WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar emergy evaluation

  1. Emergy Evaluation of a Swedish Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindberg, Anna

    2007-03-15

    Today it is common to evaluate and compare energy systems in terms of emission of greenhouse gases. However, energy systems should not only reduce their pollution but also give a large energy return. One method used to measure energy efficiency is emergy (embodied energy, energy memory) evaluation, which was developed by the system ecologist Howard T. Odum. Odum defines emergy as the available energy of one kind previously used up directly and indirectly to make a service or product. Both work of nature and work of human economy in generating products and services are calculated in terms of emergy. Work of nature takes the form of natural resources and work of human economy includes labour, services and products used to transform natural resources into something of value to the economy. The quotient between work of nature and work of human economy gives the emergy return on investment of the investigated product. With this in mind the present work is an attempt to make an emergy evaluation of a Swedish nuclear power plant to estimate its emergy return on investment. The emergy return on investment ratio of a Swedish nuclear power plant is calculated to approximately 11 in this diploma thesis. This means that for all emergy the Swedish economy has invested in the nuclear power plant it gets 11 times more emergy in return in the form of electricity generated by nuclear power. The method used in this work may facilitate future emergy evaluations of other energy systems.

  2. Emergy Evaluation of a Production and Utilization Process of Irrigation Water in China

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    Dan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp. and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems’ products (1.72E+05 sej/J and 1.42E+05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R, emergy yield ratio (EYR, emergy investment ratio (EIR, environmental load ratio (ELR, and environmental sustainability index (ESI. The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  3. Emergy evaluation of a production and utilization process of irrigation water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing; Kong, Jun; She, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp.) and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems' products (1.72E + 05 sej/J and 1.42E + 05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule) represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R), emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR), and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  4. Emergy evaluation using the calculation software SCALE: case study, added value and potential improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbault, Damien; Rugani, Benedetto; Marvuglia, Antonino; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports the emergy-based evaluation (EME) of the ecological performance of four water treatment plants (WTPs) using three different approaches. The results obtained using the emergy calculation software SCALE (EMESCALE) are compared with those achieved through a conventional emergy evaluation procedure (EMECONV), as well as through the application of the Solar Energy Demand (SED) method. SCALE's results are based on a detailed representation of the chain of technological processes provided by the lifecycle inventory database ecoinvent®. They benefit from a higher level of details in the description of the technological network as compared to the ones calculated with a conventional EME and, unlike the SED results, are computed according to the emergy algebra rules. The analysis delves into the quantitative comparison of unit emergy values (UEVs) for individual technospheric inputs provided by each method, demonstrating the added value of SCALE to enhance reproducibility, accurateness and completeness of an EME. However, SCALE cannot presently include non-technospheric inputs in emergy accounting, like e.g. human labor and ecosystem services. Moreover, SCALE is limited by the approach used to build the dataset of UEVs for natural resources. Recommendations on the scope and accuracy of SCALE-based emergy accounting are suggested for further steps in software development, as well as preliminary quantitative methods to account for ecosystem services and human labor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Emergy evaluation of power plant eco-industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingmei; Zhang, Jintun

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, new emergy indices for the material circulation utilization and energy cascade utilization were presented to evaluate the emergy of power plant eco-industrial park. The common contribution of the members in power plant eco-industrial park should be accounted for emergy yield ratio (PEYR) and emergy investment ratio (PEIR), namely, PEYR = sigma(i = 1)6 (Fi + Ri + Ni)/sigma(i = 1)6 Fi and PEIR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/sigma(i = 1)6 (Ni + Ri). Saved renewable and nonrenewable resources and purchased resources and decreased environmental load should be accounted for environmental loading ratio (PELR) and index of sustainability (PESI), namely, PELR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/F' and PESI = PEYR/PELR. Case analysis on the Shuozhou power plant eco-industrial park showed that new emergy indices were practical in evaluating the power plant eco-industrial park.

  6. Emergy Evaluations of Denmark and Danish Agriculture. Assessing the Limits of Agricultural Systems to Power Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haden, Andrew C. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Rural Development Studies

    2003-03-01

    As the process of industrialization has run its course over the twentieth century, the relative importance of agriculture as an economic activity and a means of cultural sustenance for nations has declined dramatically. In this thesis, a historical ecological-economic perspective offers insights into both the causes and effects of Danish agriculture's decline in economic importance relative to the economy of Denmark as a whole. Emergy evaluations were made of the national economy and agricultural subsystem of Denmark for the years 1936, 1970 and 1999. Emergy is defined as all the available energy that was used in the work of making a product and expressed in units of one type of energy. In total, six separate emergy analyses were performed. By quantifying the emergy requirements of both a national agricultural system and the economy within which this system is nested, the analysis highlights the changing relationship of these two systems over a temporal scale of 63 years. The ecological sustainability of the studied systems is assessed through the calculation of emergy-based indices and ratios. In accordance with emergy theory, ecological sustainability is considered to be a function of the dependence of a system on renewable emergy, the degree to which the system depends on imported emergy, and the overall load that the system places on the environment. The analysis indicates that as the national economy of Denmark evolved to rely more on the use of nonrenewable emergy and on emergy appropriated through trade to stimulate economic activity and to generate wealth, its sustainability declined, and the importance of the Danish agricultural system to the national economy subsided. While the total amount of emergy supporting the economy of Denmark over the period studied increased substantially, the total emergy supporting agriculture remained relatively constant. Furthermore, though the emergy signature and thermodynamic efficiencies of Danish agricultural

  7. Using the Language of Sets to Describe Nested Systems in Emergy Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The language of set theory has been recently used to describe the emergy evaluation of a process. In this paper this mathematical language is used as a guide to evaluate the emergy of nested systems. We analyze a territorial system on multiple scales as an example of hierarchical...

  8. Emergy Evaluations of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Six Biologically Active Elements and Two Compounds

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    Estimates of the emergy carried by the flows of biologically active elements (BAE) and compounds are needed to accurately evaluate the near and far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformities and specific emergies of these elements and of their different chemical sp...

  9. Emergy Evaluation of Formal Education in the United States: 1870 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the education system of the United States from 1870 to 2011 using emergy methods. The system was partitioned into three subsystems (elementary, secondary and college education) and the emergy inputs required to support each subsystem were determined for every year ov...

  10. Emergy and Eco-exergy Evaluation of Four Forest Restoration Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four different forest restoration modes (Acacia mangium plantation, mixed-native species plantation, conifer plantation and Eucalyptus plantation) were evaluated using Energy System Theory and the emergy synthesis method. In addition, the eco-exergies of the four forest restorati...

  11. Emergy Evaluation of Educational Attainment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergy of educational attainment in the United States was quantified over the period for which the necessary data were available, i.e., 1948 to 2006. We propose that the portion of the knowledge in educational attainment delivered by the active workforce be considered as part...

  12. Emergy evaluation of the natural value of water resources in Chinese rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Chen, Jing; Luo, Zhaohui; Lv, Zhuwu

    2009-08-01

    Emergy theory and method were used to evaluate the economy of China and the contributions of water resources in Chinese rivers to the real wealth of the Chinese economy. The water cycle and energy conversion were reviewed, and an emergy method for evaluating the natural value of water resources in a river watershed was developed. The indices for China calculated from the emergy evaluation were close to those of developing countries. Despite a small surplus in its balance of payments, China had a net emergy loss from its trade in 2002. The efficiency of Chinese natural resource use was still not high and did not match its economic growth rate. Furthermore, the Chinese economy placed a stress on its ecological environment and natural resources. Several indices of Chinese rivers from the emergy evaluation were close to those of average global river water. The main average indices of Chinese rivers were transformity (4.17 x 10(4) sej/J), emergy per volume (2.05 x 10(11) sej/m(3)), and emdollar per volume (0.06 $/m(3)). The total value of all the rivers' water made up 13.0% of the GDP of China in 2002, and that of water consumption accounted for 2.1%. The value of the water resources in the Haiheluanhe River (11.39 x 10(4) sej/J) was the highest, followed by the Yellow River (10.27 x 10(4) sej/J), while the rivers in Southwest China had the lowest values (2.92 x 10(4) sej/J).

  13. Emergy evaluation of contrasting dairy systems at multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Mathieu; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Lecomte, Philippe; Corson, Michael S; Wilfart, Aurélie

    2013-11-15

    Emergy accounting (EmA) was applied to a range of dairy systems, from low-input smallholder systems in South Mali (SM), to intermediate-input systems in two regions of France, Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR), to high-input systems on Reunion Island (RI). These systems were studied at three different levels: whole-farm (dairy system and cropping system), dairy-system (dairy herd and forage land), and herd (animals only). Dairy farms in SM used the lowest total emergy at all levels and was the highest user of renewable resources. Despite the low quality of resources consumed (crop residues and natural pasture), efficiency of their use was similar to that of industrialised inputs by intensive systems in RI, PC and BR. In addition, among the systems studied, SM dairy farms lay closest to environmental sustainability, contradicting the usual image of high environmental impact of cattle production in developing countries. EmA also revealed characteristics of the three intensive systems. Systems from RI and PC had lower resource transformation efficiency and higher environmental impacts than those from BR, due mainly to feeding strategies that differed due to differing socio-climatic constraints. Application of EmA at multiple levels revealed the importance of a multi-level analysis. While the whole-farm level assesses the overall contribution of the system to its environment, the dairy-system level is suitable for comparison of multi-product systems. In contrast, the herd level focuses on herd management and bypasses debates about definition of system boundaries by excluding land management. Combining all levels highlights the contribution of livestock to the global agricultural system and identifies inefficiencies and influences of system components on the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The joint use of LCA and emergy evaluation for the analysis of two Italian wine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzigallo, A C I; Granai, C; Borsa, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate two agroindustrial productive processes in their entirety (one organic and one semi-industrial), focusing on the comparison of impacts derived from the inputs and outputs of the system (life cycle assessment, LCA), integrated with a physical evaluation of the resources and natural services, on a common basis (emergy). Methods based on the joint use of LCA and emergy evaluation are useful, as they measure the contribution of environmental services and products to the productive process thus focusing primarily on the environmental impact of emissions and non-renewable energy inputs. The complementarity of the methods used in this paper contributes important elements and information useful for the comprehension of the organization of agriculture within Siena's territory. The results show important elements and useful information: (1) for the comprehension of the two agroecosystems' organization; (2) for the use of the energy flows that determine their development. Moreover, the combined use of emergy and LCA gives a comparative thermodynamic performance evaluation between organic and semi-industrial farming.

  15. Emergy Evaluation of Dwelling Operation in Five Housing Units of Montreal Island, Canada

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    Ricardo Enrique Vega-Azamar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of cities and the environmental implications of high resource utilization by the domestic sector are growing concerns related to urban regions. Well-informed urban planning decision-making is an essential tool to help in the task and, for that, an important point to consider is the influence of parameters like residential density and housing typology on the intensity of resource utilization. Emergy synthesis, a life-cycle energy analysis methodological approach that considers the interaction of natural and human-made flows, was used to evaluate the environmental support for dwelling operational stage in five typical present-day housing units on the island of Montreal. As expected, resource utilization, measured as total emergy used, was positively correlated to housing unit size both with respect to number of occupants and dwelling size. Results suggest that variables affecting notably the intensity of resource utilization are per household income and per dweller habitable space and, while a higher income increased per capita emergy in all cases, increasing space availability per resident did not result in a decrease of empower density after 50 m2/person. Future work should consider lower and higher densities and analyses at the scale of blocks, neighborhoods and urban planning zones.

