WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar energy materials

  1. Spectrally selective solar energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikkens, M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and properties of spectrally selective materials are considered and, in particular, the selective absorption of solar radiation by free electrons is discussed, both in a homogeneous material in which these electrons are strongly scattered, and in a composite material consisting of small metal particles in a dielectric host. Such materials can be used as selective absorbers if they are deposited as a thin film onto a metal substrate, the latter providing the required low emittance. This type of selective surfaces is produced by reactive sputtering of Ni in an Ar/CH 4 gas mixture. This method can yield Ni films with a considerable carbon concentration. The carbon concentration can be varied over a wide range by adjusting the partial methane pressure. The associated experimental techniques are discussed. As the carbon concentration increases, the structure of the films changes from a Ni phase in which carbon is dissolved, via an intermediate Ni 3 C phase into an amorphous carbon phase with a high electrical resistivity in which small nickel particles are embedded. Both mechanisms of selective absorption by free electrons are observed and are found to be well described by rather simple models. The best selectivity is obtained at high carbon concentrations where the films consist of nickel particles in carbon. Depending on the film thickness and the substrate material, the solar absorptance varies between 0.78 and 0.90, while the thermal emittance varies between 0.025 and 0.04. Since the films are found to be stable at 400 0 C in vacuum, it appears that these films are good candidates for application in photothermal solar energy conversion at temperature levels around 200 0 C and higher. (Auth.)

  2. Materials science for solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Granqvist, CG

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in materials technology are creating many novel forms of coatings for energy efficient applications in solar energy. Insulating heat mirrors, selective absorbers, transparent insulation and fluorescent concentrators are already available commercially. Radiative cooling, electrochromic windows and polymeric light pipes hold promise for future development, while chemical and photochemical processes are being considered for energy storage. This book investigates new material advances as well as applications, costs, reliability and industrial production of existing materials. Each c

  3. Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

  4. Solar Energy Educational Material, Activities and Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Solar Energy Educational Materials Solar with glasses " ;The sun has produced energy for billions of years. Solar energy is the solar radiation that reaches the earth. Solar energy can be converted directly or indirectly into other forms of energy, such as

  5. Nano-materials for solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Boiteux, G.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.

    2006-01-01

    Nano-materials present an important development potential in the field of photovoltaic conversion in opening new outlooks in the reduction of the solar energy cost. The organic or hybrid solar cells principle is based on the electron-hole pairs dissociation, generated under solar radiation on a conjugated polymer, by chemical species acting as electrons acceptors. The two ways based on fullerenes dispersion or on TiO 2 particles in a semi-conductor polymer (MEH-PPV, PVK) are discussed. The acceptors concentration is high in order to allow the conduction of the electrons on a percolation way, the polymer providing the holes conduction. A new preparation method of the mixtures MEH-PPV/fullerenes based on the use of specific solvents has allowed to produce fullerenes having nano-metric sizes ranges. It has then been possible to decrease the fullerenes concentration allowing the dissociation and the transport of photoinduced charges. The way based on the in-situ generation of TiO 2 from an organometallic precursor has allowed to obtain dispersions of nano-metric inorganic particles. The optimization of the photovoltaic properties of these nano-composites requires a particular adjustment of their composition and size ranges leading to a better control of the synthesis processes. (O.M.)

  6. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  7. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  8. Solar energy collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Raymond L.; Pace, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar energy collector comprising solar energy absorbing material within chamber having a transparent wall, solar energy being transmitted through the transparent wall, and efficiently absorbed by the absorbing material, for transfer to a heat transfer fluid. The solar energy absorbing material, of generally foraminous nature, absorbs and transmits the solar energy with improved efficiency.

  9. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  10. EFRC: Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy (stimulus)"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2016-12-08

    The University of Massachusetts Amherst is proposing an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) on Polymer-Based Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy that will integrate the widely complementary experimental and theoretical expertise of 23 faculty at UMass-Amherst Departments with researchers from the University of Massachusetts Lowell, University of Pittsburgh, the Pennsylvania State University and Konarka Technologies, Inc. Collaborative efforts with researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the University of Bayreuth, Seoul National University and Tohoku University will complement and expand the experimental efforts in the EFRC. Our primary research aim of this EFRC is the development of hybrid polymer-based devices with efficiencies more than twice the current organic-based devices, by combining expertise in the design and synthesis of photoactive polymers, the control and guidance of polymer-based assemblies, leadership in nanostructured polymeric materials, and the theory and modeling of non-equilibrium structures. A primary goal of this EFRC is to improve the collection and conversion efficiency of a broader spectral range of solar energy using the directed self-assembly of polymer-based materials so as to optimize the design and fabrication of inexpensive devices.

  11. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  12. Phase Change Energy Storage Material Suitable for Solar Heating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Li, Haihua; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Zhenfa

    2018-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal properties of palmitic acid, myristic acid, laurel acid and the binary composite of palmitic/laurel acid and palmitic/myristic acid. The results showed that the phase transition temperatures of the three monomers were between 46.9-65.9°C, and the latent heats were above 190 J/g, which could be used as solar energy storage material. When the mass ratio of Palmitic acid and myristic was 1:1, the eutectic mixture could be formed. The latent heat of the eutectic mixture was 186.6 J/g, the melting temperature and the solidification temperature was 50.6°C and 43.8°C respectively. The latent heat of phase change and the melting temperature had not obvious variations after 400 thermal cycles, which proved that the binary composite had good thermal stability and was suitable for solar floor radiant heating system.

  13. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  14. Computational screening of new inorganic materials for highly efficient solar energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhar, Korina

    2017-01-01

    in solar cells convert solar energy into electricity, and PC uses harvested energy to conduct chemical reactions, such as splitting water into oxygen and, more importantly, hydrogen, also known as the fuel of the future. Further progress in both PV and PC fields is mostly limited by the flaws in materials...... materials. In this work a high-throughput computational search for suitable absorbers for PV and PC applications is presented. A set of descriptors has been developed, such that each descriptor targets an important property or issue of a good solar energy conversion material. The screening study...... that we have access to. Despite the vast amounts of energy at our disposal, we are not able to harvest this solar energy efficiently. Currently, there are a few ways of converting solar power into usable energy, such as photovoltaics (PV) or photoelectrochemical generation of fuels (PC). PV processes...

  15. Influence of nanomaterials on properties of latent heat solar thermal energy storage materials – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raam Dheep, G.; Sreekumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Classification of phase change materials. • Studies on phase change properties of various phase change materials. • Influence of nanomaterials on properties of phase change materials. - Abstract: Thermal energy storage system plays a critical role in developing an efficient solar energy device. As far as solar thermal devices are concerned, there is always a mismatch between supply and demand due to intermittent and unpredictable nature of solar radiation. A well designed thermal energy storage system is capable to alleviate this demerit by providing a constant energy delivery to the load. Many research works is being carried out to determine the suitability of thermal energy storage system to integrate with solar thermal gadgets. This review paper summarizes the numerous investigations on latent heat thermal energy storage using phase change materials (PCM) and its classification, properties, selection criteria, potential research areas and studies involved to analyze the thermal–physical properties of PCM

  16. Inner solar system prospective energy and material resources

    CERN Document Server

    Zacny, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates Venus and Mercury prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to exploration and utilization of these bodies. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists interested in current and impending Venus and Mercury related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors.   Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in Venus and Mercury exploration and exploitation.

  17. Global Stress Classification System for Materials Used in Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamova, Karolina; Schill, Christian; Herrmann, Jan; Datta, Pawan; Chih Wang, Chien

    2016-08-01

    Depending on the geographical location, the individual or combined impact of environmental stress factors and corresponding performance losses for solar applications varies significantly. Therefore, as a strategy to reduce investment risks and operating and maintenance costs, it is necessary to adapt the materials and components of solar energy systems specifically to regional environmental conditions. The project «GloBe Solar» supports this strategy by focusing on the development of a global stress classification system for materials in solar energy applications. The aim of this classification system is to assist in the identification of the individual stress conditions for every location on the earth's surface. The stress classification system could serve as a decision support tool for the industry (manufacturers, investors, lenders and project developers) and help to improve knowledge and services that can provide higher confidence to solar power systems.

  18. Excellent solar energy absorbing and retaining fabric material. Chikunetsu hoon sen'i sozai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, T. (Unitika Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Central Research Lab.)

    1993-11-10

    Carbides of group IV transition metals such as ZrC, which are used as solar energy selective absorption film for solar energy collectors, has characteristics of absorbing light with a high energy of 0.6eV or more and of converting it to heat when exposed to light, and of not absorbing but reflecting light with a low energy of less than 0.6eV. By using ZrC as fabric materials, therefore, portable and durable heat absorbing and retaining materials can be produced. The authors have developed a solar energy absorbing and retaining fabric material, 'Solar [alpha]' (registered trade mark), which absorbs visible and near infrared rays and converts them to heat, and reflects heat from a human body and confines it. The use of Solar [alpha] has been found in various fields such as clothing as a new material for winter-sportswear, slacks, coats, and swimming suits. In this report, the heat absorbing and retaining mechanisms, basic properties of Solar [alpha], and the results of wearing tests are described. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  20. Solar energy emplacement developer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  1. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  2. Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Design and Construction, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes 21 completed projects now using solar energy for heating, cooling, or electricity. Included are elementary schools in Atlanta and San Diego, a technical school in Detroit, and Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. (MLF)

  3. Accurate measurement of directional emittance of solar energy materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijnatten, van P.A.; Hugo-Le Gof, A.; Granqvist, C.-G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Directional emittance plays an important role in the calculation of radiative heat exchange. It partly determines the thermal insulation of single and multiple glazing and the efficiency of solar collectors. An emissiometer has been designed and built, capable for measurements of the directional

  4. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: a customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpak, Alexie M; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-21

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel-i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology.

  5. Solar cell materials developing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Conibeer, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

  6. Evaluation of alternative phase change materials for energy storage in solar dynamic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. A.; Dustin, M. O.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of fluoride salt and metallic thermal energy storage materials are compared in terms of basic performance as applied to solar dynamic power generation. Specific performance considerations include uniformity of cycle inlet temperature, peak cavity temperature, TES utilization, and system weights. Also investigated were means of enhancing the thermal conductivity of the salts and its effect on the system performance.

  7. Artificial vesicles with incorporated photosynthetic materials for potential solar energy conversion systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit, Jacoba E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available WITH INCORPORATED PHOTOSYNTHETIC MATERIALS FOR POTENTIAL SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS J E Smit1, A F Grobler2, A E Karsten1, R W Sparrow3 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2 Unit for drug development and research, North...

  8. First Principle Modelling of Materials and Processes in Dye-Sensitized Photoanodes for Solar Energy and Solar Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariachiara Pastore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of solar energy exploitation, dye-sensitized solar cells and dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthetic cells offer the promise of low-cost sunlight conversion and storage, respectively. In this perspective we discuss the main successes and limitations of modern computational methodologies, ranging from hybrid and long-range corrected density functionals, GW approaches and multi-reference perturbation theories, in describing the electronic and optical properties of isolated components and complex interfaces relevant to these devices. While computational modelling has had a crucial role in the development of the dye-sensitized solar cells technology, the theoretical characterization of the interface structure and interfacial processes in water splitting devices is still at its infancy, especially concerning the electron and hole transfer phenomena. Quantitative analysis of interfacial charge separation and recombination reactions in multiple metal-oxide/dye/catalyst heterointerfaces, thus, undoubtedly represents the compelling challenge in the field of modern computational material science.

  9. Solar Energy: Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts: Student Material. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, bibliographies, and illustrations for seven course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the…

  10. Architectural integration of energy solar collectors made with ceramic materials and suitable for the Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roviras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here aims to demonstrate the technical, architectural and energy viability of solar thermal collectors made with ceramic materials and the Mediterranean climate suitable for the production of domestic hot water (DHW and for heating systems in buildings. The design of a ceramic shell formed by panels collectors and panels no sensors, which are part of the same building system that is capable of responding to the basic requirements of a building envelope and capture solar energy is proposed. Ceramics considerably reduced the final cost of the sensor system and offers the new system a variety of compositional and chromatic since, with reduced performance compared to a conventional metallic collector, can occupy the entire surface of front and get a high degree of architectural integration. A tool for assessing the new ceramic solar collector has been defined from a multi-criteria perspective: economic, environmental and social. The tool enables the comparison of the ceramic solar collector with solar collectors on the market under different climatic and demand conditions.

  11. New materials for thermal energy storage in concentrated solar power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Luis; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) is an important alternative to PV electricity production, not only because it is getting more cost competitive with the continuous growth in installed capacity, engineering and associated innovations, but also, because of its unique dispatch ability advantage as a result of the already well established 2-tank energy storage using molten salts (MS). In recent years, research has been performed, on direct MS systems, to which features like modularity and combinations with other (solid) thermal storage materials are considered with the goal of achieving lower investment cost. Several alternative materials and systems have been studied. In this research, storage materials were identified with thermo-physical data being presented for different rocks (e.g. quartzite), super concrete, and other appropriate solid materials. Among the new materials being proposed like rocks from old quarries, an interesting option is the incorporation of solid waste material from old mines belonging to the Iberian Pyritic Belt. These are currently handled as byproducts of past mine activity, and can potentially constitute an environmental hazard due to their chemical (metal) content. This paper presents these materials, as part of a broad study to improve the current concept of solar energy storage for STE plants, and additionally presents a potentially valuable solution for environmental protection related to re-use of mining waste.

  12. Collecting Solar Energy. Solar Energy Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Alexander

    This solar energy learning module for use with junior high school students offers a list of activities, a pre-post test, job titles, basic solar energy vocabulary, and diagrams of solar energy collectors and installations. The purpose is to familiarize students with applications of solar energy and titles of jobs where this knowledge could be…

  13. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  14. Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Christensen, C.

    1983-11-01

    A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

  15. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: smart window coatings; Transparent infrared reflectors; Holographic concentrators and reflectors; Solar collecting devices; Solar absorber coatings; Optical properties and durability

  16. Efficiency Limits of Solar Energy Harvesting via Internal Photoemission in Carbon Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Boriskina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe strategies to estimate the upper limits of the efficiency of photon energy harvesting via hot electron extraction from gapless absorbers. Gapless materials such as noble metals can be used for harvesting the whole solar spectrum, including visible and near-infrared light. The energy of photo-generated non-equilibrium or ‘hot’ charge carriers can be harvested before they thermalize with the crystal lattice via the process of their internal photo-emission (IPE through the rectifying Schottky junction with a semiconductor. However, the low efficiency and the high cost of noble metals necessitates the search for cheaper abundant alternative materials, and we show here that carbon can serve as a promising IPE material candidate. We compare the upper limits of performance of IPE photon energy-harvesting platforms, which incorporate either gold or carbon as the photoactive material where hot electrons are generated. Through a combination of density functional theory, joint electron density of states calculations, and Schottky diode efficiency modeling, we show that the material electron band structure imposes a strict upper limit on the achievable efficiency of the IPE devices. Our calculations reveal that graphite is a good material candidate for the IPE absorber for harvesting visible and near-infrared photons. Graphite electron density of states yields a sizeable population of hot electrons with energies high enough to be collected across the potential barrier. We also discuss the mechanisms that prevent the IPE device efficiency from reaching the upper limits imposed by their material electron band structures. The proposed approach is general and allows for efficient pre-screening of materials for their potential use in IPE energy converters and photodetectors within application-specific spectral windows.

  17. Standard Test Methods for Solar Energy Transmittance and Reflectance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of solar energy transmittance and reflectance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form. Method A, using a spectrophotometer, is applicable for both transmittance and reflectance and is the referee method. Method B is applicable only for measurement of transmittance using a pyranometer in an enclosure and the sun as the energy source. Specimens for Method A are limited in size by the geometry of the spectrophotometer while Method B requires a specimen 0.61 m2 (2 ft2). For the materials studied by the drafting task group, both test methods give essentially equivalent results. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  18. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  19. POLYMERIC MATERIALS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION: A COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Doroshenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Full-scale metal solar collectors and solar collectors fabricated from polymeric materials are studied in present research. Honeycomb multichannel plates made from polycarbonate were chosen to create a polymeric solar collector. Polymeric collector is 67.8% lighter than metal solar collector. It was experimentally shown that the efficiency of a polymeric collector is 7–14% lower than a traditional collector. An ecologically based Life Cycle Assessment showed the advantages of the application of polymeric materials in the construction of solar collectors.

  20. Photovoltaic Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez N, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    A short historical review of the technological advances; the current state and the perspectives of the materials for photovoltaic applications is made. Thereinafter, the general aspects of the physical principles and fundamental parameters that govern the operation of the solar cells are described. To way of the example, a methodology for the design and facilities size of a photovoltaic system is applied. Finally, the perspectives of photovoltaic solar energy in relationship to the market and political of development are mentioned

  1. Solar energy. [New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benseman, R.

    1977-10-15

    The potential for solar space heating and solar water heating in New Zealand is discussed. Available solar energy in New Zealand is indicated, and the economics of solar space and water heating is considered. (WHK)

  2. THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL USED AS THERMAL STORAGE SYSTEM BY USING SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim F. Nasir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the melting processes of phase change material in a shell and tube heat exchanger by using solar thermal energy have been investigated numerically and experimentally. All experimental were outdoor tested at AL-Mussaib city-Babylon-Iraq (Lat 32.5 º North, and long 44.3 º East with N-S collector direction at tilt angle of 32.5 º with the horizontal. The phase change material used in this work is black color Iraqi origin pure Paraffin with amount of 12 kg. In the experimental setup evacuted tube solar collector is employed for melting phase change material in shell regime. Different volume flow rates for the water flow inside the inner tube of heat exchanger namely (200, 300, and 500 LPH for Reynolds number namely (15000, 23000, 38000 respectively were used for each season from August 2016 to January 2017. The numerical investigation involves a three dimension numerical solution of model by a commercial package ANSYS FLUENT 15.0. The boundary conditions of the model that solved by the numerical solution have been taken from the experimental tests. The experimental results indicated that the inner tube inlet and ambient temperatures has a significant effects on the melting process compared with the volume flow rates. Studying phase change material temperature distribution, it is exposed that a melting temperature of the phase change material in summer season needed time of (3-4 hours only, while it needed more time; (14-16 hours in winter season. Increasing solar radiation and ambient temperature reduces the melting time of phase change material. Increasing water temperature difference of inner tube increased the heat gained for phase change material. The results obtained from numerical solution presented the static temperature contours and showed that the temperature distribution of phase change material give good validations with experimental results with percentage deviation of 2.7%. The present experimental results have been

  3. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Basics Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for

  4. Layered tin monoselenide as advanced photothermal conversion materials for efficient solar energy-driven water evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiandong; Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Yang, Guowei

    2018-02-08

    Solar energy-driven water evaporation lays a solid foundation for important photothermal applications such as sterilization, seawater desalination, and electricity generation. Due to the strong light-matter coupling, broad absorption wavelength range, and prominent quantum confinement effect, layered tin monoselenide (SnSe) holds a great potential to effectively harness solar irradiation and convert it to heat energy. In this study, SnSe is successfully deposited on a centimeter-scale nickel foam using a facile one-step pulsed-laser deposition approach. Importantly, the maximum evaporation rate of SnSe-coated nickel foam (SnSe@NF) reaches 0.85 kg m -2 h -1 , which is even 21% larger than that obtained with the commercial super blue coating (0.7 kg m -2 h -1 ) under the same condition. A systematic analysis reveals that its good photothermal conversion capability is attributed to the synergetic effect of multi-scattering-induced light trapping and the optimal trade-off between light absorption and phonon emission. Finally, the SnSe@NF device is further used for seawater evaporation, demonstrating a comparable evaporation rate (0.8 kg m -2 h -1 ) to that of fresh water and good stability over many cycles of usage. In summary, the current contribution depicts a facile one-step scenario for the economical and efficient solar-enabled SnSe@NF evaporation devices. More importantly, an in-depth analysis of the photothermal conversion mechanism underneath the layered materials depicts a fundamental paradigm for the design and application of photothermal devices based on them in the future.

  5. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells Solvent additives for tuning the photovoltaic properties of polymer – fullerene solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sio, Antonietta De; Madena, Thomas; Huber, Ralph; Deschler, Felix; Como, Enrico Da; Esposito, Salvatore; Hauff, Elizabeth Von

    2011-01-01

    We use solvent additives as a simple method to tune the photovoltaic performance of poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojuncton solar cells. 1,2-dichlorobenzene (oDCB) was used as the reference solvent; chlorobenzene (CB) and 1,2,3,4-

  6. Selection of high temperature thermal energy storage materials for advanced solar dynamic space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Dovie E.; Coles-Hamilton, Carolyn; Juhasz, Albert

    1987-01-01

    Under the direction of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Technology (OAST), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated an in-house thermal energy storage program to identify combinations of phase change thermal energy storage media for use with a Brayton and Stirling Advanced Solar Dynamic (ASD) space power system operating between 1070 and 1400 K. A study has been initiated to determine suitable combinations of thermal energy storage (TES) phase change materials (PCM) that result in the smallest and lightest weight ASD power system possible. To date the heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 1025 K have been verified experimentally. The study has indicated that these salt systems produce large ASD systems because of their inherent low thermal conductivity and low density. It is desirable to have PCMs with high densities and high thermal conductivities. Therefore, alternate phase change materials based on metallic alloy systems are also being considered as possible TES candidates for future ASD space power systems.

  7. Solar powered absorption cycle heat pump using phase change materials for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Solar powered heating and cooling system with possible application to residential homes is described. Operating principles of system are defined and illustration of typical energy storage and exchange system is provided.

  8. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  9. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  10. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  11. Solar Energy Innovation Network | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Innovation Network Solar Energy Innovation Network The Solar Energy Innovation Network grid. Text version The Solar Energy Innovation Network is a collaborative research effort administered (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office to develop and demonstrate new ways for solar energy to improve

  12. Solar energy systems: Sustainable or not? Environmental effects of materials of solar systems with Eco-Quantum: the break even point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapen, M.; Anink, D.; Donze, G.

    2000-01-01

    Solar systems seem a sustainable way of providing energy. But are nowadays PV-systems with materials like heavy metals sustainable? Is PV really environmentally sound with the actual efficiency? And what about solar collectors? This paper provides the answers and indicates improvement options for solar systems to make them more overall sustainable in the future. With Eco-Quantum, a simulation tool for analysing the environmental performance of buildings, the overall environmental profit of buildings with PV-systems and solar collectors is shown. It calculates the environmental effects during the entire life cycle of a complete building ('cradle to grave'). This includes the impact of energy and water use, maintenance during use phase, differences in durability of parts or construction needs, like adhesives and nails. The basis of Eco-Quantum is environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). IEA BCS Annex 31 indicated Eco-Quantum as one of the most sophisticated tools to calculate environment al performance of a build ing. The results of Eco-Quantum are the environmental indicators: Exhaustion of resources; Emissions; Energy and Waste. Options like PV and solar collectors are investigated in a reference building. On the one hand the energy during use is reduced by the options. On the other hand the environmental effects because of materials exhaustion of resources and emissions during production is increased as a consequence of additional material use. (au)

  13. Solar radiation absorbing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  14. Application of lightweight materials in structure concept design of large-scale solar energy unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lv, Shengli; Guan, XiQi

    2017-09-01

    Carbon fiber composites and film materials can be effectively used in light aircraft structures, especially for solar unmanned aerial vehicles. The use of light materials can reduce the weight of the aircraft, but also can effectively improve the aircraft's strength and stiffness. The structure of the large aspect ratio solar energy UAV was analyzed in detail, taking Solar-impulse solar aircraft as an example. The solar energy UAV has a wing aspect ratio greater than 20, and the detailed digital model of the wing structure including beam, ribs and skin was built, also the Finite Element Method was applied to analyze the static and dynamic performance of the structure. The upper skin of the wing is covered with silicon solar cells, while the lower skin is light and transparent film. The single beam truss form of carbon fiber lightweight material is used in the wing structure. The wing beam is a box beam with rectangular cross sections. The box beam connected the front parts and after parts of the ribs together. The fuselage of the aircraft was built by space truss structure. According to the static and dynamic analysis with Finite Element method, it was found that the aircraft has a small wingtip deflection relative to the wingspan in the level flight state. The first natural frequency of the wing structure is pretty low, which is closed to the gust load.

  15. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  16. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 21-23, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Transparent heat mirror films are discussed, taking into account bandgap widening in heavily doped oxide semiconductors used as transparent heat-reflectors, the characterization of a low emissivity coating in large scale production, an exact analysis of radiative and conductive heat transfer through radiative gray films, and process control for sputter deposition of low emissivity films in large scale production. Other topics explored are related to optical switching materials, selective absorber coatings, general solar optical materials and instrumentation, and technical needs of the energy related coatings industry and the building sciences. Attention is given to electrochromic coatings for 'smart windows', materials for electrochromic windows, optical frequencies free electron scattering studies on electrochromic materials for variable reflectivity windows, progress on solar absorber selective paint research, complex index interference films on metal substrates, luminescent solar concentrator daylighting, and research on passive solar materials in Canada.

  17. Advanced energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    An essential resource for scientists designing new energy materials for the vast landscape of solar energy conversion as well as materials processing and characterization Based on the new and fundamental research on novel energy materials with tailor-made photonic properties, the role of materials engineering has been to provide much needed support in the development of photovoltaic devices. Advanced Energy Materials offers a unique, state-of-the-art look at the new world of novel energy materials science, shedding light on the subject's vast multi-disciplinary approach The book focuses p

  18. Materials surface treatments by concentrated solar light: a renewable energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, D.; Rodriguez, J.

    1998-01-01

    The possible applications of solar furnaces to materials surface treatment are explained in an illustrative manner. A brief description of these systems is exposed, as well as an overview of the feasible industrial or testing applications for which their validity has been proven. (Author) 5 refs

  19. Hydrogen from solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The long-range options of energy sources are the breeding reactor, nuclear fusion, and solar energy. Concerning solar energy three systems are being developed: First the photovoltaic cells which are almost ready for industrial production, but which are still too expensive - at least today. Secondly the thermal utilization of solar radiation. Compared to these, thirdly, the photobiological and photochemical possibilities of solar energy utilization have been somewhat neglected so far. However, the photolysis of water by solar energy is a very promising option for future energy demands. This can be done by making use of the photo-synthetic splitting of water in technical facilities or with semiconductors.

  20. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  1. Solar Energy Technician/Installer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Solar power (also known as solar energy) is solar radiation emitted from the sun. Large panels that absorb the sun's energy as the sun beats down on them gather solar power. The energy in the rays can be used for heat (solar thermal energy) or converted to electricity (photovoltaic energy). Each solar energy project, from conception to…

  2. Solar energy guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentz, A.; Winter, R.

    1993-07-01

    Many aspects with regard to the practical use of solar energy are discussed. This guide is aimed at informing local and regional administrators, committee members of housing corporations and public utilities and public relations officers on the possibilities to use solar energy. In chapter one an overview is given of the use of solar energy in the housing sector, the recreational sector, agricultural sector, industry, trade and other sectors. In the chapters two, three and four attention is paid to passive solar energy, active thermal solar energy and photovoltaic energy respectively. In the chapters five and six aspects concerning the implementation of solar energy systems in practice are discussed. First an outline of the parties involved in implementing solar energy is given: the municipality, the energy utility, the province, local authorities, advisors, housing constructors and the occupants of the buildings. Then attention is paid to the consequences of implementing solar energy for the building inspection and regulations, the finances, energy savings and the environment. In chapter seven an overview is given of the subsidy regulations of the European Community, the Dutch national and local governments. Chapter contains addresses of solar thermal systems, photovoltaic systems and other institutes operating in the field of solar energy, as well as the titles of a number of brochures and courses. 51 figs., 7 tabs., 86 refs

  3. Solar energy modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. R. (Inventor); Mcdougal, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A module is described with a receiver having a solar energy acceptance opening and supported by a mounting ring along the optic axis of a parabolic mirror in coaxial alignment for receiving solar energy from the mirror, and a solar flux modulator plate for varying the quantity of solar energy flux received by the acceptance opening of the module. The modulator plate is characterized by an annular, plate-like body, the internal diameter of which is equal to or slightly greater than the diameter of the solar energy acceptance opening of the receiver. Slave cylinders are connected to the modulator plate for supporting the plate for axial displacement along the axis of the mirror, therby shading the opening with respect to solar energy flux reflected from the surface of the mirror to the solar energy acceptance opening.

  4. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  5. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  6. Solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvirin, Y.; Zamkow, S.

    1993-01-01

    The state of Israel has been a pioneer in the solar energy development and utilization since it was founded. In the 50's solar domestic home heaters became commercially available. At the same time research work has been started in different areas of solar energy, which led to more advanced solar systems for additional applications. The presentation includes some details of commercial utilization of solar energy and a brief description of the main Research and Development projects in industry, universities and research institutes. (authors)

  7. The thermodynamic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoire, B.

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  8. Thermal solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.C.; Leal C, H.

    1998-01-01

    Some relative aspects to the development and current state of thermal solar energy are summarized, so much at domestic level as international. To facilitate the criteria understanding as the size of the facilities in thermal solar systems, topics as availability of the solar resource and its interactions with the matter are included. Finally, some perspectives for the development of this energetic alternative are presented

  9. Solar energy promises realized?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudshoff, B.

    2010-01-01

    The US market for solar cells grew 36% in 2009. Thousands of new jobs were created, many millions are invested and new businesses see new opportunities. Optimism among investors, incentivising government policy and new technological developments all contribute to these positive developments. This article provides an update of the incentive measures and their effects and a brief overview of the three solar energy technologies: photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal and concentrated solar power (CSP) [nl

  10. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  11. Solar India - 82: national solar energy convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the Solar India - 82 conference, which was held 17-19 December 1982. The papers are organized into functional groupings which include: (1) solar radiation, (2) flat plate solar collectors and solar water heaters, (3) solar concentrators, (4) solar air heaters and dryers, (5) solar ponds and energy storage, (6) solar cookers, (7) solar stills, (8) selective coatings, (9) photovoltaics, (10) space heating and cooling, (11) bio-energy, and (12) miscellaneous papers. The vast majority of the papers describe work carried out in India, the vast majority of the papers also contain relatively readable abstracts.

  12. Energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global industrialisation and population growth, the area of energy is one that is very much in the public consciousness. Fundamental scientific research is recognised as being crucial to delivering solutions to these issues, particularly to yield novel means of providing efficient, ideally recyclable, ways of converting, transporting and delivering energy. This volume considers a selection of the state-of-the-art materials that are being designed to meet some of the energy challenges we face today. Topics are carefully chosen that show how the skill of the synthetic chemist can

  13. Solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistler, J.

    1981-08-05

    The photovoltaic generator is the central part of all solar systems. Flat solar cells embedded in glass are preferred which can also convert diffuse solar radiation. Hybrid modules generate electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. With decreasing generator cost, the cost of energy storage becomes critical. Development activities are mostly directed on the development of stationary lead accumulator batteries and the electronic charging and protective systems. The block diagram of the current converter is presented, and applications of solar systems in domestic heating engineering, transportation technology, communications, and hydrological engineering. Solar villages are recommended which, established in bilateral cooperation with Third World authorities, may demonstrate the advantages of solar energy in heat and electric power generation.

  14. Optimum energy levels and offsets for organic donor/acceptor binary photovoltaic materials and solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Optimum frontier orbital energy levels and offsets of an organic donor/acceptor binary type photovoltaic material have been analyzed using classic Marcus electron transfer theory in order to achieve the most efficient photo induced charge separation. This study reveals that, an exciton quenching parameter (EQP) yields one optimum donor/acceptor frontier orbital energy offset that equals the sum of the exciton binding energy and the charge separation reorganization energy, where the photo generated excitons are converted into charges most efficiently. A recombination quenching parameter (RQP) yields a second optimum donor/acceptor energy offset where the ratio of charge separation rate constant over charge recombination rate constant becomes largest. It is desirable that the maximum RQP is coincidence or close to the maximum EQP. A third energy offset is also identified where charge recombination becomes most severe. It is desirable that the most severe charge recombination offset is far away from maximum EQP offset. These findings are very critical for evaluating and fine tuning frontier orbital energy levels of a donor/acceptor pair in order to realize high efficiency organic photovoltaic materials

  15. Solar Renewable Energy. Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Marion; And Others

    This unit develops the concept of solar energy as a renewable resource. It includes: (1) an introductory section (developing understandings of photosynthesis and impact of solar energy); (2) information on solar energy use (including applications and geographic limitations of solar energy use); and (3) future considerations of solar energy…

  16. Semiconductor materials for solar photovoltaic cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Bhattacharya, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing.  Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost.  Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce ...

  17. Hierarchically interconnected porous scaffolds for phase change materials with improved thermal conductivity and efficient solar-to-electric energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yu, Peng; Tang, Li-Sheng; Bao, Rui-Ying; Liu, Zheng-Ying; Yang, Ming-Bo; Yang, Wei

    2017-11-23

    An ice-templating self-assembly strategy and a vacuum impregnation method were used to fabricate polyethylene glycol (PEG)/hierarchical porous scaffold composite phase change materials (PCMs). Hierarchically interconnected porous scaffolds of boron nitride (BN), with the aid of a small amount of graphene oxide (GO), endow the composite PCMs with high thermal conductivity, excellent shape-stability and efficient solar-to-electric energy conversion. The formation of a three-dimensional (3D) thermally conductive pathway in the composites contributes to improving the thermal conductivity up to 2.36 W m -1 K -1 at a relatively low content of BN (ca. 23 wt%). This work provides a route for thermally conductive and shape-stabilized composite PCMs used as energy storage materials.

  18. How to solve materials and design problems in solar heating and cooling. Energy technology review No. 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Weinstein, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    A broad range of difficulties encountered in active and passive solar space heating systems and active solar space cooling systems is covered. The problems include design errors, installation mistakes, inadequate durability of materials, unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in performance and operation of different solar systems. Feedback from designers and manufacturers involved in the solar market is summarized. The designers' experiences with and criticisms of solar components are presented, followed by the manufacturers' replies to the various problems encountered. Information is presented on the performance and operation of solar heating and cooling systems so as to enable future designs to maximize performance and eliminate costly errors. (LEW)

  19. Experimental research on the use of phase change materials to come to passive solar energy concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, A.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Muthing, F.; Dobbelsteen, van den A.; Timmeren, van A.; Dorst, van M.; Durmisevic, E.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and effective use of solar radiation is one way to come to sustainable development in the built environment. Because of an average temperature of 9.5 °C and an annual incoming solar radiation of 1,313 to 2,881 MJ/m2, The Netherlands seem on first sight not to be suitable for solar

  20. Performance Evaluation of Various Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage of A Solar Cooker via Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Tarwidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, thermal performance of various phase change materials (PCMs used as thermal energy storage in a solar cooker has been investigated numerically. Heat conduction equations in cylindrical domain are used to model heat transfer of the PCMs. Mathematical model of phase change problem in the PCM storage encompasses heat conduction equations in solid and liquid region separated by moving solid-liquid interface. The phase change problem is solved by reformulating heat conduction equations with emergence of moving boundary into an enthalpy equation. Numerical solution of the enthalpy equation is obtained by implementing Godunov method and verified by analytical solution of one-dimensional case. Stability condition of the numerical scheme is also discussed. Thermal performance of various PCMs is evaluated via the stored energy and temperature history. The simulation results show that phase change material with the best thermal performance during the first 2.5 hours of energy extraction is shown by erythritol. Moreover, magnesium chloride hexahydrate can maintain temperature of the PCM storage in the range of 110-116.7°C for more than 4 hours while magnesium nitrate hexahydrate is effective only for one hour with the PCM storage temperature around 121-128°C. Among the PCMs that have been tested, it is only erythritol that can cook 10 kg of the loaded water until it reaches 100°C for about 3.5 hours. Article History: Received June 22nd 2016; Received in revised form August 26th 2016; Accepted Sept 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tarwidi, D., Murdiansyah, D.T, Ginanja, N. (2016 Performance Evaluation of Various Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage of A Solar Cooker via Numerical Simulation. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 199-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.199-210

  1. High-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar thermal storage materials using AZO/graphene hybrids by optimizing hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Li, Man; Li, Shipei; Cao, Chen; Long, Peng; Liu, Enzuo; Hu, Wenping; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2015-10-21

    An important method for establishing a high-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar heat system is by designing and preparing novel photo-isomerizable molecules with a high enthalpy and a long thermal life by controlling molecular interactions. A meta- and ortho-bis-substituted azobenzene chromophore (AZO) is covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for solar thermal storage materials. High grafting degree and close-packed molecules enable intermolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for both trans-(E) and cis-(Z) isomers of AZO on the surface of nanosheets, resulting in a dramatic increase in enthalpy and lifetime. The metastable Z-form of AZO on RGO is thermally stabilized with a half-life of 52 days by steric hindrance and intermolecular H-bonds calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The AZO-RGO fuel shows a high storage capacity of 138 Wh kg(-1) by optimizing intermolecular H-bonds with a good cycling stability for 50 cycles induced by visible light at 520 nm. Our work opens up a new method for making advanced molecular solar thermal storage materials by tuning molecular interactions on a nano-template.

