decrease much the solar PV potential, while allowing significant thermal production. However, solar collectors for combined DHW and space heating (SH require a much larger surface and, therefore, have a more important influence on the PV potential.

  15. PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilsemann, Frederick [Coherent Systems International, Doylestown, PA (United States); Thompson, Roger [Coherent Systems International, Doylestown, PA (United States)

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.

  16. Understanding innovation system build up. The rise and fall of the Dutch PV Innovation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, S.O.; Vasseur, V.; Hekkert, M.P.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies have a hard time to break through in the existing energy regime. In this paper we focus on analysing the mechanisms behind this problematic technology diffusion. We take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to photovoltaic solar energy technology (PV) in the Netherlands. The reason for this is that there is a long history of policy efforts in The Netherlands to stimulate PV but results in terms of diffusion of PV panels is disappointingly low, which clearly constitutes a case of slow diffusion. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build up of innovation systems. We show that the processes related to knowledge development are very stable but that large fluctuations are present in the processes related to 'guidance of the search' and 'market formation'. Surprisingly, entrepreneurial activities are not too much affected by fluctuating market formation activities. We relate this to market formation in neighbouring countries and discuss the theoretical implications for the technological innovation system framework.

  17. Output Control Technologies for a Large-scale PV System Considering Impacts on a Power Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Akira

    The mega-solar demonstration project named “Verification of Grid Stabilization with Large-scale PV Power Generation systems” had been completed in March 2011 at Wakkanai, the northernmost city of Japan. The major objectives of this project were to evaluate adverse impacts of large-scale PV power generation systems connected to the power grid and develop output control technologies with integrated battery storage system. This paper describes the outline and results of this project. These results show the effectiveness of battery storage system and also proposed output control methods for a large-scale PV system to ensure stable operation of power grids. NEDO, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan conducted this project and HEPCO, Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc managed the overall project.

  18. Impacts of PV Array Sizing on PV Inverter Lifetime and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In order to enable a more wide-scale utilization of PV systems, the cost of PV energy has to be comparable with other energy sources. Oversizing the PV array is one common approach to reduce the cost of PV energy, since it increases the PV energy yield during low solar irradiance conditions. However, oversizing the PV array will increase the loading of PV inverters, which may have undesired influence on the PV inverter lifetime and reliability. In that case, it may result in a negative impact...

  19. Overview of PV Wind hybrid system activities in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G.; Gabler, H.; Kiefer, K.; Preiser, K.; Wiemken, E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines, in some cases additionally with wind energy converters, and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centers in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300,000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaic, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilization of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. [Espanol] Para la electrificacion en toda Europa de casas de campo en la montana, centros de informacion, parques naturales, granjas aisladas o conjuntos habitacionales, se estan usando generadores fotovoltaicos combinados con maquinas diesel, en algunos casos adicionalmente con convertidores de energia del viento y baterias para el almacenamiento de energia. Se estima que en Europa un total de 300,000 edificios no estan conectados a la red publica. Esto representa un gran mercado potencial para los sistemas fotovoltaicos, ya que a menudo la generacion fotovoltaica es menos costosa que una conexion a la empresa electrica. El Instituto Fraunhofer para Sistemas de Energia Solar ISE ha planeado, llevado a cabo y monitoreado alrededor de 30 sistemas hibridos remotos de suministro de energia con generadores fotovoltaicos

  20. Overview of PV Wind hybrid system activities in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bopp, G; Gabler, H; Kiefer, K; Preiser, K; Wiemken, E [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Photovoltaic solar generators combined with diesel engines, in some cases additionally with wind energy converters, and battery energy storage are powering isolated mountain lodges, information centers in nature parks, isolated farms or dwellings all over Europe. A total of 300,000 buildings in Europe are estimated to be not connected to the public grid. This represents a major market potential for photovoltaic, as often photovoltaic power generation is less expensive than a connection to the electric utility. The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE has planned, realized and monitored about 30 hybrid remote energy supply systems with PV generators typically around 5 kW for loads typically around 20 kWh per day. More than one hundred years of operational experience accumulated so far, are a sound foundation on which to draw an interim balance over problems solved and technical questions still under development. Room for further technical development is seen in the domain of system reliability and the reduction of operating costs as well as in the optimization of the utilization of the electric energy produced by the PV generator. [Espanol] Para la electrificacion en toda Europa de casas de campo en la montana, centros de informacion, parques naturales, granjas aisladas o conjuntos habitacionales, se estan usando generadores fotovoltaicos combinados con maquinas diesel, en algunos casos adicionalmente con convertidores de energia del viento y baterias para el almacenamiento de energia. Se estima que en Europa un total de 300,000 edificios no estan conectados a la red publica. Esto representa un gran mercado potencial para los sistemas fotovoltaicos, ya que a menudo la generacion fotovoltaica es menos costosa que una conexion a la empresa electrica. El Instituto Fraunhofer para Sistemas de Energia Solar ISE ha planeado, llevado a cabo y monitoreado alrededor de 30 sistemas hibridos remotos de suministro de energia con generadores fotovoltaicos

  1. Study on reduction of consumption and peak demand of electric power used in residential houses with solar heating and PV systems; Solar house no fuka heijunka to energy sakugen koka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udagawa, M.; Endo, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-08

    A model house was simulated to reduce the consumption and peak demand for the photovoltaic power generation system, and solar heat air heating and hot water supply system in the solar house. As a type of construction, both wooden construction and reinforced concrete (RC) construction were selected with a total floor area of 125m{sup 2}. All the rooms were equipped with an air conditioner by heat pump from the air thermal source. A solar heat floor heater was simultaneously installed on the first floor. The hot water supply load was 4.8MWh per year. A commercial grid-connected on-site system was applied to the photovoltaic power generation with a 20m{sup 2} wide monocrystalline Si solar cell panel. As for the fluctuation in power load, the peak at the time of rising is more reduced in the RC house than in the wooden house, because the former is smaller in temperature fluctuation than the latter during the intermittence of air conditioning (as per the specified operational schedule). Therefore, the power is more leveled off in the former than in the latter. Between both, difference was hardly made in energy consumption per year. The ratio of dependency was 47% upon the photovoltaic power generation system, while it was 50% and 77%, under the air heating power load and hot water supply power load, respectively, upon the solar heat air heating and hot water supply system, so that both systems were considerably effective in saving the energy. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Integrated Three-Port DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaic (PV) Battery Stand-alone Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    of solar energy. Moreover, a novel transformer configuration enables variable turns ratio controlled by the phase between the two current excitations subjected to the primary windings, allowing a wider input/output range. 1 kW experimental prototype has been built to demonstrate a wellmanaged power flow......Several power sources such as PV solar arrays and battery are often used to manage the power flow for a photovoltaic (PV) based stand-alone power system due to the fluctuation nature of solar energy resource, and deliver a continuous power to the users in an appropriate form. Traditionally, three...... different single-input single-output (SISO) dc/dc converters would have been used. To reduce the cost and improve the power density of the system, an integrated three-port isolated dc/dc converter is proposed in this paper. It can realize all functions of the energy delivery due to the fluctuation nature...

  3. Design of direct solar PV driven air conditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Hou, Tung-Fu; Hsu, Po-Chien; Lin, Tse-Han; Chen, Yan-Tze; Chen, Chi-Wen; Li, Kang; Lee, K.Y.

    2015-01-01

    ). The measured OPB is found to be greater than 0.98 at instantaneous solar irradiation IT > 600 W m-2 if rpL > 1.71 RF approaches 1.0 (the air conditioner is run in 100% with solar power) at daily-total solar radiation higher than 13 MJ m-2 day-1, if rpL > 3.

  4. Building brighter PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current status and future prospects of the UK market for solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity are briefly discussed. Through the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the UK Government has supported research and development (R and D) into PV for a number of years. This programme has now been extended to demonstrating PV systems on houses. Phase 2 - the domestic field trial programme - aims to monitor the performance of individual systems and the impact on a cluster of systems on the electricity network. New funding had allowed a trebling of the size of this programme, which involves both private developers and housing associations. The DTI is also working to promote PV on commercial buildings, eg the installation of BP Solar PV systems at BP petrol stations. The PV industry in the UK is technically strong and is working to overcome the barriers in the UK to greater uptake of the technology (including cost, conservatism, legal requirements and metering practices). Improvements are expected in a number of recent initiatives in the electricity industry to boost PV use and the PV industry is lobbying for PV to be included in the Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECA) scheme

  5. Numerical investigation of heat pipe-based photovoltaic–thermoelectric generator (HP-PV/TEG) hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makki, Adham; Omer, Siddig; Su, Yuehong; Sabir, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of TE generators with a heat pipe-based PV module as a hybrid system is proposed. • Numerical transient modeling based on the energy balance equations of the system was performed. • Integration of TE generators with PV module aid operating the solar cells at a steady level in harsh conditions. - Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) cells are able to absorb about 80% of the solar spectral irradiance, however, certain percentage accounts for electricity conversion depending on the cell technology employed. The remainder energy however, can elevate the silicon junction temperature in the PV encapsulation perilously, resulting in deteriorated performance. Temperature rise at the PV cell level is addressed as one of the most critical issues that can seriously degrade and shortens the life-time of the PV cells, hence thermal management of the PV module during operation is considered essential. Hybrid PV designs which are able to simultaneously generate electrical energy and utilize the waste heat have been proven to be the most promising solution. In this study, theoretical investigation of a hybrid system comprising of thermoelectric generator integration with a heat pipe-based Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) absorber is proposed and evaluated. The system presented incorporates a PV panel for direct electricity generation, a heat pipe for excessive heat absorption from the PV cells and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) performing direct heat-to-electricity conversion. A mathematical model based on the energy balance within the system is developed to evaluate the performance of the hybrid integration and the improvements associated with the thermal management of PV cells. Results are presented in terms of the overall system efficiency compared to a conventional PV panel under identical operating conditions. The integration of TEG modules with PV cells in such way aid improving the performance of the PV cells in addition to utilizing the waste

  6. Concept of large scale PV-WT-PSH energy sources coupled with the national power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurasz Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent/non-dispatchable energy sources are characterized by a significant variation of their energy yield over time. In majority of cases their role in energy systems is marginalized. However, even in Poland which is strongly dedicated to its hard and brown coal fired power plants, the wind generation in terms of installed capacity starts to play a significant role. This paper briefly introduces a concept of wind (WT and solar (PV powered pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH which seems to be a viable option for solving the problem of the variable nature of PV and WT generation. Additionally we summarize the results of our so far conducted research on the integration of variable renewable energy sources (VRES to the energy systems and present conclusions which strictly refer to the prospects of large scale PV-WT-PSH operating as a part of the polish energy system.

  7. Influence of Special Weather on Output of PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-01-01

    The output of PV system is affected by different environmental factors, therefore, it is important to study the output of PV system under different environmental conditions. Through collecting data on the spot, collecting the output of photovoltaic panels under special weather conditions, and comparing the collected data, the output characteristics of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions are obtained. The influence of weather factors such as temperature, humidity and irradiance on the output of photovoltaic panels was investigated.

  8. Automatic fault diagnosis in PV systems with distributed MPPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solórzano, J.; Egido, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An automatic failure diagnosis procedure for PV systems with DMPPT is presented. • The different failures diagnosed and their effects on the PV systems are described. • No use of irradiance and temperature sensors decreasing the cost of the system. • Voltage and current analysis to diagnose different failures. • Hot-spots, localized dirt, shading, module degradation and cable losses diagnosis. - Abstract: This work presents a novel procedure for fault diagnosis in PV systems with distributed maximum power point tracking at module level—power optimizers (DC/DC) or micro-inverters (DC/AC). Apart from the power benefits obtained when an irregular irradiance distribution is present, this type of systems permit the monitoring of the PV plant parameters at the module level: voltage and current at the working power point. With these parameters, a prototype diagnosis tool has been developed in Matlab and it has been experimentally verified in a real rooftop PV generator by applying different failures. The tool can diagnose the following failures: fixed object shading (with distance estimation), localized dirt, generalized dirt, possible hot-spots, module degradation and excessive losses in DC cables. In addition, it alerts the user of the power losses produced by each failure and classifies the failures by their severity. This system does not require the use of irradiance or temperature sensors, except for the generalized dirt failure, reducing the cost of installation, especially important in small PV systems

  9. Opportunities for co-location of solar PV with agriculture for cost reductions and carbon, water, and energy footprint mitigation in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, C. S.; Macknick, J.; Ravi, S.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, co-locating the production of agricultural crops or biofuels with solar photovoltaics (PV) installations has been studied as a possible strategy to mitigate the environmental impacts and the high cost of solar PV in arid and semi-arid regions. Co-located PV and agricultural systems can provide multiple benefits in these areas related to water savings, erosion control, energy access, and rural economic development. However, such studies have been rare for water-rich, land-limited tropical countries, where ideal agricultural growing conditions can be substantially different from those in arid regions. We consider a case study in Indonesia to address this research gap. As the fourth most populous nation with an ever-growing energy demand and high vulnerability to the effects of climate change, Indonesia is being prompted to develop means to electrify approximately one-fifth of its population that still lacks access to the grid without incurring increases in its carbon footprint. We address the following questions to explore the feasibility and the benefits of co-location of solar PV with patchouli cultivation and essential oil production: i) How do the lifetime carbon, water, and energy footprints per unit land area of co-located solar PV/patchouli compare to those of standalone diesel microgrid, solar PV or patchouli cultivation? ii) Does energy production from standalone solar PV, diesel/solar PV microgrid, or co-located solar PV/patchouli systems satisfy energy demands of a typical rural Indonesian village? iii) How does the net economic return of the co-located system compare to each standalone land use? iv) How can surplus energy from the co-located system benefit rural socioeconomics? To answer these questions, life cycle assessment and economic analysis are performed for each of the standalone and the co-located land uses utilizing known values and data collected from a field visit to the island of Java in Indonesia. Then, sensitivity analyses and

  10. Solar generation: a blueprint for growing the PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, M.; Stierstorfer, J.; Teske, S.; Aubrey, C.