  16. Wind resource assessment in Europe using emergy

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, S Subodh; Santarelli, M.; Martin, V.; Lacarriere, B.; Corre, le, O

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In context of increasing use of renewable sources, it is of importance to correctly evaluate the actual sustainability of their implementation. Emergy analysis is one of the possible methods useful for such an assessment. This work aims to demonstrate how the emergy approach can be used to assess the sustainability of wind energy resource in Europe. The Emergy Index of Sustainability (EIS) and the Emergy Yield Ratio (EYR) are used to analyze 90 stations of European reg...

  17. Emergy evaluation and economic analysis of three wetland fish farming systems in Nansi Lake area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L X; Ulgiati, S; Yang, Z F; Chen, B

    2011-03-01

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare three fish production models, i.e., cage fish farming system, pond intensive fish rearing system and semi-natural extensive pond fish rearing system, in Nansi Lake area in China in the year 2007. The goal of this study was to understand the benefits and driving forces of selected fish production models from ecological and economic points of view. The study considered input structure, production efficiency, environmental impacts, economic viability and sustainability. Results show that the main difference among the three production systems was the emergy cost for fish feed associated with their feeding system, i.e., feeding on natural biomass such as plankton and grass or on commercial feedstock. As indicated by EYR, ELR and ESI, it can be clearly shown that the intensive production model with commercial feed is not a sustainable pattern. However, the point is that more environmentally sound patterns do not seem able to provide a competitive net profit in the short run. The intensive pond fish farming system had a net profit of 2.57E+03 $/ha, much higher than 1.27E+03 $/ha for cage fish farming system and slightly higher than 2.37E+03 $/ha for semi-natural fish farming system. With regard to the drivers of local farmer's decisions, the accessibility of land for the required use and investment ability determine the farmer's choice of the production model and the scale of operation, while other factors seem to have little effect. Theoretically, the development of environmentally sustainable production patterns, namely water and land conservation measures, greener feed as well as low waste systems is urgently needed, to keep production activities within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. Coupled emergy and economic analyses can provide better insight into the environmental and economic benefits of fish production systems and help solve the problems encountered during policy making. Copyright © 2010

  18. Solar Equivalences of the Earth’s Primary Exergy inflows and the Theoretical Basis for Secondary and Tertiary Emergy Flows of the Geobiosphere: New Calculations of Transformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown et al. (2016) published a synthesis paper in which evidence was presented supporting a new value of the Earth’s geobiosphere baseline, 12.0E+24 seJ/y (solar equivalent joules per year) from which the emergy of all the Earth’s products and processes can be calcul...

  19. Emergy evaluation of benthic ecosystems influenced by upwelling in northern Chile: Contributions of the ecosystems to the regional economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy evaluations of three benthic ecosystem networks found in Mejillones, Antofagasta and Tongoy Bays, located on the coast of northern Chile, were carried out with the intent of documenting the contributions of these coastal ecosystems to the economy. The productivity of these...

  20. Emergy Accounting: A Unified, Comprehensive Triple Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of the concept of emergy established a medium for accounting that made it possible to express environmental, economic, and social work of all kinds on a common basis as solar emjoules. Emergy accounting can be used to combine both emergy and money accounts on a single...

  1. Emergy Evaluation of the Urban Solid Waste Handling in Liaoning Province, China

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    Lixiao Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better treatment results. The aim of a thorough ecological-economic evaluation of different treatment technologies is to extract the maximum practical benefits from investments and to ensure the minimum environmental impacts of wastes. This paper compares four garbage treatment systems, including sanitary landfills systems, fluidized bed incineration system, grate type incineration system and the current landfills system in Liaoning Province, China. By considering the economic and environmental impacts of waste treatment and disposal, impact of emissions, and contribution of wastes input, this paper constructed an emergy-based urban solid waste model for evaluating the sustainability of the holistic systems. The results in Liaoning indicate that the human health losses caused by the harmful air emissions are ranked in this order: fluidized bed incineration > grate type incineration > current landfills > sanitary landfills, while the ecosystem losses are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. The electricity yield ratios are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. Taken together this suggests that in considering the incineration option, decision makers must weigh the benefits of incineration against the significant operating costs, potential environmental impacts, and technical difficulties of operating. Emergy analysis of the urban solid treatment systems can provide a set of useful tools which can be used to compare the comprehensive performances of different waste treatment processes for decision-making and optimizing the whole process.

  2. Emergy Algebra: Improving Matrix Methods for Calculating Tranformities

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    Transformity is one of the core concepts in Energy Systems Theory and it is fundamental to the calculation of emergy. Accurate evaluation of transformities and other emergy per unit values is essential for the broad acceptance, application and further development of emergy method...

  3. [Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

    2012-03-01

    Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output.

  4. Sustainability and Chinese Urban Settlements: Extending the Metabolism Model of Emergy Evaluation

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    Lijie Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activity interacts with urban form and inner metabolic processes, ultimately impacting urban sustainability. China’s cities have experienced many environmental issues and metabolic disturbances since the nation-wide market-oriented “reform and opening-up” policy was adopted in the 1980s. To analyze urban reform policy impacts and metabolism sustainability at a settlement scale, this study provides an integrated analysis to evaluate settlement metabolism and sustainability using a combination of emergy analysis and sustainability indicators based on scrutiny of two typical settlements (one pre- and one post-reform. The results reveal that housing reform policy stimulated better planning and construction, thereby improving built environmental quality, mixed functional land use, and residential livability. The pre-reform work-unit settlements are comparatively denser in per capita area but have less mixed land use. Housing reform has spatially changed the work–housing balance and increased commuting travel demand. However, short commuting distances in pre-reform settlements will not always decrease overall motor vehicle usage. Integrating non-commuting transport with local mixed land-use functional planning is a necessary foundation for sustainable urban design. Functional planning should provide convenient facilities and infrastructure, green space, and a suitable household density, and allow for short travel distances; these characteristics are all present in the post-reform settlement.

  5. Renewability emergy index calculation in the evaluation of the sustainability of a national economy; Calculo do indice de renovabillidade emergetica na avaliacao da sustentabilidade de uma economia nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siche Jara, Raul Benito [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Fac. de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial], e-mail: Siche.J.R@gmail.com; Ortega Rodriguez, Enrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Ecologica e Informatica Aplicada], e-mail: ortega@fea.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the emergy methodology was used to analyze the sustainability of the Peruvian economic system. The resources (natural and not natural) and importations had been accounting in units of solar emergy using data of the Peruvian economy for the year 2004. Emergy is an energy measure based in the contribution of the resources and its influence, defined as the energy of a type required producing a flow or storage of another type. The focus of this study is the calculation of the emergy index call 'renewability' (REN), considered as a general measure of the ecological sustainability. In a long period, only systems or processes with high REN are sustainable. This index is calculated by the accounting of the resources renewed used in the economy in emergy units (2.17E+23 seJ) and divided by emergy total that enters to the economic system (6.93E+23 seJ), resulting a REN of 0.31. The renewable resources that use Peru almost represent 20% of the total of renewable resources available in the system. The great amount of renewable resources that Peru can potentially use was calculated in 11.44E+23 seJ, meaning that the system can be more sustainable if the economy is based on increasing the use of renewable resources and to diminish the use of non-renewable resources and imported resources. These data show that Peru has a relatively sustainable economy that can improve or get worse, depending of its politics in the use of resources. (author)

  6. CHAPTER 14: FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING METHODS TO FURTHER DEVELOP AND COMMUNICATE ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of the concepts of emergy and transformity established a medium (emergy) for accounting that made it possible to express economic and environmental work of all kinds on a common basis as solar emjoules. Environmental accounting using emdollars, a combined emergy-monet...

  7. The worth of land use: a GIS-emergy evaluation of natural and human-made capital.

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    Mellino, Salvatore; Buonocore, Elvira; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2015-02-15

    Natural systems make their natural capital and ecosystem services available to human economy. A careful analysis of the interplay between natural and human-made capital is needed to prevent natural capital being overexploited for present economic benefits, affecting lifestyles and wellbeing of future generations. In this study, the emergy synthesis is used to evaluate the natural and the human-made capital of Campania region (southern Italy) by accounting for the environmental support directly and indirectly provided by nature to resource generation. Furthermore, geographic information system (GIS) models are integrated with the emergy accounting procedure to generate maps of the spatial patterns of both natural and human-made capital distribution. Regional storages of natural and human-made capital are identified and evaluated in emergy units (seJ). The human-made capital of the Campania region (6.29E+24seJ) results to be about 11 times higher than the natural capital (5.69E+23seJ) due to the past and present exploitation of the natural resources needed to generate it over time. Moreover, by overlaying the total natural capital map and the total human-made capital map with a map of the protected areas within the region, only the 19% of the regional natural capital appears to be concentrated within protected areas, while most of it (81%) is concentrated outside. These findings suggest that the conservation of natural resources is also necessary outside protected areas by means of suitable policies, directives and investments. The human-made capital is mainly concentrated (88%) inside non-protected areas and interacts with the local natural capital. A management of the interactions between the two categories of wealth is crucial to prevent that the growth of human-made storages degrades the natural ecosystems and the environment. The proposed emergy-GIS framework reveals to be a useful tool for environmental planning and resource management aimed to conserve and

  8. Evaluation and Analysis of Eco-Security in Environmentally Sensitive Areas Using an Emergy Ecological Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Han-Shen Chen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the overall ecological and environmental sustainability in the Cing-Jing region in Taiwan is examined. As land use and cover change has been found to be an important analysis method, an emergy ecological footprint model was applied and the eco-security assessed to ensure authorities maintain a balance between ecological preservation and tourism development. While the ecological environment in the Cing-Jing region from 2008 to 2014 was found to be within safe levels, all related...

  9. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan.

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    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-18

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  10. Evaluating renewable natural resources flow and net primary productivity with a GIS-Emergy approach: A case study of Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Shenyan; Yan, Wanglin; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yutao

    2016-11-01

    Renewable natural resources, such as solar radiation, rainfall, wind, and geothermal heat, together with ecosystem services, provide the elementary supports for the sustainable development of human society. To improve regional sustainability, we studied the spatial distributions and quantities of renewable natural resources and net primary productivity (NPP) in Hokkaido, which is the second largest island of Japan. With the help of Geographic Information System (GIS) software, distribution maps for each type of renewable natural resource were generated by kriging interpolation based on statistical records. A composite map of the flow of all types of renewable natural resources was also generated by map layer overlapping. Additionally, we utilized emergy analysis to convert each renewable flow with different attributes into a unified unit (i.e., solar equivalent joules [sej]). As a result, the spatial distributions of the flow of renewable natural resources of the Hokkaido region are presented in the form of thematic emergy maps. Thus, the areas with higher renewable emergy can be easily visualized and identified. The dominant renewable flow in certain areas can also be directly distinguished. The results can provide useful information for regional sustainable development, environmental conservation and ecological management.

  11. Evaluation and Analysis of Eco-Security in Environmentally Sensitive Areas Using an Emergy Ecological Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Shen

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the overall ecological and environmental sustainability in the Cing-Jing region in Taiwan is examined. As land use and cover change has been found to be an important analysis method, an emergy ecological footprint model was applied and the eco-security assessed to ensure authorities maintain a balance between ecological preservation and tourism development. While the ecological environment in the Cing-Jing region from 2008 to 2014 was found to be within safe levels, all related indices had increased considerably. A Grey model was used to predict the 2015–2024 ecological carrying capacities, from which it was found that there is expected to be a large increase in per capita ecological footprints (EFs), meaning that in the future there is going to be a larger ecological deficit and a higher ecological pressure index (EFI), with the eco-security predicted to reach a Grade 2 intermediate level in 2022. As the Cing-Jing region is predicted to become ecologically unsustainable, local, regional, and national governments need to implement regulations to strictly control the land use in the Cing-Jing region. This study demonstrated that emergy EF (EEF) theory application can give objective guidance to decision-makers to ensure that recreational non-urban eco-security can be maintained at a safe level. PMID:28146086

  12. Evaluation and Analysis of Eco-Security in Environmentally Sensitive Areas Using an Emergy Ecological Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Shen

    2017-01-30

    In this paper, the overall ecological and environmental sustainability in the Cing-Jing region in Taiwan is examined. As land use and cover change has been found to be an important analysis method, an emergy ecological footprint model was applied and the eco-security assessed to ensure authorities maintain a balance between ecological preservation and tourism development. While the ecological environment in the Cing-Jing region from 2008 to 2014 was found to be within safe levels, all related indices had increased considerably. A Grey model was used to predict the 2015-2024 ecological carrying capacities, from which it was found that there is expected to be a large increase in per capita ecological footprints (EFs), meaning that in the future there is going to be a larger ecological deficit and a higher ecological pressure index (EFI), with the eco-security predicted to reach a Grade 2 intermediate level in 2022. As the Cing-Jing region is predicted to become ecologically unsustainable, local, regional, and national governments need to implement regulations to strictly control the land use in the Cing-Jing region. This study demonstrated that emergy EF (EEF) theory application can give objective guidance to decision-makers to ensure that recreational non-urban eco-security can be maintained at a safe level.