  2. Solar energy in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, H.

    1981-12-01

    The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

  3. The Solar Energy Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankins, William H., III; Wilson, David A.

    This publication is a handbook for the do-it-yourselfer or anyone else interested in solar space and water heating. Described are methods for calculating sun angles, available energy, heating requirements, and solar heat storage. Also described are collector and system designs with mention of some design problems to avoid. Climatological data for…

  4. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  5. Nanomaterials for solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Revaprasadu, Neerish; Bakr, Osman; Ramasamy, Karthik; Malik, Mohammad A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured metal chalcogenides of the elements copper, iron, tin, lead and cadmium have attracted interest in their use as colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cells. Some of these materials have the advantages of being available in abundance

  6. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  7. TiO2-photoanode-assisted direct solar energy harvesting and storage in a solar-powered redox cell using halides as active materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Yangen; Qian, Yumin; Ye, Jing; Xiong, Shiyun; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2018-06-19

    The rapid deployment of renewable energy is resulting in significant energy security, climate change mitigation, and economic benefits. We demonstrate here the direct solar energy harvesting and storage in a rechargeable solar-powered redox cell, which can be charged solely by solar irradiation. The cell follows a conventional redox-flow cell design with one integrated TiO2 photoanode in the cathode side. Direct charging the cell by solar irradiation results in the conversion of solar energy in to chemical energy. While discharging the cell leads to the release of chemical energy in the form of electricity. The cell integrates energy conversion and storage processes in a single device, making the solar energy directly and efficiently dispatchable. When using redox couples of Br2/Br- and I3-/I- in the cathode side and anode side, respectively, the cell can be directly charged upon solar irradiation, yielding a discharge potential of 0.5V with good round-trip efficiencies. This design is expected to be a potential alternative towards the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies.

  8. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  9. Electrochemical solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of solar energy conversion in photoelectrochemical cells are briefly reviewed. Cells for the generation of electric power and for energy storage in form of electrochemical energy are described. These systems are compared with solid state photovoltaic devices, and the inherent difficulties for the operation of the electrochemical systems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs

  10. High-quality LaVO3 films as solar energy conversion material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hai-Tian; Brahlek, Matthew; Ji, Xiaoyu; Lei, Shiming; Lapano, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mott insulating oxides and their heterostructures have recently been identified as potential photovoltaic materials with favorable absorption properties and an intrinsic built-in electric field that can efficiently separate excited electron hole pairs. At the same time, they are predicted to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit due to strong electron electron interaction present. Despite these premises a high concentration of defects commonly observed in Mott insulating films acting as recombination centers can derogate the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. With use of the self-regulated growth kinetics in hybrid molecular beam epitaxy, this obstacle can be overcome. High-quality, stoichiometric LaVO 3 films were grown with defect densities of in-gap states up to 2 orders of magnitude lower compared to the films in the literature, and a factor of 3 lower than LaVO 3 bulk single crystals. Photoconductivity measurements revealed a significant photoresponsivity increase as high as tenfold of stoichiometric LaVO 3 films compared to their nonstoichiometric counterparts. Furthermore, this work marks a critical step toward the realization of high-performance Mott insulator solar cells beyond conventional semiconductors.

  11. Solar energy for electricity and fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Ingan?s, Olle; Sundstr?m, Villy

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorga...

  12. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  13. Fractal-Like Materials Design with Optimized Radiative Properties for High-Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Ortega, Jesus D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Christian, Joshua Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Yellowhair, Julius E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Ray, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Kelton, John W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Peacock, Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Andraka, Charles E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Shinde, Subhash [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Novel designs to increase light trapping and thermal efficiency of concentrating solar receivers at multiple length scales have been conceived, designed, and tested. The fractal-like geometries and features are introduced at both macro (meters) and meso (millimeters to centimeters) scales. Advantages include increased solar absorptance, reduced thermal emittance, and increased thermal efficiency. Radial and linear structures at the meso (tube shape and geometry) and macro (total receiver geometry and configuration) scales redirect reflected solar radiation toward the interior of the receiver for increased absorptance. Hotter regions within the interior of the receiver can reduce thermal emittance due to reduced local view factors to the environment, and higher concentration ratios can be employed with similar surface irradiances to reduce the effective optical aperture, footprint, and thermal losses. Coupled optical/fluid/thermal models have been developed to evaluate the performance of these designs relative to conventional designs. Modeling results showed that fractal-like structures and geometries can increase the effective solar absorptance by 5 – 20% and the thermal efficiency by several percentage points at both the meso and macro scales, depending on factors such as intrinsic absorptance. Meso-scale prototypes were fabricated using additive manufacturing techniques, and a macro-scale bladed receiver design was fabricated using Inconel 625 tubes. On-sun tests were performed using the solar furnace and solar tower at the National Solar Thermal Test facility. The test results demonstrated enhanced solar absorptance and thermal efficiency of the fractal-like designs.

  14. The Energy Crisis and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1974-01-01

    Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)

  15. Thermal characterization of nitrates and nitrates/expanded graphite mixture phase change materials for solar energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, X.; Zhang, P.; Li, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of expanded graphite improved apparent thermal conductivity significantly. • The quadratic parallel model was used to predict the effective thermal conductivity. • The melting/freezing temperatures of mixture PCMs shifted slightly with adding of EG. - Abstract: Solar energy storage has become more attractive in recent years. In particular, latent thermal energy storage (LTES) with large energy storage density and isothermal heat storage/retrieval characteristics is a hot research topic. In the present study, sodium nitrate, potassium nitrate and their mixture were used as the base materials, and expanded graphite (EG) with high thermal conductivity and thermo-chemical stability was used as an additive to enhance the thermal conductivity. EG with various mass fractions was added to the base materials to form mixture phase change materials (PCMs), and the thermal characteristics of the mixtures were studied extensively. The transient hot-wire tests showed that the addition of EG enhanced the apparent thermal conductivity significantly, e.g. the apparent thermal conductivity of the nitrates/10 wt.% EG mixture PCM was increased by about 30–40%. The test results showed good agreement with theoretical calculations of the quadratic parallel model. Tests with differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) revealed that the melting/freezing temperatures of the mixture PCMs shifted slightly, compared with those of pure nitrates

  16. Solar energy for electricity and fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Sundström, Villy

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  17. Bright Idea: Solar Energy Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Natural Resources, Jefferson City.

    This booklet is intended to address questions most frequently asked about solar energy. It provides basic information and a starting point for prospective solar energy users. Information includes discussion of solar space heating, solar water heating, and solar greenhouses. (Author/RE)

  18. Solar energy in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijpe, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the Dutch energy distribution companies (REMU) applies integrated passive, thermal and photovoltaic solar energy systems in fifty newly built dwellings in Amersfoort, Netherlands. The houses are equipped with a combi-boiler (solar energy and natural gas) and 22.5m 2 photovoltaic panels to produce electricity. Six houses are equipped with an electric heat pump, while the other 44 houses have a high-efficiency low-NO x combi-boiler. The experiences with the project so-far are outlined. 6 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  19. Solar Energy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy furnishes all of the heating and hot water needs, plus 80 percent of the air conditioning, for the two-story Reedy Creek building. A unique feature of this installation is that the 16 semi-cylindrical solar collectors (center photo on opposite page with closeup of a single collector below it) are not mounted atop the roof as is customary, they actually are the roof. This arrangement eliminates the usual trusses, corrugated decking and insulating concrete in roof construction; that, in turn, reduces overall building costs and makes the solar installation more attractive economically. The Reedy Creek collectors were designed and manufactured by AAI Corporation of Baltimore, Maryland.

  20. Energy from solar balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grena, Roberto [C. R. Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    Solar balloons are hot air balloons in which the air is heated directly by the sun, by means of a black absorber. The lift force of a tethered solar balloon can be used to produce energy by activating a generator during the ascending motion of the balloon. The hot air is then discharged when the balloon reaches a predefined maximum height. A preliminary study is presented, along with an efficiency estimation and some considerations on possible realistic configurations. (author)

  1. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Mark Z., E-mail: jacobson@stanford.ed [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Delucchi, Mark A., E-mail: madelucchi@ucdavis.ed [Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Climate change, pollution, and energy insecurity are among the greatest problems of our time. Addressing them requires major changes in our energy infrastructure. Here, we analyze the feasibility of providing worldwide energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, heating/cooling, etc.) from wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). In Part I, we discuss WWS energy system characteristics, current and future energy demand, availability of WWS resources, numbers of WWS devices, and area and material requirements. In Part II, we address variability, economics, and policy of WWS energy. We estimate that {approx}3,800,000 5 MW wind turbines, {approx}49,000 300 MW concentrated solar plants, {approx}40,000 300 MW solar PV power plants, {approx}1.7 billion 3 kW rooftop PV systems, {approx}5350 100 MW geothermal power plants, {approx}270 new 1300 MW hydroelectric power plants, {approx}720,000 0.75 MW wave devices, and {approx}490,000 1 MW tidal turbines can power a 2030 WWS world that uses electricity and electrolytic hydrogen for all purposes. Such a WWS infrastructure reduces world power demand by 30% and requires only {approx}0.41% and {approx}0.59% more of the world's land for footprint and spacing, respectively. We suggest producing all new energy with WWS by 2030 and replacing the pre-existing energy by 2050. Barriers to the plan are primarily social and political, not technological or economic. The energy cost in a WWS world should be similar to that today. - Research highlights: {yields} Replacing world energy with wind, water, and sun (WWS) reduces world power demand 30%. {yields} WWS for world requires only 0.41% and 0.51% more world land for footprint and spacing, respectively. {yields} Practical to provide 100% new energy with WWS by 2030 and replace existing energy by 2050.

  2. Solar energy developments: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivoththaman, S.

    2006-01-01

    The annual photovoltaic (PV) energy production crossed the 1 Gigawatt mark a couple of years ago, and continues to grow at rates exceeding 40%. The cost of PV has been continuously dropping due to increased production and also thanks to the technological advances made over the past two decades at the material, device, and system levels. Although PV is still considered expensive, cost-competitiveness is expected to be achieved in the next 5-10 years. With the current PV market 90% dominated by crystalline silicon (Si) material, advances are being made in tackling the Si shortage issue, and new approaches in feedstock refinement are getting shape. On the other hand, progress is being made on thin film-based advanced devices and on novel organic semiconductors. Novel concepts based on quantum physics and nanotechnology do have the ability to improve device performance beyond traditional theoretical limits. The domination of Si is expected to shift when these next generation technologies mature into industry-level scalability. On the system level, advanced back-end electronics provides more efficient power conditioning for modern PV modules. Systems level combinations such as solar thermal/PV hybrids and PV/hydrogen systems are also promising. An overview of recent technology developments will be presented with highlights in the Canadian scenario. (author)

  3. Use of solar energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaunet, L.; Vassbotn, T.; Naavik, G.; Lillevik, O.

    1982-04-01

    The report discusses some materials for utilization of solar energy in agriculture. Accessible data on solar radiation are prepared with a view to practical use in different parts of the country. Physical conditions regarding the mode of operation of different solar collectors are examined, and some methods of transitory storage of solar energy are described. Fields in which practical use of solar energy can be urgent are discussed. These are: water heating and drying of hay and grain. Some practical examples are given. 53 drawings, 9 tables.

  4. Solar Energy: System Sizing, Design, and Retrofit: Student Material. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "System Sizing, Design, and Retrofit," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, exercises, worksheets, bibliographies, and illustrations for 13 course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the…

  5. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  6. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    The paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun.

  7. Comparing solar energy alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines a computational procedure for comparing the merits of alternative processes to convert solar radiation to heat, electrical power, or chemical energy. The procedure uses the ratio of equipment investment to useful work as an index. Comparisons with conversion counterparts based on conventional fuels are also facilitated by examining this index. The procedure is illustrated by comparisons of (1) photovoltaic converters of differing efficiencies; (2) photovoltaic converters with and without focusing concentrators; (3) photovoltaic conversion plus electrolysis vs photocatalysis for the production of hydrogen; (4) photovoltaic conversion plus plasma arcs vs photocatalysis for nitrogen fixation. Estimates for conventionally-fuelled processes are included for comparison. The reasons why solar-based concepts fare poorly in such comparisons are traced to the low energy density of solar radiation and its low stream time factor resulting from the limited number of daylight hours available and clouds obscuring the sun. 11 references.

  8. Solar nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlalka, R.

    1977-01-01

    Brief characteristics are given of solar radiation and of its spectral range. The relation is derived for the gas pressure in the centre of the Sun and the mechanism is described of particle interactions in the Sun. Using the Eddington model the basic nuclear reactions in the Sun are described, namely the proton-proton chain and the C-N cycle. The energy transfer is discussed from the Sun to the boundaries of the Earth atmosphere and inside the atmosphere. The measurement of solar energy is conducted with actinometers, i.e., pyrheliometers, pyranometers and combinations thereof. The results of solar radiation measurement in different weather conditions are graphically represented. (J.B.)

  9. Advanced materials for clean energy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu (Kyo Jo), Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Arylamine-Based Photosensitizing Metal Complexes for Dye-Sensitized Solar CellsCheuk-Lam Ho and Wai-Yeung Wongp-Type Small Electron-Donating Molecules for Organic Heterojunction Solar CellsZhijun Ning and He TianInorganic Materials for Solar Cell ApplicationsYasutake ToyoshimaDevelopment of Thermoelectric Technology from Materials to GeneratorsRyoji Funahashi, Chunlei Wan, Feng Dang, Hiroaki Anno, Ryosuke O. Suzuki, Takeyuki Fujisaka, and Kunihito KoumotoPiezoelectric Materials for Energy HarvestingDeepam Maurya, Yongke Yan, and Shashank PriyaAdvanced Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Ca

  10. Solar energy for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkmann, Rainer

    1998-01-01

    The virtues of solar energy are extolled. The greenhouse gas aspect is mentioned but the main thrust of the paper is the technology and applications such as domestic water heating, combined water and space heating, swimming pools, industrial heating and air conditioning. Statistical data for the present European market, sales and installed collector area are given. (UK)

  11. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  12. Solar Energy Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Harvey, Ed.

    Twenty articles addressing different aspects of solar energy are compiled in this book. They represent the views of different governmental and non-governmental organizations, members of congress, and other individuals including, for example, Barry Commoner and Amory Lovins. Topics discussed include the need for federal support, passive solar…

  13. Energy Education Materials Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The two volumes of the Energy Education Materials Inventory (EEMI) comprise an annotated bibliography of widely available energy education materials and reference sources. This systematic listing is designed to provide a source book which will facilitate access to these educational resources and hasten the inclusion of energy-focused learning experiences in kindergarten through grade twelve. EEMI Volume II expands Volume I and contains items that have become available since its completion in May, 1976. The inventory consists of three major parts. A core section entitled Media contains titles and descriptive information on educational materials, categorized according to medium. The other two major sections - Grade Level and Subject - are cross indexes of the items for which citations appear in the Media Section. These contain titles categorized according to grade level and subject and show the page numbers of the full citations. The general subject area covered includes the following: alternative energy sources (wood, fuel from organic wastes, geothermal energy, nuclear power, solar energy, tidal power, wind energy); energy conservation, consumption, and utilization; energy policy and legislation, environmental/social aspects of energy technology; and fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, petroleum). (RWR)

  14. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  15. Polymeric materials for solar thermal applications

    CERN Document Server

    Köhl, Michael; Papillon, Philippe; Wallner, Gernot M; Saile, Sandrin

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between basic science and technological applications, this is the first book devoted to polymers for solar thermal applications.Clearly divided into three major parts, the contributions are written by experts on solar thermal applications and polymer scientists alike. The first part explains the fundamentals of solar thermal energy especially for representatives of the plastics industry and researchers. Part two then goes on to provide introductory information on polymeric materials and processing for solar thermal experts. The third part combines both of these fields, dis

  16. Nanomaterials for solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured metal chalcogenides of the elements copper, iron, tin, lead and cadmium have attracted interest in their use as colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cells. Some of these materials have the advantages of being available in abundance and having low toxicity. Developing methods for the combination of the elements to produce binary, ternary and quaternary compounds has dominated research in the field. This chapter will provide the most recent developments (from year 2012 onwards) for the synthesis and use of colloidal nanocrystal inks for solar cell applications. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  17. Dye solar cells: a different approach to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Lukas J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An attractive and cheaper alternative to siliconbased photovoltaic (PV) cells for the conversion of solar light into electrical energy is to utilise dyeadsorbed, large-band-gap metal oxide materials such as TiO2 to absorb the solar light...

  18. Summary of solar energy technology characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Dr., Robert R.

    1980-09-01

    This report summarizes the design, operating, energy, environmental, and economic characteristics of 38 model solar systems used in the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems Project including solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, solar electric conversion, and industrial biomass systems. The generic systems designs utilized in this report were based on systems studies and mission analyses performed by the DOE National Laboratories and the MITRE Corporation. The purpose of those studies were to formulate materials and engineering cost data and performance data of solar equipment once mass produced.

  19. Solar energy; Product information. Zonne-energie; Produktinformatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruisheer, N

    1992-03-20

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills.

  20. Recovery Act, EFRC Project: Solar Energy Conversion in Complex Materials (SECCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Peter F. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-25

    The goal of the Center was to design and to synthesize new materials for high efficiency photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) devices, predicated on new fundamental insights into equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes, including quantum phenomena, that occur in materials over various spatial and temporal scales.

  1. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Chábera, Pavel; Uhlig, Jens; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy

    2017-08-23

    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

  2. Using Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Concentrating Solar Power (EPCM-TES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, Anoop [Terrafore Technologies LLC, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Terrafore successfully demonstrated and optimized the manufacturing of capsules containing phase-changing inorganic salts. The phase change was used to store thermal energy collected from a concentrating solar-power plant as latent heat. This latent heat, in addition to sensible heat increased the energy density (energy stored per unit weight of salt) by over 50%, thus requiring 40% less salt and over 60% less capsule container. Therefore, the cost to store high-temperature thermal energy collected in a concentrating solar power plant will be reduced by almost 40% or more, as compared to conventional two-tank, sensible-only storage systems. The cost for thermal energy storage (TES) system is expected to achieve the Sun Shot goal of $15 per kWh(t). Costs associated with poor heat-transfer in phase change materials (PCM) were also eliminated. Although thermal energy storage that relies on the latent heat of fusion of PCM improves energy density by as much as 50%, upon energy discharge the salt freezes and builds on the heat transfer surfaces. Since these salts have low thermal conductivity, large heat-transfer areas, or larger conventional heat-exchangers are needed, which increases costs. By encapsulating PCM in small capsules we have increased the heat transfer area per unit volume of salt and brought the heat transfer fluid in direct contact with the capsules. These two improvements have increased the heat transfer coefficient and boosted heat transfer. The program was successful in overcoming the phenomenon of melt expansion in the capsules, which requires the creation of open volume in the capsules or shell to allow for expansion of the molten salt on melting and is heated above its melting point to 550°C. Under contract with the Department of Energy, Terrafore Inc. and Southwest Research Institute, developed innovative method(s) to economically create the open volume or void in the capsule. One method consists of using a sacrificial polymer coating as the

  3. Solar energy in Amersfoort, Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijpe, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time in the world a newly to be built housing area (Nieuwland in Amersfoort, Netherlands) will be constructed, exclusively on the basis of sustainability. First, the use of three forms of solar energy conversion techniques (thermal solar energy, passive solar energy and photovoltaic energy) is going to be integrated in 50 rental houses. At the end of this century 10,000 m 2 of solar cells will be installed with a capacity of 1 MWp. 2 figs

  4. Solar energy operated still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F A

    1977-03-31

    A silicon membrane that is permeable to the vapour of a liquid to be distilled, is seeded with a light-absorbing pigment, and used in conjunction with a light-transparent material in one of three configurations as a solar powered still. In the first configuration, the membrane is in the form of a corrugated surface welded to the transparent material along the corrugations, forming a series of channel-like air chambers. This assembly floats on the liquid, the transparent side being on top and exposed to the sun. Vapour condensing in the channels is collected. In the second configuration, the liquid is contained between a sheet of transparent material on top, and a sheet of membrane material underneath. Vapour condenses in a chamber beneath. In the third configuration, membrane material is in the form of a pipe containing the liquid. A second concentral pipe of transparent material surrounds it and ensures collection of the condensate.

  5. Indoor Solar Thermal Energy Saving Time with Phase Change Material in a Horizontal Shell and Finned-Tube Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Paria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental as well as numerical investigation was conducted on the melting/solidification processes of a stationary phase change material (PCM in a shell around a finned-tube heat exchanger system. The PCM was stored in the horizontal annular space between a shell and finned-tube where distilled water was employed as the heat transfer fluid (HTF. The focus of this study was on the behavior of PCM for storage (charging or melting and removal (discharging or solidification, as well as the effect of flow rate on the charged and discharged solar thermal energy. The impact of the Reynolds number was determined and the results were compared with each other to reveal the changes in amount of stored thermal energy with the variation of heat transfer fluid flow rates. The results showed that, by increasing the Reynolds number from 1000 to 2000, the total melting time decreases by 58%. The process of solidification also will speed up with increasing Reynolds number in the discharging process. The results also indicated that the fluctuation of gradient temperature decreased and became smooth with increasing Reynolds number. As a result, by increasing the Reynolds number in the charging process, the theoretical efficiency rises.

  6. Indoor solar thermal energy saving time with phase change material in a horizontal shell and finned-tube heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paria, S; Sarhan, A A D; Goodarzi, M S; Baradaran, S; Rahmanian, B; Yarmand, H; Alavi, M A; Kazi, S N; Metselaar, H S C

    2015-01-01

    An experimental as well as numerical investigation was conducted on the melting/solidification processes of a stationary phase change material (PCM) in a shell around a finned-tube heat exchanger system. The PCM was stored in the horizontal annular space between a shell and finned-tube where distilled water was employed as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). The focus of this study was on the behavior of PCM for storage (charging or melting) and removal (discharging or solidification), as well as the effect of flow rate on the charged and discharged solar thermal energy. The impact of the Reynolds number was determined and the results were compared with each other to reveal the changes in amount of stored thermal energy with the variation of heat transfer fluid flow rates. The results showed that, by increasing the Reynolds number from 1000 to 2000, the total melting time decreases by 58%. The process of solidification also will speed up with increasing Reynolds number in the discharging process. The results also indicated that the fluctuation of gradient temperature decreased and became smooth with increasing Reynolds number. As a result, by increasing the Reynolds number in the charging process, the theoretical efficiency rises.

  7. The solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, L.

    2004-05-01

    The solar energy is an important characteristic of Israel, listed in its history and its development. This document presents the solar energy applications in the country in many domains: the solar energy for residential houses, the applications in the agricultural and industrial sectors and the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  8. Molecular design of photovoltaic materials for polymer solar cells: toward suitable electronic energy levels and broad absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfang

    2012-05-15

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs) sandwich a blend layer of conjugated polymer donor and fullerene derivative acceptor between a transparent ITO positive electrode and a low work function metal negative electrode. In comparison with traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, PSCs offer a simpler device structure, easier fabrication, lower cost, and lighter weight, and these structures can be fabricated into flexible devices. But currently the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSCs is not sufficient for future commercialization. The polymer donors and fullerene derivative acceptors are the key photovoltaic materials that will need to be optimized for high-performance PSCs. In this Account, I discuss the basic requirements and scientific issues in the molecular design of high efficiency photovoltaic molecules. I also summarize recent progress in electronic energy level engineering and absorption spectral broadening of the donor and acceptor photovoltaic materials by my research group and others. For high-efficiency conjugated polymer donors, key requirements are a narrower energy bandgap (E(g)) and broad absorption, relatively lower-lying HOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital) level, and higher hole mobility. There are three strategies to meet these requirements: D-A copolymerization for narrower E(g) and lower-lying HOMO, substitution with electron-withdrawing groups for lower-lying HOMO, and two-dimensional conjugation for broad absorption and higher hole mobility. Moreover, better main chain planarity and less side chain steric hindrance could strengthen π-π stacking and increase hole mobility. Furthermore, the molecular weight of the polymers also influences their photovoltaic performance. To produce high efficiency photovoltaic polymers, researchers should attempt to increase molecular weight while maintaining solubility. High-efficiency D-A copolymers have been obtained by using benzodithiophene (BDT), dithienosilole

  9. Solar Energy Development PEIS Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    skip navigation Solar Energy Development Programmatic EIS Home About the EIS Public Involvement Solar Energy Solar Energy Zones Maps Documents secondary menu News Frequently Asked Questions Glossary E the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern

  10. Development of Novel Nano Polymer Composite Material for Solar Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheha, E.; Elrasasi, T.Y.; El mansy, M.K.; Abdallah, B.

    2014-01-01

    PVA: Co 5 (OH) 8 (NO 3 ) 2 •2H 2 O polymer composite has been produced by casting of aqueous solution of mixed composite component. The nano polymer composites were characterized using structure techniques; XRD, SEM, FT-IR and TGA. The results indicated the formation composite without PVA degree of crystallinity variation. The measurements of electrical conductivity for the composites illustrated domination of ion conduction with activation energy (0.65-0.90) eV. The optical absorption illustrated an absorption peak around (530-540) nm which suggest electronic direct transition via energy gap width (1.90-2.16) eV. The electrochemical illustrated electrochemical band gap (1.97-3.26) eV

  11. Solar energy: Technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that in 1970 the total energy consumed in the U.S. was equal to the energy of sunlight received by only 0.15% of the land area of the continental U.S. The utilization of solar energy might, therefore, provide an approach for solving the energy crisis produced by the consumption of irreplaceable fossil fuels at a steadily increasing rate. Questions regarding the availability of solar energy are discussed along with the design of solar energy collectors and various approaches for heating houses and buildings by utilizing solar radiation. Other subjects considered are related to the heating of water partly or entirely with solar energy, the design of air conditioning systems based on the use of solar energy, electric power generation by a solar thermal and a photovoltaic approach, solar total energy systems, industrial and agricultural applications of solar energy, solar stills, the utilization of ocean thermal power, power systems based on the use of wind, and solar-energy power systems making use of geosynchronous power plants.

  12. Public Policies of Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves; Pehlivanian, Sophie; Teissier, Pierre; Chauvin-Michel, Marion; Forget, Marie; Raymond, Roland; Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie; Guthleben, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This dossier about the Public Policies of Solar Energy brings together the presentations given in June 2013 at a colloquium organised by the Savoie university of Chambery (France): Introduction (Yves Bouvier, Sophie Pehlivanian); Passive solar energy in the shade of the French energy policy, 1945-1986 (Pierre Teissier); Solar architectures and energy policies in France: from oil crisis to solar crisis (Marion Chauvin-Michel); Sun in media, between promotion and contestation (Sophie Pehlivanian); Public policies of solar energy and territorial jurisdictions: the example of village photovoltaic power plants (Marie Forget); Energy social system and ordinary creative movement (Roland Raymond); The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's (Julie Hyun Jin Yu, Nathalie Popiolek); Research on solar energy from yesterday to the present day: an historical project (Denis Guthleben); Photovoltaic power: public policies and economical consequences. The French choices in the international context - 1973-2013 (Alain Ricaud)

  13. Advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Gary; Williams, Tom; Wendelin, Tim

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes the research and development at the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in advanced reflector materials for solar concentrators. NREL's research thrust is to develop solar reflector materials that maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under outdoor service conditions and whose cost is significantly lower than existing products. Much of this work has been in collaboration with private-sector companies that have extensive expertise in vacuum-coating and polymer-film technologies. Significant progress and other promising developments will be discussed. These are expected to lead to additional improvements needed to commercialize solar thermal concentration systems and make them economically attractive to the solar manufacturing industry. To explicitly demonstrate the optical durability of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions, a network of instrumented outdoor exposure sites has been activated.

  14. Solar low energy dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestnes, Anne Grete

    2000-01-01

    By now, a lot has been learnt about how to reduce energy use in dwellings using solar and low energy technologies, and many good examples can be found throughout Europe. Still, they are not quite the common feature we would expect them to be, i.e. they have not really penetrated the market. The reason for this is in part a result of the fact that the designers and developers of these buildings have not looked at what the market wants and needs, but rather at how to use a set of given technologies. The buildings are the result of a technology push rather than a market pull and have therefore, often, been detached or semidetached dwellings with different solar technologies added on in less than optimal ways. In order to increase market penetration, it is time to look at the market trends and relate to these. Fortunately, quite a few European architects have realized this and have started designing somewhat different residential buildings. The paper focuses on examples of the new trends in solar residential architecture and by that, hopefully, it shows that we are on the right track. (au)

  15. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  16. Solar energy implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; Obialo, Gaisva R.; Raudonis, Vytautas

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply. We analyzed both economical and environmental costs/benefits of implementation of solar energy system. We analyzed environmental aspect by comparing sola...

  17. Solar energy perspectives in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In a context combining climate change, energy supply crisis, an increased interest in solar energy, a strongly increasing market of solar installations, new technologies, a promotion of the development of the use solar energy in France and a fast development of the water heater and photovoltaic generator markets in France, this report proposes a wide overview of the past, present and future development of solar energy. It discusses the evolution of the French national energy policy and of the solar energy within this policy. It presents and discusses the solar energy resources, their strengths and weaknesses, their geographical and time distribution. It describes the various uses and applications of solar energy in buildings, discusses different aspects of this market (actors, economical data, evolutions, public incentives, perspectives). Then, it describes and discusses technical and economical aspects of two important technologies, the photovoltaic solar energy and the thermodynamic conversion of solar energy. Public incentives, laws and regulations, technical and economic aspects of the connection to the distribution network are then discussed. Some recommendations and ideas are formulated concerning research activities, industrial development, quality of equipment and facilities, personnel education, investment needs

  18. Renewable energy worldwide outlooks: solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnell, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Solar energy yield is weak because it is very diffuse. The solar energy depends on the weather. The collectors need the beam radiation. Wavelength is important for some applications that include not only the visible spectrum but also infrared and ultraviolet radiation. The areas of the greatest future population growth are high on solar energy resources. We have different types of conversion systems where energy can be converted from solar to electric or thermal energy. Photovoltaic cells are made of silicone or gallium arsenide, this latter for the space use. For the solar energy applications there is a storage problem: electric batteries or superconducting magnets. Today, the highest use of solar energy is in the low temperature thermal category with over 90% of the world contribution from this energy. The penetration of solar energy will be higher in rural areas than in urban regions. But there are technical, institutional, economic constraints. In spite of that the use of solar energy would be increasing and will go on to increase thereafter. The decreasing costs over time are a real phenomenon and there is a broad public support for increased use of that energy. 15 figs

  19. Support for solar energy collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Corey; Ardell-Smith, Zachary; Ciasulli, John; Jensen, Soren

    2016-11-01

    A solar energy collection system can include support devices configured to accommodate misalignment of components during assembly. For example, the system can include piles fixed to the earth and an adjustable bearing assembly at the upper end of the pile. The adjustable bearing assembly can include at least one of a vertical adjustment device, a lateral adjustment device and an angular adjustment device. The solar energy collection system can also include a plurality of solar energy collection device pre-wired together and mounted to a support member so as to form modular units. The system can also include enhanced supports for wire trays extending between rows of solar energy collection devices.

  20. When the solar energy pays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laramee, V.

    1997-01-01

    In the californian desert of Mojave, the three biggest solar power plants in the world produce 90% of world solar electric power. They have been operating for ten years, and their managers go on to improve them. These installations beat the productivity record every year, proving that the thermal solar energy can be competitive. (N.C.)

  1. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chain of solar and wind power and other energy sources. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An international Advisory Group Meeting on Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emission from the Full Energy Chain of Solar and Wind Power was convened by the IAEA at its Headquarters in Vienna, 21-24 October, 1996. The meeting was attended by 12 experts from 9 countries and two international organizations, and including one consultant to the Agency. The objectives of the workshop were: to define and to analyze the solar and wind power chains in terms of emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole energy chain, i.e., during a plant's operation, and from the construction of the plant to the plant's decommissioning and waste storage; to evaluate existing assessments of full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases from the wind and solar power chains and, where possible, compare these results with such emissions from nuclear power and other energy chains

  2. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chain of solar and wind power and other energy sources. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    An international Advisory Group Meeting on Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emission from the Full Energy Chain of Solar and Wind Power was convened by the IAEA at its Headquarters in Vienna, 21-24 October, 1996. The meeting was attended by 12 experts from 9 countries and two international organizations, and including one consultant to the Agency. The objectives of the workshop were: to define and to analyze the solar and wind power chains in terms of emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole energy chain, i.e., during a plant`s operation, and from the construction of the plant to the plant`s decommissioning and waste storage; to evaluate existing assessments of full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases from the wind and solar power chains and, where possible, compare these results with such emissions from nuclear power and other energy chains. Refs, figs, tabs.

  3. Solar Thermal Energy; Energia Solar Termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Martinez, M; Cuesta-Santianes, M J; Cabrera Jimenez, J A

    2008-07-01

    Approximately, 50 % of worldwide primary energy consumption is done in the form of heat in applications with a temperature lower than 250 degree centigree (low-medium temperature heat). These data clearly demonstrate the great potential of solar thermal energy to substitute conventional fossil fuels, which are becoming more expensive and are responsible for global warming. Low-medium temperature solar thermal energy is mainly used to obtain domestic hot water and provide space heating. Active solar thermal systems are those related to the use of solar thermal collectors. This study is dealing with low temperature solar thermal applications, mainly focusing on active solar thermal systems. This kind of systems has been extensively growing worldwide during the last years. At the end of 2006, the collector capacity in operation worldwide equalled 127.8 GWth. The technology is considered to be already developed and actions should be aimed at favouring a greater market penetration: diffusion, financial support, regulations establishment, etc. China and USA are the leading countries with a technology based on evacuated tube collectors and unglazed collectors, respectively. The rest of the world markets are dominated by the flat glazed collectors technology. (Author) 15 refs.