    2001-01-01

    The rapid growth of the solar electricity market is discussed. The European Photovoltaic Industry Association and Greenpeace have recently collaborated on a long-term forecast of the global solar electricity market up to 2020 with predictions up to 2040; the conclusions from their joint study are the subject of this article. The paper is presented under the main sub-headings of (i) background to the collaboration; (ii) the Greenpeace perspective; (iii) the impact of solar electricity in the lives of consumers and job-seekers born today; (iv) solar generation-methods and assumptions (v) market growth rates; (vi) electricity generation; (vii) carbon dioxide emissions; (viii) projection to 2040; (ix) key results of the EPIA/Greenpeace analysis; (x) solar electricity as a vehicle for job creation and (xi) creating the conditions for optimizing the impact of solar electricity on future generations. A chart shows solar electricity job creation potential 2000-2020

  11. Behavior of Photovoltaic System during Solar Eclipse in Prague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Libra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available PV power plants have been recently installed in very large scale. So the effects of the solar eclipse are of big importance especially for grid connected photovoltaic (PV systems. There was a partial solar eclipse in Prague on 20th March 2015. We have evaluated the data from our facility in order to monitor the impact of this natural phenomenon on the behavior of PV system, and these results are presented in the paper. The behavior of PV system corresponds with the theoretical assumption. The power decrease of the PV array corresponds with the relative size of the solar eclipse. I-V characteristics of the PV panel correspond to the theoretical model presented in our previous work.

  12. Feasibility study of one axis three positions tracking solar PV with low concentration ratio reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.J.; Sun, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    A new PV design, called 'one axis three position sun tracking PV module', with low concentration ratio reflector was proposed in the present study. Every PV module is designed with a low concentration ratio reflector and is mounted on an individual sun tracking frame. The one axis tracking mechanism adjusts the PV position only at three fixed angles (three position tracking): morning, noon and afternoon. This 'one axis three position sun tracking PV module' can be designed in a simple structure with low cost. A design analysis was performed in the present study. The analytical results show that the optimal stopping angle β in the morning or afternoon is about 50 o from the solar noon position and the optimal switching angle that controls the best time for changing the attitude of the PV module is half of the stopping angle, i.e. θ H = β/2, and both are independent of the latitude. The power generation increases by approximately 24.5% as compared to a fixed PV module for latitude φ o . The analysis also shows that the effect of installation misalignment away from the true south direction is negligible ( o . An experiment performed in the present study indicates that the PV power generation can increase by about 23% using low concentration (2X) reflectors. Hence, combining with the power output increase of 24.5%, by using one axis three position tracking, the total increase in power generation is about 56%. The economic analysis shows that the price reduction is between 20% and 30% for the various market prices of flat plate PV modules

  13. Double-pass photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) solar collector with advanced heat transfer features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar; Baharudin Yatim; Mohd Yusof Othman; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2006-01-01

    The use of PV/T in combination with concentrating reflectors has a potential to significantly increase power production from a given solar cell area. A prototype double-pass photovoltaic-thermal solar air collector with CPR and fins has been designed and fabricated and its performance over a range of operating conditions was studied. The absorber of the hybrid photovoltaic / thermal (PV/T) collector under investigation consists of an array of solar cells for generating electricity, compound parabolic concentrator (CPR) to increase the radiation intensity falling on the solar cells and fins attached to the back side of the absorber plate to improve heat transfer to the flowing air. The thermal, electrical and combined electrical and thermal efficiencies of the collector are presented and discussed

  14. System engineering and design of LSC-PV for outdoor lighting applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viswanathan, B.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; De Boer, D.K.G.; Ras, A.; Zahn, H.; Desmet, L.

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic outdoor lighting applications usually comprise flat plate PV modules mounted on top of a light pole. In our paper instead, it is thought of to design the light pole as a luminescent solar concentrator photovoltaic (LSC-PV) module with solar cell strips and hence reduce costs of

  15. Is Germany's energy transition a case of successful green industrial policy? Contrasting wind and solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegels, Anna; Lütkenhorst, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we address the challenge of Germany's energy transition (Energiewende) as the centrepiece of the country's green industrial policy. In addition to contributing to global climate change objectives, the Energiewende is intended to create a leading position for German industry in renewable energy technologies, boost innovative capabilities and create employment opportunities in future growth markets at the least possible cost. The success in reaching these aims, and indeed the future of the entire concept, is hotly debated. The paper aims to provide an up-to-date assessment of what has become a fierce controversy by comparing solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy along five policy objectives: (1) competitiveness, (2) innovation, (3) job creation, (4) climate change mitigation, and (5) cost. We find mixed evidence that Germany reaches its green industrial policy aims at reasonable costs. Wind energy seems to perform better against all policy objectives, while the solar PV sector has come under intense pressure from international competition. However, this is only a snapshot of current performance, and the long term and systemic perspective required for the energy sector transformation suggests a need for a balanced mix of a variety of clean energy sources. - Highlights: • We give an up-to-date assessment of costs and benefits of Germany's Energiewende. • We compare solar PV and wind to show key elements of policy success. • Considered policy objectives: competitiveness, innovation, jobs, emissions, costs. • Wind energy seems to perform better than solar PV against all policy objectives. • The results are a snapshot: a deep transformation requires energy diversification

  16. Power Electronic System for Multi-MW PV sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    in Sønderborg (DK) was implemented. A total of 17 PV-inverters have been monitored during a period exceeding one year and the recorded data constitutes the basis of this investigation. A part of the 2.1 MW PV plant was reconfigured to emulate the behavior of a central-inverter and solar panels distributed over...... a distance of 160 m. In parallel a string based inverter configuration was established with solar panels at the same locations. An analysis of irradiation data recorded during the test period showed that non-uniform irradiance due to moving clouds is expected to influence the PV plants for less than 4.......4%. A portable IV-scanning instrument for the fast long term characterization of solar panels was developed as part of the project. Each second a sweep of the IV-characteristics of a solar panel is performed and the result stored for later analysis. The instrument is based on an active load, is optimized...

  17. Solar PV powered mobile cellular base station: Models and use cases in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderemi, BA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The huge costs of operating a mobile cellular base station, and the negative impact of greenhouse gasses on the environment have made the solar PV renewable energy source a sought after. In addition to cost and environmental factor, abundant supply...

  18. City and County Solar PV Training Program, Module 1: Goal Setting and Clarification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-12

    This module will help attendees understand nuances between different types of renewable energy goals, the importance of terminology when setting and announcing goals, the value of formally clarifying priorities, and how priorities may impact procurement options. It is the first training in a series intended to help municipal staff procure solar PV for their land and buildings.

  19. Solar Energy Technology Office Portfolio Review: Promotion of PV Soft Cost Reductions in the Southeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-20

    From 2016-2021, the installed solar capacity in South Carolina will mushroom from less than 20 megawatts to more than 300 megawatts. Concurrently, the number of customer-sited, load-centered solar generation is expected to grow from less than 500 statewide to as many as 10,000 by 2021. This growth is anticipated to be the direct result of a landmark state policy initiative, Act 236, passed by the South Carolina General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor in June of 2014. Local policy makers in South Carolina are ill-equipped to handle the onslaught of solar permitting and zoning requests expected over the next five years. Similarly, the state’s building inspectors, first responders, and tax assessors know little about photovoltaic (PV) technology and best practices. Finally, South Carolina’s workforce and workforce trainers are underprepared to benefit from the tremendous opportunity created by the passage of Act 236. Each of these deficits in knowledge of and preparedness for solar PV translates into higher “soft costs” of installed solar PV in South Carolina. Currently, we estimate that the installed costs of residential rooftop solar are as much as 25 percent higher than the national average. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), together with almost a dozen electricity stakeholders in the Southeast, proposes to create a replicable model for solar PV soft cost reduction in South Carolina through human capacity-building at the local level and direct efforts to harmonize policy at the inter-county or regional level. The primary goal of this effort is to close the gap between South Carolina installed costs of residential rooftop solar and national averages. The secondary goal is to develop a portable and replicable model that can be applied to other jurisdictions in the Southeastern US.

  20. Analysis of PV system's values beyond energy - by country and stakeholder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Polo, A.; Hass, R.; Suna, D.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme and PV-Up-Scale analyses, identifies, evaluates and quantifies the major values and benefits of urban scale photovoltaics (PV) based on country and stakeholder specifics. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The values evaluated and quantified in this report are categorised under the following groups: Avoiding fossil fuels, environmental benefits, benefits for electric utilities, industry development and employment benefits and the customer's individual benefits. The relevance of PV to meeting peak demand is discussed, as are the benefits for architects and building developers.

  1. Control Strategies for the DAB Based PV Interface System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi M El-Helw

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interface system based on the Dual Active Bridge (DAB converter for Photovoltaic (PV arrays. Two control strategies are proposed for the DAB converter to harvest the maximum power from the PV array. The first strategy is based on a simple PI controller to regulate the terminal PV voltage through the phase shift angle of the DAB converter. The Perturb and Observe (P&O Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technique is utilized to set the reference of the PV terminal voltage. The second strategy presented in this paper employs the Artificial Neural Network (ANN to directly set the phase shift angle of the DAB converter that results in harvesting maximum power. This feed-forward strategy overcomes the stability issues of the feedback strategy. The proposed PV interface systems are modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the EMTDC/PSCAD software packages. The simulation results reveal accurate and fast response of the proposed systems. The dynamic performance of the proposed feed-forward strategy outdoes that of the feedback strategy in terms of accuracy and response time. Moreover, an experimental prototype is built to test and validate the proposed PV interface system.

  2. Plug and Play PV Systems for American Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, Christian [Fraunhofer USA, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-22

    The core objectives of the Plug & Play PV Systems Project were to develop a PV system that can be installed on a residential rooftop for less than $1.50/W in 2020, and in less than 10 hours (from point of purchase to commissioning). The Fraunhofer CSE team’s approach to this challenge involved a holistic approach to system design – hardware and software – that make Plug & Play PV systems: • Quick, easy, and safe to install • Easy to demonstrate as code compliant • Permitted, inspected, and interconnected via an electronic process Throughout the three years of work during this Department of Energy SunShot funded project, the team engaged in a substantive way with inspectional services departments and utilities, manufacturers, installers, and distributors. We received iterative feedback on the system design and on ideas for how such systems can be commercialized. This ultimately led us to conceiving of Plug & Play PV Systems as a framework, with a variety of components compatible with the Plug & Play PV approach, including string or microinverters, conventional modules or emerging lightweight modules. The framework enables a broad group of manufacturers to participate in taking Plug & Play PV Systems to market, and increases the market size for such systems. Key aspects of the development effort centered on the system hardware and associated engineering work, the development of a Plug & Play PV Server to enable the electronic permitting, inspection and interconnection process, understanding the details of code compliance and, on occasion, supporting applications for modifications to the code to allow lightweight modules, for example. We have published a number of papers on our testing and assessment of novel technologies (e.g., adhered lightweight modules) and on the electronic architecture.

  3. A simplified model for the estimation of energy production of PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aste, Niccolò; Del Pero, Claudio; Leonforte, Fabrizio; Manfren, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    The potential of solar energy is far higher than any other renewable source, although several limits exist. In detail the fundamental factors that must be analyzed by investors and policy makers are the cost-effectiveness and the production of PV power plants, respectively, for the decision of investment schemes and energy policy strategies. Tools suitable to be used even by non-specialists, are therefore becoming increasingly important. Many research and development effort have been devoted to this goal in recent years. In this study, a simplified model for PV annual production estimation that can provide results with a level of accuracy comparable with the more sophisticated simulation tools from which it derives is fundamental data. The main advantage of the presented model is that it can be used by virtually anyone, without requiring a specific field expertise. The inherent limits of the model are related to its empirical base, but the methodology presented can be effectively reproduced in the future with a different spectrum of data in order to assess, for example, the effect of technological evolution on the overall performance of PV power generation or establishing performance benchmarks for a much larger variety kinds of PV plants and technologies. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the main methods for estimating the electricity production of photovoltaic systems. • We simulated the same system with two different software in different European locations and estimated the electric production. • We have studied the main losses of a plant PV. • We provide a simplified model to estimate the electrical production of any PV system well designed. • We validated the data obtained by the proposed model with experimental data from three PV systems

  4. Novel double-stage high-concentrated solar hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collector with nonimaging optics and GaAs solar cells reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Jiang, Lun; Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel hybrid concentrating photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector is developed. • Thermal component achieves 60× concentration using nonimaging optics. • GaAs solar cells used as spectrally selective mirrors for low energy photons. • Thermal efficiencies of 37% at 365 °C and electrical efficiencies of 8% achieved. • Combined electric efficiency reaches 25% of DNI for system cost of $283.10/m"2". - Abstract: A novel double stage high-concentration hybrid solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record thin film single-junction gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells has been developed. We present a detailed design and simulation of the system, experimental setup, prototype, system performance, and economic analysis. The system uses a parabolic trough (primary concentrator) to focus sunlight towards a secondary nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) to simultaneously generate electricity from single junction GaAs solar cells, as well as high temperature dispatchable heat. This study is novel in that (a) the solar cells inside the vacuum tube act as spectrally selective mirrors for lower energy photons to maximize the system exergy, and (b) secondary concentrator allows the thermal component to reach a concentration ratio ∼60×, which is significantly higher than conventional PV/T concentration ratios. The maximum outlet temperature reached was 365 °C, and on average the thermal efficiency of the experiment was around 37%. The maximum electrical efficiency was around 8%. The total system electricity generation is around 25% of incoming DNI, by assuming the high temperature stream is used to power a steam turbine. The installed system cost per unit of parabolic trough aperture area is $283.10 per m"2.