  13. Evaluation and Analysis of Eco-Security in Environmentally Sensitive Areas Using an Emergy Ecological Footprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the overall ecological and environmental sustainability in the Cing-Jing region in Taiwan is examined. As land use and cover change has been found to be an important analysis method, an emergy ecological footprint model was applied and the eco-security assessed to ensure authorities maintain a balance between ecological preservation and tourism development. While the ecological environment in the Cing-Jing region from 2008 to 2014 was found to be within safe levels, all related indices had increased considerably. A Grey model was used to predict the 2015–2024 ecological carrying capacities, from which it was found that there is expected to be a large increase in per capita ecological footprints (EFs, meaning that in the future there is going to be a larger ecological deficit and a higher ecological pressure index (EFI, with the eco-security predicted to reach a Grade 2 intermediate level in 2022. As the Cing-Jing region is predicted to become ecologically unsustainable, local, regional, and national governments need to implement regulations to strictly control the land use in the Cing-Jing region. This study demonstrated that emergy EF (EEF theory application can give objective guidance to decision-makers to ensure that recreational non-urban eco-security can be maintained at a safe level.

  14. Sustainability of bioethanol production from wheat with recycled residues as evaluated by Emergy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppola, F.; Bastianoni, S.; Østergård, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    utilization system (IBUS) was used for combining the two kinds of feedstock. The crop was cultivated under four combinations of Danish soil conditions (sand or sandy loam) and crop managements (organic or conventional). For each of the production processes, two scenarios, with or without recycling of residues......) and with the lowest environmental load (ELR) was bioethanol produced from grains cultivated in the organic sandy loam scenario; systems with the highest transformity and ELR were bioethanol production based on straw from conventional cultivation and without recycling of residues. The IBUS concept obtained the best......An Emergy assessment study of 24 bioethanol production scenarios was carried out for the comparison of bioethanol production using winter wheat grains and/or straw as feedstock and conversion technologies based on starch (1st generation) and/or lignocellulose (2nd generation). An integrated biomass...

  15. Emergy of the Global Biogeochemical Cycles of Biologically Active Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate estimates of the emergy of elemental flows are needed to accurately evaluate the far field effects of anthropogenic wastes. The transformity and specific emergy of the elements and of their different chemical species is also needed to quantify the inputs to many producti...

  16. The Emergy Basis for Formal Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The education system of the United States from 1870 to 2006 was evaluated using emergy methods. The system was partitioned into three subsystems, elementary, secondary, and college education and the emergy inputs required to support each subsystem were determined for each year o...

  17. Evaluating sustainability of cropland use in Yuanzhou county of the Loess plateau, China using an emergy-based ecological footprint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Bai

    Full Text Available Evaluating the sustainability of cropland use is essential for guaranteeing a secure food supply and accomplishing agriculture sustainable development. This study was conducted in the ecologically vulnerable Loess Plateau region of China to evaluate the sustainability of cropland use based on an ecological footprint model that integrates emergy analysis. One modified method proposed in 2005 is known as the emergetic ecological footprint (EEF. We enhanced the method by accounting for both the surface soil energy in the carrying capacity calculation and the net topsoil loss for human consumption in the EF calculation. This paper evaluates whether the cropland of the study area was overloaded or sustainably managed during the period from 1981 to 2009. Toward this end, the final results obtained from EEF were compared to conventional EF and previous methods. The results showed that the cropland of Yuanzhou County has not been used sustainably since 1983, and the conventional EF analysis provided similar results. In contrast, a deficit did not appear during this time period when previous calculation methods of others were used. Additionally, the ecological sustainable index (ESI from three models indicated that the recently used cropland system is unlikely to be unsustainable.

  18. Evaluating sustainability of cropland use in Yuanzhou county of the Loess plateau, China using an emergy-based ecological footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaomei; Wen, Zhongming; An, Shaoshan; Li, Bicheng

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating the sustainability of cropland use is essential for guaranteeing a secure food supply and accomplishing agriculture sustainable development. This study was conducted in the ecologically vulnerable Loess Plateau region of China to evaluate the sustainability of cropland use based on an ecological footprint model that integrates emergy analysis. One modified method proposed in 2005 is known as the emergetic ecological footprint (EEF). We enhanced the method by accounting for both the surface soil energy in the carrying capacity calculation and the net topsoil loss for human consumption in the EF calculation. This paper evaluates whether the cropland of the study area was overloaded or sustainably managed during the period from 1981 to 2009. Toward this end, the final results obtained from EEF were compared to conventional EF and previous methods. The results showed that the cropland of Yuanzhou County has not been used sustainably since 1983, and the conventional EF analysis provided similar results. In contrast, a deficit did not appear during this time period when previous calculation methods of others were used. Additionally, the ecological sustainable index (ESI) from three models indicated that the recently used cropland system is unlikely to be unsustainable.

  19. Water quality and emergy evaluation of two freshwater aquacultural systems for eutrophic water in the Controlling by Biological Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, L. M.; Liu, C. Q.; Liu, D. F.; Huang, W. L.; Sun, Y.

    2017-08-01

    According to the ecological restoration theory, this experiment establishes aquaculture systems controlled by biological chains in both Xiaoxidian area and Dujiadian area of Baiyangdian Lake separately in order to improve the environment and bring economic benefits. The appearance of Emergy Theory provides a new method for the quantitative analysis of ecological economic system. Based on the analysis of Emergy Theory, this thesis compares the eco-economic systems under different polyculture models between Xiaoxidian area and Dujiadian area. The result demonstrates that Xiaoxidian ecological system is of high Emergy Transformity with higher emergy output and economic income per unit area compared with Dujiadian area. While Dujiadian area has higher Emergy Yield Rate and lower Environment Load Rate. So Dujiadian area is more sustainable due to the overload non-renewable energy of Xiaoxidian area devoted by human. Therefore, it will be better if we adjust and optimize the management of aquaculture system in Xiaoxidian area in order to find a stable equilibrium point between environmental sustainability and economic benefits.

  20. A thermodynamic geography: night-time satellite imagery as a proxy measure of emergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscieme, Luca; Pulselli, Federico M; Bastianoni, Simone; Elvidge, Christopher D; Anderson, Sharolyn; Sutton, Paul C

    2014-11-01

    Night-time satellite imagery enables the measurement, visualization, and mapping of energy consumption in an area. In this paper, an index of the "sum of lights" as observed by night-time satellite imagery within national boundaries is compared with the emergy of the nations. Emergy is a measure of the solar energy equivalent used, directly or indirectly, to support the processes that characterize the economic activity in a country. Emergy has renewable and non-renewable components. Our results show that the non-renewable component of national emergy use is positively correlated with night-time satellite imagery. This relationship can be used to produce emergy density maps which enable the incorporation of spatially explicit representations of emergy in geographic information systems. The region of Abruzzo (Italy) is used to demonstrate this relationship as a spatially disaggregate case.

  1. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Lotus-Root Production Systems on Reclaimed Wetlands Surrounding the Pearl River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotus (Neumbo nucifera, Gaertn) is the most important aquatic vegetable in China, with a cultivation history of over 3000 years. The emergy, energy, material, and money flows of three lotus root cultivation modes in Wanqingsha, Nansha District, Guangzhou, China were examined usin...

  2. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Keeping the Books for the Environment and Society: the Unification of Emergy and Financial Accounting Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of the concept of emergy established a medium for accounting that made it possible to express economic and environmental work of all kinds on a common basis as solar emjoules. Environmental accounting using emdollars, a combined emergy-monetary unit, can be used to pr...

  4. Emergy accounting for regional studies: case study of Canada and its provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossaini, Navid; Hewage, Kasun

    2013-03-30

    Sustainable regional management (development) requires an understanding of interactions between the social, economic, and ecological systems within the boundaries of a region. In this paper, application of emergy (an environmental accounting method) for regional planning is discussed through a case study. Emergy (spelled with an "m") methodology is an environmental accounting technique that evaluates the energy system for the thermodynamics of an open system. Major renewable and non-renewable resource fluxes to a region, including energy, matter, human activities, and money can be converted to emergy by using corresponding transformity functions. As a case study, this paper discusses the emergy accounting of Canada and its provinces with various emergy-based indicators. Moreover, emergy maps were generated in a form of emergy geography. These maps are multi-dimensional illustrations that show resource consumption, emergy per person, and emergy density across Canada under two parameters: (1) the quantities of resources consumed and (2) the location of consumption. Emergy analysis also highlights concentrations of renewable and natural resources in Canada and distinguishes the provinces with the highest resource consumption. Analysis of emergy indicator for Canadian provinces shows that Alberta with the highest EYR (7.35) provides energy to the economy of Canada. However, ELR value of Alberta (8.5) indicates that the province's current economic approach is not sustainable as it relies mainly on non-renewable emergy inputs (mainly from fossil fuels). ELR of British Columbia and Manitoba indicates that these two provinces created a firm balance between emergy use of renewable and non-renewable resources. The characterizations of regions provided in this paper can be used for future land planning and management both in federal and provincial levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Resource and Emission Impacts: An Emergy-Based Multiple Spatial Scale Framework for Urban Ecological and Economic Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the complex and multi-dimensional urban socio-economic system creates impacts on natural capital and human capital, which range from a local to a global scale. An emergy-based multiple spatial scale analysis framework and a rigorous accounting method that can quantify the values of human-made and natural capital losses were proposed in this study. With the intent of comparing the trajectory of Beijing over time, the characteristics of the interface between different scales are considered to explain the resource trade and the impacts of emissions. In addition, our improved determination of emergy analysis and acceptable management options that are in agreement with Beijing’s overall sustainability strategy were examined. The results showed that Beijing’s economy was closely correlated with the consumption of nonrenewable resources and exerted rising pressure on the environment. Of the total emergy use by the economic system, the imported nonrenewable resources from other provinces contribute the most, and the multi‑scale environmental impacts of waterborne and airborne pollution continued to increase from 1999 to 2006. Given the inputs structure, Beijing was chiefly making greater profits by shifting resources from other provinces in China and transferring the emissions outside. The results of our study should enable urban policy planners to better understand the multi-scale policy planning and development design of an urban ecological economic system.