  4. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  5. Organic, cross-linking, and shape-stabilized solar thermal energy storage materials: A reversible phase transition driven by broadband visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunming; Tang, Bingtao; Zhang, Shufen

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Organic shape-stabilized solar thermal energy storage materials (OCSPCMs) with broadband harvesting for visible light were obtained by crosslinking and color matching, which provided a new platform for improving the efficiency of solar radiation utilization. - Highlights: • Novel phase change materials (OCSPCMs) were obtained by crosslinking and color matching. • The η of the OCSPCM was higher than 0.74 (visible light from 400 nm to 700 nm). • The phase change latent heats of the OCSPCMs were more than 120 J/g. • The OCSPCM has excellent form-stable effect during phase change process. - Abstract: Broadband visible sunlight usage and shape-stabilized effect were achieved using organic, cross-linking, and shape-stabilized phase-changed materials (OCSPCMs) with broadband visible light absorption, which were obtained by cross-linking reticulation and color matching (yellow, red, and blue) according to solar irradiation energy density. The obtained OCSPCMs exhibited excellent form-stable phase-change energy storage and broadband visible light-harvesting. Under broadband irradiation (from 400 nm to 700 nm), the light-to-heat conversion and the thermal energy storage efficiency (η > 0.74) of the OCSPCMs were significantly improved upon solar irradiation by color matching compared with those of OCSPCMs with single-band selective absorption of visible light (yellow, red, or blue). Differential scanning calorimetric results indicated that the phase change temperatures and latent heats of OCSPCMs ranged from 32.6 °C to 60.2 °C and from 120.1 J/g to 132.7 J/g, respectively. The novel materials show a reversible (more than 200 cycles) phase transition via ON/OFF switching of visible light irradiation

  6. Developing solar energy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alary-Grall, L.

    2003-01-01

    3 years ago the 'Soleil' program was launched and today 660.000 m 2 of solar cells have been installed which has made France to rank 4 behind Germany, Greece and Austria in terms of the use of solar energy. The 'Soleil' program, that will end in 2006, aims at developing solar energy in France and is composed of 4 axis: 1) the contribution to the funding of solar equipment through enticing financial helps, 2) the implementation of a quality plan for the installers of solar equipment, 3) the setting of a quality label for innovative and efficient solar equipment and 4) the promoting of solar energy to the professionals of the construction sector. (A.C.)

  7. Design and evaluation of a heat exchanger that uses paraffin wax and recycled materials as solar energy accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Alejandro; Negrete, Daniela; Mahn, Andrea; Sepúlveda, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity of paraffin wax was improved with aluminum wool. • Aluminum wool surrounding the cans favored the energy recuperation from the wax. • The heat exchanger accumulated 3000 kJ energy. • The accumulated energy can be easily increased with larger units. • COMSOL simulated adequately the energy removal process from the cans. - Abstract: Soft drink cans filled with paraffin wax mixed with 5% w/w aluminum wool, obtained from disposable cans, doubled the thermal conductivity of cans filled only with paraffin wax. Thermal conductivity of the systems was determined by two ways: directly using a thermal conductivimeter, and indirectly based on temperature profiles and on the analytical solution of a cylinder. We designed, built and evaluated a heat exchanger for solar energy accumulation, composed by 48 disposable soft drink cans filled with a total of 9.5 kg of paraffin wax mixed with 5% w/w aluminum wool. In sunny days, the wax melted completely in 3 h. The accumulated energy of 3000 kJ, allowed increasing the temperature of 3.5 m 3 /h air flow rate from 20 to 40 °C during a period of 2 h. This application will allow extending the use of solar energy in drying processes or could be used as household calefaction system. The progress of the phase change front in time during the energy discharge period was simulated with COMSOL, whereas the effect of the number of cans and thermal conductivity of the paraffin wax on the air temperature increase was simulated with MATLAB

  8. Solar energy enters the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1995-11-01

    Everybody agrees that there is a bright future for solar energy. After two decades of research and development, the market introduction of solar hot water systems is now taking off. In several countries, including the Netherlands, preparations are also underway for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic systems. Although the share of thermal and photovoltaic solar energy in the energy supply sector in the Netherlands is very small (0.1 PJ) there are signs of imminent change. According to the Follow-up Policy Document on Energy Conservation, the share of solar energy should increase to 7 PJ by the year 2010. After years of concentrating on research and development, it is now generally recognised that it is time to introduce these technologies onto the market in order to realize the long-term objectives. In this respect, thermal solar energy is ahead of photovoltaics. 4 ills

  9. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  10. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  11. Computational Screening of Energy Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish

    , it is the need of the hour to search for environmentally benign renewable energy resources. The biggest source of the renewable energy is our sun and the immense energy it provides can be used to power the whole planet. However, an efficient way to harvest the solar energy to meet all the energy demand has...... not been realized yet. A promising way to utilize the solar energy is the photon assisted water splitting. The process involves the absorption of sunlight with a semiconducting material (or a photoabsorber) and the generated electron-hole pair can be used to produce hydrogen by splitting the water. However...... an accurate description of the energies with the first-principle calculations. Therefore, along this line the accuracy and predictability of the Meta-Generalized Gradient Approximation functional with Bayesian error estimation is also assessed....

  12. Summary Report for Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage Workshop: New Concepts and Materials for Thermal Energy Storage and Heat-Transfer Fluids, May 20, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-08-01

    This document summarizes a workshop on thermal energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) that was held in Golden, Colorado, on May 20, 2011. The event was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. The objective was to engage the university and laboratory research communities to identify and define research directions for developing new high-temperature materials and systems that advance thermal energy storage for CSP technologies. This workshop was motivated, in part, by the DOE SunShot Initiative, which sets a very aggressive cost goal for CSP technologies -- a levelized cost of energy of 6 cents per kilowatt-hour by 2020 with no incentives or credits.

  13. Solar Energy Technologies Office Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solar Energy Technologies Office

    2018-03-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) supports early-stage research and development to improve the affordability, reliability, and performance of solar technologies on the grid. The office invests in innovative research efforts that securely integrate more solar energy into the grid, enhance the use and storage of solar energy, and lower solar electricity costs.

  14. Masterplan Solar Energy; Masterplan Zonne-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Amerongen, G. [vAConsult, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Verkaik, P. [BDA Dak- en Gevelopleidingen, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Derksen, A. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Gramsbergen, E. [Gramsbergen Solar, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Cromwijk, J. [DWA installatie- en energieadvies, Bodegraven (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The demand for solar energy installations is increasing. The quality of the offered products and services must therefore be safeguarded. This master plan addresses that need and contributes to a structural improvement of the quality of installed solar energy systems. [Dutch] De vraag naar zonne-energie installaties groeit. De kwaliteit van de aangeboden producten en diensten moet dan ook goed gewaarborgd blijven. Dit masterplan voorziet daarin en draagt bij aan een structurele verbetering van de kwaliteit van geinstalleerde zonne-energiesystemen.

  15. Solar energy - status and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahm, P. [PA Energy A/S, Malling (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    Solar energy in terms of thermal Solar Hot Water systems and electricity producing Photovoltaics contribute at present only to the global energy supply at a fraction of 1 %. However, the potential for solar energy is immense: the earth receives in 1 hour from the sun the equivalent of the present annual global energy supply. Solar energy is one of the emerging renewable energy technologies still not competitive, but exhibiting both technical and economic potential to be so inside 10-15 years. There is basically no necessary 'technology jumps' as prerequisites, but such a development will demand a favorable political climate. Growing political awareness, driven partly by environmental concerns partly by concerns about security of energy supply, of the need to promote solar energy and renewables, e.g. on global level spurred on by the recent UN/IPCC report and on an EU level by the EC commitment to reach 20 % renewables in the electricity supply by 2010 and 20 % renewables in the overall energy production by 2020, appears to ensure the necessary future political support for renewables, but not necessarily for solar energy technologies, in particular photovoltaics's, which is still not yet competitive to other renewables although exhibiting a tremendous potential. (au)

  16. The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering | State, Local,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Tribal Governments | NREL The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering February 12, 2018 by Benjamin Mow Massachusetts (DPU) seeking an advisory ruling on the eligibility of pairing solar-plus-storage systems with current

  17. Influence of accelerated thermal charging and discharging cycles on thermo-physical properties of organic phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raam Dheep, G.; Sreekumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of organic phase change materials namely benzamide and sebacic acid. • Thermal reliability studies on identified phase change materials. • Measurement of phase transition temperature and latent heat of fusion. • Analysis of relative percentage difference (RPD%) in heat of fusion and melting temperature of benzamide and sebacic acid. - Abstract: Integration of appropriate thermal energy storage system plays a predominant role in upgrading the efficiency of solar thermal energy devices by reducing the incongruity between energy supply and demand. Latent heat thermal energy storage based on phase change materials (PCM) is found to be the most efficient and prospective method for storage of solar thermal energy. Ensuring the thermal reliability of PCM through large number of charging (melting) and discharging (solidification) cycles is a primary prerequisite to determine the suitability of PCM for a specific thermal energy storage applications. The present study explains the experimental analysis carried out on two PCM’s namely benzamide and sebacic acid to check the compatibility of the material in solar thermal energy storage applications. The selected materials were subjected to one thousand accelerated melting and solidification cycles in order to investigate the percentage of variation at different stages on latent heat of fusion, phase transition temperature, onset and peak melting temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the phase transition temperature and heat of fusion upon completion of every 100 thermal cycles and continued up to 1000 cycles. Relative Percentage Difference (RPD%) is calculated to find out the absolute deviation of melting temperature and latent heat of fusion with respect to zeroth cycle. The experimental study recorded a melting temperatures of benzamide and sebacic acid as 125.09 °C and 135.92 °C with latent heat of fusion of 285.1 (J/g) and 374.4 (J/g). The

  18. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  19. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  20. Priority to solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    There are many different combinations of solar heating systems and heat pumps in the market; some of them differ considerably in terms of the design concept, control management and storage technology. One thing they all have in common is that solar heating comes first.

  1. Limitation of solar energy and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Wind turbines, solar energy collectors and photovoltaic cells have been popular sources of electricity since the oil crisis in the late seventies, and they are increasingly favored by many scientists and much of the public as methods for reducing global warming. The older wind farms in California are outdated. New wind turbines have not followed, primarily because of competition from lower-cost natural gas. The Times urges increased federal and state subsidies for the wind and solar industries. The primary reason that wind and solar energies have not made inroads in the past, and will never supply more than a few percentage points of the world's electrical energy, is their unpredictable variations in time and their constant need for back-ups. The only non-carbon-dioxide-emitting generator capable of backing up wind and solar energy and replacing coal and gas generators is nuclear fission. Nuclear power may be the practical solution to global warming, after all.

  2. Solar energy. Inexhaustible, clean, profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, S.

    2001-01-01

    The growth of US dollar together with the crisis of euro are producing a strong increase in the cost of traditional energy sources: oil and natural gas. Therefore, it is the ideal situation for boosting the alternative energy sources, above all the solar energy which is the most promising [it

  3. Solar energy storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W.; Bloom, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of storing solar energy in the ground for heating residential buildings is described. The method would utilize heat exchanger pipes with a circulating fluid to transfer the energy beneath the surface as well as to extract the stored energy.

  4. Innovative techniques for the production of energetic radicals for lunar materials processing including photogeneration via concentrated solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, D. E.; Lynch, D. C.; Fozzolari, R.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for photo generation of radicals is discussed that can be used in the recovery of oxygen and metals from extraterrestrial resources. The concept behind this work was to examine methods whereby radicals can be generated and used in the processing of refractory materials. In that regard, the focus is on the use of sunlight. Sunlight provides useful energy for processing in the forms of both thermal and quantum energy. A number of experiments were conducted in the chlorination of metals with and without the aid of UV and near UV light. The results of some of those experiments are discussed.

  5. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  6. A low energy solar town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-12-31

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m{sup 2}/year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs.

  7. A low energy solar town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, Svend; Balocco, Carla

    1998-01-01

    The use of solar energy at large scale is necessary to support the energy savings and a more efficient energy use, like besides the quality of the ambient and the quality of the available energy sources. The solar heating systems with seasonal storage can be combined with heat from refuse incineration plants and other renewable heat sources. These systems combined with district heating are an example of the sustainable energy planning and the reduction of the environmental stress. Strategies for sustainability in the settlements can be defined by and energy model to planning that individuates development and economic and financial supports to. The aim of the work concerns the development of a small sun city with no use of fossil fuels. The new low energy solar town is an idealised urban an energy system. The studied settlement regards one thousand new low-energy houses supplied by a district heating with a central solar heating system with seasonal heat storage. The heating and ventilation demand in the studied low energy buildings are less than 40 kWh/m 2 /year, the electricity demand is less than 2000 kWh per house year. The result of the work is an useful tool to the energy planning of the urban areas and it is also a necessary support to the political and energetic decisions. (EG) 58 refs

  8. Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, Karl R. [Pace Energy and Climate Center Pace University School of Law

    2018-03-31

    The Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC) brought together solar energy business associations and other stakeholders in the Northeast to harmonize regional solar energy policy and advance the solar energy market. The Coalition was managed by the Pace Energy and Climate Center, a project of the Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law. The NESEMC was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative as a cooperative agreement through 2017 as part of Solar Market Pathways.

  9. Charging-discharging characteristics of macro-encapsulated phase change materials in an active thermal energy storage system for a solar drying kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Shailendra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores suitability of two phase change materials (PCM for development of an active thermal storage system for a solar drying kiln by studying their melting and solidification behaviors. A double glass glazing prototype solar kiln was used in the study. The storage system consisted of a water storage tank with PCM placed inside the water in high density polyethylene containers. The water in the tank was heated with help of solar energy using an evacuated tube collector array. The melting and solidification temperature curves of PCM were obtained by charging and discharging the water tank. The study illustrated the utility of the PCM in using the stored thermal energy during their discharge to enhance the temperature inside the kiln. The rate of temperature reduction was found to be higher for paraffin wax as compared to a fatty acid based PCM. The water temperature during the discharge of the PCM showed dependence on the discharge characteristics of each PCM suggesting their suitability in designing active thermal storage systems.

  10. Port of Galveston Solar Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcioni, Diane [Port of Galveston (POG), Galveston, TX (United States); Cuclis, Alex [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States); Freundlich, Alex [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This study on the performance characteristics of existing solar technologies in a maritime environment was funded by an award given to The Port of Galveston (POG) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The study includes research performed by The Center for Advanced Materials at the University of Houston (UH). The UH researchers examined how solar cell efficiencies and life spans can be improved by examining the performance of a variety of antireflective (AR) coatings mounted on the top of one of the POG’s Cruise Terminals. Supplemental supporting research was performed at the UH laboratories. An educational Kiosk was constructed with a 55” display screen providing information about solar energy, the research work UH performed at POG and real time data from the solar panels located on the roof of the Cruise Terminal. The Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) managed the project.

  11. Solar '80s: A Teacher's Handbook for Solar Energy Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaHart, David E.

    This guide is intended to assist the teacher in exploring energy issues and the technology of solar energy conversion and associated technologies. Sections of the guide include: (1) Rationale; (2) Technology Overview; (3) Sun Day Suggestions for School; (4) Backyard Solar Water Heater; (5) Solar Tea; (6) Biogas; (7) Solar Cells; (8) Economics; (9)…

  12. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2007. Network of solar energy professionals in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2007 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  13. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2008. Acting for solar energy promotion and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2008 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  14. The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used as an energy-active building envelope material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhara, H.; Milko, J.; Danielewicz, J.; Sayegh, M.A.; Szulgowska-Zgrzywa, M.; Ramos, J.B.; Lester, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    A novel flat heat pipe design has been developed and utilised as a building envelope and thermal solar collector with and without (PV) bonded directly to its surface. The design of the new solar collector has been validated through full scale testing in Cardiff, UK where solar/thermal, uncooled PV and PV/T tests were carried out on three identical systems, simultaneously. The tests showed a solar/thermal energy conversion efficiency of around 64% for the collector with no PV and 50% for the system with the PV layer on it. The effect of cooling on the solar/electrical energy conversion efficiency was also investigated and an efficiency increase of about 15% was recorded for the cooled PV system due to the provided homogenous cooling. The new flat heat pipe solar collector is given the name “heat mat” and, in addition to being an efficient solar collector type, it is also designed to convert a building envelope materials to become energy-active. A full size roof that utilise this new building envelope material is reported in this paper to demonstrate the way this new collector is integrated as a building envelope material to form a roof. A thermal absorption test, in a controlled environment, from the ambient to the heat mat with no solar radiation is also reported. The test has proved the heat mat as an efficient thermal absorber from the ambient to the intermediate fluid that deliver the heat energy to the heat pump system. - Highlights: • A new flat heat pipe PV/T system that can be used as building materials is reported. • The new solar collector enhanced the performance of the PV by about 15%. • The new solar collector is capable of absorbing heat from ambient efficiently. • The new system is efficient from the solar/thermal conversion point of view.

  15. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  16. PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) used as a photoactive electrode; amorphous ... The polymer electrolyte was prepared by dissolving 309 mg of POMOE in 25 mL .... The VOC of Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) based solar cells is strongly correlated ...

  17. Environmental and solar energy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, Z.I.

    2003-01-01

    Technologies for fossil fuel extraction, transportation, processing and their use have harmful impact on the environment which cause direct and indirect negative impact on human heath, animals, crops and structure etc. The end use of all the fossil fuels is combustion irrespective of the final purpose i.e. heating, electricity production and motive power for transportation. The main constituents of fossil fuels are carbon and hydrogen but some other ingredients, which are originally in the fuel e.g. sulfur or are added during refining e.g. lead, alcohol etc. Combustion of the fossil fuel produces various gases (CO/sub x/, SO/sub x/ NO/sub x/, CH,), soot, ash, droplets of tar and other organic compounds, which are all released into the atmosphere. High rate of population growth and industrialization in the developing countries are causing unsustainable use of forest resources and fossil fuels, hence, are serious hurdles in environmental improvement. The situation in Pakistan is even worse as it has very limited fossil fuels and 40% of its commercial energy requirement are to be imported every year. Renewable energy technologies on the other hand, can play a vital role in improving the environmental condition globally. Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies (PCRET) is working in the field of renewable energy technologies. The Council has developed solar modules and solar thermal devices including solar cookers, solar dryers, solar stills and solar water heaters. The paper describes these devices and contribution they can make towards the improvement of environment. (author)

  18. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  19. Experimental research on the use of micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials to store solar energy in concrete floors in order to save energy in Dutch houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, A.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an experimental research is presented on a new use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in concrete floors, in which thermal energy provided by the sun is stored in a mix of concrete and PCMs. When this thermal energy is being released – in moderate sea climates during the evening and

  20. Experimental research on the use of micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials to store solar energy in concrete floors and to save energy in Dutch houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an experimental research is presented on a new use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in concrete floors, in which thermal energy provided by the sun is stored in a mix of concrete and PCMs. When this thermal energy is being released – in moderate sea climates during the evening and

  1. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  2. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Jumaat Siti Amely; Othman Mohamad Hilmi

    2018-01-01

    This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR) sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was...

  3. Materials That Enhance Efficiency and Radiation Resistance of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiadong; Wang, Haorong

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer (approximately 10 microns) of a novel "transparent" fluorescent material is applied to existing solar cells or modules to effectively block and convert UV light, or other lower solar response waveband of solar radiation, to visible or IR light that can be more efficiently used by solar cells for additional photocurrent. Meanwhile, the layer of fluorescent coating material remains fully "transparent" to the visible and IR waveband of solar radiation, resulting in a net gain of solar cell efficiency. This innovation alters the effective solar spectral power distribution to which an existing cell gets exposed, and matches the maximum photovoltaic (PV) response of existing cells. By shifting a low PV response waveband (e.g., UV) of solar radiation to a high PV response waveband (e.g. Vis-Near IR) with novel fluorescent materials that are transparent to other solar-cell sensitive wavebands, electrical output from solar cells will be enhanced. This approach enhances the efficiency of solar cells by converting UV and high-energy particles in space that would otherwise be wasted to visible/IR light. This innovation is a generic technique that can be readily implemented to significantly increase efficiencies of both space and terrestrial solar cells, without incurring much cost, thus bringing a broad base of economical, social, and environmental benefits. The key to this approach is that the "fluorescent" material must be very efficient, and cannot block or attenuate the "desirable" and unconverted" waveband of solar radiation (e.g. Vis-NIR) from reaching the cells. Some nano-phosphors and novel organometallic complex materials have been identified that enhance the energy efficiency on some state-of-the-art commercial silicon and thin-film-based solar cells by over 6%.

  4. Sustainable desalination using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2010-01-01

    Global potable water demand is expected to grow, particularly in areas where freshwater supplies are limited. Production and supply of potable water requires significant amounts of energy, which is currently being derived from nonrenewable fossil fuels. Since energy production from fossil fuels also requires water, current practice of potable water supply powered by fossil fuel derived energy is not a sustainable approach. In this paper, a sustainable phase-change desalination process is presented that is driven solely by solar energy without any reliance on grid power. This process exploits natural gravity and barometric pressure head to maintain near vacuum conditions in an evaporation chamber. Because of the vacuum conditions, evaporation occurs at near ambient temperature, with minimal thermal energy input for phase change. This configuration enables the process to be driven by low-grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Results of theoretical analysis and prototype scale experimental studies conducted to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of operating the process using solar energy are presented. Predictions made by the theoretical model correlated well with measured performance data with r 2 > 0.94. Test results showed that, using direct solar energy alone, the system could produce up to 7.5 L/day of freshwater per m 2 of evaporator area. With the addition of a photovoltaic panel area of 6 m 2 , the system could produce up to 12 L/day of freshwater per m 2 of evaporator area, at efficiencies ranging from 65% to 90%. Average specific energy need of this process is 2930 kJ/kg of freshwater, all of which can be derived from solar energy, making it a sustainable and clean process.

  5. Solar Energy - It's Growth, Development, and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Solar Energy Resources with Additional Information Solar has played a major role in solar energy development through previous research and ongoing activities . As a result of research and development, the "cost of solar energy has been reduced 100-fold

  6. Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies Webinars | Solar Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Studies Webinars Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies Webinars These webinars . Department of Energy's Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies (SEEDS) program. SEEDS 2017-2019 Study Residential Solar July 20, 2017 Presenters: Kiran Lakkaraju, Sandia National Laboratories Yevgeniy Vorobeychik

  7. Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiency Using Photon Upconversion Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yunfei; Hao, Shuwei; Yang, Chunhui; Chen, Guanying

    2015-10-27

    Photovoltaic cells are able to convert sunlight into electricity, providing enough of the most abundant and cleanest energy to cover our energy needs. However, the efficiency of current photovoltaics is significantly impeded by the transmission loss of sub-band-gap photons. Photon upconversion is a promising route to circumvent this problem by converting these transmitted sub-band-gap photons into above-band-gap light, where solar cells typically have high quantum efficiency. Here, we summarize recent progress on varying types of efficient upconversion materials as well as their outstanding uses in a series of solar cells, including silicon solar cells (crystalline and amorphous), gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, and other types of solar cells. The challenge and prospect of upconversion materials for photovoltaic applications are also discussed.

  8. Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiency Using Photon Upconversion Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Shang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic cells are able to convert sunlight into electricity, providing enough of the most abundant and cleanest energy to cover our energy needs. However, the efficiency of current photovoltaics is significantly impeded by the transmission loss of sub-band-gap photons. Photon upconversion is a promising route to circumvent this problem by converting these transmitted sub-band-gap photons into above-band-gap light, where solar cells typically have high quantum efficiency. Here, we summarize recent progress on varying types of efficient upconversion materials as well as their outstanding uses in a series of solar cells, including silicon solar cells (crystalline and amorphous, gallium arsenide (GaAs solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, and other types of solar cells. The challenge and prospect of upconversion materials for photovoltaic applications are also discussed

  9. Can industry afford solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreith, F.; Bezdek, R.

    1983-03-01

    Falling oil prices and conservation measures have reduced the economic impetus to develop new energy sources, thus decreasing the urgency for bringing solar conversion technologies to commercial readiness at an early date. However, the capability for solar to deliver thermal energy for industrial uses is proven. A year-round operation would be three times as effective as home heating, which is necessary only part of the year. Flat plate, parabolic trough, and solar tower power plant demonstration projects, though uneconomically operated, have revealed engineering factors necessary for successful use of solar-derived heat for industrial applications. Areas of concern have been categorized as technology comparisons, load temperatures, plant size, location, end-use, backup requirements, and storage costs. Tax incentives have, however, supported home heating and not industrial uses, and government subsidies have historically gone to conventional energy sources. Tax credit programs which could lead to a 20% market penetration by solar energy in the industrial sector by the year 2000 are presented.

  10. Solar Energy-An Everyday Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keister, Carole; Cornell, Lu Beth

    1978-01-01

    Describes a solar energy research project sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration and conducted at Timonium School in Maryland. Elementary student involvement in solar energy studies resulting from the project is noted. (MDR)

  11. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  12. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2013-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  13. Solar energy apparatus with apertured shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Roger J. (Inventor); Bannon, David G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A protective apertured shield for use about an inlet to a solar apparatus which includesd a cavity receiver for absorbing concentrated solar energy. A rigid support truss assembly is fixed to the periphery of the inlet and projects radially inwardly therefrom to define a generally central aperture area through which solar radiation can pass into the cavity receiver. A non-structural, laminated blanket is spread over the rigid support truss in such a manner as to define an outer surface area and an inner surface area diverging radially outwardly from the central aperture area toward the periphery of the inlet. The outer surface area faces away from the inlet and the inner surface area faces toward the cavity receiver. The laminated blanket includes at least one layer of material, such as ceramic fiber fabric, having high infra-red emittance and low solar absorption properties, and another layer, such as metallic foil, of low infra-red emittance properties.

  14. Introductory guide to solar energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cawood, WN

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available amount of solar energy. It is one thing for environmentalists to advocate a dramatic change over to solar energy but quite another to implement this, as it would obviously be unthinkable to scrap all fossil fuel technology unless a global catastrophe... is one built in New Mexico to suit a climate which is considerably more extreme than that found on the highveld. (See illustration, which applies to the northern hemisphere.) Instead of simply filling the sub-floor level of this home with soil...

  15. A survey of some solar energy retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The report briefly describes a survey of some solar energy retrofits, such as solar heaters and Trombe walls, that can be easily adapted into existing buildings belonging to the Department. With their relatively high cost, commercial solar heaters ha...

  16. Hybrid Solar Cells: Materials, Interfaces, and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Wang, Yue; Kaner, Richard B.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    Photovoltaic technologies could play a pivotal role in tackling future fossil fuel energy shortages, while significantly reducing our carbon dioxide footprint. Crystalline silicon is pervasively used in single junction solar cells, taking up 80 % of the photovoltaic market. Semiconductor-based inorganic solar cells deliver relatively high conversion efficiencies at the price of high material and manufacturing costs. A great amount of research has been conducted to develop low-cost photovoltaic solutions by incorporating organic materials. Organic semiconductors are conjugated hydrocarbon-based materials that are advantageous because of their low material and processing costs and a nearly unlimited supply. Their mechanical flexibility and tunable electronic properties are among other attractions that their inorganic counterparts lack. Recently, collaborations in nanotechnology research have combined inorganic with organic semiconductors in a "hybrid" effort to provide high conversion efficiencies at low cost. Successful integration of these two classes of materials requires a profound understanding of the material properties and an exquisite control of the morphology, surface properties, ligands, and passivation techniques to ensure an optimal charge carrier generation across the hybrid device. In this chapter, we provide background information of this novel, emerging field, detailing the various approaches for obtaining inorganic nanostructures and organic polymers, introducing a multitude of methods for combining the two components to achieve the desired morphologies, and emphasizing the importance of surface manipulation. We highlight several studies that have fueled new directions for hybrid solar cell research, including approaches for maximizing efficiencies by controlling the morphologies of the inorganic component, and in situ molecular engineering via electrochemical polymerization of a polymer directly onto the inorganic nanowire surfaces. In the end, we

  17. Solar energy utilization in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shpil'rajn, Eh.Eh.

    1993-01-01

    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economical. In higher latitudes only seasonable use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy was to produce low temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treating of concrete. A substantial part of the solar heating installations is flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 m 2 . The collectors are produced by industry, as well as by small enterprises. In some cases selective coatings are used over the absorber plates; black nickel or chromium is the main coating material. Recently, new projects were launched to develop and produce advanced collectors with enhanced efficiency and reliability. Substantial progress has been made in the USSR in developing and producing photovoltaic cells, mainly for space applications. Terrestrial applications of photovoltaic is only in the very early stage. About 100 Kw of photovoltaic cells are produced annually in the USSR, based on mono or polycrystalline silicon. Some experimental photovoltaic-arrays in the range of several tenth of Kw are installed in different places. Research and development work is carried out to produce thin film cells. Effort are in progress to construct automated production lines for 1 MW per year of crystalline and amorphous silicon. In the Crimea, a solar power plant SES-5 (5 MW peak power) was commissioned some years ago. The plant is of a tower type, with a circular helioscope field. The plants working fluid is steam. The experienced gained demonstrates that this design concept has several disadvantages. The cost of electricity produced by such type plants extremely high. Recently, alternative types of solar power plants have been under development, in particular, a project

  18. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  19. Mutual alloying of XAs (X=Ga, In, Al) materials: Tuning the optoelectronic and thermodynamic properties for solar energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Haq, Bakhtiar Ul

    2014-02-01

    In the present work we did mutual alloying of the versatile XAs (X=Ga, In, Al) materials in order to improve their efficiency and enhance their range of technological applications using state of the art first principles method. We investigate the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of Ga1-xAlxAs, Ga1-xInxAs and In1-xAlxAs for x=0.25, 0.50, and 0.75. Calculations have been performed using the density functional theory (DFT) as implemented within the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method. For exchange and correlation energy treatment, we employed the local density approximations (LDA) as proposed by Wang and Perdew and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) from Perdew et al. proposed. To calculate the accurate band structure, recently modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential was suggested as an alternative. Our calculations show a linear fall in the lattice constant in contrast to linear rise in bulk moduli of Ga1-xAlxAs and In1-xAlxAs with the increase of Al concentration. However the change of indium concentration in Ga1-xInxAs is displaying a reverse effect. The energy band gap of Ga1-xAlxAs and In1-xAlxAs was found to be increased, where a crossover from direct to indirect band gap has been observed with the increase of Al concentration. This direct to indirect crossover was found at 93.4% of Al concentration for Ga1-xAlxAs and at 84.63% of Al concentration for In1-xAlxAs. The effect of the mutual alloying of XAs materials on the thermodynamic properties is comprehensively reported. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Mutual alloying of XAs (X=Ga, In, Al) materials: Tuning the optoelectronic and thermodynamic properties for solar energy applications

    KAUST Repository

    Haq, Bakhtiar Ul; Ahmed, Rashid; El Haj Hassan, Fouad; Khenata, Rabah; Kasmin, Mohd Khalid; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we did mutual alloying of the versatile XAs (X=Ga, In, Al) materials in order to improve their efficiency and enhance their range of technological applications using state of the art first principles method. We investigate the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of Ga1-xAlxAs, Ga1-xInxAs and In1-xAlxAs for x=0.25, 0.50, and 0.75. Calculations have been performed using the density functional theory (DFT) as implemented within the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method. For exchange and correlation energy treatment, we employed the local density approximations (LDA) as proposed by Wang and Perdew and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) from Perdew et al. proposed. To calculate the accurate band structure, recently modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential was suggested as an alternative. Our calculations show a linear fall in the lattice constant in contrast to linear rise in bulk moduli of Ga1-xAlxAs and In1-xAlxAs with the increase of Al concentration. However the change of indium concentration in Ga1-xInxAs is displaying a reverse effect. The energy band gap of Ga1-xAlxAs and In1-xAlxAs was found to be increased, where a crossover from direct to indirect band gap has been observed with the increase of Al concentration. This direct to indirect crossover was found at 93.4% of Al concentration for Ga1-xAlxAs and at 84.63% of Al concentration for In1-xAlxAs. The effect of the mutual alloying of XAs materials on the thermodynamic properties is comprehensively reported. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Energy situation and perspectives of using solar energy in Crimea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.I.; Mashkara, O.G.; Vikhorev, Yu.A.; Sokolovskaya, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    The article presents the talk on the energy situation and perspectives of the use of solar energy in Crimea, Ukraine, given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. The main use of solar energy is solar energy heating systems developed and produced in Crimea. The project of 100 MWt solar power plant is proposed for construction in Crimea and will improve ecological situation in resort area. (A.A.D.)

  2. Material Technologies Developments for Solar Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrafiotis, C.; Pagkoura, C.; Lorentzou, S.; Hoguet, J.C.; Konstandopoulos, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The present work presents recent activities of our Laboratory in the field of solar-aided hydrogen production materials and reactor technologies that can be fully integrated into solar thermal power plants. Emphasis is given on structured monolithic solar reactors where ceramic supports optimized to absorb solar radiation and develop sufficiently high temperatures, are coated with active materials to perform a variety of 'solar-aided' reactions such as water splitting or natural gas reforming. Particular examples discussed include properties'' assessment of monolithic ceramic honeycombs used as volumetric solar thermal reactors/receivers, synthesis of active water-splitting redox materials for the production of hydrogen and their tailored deposition upon porous supports and design, operation simulation and performance optimization of structured monolithic solar hydrogen production reactors. (authors)

  3. Nuclear energy + solar energy, why not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez C, I.; Nelson E, P.

    2016-09-01

    Clean energies such as nuclear and solar are part of the solution to the energy dependence that we face today and also help us to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, thus avoiding a global average temperature increase that is irreversible and harmful to all living beings on the planet. Independently the nuclear and solar energies have had a great development in recent years, so in this work we set ourselves the task of creating a synergy between them. First, we conducted a survey of different people involved in the area of energy (energy efficiency, clean energy and renewable sources) in order to know if the area of which they are part influences with respect to the impression that they have of safety in terms of supply, return on investment and safety to the health and environment of another energy source for which we use a correlation analysis. With the results obtained we propose to use photo thermic solar energy as a support to reduce the frequency of accidents by station blackout and we perform the analysis of the combination using the methodology of Probabilistic Analysis of Security with the help of SAPHIRE 7 software to realize the event trees by station blackout of a nuclear power plant and faults for a photo-thermal solar plant. Finally, the decrease in the probability of station blackout from the proposed combination is quantified. The results were favorable to indicate that the probability of station blackout is reduced in half and that is why is suggested to continue studying the combination. (Author)

  4. Graphene for thermoelectronic solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Dilip K.; Olukunle, Olawole C.

    2017-08-01

    Graphene is a high temperature material which can stand temperature as high as 4600 K in vacuum. Even though its work function is high (4.6 eV) the thermionic emission current density at such temperature is very high. Graphene is a wonderful material whose work function can be engineered as desired. Kwon et al41 reported a chemical approach to reduce work function of graphene using K2CO3, Li2CO3, Rb2CO3, Cs2CO3. The work functions are reported to be 3.7 eV, 3.8 eV, 3.5 eV and 3.4 eV. Even though they did not report the high temperature tolerance of such alkali metal carbonate doped graphene, their works open a great promise for use of pure graphene and doped graphene as emitter (cathode) and collector (anode) in a solar thermionic energy converter. This paper discusses the dynamics of solar energy conversion to electrical energy using thermionic energy converter with graphene as emitter and collector. We have considered parabolic mirror concentrator to focus solar energy onto the emitter to achieve temperature around 4300 K. Our theoretical calculations and the modelling show that efficiency as high as 55% can easily be achieved if space-charge problem can be reduced and the collector can be cooled to certain proper temperature. We have discussed methods of controlling the associated space-charge problems. Richardson-Dushman equation modified by the authors have been used in this modelling. Such solar energy conversion would reduce the dependence on silicon solar panel and has great potential for future applications.

  5. Solar energy in Germany: a national commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the development of solar energy in Germany: national energy plan and share of solar energy in the German energy mix, the photovoltaic industry: a dynamic industry which creates jobs, 2006-2012 evolution of photovoltaic power plant costs, solar thermal resource potentialities and effective exploitation

  6. SOLAR ENERGY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PÃCE?ILÃ

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources in Europe offering new possibilities to generate electricity and heat. In this context, the study provides accurate information about researches that characterize the solar resource and investigates the potential of solar energy in European countries. The analysis is also focused on the current status of market development including photovoltaic capacity, electricity production from solar photovoltaic power, solar thermal capa...