  5. Electrical production for domestic and industrial applications using hybrid PV-wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essalaimeh, S.; Al-Salaymeh, A.; Abdullat, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Modeling and building hybrid system of PV and wind turbine. ► Investigation of the electrical generation under Amman–Jordan’s climate. ► Configuration of theoretical and actual characteristics of the hybrid system. ► Testing effects of dust, inclination and load on the electrical generation. ► Financial analysis for various applications. - Abstract: The present work shows an experimental investigation of using a combination of solar and wind energies as hybrid system for electrical generation under the Jordanian climate conditions. The generated electricity has been utilized for different types of applications and mainly for space heating and cooling. The system has also integration with grid connection to have more reliable system. Measurements included the solar radiation intensity, the ambient temperature, the wind speed and the output power from the solar PV panels and wind turbine. The performance characteristic of the PV panels has been obtained by varying the load value through a variable resistance. Some major factors have been studied and practically measured; one of them is the dust effect on electrical production efficiency for photovoltaic panels. Another factor is the inclination of the PV panels, where varying the angle of inclination has a seasonal importance for gathering the maximum solar intensity. Through mathematical calculation and the collected and measured data, a simple payback period has been calculated of the hybrid system in order to study the economical aspects of installing such a system under Jordanian climate conditions and for different usages and local tariffs including domestic, industrial and commercial applications. It was found through this work that the generated electricity of hybrid system and under Jordanian climate conditions can be utilized for electrical heating and cooling through split units and resistive heaters.

  6. The future prospect of PV and CSP solar technologies: An expert elicitation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Catenacci, Michela; Fiorese, Giulia; Verdolini, Elena

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss the results of an expert elicitation survey on solar technologies. Sixteen leading European experts from the academic world, the private sector and international institutions took part in this expert elicitation survey on Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies. The survey collected probabilistic information on (1) how Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) investments will impact the future costs of solar technologies and (2) the potential for solar technology deployment both in OECD and non-OECD countries. Understanding the technological progress and the potential of solar PV and CPS technologies is crucial to draft appropriate energy policies. The results presented in this paper are thus relevant for the policy making process and can be used as better input data in integrated assessment and energy models. - Highlights: ► With constant public support at least one solar technology will become cost-competitive with fossil fuels. ► Demonstration should become a key area of funding. ► Without climate policy (carbon price), by 2030 solar technologies will not be cost-competitive. ► The EU will first achieve a breakthrough in production costs. ► The share of electricity production from solar will never exceed 30%.

  7. Sizing energy storage systems to make PV tradable in the Iberian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltram, H.; Perez, E.; Aparicio, N.; Vidal, R.; Belenguer, E. [Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Castello de la Plana (Spain). Electrical Engineering Area; Piqueres, T. [Energia Solar Aplicada (ESA), Valencia (Spain). Technical Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is intended to provide some reference values for the ratings required by an energy storage system, to be integrated in a large-scale PV power plant placed at any location of the Iberian Peninsula, to operate it according to an energy management strategy (EMS) whic allowed its participation in the Iberian electricity market while minimizing the economic penalties. The proposed EMS produces a constant-by-hours power reference to be tracked by the PV plant with storage and, in that way, mitigate the stochastic nature of the PV production. This operation mode will enable PV power plants to take part reliably in the different electricity markets, profiting the intraday market sessions to continuously refine the power production commitment. Different configurations of the EMS are analysed, introducing on each of them different meteorologically-based adjustments which allow minimizing the energy capacity required by the storage system. The proposals are analysed through one-year long simulations which use real-world data and PV power forecasting models extracted from solar databases. (orig.)

  8. Optimized controllers for enhancing dynamic performance of PV interface system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. Attia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic performance of PV interface system can be improved by optimizing the gains of the Proportional–Integral (PI controller. In this work, gravitational search algorithm and harmony search algorithm are utilized to optimal tuning of PI controller gains. Performance comparison between the PV system with optimized PI gains utilizing different techniques are carried out. Finally, the dynamic behavior of the system is studied under hypothetical sudden variations in irradiance. The examination of the proposed techniques for optimal tuning of PI gains is conducted using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. The main contribution of this work is investigating the dynamic performance of PV interfacing system with application of gravitational search algorithm and harmony search algorithm for optimal PI parameters tuning. Keywords: Photovoltaic power systems, Gravitational search algorithm, Harmony search algorithm, Genetic algorithm, Artificial intelligence

  9. Performance of a 34 kWp grid-connected PV system in Indonesia - A comparison of tropical and European PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, A.J.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    We analysed a monitored grid-connected PV system of 34 kWp in Indonesia to investigate the performance of PV systems in tropical climates. The PV system has been installed in Jayapura, the capital of the Province of Papua, Indonesia, by the beginning of 2012. Due to the aged gensets and frequent

  10. Evaluation of solar PV-projects of housing corporations; Evaluatie zon PV-projecten bij woningcorporaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurstjens, M.J.H. [W/E Adviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    A study has been carried out to determine the failure and success factors with regard to the use of solar panels in the housing sector. Lessons learned from this evaluation form the basis for targeted communication and development of a guide for corporations. In the spring of 2013, stakeholders in eight representative initiatives in the Netherlands were interviewed. The failure and success factors are translated into recommendations to further develop tools for corporations [Dutch] Er is gezocht naar de faal- en succesfactoren rondom de toepassing van zonnepanelen in de woningbouwsector. Leerpunten uit deze evaluatie vormen de basis voor gerichte communicatie en ontwikkeling van (een) handreiking(en) voor corporaties. In het voorjaar van 2013 zijn betrokkenen bij acht representatieve initiatieven in Nederland geinterviewd. De faal- en succesfactoren zijn omgezet in aanbevelingen voor nader uit te werken hulpmiddelen voor corporaties.

  11. solaR: Solar Radiation and Photovoltaic Systems with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Perpiñan Lamigueiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The solaR package allows for reproducible research both for photovoltaics (PV systems performance and solar radiation. It includes a set of classes, methods and functions to calculate the sun geometry and the solar radiation incident on a photovoltaic generator and to simulate the performance of several applications of the photovoltaic energy. This package performs the whole calculation procedure from both daily and intradaily global horizontal irradiation to the final productivity of grid-connected PV systems and water pumping PV systems.It is designed using a set of S4 classes whose core is a group of slots with multivariate time series. The classes share a variety of methods to access the information and several visualization methods. In addition, the package provides a tool for the visual statistical analysis of the performance of a large PV plant composed of several systems.Although solaR is primarily designed for time series associated to a location defined by its latitude/longitude values and the temperature and irradiation conditions, it can be easily combined with spatial packages for space-time analysis.

  12. Native Vegetation Performance under a Solar PV Array at the National Wind Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatty, Brenda [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Braus, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buckner, David [ESCO Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-16

    Construction activities at most large-scale ground installations of photovoltaic (PV) arrays are preceded by land clearing and re-grading to uniform slope and smooth surface conditions to facilitate convenient construction access and facility operations. The impact to original vegetation is usually total eradication followed by installation of a gravel cover kept clear of vegetation by use of herbicides. The degree to which that total loss can be mitigated by some form of revegetation is a subject in its infancy, and most vegetation studies at PV development sites only address weed control and the impact of tall plants on the efficiency of the solar collectors from shading.This study seeks to address this void, advancing the state of knowledge of how constructed PV arrays affect ground-level environments, and to what degree plant cover, having acceptable characteristics within engineering constraints, can be re-established.

  13. Are Feed-in Tariffs suitable for promoting solar PV in New Zealand cities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Lee V.; Lloyd, Bob; Wakes, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) implemented by city councils in the USA have proven an effective means of stimulating installation of renewable-electricity generation capacity at a local level, and may also be effective for New Zealand cities. Though New Zealand has a high proportion of electricity generated renewably, this is mostly from centralized hydroelectricity plants. The suitability of city-level FITs for promoting solar photovoltaic panels in New Zealand is examined. Findings suggest that FITs, with rates obtained using the cost-of-generation method, could be implemented in New Zealand cities at rates comparable to those in successful FIT schemes internationally. The unique structure of New Zealand's liberalized electricity market, however, is likely to make financing FIT schemes at city-level more complex than the equivalent situation in the USA. Benefits of introducing such schemes will include the possibility for purchasers of solar PV systems to calculate returns on investment over the long term, and the streamlining of the grid connection process by reducing the number of authorities involved. - Highlights: • Results pertain to New Zealand city councils implementing FITs. • FIT rates similar to those in other countries provide sufficient investor incentive. • FITs could greatly increase investor security and ease grid connection. • Electricity market structure precludes financing through burden-sharing

  14. Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Shukla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of Solar PV system at a given location. This study is done to evaluate the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar photovoltaic system for a residential Hostel building at MANIT, Bhopal, India (Latitude: 23° 16′ N, Longitude: 77° 36′ E. The study focuses on the use of Solargis PV Planner software as a tool to analyze the performance a 110 kWp solar photovoltaic rooftop plant and also compares the performances of different PV technologies based on simulated energy yield and performance ratio. Solargis proves to easy, fast, accurate and reliable software tool for the simulation of solar PV system.

  15. Uses Of Innovative Project Management Tools In The Establishment Of E-Centers Solar PV System Installation Project Without Electricity In Bangladesh A Case Study On Ingen Technology Limited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mohiuddin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Todays world is shaped by availability of Information and Communication Technology ICT. Government of Bangladesh declared a vision of Digital Bangladesh by 2021 to ensure services at peoples doorsteps. A total number of 4501 UISCs Union Information and Service Centers have been established at all Union Parishads of Bangladesh. UISCs are the e-Service delivery outlets which initiated a new era in information and service delivery for rural and marginalized people. With the aim to ensure services at citizens doorsteps UISCs are offering various government services like public examination results online university admission birth-death registration agricultural amp law consultancy telemedicine life insurance private services like mobile banking English learning computer training email internet browsing and so on. Now-a-days UISC is a local knowledge Centre. But there is no electricity in each Union Parishad of Bangladesh. in that case for establishment of e-Centre in Seven Divisions of Bangladesh at Unions without Electricity project needed to provide electricity in everywhere. Without Electricity we cant imagine it. Thats why Bangladesh Government decided to install the Solar PV system in different unions of Bangladesh division wise. This research aims to focus on the implementation of project management concepts in Establishment of e-Centre in Seven Divisions of Bangladesh at Unions without Electricity under Bangladesh Computer Council BCC. Around 1000 unions e-Centre has been brought under solar power which is total 1800 KW for Rural infrastructure development under digital Bangladesh program. The purpose of the study is to identify and explore the processes of the InGen Technology Limited to show how the company accomplishes a Successful Project by formulating it through project management tools. The study investigates measures and evaluates the total processes or activities of InGen Technology Limited in accomplishing and delivering successful

  16. LPV model for PV cell and fractional control of DC/DC converter for photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional modelling of a DC-DC converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. A new model for PV cells is proposed in order to obtain a linear equation for V-I characteristic via scheduling dependence of temperature and irradiance. Due to the fractional nature of the ultracapacitors this kind of controller gives a suitable and good performance. Peer Reviewed

  17. LPV model for PV cells and fractional control of DC/DC converter for photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez González, Rubén; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Martínez García, Herminio

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional modelling of a DC-DC converter, suitable in solar-powered electrical generation systems, and the design of a fractional controller for the aforementioned switching converter. A new model for PV cells is proposed in order to obtain a linear equation for VI characteristic via scheduling dependence of temperature and irradiance. Due to the fractional nature of the ultracapacitors this kind of controller gives a suitable and good performance. Peer Rev...

  18. PV Reconfiguration Systems: a Technical and Economic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruso M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical electrical array reconfiguration strategies for grid-connected PV systems have been proposed as solution to improve energy production due to the mismatch effect of PV plants during partial shading conditions. Strategies are based on the use of dynamic connections between PV panels given by the employment of switches that allow for each panel the series, parallel or exclusion connections, physically changing the electrical connections between the related PV modules, consequentially modifying the layout of the plant. Usually the cost of the dynamic matrix is not taken into account. This novel work evaluates the economic advantages obtained by the use of reconfiguration strategies in PV systems, by taking into consideration the price of energy due to incentives in different European and non-European countries and correlates it with the employment of two types of reconfigurators, with different internal structures. For each of the incentives proposed by the different Countries, the main strength and weakness points of the possible investment are highlighted and critically analyzed. From this analysis, it can be stated that the adoption of reconfiguration systems, in certain cases, can be a very convenient solution.

  19. A New Remote Communications Link to Reduce Residential PV Solar Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Randy [Operant Solar Corporation,CA (United States); Sugiyama, Rod [Operant Solar Corporation,CA (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Monitoring of PV/DER site production is expensive to install and unreliable. Among third party systems providers, lost communications links are a growing concern. Nearly 20% of links are failing, provisioning is complex, recovery is expensive, production data is lost, and access is fragmented. FleetLink is a new concept in DER system communications, purpose built for lowering the cost of maintaining active contact with residential end user sites and ensuring that production data is reliably available to third party systems providers. Systems providers require accurate, secure system monitoring and reporting of production data and system faults while driving down overall costs to compete effectively. This plug and play, independently operating communications solution lowers the cost of fleet contact from typically .08 dollars-$.12/W down to .02 dollars -.03/W including installation and maintenance expenses. FleetLink establishes a breakthrough in simplicity that facilitates rapid expansion of residential solar by reducing initial capital outlay and lowering installation labor time and skill levels. The solution also facilitates higher DER installation growth rates by driving down maintenance costs and eliminating communications trouble calls. This is accomplished by the FleetLink’s unique network technology that enables dynamic network configuration for fast changes, and active, self-healing DER site contact for uptime assurance. Using an open source network framework with proprietary, application specific enhancements, FleetLink independently manages connectivity, security, recovery, grid control communications, and fleet expansion while presenting a compliant SunSpec interface to the third party operations centers. The net system cost savings of at least .05 dollars/W supports the SunShot cost goals and the flexibility and scalability of the solution accelerates the velocity and ubiquitous adoption of solar.