  6. Sustainable Biofuel Project: Emergy Analysis of South Florida Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amponsah, Nana Yaw [Intelligentsia International, Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States); Izursa, Jose-Luis [Intelligentsia International, Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Soil and Water Sciences Dept.; Capece, John C. [Intelligentsia International, Inc., LaBelle, FL (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluates the sustainability of various farming systems, namely (1) sugarcane on organic and mineral soils and (2) energycane and sweet sorghum on mineral soils. The primary objective of the study is to compare the relative sustainability matrices of these energy crops and their respective farming systems. These matrices should guide decision and policy makers to determine the overall sustainability of an intended or proposed bioethanol project related to any of these studied crops. Several different methods of energy analysis have been proposed to assess the feasibility or sustainability of projects exploiting natural resources (such as (Life Cycle Analysis, Energy Analysis, Exergy Analysis, Cost Benefit Analysis, Ecological Footprint, etc.). This study primarily focused on the concept of Emergy Analysis, a quantitative analytical technique for determining the values of nonmonied and monied resources, services and commodities in common units of the solar energy it took to make them. With this Emergy Analysis study, the Hendry County Sustainable Biofuels Center intends to provide useful perspective for different stakeholder groups to (1) assess and compare the sustainability levels of above named crops cultivation on mineral soils and organic soils for ethanol production and (2) identify processes within the cultivation that could be targeted for improvements. The results provide as much insight into the assumptions inherent in the investigated approaches as they do into the farming systems in this study.

  7. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  8. Emergy Synthesis and Regional Sustainability Assessment: Case Study of Pan-Pearl River Delta in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guomin Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, emergy analysis is used in association with the ternary diagrams and geographic information system (GIS tools to improve the evaluation of sustainability for the Pan-Pearl River Delta (PPRD region. Emergy accounting of PPRD is estimated, and various emergy-based indicators are reported. Ternary diagrams are drawn to provide a graphical representation of the emergy accounting data. Finally, the GIS tools are employed to assist in the emergy-based spatial analysis, and emergy density based on flat land area is mapped to reflect the intensity of emergy use in human activity areas. Results show the following: (1 the current development path of the PPRD region, with the value of emergy sustainability index (ESI = 0.227 significantly lower than one, is unsustainable in the long run; (2 Guangdong has the lowest ESI value (0.071, and the ESI values of Fujian, Guangxi, Hunan and Jiangxi are lower than 0.5, indicating that the economy in these provinces overly relies on non-renewable and imported resources; (3 Guizhou has a high emergy yield rate and is thus the main energy supplier in PPRD; and (4 among the nine provinces in PPRD, only Hainan has an ESI value (2.145 higher than one.

  9. Environmental impact assessment of land use systems using emergy in Teresópolis-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Torrico Albino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a set of indices based on emergy analysis for the Côrrego Sujo basin, Teresópolis-Brazil. Encompassing natural and agricultural systems, the Côrrego Sujo basin has been affected by destruction and fragmentation of natural habitats and unsustainable land use practices. The main objective is to evaluate the environmental impact of the land use systems, the load capacity and the use of natural and economic resources. The studied land use systems were: i agriculture, ii grassland and cattle, iii rainforest and iv forest in regeneration stage (fallow: 1, 2 and 3 years old. Emergy analysis integrates all flows within a system of coupled economic and environmental work in common biophysical units (solar emjoules – seJ. The main conclusions of the study are: the basin does not have dependence of purchased resources and the environmental impact is moderate; the efficiency of the basin as a system is highly positive and it represents a positive contribution to the economy; the emergy exchange ratio is moderate and; the biggest contributions to the system come from natural sources showing that the ecological sustainability is moderate to good.

  10. Set Theory Applied to Uniquely Define the Inputs to Territorial Systems in Emergy Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The language of set theory can be utilized to represent the emergy involved in all processes. In this paper we use set theory in an emergy evaluation to ensure an accurate representation of the inputs to territorial systems. We consider a generic territorial system and we describ...

  11. The Emergy of Money Ratio of the United States from 1990 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergy to money ratio of a system is a key index used in emergy evaluations, because it represents the buying power of money and it can be used as an estimator of the average value of human service. Since both the material and energy inputs to societies and the money circulat...

  12. Emergy-based energy and material metabolism of the Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-03-01

    The Yellow River basin is an opening ecosystem exchanging energy and materials with the surrounding environment. Based on emergy as embodied solar energy, the social energy and materials metabolism of the Yellow River basin is aggregated into emergetic equivalent to assess the level of resource depletion, environmental impact and local sustainability. A set of emergy indices are also established to manifest the ecological status of the total river basin ecosystem.

  13. Emergy Analysis for the Sustainable Utilization of Biosolids Generated in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This contribution describes the application of an emergy-based methodology for comparing two management alternatives of biosolids produced in a wastewater treatment plant. The current management practice of using biosolids as soil fertilizers was evaluated and compared to another...

  14. Emergy Evaluation of the United States, U.S. Education, Educational Attainment and the National Financial System from 1950 through 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past work quantifying the emergy basis for the U.S. economy, the U.S. education system and the educational attainment of the population through 2011 is brought up to date with the most recent data available from the U.S. Statistical Abstracts as well as other critical information...

  15. Emergy analysis of an industrial park: the case of Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Zhang, Pan; Ulgiati, Sergio; Sarkis, Joseph

    2010-10-15

    With the rapid development of eco-industrial park projects in China, evaluating their overall eco-efficiency is becoming an important need and a big challenge academically. Developing ecologically conscious industrial park management requires analysis of both industrial and ecological systems. Traditional evaluation methods based on neoclassical economics and embodied energy and exergy analyses have certain limitations due to their focus with environmental issues considered secondary to the maximization of economic and technical objectives. Such methods focus primarily on the environmental impact of emissions and their economic consequences. These approaches ignore the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems and related problems of carrying capacity of economic and industrial development. This paper presents a new method, based upon emergy analysis and synthesis. Such a method links economic and ecological systems together, highlighting the internal relations among the different subsystems and components. The emergy-based method provides insight into the environmental performance and sustainability of an industrial park. This paper depicts the methodology of emergy analysis at the industrial park level and provides a series of emergy-based indices. A case study is investigated and discussed in order to show the emergy method's practical potential. Results from DEDZ (Dalian Economic Development Zone) case show us the potential of emergy synthesis method at the industrial park level for environmental policy making. Its advantages and limitations are also discussed with avenues for future research identified. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The geobiosphere emergy baseline: A synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of emergy defined as the available energy (or exergy) of one form used up directly and indirectly to produce an item or action (Odum, Environmental Accounting Emergy and Environmental Decision Making, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1996) requires the specification of a unif...

  17. Solar Thermal Concept Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Clark W.; Bonometti, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Concentrated solar thermal energy can be utilized in a variety of high temperature applications for both terrestrial and space environments. In each application, knowledge of the collector and absorber's heat exchange interaction is required. To understand this coupled mechanism, various concentrator types and geometries, as well as, their relationship to the physical absorber mechanics were investigated. To conduct experimental tests various parts of a 5,000 watt, thermal concentrator, facility were made and evaluated. This was in anticipation at a larger NASA facility proposed for construction. Although much of the work centered on solar thermal propulsion for an upper stage (less than one pound thrust range), the information generated and the facility's capabilities are applicable to material processing, power generation and similar uses. The numerical calculations used to design the laboratory mirror and the procedure for evaluating other solar collectors are presented here. The mirror design is based on a hexagonal faceted system, which uses a spherical approximation to the parabolic surface. The work began with a few two dimensional estimates and continued with a full, three dimensional, numerical algorithm written in FORTRAN code. This was compared to a full geometry, ray trace program, BEAM 4, which optimizes the curvatures, based on purely optical considerations. Founded on numerical results, the characteristics of a faceted concentrator were construed. The numerical methodologies themselves were evaluated and categorized. As a result, the three-dimensional FORTRAN code was the method chosen to construct the mirrors, due to its overall accuracy and superior results to the ray trace program. This information is being used to fabricate and subsequently, laser map the actual mirror surfaces. Evaluation of concentrator mirrors, thermal applications and scaling the results of the 10 foot diameter mirror to a much larger concentrator, were studied. Evaluations

  18. How to manage co-product inputs in emergy accounting exemplified by willow production for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Assessments of environmental performance are challenged by multifunctionality of production systems where impacts cannot be assigned to any one specific output. In the assessment method emergy accounting, all available energy used up for a process is summed up after being converted to solar equiv...

  19. Emergy-based assessment on industrial symbiosis: a case of Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Liu, Zuoxi; Xue, Bing; Dong, Huijuan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-12-01

    Industrial symbiosis is the sharing of services, utility, and by-product resources among industries. This is usually made in order to add value, reduce costs, and improve the environment, and therefore has been taken as an effective approach for developing an eco-industrial park, improving resource efficiency, and reducing pollutant emission. Most conventional evaluation approaches ignored the contribution of natural ecosystem to the development of industrial symbiosis and cannot reveal the interrelations between economic development and environmental protection, leading to a need of an innovative evaluation method. Under such a circumstance, we present an emergy analysis-based evaluation method by employing a case study at Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Zone (SETDZ). Specific emergy indicators on industrial symbiosis, including emergy savings and emdollar value of total emergy savings, were developed so that the holistic picture of industrial symbiosis can be presented. Research results show that nonrenewable inputs, imported resource inputs, and associated services could be saved by 89.3, 32.51, and 15.7 %, and the ratio of emergy savings to emergy of the total energy used would be about 25.58 %, and the ratio of the emdollar value of total emergy savings to the total gross regional product (GRP) of SETDZ would be 34.38 % through the implementation of industrial symbiosis. In general, research results indicate that industrial symbiosis could effectively reduce material and energy consumption and improve the overall eco-efficiency. Such a method can provide policy insights to industrial park managers so that they can raise appropriate strategies on developing eco-industrial parks. Useful strategies include identifying more potential industrial symbiosis opportunities, optimizing energy structure, increasing industrial efficiency, recovering local ecosystems, and improving public and industrial awareness of eco-industrial park policies.

  20. Emergy analysis of a farm biogas project in China: A biophysical perspective of agricultural ecological engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. Y.; Zhang, B.; Cai, Z. F.

    2010-05-01

    This paper aims to present a biophysical understanding of the agricultural ecological engineering by emergy analysis for a farm biogas project in China as a representative case. Accounting for the resource inputs into and accumulation within the project, as well as the outputs to the social system, emergy analysis provides an empirical study in the biophysical dimension of the agricultural ecological engineering. Economic benefits and ecological economic benefits of the farm biogas project indicated by market value and emergy monetary value are discussed, respectively. Relative emergy-based indices such as renewability (R%), emergy yield ratio (EYR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI) are calculated to evaluate the environmental load and local sustainability of the concerned biogas project. The results show that the farm biogas project has more reliance on the local renewable resources input, less environmental pressure and higher sustainability compared with other typical agricultural systems. In addition, holistic evaluation and its policy implications for better operation and management of the biogas project are presented.