  7. Energy Release in Solar Flares,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Plasma Research, Stanford University P. Kaufmanu CRAA/CNPq -Conseiho lacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico, Slo Paulo, SP, Brasil D.F...three phases of energy release in solar flares (Sturrock, 1980). However, a recent article by Feldman e a.. (1982) points to a significant

  8. Steam generation from solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The vapor for thermoelectric use is one of the most promoted methods for electric power generation from solar energy. The new plants are becoming more and more safe, and anyway in some cases the natural gas makes easy the production of electricity [it

  9. Solar energy in Uruguay. Increase the use of solar panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, V.

    2010-01-01

    This article is about the future of the solar energy in Uruguay. The main aspects of this kind of energy are solar thermic which is used for cooking food and heating water through solar collectors as well as the photovoltaics which allows the generation of electricity

  10. Phase change materials in energy sector - applications and material requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuta, Marta; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.

    2015-05-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been applying in many areas. One of them is energy field. PCMs are interesting for the energy sector because their use enables thermal stabilization and storage of large amount of heat. It is major issue for safety of electronic devices, thermal control of buildings and vehicles, solar power and many others energy domains. This paper contains preliminary results of research on solid-solid phase change materials designed for thermal stabilisation of electronic devices.

  11. Assessing Rare Metal Availability Challenges for Solar Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Grandell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is commonly seen as a future energy source with significant potential. Ruthenium, gallium, indium and several other rare elements are common and vital components of many solar energy technologies, including dye-sensitized solar cells, CIGS cells and various artificial photosynthesis approaches. This study surveys solar energy technologies and their reliance on rare metals such as indium, gallium, and ruthenium. Several of these rare materials do not occur as primary ores, and are found as byproducts associated with primary base metal ores. This will have an impact on future production trends and the availability for various applications. In addition, the geological reserves of many vital metals are scarce and severely limit the potential of certain solar energy technologies. It is the conclusion of this study that certain solar energy concepts are unrealistic in terms of achieving TW scales.

  12. Advanced energy materials (Preface)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Elby; Ventura, João; Araújo, João Pedro; Campos Gil, João

    2017-12-01

    Advances in material science make it possible to fabricate the building blocks of an entirely new generation of hierarchical energy materials. Recent developments were focused on functionality and areas connecting macroscopic to atomic and nanoscale properties, where surfaces, defects, interfaces and metastable state of the materials played crucial roles. The idea is to combine both, the top-down and bottom-up approach as well as shape future materials with a blend of both the paradigms.

  13. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  14. Villa Design and Solar Energy Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper goes through solar energy and what uses it has. It is also a guide in the choice of solar collectors for the real estate that I have drawn for the thesis work. Solar energy is a renewable source of energy from the Sun's light. Energy can be used to produce both heat and electricity through solar collectors and solar cells. Some of the benefits of solar energy is that it is completely free to extract, environmentally friendly and virtually maintenance-free. Disadvantages are that th...

  15. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  16. Solar-assisted low energy dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbensen, T V

    1980-02-01

    The Zero Energy House Group was formed as a subproject of the CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study in 1974 by seven participating countries experimenting with solar-assisted low-energy dwellings for temperate and northern European climatic conditions. A Zero Energy House is one in which solar energy is used to meet the reduced energy needs of buildings incorporating various thermal energy conservation features. This final report of the Zero Energy House Group includes brief descriptions of 13 major low-energy dwellings in the participating CCMS countries. An overall assessment of the state-of-the-art in solar-assisted low-energy dwellings is also included.

  17. Iron disulfide for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Fiechter, S. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Pettenkofer, C. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Alonso-Vante, N. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Bueker, K. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Bronold, M. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Hoepfner, C. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany)); Tributsch, H. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany))

    1993-05-01

    Pyrite (E[sub g] = 0.95 eV) is being developed as a solar energy material due to its environmental compatibility and its very high light absorption coefficient. A compilation of material, electronic and interfacial chemical properties is presented, which is considered relevant for quantum energy conversion. In spite of intricate problems existing within material chemistry, high quantum efficiencies for photocurrent generation (> 90%) and high photovoltages ([approx] 500 mV) have been observed with single crystal electrodes and thin layers respectively. The most interesting aspect of this study is the use of pyrite as an ultrathin (10-20 nm) layer sandwiched between large gap p-type and n-type materials in a p-i-n like structure. Such a system, in which the pyrite layer only acts as photon absorber and mediates injection of excited electrons can be defined as sensitization solar cell. The peculiar electron transfer properties of pyrite interfaces, facilitating interfacial coordination chemical pathways, may turn out to be very helpful. Significant research challenges are discussed in the hope of attracting interest in the development of solar cells from this abundant material. (orig.)

  18. Solar Energy - An Option for Future Energy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the exponential growth of energy consumption and future consequences. Possible methods of converting solar energy to power such as direct energy conversion, focusing collectors, selective rediation absorbers, ocean thermal gradient, and space solar power are considered. (DF)

  19. Materials and processes for solar fuel production

    CERN Document Server

    Viswanathan, Balasubramanian; Lee, Jae Sung

    2014-01-01

    This book features different approaches to non-biochemical pathways for solar fuel production. This one-of-a-kind book addresses photovoltaics, photocatalytic water splitting for clean hydrogen production and CO2 conversion to hydrocarbon fuel through in-depth comprehensive contributions from a select blend of established and experienced authors from across the world. The commercial application of solar based systems, with particular emphasis on non-PV based devices have been discussed. This book intends to serve as a primary resource for a multidisciplinary audience including chemists, engineers and scientists providing a one-stop location for all aspects related to solar fuel production. The material is divided into three sections: Solar assisted water splitting to produce hydrogen; Solar assisted CO2 utilization to produce green fuels and Solar assisted electricity generation. The content strikes a balance between theory, material synthesis and application with the central theme being solar fuels.

  20. Waste Material Management: Energy and materials for industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This booklet describes DOE`s Waste Material Management (WMM) programs, which are designed to help tap the potential of waste materials. Four programs are described in general terms: Industrial Waste Reduction, Waste Utilization and Conversion, Energy from Municipal Waste, and Solar Industrial Applications.

  1. Solar energy converter using surface plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Sunlight is dispersed over a diffraction grating formed on the surface of a conducting film on a substrate. The angular dispersion controls the effective grating period so that a matching spectrum of surface plasmons is excited for parallel processing on the conducting film. The resulting surface plasmons carry energy to an array of inelastic tunnel diodes. This solar energy converter does not require different materials for each frequency band, and sunlight is directly converted to electricity in an efficient manner by extracting more energy from the more energetic photons.

  2. The marketing of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coehoorn, M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    After two decades of research and development the market introduction of solar water heaters finally is developing rapidly. In a number of progressive countries, amongst which the Netherlands, preparations are made for the large-scale introduction of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. A brief overview is given of market introduction activities with regard to solar energy applications in several countries. Also attention is paid to new technological developments for the improvement of solar boilers: the Integrated Collector Storage system, the integration of the storage tank in the solar water heater (combi-boiler), and the new principle for a combined system for the production of hot tap water and space heating, the so-called solar-gas-combi. The Dutch-developed boilers, however, must compete with the the foreign thermosyphon boilers, although these boilers probably require more maintenance than the Dutch boilers. The market for PV-systems is still in its infancy. The marketing efforts and research activities in Japan, USA and European countries for PV-systems are briefly discussed. Although financial incentives from the national governments are still necessary contributions from other market parties for the development of PV-systems are expected. 4 ills

  3. Solar Energy in the Home. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Allen A.; Woodland, James A.

    Recommended for grades 10-12 physical, earth, or general science classes, this 5-7 day unit is designed to give students a general understanding of solar energy and its use as a viable alternative to present energy sources. Along with this technology, students examine several factors of solar energy which influence the choice of solar home site…

  4. Photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouratoglou, P.; Therond, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The most important assets of photovoltaic energy for sustainable development are its simplicity (no need for complicated thermodynamical cycles) and the universal availability of the sun which explains its great popularity. The main restraint to its full development is the high cost of the technologies used. The silicon technology is the historical technology, it has high conversion rates but is expensive because of high fabrication costs. This technology represents 80% of the market. On the other hand the thin film technology with CdTe, CIS or CIGS is promising in terms of costs but requires research works to increase its conversion rate. Japan and Germany are the leader countries in terms of photovoltaic for research, industrial fabrication or state support, they are followed by Spain, Usa, and China. (A.C.)

  5. Solar thermal energy conversion to electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Anh-Khoi; González, Ivan; Fournier, Luc; Pelletier, Rémi; Sandoval V, Juan C.; Lesage, Frédéric J.

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of solar energy to electricity currently relies primarily on the photovoltaic effect in which photon bombardment of photovoltaic cells drives an electromotive force within the material. Alternatively, recent studies have investigated the potential of converting solar radiation to electricity by way of the Seebeck effect in which charge carrier mobility is generated by an asymmetric thermal differential. The present study builds upon these latest advancements in the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric system management by combining solar evacuated tube technology with commercially available Bismuth Telluride semiconductor modules. The target heat source is solar radiation and the target heat sink is thermal convection into the ambient air relying on wind aided forced convection. These sources of energy are reproduced in a laboratory controlled environment in order to maintain a thermal dipole across a thermoelectric module. The apparatus is then tested in a natural environment. The novelty of the present work lies in a net thermoelectric power gain for ambient environment applications and an experimental validation of theoretical electrical characteristics relative to a varying electrical load. - Highlights: • Solar radiation maintains a thermal tension which drives an electromotive force. • Voltage, current and electric power are reported and discussed. • Theoretical optimal thermoelectric conversion predictions are presented. • Theory is validated with experimentally measured data

  6. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  7. How to Draw Energy Level Diagrams in Excitonic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X-Y

    2014-07-03

    Emerging photovoltaic devices based on molecular and nanomaterials are mostly excitonic in nature. The initial absorption of a photon in these materials creates an exciton that can subsequently dissociate in each material or at their interfaces to give charge carriers. Any attempt at mechanistic understanding of excitonic solar cells must start with drawing energy level diagrams. This seemingly elementary exercise, which is described in textbooks for inorganic solar cells, has turned out to be a difficult subject in the literature. The problem stems from conceptual confusion of single-particle energy with quasi-particle energy and the misleading practice of mixing the two on the same energy level diagram. Here, I discuss how to draw physically accurate energy diagrams in excitonic solar cells using only single-particle energies (ionization potentials and electron affinities) of both ground and optically excited states. I will briefly discuss current understanding on the electronic energy landscape responsible for efficient charge separation in excitonic solar cells.

  8. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  9. Cumulative energy demand and global warming potential of a building-integrated solar thermal system with/without phase change material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamnatou, Chr; Motte, F; Notton, G; Chemisana, D; Cristofari, C

    2018-04-15

    Building-integrated solar thermal (BIST) systems are a specific type of solar thermal systems which are integrated into the building and they participate in building functionality. The present article is about the life-cycle assessment of different options of a BIST system (Mediterranean climatic conditions: Ajaccio, France). The environmental profile of the studied configurations is assessed by means of CED (cumulative energy demand), GWP (global warming potential) and EPBT (energy payback time). The proposed configurations (for the collector) include: i) a system without PCM (phase change material) using only rock wool as insulation and ii) a system with PCM (myristic acid) and rock wool. Concerning life-cycle results based on CED and GWP 100a (scenario without recycling), the configuration without PCM shows 0.67 MJ prim /kWh and 0.06 kg CO 2.eq /kWh while the configuration with PCM presents 0.74 MJ prim /kWh and 0.08 kg CO 2.eq /kWh. Regarding EPBT, if the inputs for pumping/auxiliary heating are not taken into account, both configurations (with/without PCM) have almost the same EPBT (about 1.3 years). On the other hand, if the inputs for pumping/auxiliary heating are considered, EPBT is lower for the system with PCM. In addition, scenarios with recycling have been examined and the results demonstrate that recycling considerably improves the environmental profile of the studied configurations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar energy options: Technical economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visentin, R

    1982-01-01

    A general system approach on the earth suggests the conversion and distribution of solar energy as electricity, gas, solid and liquid fuels; the historical trend in energy management techniques is in favour of this hard technical proposal, because experience there exists on methods of transmission or transportation of previous kinds of energy vectors mentioned, and small changes in lifestyles toward energy conservation have to be considered in the final uses of the energy. Less hard system technologies will permit direct heat and electricity production close to the channels of energy consumptions; these systems will function as energy savers and their full exploitation implies greater impacts on energy use and lifestyles. As a general trend for government policies as well as for public decision impact on the social decision process, the proliferation of solar systems would permit to produce energy for the 'flowing energetic consumptions' (civil, transportation, agriculture, telecommunications, lighting, etc.) while the not renewable fuels could be properly invested in the production of strategic or durable materials; in this scheme the role of renewable resources is well defined to stabilize the whole civil system in which we are at present organized.

  11. Solar Energy: Potential Powerhouse for Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallion, Tom

    1976-01-01

    Components of solar energy systems are described, the development of the solar industry discussed, and implications are drawn for employment opportunities in industries (which may expand into new, solar-related areas) and in the professions, from law to sales, upon the advent of solar heating. (AJ)

  12. Research progress about chemical energy storage of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haifeng; Xie, Gengxin; Jie, Zheng; Hui, Xiong; Yang, Duan; Du, Chaojun

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the application of solar energy has been shown obvious advantages. Solar energy is being discontinuity and inhomogeneity, so energy storage technology becomes the key to the popularization and utilization of solar energy. Chemical storage is the most efficient way to store and transport solar energy. In the first and the second section of this paper, we discuss two aspects about the solar energy collector / reactor, and solar energy storage technology by hydrogen production, respectively. The third section describes the basic application of solar energy storage system, and proposes an association system by combining solar energy storage and power equipment. The fourth section briefly describes several research directions which need to be strengthened.

  13. Solar energy utilization by solar cells and superblack absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, D; Selders, M

    1975-10-31

    A review is presented of the physical principles responsible for the characteristics of solar cells, with particular reference to Si homojunction and CdS--Cu/sub 2/S thin film devices. Electric power generation from solar cells still appears uncompetitive economically except in special circumstances, but heating from solar energy using selective absorbers with low reemission is more promising.

  14. Solar energy sciences and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Enteria, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy.This book will introduce the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advanc

  15. The export of Dutch solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The use of solar energy technology is on the up. In 1997 circa 8000 solar energy systems were installed in the Netherlands, compared to 100 systems in 1988. Solar energy installations, manufactured in the Netherlands, are also sold and installed in other European countries. The market grows by 55% per year. An overview is given of the principles and components of installed and exported solar heating systems, with special attention for the drain-back system

  16. A Review of Solar Energy and the Built Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raha Sulaiman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar Energy has been acknowledged as a free and infinite source of energy. In Built Environment (BE, solar energy has been used since pre-historic time. Many improvements and technologies .have been developed with respect to their potential. As solar supplies free energy, the issues with regard to their development in the BE will be examined. The solar energy is used in building either in Passive Solar Design (PSD or Active Solar Design (ASD. Rapid development in BE has caused global warming effect where the heating and cooling of the building contribute to half the total energy consumption of the nation and the construction industry leading to CO2 emission level at 300 million tonnes. It is found that solar energy produces different energy performances which result from different building technique that affected the environment in various ways. Whether or not the energy performances depend on the materials used, the equipment installed in the building or the energy sources supplied to the building , the improvement and development of solar energy still continues and grows.

  17. Wuestite - a solar energy carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenkaff, A; Nueesch, P; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Reller, A [Hamburg Univ., Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    Hydrogen is produced when Wuestite (Fe{sub 1-y}O) is oxidised by water. This reaction is part of a two-step thermochemical metal oxide cycle for the storage of solar energy in the form of chemical energy carriers, characterised by a high chemical potential. The reaction was studied in a tubular furnace with on-line gas analysis and further characterised in detail by DTA und high-temperature X-ray powder diffraction. The influence of non-stoichiometry, morphology and temperature on the mechanism and kinetics of the water-splitting reaction was determined. (author) 3 figs., tabs., 3 refs.

  18. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  19. Design of solar drying-plant for bulk material drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A generally well-known high energy requirement for technological processes of drying and the fact that the world’s supplyof the conventional energy sources has considerably decreased are the decisive factors forcing us to look for some new, if possible,renewable energy sources for this process by emphasising their environmental reliability. One of the possibilities how to replace, atleast partly, the conventional energy sources – heat in a drying process is solar energy.Air-drying of bulk materials usually has a series of disadvantages such as time expenditure, drying defects in the bulk materialand inadequate final moisture content. A method that obviates or reduces the disadvantages of air-drying and, at the same time, reducesthe costs of kiln drying, is drying with solar heat. Solar energy can replace a large part of this depletable energy since solar energy cansupply heat at the temperatures most often used to dry bulk material. Solar drying-plant offer an attractive solution.

  20. Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Thomas, J.; Papanikolas, John, P.

    2011-11-11

    SOLAR ENERGY RESEARCH CENTER INSTRUMENTATION FACILITY The mission of the Solar Energy Research Center (UNC SERC) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) is to establish a world leading effort in solar fuels research and to develop the materials and methods needed to fabricate the next generation of solar energy devices. We are addressing the fundamental issues that will drive new strategies for solar energy conversion and the engineering challenges that must be met in order to convert discoveries made in the laboratory into commercially available devices. The development of a photoelectrosynthesis cell (PEC) for solar fuels production faces daunting requirements: (1) Absorb a large fraction of sunlight; (2) Carry out artificial photosynthesis which involves multiple complex reaction steps; (3) Avoid competitive and deleterious side and reverse reactions; (4) Perform 13 million catalytic cycles per year with minimal degradation; (5) Use non-toxic materials; (6) Cost-effectiveness. PEC efficiency is directly determined by the kinetics of each reaction step. The UNC SERC is addressing this challenge by taking a broad interdisciplinary approach in a highly collaborative setting, drawing on expertise across a broad range of disciplines in chemistry, physics and materials science. By taking a systematic approach toward a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of each step, we will be able to gain unique insight and optimize PEC design. Access to cutting-edge spectroscopic tools is critical to this research effort. We have built professionally-staffed facilities equipped with the state-of the-art instrumentation funded by this award. The combination of staff, facilities, and instrumentation specifically tailored for solar fuels research establishes the UNC Solar Energy Research Center Instrumentation Facility as a unique, world-class capability. This congressionally directed project funded the development of two user facilities: TASK 1: SOLAR

  1. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  2. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.

  3. Solar-hydrogen energy systems: an authoritative review of water-splitting systems by solar beam and solar heat : hydrogen production, storage, and utilisation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ōta, Tokio

    1979-01-01

    ... An Authoritative Review of Watersplitting Systems by Solar Beam and Solar Heat: Hydrogen Production, Storage and Utilisation edited by TOKIO OHTA Professor of Materials Science and Energy System Yoko...

  4. Solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, D.; Slaoui, A.; Soler, R.; Bermudez, V.

    2009-01-01

    Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

  5. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam T. Chaichan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temperature measured in a definite interval of time. Four cases were studied: using water as storage material with and without solar tracker. Also, PCM was as thermal storage material with and without solar tracker.The system working time was increased to about 5 h with sun tracker by concentrating dish and adding PCM to the system. The system concentrating efficiency, heating efficiency, and system productivity, has increased by about 64.07%, 112.87%, and 307.54%, respectively. The system working time increased to 3 h when PCM added without sun tracker. Also, the system concentrating efficiency increased by about 50.47%, and the system heating efficiency increased by about 41.63%. Moreover, the system productivity increased by about 180%.

  6. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  7. Experimental Investigation on an Energy Efficient Solar Tunnel Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Seshan Ram

    2012-01-01

    The research determines the effectiveness of the solar tunnel dryer developed and the product dried in the device is superior in quality and also it is compatible with branded products available in the market. The study also determines Acetamide as Phase Key words: Solar Tunnel Dryer, Acetamide as Phase Change Materials, Conversion into Thermal Energy, Thermocouple, and Pyranometer

  8. Advances in solar thermal energy in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Noceto, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the law 18585 which declared de solar thermal energy as national interest. This law establishes the obligation to incorporate solar heating systems in health care centers, hotels and sports clubs.

  9. Materials for solar fuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Joseph H; Seitz, Linsey C; Chakthranont, Pongkarn; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Jaramillo, Thomas F; Nørskov, Jens K

    2016-12-20

    The conversion of sunlight into fuels and chemicals is an attractive prospect for the storage of renewable energy, and photoelectrocatalytic technologies represent a pathway by which solar fuels might be realized. However, there are numerous scientific challenges in developing these technologies. These include finding suitable materials for the absorption of incident photons, developing more efficient catalysts for both water splitting and the production of fuels, and understanding how interfaces between catalysts, photoabsorbers and electrolytes can be designed to minimize losses and resist degradation. In this Review, we highlight recent milestones in these areas and some key scientific challenges remaining between the current state of the art and a technology that can effectively convert sunlight into fuels and chemicals.

  10. Integrated solar capacitors for energy conversion and storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiyuan Liu; Yuqiang Liu; Haiyang Zou; Tao Song; Baoquan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most popular clean energy sources and is a promising alternative to fulfill the increasing energy demands of modern society.Solar cells have long been under intensive research attention for harvesting energy from sunlight with a high power-conversion efficiency and low cost.However,the power outputs of photovoltaic devices suffer from fluctuations due to the intermittent instinct of the solar radiation.Integrating solar cells and energystorage devices as self-powering systems may solve this problem through the simultaneous storage of the electricity and manipulation of the energy output.This review summarizes the research progress in the integration of new-generation solar cells with supercapacitors,with emphasis on the structures,materials,performance,and new design features.The current challenges and future prospects are discussed with the aim of expanding research and development in this field.

  11. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, Muejgan; Egrican, Niluefer

    2011-01-01

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  12. Renewable Energy: Solar Fuels GRC and GRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Nathan [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Gray, Nancy Ryan [Gordon Research Conferences, West Kingston, RI (United States)

    2010-02-26

    This Gordon Research Conference seeks to bring together chemists, physicists, materials scientists and biologists to address perhaps the outstanding technical problem of the 21st Century - the efficient, and ultimately economical, storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources. Such an advance would deliver a renewable, environmentally benign energy source for the future. A great technological challenge facing our global future is energy. The generation of energy, the security of its supply, and the environmental consequences of its use are among the world's foremost geopolitical concerns. Fossil fuels - coal, natural gas, and petroleum - supply approximately 90% of the energy consumed today by industrialized nations. An increase in energy supply is vitally needed to bring electric power to the 25% of the world's population that lacks it, to support the industrialization of developing nations, and to sustain economic growth in developed countries. On the geopolitical front, insuring an adequate energy supply is a major security issue for the world, and its importance will grow in proportion to the singular dependence on oil as a primary energy source. Yet, the current approach to energy supply, that of increased fossil fuel exploration coupled with energy conservation, is not scaleable to meet future demands. Rising living standards of a growing world population will cause global energy consumption to increase significantly. Estimates indicate that energy consumption will increase at least two-fold, from our current burn rate of 12.8 TW to 28 - 35 TW by 2050. - U.N. projections indicate that meeting global energy demand in a sustainable fashion by the year 2050 will require a significant fraction of the energy supply to come carbon free sources to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide levels at twice the pre-anthropogenic levels. External factors of economy, environment, and security dictate that this global energy need be met by renewable and sustainable

  13. Candidate solar cell materials for photovoltaic conversion in a solar power satellite /SPS/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.; Almgren, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    In recognition of the obstacles to solar-generated baseload power on earth, proposals have been made to locate solar power satellites in geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), where solar energy would be available 24 hours a day during most of the time of the year. In an SPS, the electricity produced by solar energy conversion will be fed to microwave generators forming part of a planar phase-array transmitting antenna. The antenna is designed to precisely direct a microwave beam of very low intensity to one or more receiving antennas at desired locations on earth. At the receiving antenna, the microwave energy will be safely and efficiently reconverted to electricity and then be transmitted to consumers. An SPS system will include a number of satellites in GEO. Attention is given to the photovoltaic option for solar energy conversion in GEO, solar cell requirements, the availability of materials, the implication of large production volumes, requirements for high-volume manufacture of solar cell arrays, and the effects of concentration ratio on solar cell array area.

  14. Solar Energy Measurement Using Arduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumaat Siti Amely

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This project aims to develop a measurement of solar energy using Arduino Board technology. In this research, four parameters that been measured are temperature, light intensity, voltage and current. The temperature was measured using temperature sensor. The light intensity was measured using light dependent resistor (LDR sensor. The voltage was measured using the voltage divider because the voltage generated by the solar panel are large for the Arduino as receiver. Lastly for the current was measured using the current sensor module that can sense the current generated by the solar panel. These parameters as the input value for the Arduino and the output was display at the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD screen. The LCD screen display output of the temperature, the light intensity, the voltage and the current value. The purpose of Arduino to convert the analog input of parameter to the digital output and display via LCD screen. Other than that, this project also involve with a design to ensure that device case are easy to be carry around.

  15. Chemistry of primitive solar material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshay, S.S.; Lewis, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The chemical processes that occurred in the cooler, outer regions of the primitive solar nebula at the time of intimate chemical contact between preplanetary condensate and nebular gas constitute the subject matter of this review. Condensation models are described and tested against the observed properties of the planets, their satellites, and the asteroids. 6 figs., 2 tables, 48 refs

  16. Materials in harnessing solar power

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-04-06

    Apr 6, 2018 ... design should be in such a way that it can provide a balance among specific .... In India, manufacturing of solar PV modules has been on swift rise but primarily it is ... Si wafers. Therefore, the need to promote Si production and ...... ing mirrors and receiving tubes can be manufactured in India. This will not ...

  17. Solar energy. Usage of the solar energy in other forms of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruevski, Trpe

    2004-01-01

    Solar energy, which was a utopian dream forty years ago, is today already on the market, particularly for specialized uses and in remote areas. After a brief description of the solar energy usage, the theory, technology and applications of photovoltaic cells are presented

  18. Solar energy after Fukushima: the new deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisgibault, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This document contains a brief presentation, the preface, and the table of contents of a book which addresses the major technological, regulatory and geostrategic challenges for solar energy in the current energy context. The author outlines the strong emergence of China in this sector, but also that of new opportunities in Africa, and the need for France to strengthen European-Mediterranean collaborations in order not to definitely loose a leadership position. While referring to the environmental context, to practical examples and installations, the author explains the difficult taking off of solar energy before March 2011, why the Fukushima is a turning point for solar energy, and why solar energy will prevail

  19. More Efficient Solar Thermal-Energy Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin, M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal stresses and reradiation reduced. Improved design for solar thermal-energy receiver overcomes three major deficiencies of solar dynamic receivers described in literature. Concentrator and receiver part of solar-thermal-energy system. Receiver divided into radiation section and storage section. Concentrated solar radiation falls on boiling ends of heat pipes, which transmit heat to thermal-energy-storage medium. Receiver used in number of applications to produce thermal energy directly for use or to store thermal energy for subsequent use in heat engine.

  20. The mechanical properties of fluoride salts at elevated temperatures. [candidate thermal energy storage materials for solar dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The deformation behavior of CaF2 and LiF single crystals compressed in the 111 and the 100 line directions, respectively, are compared with the mechanical properties of polycrystalline LiF-22 (mol pct) CaF2 eutectic mixture in the temperature range 300 to 1275 K for strain rates varying between 7 x 10 to the -7th and 0.2/s. The true stress-strain curves for the single crystals were found to exhibit three stages in an intermediate range of temperatures and strain rates, whereas those for the eutectic showed negative work-hardening rates after a maximum stress. The true stress-strain rate data for CaF2 and LiF-22 CaF2 could be represented by a power-law relation with the strain rate sensitivities lying between 0.05 and 0.2 for both materials. A similar relation was found to be unsatisfactory in the case of LiF.

  1. Solar Flares and the High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are the biggest explosions in the solar system. They are important both for understanding explosive events in the Universe and for their impact on human technology and communications. The satellite-based HESSI is designed to study the explosive release of energy and the acceleration of electrons, protons, and other charged particles to high energies in solar flares. HESSI produces "color" movies of the Sun in high-energy X rays and gamma rays radiated by these energetic particles. HESSI's X-ray and gamma-ray images of flares are obtained using techniques similar to those used in radio interferometry. Ground-based radio observations of the Sun provide an important complement to the HESSI observations of solar flares. I will describe the HESSI Project and the high-energy aspects of solar flares, and how these relate to radio astronomy techniques and observations.

  2. Energy: the solar hydrogen alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocheris, J O.M.

    1977-01-01

    The author argues that nuclear and solar energy should begin replacing conventional fossil sources as soon as possible because oil, gas and even coal supplies will be depleted within decades. A hydrogen economy would introduce major technical problems but its chief benefits are that it permits energy storage in a post fossil fuel era when electricity is expected to play a major role. It can be converted to electricity, cleanly and efficiently with fuel cells and in liquid form can be burnt as jet fuel. Hydrogen can also be burnt in internal combustion engines although less efficiently in fuel cells. However, although hydrogen is clean and efficient, technical development is still needed to reduce its cost and to cope with safety problems. The book contains a wealth of technical information and is a valuable reference on a topic of growing importance.

  3. Ecological materials for solar architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zbasnik-Senegaenik, M.

    2000-01-01

    In general, materials which have been used in construction, have had a negative influence in all the phases of the life cycle. The effects can be seen in the form of tampering with the environment, overuse of electric power, harmful emissions, wastes and in the form of pollution with vapours, dust, fibres, poisonous and radioactive matter. Materials can be divided into three groups regarding their origin: natural materials, artificial mineral materials and synthetic materials. An assessment of separate influences on macro- and micro-environment shows a hierarchical scale of suitability of material use. Materials of natural origin (stone, clay, wood) and less artificial ones (brick, ceramic, metals, glass, lime, cement, concrete, mineral thermal-insulation materials) are most convenient for man and environment. Synthetic materials (plastics, polymers, synthetic thermal-insulation materials, synthetic pastes, composed synthetic materials) negatively influence macro- and micro-environment and therefore they should be used on an extremely selective and premeditated basis. Ecological structure of the future will demand the nowadays-established exploitation of natural sources of power and passive exploitation of natural resources. Introduction of ecological constructing is to be foreseen in planing of the future buildings. At present ecological constructing includes two principles ecological selection of materials and disintegration of composite materials and constructions. (au)

  4. A Model for Infusing Energy Concepts into Vocational Education Programs. Advanced Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Vocational Technical School, Marked Tree, AR.

    This instructional unit consists of materials designed to help students understand terms associated with solar energy; identify components of advanced solar systems; and identify applications of solar energy in business, industry, agriculture, and photovoltaics. Included in the unit are the following materials: suggested activities, instructional…

  5. The thermodynamic solar energy; Le solaire thermodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivoire, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS-IMP), 66 - Perpignan (France)

    2002-04-01

    The thermodynamic solar energy is the technic in the whole aiming to transform the solar radiation energy in high temperature heat and then in mechanical energy by a thermodynamic cycle. These technic are most often at an experimental scale. This paper describes and analyzes the research programs developed in the advanced countries, since 1980. (A.L.B.)

  6. Teaching Children to Value Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Saker, Salem; Odeh, Saeed; Agbaria, Adnan

    2011-01-01

    In this educational initiative, we suggest to build a real model of solar village inside the school, which uses only solar energy. These educational initiatives emphasize the importance of energy for a technological society and the advantage of alternative energy sources. In this scientific educational initiative, the pupils in three elementary…

  7. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  8. Organoruthenium Complexes for Solar Energy Harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, S.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834084

    2008-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges of this time is providing the world with the energy it needs to sustain human kind's current standard of living. Solar energy is the most abundant and ubiquitous renewable energy source available, and as such it holds great promises. Traditionally, the field of solar

  9. Solar energy in Primorskiy Krai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, O.P.; Volkov, A.V. [Inst. of Marine Technology Problems Far Eastern Branch Russian Academic Science (IMTP FEB RAS), Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In 1979 in the Pacific Oceanological Institute of FESC there were started investigations in the field of renewable energy sources (the group of ocean power-engineering was organized) which have been continued till present time in the laboratory of non-traditional energetics of IMTP FEB RAS. During this time the following expeditions were carried out by research workers: in Tugursky Bay (1981) and in Pendzinky Lip (1982, 1983) for investigations of tidal mode in the places which are promising for building tidal power stations; marine expeditions (1985, 1987) for investigating power resources in the Seychelles area, and an expedition to Cape Shmidt - for carrying out experimental freezing of seawater layers on particular parts of an icy moorage of a sea port in the course of its restoration. Now theoretical and experimental researches in the field of using solar energy, energy due to salinity gradients, biomass energy etc., are being carried out at the laboratory. Experimental installations for transformation of these types of energy were created which were tested both in laboratory and in natural conditions. (orig.)

  10. An efficient descriptor model for designing materials for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Fahhad H.; Rashkeev, Sergey N.; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Lüthi, Hans P.; Tabet, Nouar; Kais, Sabre

    2015-11-01

    An efficient descriptor model for fast screening of potential materials for solar cell applications is presented. It works for both excitonic and non-excitonic solar cells materials, and in addition to the energy gap it includes the absorption spectrum (α(E)) of the material. The charge transport properties of the explored materials are modelled using the characteristic diffusion length (Ld) determined for the respective family of compounds. The presented model surpasses the widely used Scharber model developed for bulk heterojunction solar cells. Using published experimental data, we show that the presented model is more accurate in predicting the achievable efficiencies. To model both excitonic and non-excitonic systems, two different sets of parameters are used to account for the different modes of operation. The analysis of the presented descriptor model clearly shows the benefit of including α(E) and Ld in view of improved screening results.

  11. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  12. Development of technologies for solar energy utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    With relation to the development of photovoltaic power systems for practical use, studies were made on thin-substrate polycrystalline solar cells and thin-film solar cells as manufacturing technology for solar cells for practical use. The technological development for super-high efficiency solar cells was also being advanced. Besides, the research and development have been conducted of evaluation technology for photovoltaic power systems and systems to utilize the photovoltaic power generation and peripheral technologies. The demonstrative research on photovoltaic power systems was continued. The international cooperative research on photovoltaic power systems was also made. The development of a manufacturing system for compound semiconductors for solar cells was carried out. As to the development of solar energy system technologies for industrial use, a study of elemental technologies was first made, and next the development of an advanced heat process type solar energy system was commenced. In addition, the research on passive solar systems was made. An investigational study was carried out of technologies for solar cities and solar energy snow melting systems. As international joint projects, studies were made of solar heat timber/cacao drying plants, etc. The paper also commented on projects for international cooperation for the technological development of solar energy utilization systems. 26 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Solar Energy for Pacific Northwest Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, John S.

    Data presented in this report indicate that solar space and water heating are possible in the Pacific Northwest. The first section of the report contains solar records from several stations in the region illustrating space heating needs that could be met, on an average daily basis, by solar energy. The data are summarized, and some preliminary…

  14. Material and energy productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Julia K; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2011-02-15

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives.