  20. Large-area, high-intensity PV arrays for systems using dish concentrating optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, J.S.; Duda, A.; Zweibel, K.; Coutts, T.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, the authors report on efforts to fabricate monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs) using III-V semiconductors with bandgaps appropriate for the terrestrial solar spectrum. The small size of the component cells comprising the MIM allows for operation at extremely high flux densities and relaxes the requirement for a small spot size to be generated by the optics. This makes possible a PV option for the large dish concentrator systems that have been developed by the solar thermal community for use with Stirling engines. Additionally, the highly effective back-surface reflector integrated into the MIM design is an effective tool for thermal management of the array. Development of this technology would radically alter the projections for PV manufacturing capacity because of the potential for extremely high power generation per unit area of semiconductor material.

  1. Parallel experimental study of a novel super-thin thermal absorber based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T system against conventional photovoltaic (PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV semiconductor degrades in performance due to temperature rise. A super thin-conductive thermal absorber is therefore developed to regulate the PV working temperature by retrofitting the existing PV panel into the photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T panel. This article presented the parallel comparative investigation of the two different systems through both laboratory and field experiments. The laboratory evaluation consisted of one PV panel and one PV/T panel respectively while the overall field system involved 15 stand-alone PV panels and 15 retrofitted PV/T panels. The laboratory testing results demonstrated the PV/T panel could achieve the electrical efficiency of about 16.8% (relatively 5% improvement comparing with the stand-alone PV panel, and yield an extra amount of heat with thermal efficiency of nearly 65%. The field testing results indicated that the hybrid PV/T panel could enhance the electrical return of PV panels by nearly 3.5%, and increase the overall energy output by nearly 324.3%. Further opportunities and challenges were then discussed from aspects of different PV/T stakeholders to accelerate the development. It is expected that such technology could become a significant solution to yield more electricity, offset heating load freely and reduce carbon footprint in contemporary energy environment.

  2. World record of PV solar competitiveness: 2.6 cent per KWh in Dubai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielo, Olivier; Thouverez, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    A proposition of 2.99 cent per KWh of solar photovoltaic power has been made to the local electric power operator (DEWA) by a Saudi and Spanish venture, and DEWA is now to examine technical and commercial aspects to choose between this proposition and those made by a Chinese company (JinkoSolar), a Saudi and American venture, Engie and EDF. The author of this article outlines that such a competitive trend can be noticed in other countries (in the Emirates, in Mexico, in Peru, in the USA). The competitiveness record in Dubai is due to a low labour cost and to an optimal sunning. The author then discusses the fact that solar PV in France is now nearly as cheap as nuclear, and the main consequence of this trend: nuclear will never be competitive with respect to solar energy any longer. He finally evokes Wattway, the project of a solar road in France, and quotes various reactions and opinions about it

  3. An automated model for rooftop PV systems assessment in ArcGIS using LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesude Bayrakci Boz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As photovoltaic (PV systems have become less expensive, building rooftops have come to be attractive for local power production. Identifying rooftops suitable for solar energy systems over large geographic areas is needed for cities to obtain more accurate assessments of production potential and likely patterns of development. This paper presents a new method for extracting roof segments and locating suitable areas for PV systems using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR data and building footprints. Rooftop segments are created using seven slope (tilt, ve aspect (azimuth classes and 6 different building types. Moreover, direct beam shading caused by nearby objects and the surrounding terrain is taken into account on a monthly basis. Finally, the method is implemented as an ArcGIS model in ModelBuilder and a tool is created. In order to show its validity, the method is applied to city of Philadelphia, PA, USA with the criteria of slope, aspect, shading and area used to locate suitable areas for PV system installation. The results show that 33.7% of the buildings footprints areas and 48.6% of the rooftop segments identi ed is suitable for PV systems. Overall, this study provides a replicable model using commercial software that is capable of extracting individual roof segments with more detailed criteria across an urban area.

  4. Quantitative Analysis Method of Output Loss due to Restriction for Grid-connected PV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yuzuru; Oozeki, Takashi; Kurokawa, Kosuke; Itou, Takamitsu; Kitamura, Kiyoyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Yokota, Masaharu; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    Voltage of power distribution line will be increased due to reverse power flow from grid-connected PV systems. In the case of high density grid connection, amount of voltage increasing will be higher than the stand-alone grid connection system. To prevent the over voltage of power distribution line, PV system's output will be restricted if the voltage of power distribution line is close to the upper limit of the control range. Because of this interaction, amount of output loss will be larger in high density case. This research developed a quantitative analysis method for PV systems output and losses to clarify the behavior of grid connected PV systems. All the measured data are classified into the loss factors using 1 minute average of 1 second data instead of typical 1 hour average. Operation point on the I-V curve is estimated to quantify the loss due to the output restriction using module temperature, array output voltage, array output current and solar irradiance. As a result, loss due to output restriction is successfully quantified and behavior of output restriction is clarified.

  5. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  6. Research on PV system application on residences. Part 1. Report on the systems and PV measurement results of an experimental passive solar house; Taiyoko hatsuden system no jutaku eno oyo ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Taisho tatemono taiyo to taiyoko hatsuden system keisoku kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O.; Sakai, K.; Hirakawa, M. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    System of the house is outlined, and warming performance and photovoltaic power generation system energy performance are taken up. It is a one-storied meeting hall situated in an apartment area, whose heat loss factor is 2.59kcal/m2hdegC. Ninety hybrid solar cells provided with circulating air heat collectors are installed on the east-side of the roof, interconnected to the commercial power system. In the daytime in summer, the house is fully insulated from solar radiation, with the room temperature kept a little lower than the open air temperature. The range of daily change in the room temperature is narrow, providing a comfortable residential space. When the windows are opened in the evening, cool air comes into the room to replace the warm air inside, reducing the difference in temperature between the inside and outside of the room. In winter, insolation time is short on the east side of the roof which finds itself out of the sun. Under the circumstances, the system outputs but a little and the quantity sold is quite small in winter. But, in summer, sale of power can be practicable, thanks to exposure to sufficient sunshine. The inverter rated at 3.5kW attains a 90% or higher operating rate in the presence of an input of power of 0.5kW or more. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Optimal policy of energy innovation in developing countries: Development of solar PV in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiei, Ehsan; Saboohi, Yadollah; Ghofrani, Mohammad B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply managerial economics and methods of decision analysis to study the optimal pattern of innovation activities for development of new energy technologies in developing countries. For this purpose, a model of energy research and development (R and D) planning is developed and it is then linked to a bottom-up energy-systems model. The set of interlinked models provide a comprehensive analytical tool for assessment of energy technologies and innovation planning taking into account the specific conditions of developing countries. An energy-system model is used as a tool for the assessment and prioritization of new energy technologies. Based on the results of the technology assessment model, the optimal R and D resources allocation for new energy technologies is estimated with the help of the R and D planning model. The R and D planning model is based on maximization of the total net present value of resulting R and D benefits taking into account the dynamics of technological progress, knowledge and experience spillovers from advanced economies, technology adoption and R and D constraints. Application of the set of interlinked models is explained through the analysis of the development of solar PV in Iranian electricity supply system and then some important policy insights are concluded

  8. PV Solar Electricity: From a Niche Market to One of the Most Important Mainstream Markets for Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, W.; Waldmann, L.

    PV solar electricity is seen as one of the few booming markets, today and in the coming decades. This market has grown globally at a rate of about 40% per year over the past 10 years. Related industries have realized a two-digit, billion-dollar (U.S.) turnover worldwide. PV solar electricity is a high-tech industry with high performance potential in the coming decades, leaving even the electronics industries behind and approaching the automotive industry.

  9. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  10. Solar Photovoltaic DC Systems: Basics and Safety: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNutt, Peter F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sekulic, William R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dreifuerst, Gary [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - retired

    2018-04-02

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems are common and growing with 42.4 GW installed capacity in U.S. (almost 15 GW added in 2016). This paper will help electrical workers, and emergency responders understand the basic operating principles and hazards of PV DC arrays. We briefly discuss the following aspects of solar photovoltaic (PV) DC systems: the effects of solar radiation and temperature on output power; PV module testing standards; common system configurations; a simple PV array sizing example; NEC guidelines and other safety features; DC array commissioning, periodic maintenance and testing; arc-flash hazard potential; how electrical workers and emergency responders can and do work safely around PV arrays; do moonlight and artificial lighting pose a real danger; typical safe operating procedures; and other potential DC-system hazards to be aware of. We also present some statistics on PV DC array electrical incidents and injuries. Safe PV array operation is possible with a good understanding of PV DC arrays basics and having good safe operating procedures in place.

  11. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject...... the power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  12. Droop Control of Solar PV, Grid and Critical Load using Suppressing DC Current Injection Technique without Battery Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dama Mr., Jayachandra; (Mrs. , Lini Mathew, Dr.; Srikanth Mr., G.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents design of a sustainable solar Photo voltaic system for an Indian cities based residential/community house, integrated with grid, supporting it as supplementary sources, to meet energy demand of domestic loads. The role of renewable energy sources in Distributed Generation (DG) is increasingly being recognized as a supplement and an alternative to large conventional central power supply. Though centralized economic system that solely depends on cities is hampered due to energy deficiency, the use of solar energy in cities is never been tried widely due to technical inconvenience and high installation cost. To mitigate these problems, this paper proposes an optimized design of grid-tied PV system without storage which is suitable for Indian origin as it requires less installallation cost and supplies residential loads when the grid power is unavailable. The energy requirement is mainly fulfilled from PV energy module for critical load of a city located residential house and supplemented by grid/DG for base and peak load. The system has been developed for maximum daily household demand of 50kWp and can be scaled to any higher value as per requirement of individual/community building ranging from 50kWp to 60kWp as per the requirement. A simplified control system model has been developed to optimize and control flow of power from these sources. The simulation work, using MATLAB Simulink software for proposed energy management, has resulted in an optimal yield leading efficient power flow control of proposed system.

  13. Prioritized rule based load management technique for residential building powered by PV/battery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Ayodele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Solar Photovoltaic (PV system has presented itself as one of the main solutions to the electricity poverty plaguing the majority of buildings in rural communities with solar energy potential. However, the stochasticity associated with solar PV power output owing to vagaries in weather conditions is a major challenge in the deployment of the systems. This study investigates approach for maximizing the benefits of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-Battery (SAPVB system via techniques that provide for optimum energy gleaning and management. A rule-based load management scheme is developed and tested for a residential building. The approach allows load prioritizing and shifting based on certain rules. To achieve this, the residential loads are classified into Critical Loads (CLs and Uncritical Loads (ULs. The CLs are given higher priority and therefore are allowed to operate at their scheduled time while the ULs are of less priority, hence can be shifted to a time where there is enough electric power generation from the PV arrays rather than the loads being operated at the time period set by the user. Four scenarios were created to give insight into the applicability of the proposed rule based load management scheme. The result revealed that when the load management technique is not utilized as in the case of scenario 1 (Base case, the percentage satisfaction of the critical and uncritical loads by the PV system are 49.8% and 23.7%. However with the implementation of the load management scheme in scenarios 2, 3 and 4, the percentage satisfaction of the loads (CLs, ULs are (93.8%, 74.2%, (90.9%, 70.1% and (87.2%, 65.4% for scenarios 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  14. A New Energy Management Technique for PV/Wind/Grid Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozdal Mengi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent energy management system (IEMS for maintaining the energy sustainability in renewable energy systems (RES is introduced here. It consists of wind and photovoltaic (PV solar panels are established and used to test the proposed IEMS. Since the wind and solar sources are not reliable in terms of sustainability and power quality, a management system is required for supplying the load power demand. The power generated by RES is collected on a common DC bus as a renewable green power pool to be used for supplying power to loads. The renewable DC power bus is operated in a way that there is always a base power available for permanent loads. Then the additional power requirement is supplied from either wind or PV or both depending upon the availability of these power sources. The decision about operating these systems is given by an IEMS with fuzzy logic decision maker proposed in this study. Using the generated and required power information from the wind/PV and load sides, the fuzzy reasoning based IEMS determines the amount of power to be supplied from each or both sources. Besides, the IEMS tracks the maximum power operating point of the wind energy system.

  15. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty. A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeng, George Yaw [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasei (Ghana). Technology Consultancy Centre; Evers, Hans-Dieter [Center for Development Research (Bonn University) ZEF, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Political and Cultural Change

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and other aspects of solar PV rural electrification are discussed. The paper illustrates the intersectoral linkages of solar PV electrification and indicators on education, health, information acquisition, agriculture and micro-enterprises. It also reviews sustainability related issues including costs and market barriers, subsidies, stakeholders involvement, political and policy implications, which are critical factors for sustainable market development of solar PV and other renewables. Finally, a common framework is developed to provide a basic understanding of how solar PV electrification impacts on energy-poverty. This framework provides a structure of the interrelated concepts and principles relevant to the issues under review. (orig.)

  16. Push-pull with recovery stage high-voltage DC converter for PV solar generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The Vinh; Aillerie, Michel; Petit, Pierre; Pham, Hong Thang; Vo, Thành Vinh

    2017-02-01

    A lot of systems are basically developed on DC-DC or DC-AC converters including electronic switches such as MOS or bipolar transistors. The limits of efficiency are quickly reached when high output voltages and high input currents are needed. This work presents a new high-efficiency-high-step-up based on push-pull DC-DC converter integrating recovery stages dedicated to smart HVDC distributed architecture in PV solar energy production systems. Appropriate duty cycle ratio assumes that the recovery stage work with parallel charge and discharge to achieve high step-up voltage gain. Besides, the voltage stress on the main switch is reduced with a passive clamp circuit and thus, low on-state resistance Rdson of the main switch can be adopted to reduce conduction losses. Thus, the efficiency of a basic DC-HVDC converter dedicated to renewable energy production can be further improved with such topology. A prototype converter is developed, and experimentally tested for validation.