  1. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norhafana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of a solar water heating system as well as to evaluate the performance of the solar collector in terms of useful heat of the multilayered absorber using the multidirectional ability of a solar simulator at several values of solar radiation. It is operated at three variables of solar radiation of 400 W/m2, 550 W/m2 and 700 W/m2 and using three different positions of angles at 0º, 45º and 90º. The results show that the multilayer absorber in the solar collector is only able to best adapt at 45° of solar simulator with different values of radiation intensity. At this angle the maximum values of useful heat and temperature difference are achieved. KEYWORDS: solar water heating system; solar collector; multilayered absorber; solar simulator; solar radiation 

  2. Relationships among the Energy, Emergy and Money Flows of the United States from 1900 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Elliott Campbell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy Systems Language models of the resource base for the U.S. economy and of economic exchange were used, respectively, (1 to show how energy consumption and emergy use contribute to real and nominal GDP and (2 to propose a model of coupled flows that explains high correlations of these inputs with measures of market-based economic activity. We examined a 3rd power law model of growth supported by excess resources and found evidence that it has governed U.S. economic growth since 1900, i.e., nominal GDP was best explained by a power function of total emergy use with exponent 2.8. We used a weight of evidence approach to identify relationships among emergy, energy, and money flows in the U.S. from 1900 to 2011. All measures of quality adjusted energy consumption had a relationship with nominal GDP that was best described by a hyperbolic function plus a constant and the relationship between all measures of energy consumption and real GDP was best described by a 2nd order polynomial. The fact that energy consumption per unit of real GDP declined after 1996 as real GDP continued to increase indicates that energy conservation or a shift toward less energy intensive industries has resulted in lower fossil fuel use and reduced CO2 emissions, while maintaining growth in real GDP. Since all energy consumption measures vs. real GDP deviated from a power law relationship after 1996; whereas, total emergy use did not, we concluded that total emergy use captured more of the factors responsible for the increase in real GDP than did energy measures alone, and as a result, total emergy use may be the best measure to quantify the biophysical basis for social and economic activity in the information age. The Emergy to Money Ratio measured as solar emjoules per nominal $ followed a decreasing trend from a high of 1.01E+14 semj/$ in 1902 to 1.56E+12 semj/$ in 2011 with fluctuations in its value corresponding to major periods of inflation and deflation over this

  3. [Scenario analysis on sustainable development of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city based on emergy and system dynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-fa; Cao, Ying-ying; Yang, Jian-cho; Yang, Qi-qi

    2015-08-01

    Dynamic evaluation of sustainable development is one of the key fundamental parts of the success of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city, which is the first eco-city in China constructed by international cooperation. Based on the analysis of nature and economy, function and structure, planning control indices and so on, we constructed a sustainable development evaluation index system and a system dynamics model of Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city to explore dynamic trends of its population, material and currency by comprehensive utilization of emergy analysis and system dynamics method. Five scenarios were set up and simulated, including inertial scenario, scientific and technological scenario, economic scenario, environmental scenario and harmonious development scenario. Then, the sustainability of the 5 scenarios was evaluated and compared. The results showed that in the economy and environment sustainable development scenario, there was a steady growth trend of GDP, accumulation of both emergy and currency, and relatively lower values in emergy waste ratio, emergy ratio of waste, and emergy loading ratio. Although both sustainable evaluation indices, such as ESI and UEI, were relatively low, the economy and environment sustainable development scenario was still the best development scenario which was more active than others.

  4. Emergy efficiency analysis of sugarcane as a raw material for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Leandro da Vitória

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil and its growing importance in the Brazilian economy have been driven by a sharp increase in fuel alcohol production. This increase in fuel alcohol production was accompanied by increasing interest regarding the impacts of fuel crops in Brazil. In this study, regions of sugarcane expansion into deforested areas in the Atlantic Forest were studied by applying the emergy theory and indices. Environmental and economic inputs and the sustainability of the sugarcane production system were evaluated with the emergy method. The transformity (TR was equal to 1.78E+11 seJ kg-1, the yield rate (EYR was equal to 1.30, the investment rate was equal to 3.29, the environmental load rate was equal to 4.33, the renewability rate was equal to 18.77, and the exchange rate was equal to 1.09. The emergy indices of corn, cassava, wheat, and sugarcane (as raw materials for ethanol production were used. In Brazil, sugarcane production for ethanol production was more emergetically sustainable based on the analysed emergy indices.

  5. Comparing emergy accounting with well-known sustainability metrics. The case of Southern Cone Common Market, Mercosur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetti, B.F.; Almeida, C.M.V.B.; Bonilla, S.H. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, Universidade Paulista, R. Dr. Bacelar 1212, Cep 04026-002, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    The quality and the power of human activities affect the external environment in different ways that can be measured and evaluated by means of several approaches and indicators. While the scientific community has been publishing several proposals for sustainable development indicators, there is still no consensus regarding the best approach to the use of these indicators and their reliability to measure sustainability. It is important, therefore, to question the effectiveness of sustainable development indicators in an effort to continue in the search for sustainability. This paper compares the results obtained with emergy accounting with five global Sustainability Metrics (SMs) proposed in the literature to verify if metrics are communicating coherent and similar information to guide decision makers towards sustainable development. Results obtained using emergy indices are discussed with the aid of emergy ternary diagrams. Metrics are confronted with emergy results, and the degree of variability among them is analyzed using a correlation matrix created for the Mercosur nations. The contrast of results clearly shows that metrics arrive at different interpretations about the sustainability of the nations studied, but also that some metrics may be grouped and used more prudently. Mercosur is presented as a case study to highlight and explain the discrepancies and similarities among Sustainability Metrics, and to expose the extent of emergy accounting. (author)

  6. Comparing emergy accounting with well-known sustainability metrics: The case of Southern Cone Common Market, Mercosur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannetti, B.F. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, Universidade Paulista, R. Dr. Bacelar 1212, Cep 04026-002, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Almeida, C.M.V.B., E-mail: cmvbag@unip.b [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, Universidade Paulista, R. Dr. Bacelar 1212, Cep 04026-002, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bonilla, S.H. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao, Universidade Paulista, R. Dr. Bacelar 1212, Cep 04026-002, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    The quality and the power of human activities affect the external environment in different ways that can be measured and evaluated by means of several approaches and indicators. While the scientific community has been publishing several proposals for sustainable development indicators, there is still no consensus regarding the best approach to the use of these indicators and their reliability to measure sustainability. It is important, therefore, to question the effectiveness of sustainable development indicators in an effort to continue in the search for sustainability. This paper compares the results obtained with emergy accounting with five global Sustainability Metrics (SMs) proposed in the literature to verify if metrics are communicating coherent and similar information to guide decision makers towards sustainable development. Results obtained using emergy indices are discussed with the aid of emergy ternary diagrams. Metrics are confronted with emergy results, and the degree of variability among them is analyzed using a correlation matrix created for the Mercosur nations. The contrast of results clearly shows that metrics arrive at different interpretations about the sustainability of the nations studied, but also that some metrics may be grouped and used more prudently. Mercosur is presented as a case study to highlight and explain the discrepancies and similarities among Sustainability Metrics, and to expose the extent of emergy accounting.

  7. Energy-, exergy- and emergy analysis of biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovelius, K.

    1997-11-01

    In this report, results from analyzing salix-, winter wheat-, and winter rape cultivations from energy, exergy, and EMERGY perspectives are presented. The exchange in terms of energy for this Salix cultivation is 28 times , but if instead an exergy analysis is done the exchange for exactly the same process is 36 times. The energy analysis gives an energy exchange of 8.1 for winter wheat cultivation, and 5.7 for winter rape cultivation. Corresponding exchanges for the exergy analysis are 9.3 for winter wheat and 6.6 for winter rape. The EMERGY analysis gives a transformity for salix of 1.04E+11 sej/kg DM, for winter wheat 3.85E+11 sej/kg DM, and for winter rape 1.03E+12 sej/kg DM. Thus, the EMERGY need is bigger for rape cultivation than for winter wheat and salix cultivations. The NEYR is the ratio between the EMERGY yield and the EMERGY invested from society (economy, services and other resources), and it is 1.10 for this salix cultivation, and 0.66 for both the winter wheat and the winter rape cultivations. The EIR is the ratio between the EMERGY invested from society and the EMERGY invested from the environment, and it is 2.23 for this salix cultivation, 11.5 for the winter wheat cultivation , and 11.8 for the winter rape cultivation. 26 refs, 11 figs, 25 tabs

  8. Design for Sustainability of Industrial Symbiosis based on Emergy and Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Industrial symbiosis provides novel and practical pathway to the design for the sustainability. Decision support tool for its verification is necessary for practitioners and policy makers, while to date, quantitative research is limited. The objective of this work is to present an innovative...... approach for supporting decision-making in the design for the sustainability with the implementation of industrial symbiosis in chemical complex. Through incorporating the emergy theory, the model is formulated as a multi-objective approach that can optimize both the economic benefit and sustainable...... performance of the integrated industrial system. A set of emergy based evaluation index are designed. Multi-objective Particle Swarm Algorithm is proposed to solve the model, and the decision-makers are allowed to choose the suitable solutions form the Pareto solutions. An illustrative case has been studied...

  9. Dynamic Ecocentric Assessment Combining Emergy and Data Envelopment Analysis: Application to Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martín-Gamboa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of current life-cycle approaches show an anthropocentric standpoint for the evaluation of human-dominated activities. However, this perspective is insufficient when it comes to assessing the contribution of natural resources to production processes. In this respect, emergy analysis evaluates human-driven systems from a donor-side perspective, accounting for the environmental effort performed to make the resources available. This article presents a novel methodological framework, which combines emergy analysis and dynamic Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA for the ecocentric assessment of multiple resembling entities over an extended period of time. The use of this approach is shown through a case study of wind energy farms. Furthermore, the results obtained are compared with those of previous studies from two different angles. On the one hand, a comparison with results from anthropocentric approaches (combined life cycle assessment and DEA is drawn. On the other hand, results from similar ecocentric approaches, but without a dynamic model, are also subject to comparison. The combined use of emergy analysis and dynamic DEA is found to be a valid methodological framework for the computation of resource efficiency and the valuation of ecosystem services. It complements traditional anthropocentric assessments while appropriately including relevant time effects.

  10. Analysis of Land-Use Emergy Indicators Based on Urban Metabolism: A Case Study for Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation of urban metabolism and changes in land use is an important issue in urban ecology, but recent research lacks consideration of the mechanisms and interactions between them. In this research, we did an emergy analysis of the flows of materials, energy, and capital within the socioeconomic system of Beijing. We calculated emergy-based evaluation indices of urban metabolism and land use change, to analyze the relationship between urban metabolism and land use by correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results indicate that the socio-economic activities on built-up land depend on local, non-renewable resource exploitation and external resource inputs. The emergy utilization efficiency of farmland has consistently decreased, but there remains significant utilization potential there. Urban development in Beijing relies on production activities on built-up land, which is subjected to great environmental pressure during extraction of material resources. To keep the economy developing effectively, we suggest that Beijing should commit to development of a circular economy, and change the land-use concept to “Smart Growth”. In this paper, we efficaciously solve the problem of conflicting measurement units, and avoid the disadvantages of subjective assignment. Consequently, this work provides not only a more scientific way to study land problems, but also provides a reliable reference for ecological construction and economic development in Beijing.

  11. Cosmic emergy based ecological systems modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Chen, G. Q.; Ji, X.

    2010-09-01

    Ecological systems modelling based on the unified biophysical measure of cosmic emergy in terms of embodied cosmic exergy is illustrated in this paper with ecological accounting, simulation and scenario analysis, by a case study for the regional socio-economic ecosystem associated with the municipality of Beijing. An urbanized regional ecosystem model with eight subsystems of natural support, agriculture, urban production, population, finance, land area, potential environmental impact, and culture is representatively presented in exergy circuit language with 12 state variables governing by corresponding ecodynamic equations, and 60 flows and auxiliary variables. To characterize the regional socio-economy as an ecosystem, a series of ecological indicators based on cosmic emergy are devised. For a systematic ecological account, cosmic exergy transformities are provided for various dimensions including climate flows, natural resources, industrial products, cultural products, population with educational hierarchy, and environmental emissions. For the urban ecosystem of Beijing in the period from 1990 to 2005, ecological accounting is carried out and characterized in full details. Taking 2000 as the starting point, systems modelling is realized to predict the urban evolution in a one hundred time horizon. For systems regulation, scenario analyses with essential policy-making implications are made to illustrate the long term systems effects of the expected water diversion and rise in energy price.

  12. [The Chinese urban metabolisms based on the emergy theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Cai, Jian-Ming; Ni, Pan; Yang, Zhen-Shan

    2014-04-01

    By using emergy indices of urban metabolisms, this paper analyzed 31 Chinese urban metabolisms' systematic structures and characteristics in 2000 and 2010. The results showed that Chinese urban metabolisms were characterized as resource consumption and coastal external dependency. Non-renewable resource emergy accounted for a higher proportion of the total emergy in the inland cities' urban metabolisms. The emergy of imports and exports accounted for the vast majority of urban metabolic systems in metropolises and coastal cities such as Beijing and Shanghai, showing a significant externally-oriented metabolic characteristic. Based on that, the related policies were put forward: to develop the renewable resource and energy industry; to improve the non-renewable resource and energy utilization efficiencies; to optimize the import and export structure of services, cargo and fuel; and to establish the flexible management mechanism of urban metabolisms.