  15. Solar 92: The 1992 American Solar Energy Society annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, S.; Arden, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to document the lessons learned from federal and state policies and programs in the late 1970's and 1980's aimed at promoting consumer use of solar energy. During this period the primary emphasis was on solar thermal technologies and passive solar design that could be used at the residential level, though there was also some information on stand-alone photovoltaic systems as well

  16. Investigations on quinquethiophenes as donor materials in organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Organic photovoltaics could in the future represent a possibility for energy production from renewable energy sources. The advance consists here first of all in the potential of a very reasonable fabrication, for instance a production in the role-to-role procedurre, which can be prusued so on flexible substrates like for instance foils. Although the material costs are low, until the commercialization of organic solar cells among others an increasement of their power efficiency is necessary. Preferably in organic solar cells donor and acceptor materials should be applied, the absorption spectra and energy levels of which are ideally matched, because so can high zero-current voltages be reached. Additionally high absorption coefficents of the materials over a large spectral range can lead to high current densities in these photovoltaic components. In this thesis novel quinquethiophenes as donors in organic solar cells are studied, which consist as basic unit of five thiophene rings as well as dicyanovinyl end groups and alkyl side chains. The studied materials possess a high absorption coefficient and reach because of the high ionization potential high zero-current voltages in organic solar cells under application of the fullerenet C 60 as acceptor. Simultaneously a efficient separation of the excitons on the acceptor-donor interface occurs. However the high ionization potential of the quinquethiophenes puts special requirements to the further solar-cell structure. Within this thesis it is shown that adifference between internal voltage and zero-current voltage influences decidingly the shape of the solar-cell characteristic and can generate a S-shape in the neighbourhood of the zero-current voltage. The internal voltage is hereby determined by the contacting of the photoactive layers. An increasement of the internal voltage of the solar cell can be reached by a corresponding material choice. So in this thesis it is shown that organic solar cells based on these

  17. Towards 15% energy conversion efficiency: a systematic study of the solution-processed organic tandem solar cells based on commercially available materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ning; Baran, Derya; Forberich, Karen

    2013-01-01

    in organic tandem solar cells. All the devices are processed under environmental conditions using doctor-blading, which is highly compatible with mass-production coating technologies. Power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 6–7% are obtained for OPV devices based on different active layers. Optical...... simulations based on experimental data are performed for all realized tandem solar cells. An efficiency potential of ∼10% is estimated for these compounds in combination with phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as an acceptor. In addition, we assume a hypothetical, optimized acceptor to understand...... the limitation of donors. It is suggested that a PCE of >14% is realistic for tandem solar cells based on these commercially available donor materials. Along with the demonstration of novel intermediate layers we believe that this systematic study provides valuable insight for those attempting to realize...

  18. Solar cells: An environment-benign energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsema, E.; Van Engelenburg, B.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is paid to a study on the environmental aspects of solar cell production techniques and the possibility of recycling solar cell materials. In the study the following types of solar cell modules are dealt with: CdTe and CuInSe 2 , amorphous silicon, crystalline silicon, and GaAs. It appears that silicon solar cells have minor environmental effects and are controllable. However, attention should be paid to the energy consumption and the use of etching and purification materials during the production of solar cells, and the emission of heavy metals from f.e. CdTe/CIS solar cells during and after usage. Without effective recycling enough supplies of indium, selenium and tellurium cannot be guaranteed. 3 figs., 1 ill

  19. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  20. The necessity of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejoy, D.

    1996-01-01

    The idea of limits to growth has, understandably, achieved notoriety since the days of Malthus and, more recently, the Club of Rome. However, there must be some limits to the ability of the Earth to sustain a growing population. Fortunately, population models suggest that the world's population will probably level out at about two to three times the present numbers over the next hundred years. The question is whether the Earth's resources are sufficient to sustain that population at a high standard of living for all. In this the key issue is energy. It is clear that present trends in energy consumption, especially oil, cannot be sustained much longer. Regardless of this, however, prudence demands a drastic reduction in fossil fuel consumption, in view of the possibility of global warming. It can be shown that, combined with greatly improved energy efficiency, a transition to a solar (renewable) energy based economy capable of sustaining the anticipated growth in the world economy, is possible, but the constraints are extremely tight. (Author)

  1. Solar energy application, economics, and public perception

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the rise in energy demand, and issues of energy security, more countries are being forced to reexamine their energy policies and consider more renewable sources of energy. Solar power is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies, due in a large part to the recent technological advances in the field and the significant decrease in cost. This book describes these advances and examines the current state of solar power from a variety of angles. The various sections of the book cover the following topics: an overview of hybrid solar energy s

  2. Solar applications analysis for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, T.

    1980-01-01

    The role of energy storage as it relates to solar energy systems is considered. Storage technologies to support solar energy applications, the status of storage technologies, requirements and specifications for storage technologies, and the adequacy of the current storage research and development program to meet these requirements are among the factors discussed. Emphasis is placed on identification of where the greatest potential exists for energy storage in support of those solar energy systems which could have a significant impact on the U.S. energy mix.

  3. Photovoltaic solar energy: State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Sinke, W.C.

    1993-03-01

    Attention is paid to developments in the Netherlands of all aspects of photovoltaic (PV) energy: solar cells, components, PV-systems and all kinds of applications. Efficiencies of the present solar cell types still increase, varying from more than 10% for organic/TiO 2 solar cells to 33% for GaAs/GaSb concentrator tandem solar cells. 3 figs., 2 ills., 1 tab

  4. Enerplan, Professional association of solar energy - activity report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2006 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  5. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The monitoring will be directed at the absolute amount of used solar energy, the relative contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand in the Netherlands, and the average efficiency of passive solar energy systems. Based on a model of the total building stock the quantities to be monitored can be determined. The most important parameters in the model are: the window surface per orientation, the average U-value (heat transfer coefficient) of windows, the average ZTA-value (incoming solar radiation factor) of windows, and the presence of sun lounges and atriums

  6. Solar-energy drying systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Atul; Chen, C.R.; Vu Lan, Nguyen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949, Da-Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 71003 (China)

    2009-08-15

    In many countries of the world, the use of solar thermal systems in the agricultural area to conserve vegetables, fruits, coffee and other crops has shown to be practical, economical and the responsible approach environmentally. Solar heating systems to dry food and other crops can improve the quality of the product, while reducing wasted produce and traditional fuels - thus improving the quality of life, however the availability of good information is lacking in many of the countries where solar food processing systems are most needed. Solar food dryers are available in a range of size and design and are used for drying various food products. It is found that various types of driers are available to suit the needs of farmers. Therefore, selection of dryers for a particular application is largely a decision based on what is available and the types of dryers currently used widely. A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically realized designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz. passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy dryers. Some very recent developments in solar drying technology are highlighted. (author)

  7. Organohalide Perovskites for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qianqian; Armin, Ardalan; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul

    2016-03-15

    Lead-based organohalide perovskites have recently emerged as arguably the most promising of all next generation thin film solar cell technologies. Power conversion efficiencies have reached 20% in less than 5 years, and their application to other optoelectronic device platforms such as photodetectors and light emitting diodes is being increasingly reported. Organohalide perovskites can be solution processed or evaporated at low temperatures to form simple thin film photojunctions, thus delivering the potential for the holy grail of high efficiency, low embedded energy, and low cost photovoltaics. The initial device-driven "perovskite fever" has more recently given way to efforts to better understand how these materials work in solar cells, and deeper elucidation of their structure-property relationships. In this Account, we focus on this element of organohalide perovskite chemistry and physics in particular examining critical electro-optical, morphological, and architectural phenomena. We first examine basic crystal and chemical structure, and how this impacts important solar-cell related properties such as the optical gap. We then turn to deeper electronic phenomena such as carrier mobilities, trap densities, and recombination dynamics, as well as examining ionic and dielectric properties and how these two types of physics impact each other. The issue of whether organohalide perovskites are predominantly nonexcitonic at room temperature is currently a matter of some debate, and we summarize the evidence for what appears to be the emerging field consensus: an exciton binding energy of order 10 meV. Having discussed the important basic chemistry and physics we turn to more device-related considerations including processing, morphology, architecture, thin film electro-optics and interfacial energetics. These phenomena directly impact solar cell performance parameters such as open circuit voltage, short circuit current density, internal and external quantum efficiency

  8. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  9. Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive Solar Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Mühling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive solar control by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from ordinary shadow systems to intrinsic solar energy reflection materials based on phase transition components and a first remark about their realization is reported. Own current results concerning extruded films and high thermally stable casting resins with thermotropic properties make a significant contribution to this field.

  10. Energy storage using phase-change materials for active solar heating and cooling: An evaluation of future research and development direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, R. J.; Stovall, T. K.; Kedl, R. J.; Tomlinson, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    The current state of the art and commercial potential of active solar heating and cooling systems for buildings, and the use of thermal energy storage with these systems are assessed. The need for advanced latent heat storage subsystems in these applications and priorities for their development are determined. Latent storage subsystems are advantageous in applications where their compactness may be exploited. It is suggested that subsystems could facilitate storage in retrofit applications in which storage would be physically impossible otherwise.

  11. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herec; Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  12. Energies and raw materials. Letter n.28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This letter of the DGEMP (General Direction of the Energy and the Raw Materials) deals with the following four main topics: the main recommendations of the final report of the working Group ''Factor 4'' concerning the energy policy; the energy conservation certificates as a tool of the energy control with their implication in the residential and ternary sector; the increase of the solar water heaters and heat pumps sales thanks to the tax credits; the California example facing the climatic change and the energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  13. The SERI solar energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.; Wright, J. D.; Wyman, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the DOE thermal and chemical energy storage program, the solar energy storage program (SERI) provides research on advanced technologies, systems analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and assessments are being prepared of thermal energy storage in solar applications. A ranking methodology for comparing thermal storage systems (performance and cost) is presented. Research in latent heat storage and thermochemical storage and transport is reported.

  14. Photovoltaic Solar Energy : From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2016-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date

  15. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  16. Solar energy in Norway; Solstroem i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorud, Bjoern; Nordal, Siv Helen; Bugge, Lars; Authen, Mari L.; Bernhard, Peter

    2012-10-15

    Enova SF produced in 2010/11 a report that described the potential of solar energy until 2020. Developments in the market for the production of electricity from solar energy happens so fast that it is prepared a new report describing the market and technology per 2012. (eb)

  17. Experimental study on comprehensive utilization of solar energy and energy balance in an integrated solar house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Huawei; Liu, Yuting; Shen, Jinqiu; Xiang, Can; He, Sinian; Wan, Zhongmin; Jiang, Meng; Duan, Chen; Shu, Shuiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Active and passive solar house technology is integrated in the solar house. • Solar thermal system and solar photoelectric system are measured and analyzed. • Energy balance and energy consumption are analyzed with valuable experimental data. • “Zero energy consumption” is truly achieved with the solar supply rate of 1.19 in winter. - Abstract: An integrated solar house with numerous advanced envelops is designed and constructed to investigate the comprehensive utilization of solar energy, energy efficiency and energy balance, which combines active solar house technology with passive solar house technology including solar photovoltaic system, solar water heating system, direct-gain door and windows. Solar radiation intensity, performance of the photovoltaic system, water temperature, and indoor and outdoor temperature are measured, results of the experiments indicate that solar glass window on the south wall can maintain the average indoor temperature at 21.4 °C in the case of average outdoor temperature at 11.2 °C without any external heat supply. The output current of the solar photovoltaic system shows the same trend as solar radiation intensity. When the intensity is 619.7 W/m"2, the instantaneous generation power could reach a value of 781.9 W, cumulative capacity throughout the day achieves 4.56 kW h and photovoltaic conversion efficiency 9.8%. When the average intensity throughout a day is 358 W/m"2, the solar water heating system could help to raise the temperature of 450 L water by 30 °C with its heat collecting efficiency being 37.4%. Through the analysis of the overall energy system in the solar house, it can be derived that this solar house could achieve “zero energy consumption” in winter with the solar supply rate at 1.19.

  18. Potency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Noer Abyor; Ariyanti, Dessy

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 80% of conventional energy is used to fulfill general public's needs andindustries. The depletion of oil and gas reserves and rapid growth in conventional energyconsumption have continuously forced us to discover renewable energy sources, like solar, wind,biomass, and hydropower, to support economic development in the future. Solar energy travels at aspeed of 186,000 miles per second. Only a small part of the radiant energy that the sun emits intospace ever reaches the Earth, but t...

  19. The technical use of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, E.

    1993-01-01

    For all considerations on energy, information on energy-quantity and energy-value is necessary. Such information is presented for Germany as an example for an industrialized country. The application of solar heat for an Institute building is presented for a pilot project at the University Stuttgart. With unglazed solar collectors, a flooded pebble-bed store and a heat pump, about 60% of the Institute's heat demand can be supplied by solar energy. With the experience gained from this project, large district heating systems are designed for two different locations in Germany under differing conditions. For solar assisted house heating and domestic hot water, heat costs are obtained which are about twice the present heat cost in Germany. If solar energy assists domestic hot water production and house heating, costs can be achieved which are below present conventional heat cost. In addition, it will also reduce air pollution. (author). 9 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Energy harvesting with functional materials and microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaskaran, Madhu; Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    For decades, people have searched for ways to harvest energy from natural sources. Lately, a desire to address the issue of global warming and climate change has popularized solar or photovoltaic technology, while piezoelectric technology is being developed to power handheld devices without batteries, and thermoelectric technology is being explored to convert wasted heat, such as in automobile engine combustion, into electricity. Featuring contributions from international researchers in both academics and industry, Energy Harvesting with Functional Materials and Microsystems explains the growi

  1. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  2. Solar Energy a Path to India's Prosperity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Yogender Pal; Singh, Arashdeep; Kannojiya, Vikas; Kesari, J. P.

    2018-05-01

    Solar energy technology has grabbed a worldwide interest and attention these days. India also, having a huge solar influx and potential, is not falling back to feed its energy demand through non-conventional energy sources such as concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). This work will try to add some comprehensive insight on solar energy framework, policy, outlook and socio-economic challenges of India. This includes its prominent areas of working such as grid independent and `utility-scale' power production using CSP or PV power plants, rural as well as urban electrification using PV, solar powered public transportation systems, solar power in agrarian society—water pumping, irrigation, waste management and so on and so forth. Despite the fact that, a vast legion of furtherance and advancement has been done during the last decade of solar energy maturation and proliferation, improvements could be suggested so as to augment the solar energy usage in contrast to conventional energy sources in India.

  3. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  4. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  5. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives.

  6. 太阳能硅料化学清洗研究进展%Development of chemical cleaning for solar energy silicon material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申燕; 贾艳飞; 姚旭; 张健; 廉佳林

    2016-01-01

    Silicon as the main material of solar photovoltaic power generation in the solar photovoltaic industry, the demand for silicon material cleanliness also gradualy increases under the background of the rapid development of the market. Chemical cleaning is the main method of silicon material cleaning. In this paper, the research progress of the standard cleaning method ( RCA ) and depending on the silicon material by RCA method to develop other chemical cleaning method was reviewed.%多晶硅作为太阳能光伏发电的主要材料,在太阳能光伏产业市场迅速发展的大背景下,对硅料清洁度的需求也逐步增加。化学清洗是目前硅料清洗的主要方法。本文综述了近年来硅料化学清洗的基本方法(RCA)及根据硅料的不同由RCA法发展出的其他化学清洗方法。

  7. Material for a luminescent solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    A material for use in a luminescent solar concentrator, formed by ceramitizing the luminescent ion Cr/sup 3 +/ with a transparent ceramic glass containing mullite. The resultant material has tiny Cr/sup 3 +/-bearing crystallites dispersed uniformly through an amorphous glass. The invention combines the high luminescent efficiency of Cr/sup 3 +/ in the crystalline phase with the practical and economical advantages of glass technology.

  8. Solar energy versus nuclear energy as energy sources at the transition period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastroamidjojo, MSA.

    Technical aspects and social aspects of nuclear power plants and solar energy system as energy sources, were comparatively evaluated. The evaluation proves that solar energy is better than nuclear energy. (SMN)

  9. Photovoltaic solar energy; Photovoltaische Solarenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 27th symposium of the Ostbayerische Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) from 29th February to 02th March, 2012, at Banz monastery near Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) EEG 12: State of the art and impacts (K. Freier); (2) Promising markets - PV market potentials Europe (M. Lohr); (3) Expansion requires restructuring - Research promotion for renewable energy and renewable energy supply systems (K. Deller); (4) Fields of application and potentials of photovoltaics in Germany without an enhanced EEG compensation (V. Quaschning); (5) ''Smart Solar Grid'' - Results of the analysis and solar roof potential of the first test area of the public utility Ulm (H. Ruf); (6) Power limitation at PV plants - Adjustment of modelling methods and comparison of different location (J. von Appen); (7) Exploitations to the power limitation till to 70 % of the module capacity (B. Giesler); (8) Actual procedural results of the clearing house EEG to photovoltaics and modifications at PV by means of the EEG 2012 (M. Winkler); (9) Grid integration of PV plants from a legal point of view (M. von Oppen); (10) EEG 2012 - Abetment or brake? PV and other renewable energies in comparison (M. Reichmuth); (11) On the precision of radiation and photovoltaics component models (J. Schumacher); (12) Impact of global radiation data with different properties on the performance ratio and prognosticated energy efficiency of photovoltaic power plants (M. Egler); (13) Quantification of superelevations of irradiation in high-resolution DWD datasets for different locations in Germany (M. Zehner); (14) Prognosis of the regional PV performance with measuring data of PV plant and satellite pictures (Y.-M. Saint-Drenan); (15) Photovoltaics and wind power: perfectly complementing power technologies using Central Germany as an example (C. Breyer); (16) Which and how much storages are necessary

  10. Characterization of thin-film silicon materials and solar cells through numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, B.E.

    2008-01-01

    At present most commercially available solar cells are made of crystalline silicon (c-Si). The disadvantages of crystalline silicon solar cells are the high material cost and energy consumption during production. A cheaper alternative can be found in thin-film silicon solar cells. The thin-film

  11. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auh, P. C.

    1978-06-01

    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  12. Modeling Emerging Solar Cell Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprong, Non

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) and perovskite solar cells are emerging classes of solar cell that are promising for clean energy alternatives to fossil fuels. Understanding fundamental physics of these materials is crucial for improving their energy conversion efficiencies and promoting them to practical applications. Current density-voltage (JV) curves; which are important indicators of OPV efficiency, have direct connections to many fundamental properties of solar cells. They can be described by the Shockley diode equation, resulting in fitting parameters; series and parallel resistance (Rs and Rp), diode saturation current ( J0) and ideality factor (n). However, the Shockley equation was developed specifically for inorganic p-n junction diodes, so it lacks physical meanings when it is applied to OPVs. Hence, the puRposes of this work are to understand the fundamental physics of OPVs and to develop new diode equations in the same form as the Shockley equation that are based on OPV physics. We develop a numerical drift-diffusion simulation model to study bilayer OPVs, which will be called the drift-diffusion for bilayer interface (DD-BI) model. The model solves Poisson, drift-diffusion and current-continuity equations self-consistently for charge densities and potential profiles of a bilayer device with an organic heterojunction interface described by the GWWF model. We also derive new diode equations that have JV curves consistent with the DD-BI model and thus will be called self-consistent diode (SCD) equations. Using the DD-BI and the SCD model allows us to understand working principles of bilayer OPVs and physical definitions of the Shockley parameters. Due to low carrier mobilities in OPVs, space charge accumulation is common especially near the interface and electrodes. Hence, quasi-Fermi levels (i.e. chemical potentials), which depend on charge densities, are modified around the interface, resulting in a splitting of quasi-Fermi levels that works as a driving

  13. Tm2+ luminescent materials for solar radiation conversion devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kolk, E.

    2015-01-01

    A solar radiation conversion device is described that comprises a luminescent Tm 2+ inorganic material for converting solar radiation of at least part of the UV and/or visible and/or infra red solar spectrum into infrared solar radiation, preferably said infrared solar radiation having a wavelength

  14. Potency of Solar Energy Applications in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 80% of conventional energy is used to fulfill general public's needs andindustries. The depletion of oil and gas reserves and rapid growth in conventional energyconsumption have continuously forced us to discover renewable energy sources, like solar, wind,biomass, and hydropower, to support economic development in the future. Solar energy travels at aspeed of 186,000 miles per second. Only a small part of the radiant energy that the sun emits intospace ever reaches the Earth, but that is more than enough to supply all our energy demand.Indonesia is a tropical country and located in the equator line, so it has an abundant potential ofsolar energy. Most of Indonesian area get enough intensity of solar radiation with the average dailyradiation around 4 kWh/m2. Basically, the solar systems use solar collectors and concentrators forcollecting, storing, and using solar radiation to be applied for the benefit of domestics, commercials,and industrials. Common applications for solar thermal energy used in industry are the SWHs, solardryers, space heating, cooling systems and water desalination.

  15. Energy. From firewood to solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijnders, L.

    2006-01-01

    An outline is given of the development of energy and the options to secure the energy supply for the future. Much information is given about energy efficiency, the exploitation of tar sands, reopening of the coal mines in the Netherlands, nuclear fusion and fission, wave energy and solar cells, etc [nl

  16. Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huraib, F.S.; Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

  17. Perovskite Materials: Solar Cell and Optoelectronic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [ORNL; Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid organometallic trihalide perovskites are promising candidates in the applications for next-generation, high-performance, low-cost optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaics, light emitting diodes, and photodetectors. Particularly, the solar cells based on this type of materials have reached 22% lab scale power conversion efficiency in only about seven years, comparable to the other thin film photovoltaic technologies. Hybrid perovskite materials not only exhibit superior optoelectronic properties, but also show many interesting physical properties such as ion migration and defect physics, which may allow the exploration of more device functionalities. In this article, the fundamental understanding of the interrelationships between crystal structure, electronic structure, and material properties is discussed. Various chemical synthesis and processing methods for superior device performance in solar cells and optoelectronic devices are reviewed.

  18. Advanced solar energy conversion. [solar pumped gas lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    An atomic iodine laser, a candidate for the direct solar pumped lasers, was successfully excited with a 4 kW beam from a xenon arc solar simulator, thus proving the feasibility of the concept. The experimental set up and the laser output as functions of operating conditions are presented. The preliminary results of the iodine laser amplifier pumped with the HCP array to which a Q switch for giant pulse production was coupled are included. Two invention disclosures - a laser driven magnetohydrodynamic generator for conversion of laser energy to electricity and solar pumped gas lasers - are also included.

  19. Use of solar energy for disinfection of polluted water

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jamil; M.R. Ahmad; K. Ali; A. Habeeb; M. Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Polluted water is causing serious health problems especially in the rural areas of Pakistan. People have limited access to safe water supply and many diseases like diarrhea and gastrointestinal diseases are transmitted by consumption of polluted water. We have investigated the potential of using solar energy to pasteurize water. Low cost indigenously available materials have been utilized to design and fabricate a solar box type pasteurizer having a capacity of three liters. The p...

  20. Direct solar energy and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdani, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Solar energy, which was a utopian dream forty years ago, is today already on the market, particularly for specialized uses and in remote areas. Even solar cells are now on the eve of becoming economically competitive. After a brief account of solar-cell theory, this paper gives the essential details of Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing Technologies, Single Crystal Technology, Fabrication of Wafers, Fabrication of Solar Cell, Photovoltaic Module, Multi Crystalline Silicon, Amorphous Silicon Cell. Semi-conductor based Thin-Film Technology (other than silicon), Copper-Indium Di selenide (IS), Gallium Arsenide, Multi-Junction Devices, as well as Technologies for Improving Conversion Efficiencies, Criteria for high-efficiency Cells and Module Fabrication. It concludes with a section on Direct Utilisation of solar energy, in which a brief description is presented on Solar Thermal Devices, Solar Water Heaters, Calculating hot-water requirements, Solar Stills, Solar Drying, Concentrator Collectors and, finally Measurement of the Solar Resource. At the end, there is a useful Appendix on World-Wide Photovoltaic Cell/Module Manufacturing Capacity Expansion Profile. (author)

  1. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  2. Solar energy, architecture and climate in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, J.

    1983-01-01

    In Colombia, the climatological conditions are such that with a possible serious appropriate technology to use the solar energy in the cities when the electricity rationing increases, for the illumination, the refrigeration, the electricity production, the heating, etc. The use of the solar energy is also been worth to look for a better adaptation between climate and architecture. In this sense, the article exposes some of the existent possibilities of application of the solar energy for the comfort of the habitat, possibilities of high efficiency and low cost that can be easily applicable in Colombia

  3. Production, consumption and research on solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz-Casado, Elias; Lascurain-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Serrano-Lopez, Antonio Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of scientific publications on solar energy was conducted to determine whether public interest in the subject is mirrored by more intense research in the area. To this end, the research published by Spain and Germany, the two EU countries with the highest installed photovoltaic capacity......, was analyzed based on Web of Science data. The results show that: solar output has risen substantially; solar research has a greater impact (measured in terms of citations) than publications on other renewables such as wind power; scientific production on solar energy is high in Germany and Spain, which...... intense. The main conclusion is the divergence in Germany and Spain between solar energy demand/output growth, being exponential, and the growth of research papers on the subject, which is linear...

  4. Electrical research on solar cells and photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1984-01-01

    The flat-plate solar cell array program which increases the service lifetime of the photovoltaic modules used for terrestrial energy applications is discussed. The current-voltage response characteristics of the solar cells encapsulated in the modules degrade with service time and this degradation places a limitation on the useful lifetime of the modules. The most desirable flat-plate array system involves solar cells consisting of highly polarizable materials with similar electrochemical potentials where the cells are encapsulated in polymers in which ionic concentrations and mobilities are negligibly small. Another possible mechanism limiting the service lifetime of the photovoltaic modules is the gradual loss of the electrical insulation characteristics of the polymer pottant due to water absorption or due to polymer degradation from light or heat effects. The mechanical properties of various polymer pottant materials and of electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell material are as follows: (1) electrical and ionic resistivity; (2) water absorption kinetics and water solubility limits; and (3) corrosion characterization of various metallization systems used in solar cell construction.

  5. Technology assessment of solar energy utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, F.

    1985-11-01

    The general objectives and methods of Technology Assessment (TA) are outlined. Typical analysis steps of a TA for solar energy are reviewed: description of the technology and its further development; identification of impact areas; analysis of boundary conditions and definition of scenarios; market penetration of solar technologies; projection of consequences in areas of impact; and assessment of impacts and identification of options for action.

  6. The other aspect of solar energy utilization. Solar technologies export enhancement: A central European point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C. J.; Nitsch, J.; Klaiss, H.; Voigt, C.

    1985-11-01

    It is shown that solar energy utilization can, on a moderate scale, supplement the indigenous energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany. It can contribute to the prevention of fatal ecological damage, open an attractive export market and, in the long run, prepare ground for North-South compensation, where energy-poor but technology rich countries cooperate with countries of the Third World, which are often rich in raw materials and are situated in the solar belt of the world, for the benefit of the implementation of a solar industry or the production of a marketable synthetic solar energy carrier.

  7. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of energy use rationalization-oriented silicon manufacturing process (Survey and study of analysis of commercialization of solar-grade silicon material manufacturing technology); 2000 nendo shin energy sangyo gijutsu sogo kaihatsu kiko kyodo kenkyu gyomu seika hokokusho. Energy shiyo gorika silicon seizo process kaihatsu (Taiyodenchiyou silicon genryo seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The trend of technology development, problems harbored therein, trend of the market, and the like were investigated for supporting the development of technologies for the mass production and commercialization of solar-grade silicon materials. Concerning the future of production enhancement and cost reduction in the manufacture of polycrystalline silicon solar cells, studies were made from the technological viewpoint. The results are shown below. It is estimated that approximately 4,500 tons of material silicon will be necessary in 2005 and 6,500-10,700 tons in 2010. Since the melting purification method of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) now under development step by step toward commercialization as well as the conventional source will provide the necessary amount of material silicon, it is inferred that the development of solar cells will go on without any restraint originating in the semiconductor industry. With the commercialization of the technologies so far developed and the development/commercialization of the fast-acting high-performance solar cell technology, probabilities are high that the polycrystalline silicon solar cell manufacturing cost in 2010 will be as low as to be on the 100 yen/W (93-118 yen/W) level which is the level now held up as the goal. (NEDO)

  8. Solar cell structure incorporating a novel single crystal silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankove, Jacques I.; Wu, Chung P.

    1983-01-01

    A novel hydrogen rich single crystal silicon material having a band gap energy greater than 1.1 eV can be fabricated by forming an amorphous region of graded crystallinity in a body of single crystalline silicon and thereafter contacting the region with atomic hydrogen followed by pulsed laser annealing at a sufficient power and for a sufficient duration to recrystallize the region into single crystal silicon without out-gassing the hydrogen. The new material can be used to fabricate semiconductor devices such as single crystal silicon solar cells with surface window regions having a greater band gap energy than that of single crystal silicon without hydrogen.

  9. Experimental process investigation of a latent heat energy storage system with a staggered heat exchanger with different phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakoglou, Nikolas P.; Koukou, Maria K.; Vrachopoulos, Michalis Gr.; Tachos, Nikolaos; Lymberis, Kostas; Stathopoulos, Vassilis

    2017-11-01

    This work investigates melting and solidification processes of four different Phase Change Materials (PCM) used as latent heat thermal storage system. The experimental rig was consisted of an insulated tank, filled with the under investigation PCM, a staggered heat exchanger to supply or extract heat from the PCM cavity and a water pump to circulate Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF). Both charging (melting) and discharging (solidification) processes were conducted for two different HTF flow rates. The main scope of this work was to develop a first approach and to investigate the behaviour of PCM under various load conditions (different HTF flow rates). Results show that different HTF flow rates affect melting and solidification time periods; in both processes time was reduced while HTF flow rate was increased but in differentways due to the transition from conduction to convection heat transfer mechanisms.

  10. Experimental process investigation of a latent heat energy storage system with a staggered heat exchanger with different phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolakoglou Nikolas P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates melting and solidification processes of four different Phase Change Materials (PCM used as latent heat thermal storage system. The experimental rig was consisted of an insulated tank, filled with the under investigation PCM, a staggered heat exchanger to supply or extract heat from the PCM cavity and a water pump to circulate Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF. Both charging (melting and discharging (solidification processes were conducted for two different HTF flow rates. The main scope of this work was to develop a first approach and to investigate the behaviour of PCM under various load conditions (different HTF flow rates. Results show that different HTF flow rates affect melting and solidification time periods; in both processes time was reduced while HTF flow rate was increased but in differentways due to the transition from conduction to convection heat transfer mechanisms.

  11. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion XI: Chromogenics for smart windows; Proceedings of the Meeting, Toulouse, France, May 19, 21, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugot-le Goff, A.; Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present conference discusses electrochromic tungsten oxide and nickel oxide films, electrochromic smart window devices, and thermochromic and variable light-scattering materials. Attention is given to the structural and physical properties of WO3 films prepared by CVD, the degradation of electrochromic amorphous WO3 films after coloration, the electrochromic mechanism of RF diode-sputtered nickel oxide films, and the optical and electrochemical properties of CeO2 and CeO2-TiO2 coatings. Also discussed are new solid electrolytes for electrochromic smart windows, electrochromic glazing, a smart window using a proton-conducting polymer as an electrolyte, and the electrochromism of colloidal WO3 and IrO2

  12. Assessment of Solar Energy Dissemination and Application in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The study report addresses the following issues in the Zambian context: previous studies on solar energy, government policy on renewable energy, system designs, benefits of solar energy technologies, affordable solar energy equipment by target groups, barriers to solar energy technology diffusion, credit schemes for potential users. 13 refs., 5 figs., 22 tabs

  13. General solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on general solar energy. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 13 groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Loan Officers, Real Estate Appraisers, Tax Assessors, Insurers, Lawyers, Utility Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Representatives, Public Interest Group Representatives, Information and Agricultural Specialists at State Cooperative Extension Service Offices, and State Energy Office Representatives. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  14. Solar Energy in the Nineteen Eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy is abundant inexhaustible and nonpolluting. Its utilization does not affect the climate, and it does not lend itself to military applications. The solar-thermal, solar-electric and solar-chemical options are available. The production of low-temperature heat for warm water and for space heating, of enormous importance in the energy budget, is economic already now in many situations. Technical progress is still considerable. With the further rise in fuel prices the application will increase dramatically. Use of solar heat for large-scale generation of electricity, i.e. of power on the basis of the solar-thermal option, should be approached cautiously. Possibilities include the tower concept and ocean thermal-electric conversion (OTEC). Investment would be large, and the technology hard. Better long-term chances may be given, for decentralized application in developing countries, to the farm concept. In contrast, the chances for cheap small-scale, and later large-scale, use of solar semiconductor cells (solar-electric option) are most favourable. Technical progress is rapid, and prices drop precipitously. For the production of fuel, the solar-chemical option is in the foreground. Gaseous, liquid and convenient solid fuels can be obtained from biomass, especially by fermentation. At the moment, biogenic wastes are already available in relatively large amounts. Subsequently, energy farming is to be introduced. Biomass converted to hydrogen can be employed for production of electricity by means of fuel cells. In the more distant future, hydrogen is to be made abiotically by photolysis of water, and is to be introduced into a hydrogen economy. Probably the technology will be based on the application of synthetic membranes. It is possible that regenerative solar energy in all its forms can in the end replace all existing energy used by man. This substitution will s however, be a gradual process. (author)

  15. SOLAR ENERGY: A NECESSARY INVESTMENT IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    23, No. 1, March 2004. Okoro and Madueme. 58. SOLAR ENERGY: A NECESSARY INVESTMENT IN A DEVELOPING. ECONOMY ... research on how to develop the non-conventional methods of .... meat, vegetable, and dairy products.

  16. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  17. Regeneration of desiccants with solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, S.R.; Butts, C.L.; Lown, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Saturated silica gel was regenerated with solar energy. This paper describes the experimental set-up for silica gel regeneration and data collection. The regenerated silica gel can be used to dry high moisture in-shell pecans.

  18. Getting down to business with solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this interview with Hans Ruedi Schweizer, President of the Board of Governors of the Swiss Ernst Schweizer AG company and this company's Head of Solar Energy Systems, Andreas Haller, the over thirty year history of the company's solar activities is examined. The company's efforts and its success in the area of solar energy and the efficient use of energy in the company's own facilities are discussed. The other areas of activity of the company cover facade elements, windows and doors through to mailboxes. Competition on the solar collector market and the need for more professional installation experts are discussed, as is the company's patented mounting system for photovoltaic panels. Finally, the wishes of the interviewees with respect to Swiss energy politics are noted.

  19. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Py Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  20. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  1. Molecularly Engineered Energy Materials, an Energy Frontier Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Dept.

    2016-09-28

    Molecularly Engineered Energy Materials (MEEM) was established as an interdisciplinary cutting-edge UCLA-based research center uniquely equipped to attack the challenge of rationally designing, synthesizing and testing revolutionary new energy materials. Our mission was to achieve transformational improvements in the performance of materials via controlling the nano-and mesoscale structure using selectively designed, earth-abundant, inexpensive molecular building blocks. MEEM has focused on materials that are inherently abundant, can be easily assembled from intelligently designed building blocks (molecules, nanoparticles), and have the potential to deliver transformative economic benefits in comparison with the current crystalline-and polycrystalline-based energy technologies. MEEM addressed basic science issues related to the fundamental mechanisms of carrier generation, energy conversion, as well as transport and storage of charge and mass in tunable, architectonically complex materials. Fundamental understanding of these processes will enable rational design, efficient synthesis and effective deployment of novel three-dimensional material architectures for energy applications. Three interrelated research directions were initially identified where these novel architectures hold great promise for high-reward research: solar energy generation, electrochemical energy storage, and materials for CO2 capture. Of these, the first two remained throughout the project performance period, while carbon capture was been phased out in consultation and with approval from BES program manager.

  2. Passive solar power in the shade of French energy policy, 1945-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The installation in 1949 of the LES (solar energy laboratory) on Mont Louis-Odeillo in the Pyrenees, was emblematic of public commitment to passive solar power. Throughout the 1950's solar furnaces were supported for research into materials and solar powered homes, moving in phase with colonial policy. Then, with the construction at Odeillo of a giant solar furnace as part of the 'policy of grandeur', policy swung in the opposite direction. The study concludes with the role that the LES played at the time of the energy crisis in the 1970's and questions the French model of not developing solar energy

  3. Nuclear energy of the future, solar energy of the future: some convergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamant, G.