  17. Towards a CEmark for PV building integrated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jol, J.C.; Bloem, J.J.; Cross, B.M.; Sandberg, M.; Wambach, K.; Wiesner, W.; Zolingen, van R.J.Ch.; Schalkwijk, van M.

    2000-01-01

    The European projects Prescript and Precede aim to pave the way for the development of a procedure to obtain a CE mark for building integrated PV. Prescript has carried out a survey of national building standards and performaed a series of tests on BIPV systems. Prescript has resulted in a proposal

  18. PV led engine characterization lab for standalone light to light systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Lindén, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    PV-powered lighting systems, light-to-light systems (L2L), offer outdoor lighting where it is else where cumbersome to enable lighting. Application of these systems at high latitudes, where the difference in day length between summer and winter is large and the solar energy is low requires smart...... dimming functions for reliable lighting. In this work we have built a laboratory to characterize these systems up to 200 Wp from “nose to tail” in great details to support improvement of the systems and to make accurate field performance predictions....

  19. The Private Net Benefits of Residential Solar PV: The Role of Electricity Tariffs, Tax Incentives and Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein

    2015-01-01

    With dramatic declines in the cost of solar PV technology over the last 5 years, the electricity industry is in the midst of discussions about whether to use this low-polluting renewable energy source in grid-scale generation or in distributed generation (DG), mostly with rooftop solar PV. California has led the growth in DG solar in the U.S. I use 2007 to early 2014 residential data from Pacific Gas & Electric – the utility with largest number of residential solar customers in the U.S. – to ...

  20. The PV LED Engine - a new generation of intelligent solar powered LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    parameters are ltered mathematical by the optical properties of the materials in front of the solar panel and assumptions about the soiling parameters. Lab measurements of solar cells/panels underdierent lighting conditions (spectrally and intensity) makes it possible to simulate performance of realsolar...... projectat design and simulation tool for small PV applications for the urban environment is developed. The tool is advanced in its calculations on the solar irradiation parameters being very dierent in the urban environment compared to roof top applications both spectrally and in intensity variations...... panels of different technologies in the addressed environment since detailed electrical characteristicsis known by the measurements. Optical parameters for the protection layer (in front of the solar panel)are put into a material library so the optimal choice can be made for a given application...

  1. Solar Community Organizations and active peer effects in the adoption of residential PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, Daniel; Dawes, Colleen; Rai, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) are formal or informal organizations and citizen groups that help to reduce the barriers to the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by (1) providing access to credible and transparent information about the localized benefits of residential PV and (2) actively campaigning to encourage adoption within their operational boundaries. We study the peer effect, or social interaction, process catalyzed by SCOs to understand the impact of these organizations on the residential PV market. Using a standardized search methodology across spatial scales (state; city; neighborhoods), we identify and characterize the operations of 228 SCOs formed in the U.S. between 1970 and 2012. We also present case studies of four successful SCOs and find that a common thread of why these SCOs are successful involves effectively leveraging trusted community networks combined with putting together a complete information and financial-tools package for use by interested communities. Finally, our findings suggest that empirical studies that attempt statistical identification and estimation of peer effects should pay close attention to the role of SCOs, as the social interactions engendered by SCOs may be correlated both with the level of social learning and the socio-demographic characteristics of the communities of interest. - Highlights: • New dataset on Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) in the U.S. during 1970–2012. • Shock events catalyze formation of SCOs. • SCOs-driven peer effects found to positively impact PV adoption. • Leveraging trust networks is crucial for the success of SCOs. • In addition to information provision, financing options also key for SCOs' success

  2. Detailed performance analysis of realistic solar photovoltaic systems at extensive climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Ankit; Chauhan, Yogesh K.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, solar energy has been considered as one of the principle renewable energy source for electric power generation. In this paper, single diode photovoltaic (PV) system and double/bypass diode based PV system are designed in MATLAB/Simulink environment based on their mathematical modeling and are validated with a commercially available solar panel. The novelty of the paper is to include the effect of climatic conditions i.e. variable irradiation level, wind speed, temperature, humidity level and dust accumulation in the modeling of both the PV systems to represent a realistic PV system. The comprehensive investigations are made on both the modeled PV systems. The obtained results show the satisfactory performance for realistic models of the PV system. Furthermore, an in depth comparative analysis is carried out for both PV systems. - Highlights: • Modeling of Single diode and Double diode PV systems in MATLAB/Simulink software. • Validation of designed PV systems with a commercially available PV panel. • Acquisition and employment of key climatic factors in modeling of the PV systems. • Evaluation of main model parameters of both the PV systems. • Detailed comparative assessment of both the modeled PV system parameters.

  3. Parameters affecting the life cycle performance of PV technologies and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacca, Sergio; Sivaraman, Deepak; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses modeling parameters that affect the environmental performance of two state-of-the-art photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies: the PVL136 thin film laminates and the KC120 multi-crystalline modules. We selected three metrics to assess the modules' environmental performance, which are part of an actual 33 kW installation in Ann Arbor, MI. The net energy ratio (NER), the energy pay back time (E-PBT), and the CO 2 emissions are calculated using process based LCA methods. The results reveal some of the parameters, such as the level of solar radiation, the position of the modules, the modules' manufacturing energy intensity and its corresponding fuel mix, and the solar radiation conversion efficiency of the modules, which affect the final analytical results. A sensitivity analysis shows the effect of selected parameters on the final results. For the baseline scenario, the E-PBT for the PVL136 and KC120 are 3.2 and 7.5 years, respectively. When expected future conversion efficiencies are tested, the E-PBT is 1.6 and 5.7 years for the PVL136 and the KC120, respectively. Based on the US fuel mix, the CO 2 emissions for the PVL136 and the KC120 are 34.3 and 72.4 g of CO 2 /kW h, respectively. The most effective way to improve the modules' environmental performance is to reduce the energy input in the manufacturing phase of the modules, provided that other parameters remain constant. Consequently, the use of PV as an electricity source during PV manufacturing is also assessed. The NER of the supplier PV is key for the performance of this scheme. The results show that the NER based on a PV system can be 3.7 times higher than the NER based on electricity supplied by the traditional grid mix, and the CO 2 emissions can be reduced by 80%

  4. Design of A Grid Integrated PV System with MPPT Control and Voltage Oriented Controller using MATLAB/PLECES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreng, Bineeta; Behera, Pradyumna; Pradhan, Raseswari

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents model of a grid-integrated photovoltaic array with Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) and voltage oriented controller. The MPPT of the PV array is usually an essential part of PV system as MPPT helps the operating point of the solar array to align its maximum power point. In this model, the MPPT along with a DC-DC converter lets a PV generator to produce continuous power, despite of the measurement conditions. The neutral-point-clamped converter (NPC) with a boost converter raises the voltage from the panels to the DC-link. An LCL-filter smoothens the current ripple caused by the PWM modulation of the grid-side inverter. In addition to the MPPT, the system has two more two controllers, such as voltage controller and a current controller. The voltage control has a PI controller to regulate the PV voltage to optimal level by controlling the amount of current injected into the boost stage. Here, the grid-side converter transfers the power from the DC-link into the grid and maintains the DC-link voltage. Three-phase PV inverters are used for off-grid or designed to create utility frequency AC. The PV system can be connected in series or parallel to get the desired output power. To justify the working of this model, the grid-integrated PV system has been designed in MATLAB/PLECS. The simulation shows the P-V curve of implemented PV Array consisting 4 X 20 modules, reactive, real power, grid voltage and current.

  5. Optimization of self-consumption and techno-economic analysis of PV-battery systems in commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merei, Ghada; Moshövel, Janina; Magnor, Dirk; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of self-consumption and the degree of self-sufficiency in commercial applications. • Technical and economic analyses for a PV-battery system. • Sensitivity analysis considering different sizes and prices of PV and battery systems. • Investigation of batteries to increase self-consumption today is not economic in the considered applications. - Abstract: Increasing costs of electricity supply from the local grid, the decreasing photovoltaic (PV) technology costs and the decreasing PV feed-in-tariff according to the current German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) will in the future raise the monetary incentives to increase the self-consumption of PV energy. This is of great interest in commercial buildings as there mostly is sufficient place to install high capacities of photovoltaic panels on their own roofs. Furthermore, the electricity purchase price from the local grid for commercial consumers nowadays is about 20 €ct/kW h, which is higher than the cost of generation of electricity from solar panels (about 8–12 €ct/kW h). Additionally, the load profiles in commercial applications have a high correlation with the generated solar energy. Hence, there is a great opportunity for economic savings. This paper presents optimization results with respect to self-consumption and degree of self-sufficiency for a supermarket in Aachen, Germany. The optimization is achieved using real measurement data of load profile and solar radiation. Besides, techno-economic analyses and sensitivity analyses have been carried out to demonstrate the influence of different PV system sizes, PV system costs and interest rates. Moreover, to raise self-consumption different battery sizes with different battery system costs have been investigated and analysed for 2015 and 2025 scenarios as well. The results show that the installation of a PV system can reduce the electricity costs through self-consumption of self-generated PV energy. Also, applying

  6. Electrical Rating of Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) Systems: Long-Term Performance Analysis and Comparison to Conventional PV Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-02-29

    The dynamic nature of meteorological data and the commercial availability of diverse photovoltaic systems, ranging from single-junction silicon-based PV panels to concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems utilizing multi-junction solar cells and a two-axis solar tracker, demand a simple but accurate methodology for energy planners and PV system designers to understand the economic feasibility of photovoltaic or renewable energy systems. In this paper, an electrical rating methodology is proposed that provides a common playing field for planners, consumers and PV manufacturers to evaluate the long-term performance of photovoltaic systems, as long-term electricity rating is deemed to be a quick and accurate method to evaluate economic viability and determine plant sizes and photovoltaic system power production. A long-term performance analysis based on monthly and electrical ratings (in kWh/m2/year) of two developed CPV prototypes, the Cassegrain mini dish and Fresnel lens CPVs with triple-junction solar cells operating under the meteorological conditions of Singapore, is presented in this paper. Performances are compared to other conventional photovoltaic systems.

  7. Solar thermophotovoltaic system using nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungaro, Craig; Gray, Stephen K; Gupta, Mool C

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents results on a highly efficient experimental solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system using simulated solar energy. An overall power conversion efficiency of 6.2% was recorded under solar simulation. This was matched with a thermodynamic model, and the losses within the system, as well as a path forward to mitigate these losses, have been investigated. The system consists of a planar, tungsten absorbing/emitting structure with an anti-reflection layer coated laser-microtextured absorbing surface and single-layer dielectric coated emitting surface. A GaSb PV cell was used to capture the emitted radiation and convert it into electrical energy. This simple structure is both easy to fabricate and temperature stable, and contains no moving parts or heat exchange fluids.

  8. Integration of Behind-the-Meter PV Fleet Forecasts into Utility Grid System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Thomas Hoff [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States); Kankiewicz, Adam [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Four major research objectives were completed over the course of this study. Three of the objectives were to evaluate three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models. The fourth objective was to improve the California Independent System Operator’s (ISO) load forecasts by integrating behind-the-meter (BTM) PV forecasts. The three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models included: the infrared (IR) satellite-based cloud motion vector (CMV) model; the WRF-SolarCA model and variants; and the Optimized Deep Machine Learning (ODML)-training model. The first two forecasting models targeted known weaknesses in current operational solar forecasts. They were benchmarked against existing operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts, visible satellite CMV forecasts, and measured PV plant power production. IR CMV, WRF-SolarCA, and ODML-training forecasting models all improved the forecast to a significant degree. Improvements varied depending on time of day, cloudiness index, and geographic location. The fourth objective was to demonstrate that the California ISO’s load forecasts could be improved by integrating BTM PV forecasts. This objective represented the project’s most exciting and applicable gains. Operational BTM forecasts consisting of 200,000+ individual rooftop PV forecasts were delivered into the California ISO’s real-time automated load forecasting (ALFS) environment. They were then evaluated side-by-side with operational load forecasts with no BTM-treatment. Overall, ALFS-BTM day-ahead (DA) forecasts performed better than baseline ALFS forecasts when compared to actual load data. Specifically, ALFS-BTM DA forecasts were observed to have the largest reduction of error during the afternoon on cloudy days. Shorter term 30 minute-ahead ALFS-BTM forecasts were shown to have less error under all sky conditions, especially during the morning time periods when traditional load forecasts often experience their largest

  9. R and D into stand-alone PV systems for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The current status of photovoltaic (PV) technology is reviewed for systems to provide electricity where mains supplies are unavailable, known as stand-alone PV systems. Typical applications and experiences with installed stand-alone systems are described. Economic issues and barriers to the wide use of PV systems are also examined. (UK)

  10. Effects of Platform Design on the Customer Experience in an Online Solar PV Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Leibowicz, Benjamin [The University of Texas at Austin; Punjabi, Kunal [The University of Texas at Austin

    2018-05-09

    We analyze a unique dataset of residential solar PV quotes offered in an online marketplace to understand how platform design changes affect customer outcomes. Three of the four design changes are associated with statistically significant and robust reductions in offer prices, though none of the policies were designed explicitly to reduce prices. The results suggest that even small changes in how prospective solar PV customers interact with installers can affect customer outcomes such as prices. Specifically, the four changes we evaluate are: 1) a customer map that shows potential new EnergySage registrants the locations of nearby customers; 2) a quote cap that precludes more than seven installers from bidding on any one customer; 3) a price guidance feature that informs installers about competitive prices in the customer's market before they submit quotes; and 4) no pre-quote messaging to prohibit installers from contacting customers prior to offering quotes. We calculate descriptive statistics to investigate whether each design change accomplished its specific objectives. Then, we econometrically evaluate the impacts of the design changes on PV quote prices and purchase prices using a regression discontinuity approach.