  13. Emergy-based comparative analysis of energy intensity in different industrial systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Wang, Hui; Sun, Lu; Ma, Zhixiao; Tian, Xu; Yu, Xiaoman

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid economic development, energy consumption of China has been the second place in the world next to the USA. Usually, measuring energy consumption intensity or efficiency applies heat unit which is joule per gross domestic production (GDP) or coal equivalent per GDP. However, this measuring approach is only oriented by the conversion coefficient of heat combustion which does not match the real value of the materials during their formation in the ecological system. This study applied emergy analysis to evaluate the energy consumption intensity to fill this gap. Emergy analysis is considered as a bridge between ecological system and economic system, which can evaluate the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems. In this study, emergy indicator for performing energy consumption intensity of primary energy was proposed. Industrial production is assumed as the main contributor of energy consumption compared to primary and tertiary industries. Therefore, this study validated this method by investigating the two industrial case studies which were Dalian Economic Development Area (DEDA) and Fuzhou economic and technological area (FETA), to comparatively study on their energy consumption intensity between the different kinds of industrial systems and investigate the reasons behind the differences. The results show that primary energy consumption (PEC) of DEDA was much higher than that of FETA during 2006 to 2010 and its primary energy consumption ratio (PECR) to total emergy involvement had a dramatically decline from year 2006 to 2010. In the same time, nonrenewable energy of PEC in DEDA was also much higher than that in FETA. The reason was that industrial structure of DEDA was mainly formed by heavy industries like petro-chemistry industry, manufacturing industries, and high energy-intensive industries. However, FETA was formed by electronic business, food industry, and light industries. Although

  14. Solar energy program evaluation: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    deLeon, P.

    1979-09-01

    The Program Evaluation Methodology provides an overview of the practice and methodology of program evaluation and defines more precisely the evaluation techniques and methodologies that would be most appropriate to government organizations which are actively involved in the research, development, and commercialization of solar energy systems. Formal evaluation cannot be treated as a single methodological approach for assessing a program. There are four basic types of evaluation designs - the pre-experimental design; the quasi-experimental design based on time series; the quasi-experimental design based on comparison groups; and the true experimental design. This report is organized to first introduce the role and issues of evaluation. This is to provide a set of issues to organize the subsequent sections detailing the national solar energy programs. Then, these two themes are integrated by examining the evaluation strategies and methodologies tailored to fit the particular needs of the various individual solar energy programs. (MCW)

  15. Dairy cattle sustainability using the emergy methodology: Environmental loading ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy cattle activity in São Paulo State has been depressed in recent years, evidenced by the reduction of 35.47% of dairy herd between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA and 29.73% in milk production between the census of the IBGE (1995 and 2006. Activity remains in the Agricultural Production Units (UPA that have adopted more intensive systems of milk production, using animals of high genetic potential, management-intensive rotational grazing or agricultural inputs, and with the objective of profit maximization. In face of environmental pressures, the problem is to know the degree of sustainability of milk production. The objective in this work was to analyze the production of milk from a farm in the municipality of Guzolândia, São Paulo State, during the period 2005/2011, using the emergy methodology to assess the sustainability of system, calculated by Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR. The UPA Alto da Araúna is dedicated to dairy cattle adopting the system of milk production semi-intensive type B; it produces on average 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, using 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. It has sandy soil, classified as latossol red, yellow, ortho phase, with gently rolling slopes. The UPA is administered with business structure, aiming to profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserving the environment. Currently, administrative decisions have the support of operational control that collects and records information necessary to generate animal and agricultural indexes that evaluate the performance of the UPA, in addition to managerial accounting records that generate cash flow information used to evaluate the economic efficiency of the UPA. The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR=N+F/R is obtained by the ratio of natural non-renewable resources (N plus economic resources (F by total renewable emergy (R. It is an indicator of the

  16. Resource use efficiency and renewability. Assessment of low-input agricultural production using eMergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Christina; Østergård, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    .solibam.eu) projectfunded by the European commission under the Seventh Framework Programme.We apply an approach where we include efficiency in resource use to produce food energy joules soldwhile distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources as well as on-site, local andnon-local resources. Result...... by reducing dependency on external input. We apply the emergy approach to evaluate resource use efficiency of twolow-input innovative farms while distinguishing between use of renewable and non-renewable resources aswell as local and global origin of resources. This study is a part of the SOLIBAM (www...

  17. Emergy sustainability index of a milk producing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although small, the impacts caused by agriculture and livestock productive activities change the environment, which in turn reflects the stress conditions it is under. Some authors these environmental changes occur for countless reasons, many so-called natural while others are due to anthropogenic interventions. This study aims to assess milk production sustainability using the emergy analysis of indicators, considering the annual cycles of production to help decision making. A conceptual model of the milk production system using the Emergy flow chart was built at the Livestock and Agricultural Production Unit (UPA of the Alto da Arauna Farm, located in Guzolândia, SP. After data processing, the emergy calculation table was elaborated. Several emergy sustainability indices were calculated and analyzed (indicators Renewability of Emergy Used Total, Index of Environmental Load Ratio of Investment Ratio Emergia beyond the calculations Tranformidades among others including the Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI. The results showed that the UPA has a high impact per unit of energy source used to produce milk for the general public. The agricultural production systems with ESI value less than one (1 can be considered unsustainable in the long term. The studied UPA has good working conditions and soil conservation, but has a highly disproportionate use of economy inputs in relation to natural resources, which results in low ESI value. The analysis of this ratio indicated low system efficiency. Several management practices and interventions were proposed aiming at improving sustainability indicators of the production system.  Furthermore, strategies were formulated for more sustainable management of this UPA, thus reducing the impacts of the production system in use. The adoption of methods similar to organic production, agroecological systems, integration between farming and livestock, and/or adoption of silvopastoral system are recommended to improve

  18. Evaluation of the solar disk sextant concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, H.-Y.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the viability of the solar disk sextant concept is evaluated, the optimum parameters required to carry out solar variability studies, which are the mission objectives, are derived. The experimental environment is first discussed, followed by the application of the finite Fourier transform definition (FFTD) to the detector array data. The requirements on the optical system are studied next. A computer program was carried out simulating solar edge data and FFTD. From this study, it is concluded that the required accuracy of measurement may be reached using currently available detector array technology, a focal ratio of the optical system in excess of 90, and an entrance aperture of 22 cm. The guidance error must be small enough to require no more than a correction rate of 0.1 arcsec/sec. All these conditions are well within current technology.

  19. Energy and emergy analysis of mixed crop-livestock farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczuk, Anna; Pospolita, Janusz; Wacław, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    This paper contains substance and energy balances of mixed crop-livestock farming. The analysis involves the period between 2012 and 2015. The structure of the presentation in the paper includes: crops and their structure, details of the use of plants with a beneficial effect on soil and stocking density per 1ha of agricultural land. Cumulative energy intensity of agricultural animal and plant production was determined, which is coupled the discussion of the energy input in the production of a grain unit obtained from plant and animal production. This data was compared with the data from the literature containing examples derived from intensive and organic production systems. The environmental impact of a farm was performed on the basis of emergy analysis. Emergy fluxes were determined on the basis of renewable and non-renewable sources. As a consequence, several performance indicators were established: Emergy Yield Ratio EYR, Environmental Loading Ratio ELR and ratio of emergy from renewable sources R! . Their values were compared with the parameters characterizing other production patterns followed in agricultural production. As a consequence, conclusions were derived, in particular the ones concerning environmental sustainability of production systems in the analyzed farm.

  20. Emergy analysis of the recycling options for construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Shen, Li-yin; Li, Qi-ming

    2011-12-01

    Construction and demolition (C&D) waste is becoming a major contributor to environmental pollution. In Shanghai, China, the quantity of C&D waste is 2.11E+07 t/yr, which accounts for 45% of the total quantity of solid waste. There has been a growing promotion of recycling C&D waste as an effective way to solve this waste problem. However, the evaluation of the efficiency of recycling C&D waste as a potential source of resources is largely based on traditional economic analysis. The economic analysis emphasizes money instead of the harmony between economic benefit and environmental effects. There is a need for a new strategic approach to investigate the efficiency of recycling C&D waste to achieve the integration between economic, social and environmental effects. Emergy theory can be employed to analyze different recycling options for C&D waste. With reference to the Chinese construction industry, this paper demonstrates that the close-loop recycling option is better than the open-loop recycling option for C&D waste in terms of the integration of social, environmental and sustainable aspects. To evaluate different technology solutions for C&D waste recycling, the emergy theory and method is not limited to a cost-benefit balance but can include economic, social, environmental and sustainable effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. performance evaluation of a pebble bed solar crop dryer abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    The design, development and test performance evaluation of an integrated of passive solar energy crop drying system was undertaken. The solar crop dryer consists of an imbedded pebble bed solar heat storage unit/solar collector and crop drying chamber measuring 67 cm x 110 cm x 21cm and 50 cm x 90 cm ...

  2. Design for sustainability of industrial symbiosis based on emergy and multi-objective particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Liang, Hanwei; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2016-08-15

    Industrial symbiosis provides novel and practical pathway to the design for the sustainability. Decision support tool for its verification is necessary for practitioners and policy makers, while to date, quantitative research is limited. The objective of this work is to present an innovative approach for supporting decision-making in the design for the sustainability with the implementation of industrial symbiosis in chemical complex. Through incorporating the emergy theory, the model is formulated as a multi-objective approach that can optimize both the economic benefit and sustainable performance of the integrated industrial system. A set of emergy based evaluation index are designed. Multi-objective Particle Swarm Algorithm is proposed to solve the model, and the decision-makers are allowed to choose the suitable solutions form the Pareto solutions. An illustrative case has been studied by the proposed method, a few of compromises between high profitability and high sustainability can be obtained for the decision-makers/stakeholders to make decision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. LCA and emergy accounting of aquaculture systems: towards ecological intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfart, Aurélie; Prudhomme, Jehane; Blancheton, Jean-Paul; Aubin, Joël

    2013-05-30

    An integrated approach is required to optimise fish farming systems by maximising output while minimising their negative environmental impacts. We developed a holistic approach to assess the environmental performances by combining two methods based on energetic and physical flow analysis. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a normalised method that estimates resource use and potential impacts throughout a product's life cycle. Emergy Accounting (EA) refers the amount of energy directly or indirectly required by a product or a service. The combination of these two methods was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of three contrasting fish-farming systems: a farm producing salmon in a recirculating system (RSF), a semi-extensive polyculture pond (PF1) and an extensive polyculture pond (PF2). The RSF system, with a low feed-conversion ratio (FCR = 0.95), had lower environmental impacts per tonne of live fish produced than did the two pond farms, when the effects on climate change, acidification, total cumulative energy demand, land competition and water dependence were considered. However, RSF was clearly disconnected from the surrounding environment and depended highly on external resources (e.g. nutrients, energy). Ponds adequately incorporated renewable natural resources but had higher environmental impacts due to incomplete use of external inputs. This study highlighted key factors necessary for the successful ecological intensification of fish farming, i.e., minimise external inputs, lower the FCR, and increase the use of renewable resources from the surrounding environment. The combination of LCA and EA seems to be a practical approach to address the complexity of optimising biophysical efficiency in aquaculture systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation and management of a solar heated application in Alexandria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorour, M.M.; Sedra, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    Using hourly incident solar intensities, ambient temperature data and the efficiency relationship, a stochastic technique was employed to predict the performance of solar systems. The Markovian model evaluates the useful solar energy at different temperature levels every month of the year in Alexandria. In addition, an economic study was made on solar heating of poultry farms after calculating the necessary heating load. The results reveal the limit of economic benefit in using solar systems as a function of fuel price and collector area.