    2006-01-01

    Most medium- and long-term energy scenarios foresee the joint development of renewable and nuclear energies. In other words, the energy sources must be as various as possible. Among the renewable energy sources, the solar energy presents the highest development potential, even if today the biomass and wind energies are quantitatively more developed. In France, the solar power generation is ensured by photovoltaic systems. However, the thermodynamical conversion of solar energy (using concentrating systems) represents an enormous potential at the world scale and several projects of solar plants are in progress in Spain and in the USA. The advantages of this solution are numerous: high efficiency of thermodynamic cycles, possibility of heat storage and hybridization (solar/fuels), strong potential of innovation. Moreover, the solar concentrators allow to reach temperatures higher than 1000 deg. C and thus allow to foresee efficient thermochemical cycles for hydrogen generation. The future solar plants will have to be efficient, reliable and will have to be able to meet the energy demand. In order to reach high thermodynamic cycle efficiencies, it is necessary to increase the temperature of the hot source and to design combined cycles. These considerations are common to the communities of researchers and engineers of both the solar thermal and nuclear industries. Therefore, the future development of generation 4 nuclear power plants and of generation 3 solar plants are conditioned by the resolution of similar problems, like the coolants (molten salts and gases), the materials (metals and ceramics), the heat transfers (hydrogen generation), and the qualification of systems (how solar concentrators can help to perform qualification tests of nuclear materials). Short communication. (J.S.)

  4. Material cycling solar system modeled ecosystem; Seitaikei wo model to shita busshitsu junkangata solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    It is proposed to establish an integrated system close to a natural ecosystem for an industrial complex, taking that in Hachinohe City, Aomori Pref. as the conceptual site. It is a system in which materials are recycled by solar energy and industrial waste heat for a complex food industry. The conceptual site, although blessed with various marine products, are sometimes attacked by cold weather. Waste heat from a 250,000kW power plant, if transported by EHD heat pipes to the site, could provide roughly 400 times the heat required for production of agricultural and marine products, such as cabbages and fish meat. The waste heat, coupled with solar energy, should solve the problems resulting from hot waste water, if they could be utilized for the industrial purposes. The food industrial site that produces agricultural and marine products is considered to be suited as the center of the solar industrial complex incorporating farms. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Research opportunities to advance solar energy utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S

    2016-01-22

    Major developments, as well as remaining challenges and the associated research opportunities, are evaluated for three technologically distinct approaches to solar energy utilization: solar electricity, solar thermal, and solar fuels technologies. Much progress has been made, but research opportunities are still present for all approaches. Both evolutionary and revolutionary technology development, involving foundational research, applied research, learning by doing, demonstration projects, and deployment at scale will be needed to continue this technology-innovation ecosystem. Most of the approaches still offer the potential to provide much higher efficiencies, much lower costs, improved scalability, and new functionality, relative to the embodiments of solar energy-conversion systems that have been developed to date. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Community impediments to implementation of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, M. D.; Armstrong, J. E.

    1979-11-01

    The complete array of institutional problems expected to energy when solar technology are implemented on a national scale is assembled. The findings of the study are presented in two formats. First, the results are organized by the time frames of delays in solar implementation caused by the inherent difficulties a national energy policy would encounter in changing the way a given institution responds to specific solar technologies. Delay categories of 10 years or more, 6 to 8 years, and 3 to 5 years were selected; all were assigned under the assumption that a strong national policy promoting adoption of solar technologies would be in effect. The second format constitutes a description of the difficulties at the community level, associated with implementing each solar technology. (MHR)

  7. Energy and environment: a challenge for materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Ch.; Walle, E.; Hody, St.; Alleau, Th.; Bassat, J.M.; Pourcelly, G.; Aitelli, P.; Crepy, Ch. de; Le Douaron, A.; Moussy, F.; Guibert, A. de; Mogensen, P.C.; Beauvy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The ESIREM (Ecole Superieure d'Ingenieurs de Recherche en Electronique et en Materiaux) has organized its yearly colloquium in Dijon on the 20. of January 2005. The topic was 'energy and environment: a challenge for materials'. Here are presented the summaries of the speeches of Mr C. Marchand: how to conciliate increasing needs in energy, limited resources in hydrocarbons and to control the releases of greenhouse gases: a main challenge for the 21. century; of Mr E. Walle: materials for the future nuclear systems; of Mr S. Hody: which future prospect for the energy production: the point of view of Gaz de France; of Mr T. Alleau: the hydrogen, the energy of the future; of Mr J.M. Bassat: the specificities of the SOFC, new materials for a carrying out at ambient temperature; of Mr G. Pourcelly: the PEMFC; of Mrs A. Le Douaron and F. Moussy: materials, energy and environment in automotive industry; of Ms A. de Guibert: the key role of materials in the lithium-ion accumulators; of Mr P. C. Mogensen: the photovoltaic materials: the key of the solar energy; and of Mr M. Beauvy: the future reactors: challenges for materials. (O.M.)

  8. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  9. Solar energy thermalization and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J.F.

    A passive solar thermalization and thermal energy storage assembly which is visually transparent is described. The assembly consists of two substantial parallel, transparent wall members mounted in a rectangular support frame to form a liquid-tight chamber. A semitransparent thermalization plate is located in the chamber, substantially paralled to and about equidistant from the transparent wall members to thermalize solar radiation which is stored in a transparent thermal energy storage liquid which fills the chamber. A number of the devices, as modules, can be stacked together to construct a visually transparent, thermal storage wall for passive solar-heated buildings.

  10. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-05-01

    A non-technical overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, including sections on photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power, and solar heating and lighting R&D.

  11. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V; Gu, Min

    2017-03-31

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10 -3  Whcm -3 . In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10 -1  Whcm -3 - more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  12. Bioinspired fractal electrodes for solar energy storages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekkekara, Litty V.; Gu, Min

    2017-03-01

    Solar energy storage is an emerging technology which can promote the solar energy as the primary source of electricity. Recent development of laser scribed graphene electrodes exhibiting a high electrical conductivity have enabled a green technology platform for supercapacitor-based energy storage, resulting in cost-effective, environment-friendly features, and consequent readiness for on-chip integration. Due to the limitation of the ion-accessible active porous surface area, the energy densities of these supercapacitors are restricted below ~3 × 10-3 Whcm-3. In this paper, we demonstrate a new design of biomimetic laser scribed graphene electrodes for solar energy storage, which embraces the structure of Fern leaves characterized by the geometric family of space filling curves of fractals. This new conceptual design removes the limit of the conventional planar supercapacitors by significantly increasing the ratio of active surface area to volume of the new electrodes and reducing the electrolyte ionic path. The attained energy density is thus significantly increased to ~10-1 Whcm-3- more than 30 times higher than that achievable by the planar electrodes with ~95% coulombic efficiency of the solar energy storage. The energy storages with these novel electrodes open the prospects of efficient self-powered and solar-powered wearable, flexible and portable applications.

  13. Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, Soteris A.

    2004-01-01

    All nations of the world depend on fossil fuels for their energy needs. However the obligation to reduce CO 2 and other gaseous emissions in order to be in conformity with the Kyoto agreement is the reason behind which countries turn to non-polluting renewable energy sources. In this paper the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels is initially presented followed by a study on the environmental protection offered by the two most widely used renewable energy systems, i.e. solar water heating and solar space heating. The results presented in this paper show that by using solar energy, considerable amounts of greenhouse polluting gasses are avoided. For the case of a domestic water heating system, the saving, compared to a conventional system, is about 80% with electricity or Diesel backup and is about 75% with both electricity and Diesel backup. In the case of space heating and hot water system the saving is about 40%. It should be noted, however, that in the latter, much greater quantities of pollutant gasses are avoided. Additionally, all systems investigated give positive and very promising financial characteristics. With respect to life cycle assessment of the systems, the energy spent for manufacture and installation of the solar systems is recouped in about 1.2 years, whereas the payback time with respect to emissions produced from the embodied energy required for the manufacture and installation of the systems varies from a few months to 9.5 years according to the fuel and the particular pollutant considered. Moreover, due to the higher solar contribution, solar water heating systems have much shorter payback times than solar space heating systems. It can, therefore, be concluded that solar energy systems offer significant protection to the environment and should be employed whenever possible in order to achieve a sustainable future

  14. Simulated Space Environment Effects on a Candidate Solar Sail Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Bryant, Robert G.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Wadsworth, Heather M.; Craven, Paul D.; Nehls, Mary K.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    For long duration missions of solar sails, the sail material needs to survive harsh space environments and the degradation of the sail material controls operational lifetime. Therefore, understanding the effects of the space environment on the sail membrane is essential for mission success. In this study, we investigated the effect of simulated space environment effects of ionizing radiation, thermal aging and simulated potential damage on mechanical, thermal and optical properties of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) polyester solar sail membrane to assess the degradation mechanisms on a feasible solar sail. The solar sail membrane was exposed to high energy electrons (about 70 keV and 10 nA/cm2), and the physical properties were characterized. After about 8.3 Grad dose, the tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain of the sail membrane decreased by about 20 95%. The aluminum reflective layer was damaged and partially delaminated but it did not show any significant change in solar absorbance or thermal emittance. The effect on mechanical properties of a pre-cracked sample, simulating potential impact damage of the sail membrane, as well as thermal aging effects on metallized PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) film will be discussed.

  15. Energy Materials: A Classified Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography includes 615 books and audiovisual products on energy and related topics. Books are listed in the following categories: reference, general, alternative sources, citizen action, coal, conservation and ecology, economics and politics, electricity, gas, geothermal, nuclear power, oil, solar, water, wind, and juveniles. A/V materials…

  16. Solar energy photovoltaic technology: proficiency and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Total is committed to making the best possible of the planet's fossil fuel reserves while fostering the emergence of other solutions, notably by developing effective alternatives. Total involves in photovoltaics when it founded in 1983 Total Energies, renamed Tenesol in 2005, a world leader in the design and installation of photovoltaic solar power systems. This document presents Total's activities in the domain: the global challenge of energy sources and the environment, the energy collecting by photovoltaic electricity, the silicon technology for cell production, solar panels and systems to distribute energy, research and development to secure the future. (A.L.B.)

  17. Advanced materials for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this Review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted.

  18. Advanced materials for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang; Li, Feng; Ma, Lai-Peng; Cheng, Hui-Ming [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-02-23

    Popularization of portable electronics and electric vehicles worldwide stimulates the development of energy storage devices, such as batteries and supercapacitors, toward higher power density and energy density, which significantly depends upon the advancement of new materials used in these devices. Moreover, energy storage materials play a key role in efficient, clean, and versatile use of energy, and are crucial for the exploitation of renewable energy. Therefore, energy storage materials cover a wide range of materials and have been receiving intensive attention from research and development to industrialization. In this review, firstly a general introduction is given to several typical energy storage systems, including thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, hydrogen, and electrochemical energy storage. Then the current status of high-performance hydrogen storage materials for on-board applications and electrochemical energy storage materials for lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors is introduced in detail. The strategies for developing these advanced energy storage materials, including nanostructuring, nano-/microcombination, hybridization, pore-structure control, configuration design, surface modification, and composition optimization, are discussed. Finally, the future trends and prospects in the development of advanced energy storage materials are highlighted. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Environmental impacts from the solar energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Gekas, Vassilis

    2005-01-01

    Solar energy systems (photovoltaics, solar thermal, solar power) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources, thus contributing, to the sustainable development of human activities. Sometimes however, their wide scale deployment has to face potential negative environmental implications. These potential problems seem to be a strong barrier for a further dissemination of these systems in some consumers. To cope with these problems this paper presents an overview of an Environmental Impact Assessment. We assess the potential environmental intrusions in order to ameliorate them with new technological innovations and good practices in the future power systems. The analysis provides the potential burdens to the environment, which include - during the construction, the installation and the demolition phases, as well as especially in the case of the central solar technologies - noise and visual intrusion, greenhouse gas emissions, water and soil pollution, energy consumption, labour accidents, impact on archaeological sites or on sensitive ecosystems, negative and positive socio-economic effects

  20. Photoelectrochemical devices for solar water splitting - materials and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaoran; Moniz, Savio J A; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Junwang

    2017-07-31

    It is widely accepted within the community that to achieve a sustainable society with an energy mix primarily based on solar energy we need an efficient strategy to convert and store sunlight into chemical fuels. A photoelectrochemical (PEC) device would therefore play a key role in offering the possibility of carbon-neutral solar fuel production through artificial photosynthesis. The past five years have seen a surge in the development of promising semiconductor materials. In addition, low-cost earth-abundant co-catalysts are ubiquitous in their employment in water splitting cells due to the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). This review commences with a fundamental understanding of semiconductor properties and charge transfer processes in a PEC device. We then describe various configurations of PEC devices, including single light-absorber cells and multi light-absorber devices (PEC, PV-PEC and PV/electrolyser tandem cell). Recent progress on both photoelectrode materials (light absorbers) and electrocatalysts is summarized, and important factors which dominate photoelectrode performance, including light absorption, charge separation and transport, surface chemical reaction rate and the stability of the photoanode, are discussed. Controlling semiconductor properties is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting. Accordingly, strategies to address the challenges for materials development in this area, such as the adoption of smart architectures, innovative device configuration design, co-catalyst loading, and surface protection layer deposition, are outlined throughout the text, to deliver a highly efficient and stable PEC device for water splitting.

  1. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  2. Next generation solar energy. From fundamentals to applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the International Conference between 12th and 14th December, 2011 in Erlangen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were presented: (1) The opto-electronic physics required to approach the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit (E. Yablonovitch); (2) The Shockley-Queisser-limit and beyond (G.H. Bauer); (3) Designing composite nanomaterials for photovoltaic devices (B. Rech); (4) Light-Material interactions in energy conversion (H. Atwater); (5) Functional imaging of hybrid nanostructures - Visualizing mechanisms of solar energy utilization (L. Lauhon); (6) Are photosynthetic proteins suitable for PV applications (Y. Rosenwaks); (7) Detailed balance limit in photovoltaic systems (U. Rau); (8) Plasmonics and nanophotonics for next generation photovoltaics (E. Garnett); (9) Dispersion, wave propagation and efficiency analysis of nanowire solar cells (B. Witzigmann); (10) Application of nanostructures to next generation photovoltaics - Opportunities and challenges from an industrial research perspective (L. Tsakalakos); (11) Triplet states in organic and organometallic photovoltaic cells (K.S. Schanze); (12) New photoelectrode architectures (J.T. Hupp); (13) Dendrimers for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications (P. Ceroni); (14) Photon management with luminescent materials (J. Goldschmidt); (15) Economical aspects of next generation solar cell technologies (W. Hoffmann); (16) Scalability in solar energy conversion - First-row transition metal-based chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cells (J. McCusker); (17) Designing organic materials for photovoltaic devices (A. Harriman); (18) Molecular photovoltaics - What can we learn from model studies (B. Albinsson); (19) Porphyrin-sensitised titanium dioxide solar cells (D. Officer); (20) Light-harvesting: Charge separation, and charge-transportation properties of novel materials for organic photovoltaics (H. Imahori); (21) Phthalocyanines for molecular photovoltaics (T. Torres); (22) Photophysics of

  3. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...

  4. Energy Materials Research Laboratory (EMRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Materials Research Laboratory at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) creates a cross-disciplinary laboratory facility that lends itself to the...

  5. Passive solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  6. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Orilall, M. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Block copolymer based composition and morphology control in nanostructured hybrid materials for energy conversion and storage: solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orilall, M Christopher; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2011-02-01

    The development of energy conversion and storage devices is at the forefront of research geared towards a sustainable future. However, there are numerous issues that prevent the widespread use of these technologies including cost, performance and durability. These limitations can be directly related to the materials used. In particular, the design and fabrication of nanostructured hybrid materials is expected to provide breakthroughs for the advancement of these technologies. This tutorial review will highlight block copolymers as an emerging and powerful yet affordable tool to structure-direct such nanomaterials with precise control over structural dimensions, composition and spatial arrangement of materials in composites. After providing an introduction to materials design and current limitations, the review will highlight some of the most recent examples of block copolymer structure-directed nanomaterials for photovoltaics, batteries and fuel cells. In each case insights are provided into the various underlying fundamental chemical, thermodynamic and kinetic formation principles enabling general and relatively inexpensive wet-polymer chemistry methodologies for the efficient creation of multiscale functional materials. Examples include nanostructured ceramics, ceramic-carbon composites, ceramic-carbon-metal composites and metals with morphologies ranging from hexagonally arranged cylinders to three-dimensional bi-continuous cubic networks. The review ends with an outlook towards the synthesis of multicomponent and hierarchical multifunctional hybrid materials with different nano-architectures from self-assembly of higher order blocked macromolecules which may ultimately pave the way for the further development of energy conversion and storage devices.

  8. Solar energy collection by antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corkish, R.; Green, M.A.; Puzzer, T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia). Centre for Advanced Silicon Photovoltaics and Photonics

    2002-12-01

    The idea of collecting solar electromagnetic radiation with antenna-rectifier (rectenna) structures was proposed three decades ago but has not yet been achieved. The idea has been promoted as having potential to achieve efficiency approaching 100% but thermodynamic considerations imply a lower limit of 85.4% for a non-frequency-selective rectenna and 86.8% for one with infinite selectivity, assuming maximal concentration in each case. This paper reviews the history and technical context of solar rectennas and discusses the major issues: thermodynamic efficiency limits, rectifier operation at optical frequencies, harmonics production and electrical noise. (author)

  9. Energy savings solutions: passive solar design in Iranian cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Department of Architecture, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Mahdavi Tabatabaei Fard, Fariborz [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com; Aliyev, Fagan [International Eco-energy Academy (Azerbaijan)], email: ie_academy@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the cost of fuel gas, fuel oil and electricity and much thought has been given to the use of solar energy. Living in a solar heated house gives peace of mind and body and it makes good sense in mountainous regions. Severe winters in such regions make more energy for standard living activities in buildings necessary. This paper discusses passive solar building design as an energy saving solution. In this type of design, windows, walls and floors act as storage and distribution devices for solar energy in winter and deflect solar heat in summer. Passive solar design techniques influence the choice of building site, design and materials within the general framework of enriching the quality of life of the inhabitants. As a result, natural resources are saved and the environment is conserved for future generations. In conclusion, it is seen that passive design keeps a home cool and comfortable in summer and warm and cozy in winter with minimal heating and cooling requirements.

  10. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Solar

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  11. The solar energy; L'Energie solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-07-01

    This document provides information the today technology concerning the photovoltaic cells and presents the research programs in the domain: silver cells, black silicon, spherical cells, mini sensors, solar spectrum cells Hercules europe project of solar energy concentration. Many Internet addresses are provided. (A.L.B.)

  12. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  13. Solar energy activities in the Arab countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayigh, A.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Arab countries, 22 in total, are divided into three groups. Group one consists of all countries of the Middle East. The second group is the Arabian Peninsula, and the third group consists of all Arab countries in Africa. The paper outlines the solar density and sunshine hours, as well as wind data in the region and compares them with some industrialized countries. Brief surveys of various solar energy projects are tabulated: that is solar, wind and biomass. Several specific major projects in various parts of the Arab World will be discussed. More specifically, the cooling of the solar energy research building in Baghdad (120 tons of solar absorption chillers, 80 tons of heat pumps), the heating of King Abdu-Asis Airborne and Physical Training School near Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, the 350 kW PV. field of the solar energy village near Riyadh and the 100 kW solar thermal plant in Kuwait are discussed. It is worth noting that the present photovoltaic capacity in the Arab world is more than 3.0 MW and the yearly installation potential per year is 2.0 MW. There are at least five photovoltaic production facilities in the Arab countries. Two of them in Saudi Arabia with capacity of 400 kW, one in Iraq with a capacity of 200 kW, one in Tunisia with a capacity of 100 kW and on in Algeria with capacity of 100 kW. The Arab countries can absorb 5MW per year and more countries like Egypt, Sudan, Morocco, Jordan and Libya are thinking of having their own production capabilities. Five desalination plants are also mentioned, plus the Yanbu plant of 240m/day, which is one of the largest in the world. The potential of wind energy utilisation is considered. Obstacles hindering the process of solar energy in the region are also outlined. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  14. Better chances for photovoltaic solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of solar energy based on the policy to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and acidifying pollutants, and the desire to save energy, in particular with regard to the increase of energy consumption, which can be expected to occur in the near future in developing countries. After a brief introduction on the efficiencies of monocrystalline silicon (m-Si), polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) solar cells realized sofar, attention is paid to two remarkable developments in solar cell research. One is at Texas Instruments where silicon balls in aluminium foil are fabricated, for which the average energy efficiency realized sofar is 10% for small surfaces (10 cm 2 ). The cell is called the spheral solar cell. A second development is at the Federal Institute for Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland, where the researchers O'Regan and Graetzel reported on the development of a photo-electrochemical solar cell with a high efficiency and good stability. Their cell is dye sensitized, which means that the light absorption function of the cell is separated from the load transport function. Finally brief attention is paid to the introduction and use of solar home systems in Indonesia. 5 figs

  15. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  16. MAXIMIZING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfson, Richard; Drake, Christina; Kennedy, Max

    2012-01-01

    The energy that drives solar eruptive events such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) almost certainly originates in coronal magnetic fields. Such energy may build up gradually on timescales of days or longer before its sudden release in an eruptive event, and the presence of free magnetic energy capable of rapid release requires nonpotential magnetic fields and associated electric currents. For magnetic energy to power a CME, that energy must be sufficient to open the magnetic field to interplanetary space, to lift the ejecta against solar gravity, and to accelerate the material to speeds of typically several hundred km s –1 . Although CMEs are large-scale structures, many originate from relatively compact active regions on the solar surface—suggesting that magnetic energy storage may be enhanced when it takes place in smaller magnetic structures. This paper builds on our earlier work exploring energy storage in large-scale dipolar and related bipolar magnetic fields. Here we consider two additional cases: quadrupolar fields and concentrated magnetic bipoles intended to simulate active regions. Our models yield stored energies whose excess over that of the corresponding open field state can be greater than 100% of the associated potential field energy; this contrasts with maximum excess energies of only about 20% for dipolar and symmetric bipolar configurations. As in our previous work, energy storage is enhanced when we surround a nonpotential field with a strong overlying potential field that acts to 'hold down' the nonpotential flux as its magnetic energy increases.

  17. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  18. Implementation of solar-reflective surfaces: Materials and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretz, S.; Akbari, H.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

    1992-06-01

    This report focuses on implementation issues for using solar-reflective surfaces to cool urban heat islands, with specific examples for Sacramento, California. Advantages of solar-reflective surfaces for reducing energy use are: (1) they are cost-effective if albedo is increased during routine maintenance; (2) the energy savings coincide with peak demand for power; (3) there are positive effects on environmental quality; and (4) the white materials have a long service life. Important considerations when choosing materials for mitigating heat islands are identified as albedo, emissivity, durability, cost, pollution and appearance. There is a potential for increasing urban albedo in Sacramento by an additional 18%. Of residential roofs, we estimate that asphalt shingle and modified bitumen cover the largest area, and that built-up roofing and modified bitumen cover the largest area of commercial buildings. For all of these roof types, albedo may be increased at the time of re-roofing without any additional cost. When a roof is repaired, a solar-reflective roof coating may be applied to significantly increase albedo and extend the life of the root Although a coating may be cost-effective if applied to a new roof following installation or to an older roof following repair, it is not cost-effective if the coating is applied only to save energy. Solar-reflective pavement may be cost-effective if the albedo change is included in the routine resurfacing schedule. Cost-effective options for producing light-colored pavement may include: (1) asphalt concrete, if white aggregate is locally available; (2) concrete overlays; and (3) newly developed white binders and aggregate. Another option may be hot-rolled asphalt, with white chippings. Utilities could promote solar-reflective surfaces through advertisement, educational programs and cost-sharing of road resurfacing.

  19. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  20. Wind and solar energy incentives in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleghani, G.; Kazemi Karegar, H.

    2006-01-01

    Incentive have yet been viewed as a means of supporting technological developments until a new technology becomes cost competitive wind based electricity is not jet generally competitive with alternate sources of electricity such as fossil fuels. This paper presents the potential for wind and solar in Iran and shows how much electric energy is now produced by renewable power plants compared to steam and gas. The importance of renewable energy effects on Iran environment and economy is also discussed and the issue of the contribution of renewable energy for producing electricity in the future will be shown. Also this paper highlights the ability of Iran to manufacture the components of the wind turbine and solar system locally, and its effect on the price of wind turbine and solar energy

  1. Energy Primer: Solar, Water, Wind, and Biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portola Inst., Inc., Menlo Park, CA.

    This is a comprehensive, fairly technical book about renewable forms of energy--solar, water, wind, and biofuels. The biofuels section covers biomass energy, agriculture, aquaculture, alcohol, methane, and wood. The focus is on small-scale systems which can be applied to the needs of the individual, small group, or community. More than one-fourth…

  2. Remarks About Nuclear And Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1974-01-01

    This paper was written by E. Broda for the 24 th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, which took place in Baden ( Austria), 28 th August-2 nd September in 1974. In this document issues of energy resources and production are discussed. The focus lies especially on nuclear and solar energy. (nowak)

  3. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  4. Gasification of oil shale by solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingel, Gil

    1992-04-01

    Gasification of oil shales followed by catalytic reforming can yield synthetic gas, which is easily transportable and may be used as a heat source or for producing liquid fuels. The aim of the present work was to study the gasification of oil shales by solar radiation, as a mean of combining these two energy resources. Such a combination results in maximizing the extractable fuel from the shale, as well as enabling us to store solar energy in a chemical bond. In this research special attention was focused upon the question of the possible enhancement of the gasification by direct solar irradiation of the solid carbonaceous feed stock. The oil shale served here as a model feedstock foe other resources such as coal, heavy fuels or biomass all of which can be gasified in the same manner. The experiments were performed at the Weizman institute's solar central receiver, using solar concentrated flux as an energy source for the gasification. The original contributions of this work are : 1) Experimental evidence is presented that concentrated sunlight can be used effectively to carry out highly endothermic chemical reactions in solid particles, which in turn forms an essential element in the open-loop solar chemical heat pipe; 2) The solar-driven gasification of oil shales can be executed with good conversion efficiencies, as well as high synthesis gas yields; 3)There was found substantial increase in deliverable energy compared to the conventional retorting of oil shales, and considerable reduction in the resulting spent shale. 5) A detailed computer model that incorporates all the principal optical and thermal components of the solar concentrator and the chemical reactor has been developed and compared favorably against experimental data. (author)

  5. Solar energy system with wind vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  6. Thermal solar energy, towards a sunny interval?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    While its market results are continuously decreasing, the thermal solar sector regains confidence with the perspectives of a new thermal legislation in France, a higher carbon tax and the growing volume of installed equipment. This document contains 5 articles, which themes are: The renewal of the thermal solar energy sector in France, notably for the building market, due to a new regulation and a reduction in costs; Several companies are developing large capacity thermal solar plant for industrial facilities (one of them covers 10000 m 2 ) while another company is developing an all-in-one containerised system (less than 1 MW); Another example is given with a Caribbean chemical company which use thermal solar energy for its processes, with a reduction of the fuel consumption by a 2.5 factor; The return of experience show that hybrid solar panels present some limitations, especially in terms of performances and sizing; A collective building (35 apartments) in the West of France has 100 pc of its heating needs (hot water production and space heating) satisfied with solar energy

  7. Application of nanomaterials in solar thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirgaran, Seyed Reza; Khalaji Assadi, Morteza; Viswanatha Sharma, Korada

    2018-06-01

    Solar thermal conversion technology harvests the sun's energy, rather than fossil fuels, to generate low-cost, low/zero-emission energy in the form of heating, cooling or electrical form for residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The advent of nanofluids and nanocomposites or phase change materials, is a new field of study which is adapted to enhance the efficiency of solar collectors. The concepts of thermal energy storage technologies are investigated and the role of nanomaterials in energy conversion is discussed. This review revealed that although the exploitation of nanomaterials will boost the performance of solar collectors almost in all cases, this would be accompanied by certain challenges such as production cost, instability, agglomeration and erosion. Earlier studies have dealt with the enhancement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity; however, less attention has been given to the facing challenges. Moreover, no exact criteria can be found for the selection of appropriate nanomaterials and their properties for a specific application. In most research studies, the nanoparticles' material and properties have not been selected based on estimated values so that all the aspects of desired application could be considered simultaneously. The wide spread use of nanomaterials can lead to cost effective solutions as well. Therefore, it seems there should be a sense of techno-economic optimization in exploiting nanomaterials for solar thermal energy storage applications. The optimization should cover the key parameters, particularly nanoparticle type, size, loading and shape which depends on the sort of application and also dispersion technology.

  8. Application of nanomaterials in solar thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamshirgaran, Seyed Reza; Khalaji Assadi, Morteza; Viswanatha Sharma, Korada

    2017-12-01

    Solar thermal conversion technology harvests the sun's energy, rather than fossil fuels, to generate low-cost, low/zero-emission energy in the form of heating, cooling or electrical form for residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The advent of nanofluids and nanocomposites or phase change materials, is a new field of study which is adapted to enhance the efficiency of solar collectors. The concepts of thermal energy storage technologies are investigated and the role of nanomaterials in energy conversion is discussed. This review revealed that although the exploitation of nanomaterials will boost the performance of solar collectors almost in all cases, this would be accompanied by certain challenges such as production cost, instability, agglomeration and erosion. Earlier studies have dealt with the enhancement of thermal conductivity and heat capacity; however, less attention has been given to the facing challenges. Moreover, no exact criteria can be found for the selection of appropriate nanomaterials and their properties for a specific application. In most research studies, the nanoparticles' material and properties have not been selected based on estimated values so that all the aspects of desired application could be considered simultaneously. The wide spread use of nanomaterials can lead to cost effective solutions as well. Therefore, it seems there should be a sense of techno-economic optimization in exploiting nanomaterials for solar thermal energy storage applications. The optimization should cover the key parameters, particularly nanoparticle type, size, loading and shape which depends on the sort of application and also dispersion technology.

  9. Comparative Study of Antireflection Coating Materials for Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yaog

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... Locally available absorber and antireflection coating materials for ... However, a black painted steel sheet metal costs less and is readily available in local ..... Testing of a new solar coating for solar water heating applications.

  10. Models for efficient integration of solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder

    the available flexibility in the system. In the present thesis methods related to operation of solar energy systems and for optimal energy use in buildings are presented. Two approaches for forecasting of solar power based on numerical weather predictions (NWPs) are presented, they are applied to forecast......Efficient operation of energy systems with substantial amount of renewable energy production is becoming increasingly important. Renewables are dependent on the weather conditions and are therefore by nature volatile and uncontrollable, opposed to traditional energy production based on combustion....... The "smart grid" is a broad term for the technology for addressing the challenge of operating the grid with a large share of renewables. The "smart" part is formed by technologies, which models the properties of the systems and efficiently adapt the load to the volatile energy production, by using...

  11. Performance evaluation on solar still integrated with nano-composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekhar, G.; Eswaramoorthy, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper communicates the performance evaluation of single slope solar still integrated with nano-composite phase change materials and compare with the experimental results of with and without phase change materials. A solar still with 1 m"2 surface area is developed with non-selective coating of absorber sheet with the provision of thermal energy storage materials. The solar still is tested on typical days with and without thermal energy storage materials. It is found that from the experimental studies that nano-materials (Al_2O_3) dispersed in paraffin wax is giving better cumulative yield of distillate than paraffin wax alone and without paraffin wax thermal storage. The daily efficiency of the solar still is computed for solar still with nano-composite phase change materials is 45% and solar still paraffin wax alone thermal storage is 40% and solar still without any thermal storage is 38%. It is concluded from the experimental studies; solar still integrated with nano-composite phase change materials gives better performance than with and without phase change material alone. (authors)

  12. Review of the technology for solar gasification of carbonaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.; Spiewak, I.; Funken, K.H.; Ortner, J.

    1994-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the feasibility of solar assisted gasification of carbonaceous materials to form synthesis gas (syngas). The potential feedstocks range from natural gas, residual oil, biomass, and oil-shale to coal. The expected advantages of such processing are yields of syngas with calorific values above those of the carbonaceous feedstocks, syngas quality suited to production of hydrogen, methanol or bulk Fischer-Tropsch fuels, and the ability to process low-grade and waste materials with essentially no emissions to atmosphere other than small amounts of CO 2 . The review provides some background on solar receiver concepts to reach the high temperatures needed for syngas production, the basic chemistry involved, covers applicable experiments that have been reported with solar inputs and with conventional heating, heat transfer processes, process and energy balances, and cost analysis. Approximately 80 references are cited. The authors present their views on the most promising approaches to solar-assisted gasification, the technology development required, and the ultimate benefits of such development and commercialization

  13. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  14. Solar energy conscious allotting and building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, R.; Winter, R.

    1992-10-01

    In order to use solar energy now and in the future several measures should be taken in the field of urban development and housing construction. A number of policy instruments is available to the local governments to stimulate the use of solar energy. However, little use is made of these possibilities so far. In many municipalities there are uncertainties about the financial consequences of solar energy conscious building. In practice it appears that there are hardly any extra costs for the infrastructure if building blocks and roofs are designed and built with south orientation. Also possibilities to minimize the investment barrier for the occupants of the houses are available. An overview is presented of the policy instruments and practical examples are given for the Dutch municipalities Gouda, Schiedam, Heerhugowaard, Delft and Haarlemmermeer. 2 tabs., 2 appendices, 6 refs

  15. Solar energy program evaluation: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    deLeon, P.

    1979-09-01

    The Program Evaluation Methodology provides an overview of the practice and methodology of program evaluation and defines more precisely the evaluation techniques and methodologies that would be most appropriate to government organizations which are actively involved in the research, development, and commercialization of solar energy systems. Formal evaluation cannot be treated as a single methodological approach for assessing a program. There are four basic types of evaluation designs - the pre-experimental design; the quasi-experimental design based on time series; the quasi-experimental design based on comparison groups; and the true experimental design. This report is organized to first introduce the role and issues of evaluation. This is to provide a set of issues to organize the subsequent sections detailing the national solar energy programs. Then, these two themes are integrated by examining the evaluation strategies and methodologies tailored to fit the particular needs of the various individual solar energy programs. (MCW)

  16. The prospective uses of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, M.; Carra, S.

    2007-01-01

    Some aspects inherent the prospective uses of solar energy as renewable energy source are here addressed with particular reference to the technical and economical aspects affecting its use of today and tomorrow. It emerges that neither technical nor availability limitation exist for the extensive use of that primary energy source, but only limitations of economical nature that are indeed under resolution with the installation volumes increase [it

  17. The Determinant of US Consumers Attitudes toward Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides several significant advantages, such as reduction of the CO[subscript 2] emissions, increase of energy supply diversification, security of energy, and regional/national energy independence. Due to the reduced installation cost and the rapid advances in solar energy technology, the installed capacity of solar power has been…

  18. Solar energy's economic and social benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  19. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  20. The thermal solar energy - September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2010-01-01

    The author first notices that the use of solar heat to produce electricity is much lesser known than the production of electricity by photovoltaic effect. He also notices that few efforts have been made in France to develop this technology (thermal solar energy, also called helio-thermodynamics). He evokes the Themis project and also some initiatives in Spain and in California. He recalls some data about solar heat, presents the solar concentration technique which either uses a parabolic configuration (point focus concentration) or a cylindrical and parabolic configuration (line concentration system). He briefly presents the different techniques used to transform solar heat into electricity and to store the electricity. He briefly presents different solutions which have been tested over the past years in France, Germany, Spain, California and Israel (tower and air, gas and Stirling cycle, tower and direct vapour production, cylindrical-parabolic collector). He discusses the effect of intermittency and the French context, and questions and discusses the choice between thermal and photovoltaic solar energy (advantages and drawbacks)

  1. Timber drying kilns using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-15

    The objective of this project was to research the potential for solar kilns for drying timber in tropical countries (Guyana, Honduras and Belize) and produce a manual which will provide the knowledge necessary to build and operate a solar kiln. The main output of the project is the manual Solar Heated Timber Drying Kilns - a Manual on their Design and Operation. The manual covers:- background information; selection of construction materials; methods of kiln construction; kiln operation and maintenance procedure. The manual has been designed to provide the necessary knowledge and confidence to build and operate a solar kiln, and ultimately benefit from an improved product. Specifically, the manual will benefit small building construction units, furniture and joinery manufacturers and sawmill operators in developing and developed countries worldwide. (author)

  2. SOLAR ENERGY FOR GREEN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    D. P. Jesudoss Manohar; Dr. T. Jayaprakasam

    2016-01-01

    India a rapidly growing economy with more than 1 billion people is facing a huge also energy demand. The electricity production has expanded over the years but we cannot deny the fact that the population of the country is also expanding. More than 72% of population living in villages and half of the villages remain without electricity. It’s high time that our country should concentrate more on energy efficiency, conservation and renewable energy to fulfill the energy needs of India and bri...