  11. The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

  12. Real-time POD-CFD Wind-Load Calculator for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huayamave, Victor [Centecorp; Divo, Eduardo [Centecorp; Ceballos, Andres [Centecorp; Barriento, Carolina [Centecorp; Stephen, Barkaszi [FSEC; Hubert, Seigneur [FSEC

    2014-03-21

    The primary objective of this project is to create an accurate web-based real-time wind-load calculator. This is of paramount importance for (1) the rapid and accurate assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, (2) identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of mounting hardware and installation. Wind loading calculations for structures are currently performed according to the American Society of Civil Engineers/ Structural Engineering Institute Standard ASCE/SEI 7; the values in this standard were calculated from simplified models that do not necessarily take into account relevant characteristics such as those from full 3D effects, end effects, turbulence generation and dissipation, as well as minor effects derived from shear forces on installation brackets and other accessories. This standard does not include provisions that address the special requirements of rooftop PV systems, and attempts to apply this standard may lead to significant design errors as wind loads are incorrectly estimated. Therefore, an accurate calculator would be of paramount importance for the preliminary assessments of the uplift and downforce loads on a PV mounting system, identifying viable solutions from available mounting systems, and therefore helping reduce the cost of the mounting system and installation. The challenge is that although a full-fledged three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis would properly and accurately capture the complete physical effects of air flow over PV systems, it would be impractical for this tool, which is intended to be a real-time web-based calculator. CFD routinely requires enormous computation times to arrive at solutions that can be deemed accurate and grid-independent even in powerful and massively parallel computer platforms. This work is expected not only to accelerate solar deployment nationwide, but also help reach the SunShot Initiative goals

  13. Study on an optimum ratio of PV output energy to WG output energy in PV/WG hybrid system; Taiyoko/furyoku hybrid hatsuden system no saiteki yoryohi ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, S [Kandenko Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A photovoltaic power (PV) and wind generated power (WG) are an unlimited clean energy source, yet their output is unstable depending on the fluctuation of weather conditions such as solar radiation and wind velocity. Consequently, a large-scale power storage equipment is necessitated leading to a high cost especially in an independent system. As a solution, a method is available in which PV and WG are combined so that the effect may be utilized for stabilizing the output of a system as a whole, at a site where a fluctuation pattern is different between photovoltaic energy and wind energy. In building a hybrid system by PV and WG, sites with such supplementary effect existing were selected from the viewpoint of stabilizing the fluctuation of the power generation in the long run; and then, an examination was made on the optimum PV capacity ratio (%Ppo) in each site. As a result, it revealed that the %Ppo had great bearing on a ratio of PV energy fluctuation to WG, which was converted to a numerical formula. A comparatively simple examination by means of meteorological data also indicated that the share ratio was possibly optimized between the quantities of PV and WG energy. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The development and commercialization of solar PV technology in the oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkse, Jonatan; Buuse, Daniel van den

    2012-01-01

    In diversifying energy supply, the transformation of the energy industry has been identified as a key challenge for a sustainable energy future. This suggests that incumbent firms in this industry have a vital role in the development and commercialization process of renewable energy technologies. This paper provides a comparative analysis of oil and gas firms’ strategies regarding solar PV technology investments, a renewable energy technology that has seen explosive growth of late. The main aim is to examine the strategic approach of incumbent firms in the oil and gas industry towards the development and commercialization of solar PV technology. To investigate this, a multiple case study has been conducted within the European oil industry, focusing on the three largest oil and gas firms: BP, Royal Dutch/Shell, and Total. Findings show that oil and gas firms have difficulties with integrating solar PV technology in their supply chain. The analysis suggests that it is uncertain whether all oil and gas firms will abandon solar completely, as this depends to what extent they are able to generate profits. Nevertheless, there is currently a trend in the oil industry of leaving solar and positioning towards a ‘recarbonization’ of business activities. - Research Highlights: ► Oil and gas incumbents have experienced difficulties in integrating solar technology in their supply chain and therefore established fairly independent business units, serving niche markets outside mainstream markets for oil and gas. ► It is uncertain whether all oil and gas firms will abandon solar completely, as it depends to what extent they are able to generate profits with these activities. ► The competitive strain and increased turbulence in the oil industry have led to erratic investment behavior of oil firms and, as a consequence, renewable energy projects in which incumbents are engaged are often cancelled for reasons which have nothing to do with the market viability of renewable

  15. On-Grid Solar PV versus Diesel Electricity Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Economics and GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Baurzhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many power utilities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have inadequate generation capacity, unreliable services, and high costs. They also face capital constraints that restrict them from making the investments necessary for capacity expansion. Capacity shortages have compelled power utilities to use leased emergency power-generating units, mainly oil-fired diesel generators, as a short-term solution. An economic analysis is carried out to compare the economic net present value (ENPV of fuel savings, as well as the greenhouse gas (GHG savings, from investing capital in a solar PV power-generation plant with those from investing the same amount of funds into a diesel power plant. The results show that ENPV is negative for the solar PV plant, whereas it has a large positive value for the diesel plant. In addition, the diesel plant would be almost three times as effective in reducing GHG emissions as the same value of investment in the solar PV plant. Even with solar investment costs falling, it will take 12 to 24 years of continuous decline before solar PV becomes cost-effective for SSA. The capital cost of solar PV would need to drop to US$1058.4 per kW to yield the same level of ENPV as the diesel plant.

  16. Development of integrated CAD system PV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Ogawa, Kazuya; Shibata, Masayoshi.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated CAD system for pressure vessels, such as heat exchangers, drums, towers, jacketed vessels, and tanks, has been developed. The system is operated by MS-DOS personal computers combined in a LAN. Pressure vessel designers can work watching using the computer display because the system automatically manages design work, on a common data base. The project team members in other sections, such as production, cost control, and design, have the same data concurrently. Personal computers unite the 3D CAD system, and the generated design with detail dimensions and shapes is stored in the 3D CAD system automatically. The system has promoted higher design quality and greatly reduced design cost. (author)

  17. Role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of regional solar PV energy markets : Contrasting developments in Gujarat and West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolly, Suyash

    2017-01-01

    With political initiatives, such as the National Solar Mission by Government of India, rapid development of grid connected solar PV energy in India has occurred in the recent times. However, an interesting puzzle is with respect to significant regional differences in Indian states despite similar

  18. A Fuzzy-Based PI Controller for Power Management of a Grid-Connected PV-SOFC Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivashankar Sukumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar power generation is intermittent in nature. It is nearly impossible for a photovoltaic (PV system to supply power continuously and consistently to a varying load. Operating a controllable source like a fuel cell in parallel with PV can be a solution to supply power to variable loads. In order to coordinate the power supply from fuel cells and PVs, a power management system needs to be designed for the microgrid system. This paper presents a power management system for a grid-connected PV and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, considering variation in the load and solar radiation. The objective of the proposed system is to minimize the power drawn from the grid and operate the SOFC within a specific power range. Since the PV is operated at the maximum power point, the power management involves the control of SOFC active power where a proportional and integral (PI controller is used. The control parameters of the PI controller Kp (proportional constant and Ti (integral time constant are determined by the genetic algorithm (GA and simplex method. In addition, a fuzzy logic controller is also developed to generate appropriate control parameters for the PI controller. The performance of the controllers is evaluated by minimizing the integral of time multiplied by absolute error (ITAE criterion. Simulation results showed that the fuzzy-based PI controller outperforms the PI controller tuned by the GA and simplex method in managing the power from the hybrid source effectively under variations of load and solar radiation.

  19. Exemplar PV system for test and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report describes the construction of Reference Photovoltaic System for Test and Development at University of Southampton between April 1995 and June 2000, which subsequently became known as the STaR Facility. (author)

  20. 60 kW{sub p} PV-system school centre Spalterhals Barsinghausen. Synergies in energetical retrofit of school building; 60-kW{sub p}-PV-Anlage Schulzentrum Spalterhals Barsinghausen. Synergien bei der energetischen Sanierung eines Schulgebaeudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenscheit, R.; Hettwer, C. [Stadt Barsinghausen (Germany); Diestelmeier, C.; Wiegmann, A. [Raumplan, Hannover (Germany); Decker, B.; Hennig, C.; Mack, M. [Solar Engineering Decker and Mack GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The completely building-integrated PV plant with a nominal power of 60.54 kW{sub p} uses synergies with constructional and energetical retrofit of a school building. The PV plant is operated by the town of Barsinghausen (30 km southwest of Hannover). The federal state of Lower Saxony gave a grant of 36,61%, the Hannover region of 12,39% to the total investment of 824.190 Euro (incl. building construction). The PV plant is divided into five units. PV modules serve as the curtain wall of heat-insulated building core (blue PV cold facade: 12.67 kW{sub p}, grey PV breastwork: 8,38 kW{sub p}). Semitransparent PV modules substitute the insulating glass shed lights of a music room (4,28 kW{sub p}) and the glass roofing of an inner court (12,17 kW{sub p} - all modules: Solarnova) giving an optimum of sun-shading and daylighting. Thin-film PV modules on plastic foils (23,04 kW{sub p} - Alwitra EVALON Solar, Unisolar amorphous Si cells) are tested as flat roof standard retrofit. The PV system has 29 string inverters mostly of SMA Sunny Boy family mounted near to the PV modules in operational rooms or in crawling cellars. The PV operator gets a reimbursement of 0,481 Euro per kWh PV energy according to EEG. The PV system is monitored in detail within 'Solaroffensive' of Lower Saxony. Visualization tableaus inform the public about actual irradiance, actual power and annual energy. (orig.) [German] Schulgebaeude und insbesondere grosse Schulzentren aus den 70er Jahren haben geeignete Dachflaechen zur Errichtung von grossen PV-Anlagen (typisch >1.000 m{sup 2}). Zugleich sind Schulen ein idealer Ort, um vor breitem Publikum (Schueler, Lehrer, Eltern) Planung, Installation und Betrieb einer PV-Anlage zu demonstrieren. In Barsinghausen, am Fusse des Deisters etwa 30 km suedwestlich von Hannover, entstand zwischen August 2001 und Maerz 2003 eine innovative PV-Modellanlage am Schulzentrum 'Am Spalterhals', die verschiedene Arten der PV-Gebaeudeintegration erprobt

  1. Power-system-wide analysis of the benefits of reserve provision from solar photovoltaics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available . However, South Africa has abundant solar resources and has seen a dramatic decline in solar PV tariffs over the past few years. The value of reserve provision to the system from solar PV was determined by simulating the South African power system...

  2. Systems-based modeling of generation variability under alternate geographic configurations of photovoltaic (PV) installations in Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Ross D.; Crowther, Kenneth G.

    2011-01-01

    With increased focus on renewable energy in our modern era, it is increasingly important to understand the impact of policies on the performance and reliability of regional energy systems. This research develops a model to understand how geographic dispersion of PV installations impacts the reliability of electricity generated from the total PV network, measured by the variance of the distribution of generated electricity. Using NREL data, beta probability distributions of sunlight (kWh/m 2 /day) in various regions of Virginia are estimated using a fitting method that minimizes the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test statistic. A Monte Carlo simulation model is developed to measure PV electricity generation from multiple centralized and dispersed configurations over 100,000 days of probabilistic sunlight. There is a calculable tradeoff between average generation and generation variability, and increased geographic dispersion of PV installations can decrease this variability. Controlling variable generation through policies that promote efficient PV siting can help provide reliable power, minimizing the need for load-balancing peaking power infrastructure and costly electricity purchases from the grid. Using a tradeoff framework of generation and costs, this paper shows that geographically dispersed generation can mitigate the risk of unreliable solar generation that can significantly impact the end-user costs and make PV infrastructure unattractive. - Highlights: → We model how uncertain sunlight affects generation of different PV systems. → We show that geographically dispersed systems decrease generation variability. → Geographically dispersed PV systems are potentially more costly in the short run. → Controlling variability provides reliable power, which can decrease long-run costs. → Promoting mixes of uncertain energy sources requires assessment of these tradeoffs.

  3. Modeling and optimization of batteryless hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems for off-grid applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuanyo, David; Azoumah, Yao; Aussel, Didier; Neveu, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new model and optimization procedure for off-grid hybrid PV (photovoltaic)/Diesel systems operating without battery storage. The proposed technico-economic model takes into account the variability of both the solar irradiation and the electrical loads. It allows optimizing the design and the operation of the hybrid systems by searching their lowest LCOE (Levelized Cost of Electricity). Two cases have been investigated: identical Diesel generators and Diesel generators with different sizes, and both are compared to conventional standalone Diesel generator systems. For the same load profile, the optimization results show that the LCOE of the optimized batteryless hybrid solar PV/Diesel (0.289 €/kWh for the hybrid system with identical Diesel generators and 0.284 €/kWh for the hybrid system with different sizes of Diesel generators) is lower than the LCOE obtained with standalone Diesel generators (0.32 €/kWh for the both cases). The obtained results are then confirmed by HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables) software. - Highlights: • A technico-economic model for optimal design and operation management of batteryless hybrid systems is developed. • The model allows optimizing design and operation of hybrid systems by ensuring their lowest LCOE. • The model was validated by HOMER. • Batteryless hybrid system are suitable for off-grid applications

  4. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianze; Lu Hengwei; Jiang Chuan; Hou Luan; Zhang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  5. Design and assessment of solar PV plant for girls hostel (GARGI of MNIT University, Jaipur city: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Khatri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper designing and assessment of a solar PV plant for meeting the energy demand of girl’s hostel at MNIT University Jaipur city was analyzed. A solar PV plant was designed with its financial and environmental assessment considering recent market prices. All the aspects related to a solar PV plant were considered for financial feasibility of PV plant near this location. The different financial parameters which affect the financial feasibility of PV plant were considered i.e. discount rate, effective discount rate, rate of escalation of electricity cost, salvage value of the plant etc. The environmental aspect related with the energy generated with PV plant i.e. reduction in carbon emission and carbon credits earned was also considered. Result obtained with the assessment of the proposed plant with different discount rate and current rate of inflation shows that the max IRR 6.85% and NPV of $1,430,834 was obtained with a discount rate of 8% and an inflation rate of 7.23% when no land cost considered and if land cost was considered the maximum IRR was 1.96% and NPV of $630,833. Minimum discounted payback of the plant will be 13.4 years if inflation was considered.