  5. Performance evaluation of the solar kinetics T-700 line concentrating solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A performance evaluation of the solar kinetics T-700 line concentrating solar collector is reported. Collector descriptions, summary, test conditions, test equipment, test requirements and procedures, and an analysis of the various tests performed are described.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegirjovs, A.; Shipkovs, P.; Lebedeva, K.; Kashkarova, G.; Migla, L.; Gantenbein, P.; Omlin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snegirjovs A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW. In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  8. Emergy synthesis of tourism-based urban ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Kampeng; Wang, Zhishi

    2008-09-01

    Macao is a tourist city with a dense population, but is short on natural resources. Almost all of the life-support resources of the city depend on imports from outside. During the past 20 years, Macao has experienced an economic boom accompanied by rapid social development. The tourism industry (including gambling, hotel accommodation, restaurant dining, and shows) have become the city's main economic activity since 1991. This paper uses emergy flow analysis to investigate and characterize the urban evolution and city development that have occurred in Macao from 1983 to 2003. Macao's tourism industry has existed almost from the establishment of the city, with the legalization of gambling in Macao occurring in 1850. Tourism has become the biggest industry in Macao, contributing more than half of the city's revenues since 1995. The emergy flow related to tourism was tracked and analyzed to measure its contribution to Macao. In addition, we used statistical analysis to divide the various emergy-based indicators into three categories: positive, negative, and insensitive indicators.

  9. A Reexamination of the Emergy Input to a System from the Wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wind energy absorbed in the global boundary layer (GBL, 900 mb surface) is the basis for calculating the wind emergy input for any system on the Earth’s surface. Estimates of the wind emergy input to a system depend on the amount of wind energy dissipated, which can hav...

  10. Evaluation of solar cells for potential space satellite power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The evaluation focused on the following subjects: (1) the relative merits of alternative solar cell materials, based on performance and availability, (2) the best manufacturing methods for various solar cell options and the effects of extremely large production volumes on their ultimate costs and operational characteristics, (3) the areas of uncertainty in achieving large solar cell production volumes, (4) the effects of concentration ratios on solar array mass and system performance, (5) the factors influencing solar cell life in the radiation environment during transport to and in geosynchronous orbit, and (6) the merits of conducting solar cell manufacturing operations in space.

  11. Emergy Analysis and Sustainability Efficiency Analysis of Different Crop-Based Biodiesel in Life Cycle Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel as a promising alternative energy resource has been a hot spot in chemical engineering nowadays, but there is also an argument about the sustainability of biodiesel. In order to analyze the sustainability of biodiesel production systems and select the most sustainable scenario, various...... kinds of crop-based biodiesel including soybean-, rapeseed-, sunflower-, jatropha- and palm-based biodiesel production options are studied by emergy analysis; soybean-based scenario is recognized as the most sustainable scenario that should be chosen for further study in China. DEA method is used...... to evaluate the sustainability efficiencies of these options, and the biodiesel production systems based on soybean, sunflower, and palm are considered as DEA efficient, whereas rapeseed-based and jatropha-based scenarios are needed to be improved, and the improved methods have also been specified....

  12. Emergy Analysis and Sustainability Efficiency Analysis of Different Crop-Based Biodiesel in Life Cycle Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Manzardo, Alessandro; Mazzi, Anna; Fedele, Andrea; Scipioni, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel as a promising alternative energy resource has been a hot spot in chemical engineering nowadays, but there is also an argument about the sustainability of biodiesel. In order to analyze the sustainability of biodiesel production systems and select the most sustainable scenario, various kinds of crop-based biodiesel including soybean-, rapeseed-, sunflower-, jatropha- and palm-based biodiesel production options are studied by emergy analysis; soybean-based scenario is recognized as the most sustainable scenario that should be chosen for further study in China. DEA method is used to evaluate the sustainability efficiencies of these options, and the biodiesel production systems based on soybean, sunflower, and palm are considered as DEA efficient, whereas rapeseed-based and jatropha-based scenarios are needed to be improved, and the improved methods have also been specified. PMID:23766723

  13. Convergence of ecological footprint and emergy analysis as a sustainability indicator of countries: Peru as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siche, Raúl; Pereira, Lucas; Agostinho, Feni; Ortega, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    In the last decade, two scientific tools have been extensively used worldwide to measure the human impact on nature: ecological footprint (EF) and emergy analysis (EA). Papers trying to combine the strong points of EF and EA, and obtain more accurate results have appeared in scientific literature, in which Zhao's et al. (2005) [61] approach is an important one. Unfortunately, some weak points of the original methods still remain on the new approaches proposed. The aim of this present work is to discuss some weak points found in Zhao's approach, trying to overcome them through a new approach called emergetic ecological footprint (EEF). The main difference between Zhao's approach and EEF is that the last one accounted for the internal storage of capital natural in the biocapacity calculation. Besides that, soil loss and water for human consume were considered as additional categories in the footprint calculation. After discussing it through comparisons with other approaches, EEF was used to assess Peru as a case study, resulting in a biocapacity of 51.76 gha capita-1 and a footprint of 12.23 gha capita-1, with 2004 data; that resulted in an ecological surplus of 39.53 gha capita-1. The load capacity factor obtained was 4.23, meaning that Peru can support a population 4.23 times bigger considering the life style of 2004. The main limitations of the EEF are: (i) it is impossible to make comparisons between the biocapacity and footprint for each category; (ii) a need for a handbook with emergy intensity factors with good quality. On the other hand, the main positive points are: (i) its easiness of application in global and national scales; (ii) its final indicators account for all the previous energy (or emergy) used to make something; (iii) internal natural capital storage was accounted for in the biocapacity calculation, which can be a valid step towards the evaluation and assess of services provided by nature.

  14. Evaluating Performances of Solar-Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    CONC11 computer program calculates performances of dish-type solar thermal collectors and power systems. Solar thermal power system consists of one or more collectors, power-conversion subsystems, and powerprocessing subsystems. CONC11 intended to aid system designer in comparing performance of various design alternatives. Written in Athena FORTRAN and Assembler.

  15. [Comparison of sustainable development status in Heilongjiang Province based on traditional ecological footprint method and emergy ecological footprint method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-feng; Wang, Hong-yan; Xiao, Du-ning; Wang, Da-qing

    2008-11-01

    By using traditional ecological footprint method and its modification, emergy ecological footprint method, the sustainable development status of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 was analyzed. The results showed that the ecological deficits of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 based on emergy and conventional ecological footprint methods were 1.919 and 0.6256 hm2 x cap(-1), respectively. The ecological footprint value based on the two methods both exceeded its carrying capacity, which indicated that the social and economic development of the study area was not sustainable. Emergy ecological footprint method was used to discuss the relationships between human's material demand and ecosystem resources supply, and more stable parameters such as emergy transformity and emergy density were introduced into emergy ecological footprint method, which overcame some of the shortcomings of conventional ecological method.

  16. The Evaluation of Solar Contribution in Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize various types of solar thermal energy for coupling coal-fired power plants by using the characteristics of various thermal needs of the plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will be unnecessary while the intermittent and unsteady way of power generation will be avoided. Moreover, the large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and the energy-saving aim of power plants will be realized. The contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power needs to be explored. This paper deals with the evaluation method of solar contribution based on the second law of thermodynamics and the principle of thermoeconomics with a case of 600 MW solar aided coal-fired power plant. In this study, the feasibility of the method has been carried out. The contribution of this paper is not only to determine the proportion of solar energy in overall electric power, but also to assign the individual cost components involving solar energy. Therefore, this study will supply the theoretical reference for the future research of evaluation methods and new energy resource subsidy.

  17. Evaluation of Test Method for Solar Collector Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    on these efficiencies, an efficiency equation is determined by regression analysis. In the test method, there are no requirements on the ambient air temperature and the sky temperature. The paper will present an evaluation of the test method for a 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector panel from Arcon Solvarme A....../S. The solar collector panel investigated has 16 parallel connected horizontal absorber fins. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations, calculations with a solar collector simulation program SOLEFF (Rasmussen and Svendsen, 1996) and thermal experiments are carried out in the investigation......The test method of the standard EN12975-2 (European Committee for Standardization, 2004) is used by European test laboratories to determine the efficiency of solar collectors. In the test methods the mean solar collector fluid temperature in the solar collector, Tm is determined by the approximated...

  18. Evaluation of solar cells and arrays for potential solar power satellite applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almgren, D.W.; Csigi, K.; Gaudet, A.D.

    1978-03-31

    Proposed solar array designs and manufacturing methods are evaluated to identify options which show the greatest promise of leading up to the develpment of a cost-effective SPS solar cell array design. The key program elements which have to be accomplished as part of an SPS solar cell array development program are defined. The issues focussed on are: (1) definition of one or more designs of a candidate SPS solar array module, using results from current system studies; (2) development of the necessary manufacturing requirements for the candidate SPS solar cell arrays and an assessment of the market size, timing, and industry infrastructure needed to produce the arrays for the SPS program; (3) evaluation of current DOE, NASA and DOD photovoltaic programs to determine the impacts of recent advances in solar cell materials, array designs and manufacturing technology on the candidate SPS solar cell arrays; and (4) definition of key program elements for the development of the most promising solar cell arrays for the SPS program.

  19. Evaluation of solar cells and arrays for potential solar power satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almgren, D. W.; Csigi, K.; Gaudet, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    Proposed solar array designs and manufacturing methods are evaluated to identify options which show the greatest promise of leading up to the develpment of a cost-effective SPS solar cell array design. The key program elements which have to be accomplished as part of an SPS solar cell array development program are defined. The issues focussed on are: (1) definition of one or more designs of a candidate SPS solar array module, using results from current system studies; (2) development of the necessary manufacturing requirements for the candidate SPS solar cell arrays and an assessment of the market size, timing, and industry infrastructure needed to produce the arrays for the SPS program; (3) evaluation of current DOE, NASA and DOD photovoltaic programs to determine the impacts of recent advances in solar cell materials, array designs and manufacturing technology on the candidate SPS solar cell arrays; and (4) definition of key program elements for the development of the most promising solar cell arrays for the SPS program.

  20. Dairy cattle sustainability using the emergy methodology: Renewability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of differents management practices is a way to remain in the dairy business. The reduction of the dairy cattle in São Paulo was 35.47% between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA. In São Paulo State the milk production was reduced by 29.7% IBGE (1995 and 2006. In milk production systems the adoption of the rotational grazing and the use of more inputs, causes a great impact on the environment. The objective of this paper is to assess these impacts in farms with the semi-intensive system of milk production. The emergy methodology was used to calculated the renewability of milk production system. The Renewability or degree of sustainability (%R = (R/Y  100 is the percentage of renewable emergy (R used by the system and Y is the sum of all the resources used by the system. In long periods of time, only production systems with a high percentage of renewable emergy will prevail to the stress of today's market, while those using a high percentage of non-renewable resources will certainly go into decline. The farm studied is located in the municipality of Guzolândia and yields 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. The farm is administered with the objective of profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserve the environment. Management decisions are defined with the support of operational control that collects and stores information necessary to manage pastures and animals. The results showed that the renewability mean of six years (2005 at 2011 is 14.83% (Table 1, indicating a high use of non-renewable resources, which places the environment in risk under these productive conditions. The recommendation is to use of natural resources in a best way, reducing market input costs, thus reducing the value of Y, and improving the Renewability of the milk production.