  3. Engineered nanomaterials for solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, Vladan

    2013-02-01

    Understanding how to engineer nanomaterials for targeted solar-cell applications is the key to improving their efficiency and could lead to breakthroughs in their design. Proposed mechanisms for the conversion of solar energy to electricity are those exploiting the particle nature of light in conventional photovoltaic cells, and those using the collective electromagnetic nature, where light is captured by antennas and rectified. In both cases, engineered nanomaterials form the crucial components. Examples include arrays of semiconductor nanostructures as an intermediate band (so called intermediate band solar cells), semiconductor nanocrystals for multiple exciton generation, or, in antenna-rectifier cells, nanomaterials for effective optical frequency rectification. Here, we discuss the state of the art in p-n junction, intermediate band, multiple exciton generation, and antenna-rectifier solar cells. We provide a summary of how engineered nanomaterials have been used in these systems and a discussion of the open questions.

  4. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion: Materials, Devices, and Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present a discussion of challenges, progresses, and opportunities in thermoelectric energy conversion technology. We will start with an introduction to thermoelectric technology, followed by discussing advances in thermoelectric materials, devices, and systems. Thermoelectric energy conversion exploits the Seebeck effect to convert thermal energy into electricity, or the Peltier effect for heat pumping applications. Thermoelectric devices are scalable, capable of generating power from nano Watts to mega Watts. One key issue is to improve materials thermoelectric figure- of-merit that is linearly proportional to the Seebeck coefficient, the square of the electrical conductivity, and inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. Improving the figure-of-merit requires good understanding of electron and phonon transport as their properties are often contradictory in trends. Over the past decade, excellent progresses have been made in the understanding of electron and phonon transport in thermoelectric materials, and in improving existing and identify new materials, especially by exploring nanoscale size effects. Taking materials to real world applications, however, faces more challenges in terms of materials stability, device fabrication, thermal management and system design. Progresses and lessons learnt from our effort in fabricating thermoelectric devices will be discussed. We have demonstrated device thermal-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency ∼10% and solar-thermoelectric generator efficiency at 4.6% without optical concentration of sunlight (Figure 1) and ∼8-9% efficiency with optical concentration. Great opportunities exist in advancing materials as well as in using existing materials for energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy utilization, as well as mobile applications. (paper)

  5. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy - Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are presented of point-focusing, or 'dish' solar concentrator system features, development status, and performance levels demonstrated to date. In addition to the requirements of good optical efficiency and high geometric concentration ratios, the most important future consideration in solar thermal energy dish concentrator design will be the reduction of installed and lifetime costs, as well as the materials and labor costs of production. It is determined that technology development initiatives are needed in such areas as optical materials, design wind speeds and wind loads, structural configuration and materials resistance to prolonged exposure, and the maintenance of optical surfaces. The testing of complete concentrator systems, with energy-converting receivers and controls, is also necessary. Both reflector and Fresnel lens concentrator systems are considered.

  6. Solar Energy: Topographical Asset for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez Hameed Shaikh; Faheemullah Shaikh; Mushtaq Mirani

    2013-01-01

    The primary energy supply of Pakistan in the financial year 2009-10 was 63.088 million tonnes of oil equivalent (MTOE). Globally, renewable energies generation is around (19%) [1]. Pakistan has a yearly average solar energy shining potential of about 19 Mega Joules per square meter, with 7.6 hours per day with an average solar radiation of 5-7 kW h/(m 2 day). An alarming stage for the government to take serious steps to tackle energy demand, in vision to inclining oil markets, depletion of gas reserves, huge electricity demand and supply gap, lessening of forest reserves, calamity (floods, heavy rainfalls, earth quakes, melting of glaciers etc.), Kyoto bindings etc. All these factors are indicating for the transition towards renewable energy technologies. (authors)

  7. Incentives for solar energy in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, K. D.

    1981-05-01

    Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax equity. The effects that market penetration of solar energy has on conventional energy prices are analyzed with a free market model. It is shown that net costs of a subsidy program to the society can be significantly reduced by price. Several government loan guarantee concepts are evaluated as incentives that may not require direct outlays of government funds; their relative effectiveness in achieving loan leverage through project financing, and their cost and practicality, are discussed.

  8. Computational approaches to energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Catlow, Richard; Walsh, Aron

    2013-01-01

    The development of materials for clean and efficient energy generation and storage is one of the most rapidly developing, multi-disciplinary areas of contemporary science, driven primarily by concerns over global warming, diminishing fossil-fuel reserves, the need for energy security, and increasing consumer demand for portable electronics. Computational methods are now an integral and indispensable part of the materials characterisation and development process.   Computational Approaches to Energy Materials presents a detailed survey of current computational techniques for the

  9. Solar thermal energy. Solar pasteurization of dairy products; Energia solar termica. Pasteurizacion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, J.; Chemisana, D.

    2009-07-01

    Nicaragua is one of the south America countries with biggest cattle figures; however, it is at the bottom of the list of milk consumers. The cause which explains this is a twofold trouble. First of all, they have not the adequate milk treatment methods to guarantee a proper hygienic and conservation conditions. By the other side, production is distributed in small production centers to serve local consumers. this article proposal is to get a pasteurization treatment with thermal processes arranged by means of the solar energy. (Author) 3 refs.

  10. Nanophysics of solar and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    This easy accessible textbook provides an overview of solar to electric energy conversion, followed by a detailed look at one aspect, namely photovoltaics, including the underlying principles and fabrication methods. The author, an experienced author and teacher, reviews such green technologies as solar-heated-steam power, hydrogen, and thermoelectric generation, as well as nuclear fusion. Throughout the book, carefully chosen, up-to-date examples are used to illustrate important concepts and research tools. The opening chapters give a broad and exhaustive survey of long term energy resources, reviewing current and potential types of solar driven energy sources. The core part of the text on solar energy conversion discusses different concepts for generating electric power, followed by a profound presentation of the underlying semiconductor physics and rounded off by a look at efficiency and third-generation concepts. The concluding section offers a rough analysis of the economics relevant to the large-scale adoption of photovoltaic conversion with a discussion of such issues as durability, manufacturability and cost, as well as the importance of storage. The book is self-contained so as to be suitable for students with introductory calculus-based courses in physics, chemistry, or engineering. It introduces concepts in quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, plus the solid state and semiconductor junction physics needed to attain a quantitative understanding of the current status of this field. With its comments on economic aspects, it is also a useful tool for those readers interested in a career in alternative energy. (orig.)

  11. Nanophysics of solar and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Edward L. [New York Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). Polytechnic Institute

    2012-11-01

    This easy accessible textbook provides an overview of solar to electric energy conversion, followed by a detailed look at one aspect, namely photovoltaics, including the underlying principles and fabrication methods. The author, an experienced author and teacher, reviews such green technologies as solar-heated-steam power, hydrogen, and thermoelectric generation, as well as nuclear fusion. Throughout the book, carefully chosen, up-to-date examples are used to illustrate important concepts and research tools. The opening chapters give a broad and exhaustive survey of long term energy resources, reviewing current and potential types of solar driven energy sources. The core part of the text on solar energy conversion discusses different concepts for generating electric power, followed by a profound presentation of the underlying semiconductor physics and rounded off by a look at efficiency and third-generation concepts. The concluding section offers a rough analysis of the economics relevant to the large-scale adoption of photovoltaic conversion with a discussion of such issues as durability, manufacturability and cost, as well as the importance of storage. The book is self-contained so as to be suitable for students with introductory calculus-based courses in physics, chemistry, or engineering. It introduces concepts in quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular physics, plus the solid state and semiconductor junction physics needed to attain a quantitative understanding of the current status of this field. With its comments on economic aspects, it is also a useful tool for those readers interested in a career in alternative energy. (orig.)

  12. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Record of decision. SUMMARY: The U... and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and...

  13. Nano materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Kannan, A.M.; Kothurkar, N.; Khalil, Y.; Kuravi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nano materials enabled technologies have been seamlessly integrated into applications such as aviation and space, chemical industry, optics, solar hydrogen, fuel cell, batteries, sensors, power generation, aeronautic industry, building/construction industry, automotive engineering, consumer electronics, thermoelectric devices, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetic industry. Clean energy and environmental applications often demand the development of novel nano materials that can provide shortest reaction pathways for the enhancement of reaction kinetics. Understanding the physicochemical, structural, microstructural, surface, and interface properties of nano materials is vital for achieving the required efficiency, cycle life, and sustain ability in various technological applications. Nano materials with specific size and shape such as nano tubes, nano fibers/nano wires, nano cones, nano composites, nano rods, nano islands, nanoparticles, nanospheres, and nano shells to provide unique properties can be synthesized by tuning the process conditions.

  14. Microwavable thermal energy storage material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-09-08

    A microwavable thermal energy storage material is provided which includes a mixture of a phase change material and silica, and a carbon black additive in the form of a conformable dry powder of phase change material/silica/carbon black, or solid pellets, films, fibers, moldings or strands of phase change material/high density polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate/silica/carbon black which allows the phase change material to be rapidly heated in a microwave oven. The carbon black additive, which is preferably an electrically conductive carbon black, may be added in low concentrations of from 0.5 to 15% by weight, and may be used to tailor the heating times of the phase change material as desired. The microwavable thermal energy storage material can be used in food serving applications such as tableware items or pizza warmers, and in medical wraps and garments. 3 figs.

  15. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  16. ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B. [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, X. J. [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: yw@spaceweather.ac.cn [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.

  17. Conversion of solar energy into heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devin, B.; Etievant, C.

    1975-01-01

    Argument prevails regarding the main parameters involved in the definition of installations designed to convert by means of a thermal machine, solar energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Between the temperature of the cold source and the stagnation temperature, there exists an optimal temperature which makes for the maximum efficiency of the collector/thermal machine unit. The optimal operating conditions for different types of collector are examined. Optimization of the surface of the collector is dealt with in particular. The structure and cost of solar installations are also analyzed with some examples as basis: solar pumps of 1 to 25kW, a 50MWe electrosolar plant. The cost involves three main elements: the collector, the thermal unit and the heat storage device. The latter is necessary for the integration of diurnal and nocturnal fluctuations of isolation. It is shown that thermal storage is economically payable only under certain conditions [fr

  18. Research programme 'Active Solar Energy Use - Solar Heating and Heat Storage'. Activities and projects 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadorn, J.-C.; Renaud, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this report by the research, development and demonstration (RD+D) programme coordinators the objectives, activities and main results in the area of solar heating and heat storage in Switzerland are presented for 2003. In a stagnating market environment the strategy of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy mainly consists in improving the quality and durability of solar collectors and materials, optimizing combisystems for space heating and domestic hot water preparation, searching for storage systems with a higher energy storage density than in the case of sensible heat storage in water, developing coloured solar collectors for more architectonic freedom, and finalizing a seasonal heat storage project for 100 dwellings to demonstrate the feasibility of solar fractions larger than 50% in apartment houses. Support was granted to the Swiss Testing Facility SPF in Rapperswil as in previous years; SPF was the first European testing institute to perform solar collector labeling according to the new rules of the 'Solar Keymark', introduced in cooperation with the European Committee for Standardization CEN. Several 2003 projects were conducted within the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency IEA. Computerized simulation tools were improved. With the aim of jointly producing high-temperature heat and electric power a solar installation including a concentrating collector and a thermodynamic machine based on a Rankine cycle is still being developed. Seasonal underground heat storage was studied in detail by means of a validated computer simulation programme. Design guidelines were obtained for such a storage used in the summer time for cooling and in the winter time for space heating via a heat pump: depending on the ratio 'summer cooling / winter heating', cooling requires a cooling machine, or direct cooling without such a machine is possible. The report ends up with the list of all supported RD+D projects

  19. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  20. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  1. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part IV. Sun schooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which focus on solar energy is presented. This is the final book of the four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles include brief discussions on energy topics such as the sun, ocean energy, methane gas from cow manure, and solar homes. Instructions for constructing a sundial and a solar stove are also included. A glossary of energy related terms is provided. (BCS)

  2. Wind loads on solar energy roofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, C.P.W.; Bentum, C.A. van

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the wind loads on roofs, equipped with solar energy products, so called Active Roofs. Values given in this paper have been based on wind tunnel and full scale measurements, carried out at TNO, and on an interpretation of existing rules and guidelines. The results

  3. Solar Energy Installers Curriculum Guides. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gene C.

    A project was conducted to develop solar energy installers curriculum guides for use in high school vocational centers and community colleges. Project activities included researching job competencies for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning industry and determining through interviews and manufacturers' literature what additional…

  4. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  5. Utilization of solar energy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whillier, A

    1953-04-01

    Full Text Available Design curves based on measurements of solar irradiation in South Africa are presented for two geographic areas, the highveld and the Cape Peninsula, giving data on the amount of thermal energy that can be collected from the sun by use of flat...

  6. Reliability and durability in solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godolphin, D.

    1982-10-01

    The reliability and durability in solar energy systems for residential buildings is discussed. It is concluded that although strides have been made in design and manufacturing over the past years, the reliability and durability of the equipment depends on the proper installation. (MJF)

  7. Photovoltaic conversion of the solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordillo G, Gerardo

    1998-01-01

    In this work, a short description of the basic aspect of the performance of homojunction solar cells and of the technological aspects of the fabrication of low cost thin film solar cells is made. Special emphasis on the historical aspects of the evolution of the conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, Cd Te and CulnSe 2 is also made. The state of art of the technology of photovoltaic devices and modules is additionally presented. The contribution to the development of high efficiency solar cells and modules, carried out by research centers of universities such us: Stuttgart university (Germany), Stockholm university (Sweden), University of South Florida (USA), university of south gales (Australia), by the national renewable energy laboratory of USA and by research centers of companies such us: Matsushita (Japan), BP-solar (England), Boeing (USA), Arco solar (USA), Siemens (Germany) etc. are specially emphasized. Additionally, a section concerning economical aspect of the photovoltaic generation of electric energy is enclosed. In this section an overview of the evolution of price and world market of photovoltaic system is presented

  8. The potential of solar energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinke, W.C.; De Geus, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy in the Netherlands is not yet a well-known phenomenon. Still, the potential of solar energy to save or generate energy is large. Several forms of solar energy, as well as its possibilities and limitations, are introduced in this article. Attention is paid to active and passive thermal solar energy, and photovoltaic solar energy. Also the involvement of different parties in introducing solar energy is discussed. The next 10-20 years will be characterized by large-scale practical experiments and market introduction. The application of solar energy should be taken into account when planning urban areas. It is expected that ongoing developments in all fields of solar energy will result in a considerable improvement of the price/performance ratio and many new possibilities. 4 figs., 4 ills., 14 refs

  9. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will

  10. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  11. Technology Roadmaps: Solar photovoltaic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Solar PV power is a commercially available and reliable technology with a significant potential for long-term growth in nearly all world regions. This roadmap estimates that by 2050, PV will provide around 11% of global electricity production and avoid 2.3 gigatonnes (Gt) of CO2 emissions per year. Achieving this roadmap's vision will require an effective, long-term and balanced policy effort in the next decade to allow for optimal technology progress, cost reduction and ramp-up of industrial manufacturing for mass deployment. Governments will need to provide long-term targets and supporting policies to build confidence for investments in manufacturing capacity and deployment of PV systems. PV will achieve grid parity -- i.e. competitiveness with electricity grid retail prices -- by 2020 in many regions. As grid parity is achieved, the policy framework should evolve towards fostering self-sustained markets, with the progressive phase-out of economic incentives, but maintaining grid access guarantees and sustained R&D support.

  12. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  13. Solar architecture and energy policies in France: from the oil crisis to the solar crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin-Michel, Marion

    2013-01-01

    In 1973, the oil crisis creates a focus on energy efficiency policy. Public institutions implement studies on solar architecture and launch experiments and training campaigns to promote the solar equipment. But the presidential election of 1981 leads to a change in energy policy, plunging the solar sector in crisis, causing the disappearance of solar architecture

  14. Critical materials: wind industry and solar industry are battling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    Neodymium, dysprosium, tellurium, indium and gallium are materials whose shortage and price fluctuations could have an impact on the development of wind energy and solar energy as about a quarter of the production of rare earth elements is used for the fabrication of permanent magnets. Between 1966 and 1984 the United States were the first producer in the world, then the production of these materials has moved little by little towards China. In 2010 China produced 97% of rare earth elements and in the same year it reduced the quantities to export which led to a panic in the market. Now governments and the industry are facing the challenge. New production capacities have been opened particularly in the United-States and Australia, ancient mines have been re-opened, recycling policies have been developed and an optimization of the use of rare-earth elements has been favored. (A.C.)

  15. Solar thermal energy utilization. German studies on technology and application. Vol. 1. General investigations on energy availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M. (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR), Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik) (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of a three-volume series titled 'Solar thermal energy utilization' comprises three papers dealing with general investigations into energy availability. Their titles are: Yearly yield of solar CRS-process heat and temperature of reaction; - literature survey in the field of primary and secondary concentrating solar energy systems concerning the choice and manufacturing process of suitable materials; - considerations and proposals for future research and development of high temperature solar processes. Each of the three chapters was abstracted for entry into the database. (HWJ).

  16. Proceedings of the General Committee for solar thermal energy 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, Francois; Loyen, Richard; Khebchache, Bouzid; Cholin, Xavier; Leicher, David; Mozas, Kevin; Leclercq, Martine; Laugier, Patrick; Dias, Pedro; Kuczer, Eric; Benabdelkarim, Mohamed; Brottier, Laetitia; Soussana, Max; Cheze, David; Mugnier, Daniel; Laplagne, Valerie; Mykieta, Frederic; Ducloux, Antoine; Egret, Dominique; Noisette, Nadege; Peneau, Yvan; Seguis, Anne-Sophie; Gerard, Roland

    2017-10-01

    After an introducing contribution which discussed the difficult evolution of the solar thermal energy sector in 2015, contributions addressed development plans for SOCOL (a plan for collective solar thermal and solar heat) which aims at reviving the market and at opening new markets. A next set of contributions discussed how solar thermal energy can be at the service of energy transition. Following sessions addressed issues like innovation at the service of solar thermal energy, energetic display of solar systems and application of the Ecodesign and Labelling directives, and the reduction of carbon footprint and the energy dependence of territories

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells: a successful combination of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, DSSC, are a promising alternative for the development of a new generation of photovoltaic devices. DSSC are a successful combination of materials, consisting of a transparent electrode coated with a dye-sensitized mesoporous film of nanocrystalline particles of TiO2, an electrolyte containing a suitable redox-couple and a Pt coated counter-electrode. In general, Ru bipyridyl complexes are used as the dye sensitizers. The light-to-energy conversion performance of the cell depends on the relative energy levels of the semiconductor and dye and on the kinetics of the electron-transfer processes at the sensitized semiconductor | electrolyte interface. The rate of these processes depends on the properties of its components. This contribution presents a discussion on the influence of each of the materials which constitute the DSSC of the overall process for energy conversion. An overview of the results obtained for solid-state dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells assembled with polymer electrolytes is also presented.

  18. Adaptive control of solar energy collector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, João M; Igreja, José M

    2014-01-01

    This book describes methods for adaptive control of distributed-collector solar fields: plants that collect solar energy and deliver it in thermal form. Controller design methods are presented that can overcome difficulties found in these type of plants:they are distributed-parameter systems, i.e., systems with dynamics that depend on space as well as time;their dynamics is nonlinear, with a bilinear structure;there is a significant level of uncertainty in plant knowledge.Adaptive methods form the focus of the text because of the degree of uncertainty in the knowledge of plant dynamics. Parts

  19. Toward an Aqueous Solar Battery: Direct Electrochemical Storage of Solar Energy in Carbon Nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podjaski, Filip; Kröger, Julia; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2018-03-01

    Graphitic carbon nitrides have emerged as an earth-abundant family of polymeric materials for solar energy conversion. Herein, a 2D cyanamide-functionalized polyheptazine imide (NCN-PHI) is reported, which for the first time enables the synergistic coupling of two key functions of energy conversion within one single material: light harvesting and electrical energy storage. Photo-electrochemical measurements in aqueous electrolytes reveal the underlying mechanism of this "solar battery" material: the charge storage in NCN-PHI is based on the photoreduction of the carbon nitride backbone and charge compensation is realized by adsorption of alkali metal ions within the NCN-PHI layers and at the solution interface. The photoreduced carbon nitride can thus be described as a battery anode operating as a pseudocapacitor, which can store light-induced charge in the form of long-lived, "trapped" electrons for hours. Importantly, the potential window of this process is not limited by the water reduction reaction due to the high intrinsic overpotential of carbon nitrides for hydrogen evolution, potentially enabling new applications for aqueous batteries. Thus, the feasibility of light-induced electrical energy storage and release on demand by a one-component light-charged battery anode is demonstrated, which provides a sustainable solution to overcome the intermittency of solar radiation. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Solar energy converters based on multi-junction photoemission solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshchenko, O E; Golyashov, V A; Rodionov, A A; Chistokhin, I B; Kislykh, N V; Mironov, A V; Aksenov, V V

    2017-11-23

    Multi-junction solar cells with multiple p-n junctions made of different semiconductor materials have multiple bandgaps that allow reducing the relaxation energy loss and substantially increase the power-conversion efficiency. The choice of materials for each sub-cell is very limited due to the difficulties in extracting the current between the layers caused by the requirements for lattice- and current-matching. We propose a new vacuum multi-junction solar cell with multiple p-n junctions separated by vacuum gaps that allow using different semiconductor materials as cathode and anode, both activated to the state of effective negative electron affinity (NEA). In this work, the compact proximity focused vacuum tube with the GaAs(Cs,O) photocathode and AlGaAs/GaAs-(Cs,O) anode with GaAs quantum wells (QWs) is used as a prototype of a vacuum single-junction solar cell. The photodiode with the p-AlGaAs/GaAs anode showed the spectral power-conversion efficiency of about 1% at V bias  = 0 in transmission and reflection modes, while, at V bias  = 0.5 V, the efficiency increased up to 10%. In terms of energy conservation, we found the condition at which the energy cathode-to-anode transition was close to 1. Considering only the energy conservation part, the NEA-cell power-conversion efficiency can rich a quantum yield value which is measured up to more than 50%.

  1. Heat of Fusion Storage with High Solar Fraction for Solar Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe; Furbo, Simon

    The paper presents the results of a theoretical investigation of use of phase change materials (PCM’s) with active use of super cooling as a measure for obtaining partly heat loss free seasonal storages for solar combi-systems with 100% coverage of the energy demand of both space heating and dome......The paper presents the results of a theoretical investigation of use of phase change materials (PCM’s) with active use of super cooling as a measure for obtaining partly heat loss free seasonal storages for solar combi-systems with 100% coverage of the energy demand of both space heating...... and domestic hot water. The work is part of the IEA Solar Heating & Cooling Programme Task 32 “Advanced Storage Concepts for Solar Buildings”. The investigations are based on a newly developed TRNSYS type for simulation of a PCM-storage with controlled super-cooling. The super-cooling makes it possible to let...... storage parts already melted to cool down to surrounding temperature without solidification in which state that part of the storage will be heat loss free but still will hold the latent heat in form of the heat of fusion. At the time of energy demand the solidification of the super-cooled storage part...

  2. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel

  3. Solar energy legal bibliography. Final report. [160 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, D.; Euser, B.; Joyce, C.; Morgan, G. H.; Laitos, J. G.; Adams, A.

    1979-03-01

    The Solar Energy Legal Bibliography is a compilation of approximately 160 solar publications abstracted for their legal and policy content (through October 1978). Emphasis is on legal barriers and incentives to solar energy development. Abstracts are arranged under the following categories: Antitrust, Biomass, Building Codes, Consumer Protection, Environmental Aspects, Federal Legislation and Programs, Financing/Insurance, International Law, Labor, Land Use (Covenants, Easements, Nuisance, Zoning), Local Legislation and Programs, Ocean Energy, Patents and Licenses, Photovoltaics, Solar Access Rights, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Standards, State Legislation and Programs, Tax Law, Tort Liability, Utilities, Warranties, Wind Resources, and General Solar Law.

  4. Solar energy`s economic and social benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, H. [Bundeshaus, Bonn (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    There are numerous indications that solar energy is far more than a mere stopgap measure to escape from the present environmental crisis. These include the natural as well as the developed, and still developing, technological potential of solar energy; the vast opportunities offered by abandoning destructive energy sources; and, not least, the new industrial perspectives arising from the conversion of our energy system. In addition to the environmental benefits, solar energy will bring about major economic and social gains. The creation of a solar energy system offers an unexpected and unique chance to release industrial society from the harmful consequences of the Industrial Revolution and to make available its positive accomplishments - particularly the social, democratic and cultural opportunities made possible by freeing mankind from slave labour - to all of mankind. Destruction of the environment is the greatest danger for industrialized societies pursuing economic growth, but it is not the only one. The Western high culture of welfare states is evidently a thing of the past. Created by the pressure of social movements that emerged in the Industrial Revolution, they stabilized capitalism by making it more responsive to the social needs in its strongholds. But both old and new contradictions, as well as the growth of welfare costs, lead to the conclusion that the future of the industrial system is increasingly seen only in terms of jettisoning its social obligations. Political democracy will then once more be in danger. Modern history is unable to provide an example of a stable democracy based on permanent mass misery

  5. Solar energy for steam generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carvalho, Jr, A V; Orlando, A DeF; Magnoli, D

    1979-05-01

    Steam generation is a solar energy application that has not been frequently studied in Brazil, even though for example, about 10% of the national primary energy demand is utilized for processing heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C. On the other hand, substitution of automotive gasoline by ethanol, for instance, has received much greater attention even though primary energy demand for process heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C is of the same order of magnitude than for total automotive gasoline production. Generation of low-temperature steam is analyzed in this article using distributed systems of solar collectors. Main results of daily performance simulation of single flat-plate collectors and concentrating collectors are presented for 20/sup 0/S latitude, equinox, in clear days. Flat plate collectors considered are of the aluminum roll-bond absorber type, selective surface single or double glazing. Considering feedwater at 20/sup 0/C, saturated steam at 120/sup 0/C and an annual solar utilization factor of 50%, a total collector area of about 3,000 m/sup 2/ is necessary for the 10 ton/day plant, without energy storage. A fuel-oil back-up system is employed to complement the solar steam production, when necessary. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that, although the case-study shows today a long payback period relative to subsidized fuel oil in the domestic market (over 20 years in the city of Rio de Janeiro), solar steam systems may be feasible in the medium term due to projected increase of fuel oil price in Brazil.

  6. Solar energy in progress and future research trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Zekai [Istanbul Technical Univ., Dept. of Meteorology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    countries. The material presented in this paper is chosen to provide a comprehensive account of solar energy sources and conversion methods. For this purpose, explanatory background material has been introduced with the intention that engineers and scientists can have introductory preliminaries on the subject both from application and research points of view. Applications of solar energy in terms of low and high temperature collectors are given with future research directions. Furthermore, photovoltaic devices are discussed for future electric energy generations based on solar power site-exploitation and transmission by different means over long distances such as fiber-optic cables. Another future perspective use of solar energy is its combination with water and as a consequent electrolysis analysis generation of hydrogen gas, which is expected to be another form of clean energy sources. Combination of solar energy and water for hydrogen gas production is called solar-hydrogen energy. Necessary research potentials and application possibilities are presented with sufficient background. Possible future new methodologies are mentioned and finally recommendations and suggestions for future research and application directions are presented with relevant literature review. (Author)

  7. Enhancing solar cell efficiency: the search for luminescent materials as spectral converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyong; Han, Sanyang; Huang, Wei; Liu, Xiaogang

    2013-01-07

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies for solar energy conversion represent promising routes to green and renewable energy generation. Despite relevant PV technologies being available for more than half a century, the production of solar energy remains costly, largely owing to low power conversion efficiencies of solar cells. The main difficulty in improving the efficiency of PV energy conversion lies in the spectral mismatch between the energy distribution of photons in the incident solar spectrum and the bandgap of a semiconductor material. In recent years, luminescent materials, which are capable of converting a broad spectrum of light into photons of a particular wavelength, have been synthesized and used to minimize the losses in the solar-cell-based energy conversion process. In this review, we will survey recent progress in the development of spectral converters, with a particular emphasis on lanthanide-based upconversion, quantum-cutting and down-shifting materials, for PV applications. In addition, we will also present technical challenges that arise in developing cost-effective high-performance solar cells based on these luminescent materials.

  8. Energy - New business for solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an overview of the current status and perspectives for the photovoltaic industries. After a very difficult period (2011-2013), the photovoltaic market is growing again and becomes profitable again. In the same time, the sector has been deeply transformed, and new business models are emerging. If Europe was the location for 70 per cent of new installations in 2011, it only represents 29 per cent in 2013, and this share should not be greater than 25 per cent by 2018. Asia leads the market and price reduction makes photovoltaic energy more competitive. China and Asia are largely the leaders in array production (two thirds of world production in China, 90 per cent in Asia, only one western company in the producers' top 10). In terms of strategy and business model, the business is now aimed on sales of electricity rather than only sales of arrays

  9. Dish concentrators for solar thermal energy: Status and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Point-focusing concentrators under consideration for solar thermal energy use are reviewed. These concentrators differ in such characteristics as optical configuration, optical materials, structure for support of the optical elements and of the receiver, mount, foundation, drive, controls and enclosure. Concentrator performance and cost are considered. Technology development is outlined, including wind loads and aerodynamics; precipitation, sand, and seismic considerations; and maintenance and cleaning.

  10. Solar applications of thermal energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.; Taylor, L.; DeVries, J.; Heibein, S.

    1979-01-01

    A technology assessment is presented on solar energy systems which use thermal energy storage. The study includes characterization of the current state-of-the-art of thermal energy storage, an assessment of the energy storage needs of solar energy systems, and the synthesis of this information into preliminary design criteria which would form the basis for detailed designs of thermal energy storage. (MHR)

  11. Copper and Zinc Oxide Composite Nanostructures for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    Solar energy is a clean and sustainable energy source to counter global environmental issues of rising atmospheric CO2 levels and depletion of natural resources. To extract useful work from solar energy, silicon-based photovoltaic devices are extensively used. The technological maturity and the high quality of silicon (Si) make it a material of choice. However limitations in Si exist, ranging from its indirect band gap to low light absorption coefficient and energy and capital intensive crystal growth schemes. Therefore, alternate materials that are earth-abundant, benign and simpler to process are needed for developing new platforms for solar energy harvesting applications. In this study, we explore oxides of copper (CuO and Cu2O) in a nanowire morphology as alternate energy harvesting materials. CuO has a bandgap of 1.2 eV whereas Cu2O has a bandgap of 2.1 eV making them ideally suited for absorbing solar radiation. First, we develop a method to synthesize vertical, single crystalline CuO and Cu2O nanowires of ~50 microm length and aspect ratios of ~200. CuO nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal oxidation of Cu foils. Cu2O nanowire arrays are synthesized by thermal reduction of CuO nanowires. Next, surface engineering of these nanowires is achieved using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. By depositing 1.4 nm of ZnO, a highly defective surface is produced on the CuO nanowires. These defects are capable of trapping charge as is evident through persistent photoconductivity measurements of ZnO coated CuO nanowires. The same nanowires serve as efficient photocatalysts reducing CO2 to CO with a yield of 1.98 mmol/g-cat/hr. Finally, to develop a robust platform for flexible solar cells, a protocol to transfer vertical CuO nanowires inside flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated. Embedded CuO nanowires-ZnO pn junctions show a VOC of 0.4 V and a JSC of 10.4 microA/cm2 under white light illumination of 5.7 mW/cm2. Thus, this research provides broad

  12. Solar energy research and development: program balance. Annex, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    An evaluation of federal research, development, and demonstration options on solar energy is presented. This assessment treats seven groups of solar energy technologies: solar heating and cooling of buildings, agricultural and industrial process heat, biomass, photovoltaics, thermal power, wind, and ocean thermal energy conversion. The evaluation methodology is presented in detail. (MHR)

  13. Beyond Solar Fuels: Renewable Energy-Driven Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzafame, Paola; Abate, Salvatare; Ampelli, Claudio; Genovese, Chiara; Passalacqua, Rosalba; Centi, Gabriele; Perathoner, Siglinda

    2017-11-23

    The future feasibility of decarbonized industrial chemical production based on the substitution of fossil feedstocks (FFs) with renewable energy (RE) sources is discussed. Indeed, the use of FFs as an energy source has the greatest impact on the greenhouse gas emissions of chemical production. This future scenario is indicated as "solar-driven" or "RE-driven" chemistry. Its possible implementation requires to go beyond the concept of solar fuels, in particular to address two key aspects: i) the use of RE-driven processes for the production of base raw materials, such as olefins, methanol, and ammonia, and ii) the development of novel RE-driven routes that simultaneously realize process and energy intensification, particularly in the direction of a significant reduction of the number of the process steps. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. ISES International Solar Energy Society working committee report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcastro, G.N.; De Lillo, A.; Messana, C.

    1993-01-01

    In Italy, the potential for photovoltaic power production has been estimated at about 40,000 billion kWh/year. Given that this nation's total power demand is about 200 billion kWh/year, it's obvious that even the limited use of this renewable energy source would significantly reduce national dependency on foreign energy supplies. In this context, this paper assesses the prospects for the development of photovoltaic energy in Italy. The various aspects covered include: the current level of technology and national manufacturing capabilities; planned R ampersand D investments to the year 2000; current and future solar cell and module efficiency levels; the most promising solar cell materials; photovoltaic equipment manufacturing costs; grid connected demonstration plants operating world-wide; photovoltaic power production costs; environmental impacts; world market structure and major manufacturers; suitable applications; and legislated Italian national development incentives

  15. Solar Pond Potential as A New Renewable Energy in South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadliah Baso, Nur; Chaerah Gunadin, Indar; Yusran

    2018-03-01

    Renewable energy sources need to be developed to maintain the electric energy availability by utilizing oceanic energy, namely solar pond energy. This energy is highly influenced by several factors including salinity, air temperature and solar radiation. This study was focused on finding the potential of solar pond in South Sulawesi, a region with fairly high solar radiation and abundant salt water raw materials availability. The method used in this study was analyzing the values from the mathematic models of daily horizontal solar radiation, air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure for the last 22 years which were finalized using MATLAB. The findings of this study will show the areas with good potentials to apply solar pond in South Sulawesi that can be utilized in various fields including power generator, industrial heating process, desalination and heating for biomass conversion.