  6. How PV system ownership can impact the market value of residential homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jamie L. [Energy Sense Finance, LLC, Punta Gorda, FL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple ways for a homeowner to obtain the electricity generating and savings benefits offered by a photovoltaic (PV) system. These include purchasing a PV system through various financing mechanisms, or by leasing the PV system from a third party with multiple options that may include purchase, lease renewal or PV system removal. The different ownership options available to homeowners presents a challenge to appraisal and real estate professionals during a home sale or refinance in terms of how to develop a value that is reflective of the PV systems operational characteristics, local market conditions, and lender and underwriter requirements. This paper presents these many PV system ownership options with a discussion of what considerations an appraiser must make when developing the contributory value of a PV system to a residential property.

  7. Numerical investigation of the thermal and electrical performances for combined solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) modules based on internally extruded fin flow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. C.; Li, Q. P.; Wang, G. J.

    2017-11-01

    A solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) module based on internally extruded fin flow channel was investigated numerically in this paper. First of all, the structures of the thin plate heat exchanger and the PV/T module were presented. Then, a numerical model of the PV/T module considering solar irradiation, fluid flow and heat transfer was developed to analyze the performance of the module. Finally, the steady electrical and thermal efficiencies of the PV/T module at different inlet water temperatures and mass flow rates were achieved. These numerical results supply theory basis for practical application of the PV/T module.

  8. Intelligent Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic for Solar Photovoltaic Systems Under Non-Uniform Irradiation Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    P. Selvam; S. Senthil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) has played a vital role to enhance the efficiency of solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation under varying atmospheric temperature and solar irradiation. However, it is hard to track the maximum power point using conventional linear controllers due to the natural inheritance of nonlinear I-V and P-V characteristics of solar PV systems. Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is suitable for nonlinear system control applications and eliminating oscillations, circuit c...

  9. Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atik, L., E-mail: lotfi.atik@univ-usto.dz; Ternifi, Z. T. [University of science and technology of Oran, USTO, LDDE, Oran (Algeria); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Aillerie, M., E-mail: aillerie@metz.supelec.fr [Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Bachir, G. [University of science and technology of Oran, USTO, LDDE, Oran (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    The working behavior of a module / PV array is non-linear and highly dependent on working conditions. As a given condition, there is only one point at which the level of available power at its output is maximum. This point varies with time, enlightenment and temperature. To ensure optimum operation, the use of MPPT control allows us to extract the maximum power. This paper presents a comparative study of four widely-adopted MPPT algorithms, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Measurements of the variation of the open circuit voltage or of the short-circuit current. Their performance is evaluated using, for all these techniques. In particular, this study compares the behaviors of each technique in presence of solar irradiation variations and temperature fluctuations. These MPPT techniques will be compared using the Matlab / Simulink tool.

  10. Comparison of four MPPT techniques for PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atik, L.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Aillerie, M.; Bachir, G.

    2016-01-01

    The working behavior of a module / PV array is non-linear and highly dependent on working conditions. As a given condition, there is only one point at which the level of available power at its output is maximum. This point varies with time, enlightenment and temperature. To ensure optimum operation, the use of MPPT control allows us to extract the maximum power. This paper presents a comparative study of four widely-adopted MPPT algorithms, such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental Conductance, Measurements of the variation of the open circuit voltage or of the short-circuit current. Their performance is evaluated using, for all these techniques. In particular, this study compares the behaviors of each technique in presence of solar irradiation variations and temperature fluctuations. These MPPT techniques will be compared using the Matlab / Simulink tool.

  11. Optimizing operation costs of the heating system of a household using model predictive control considering a local PV installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn; Gehrke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive controller developed in order to minimize the cost of grid energy consumption and maximize the amount of energy consumed from a local photovoltaic (PV) installation. The usage of as much locally produced renewable energy sources (RES) as possible, diminishes...... the effects of their large penetration in the distribution grid and reduces overloading the grid capacity, which is an increasing problem for the power system. The controller uses 24 hour prediction data for the ambient temperature, the solar irradiance, and for the PV output power. Simulation results...

  12. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  13. A Green Energy Application in Energy Management Systems by an Artificial Intelligence-Based Solar Radiation Forecasting Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huan Kuo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic (PV systems generate green energy from the sunlight without any pollution or noise. The PV systems are simple, convenient to install, and seldom malfunction. Unfortunately, the energy generated by PV systems depends on climatic conditions, location, and system design. The solar radiation forecasting is important to the smooth operation of PV systems. However, solar radiation detected by a pyranometer sensor is strongly nonlinear and highly unstable. The PV energy generation makes a considerable contribution to the smart grids via a large number of relatively small PV systems. In this paper, a high-precision deep convolutional neural network model (SolarNet is proposed to facilitate the solar radiation forecasting. The proposed model is verified by experiments. The experimental results demonstrate that SolarNet outperforms other benchmark models in forecasting accuracy as well as in predicting complex time series with a high degree of volatility and irregularity.

  14. Implementing Solar PV Projects on Historic Buildings and in Historic Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Walker, A.; Buddenborg, J; Lindberg, J.

    2011-09-01

    Many municipalities, particularly in older communities of the United States, have a large amount of historic buildings and districts. In addition to preserving these historic assets, many municipalities have goals or legislative requirements to procure a certain amount of energy from renewable sources and to become more efficient in their energy use; often, these requirements do not exempt historic buildings. This paper details findings from a workshop held in Denver, Colorado, in June 2010 that brought together stakeholders from both the solar and historic preservation industries. Based on these findings, this paper identifies challenges and recommends solutions for developing solar photovoltaic (PV) projects on historic buildings and in historic districts in such a way as to not affect the characteristics that make a building eligible for historic status.

  15. Nighttime radiative cooling potential of unglazed and PV/T solar collectors: parametric and experimental analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    Nighttime radiative cooling technology has been studied both by means of simulations and experiments, to evaluate its potential and to validate the existing theoretical models used to describe it. Photovoltaic/thermal panels (PV/T) and unglazed solar collectors have been chosen as case studies....... The obtained values showed a good agreement with the ones found in the literature about solar panels or other kinds of heat sinks used for radiative cooling applications. The panels provided a cooling performance per night ranging between 0.2 and 0.9 kWh/m2 of panel. The COP values (defined as the ratio....... An experimental setup has been constructed and tested during summer of 2014, at the Technical University of Denmark. The cooling performance (heat loss) has been measured simultaneously for both types of panels, installed side-by-side. The experimental results have been compared with the results from a commercial...

  16. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwan, Y M; Leow, W Z; Irwanto, M; M, Fareq; Hassan, S I S; Amelia, A R; Safwati, I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer. (paper)

  17. The Geography of Solar Photovoltaics (PV and a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Newton

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the early phases of a 21st century energy transition that involves distributed generation technologies employing low or zero carbon emission power sources and their take-up within Australia, with particular reference to the major cities and solar photovoltaics (PV. This transition is occurring in a nation with significant path dependency to overcome in relation to fossil fuel use. Tracking the diffusion of solar PV technology within Australia over the past decade provides a basis for assessing those factors underpinning its exponential growth and its associated geography of diffusion. Positive evidence that there are pathways for cities to decarbonise is apparent but there appear to be different pathways for different city forms with lower density suburban areas showing the biggest take-up of household-based energy technologies. This suggests a model for the low carbon urban transition involving combinations of simple technological changes and harder structural changes, depending upon which parts of the urban fabric are in focus. This is being called a New Low Carbon Urban Transition Theory.

  18. Inter-provincial clean development mechanism in China: A case study of the solar PV sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, David A.; Guan, Dabo; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    With ever growing urgency, climate change mitigation is fast becoming a priority for China. A successful policy of implementing and expanding sustainable development and the use of renewable energy is therefore vital. As well as long-term and near-term targets for installed capacity of renewable energy, in its 12th five-year plan, China has created strict and ambitious carbon intensity targets for each province. This study proposes an inter-provincial clean development mechanism to assist in meeting these targets. This mechanism will create potential co-benefits of assisting in sustainable development in lesser developed provinces, increasing local air quality and supporting the growth of China's renewable energy sector. This paper also highlights the potential that this inter-provincial clean development mechanism has in accelerating the growth of the domestic solar photovoltaics (PV) sector, for which the market in China is still in its infancy. - Highlights: ► We recognise the necessity for each province in China to reduce its GHG emissions. ► We assess the potential of a national scale a CDM style mechanism for China. ► We consider the effect that the national CDM could have on solar PV in China

  19. The microcomputer-based expert system in CAD-PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Qin, S.

    1987-01-01

    As a branch of artificial intelligence, expert system has been revealed day after day in more and more engineering scopes since the successful applications of MYCIN in diagnosis and DENDRAL in the molecular structure of organic compounds etc.. But in the design scope of pressure vessel, as we know, only a few papers have so far been published with respect to the expert system. The necessity and feasibility of accompanying CAD-PV with expert system attracted more scholars to engage in. Although many countries, including China, have regularized the design standards or codes for pressure vessel, but of which no one can solve all of the problems concerning the various practical occasions and experiences. In general, the more domain knowledges a design engineer possesses of, the better decision will be made by him. By virtue of the expert system any less experienced engineer could make the optimum decision in design as well as a skilled senior engineer in addition to the application of design code. It is the due significance for developing high level expert system as an intelligence assistant in the plan option of CAD-PV. In this paper we attempt to introduce a specified software JACKPV used in the design procedure of jacketed pressure vessel as an intelligence front in CAD-PV. JACKPV consists of the function of expert system based on the personal computer IBM-PC/XT with the language PASCAL in its program. It was proved that an ordinary CAD software could be effectively improved while equipped with expert system. (orig.)

  20. Dynamic Performance Comparison for MPPT-PV Systems using Hybrid Pspice/Matlab Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouchiche, N.; Becherif, M.; HadjArab, A.; Aitcheikh, M. S.; Ramadan, H. S.; Cheknane, A.

    2016-10-01

    The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on the surrounding irradiance and temperature. This paper presents a hybrid Matlab™/Pspice™ simulation model of PV system, combined with Cadence software SLPS. The hybridization is performed in order to gain the advantages of both simulation tools such as accuracy and efficiency in both Pspice electronic circuit and Matlab™ mathematical modelling respectively. For this purpose, the PV panel and the boost converter are developed using Pspice™ and hybridized with the mathematical Matlab™ model of maximum power point method controller (MPPT) through SLPS. The main objective is verify the significance of using the proposed hybrid simulation techniques in comparing the different MPPT algorithms such as the perturbation and observation (P&O), incremental of conductance (Inc-Cond) and counter reaction voltage using pilot cell (Pilot-Cell). Various simulations are performed under different atmospheric conditions in order to evaluate the dynamic behaviour for the system under study in terms of stability, efficiency and rapidity.

  1. Design, Fabrication, and Certification of Advanced Modular PV Power Systems Final Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minyard, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the overall accomplishments and benefits of Solar Electric Specialties Co. (SES) under this Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract. SES addressed design issues related to their modular autonomous PV power supply (MAPPS) and a mobile photogenset. MAPPS investigations included gel-cell batteries mounted horizontally; redisgn of the SES power supply; modified battery enclosure for increased safety and reduced cost; programmable, interactive battery charge controllers; and UL and FM listings. The photogenset systems incorporate generators, battery storage, and PV panels for a mobile power supply. The unit includes automatic oil-change systems for the propane generators, collapsible array mounts for the PV enclosure, and internal stowage of the arrays. Standardizing the products resulted in product lines of MAPPS and Photogensets that can be produced more economically and with shorter lead times, while increasing product quality and reliability. Product assembly and quality control have also been improved and streamlined with the development of standardized assembly processes and QC testing procedures. SES offers the UL-listed MAPPS at about the same price as its previous non-standardized, unlisted products

  2. Energy Management Strategy for Micro-Grids with PV-Battery Systems and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Torres-Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of photovoltaic (PV systems on storage and electric vehicles in micro-grids. As these kinds of systems are becoming increasingly popular in the residential sector, the development of a new generation of equipment, such as more efficient batteries or solar panels, makes further study necessary. These systems are especially interesting in commercial or office buildings, since they have a more repetitive daily pattern of electricity consumption, which usually occurs within the maximum solar radiation hours. Based on this need, a novel control strategy aimed at efficiently managing this kind of micro-grid is proposed. The core of this strategy is a rule-based controller managing the power flows between the grid and the batteries of both the PV system and the electric vehicle. Through experimental data and simulations, this strategy was tested under different scenarios. The selected testbed consisted of the laboratory of a research center, which could be easily scalable to the entire building. Results showed the benefits of using an electric vehicle as an active agent in energy balance, leading to a reduction of the energetic costs of a micro-grid.

  3. GIS-based approach for potential analysis of solar PV generation at the regional scale: A case study of Fujian Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yan-wei; Hof, Angela; Wang, Run; Liu, Jian; Lin, Yan-jie; Yang, De-wei

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation of solar energy is crucial for the estimation of the regional potential and selection of construction location. This paper presents a case study of using high resolution grid map of solar radiation combined with the other restriction factors to evaluate the comprehensive potential analysis of solar PV generation at the regional scale, in order to present a framework of decision support tool for solar energy management in a regional area. The cost of PV generation is calculated based on the geographical distribution of technical potential. Moreover, geospatial supply curve (GSC) is employed to portray the evolution of available potential of photovoltaics (PV) generation with the increase of the generation cost. By integrating the economic evaluation variables of net present value and simple payback period, grid-based economic feasibility of PV generation project is then carried out under two feed-in-tariff scenarios. Finally, total CO 2 reduction potential and its spatial distribution in the study area are calculated. The results confirm that PV technology provides high potential for roof-top application and large-scale PV stations. Additionally, determining a reasonable feed-in tariff is essential for expanding the application of solar PV energy. The findings improve understanding of regional renewable energy strategies and the supply/demand assessment. - Highlights: • We developed a grid-based comprehensive potential analysis framework of solar energy at the regional scale. • We evaluated the technical potential of solar PV generation. • We calculated the cost of PV generation and got the geospatial supply curve (GSC) of Fujian Province. • PV technology provides high potential for roof-top application and large-scale PV stations. • Determining a reasonable feed-in tariff is essential for expanding the application of solar PV energy

  4. Measurements on a PV solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, P.T.; Ten Thije O.G. Boonkkamp, J.; Borg, van der N.J.C.M.; Beek, van M.

    1997-01-01

    The work on a simple high efficient solar pump equipped with a piston pump with a matching valve, reported at the Solar World Congress in Budapest, has been continued. Quasi-static and dynamic models of the solar pump have been derived with which the operation of the system is simulated. A test rig

  5. Energetic performance analysis of a commercial water-based photovoltaic thermal system (PV/T) under summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, I.; Ambrosini, D.; de Rubeis, T.; Paoletti, D.; Muttillo, M.; Sfarra, S.

    2017-11-01

    In the last years, the importance of integrating the production of electricity with the production of sanitary hot water led to the development of new solutions, i.e. PV/T systems. It is well known that hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems, able to produce electricity and thermal energy at the same time with better energetic performance in comparison with two separate systems, present many advantages for application in a residential building. A PV/T is constituted generally by a common PV panel with a metallic pipe, in which fluid flows. Pipe accomplishes two roles: it absorbs the heat from the PV panel, thus increasing, or at least maintaining its efficiency; furthermore, it stores the heat for sanitary uses. In this work, the thermal and electrical efficiencies of a commercial PV/T panel have been evaluated during the summer season in different days, to assess the effect of environmental conditions on the system total efficiency. Moreover, infrared thermographic diagnosis in real time has been effected during the operating mode in two conditions: with cooling and without cooling; cooling was obtained by natural flowing water. This analysis gave information about the impact of a non-uniform temperature distribution on the thermal and electrical performance. Furthermore, measurements have been performed in two different operating modes: 1) production of solely electrical energy and 2) simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. Finally, total efficiency is largely increased by using a simple solar concentrator nearby the panel.

  6. Experimental investigations of hybrid PV/Spiral flow thermal collector system performance using Al2O3/water nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadevi, R.; Vinayagam, B. K.; Senthilraja, S.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the PV/T (Photovoltaic thermal unit) system is investigated experimentally to examine the thermal, electrical and overall efficiency by circulating Al2O3/water nanofluid of 1wt% and 2wt% with an optimum flow rate of 40L/H. The overall efficiency of PVT system is largely influenced by various factors such as heat due to photovoltaic action; energy radiated at the infrared wavelength of the solar spectrum, solar irradiance, mounting structure, tilt angle, wind speed direction, Ambient temperature and panel material composition. However, the major factor is considered in this study to extract the heat generated in the PV panel by using nanofluid as a coolant to increase the overall system efficiency. Therefore, the result shows that by using 2 wt% Al2O3/water nanofluid the electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency and overall efficiency of the PVT system enhanced by 13%, 45%, and 58% respectively compared with water.

  7. Comparative study of adaptive controller using MIT rules and Lyapunov method for MPPT standalone PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariba, N.; Bouknadel, A.; Haddou, A.; Ikken, N.; Omari, Hafsa El; Omari, Hamid El

    2017-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Generator have a nonlinear characteristic function relating the intensity at the voltage I = f (U) and depend on the variation of solar irradiation and temperature, In addition, its point of operation depends directly on the load that it supplies. To fix this drawback, and to extract the maximum power available to the terminal of the generator, an adaptation stage is introduced between the generator and the load to couple the two elements as perfectly as possible. The adaptation stage is associated with a command called MPPT MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracker) whose is used to force the PVG to operate at the MPP (Maximum Power Point) under variation of climatic conditions and load variation. This paper presents a comparative study between the adaptive controller for PV Systems using MIT rules and Lyapunov method to regulate the PV voltage. The Incremental Conductance (IC) algorithm is used to extract the maximum power from the PVG by calculating the voltage Vref, and the adaptive controller is used to regulate and track quickly the PV voltage. The two methods of the adaptive controller will be compared to prove their performance by using the PSIM tools and experimental test, and the mathematical model of step-up with PVG model will be presented.

  8. Energy management for a PEMFC–PV hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, Nabil; Moubayed, Nazih; Outbib, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The proposed hybrid structure is a grid-connected system composed of a PV panel, a FC, a battery, and a SC. • The output voltage of each component is regulated using a buck converter controlled by a type-III compensator. • All these components share one DC bus. • Loads can be the used battery, the grid, a DC load and/or an AC load. • The proposed topology offers a simple management technique using a low cost system controller. - Abstract: Most renewable energy sources depend on climatic circumstances and lack consistency even during a single day. The Hybrid System (HS) solves this drawback by relying on many types of renewable sources and managing them to get a satisfactory continuous power. In this paper, a grid connected HS composed of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), a Photovoltaic panel (PV), a battery and a Supercapacitor (SC) is proposed. Sources are pushed to deliver their maximum power thanks to a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT). The output voltage of each component is regulated using a buck converter controlled by a type-III compensator. Consequently, HS components share the power on a single DC bus. The proposed topology offers a simple management technique using an affordable system controller. In order to illustrate our approach, a prototype is modeled, simulated and implemented on an emulator of a real system

  9. Energy and economic analysis of an On-grid PV/T system in a dairy farm in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coca-Ortegón, Adriana; Atienza-Márquez, Antonio; Coronas, Alberto; Merino, Gabriel; Gontupi, Jorge; Salazar, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of an on-grid PV/T system in a dairy farm located in Osorno (Chile), operated under the Net-Metering scheme. All equipment installed in the farm is driven by electricity and the daily average electric consumption is 235 kWh. The study analyses first the existing installation, second a conventional solar installation (with photovoltaic and solar thermal technologies), and third a photovoltaic installation plus a photovoltaic-thermal hybrid installation. We did a sensibility analysis of the solar contribution factor to the self-consumption (electric and thermal), by varying the mass flow rate in the solar thermal circuit, and the energy storage size. This analysis allowed to optimize the sizing and the operation of the solar systems. The systems are compared in terms of annual energy production per unit area, unit price of energy produced and percentage of energy exported to the grid. (author)

  10. Review on the Recent Developments of Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC Based Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T system emerged as one of the convenient type of renewable energy system acquire the ability to generate power and thermal energy in the absence of moving parts. However, the power output of PV/T is intermittent due to dependency on solar irradiation condition. Furthermore, its efficiency decreases because of cells instability at high temperature. On the other hand, fuel cell co-generation system (CGS is another technology that can generate power and heat simultaneously. Integration of PV/T and fuel cell CGS could enhance the reliability and sustainability of both systems as well as increasing the overall system performance. Hence, this paper intended to present the parameters that affect performance of PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC CGS. Moreover, recent developments on PV/T-fuel cell hybrid system are also presented. Based on literates, mass flow rate of moving fluid in PV/T was found to affect the system efficiency. For the PEMFC, when the heat is utilized, the system performance can be increased where the heat efficiency is similar to electrical efficiency which is about 50%. Recent developments of hybrid PV/T and fuel cell show that most of the studies only focus on the power generation of the system. There are less study on the both power and heat utilization which is indeed necessary in future development in term of operation strategy, optimization of size, and operation algorithm.

  11. Analysis on the MPPT control of PV generation system using SPRW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Won [Osaka University (Japan); Kim, Bong Tae; Lee, Jae Deuk; Yu, In Keun [Changwon National University (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system has been studied and watch with keen interest due to a clean and renewable power source. But, because the output power of PV system is not only unstable but also uncontrollable, the MPPT control of PV power system is still hard to be optimized with the tracking failure under the sudden fluctuation of irradiance. Authors proposed a novel transient phenomenon simulation method for PV power generation system under the real field weather condition(SPRW), and the research and development of PV power generation system is expected to be able to analyze easily and cheaply under various conditions with considering the sort of cell, the capacity of system and the used converter system. In this paper, a PV array was simulated to confirm the availability of SPRW. And, several real weather conditions were used with various MPPT controls. (author). 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Consequences of Reducing the Cost of PV Modules on a PV Wind Diesel Hybrid System with Limited Sizing Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S. Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable resources for power supply in family homes has passed the stage of utopia to became a reality, with limits set by technical and economic parameters. This paper presents the results of a project originated from the initiative of a middle-class family to achieve energy independence at home. The starting point was the concept of home with “zero energy” in which the total energy available is equal to the energy consumed. The solution devised to meet the energy demand of the residence in question is a PV wind diesel hybrid system connected to the grid, with the possibility of energy storage in batteries and in the form of heating water and the environment of the house. As a restriction, the family requested that the system would represent little impact to the lifestyle and landscape. This paper aims to assess the consequences of reductions in the cost of the PV modules on the optimization space, as conceived by the software Homer. The results show that for this system, a 50% reduction in the cost of PV modules allows all viable solutions including PV modules.

  13. Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Hongyang; Du, Huibin; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    development from the perspective of technological innovation. By incorporating a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach, the analysis performed here complements the previous literature, which has not provided agrounded itself in a theoretical framework for associated analyses. In addition......China’s photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone dramatic development in recent years and is now the global market leader in terms of newly added capacity. However, market diffusion and adoption in China is not ideal. This paper examines the blocking and inducement mechanisms of China’s PV industry......, to determine the current market dynamics, we closely examine the market concentration trends as well as the vertical and horizontal integration of upstream and downstream actors and calculate the market concentration of the upstream and downstream integration (74.8% and 36.3%). The results of applying the TIS...

  14. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  15. Design and simulation of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system on solar module system using constant voltage (CV) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Sevty Satria; Iskandar, Reza Fauzi; Kirom, M. Ramdlan

    2016-02-01

    Solar energy is one of renewable energy resource where needs a photovoltaic module to convert it into electrical energy. One of the problems on solar energy conversion is the process of battery charging. To improve efficiency of energy conversion, PV system needs another control method on battery charging called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). This paper report the study on charging optimation using constant voltage (CV) method. This method has a function of determining output voltage of the PV system on maximal condition, so PV system will always produce a maximal energy. A model represented a PV system with and without MPPT was developed using Simulink. PV system simulation showed a different outcome energy when different solar radiation and numbers of solar module were applied in the model. On the simulation of solar radiation 1000 W/m2, PV system with MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy and PV system without MPPT produces 252.66 Watt energy. The larger the solar radiation, the greater the energy of PV modules was produced.

  16. Comparison of fuzzy logic and neural network in maximum power point tracker for PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salah, Chokri; Ouali, Mohamed [Research Unit on Intelligent Control, Optimization, Design and Optimization of Complex Systems (ICOS), Department of Electrical Engineering, National School of Engineers of Sfax, BP. W, 3038, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper proposes two methods of maximum power point tracking using a fuzzy logic and a neural network controllers for photovoltaic systems. The two maximum power point tracking controllers receive solar radiation and photovoltaic cell temperature as inputs, and estimated the optimum duty cycle corresponding to maximum power as output. The approach is validated on a 100 Wp PVP (two parallels SM50-H panel) connected to a 24 V dc load. The new method gives a good maximum power operation of any photovoltaic array under different conditions such as changing solar radiation and PV cell temperature. From the simulation and experimental results, the fuzzy logic controller can deliver more power than the neural network controller and can give more power than other different methods in literature. (author)

  17. You're a What? Solar Photovoltaic Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about solar photovoltaic (PV) installer and features Rebekah Hren, a solar PV installer who puts solar panels on roofs and in other sunny places to turn the sun's power into electricity. Hren enjoys promoting renewable energy, in part because it's an emerging field. In solar PV systems, solar cells--devices that convert sunlight…

  18. PV Status Report 2009. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2009-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a key technology option to realise the shift to a decarbonised energy supply. The solar resources in Europe and world wide are abundant and cannot be monopolised by one country. Regardless for what reasons and how fast the oil price and energy prices increase in the future, Photovoltaics and other renewable energies are the only ones to offer a reduction of prices rather than an increase in the future. As a response to the economic crisis, most of the G20 countries have designed economic recovery packages which include 'green stimulus' measures. However, compared to the new Chinese Energy Revitalisation Plan under discussion, the pledged investments in green energy are marginal. If no changes are made, China which now strongly supports its renewable energy industry, will emerge even stronger after the current financial crisis. In 2008, the Photovoltaic industry production almost doubled and reached a world-wide production volume of 7.3 GWp of Photovoltaic modules. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were in average more than 40%, which makes Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect lower prices for consumers. The trend that thin-film Photovoltaics grew faster than the overall PV market continued in 2008. The Eighth Edition of the 'PV Status Report' tries to give an overview about the current activities regarding Research, Manufacturing and Market Implementation.

  19. Innovative business models and financing mechanisms for distributed solar PV (DSPV) deployment in China