  16. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in November 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 0.6%, at a slightly inferior rate than the rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 9.3%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 1.2%), markedly slowing down increase for gas (+ 1.4%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.3%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a maintained high energy cost level with + 14% on one year, reaching 86.8 billions Francs, to be compared to 76.1 in November 1996

  17. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in September 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 1.1%, at the same rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 5.9%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 0.8%), strong increase for gas (+ 3.2%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.7%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a record energy cost level with + 30% on one year, reaching 89.2 billions Francs, to be compared to 68.5 in September 1996

  18. Solar energy utilizing technology for future cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kei

    1987-11-20

    This report proposes solar energy utilizing technologies for future cities, centering on a system that uses Fresnel lenses and optical fiber cables. This system selects out beams in the visible range and the energy can be sent to end terminals constantly as long as sunlight is available. Optical energy is concentrated 4,000-fold. The system can provide long-distance projection of parallel rays. It will be helpful for efficient utilization of light in cities and can increase the degree of freedom in carrying out urban development. The total efficiency for the introduction into optical fiber can be up to 40 percent. With no heating coil incorporated, there is no danger of fire. The standard size of a light condenser is 2 m in dome diameter and 2.5 m in height. Auxiliary artificial light is used for backup purposes when it is cloudy. Heat pumps operating on solar thermal energy are employed to maintain air conditioning for 24 hours a day in order to ensure the establishment of an environment where residential areas exist in the neighborhood of office areas. Seven automatic solar light collection and transfer systems are currently in practical use at the Arc Hills building. The combination of Fresnel lens and optical fiber is more than six times as high in efficiency as a reflecting mirror. (5 figs, 3 tabs, 8 photos, 6 refs)

  19. Solar system for exploitation of the whole collected energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciamberlini, C.; Francini, F.; Longobardi, G.; Piattelli, M.; Sansoni, P.

    2003-09-01

    An innovative architecture for the exploitation of the whole collected solar energy is described. A sun pointing optical concentrator focuses the received energy, containing the part of the required solar spectrum, in a low loss optical fibre transmission line. The optical panel is small in size and able to follow the sun in order to collect the maximum of its energy. The support is flat, 5 mm thick and includes four optical concentrators. The efficiency of the optical system depends on the optical configuration and on the material utilised for the optical components. Single commercial connector to the fixed fibres connects the fibre optics' four free ends. The energy is therefore properly transported to any user's end with an easy installation. The system was experimented for lightening, during the day, dissipated in a dark load in order to produce heat in some equipment and for photovoltaic applications. The total efficiency of the system was between 68% and 72%. Once the solar energy reaches the end of the transmission line, it can be addressed to the required utilisation by means of an optical switch, which redirects the sunlight towards the desired applicator. This procedure allows utilising the 100% of the sun-collected energy. Since the size of the panel was small, it can be placed, on the roof, on the garden, on the window-sill, on the field and on all sides exposed to sunlight.

  20. Solar Thermal Energy Storage in a Photochromic Macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasceanu, Alexandru; Broman, Søren L; Hansen, Anne S; Skov, Anders B; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-07-25

    The conversion and efficient storage of solar energy is recognized to hold significant potential with regard to future energy solutions. Molecular solar thermal batteries based on photochromic systems exemplify one possible technology able to harness and apply this potential. Herein is described the synthesis of a macrocycle based on a dimer of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photo/thermal couple. By taking advantage of conformational strain, this DHA-DHA macrocycle presents an improved ability to absorb and store incident light energy in chemical bonds (VHF-VHF). A stepwise energy release over two sequential ring-closing reactions (VHF→DHA) combines the advantages of an initially fast discharge, hypothetically addressing immediate energy consumption needs, followed by a slow process for consistent, long-term use. This exemplifies another step forward in the molecular engineering and design of functional organic materials towards solar thermal energy storage and release. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. GPP Webinar: The Solar Roadmap—Navigating the Evolving Solar Energy Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPP and State & Local Climate and Energy Branch webinar on the Solar Roadmap and the evolving solar energy market. This webinar discussed local and state government’s success stories and opportunities for progress in renewable energy goals using the Solar

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for junior high/middle school science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Some basic topics on the subject of solar energy are outlined in the form of a teaching manual. The manual is geared toward junior high or middle school science students. Topics include solar collectors, solar water heating, solar radiation, insulation, heat storage, and desalination. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate the solar energy topics are provided. (BCS)

  3. Mesoporous materials for clean energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Noemi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana M; Serrano, Elena; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; García-Martínez, Javier

    2014-11-21

    Alternative energy technologies are greatly hindered by significant limitations in materials science. From low activity to poor stability, and from mineral scarcity to high cost, the current materials are not able to cope with the significant challenges of clean energy technologies. However, recent advances in the preparation of nanomaterials, porous solids, and nanostructured solids are providing hope in the race for a better, cleaner energy production. The present contribution critically reviews the development and role of mesoporosity in a wide range of technologies, as this provides for critical improvements in accessibility, the dispersion of the active phase and a higher surface area. Relevant examples of the development of mesoporosity by a wide range of techniques are provided, including the preparation of hierarchical structures with pore systems in different scale ranges. Mesoporosity plays a significant role in catalysis, especially in the most challenging processes where bulky molecules, like those obtained from biomass or highly unreactive species, such as CO2 should be transformed into most valuable products. Furthermore, mesoporous materials also play a significant role as electrodes in fuel and solar cells and in thermoelectric devices, technologies which are benefiting from improved accessibility and a better dispersion of materials with controlled porosity.

  4. Novel concept of nonimaging single reflection solar energy concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparovsky, D.

    2004-07-01

    Many solar applications require temperatures higher than those that can be achieved by common flat-plate collectors. Temperatures over 100 C are necessary e.g. for industrial process heat. Such temperatures can be obtained by means of solar energy concentrators. Advantages of concentrating the solar radiation can bring in addition to higher temperatures also decrease in heat losses and material savings due to smaller size of absorber, if taking into account that costs for material absorber per square meter can be possibly higher than costs for e.g. concentrating mirrors. On the other hand, using the concentration, two other kinds of losses will raise: losses of diffuse radiation and optical losses. There exist a variety of solar energy concentrators for different purposes. For lowtemperature applications, inexpensive concentrators of diffuse radiation can be used. For these concentrators, acceptance angle A defines the ability to concentrate the diffuse radiation and also its concentration factor C. To this class of concentrators belongs e.g. nonimaging types like CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator), V-trough types, cylindrical concentrators etc. This paper deals with development of a new type of concentrator, novel concept of which is based on functionality of CPC by means of flat mirrors, primarily designed for needs of SME's (Small and Medium Enterprises). The CLON project is being ellaborated under the 5th Framework Programme of the EU. (orig.)

  5. Material selection and embodied energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available mix concrete apron Non reinforced, ready mix concrete strip foundation Non reinforced, ready mix ground floor slab Concrete block Modular, hollow concrete block Solid concrete block Finishes Floor screed Insulated ceiling panel Perlite... Predicting the embodied energy contribution of a single material is however not as easy as green building practices assume. As illustrated by the example in Box 1, the choice of a material implies the choice of integral constituents such as insulation...

  6. Summary of reports on 1979 result of Sunshine Project. Solar energy; 1979 nendo sunshine keikaku seika hokokusho gaiyoshu. Taiyo energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-04-01

    This report is a compilation of all outlines of the results concerning 'solar energy' for which R and D was carried out as a part of Sunshine Project in fiscal 1979. The research subjects (items of the studies) are written below. 1. Solar energy system (measurement of spectral irradiance, utilization system, and meteorological investigation); 2. Solar thermal power generation system; 3. Photovoltaic power generation system (basic research on solar cells, silicon vertical ribbon crystal, silicon horizontal ribbon crystal, particle non-acceleration growth type thin film silicon crystal, particle acceleration growth type thin film silicon crystal, new type solar cells, secondary to quaternary compound semiconductor solar cells, and photovoltaic power generation system); 4. Solar cooling, heating and hot water supply system (evaluation system, newly-built private residential system, existing private residential system, multiple dwelling system, large building system, synthetic resin materials, glass based materials, and metallic materials); 5. Solar energy new utilization method (new power generation system and materials); 6. R and D on solar thermal power generation plant (R and D on pilot plant, experimental research for developing plant on curved surface converging method, and experimental research for developing plant on tower converging method). (NEDO)

  7. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  8. Operational Experience from Solar Thermal Energy Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years, Sandia National Laboratories were involved in the design, construction, and operation of a number of DOE-sponsored solar thermal energy systems. Among the systems currently in operation are several industrial process heat projects and the Modular Industrial Solar Retrofit qualification test systems, all of which use parabolic troughs, and the Shenandoah Total Energy Project, which uses parabolic dishes. Operational experience has provided insight to both desirable and undesirable features of the designs of these systems. Features of these systems which are also relevant to the design of parabolic concentrator thermal electric systems are discussed. Other design features discussed are system control functions which were found to be especially convenient or effective, such as local concentrator controls, rainwash controls, and system response to changing isolation. Drive systems are also discussed with particular emphasis of the need for reliability and the usefulness of a manual drive capability.

  9. Uses of solar energy in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandwani, Shyam S. [Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Heredia, P.O. Box 728, 3000 Heredia (Costa Rica)

    2006-04-15

    Costa Rica, a small country with the population of 4 million, and without military and hence no military expenditure, promotes the use of renewable sources like Hydro, Mini hydro, Wind, Geothermal and Sun, mainly for electricity generation. Almost 90% of the electricity is produced from these renewable sources. Through different policies and some incentives, etc., private generation is also encouraged and there are some decentralized systems like solar water heaters, swimming pool heaters, cookers, dryers and stills and also photo voltaic panels. The last ones are mostly for the population where there is no electric grid. Depending on the province, 91-99.5% of the population is electrified. Government also encourages the use of energy saving devices specially at domestic and industrial sector. In addition to provide these data, some of the solar energy systems are mentioned. [Author].

  10. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part I. Energy, Society, and the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A collection of magazine articles which were selected for information on solar energy is presented in this booklet. This booklet is the first of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. The articles provide brief discussions on topics such as the power of the sun, solar energy developments for homes, solar energy versus power plants, solar access laws, and the role of utilities with respect to the sun's energy. (BCS)

  11. Metamaterial Receivers for High Efficiency Concentrated Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellowhair, Julius E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Kwon, Hoyeong [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Alu, Andrea [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Jarecki, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Shinde, Subhash L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Operation of concentrated solar power receivers at higher temperatures (>700°C) would enable supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles for improved power cycle efficiencies (>50%) and cost-effective solar thermal power. Unfortunately, radiative losses at higher temperatures in conventional receivers can negatively impact the system efficiency gains. One approach to improve receiver thermal efficiency is to utilize selective coatings that enhance absorption across the visible solar spectrum while minimizing emission in the infrared to reduce radiative losses. Existing coatings, however, tend to degrade rapidly at elevated temperatures. In this report, we report on the initial designs and fabrication of spectrally selective metamaterial-based absorbers for high-temperature, high-thermal flux environments important for solarized sCO2 power cycles. Metamaterials are structured media whose optical properties are determined by sub-wavelength structural features instead of bulk material properties, providing unique solutions by decoupling the optical absorption spectrum from thermal stability requirements. The key enabling innovative concept proposed is the use of structured surfaces with spectral responses that can be tailored to optimize the absorption and retention of solar energy for a given temperature range. In this initial study through the Academic Alliance partnership with University of Texas at Austin, we use Tungsten for its stability in expected harsh environments, compatibility with microfabrication techniques, and required optical performance. Our goal is to tailor the optical properties for high (near unity) absorptivity across the majority of the solar spectrum and over a broad range of incidence angles, and at the same time achieve negligible absorptivity in the near infrared to optimize the energy absorbed and retained. To this goal, we apply the recently developed concept of plasmonic Brewster angle to suitably designed

  12. 76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... LVRWB10B3780] Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar... Solar Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of SolarReserve, LLC plans to construct a 150 megawatt (MW) solar... allows solar energy to be captured throughout the day and retained in a molten salt heat transfer fluid...

  13. Conversion of concentrated solar thermal energy into chemical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaura, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    When a concentrated solar beam is irradiated to the ceramics such as Ni-ferrite, the high-energy flux in the range of 1500-2500 kW/m(2) is absorbed by an excess Frenkel defect formation. This non-equilibrium state defect is generated not by heating at a low heating-rate (30 K/min), but by irradiating high flux energy of concentrated solar beam rapidly at a high heating rate (200 K/min). The defect can be spontaneously converted to chemical energy of a cation-excess spinel structure (reduced-oxide form) at the temperature around 1773 K. Thus, the O(2) releasing reaction (α-O(2) releasing reaction) proceeds in two-steps; (1) high flux energy of concentrated solar beam absorption by formation of the non-equilibrium Frenkel defect and (2) the O(2) gas formation from the O(2-) in the Frenkel defect even in air atmosphere. The 2nd step proceeds without the solar radiation. We may say that the 1st step is light reaction, and 2nd step, dark reaction, just like in photosynthesis process.

  14. Solar energy collector/storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettis, J.R.; Clearman, F.R.

    1983-05-24

    A solar energy collector/storage system which includes an insulated container having working fluid inlets and outlets and an opening, a light-transmitting member positioned over the opening, and a heat-absorbing member which is centrally situated, is supported in the container, and is made of a mixture of gypsum , lampblack, and water. A light-reflecting liner made of corrugated metal foil preferably is attached to the internal surface of the container. The opening of the container is positioned in optical alignment with a source of solar energy. A light-reflecting cover optionally can be hingedly attached to the container, and can be positioned such as to reflect solar energy rays into the container. The system is adaptable for use with a working gas (e.g., air) and/or a working liquid (e.g., water) in separated flows which absorb heat from the heat-absorbing member, and which are useable per se or in an associated storage and/or circulatory system that is not part of this invention. The heatabsorbing mixture can also contain glass fibers. The heatabsorbing member is of such great load-bearing strength that it can also be used simultaneously as a structural member, e.g., a wall or ceiling of a room; and, thereby, the system can be used to heat a room, if a window of the room is the light-transmitting member and is facing the sun, and if the heat-absorbing member is a wall and/or the ceiling of the room and receives solar energy through the window.

  15. Solar energy: from shadow to bright spot?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    It seems that the solar energy is developing, especially more in the thermal sector that in the photovoltaic. The result is a bad place for the France. In 200 the national production part was only 10% of the world production and 2% in 2002. The France passed from fifth to tenth place in five years. This document takes stock on the technology and the economical sector. Examples are presented. (A.L.B.)

  16. Solar energy parking canopy demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cylwik, Joe [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States); David, Lawrence [City of Big Bear Lake, Big Bear, CA (United States)

    2015-09-24

    The goal of this pilot/demonstration program is to measure the viability of using solar photovoltaic (PV) technology at three locations in a mountain community environment given the harsh weather conditions. An additional goal is to reduce long-term operational costs, minimize green house gas emissions, lower the dependency on energy produced from fossil fuels, and improve the working environment and health of city employees and residents.

  17. LENS spectroscopy of low energy solar neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Schönert, S

    2001-01-01

    The LENS experiments will measure energy resolved sub-MeV solar electron-neutrinos ( nu /sub e/) in real time via inverse beta - transition populating an isomeric state in the daughter nuclei. The subsequent de-excitation provides a delayed coincidence tag which discriminates against background. A liquid scintillation detector loaded with 20 t of Yb would yield an event rate of 190 pp- and 175 /sup 7/Be neutrinos per year. Essential information on neutrino mixing and masses can be derived.

  18. Thermo-electro-chemical storage (TECS) of solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, Erez; Epstein, Michael; Kribus, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar plant with thermally regenerative battery unifies energy conversion and storage. • Storage is a flow battery with thermo-chemical charging and electro-chemical discharging. • Sodium-sulfur and zinc-air systems are investigated as candidate storage materials. • Theoretical solar to electricity efficiencies of over 60% are predicted. • Charging temperature can be lowered with hybrid carbothermic reduction. - Abstract: A new approach for solar electricity generation and storage is proposed, based on the concept of thermally regenerative batteries. Concentrated sunlight is used for external thermo-chemical charging of a flow battery, and electricity is produced by conventional electro-chemical discharge of the battery. The battery replaces the steam turbine, currently used in commercial concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, potentially leading to much higher conversion efficiency. This approach offers potential performance, cost and operational advantages compared to existing solar technologies, and to existing storage solutions for management of an electrical grid with a significant contribution of intermittent solar electricity generation. Here we analyze the theoretical conversion efficiency for new thermo-electro-chemical storage (TECS) plant schemes based on the electro-chemical systems of sodium-sulfur (Na-S) and zinc-air. The thermodynamic upper limit of solar to electricity conversion efficiency for an ideal TECS cycle is about 60% for Na-S at reactor temperature of 1550 K, and 65% for the zinc-air system at 1750 K, both under sunlight concentration of 3000. A hybrid process with carbothermic reduction in the zinc-air system reaches 60% theoretical efficiency at the more practical conditions of reaction temperature <1200 K and concentration <1000. Practical TECS plant efficiency, estimated from these upper limits, may then be much higher compared to existing solar electricity technologies. The technical and economical

  19. Computational materials design for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2013-03-01

    General adoption of sustainable energy technologies depends on the discovery and development of new high-performance materials. For instance, waste heat recovery and electricity generation via the solar thermal route require bulk thermoelectrics with a high figure of merit (ZT) and thermal stability at high-temperatures. Energy recovery applications (e.g., regenerative braking) call for the development of rapidly chargeable systems for electrical energy storage, such as electrochemical supercapacitors. Similarly, use of hydrogen as vehicular fuel depends on the ability to store hydrogen at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract it at ambient temperatures at sufficiently rapid rates. We will discuss how first-principles computational methods based on quantum mechanics and statistical physics can drive the understanding, improvement and prediction of new energy materials. We will cover prediction and experimental verification of new earth-abundant thermoelectrics, transition metal oxides for electrochemical supercapacitors, and kinetics of mass transport in complex metal hydrides. Research has been supported by the US Department of Energy under grant Nos. DE-SC0001342, DE-SC0001054, DE-FG02-07ER46433, and DE-FC36-08GO18136.

  20. Progress and Design Concerns of Nanostructured Solar Energy Harvesting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Siu-Fung; Zhang, Qianpeng; Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; He, Jin; Mo, Xiaoliang; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-01

    Integrating devices with nanostructures is considered a promising strategy to improve the performance of solar energy harvesting devices such as photovoltaic (PV) devices and photo-electrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting devices. Extensive efforts have been exerted to improve the power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of such devices by utilizing novel nanostructures to revolutionize device structural designs. The thicknesses of light absorber and material consumption can be substantially reduced because of light trapping with nanostructures. Meanwhile, the utilization of nanostructures can also result in more effective carrier collection by shortening the photogenerated carrier collection path length. Nevertheless, performance optimization of nanostructured solar energy harvesting devices requires a rational design of various aspects of the nanostructures, such as their shape, aspect ratio, periodicity, etc. Without this, the utilization of nanostructures can lead to compromised device performance as the incorporation of these structures can result in defects and additional carrier recombination. The design guidelines of solar energy harvesting devices are summarized, including thin film non-uniformity on nanostructures, surface recombination, parasitic absorption, and the importance of uniform distribution of photo-generated carriers. A systematic view of the design concerns will assist better understanding of device physics and benefit the fabrication of high performance devices in the future. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  2. Energy savings for solar heating systems; Solvarmeanlaegs energibesparelser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Fan, J.

    2011-01-15

    Energy savings for a number of new solar heating systems in one family houses have been determined by means of information on the energy consumption of the houses before and after installation of the solar heating systems. The investigated solar heating systems are marketed by Velux Danmark A/S, Sonnnenkraft Scandinavia A/S and Batec Solvarme A/S. Solar domestic hot water systems as well as solar combi systems are included in the investigations The houses have different auxiliary energy supply systems: Natural gas boilers, oil fired burners, electrical heating and district heating. Some of the houses have a second auxiliary energy supply system. The collector areas vary from 1.83 m{sup 2} to 9.28 m{sup 2}. Some of the solar heating systems are based on energy units with a new integrated natural gas boiler and a heat storage for the solar heating system. The existing energy systems in the houses are for most of the houses used as the auxiliary energy systems for the solar heating systems. The yearly energy savings for the houses where the only change is the installation of the solar heating system vary from 300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 1300 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 670 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector are not influenced by the solar heating system type, the company marketing the system, the auxiliary energy supply system, the collector area, the collector tilt, the collector azimuth, the energy consumption of the house or the location of the house. The yearly energy savings for the houses with solar heating systems based on energy units including a new natural gas boiler vary from 790 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector to 2090 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector. The average yearly energy savings is about 1520 kWh per m{sup 2} solar collector for these solar heating systems. The energy savings per m{sup 2} solar collector for

  3. The cost - effective solar energy applications in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper outlines several cost-effective solar energy application in Canada, and estimates the GHG emission reduction potential for each. The applications include: (1) passive solar building design; (2) solar water heating applications; (3) solar photovoltaics for remote power; and (4) solar assisted space heating and cooling in industrial buildings. Each technology is briefly profiled in terms of functionality, cost characteristics, energy production characteristics and potential emission reduction benefits. Real-life examples of each application are also included. Finally, the paper concludes on the potential role of solar energy in the reduction of Canadian GHG emissions. (author)

  4. Here comes the sun. Solar energy technology in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wees, G.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the energy policy in the USA with respect to solar energy technology and the marketing of solar energy applications. In particular, attention is paid to the Million Solar Roofs programme, small-scale and medium-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems (Residential PV and Utility Scale PV), solar thermal systems (Parabolic Trough, Power tower, and Solar Dish/Engine). Also examples of passive solar systems are given. Finally, a number of aspects with regard to market implementation, e.g. net-metering. 9 refs

  5. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay kumar; jaya diptilal; S.V charhate

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other ...

  6. Solar Energy and the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1976-01-01

    Some applications of solar power have an easy technology, and are a matter for the present or immediate future. The methods for the large-scale production of electricity, however, cannot mature before the end of the century, even if determined efforts are begun now. May it be recalled that some 30 years also elapsed between the discovery of nuclear fission and the start of the first economic nuclear power stations. Investments into R and D were thus needed for decades. In nuclear science, it was relatively easy to find the finance because the military was interested. But in view of its tremendous importance for the welfare of mankind it should be at least equally easy to bridge the gap in respect to solar power. May it be underlined that far more money has indeed been found, and is being found, for CERN in Geneva, which is of purely scientific-academic interest and cannot promise much valuable practical 'spin-off'. The United Nations, the countries of the First, Second and Third World, ought to shoulder their responsibility in respect to solar energy. Energetic steps towards the founding of the International Solar Power Institute should be taken right now. (author)

  7. Solar-energy potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Kanit, E. Galip

    2005-01-01

    In this study, a new formula based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer function were used in the network. Meteorological data for the last four years (2000 → 2003) from 18 cities (Bilecik, Kirsehir, Akhisar, Bingoel, Batman, Bodrum, Uzunkoeprue, Sile, Bartin, Yalova, Horasan, Polatli, Malazgirt, Koeycegiz, Manavgat, Doertyol, Karatas and Birecik) spread over Turkey were used as data in order to train the neural network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine duration, and mean temperature) were used in the input layer of the network. Solar radiation is the output layer. One-month test data for each city was used, and these months data were not used for training. The results show that the maximum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was found to be 3.448% and the R 2 value 0.9987 for Polatli. The best approach was found for Kirsehir (MAPE=1.2257, R 2 =0.9998). The MAPE and R 2 for the testing data were 3.3477 and 0.998534, respectively. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values precisely

  8. Solar energy in the Northern Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuikom, M.; Ndjomaha, Ch.; Vandenbergh, M.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the Cameroon Ministry of the Environment and Forestry has initiated a research project for studying the promotion of renewable energies and their impact on rural development. This work has been realized jointly with the department of Economy and Rural Development of the Agronomic University of Gembloux (Belgium), the Centre Des Etudes de L'Environnement et de Developpement du Cameroun (CEDC, Maroua) and the Institut fur Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET, Germany). This initiative comes when the electricity sector in Cameroon has been facing important changes (Privatization of the national company of electricity, creation of a rural electrification agency, multiplication of the dialogues and seminars around the strategies of promotion for renewable energies, frequent black-outs during the dry season). The first objective of the project is to contribute to a better knowledge of the situation of the use of renewable energies in Cameroon. Therefore, Mrs Marthe Djuikom undertook from July to September 2003 a socio-economic survey on the use of solar energy in the northern Cameroon. The next step will be the creation of an energy program at the CEDC with the following tasks: promotion of photovoltaic technology, support of local and international synergies on the organisational aspects, training, information and coordination of reflexions at the local level for the promotion of rural electrification projects. (authors)

  9. Novel silicon phases and nanostructures for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wippermann, Stefan; He, Yuping; Vörös, Márton; Galli, Giulia

    2016-12-01

    Silicon exhibits a large variety of different bulk phases, allotropes, and composite structures, such as, e.g., clathrates or nanostructures, at both higher and lower densities compared with diamond-like Si-I. New Si structures continue to be discovered. These novel forms of Si offer exciting prospects to create Si based materials, which are non-toxic and earth-abundant, with properties tailored precisely towards specific applications. We illustrate how such novel Si based materials either in the bulk or as nanostructures may be used to significantly improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion devices.

  10. Structural Materials for Efficient Energy Production Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of electric power production systems implies increasing the operating temperature above those of systems currently in operation. The viability of new systems depends completely on the availability of structural materials that withstand the operating conditions specified in the design: adequate features under mechanical stress at high temperatures and compatibility with the medium. In the case of nuclear systems (fission, fusion), an important requirement is their response to irradiation induced damage. In spite of the significant differences that exist in the design of nuclear power plants, fusion reactors, innovative fission systems, supercritical fossil plants, biomass plants, solar concentration thermal plants, etc., all of them have as a common characteristic the use of resistant materials at high temperatures. The qualification of existing materials for the new and more demanding operating conditions and the development of new materials is one of the challenges faced by the electric power production industry. The science of materials and the understanding of the basic processes that take place in structural materials on exposure to the operating conditions of energy production systems are the tools that are available to obtain safe and economically viable solutions. (Authors) 4 refs.

  11. Solar energy in the context of energy use, energy transportation and energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, David J C

    2013-08-13

    Taking the UK as a case study, this paper describes current energy use and a range of sustainable energy options for the future, including solar power and other renewables. I focus on the area involved in collecting, converting and delivering sustainable energy, looking in particular detail at the potential role of solar power. Britain consumes energy at a rate of about 5000 watts per person, and its population density is about 250 people per square kilometre. If we multiply the per capita energy consumption by the population density, then we obtain the average primary energy consumption per unit area, which for the UK is 1.25 watts per square metre. This areal power density is uncomfortably similar to the average power density that could be supplied by many renewables: the gravitational potential energy of rainfall in the Scottish highlands has a raw power per unit area of roughly 0.24 watts per square metre; energy crops in Europe deliver about 0.5 watts per square metre; wind farms deliver roughly 2.5 watts per square metre; solar photovoltaic farms in Bavaria, Germany, and Vermont, USA, deliver 4 watts per square metre; in sunnier locations, solar photovoltaic farms can deliver 10 watts per square metre; concentrating solar power stations in deserts might deliver 20 watts per square metre. In a decarbonized world that is renewable-powered, the land area required to maintain today's British energy consumption would have to be similar to the area of Britain. Several other high-density, high-consuming countries are in the same boat as Britain, and many other countries are rushing to join us. Decarbonizing such countries will only be possible through some combination of the following options: the embracing of country-sized renewable power-generation facilities; large-scale energy imports from country-sized renewable facilities in other countries; population reduction; radical efficiency improvements and lifestyle changes; and the growth of non-renewable low

  12. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Bertoluzzi, Luca [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Bisquert, Juan, E-mail: bisquert@uji.es [Institute of Advanced Materials (INAM), Universitat Jaume I, 12006 Castelló (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Alexe, Marin [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Coll, Mariona [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Huang, Jinsong [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States); Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio [Departamento de Electrónica y Tecnología de Computadores, CITIC-UGR, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Kirchartz, Thomas [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Faculty of Engineering and CENIDE, University of Duisburg–Essen, Carl-Benz-Str. 199, 47057 Duisburg (Germany); Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico [INRS—Center Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Yuan, Yongbo [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0656 (United States)

    2016-10-07

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  13. Physical aspects of ferroelectric semiconductors for photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Varo, Pilar; Bertoluzzi, Luca; Bisquert, Juan; Alexe, Marin; Coll, Mariona; Huang, Jinsong; Jimenez-Tejada, Juan Antonio; Kirchartz, Thomas; Nechache, Riad; Rosei, Federico; Yuan, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion using semiconductors to fabricate photovoltaic devices relies on efficient light absorption, charge separation of electron–hole pair carriers or excitons, and fast transport and charge extraction to counter recombination processes. Ferroelectric materials are able to host a permanent electrical polarization which provides control over electrical field distribution in bulk and interfacial regions. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the physical principles and mechanisms of solar energy conversion using ferroelectric semiconductors and contact layers, as well as the main achievements reported so far. In a ferroelectric semiconductor film with ideal contacts, the polarization charge would be totally screened by the metal layers and no charge collection field would exist. However, real materials show a depolarization field, smooth termination of polarization, and interfacial energy barriers that do provide the control of interface and bulk electric field by switchable spontaneous polarization. We explore different phenomena as the polarization-modulated Schottky-like barriers at metal/ferroelectric interfaces, depolarization fields, vacancy migration, and the switchable rectifying behavior of ferroelectric thin films. Using a basic physical model of a solar cell, our analysis provides a general picture of the influence of ferroelectric effects on the actual power conversion efficiency of the solar cell device, and we are able to assess whether these effects or their combinations are beneficial or counterproductive. We describe in detail the bulk photovoltaic effect and the contact layers that modify the built-in field and the charge injection and separation in bulk heterojunction organic cells as well as in photocatalytic and water splitting devices. We also review the dominant families of ferroelectric materials that have been most extensively investigated and have provided the best photovoltaic performance.

  14. High-throughput characterization for solar fuels materials discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, Slobodan; Becerra, Natalie; Cornell, Earl; Guevarra, Dan; Haber, Joel; Jin, Jian; Jones, Ryan; Kan, Kevin; Marcin, Martin; Newhouse, Paul; Soedarmadji, Edwin; Suram, Santosh; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John; High-Throughput Experimentation Team

    2014-03-01

    In this talk I will present the status of the High-Throughput Experimentation (HTE) project of the Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAP). JCAP is an Energy Innovation Hub of the U.S. Department of Energy with a mandate to deliver a solar fuel generator based on an integrated photoelectrochemical cell (PEC). However, efficient and commercially viable catalysts or light absorbers for the PEC do not exist. The mission of HTE is to provide the accelerated discovery through combinatorial synthesis and rapid screening of material properties. The HTE pipeline also features high-throughput material characterization using x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). In this talk I present the currently operating pipeline and focus on our combinatorial XPS efforts to build the largest free database of spectra from mixed-metal oxides, nitrides, sulfides and alloys. This work was performed at Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, supported through the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-SC0004993.

  15. Community Solar Program Final Report for Austin Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-02-10

    Austin Energy seeks to expand its portfolio of renewable programs with an innovative community solar program. The program provides an opportunity for Austin Energy's customers, who are unable or uninterested in installing solar on their own premises, to purchase solar power.

  16. A review on solar cells from Si-single crystals to porous materials and quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Waheed A

    2015-03-01

    Solar energy conversion to electricity through photovoltaics or to useful fuel through photoelectrochemical cells was still a main task for research groups and developments sectors. In this article we are reviewing the development of the different generations of solar cells. The fabrication of solar cells has passed through a large number of improvement steps considering the technological and economic aspects. The first generation solar cells were based on Si wafers, mainly single crystals. Permanent researches on cost reduction and improved solar cell efficiency have led to the marketing of solar modules having 12-16% solar conversion efficiency. Application of polycrystalline Si and other forms of Si have reduced the cost but on the expense of the solar conversion efficiency. The second generation solar cells were based on thin film technology. Thin films of amorphous Si, CIS (copper-indium-selenide) and t-Si were employed. Solar conversion efficiencies of about 12% have been achieved with a remarkable cost reduction. The third generation solar cells are based on nano-crystals and nano-porous materials. An advanced photovoltaic cell, originally developed for satellites with solar conversion efficiency of 37.3%, based on concentration of the solar spectrum up to 400 suns was developed. It is based on extremely thin concentration cells. New sensitizer or semiconductor systems are necessary to broaden the photo-response in solar spectrum. Hybrids of solar and conventional devices may provide an interim benefit in seeking economically valuable devices. New quantum dot solar cells based on CdSe-TiO2 architecture have been developed.

  17. A review on solar cells from Si-single crystals to porous materials and quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed A. Badawy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy conversion to electricity through photovoltaics or to useful fuel through photoelectrochemical cells was still a main task for research groups and developments sectors. In this article we are reviewing the development of the different generations of solar cells. The fabrication of solar cells has passed through a large number of improvement steps considering the technological and economic aspects. The first generation solar cells were based on Si wafers, mainly single crystals. Permanent researches on cost reduction and improved solar cell efficiency have led to the marketing of solar modules having 12–16% solar conversion efficiency. Application of polycrystalline Si and other forms of Si have reduced the cost but on the expense of the solar conversion efficiency. The second generation solar cells were based on thin film technology. Thin films of amorphous Si, CIS (copper–indium–selenide and t-Si were employed. Solar conversion efficiencies of about 12% have been achieved with a remarkable cost reduction. The third generation solar cells are based on nano-crystals and nano-porous materials. An advanced photovoltaic cell, originally developed for satellites with solar conversion efficiency of 37.3%, based on concentration of the solar spectrum up to 400 suns was developed. It is based on extremely thin concentration cells. New sensitizer or semiconductor systems are necessary to broaden the photo-response in solar spectrum. Hybrids of solar and conventional devices may provide an interim benefit in seeking economically valuable devices. New quantum dot solar cells based on CdSe–TiO2 architecture have been developed.

  18. Functional Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huihui

    The ability to harvest and convert solar energy has been associated with the evolution of human civilization. The increasing consumption of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution, however, has brought to concerns in ecological deterioration and depletion of the fossil fuels. Facing these challenges, humankind is forced to seek for clean, sustainable and renewable energy resources, such as biofuels, hydraulic power, wind power, geothermal energy and other kinds of alternative energies. However, most alternative energy sources, generally in the form of electrical energy, could not be made available on a continuous basis. It is, therefore, essential to store such energy into chemical energy, which are portable and various applications. In this context, electrochemical energy-storage devices hold great promises towards this goal. The most common electrochemical energy-storage devices are electrochemical capacitors (ECs, also called supercapacitors) and batteries. In comparison to batteries, ECs posses high power density, high efficiency, long cycling life and low cost. ECs commonly utilize carbon as both (symmetric) or one of the electrodes (asymmetric), of which their performance is generally limited by the capacitance of the carbon electrodes. Therefore, developing better carbon materials with high energy density has been emerging as one the most essential challenges in the field. The primary objective of this dissertation is to design and synthesize functional carbon materials with high energy density at both aqueous and organic electrolyte systems. The energy density (E) of ECs are governed by E = CV 2/2, where C is the total capacitance and V is the voltage of the devices. Carbon electrodes with high capacitance and high working voltage should lead to high energy density. In the first part of this thesis, a new class of nanoporous carbons were synthesized for symmetric supercapacitors using aqueous Li2SO4 as the electrolyte. A unique precursor was adopted to

  19. International solar energy research co-operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Peippo, K.; Konttinen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    Finland has participated in several IEA activities during 1996-97. HUT coordinates the activities, but practical participation in collaborative actions take place both in industrial companies and research organisations. Neste Ltd has directly participated in several tasks and information of results has been disseminated more widely to Finnish industries and organisations. Co-operation projects covered here are: (1) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 1 `Information dissemination`, (2) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 3 `Use of Photovoltaic systems in Stand Alone and Island Applications`, (3) IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Task 7 `Photovoltaics in built environment`, (4) IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program Task 16 `Photovoltaics in buildings` and (5) IEA Working Group `Materials in Solar Thermal Collectors`

  20. Using of solar energy in Republic of Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meladze, N.

    1997-01-01

    The article presents the talk on the use of solar energy in Georgia given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent(Uzbekistan) in June 1997. The main use of solar energy in the Republic is in solar heating systems developed and produced in Georgia. Presently 12 projects are in progress for effective use of renewable energy sources. Among them the research and development on photovoltaic cells on the basis of silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells. (A.A.D.)