  1. Performance evaluation of a liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report describes thermal performance and structural-load tests on commercial single glazed flat-plate solar collector with gross area of 63.5 sq ft that uses water as heat-transfer medium. Report documents test instrumentation and procedures and presents data as tables and graphs. Results are analyzed by standard data-reduction methods.

  2. Unsustainability, eMergy and LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Morandi, Fabiana; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2014-01-01

    of a subsystem to sustain itself within a larger system (the planetary ecosystem). Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) identifies inputs from the sociosphere and emissions to the ecosphere, and evaluates a product’s impact in a set of subsystem analyses.The two unsustainability analysis methods are fundamentally...

  3. Optimization of emergy sustainability index for biodiesel supply network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Yang, Le

    2015-01-01

    sustainable design. In the proposed model, the emergy sustainability index of the whole biodiesel supply networks in a life cycle perspective is employed as the measure of the sustainability, and multiple feedstocks, multiple transport modes, multiple regions for biodiesel production and multiple distribution......Sustainability is an important and difficult consideration for the stakeholders/decision-makers when planning a biofuel supply network. In this paper, a Mixed-Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP) model was developed with the aim to help the stakeholders/decision-maker to select the most...... centers can be considered. After describing the process and mathematic framework of the model, an illustrative case was studied and demonstrated that the proposed methodology is feasible for finding the most sustainable design and planning of biodiesel supply chains....

  4. Energy valuation methods for biofuels in South Florida: Introduction to life cycle assessment and emergy approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treese II, J. Van [Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Southwest Florida Research and Education Center, Immokalee, FL (United States); Amponsah, Nana [Intelligentsia International, LaBelle, FL (United States); Izursa, Jose -Luis [Intelligentsia International, LaBelle, FL (United States); Capece, John C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Here, recent changes in the United States requiring the use of ethanol in gasoline for most vehicular transportation have created discussion about important issues, such as shifting the use of certain plants from food production to energy supply, related federal subsidies, effects on soil, water and atmosphere resources, tradeoffs between food production and energy production, speculation about biofuels as a possible means for energy security, potential reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or development and expansion of biofuels industry. A sustainable approach to biofuel production requires understanding inputs (i.e., energy required to carry out a process, both natural and anthropogenic) and outputs (i.e., energy produced by that process) and cover the entire process, as well as environmental considerations that can be overlooked in a more traditional approach. This publication gives an overview of two methods for evaluating energy transformations in biofuels production: (1) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and (2) Emergy Assessment (EA). The LCA approach involves measurements affecting greenhouse gases (GHG), which can be linked to the energy considerations used in the EA. Although these two methods have their basis in energy or GHG evaluations, their approaches can lead to a reliable judgment regarding a biofuel process. Using these two methods can ensure that the energy components are well understood and can help to evaluate the economic environmental component of a biofuel process. In turn, using these two evaluative tools will allow for decisions about biofuel processes that favor sustainability

  5. Renewability and emergy footprint at different spatial scales for innovative food systems in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, Christina; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    F (in ha) iscalculated based on renewable empower densities which convert resource use into area equivalents ableto capture renewable flows. The spatial division between on-site, local and non-local land areas appliedin this study, identifies where the support area is located in order to apply a site......Food production is increasingly being challenged by limited resources of energy and land as well as bygrowing demand for food. In a future with less availability of fossil fuels, land area will become veryimportant for capturing the flow-limited renewable resources. Emergy assessment has been...... applied tocalculate scale dependent indicators, which account for the land area needed, if agricultural systems wereto be supported solely on renewable sources. These indicators are designated emergy footprints (EmFs)and expand the concept of support area defined previously in emergy accounting. The Em...

  6. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation of the central solar heating technology is based on measurements on the case plant in Marstal, Denmark, and on published and unpublished data for other, mainly Danish, CSDHP plants. Evaluations on the thermal, economical and environmental performances are reported, based on the experiences from the last decade. The measurements from the Marstal case are analysed, experiences extracted and minor improvements to the plant design proposed. For the detailed designing and energy planning of CSDHPs, a computer simulation model is developed and validated on the measurements from the Marstal case. The final model is then generalised to a 'generic' model for CSDHPs in general. The meteorological reference data, Danish Reference Year, is applied to find the mean performance for the plant designs. To find the expectable variety of the thermal performance of such plants, a method is proposed where data from a year with poor solar irradiation and a year with strong solar irradiation are applied. Equipped with a simulation tool design studies are carried out spreading from parameter analysis over energy planning for a new settlement to a proposal for the combination of plane solar collectors with high performance solar collectors, exemplified by a trough solar collector. The methodology of utilising computer simulation proved to be a cheap and relevant tool in the design of future solar heating plants. The thesis also exposed the demand for developing computer models for the more advanced solar collector designs and especially for the control operation of CSHPs. In the final chapter the CSHP technology is put into perspective with respect to other possible technologies to find the relevance of the application

  7. Large Scale Solar Heating:Evaluation, Modelling and Designing

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Alfred; Svendsen, Svend; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out based on measurements on the Marstal plant, Denmark, and through comparison with published and unpublished data from other plants. Evaluations on the thermal, economical and environmental performance...

  8. Evaluation of thermal-storage concepts for solar cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P. J.; Morehouse, J. H.; Choi, M. K.; White, N. M.; Scholten, W. B.

    1981-10-01

    Various configuration concepts for utilizing thermal energy storage to improve the thermal and economic performance of solar cooling systems for buildings were analyzed. The storge concepts evaluated provide short-term thermal storge via the bulk containment of water or salt hydrates. The evaluations were made for both residential-size cooling systems (3-ton) and small commercial-size cooling systems (25-ton). The residential analysis considers energy requirements for space heating, space cooling and water heating, while the commercial building analysis is based only on energy requirements for space cooling. The commercial building analysis considered a total of 10 different thermal storage/solar systems, 5 each for absorption and Rankine chiller concepts. The residential analysis considered 4 thermal storage/solar systems, all utilizing an absorption chiller. The trade-offs considered include: cold-side versus hot-side storage, single vs multiple stage storage, and phase-change vs sensible heat storage.

  9. An Emergy-Based Hybrid Method for Assessing Sustainability of the Resource-Dependent Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Qu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the natural resources are getting exhausted, the concept of sustainable development of regions has received increasing attention, especially for resource-dependent cities. In this paper, an innovative method based on emergy analysis and the Human Impact Population Affluence Technology (IPAT model is developed to analyze the quantitative relationship of economic growth, energy consumption and its overall sustainability level. Taiyuan, a traditional, resource-dependent city in China, is selected as the case study region. The main results show that the total emergy of Taiyuan increased from 9.023 × 1023 sej in 2007 to 9.116 × 1023 sej in 2014, with a 38% decline in non-renewable emergy and an increase of imported emergy up to 125%. The regional emergy money ratio (EMB was reduced by 48% from 5.31 × 1013 sej/$ in 2007 to 2.74 × 1013 sej/$ in 2014, indicating that the increasing speed of consuming resources and energy was faster than the increase of GDP, and that Taiyuan’s money purchasing power declined. The lower emergy sustainability index (ESI indicates that Taiyuan was explored and produced large quantities of mineral resources, which puts more stress on the environment as a consequence, and that this is not sustainable in the long run. The IPAT analysis demonstrates that Taiyuan sticks to the efforts of energy conservation and environmental protection. In order to promote regional sustainable development, it is necessary to have an integrated effort. Policy insights suggest that resourceful regions should improve energy and resource efficiency, optimize energy and resourceful structure and carry out extensive public participation.

  10. A Systematic Approach to Explorative Scenario Analysis in Emergy Assessment with Emphasis on Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    the future may bring. We develop a systematic approach to explorative scenario analysis and attempt to quantify aspects of resilience specifically for emergy assessment (EmA) of production systems. We group system inputs into five categories: (1) fossil fuels, their derivatives, metals and minerals, (2) on...... by corresponding narratives. We analyse the aggregated effect on UEVs of these scenarios for production systems that differ with respect to how the emergy flow is distributed among the five input categories. We find that for most production systems, scenario conditions significantly affect the UEV. The production...

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of solar radiation for the disinfection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of solar radiation as a disinfection agent for EPEC contaminated water. Effectiveness of SODIS was determined using viable coliform counts on VRBA medium and inactivation was determined by a reduction in growth of the organisms. The results show that it is possible ...

  12. Performance evaluation of hybrid modified micro-channel solar cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. In this communication, an attempt has been made to evaluate the performance of hybrid modified micro-channel solar cell thermal (MCSCT) tile. Based on energy balance of each component of modified MCSCT tile, analytical expressions for the different parameters of modified MCSCT tiles connected in series ...

  13. Construction and evaluation of rotary solar dryer for fish drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotary solar dryer was developed and evaluated for fish drying. People preferred dried prawns in diet in off seasons. Dried prawns are in high demand in the market and hence Prawns (Kolambi) were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content from 75 per cent to final moisture content 16 ...

  14. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials. PMID:23476134

  15. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants’ materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system, and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system. As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  16. Evaluation of a Line-Concentrating Solar Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    45-page report contains results of performance evaluation of line-concentrating solar collector. Collector employs parabolic trough to direct Sunlight to line along its focal axis, along which lies a black-chrome plated receiver tube covered by a glass tube containing still air. Reflective trough has aluminum-mirror surface covered with metallized acrylic film. Array of four collectors, positioned end to end was used for evaluation. Array was driven by single drive mechanism which was controlled by electronic tracking device.

  17. Impact Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Decathlon Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Harley [Lockheed Martin Energy Services Energy Solutions Group, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This report includes the methodology and findings in evaluating DOE’s Solar Decathlon event. The primary purpose of this evaluation is to learn how effectively the Solar Decathlon event is in meeting its objectives.

  18. Evaluating Dihydroazulene/Vinylheptafulvene Photoswitches for Solar Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihang; Udmark, Jonas; Börjesson, Karl; Rodrigues, Rita; Roffey, Anna; Abrahamsson, Maria; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper

    2017-08-10

    Efficient solar energy storage is a key challenge in striving toward a sustainable future. For this reason, molecules capable of solar energy storage and release through valence isomerization, for so-called molecular solar thermal energy storage (MOST), have been investigated. Energy storage by photoconversion of the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) photothermal couple has been evaluated. The robust nature of this system is determined through multiple energy storage and release cycles at elevated temperatures in three different solvents. In a nonpolar solvent such as toluene, the DHA/VHF system can be cycled more than 70 times with less than 0.01 % degradation per cycle. Moreover, the [Cu(CH3 CN)4 ]PF6 -catalyzed conversion of VHF into DHA was demonstrated in a flow reactor. The performance of the DHA/VHF couple was also evaluated in prototype photoconversion devices, both in the laboratory by using a flow chip under simulated sunlight and under outdoor conditions by using a parabolic mirror. Device experiments demonstrated a solar energy storage efficiency of up to 0.13 % in the chip device and up to 0.02 % in the parabolic collector. Avenues for future improvements and optimization of the system are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Is the hydrogen production from biomass technology really sustainable? Answer by Life Cycle Emergy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Hanwei; Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    .8303 and the emergy index of sustainability (ESI) which is a measure of the sustainability of a product, a process or a service is 0.1996. Therefore, it is not sustainable in the long term perspective for hydrogen production from corn stalks by supercritical water gasification in the current situation of Huaibei city...... and utilization efficiency of corn stalks....

  20. A Brief History of the Emergy Society and its Mission in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, H.T. Odum authorized the formation of a society dedicated to research, communication, and education focused on the new ideas of emergy and transformity and their basis in Energy Systems Theory. From this initial concept and after a 5 period of incubation, the Internation...

  1. Emergy signature as a basis for sustainability valuation of agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Montesino San Martin, Manuel; Porter, John Roy

    the boundaries of the production systems and calculating the emergy indices. The results reveal that the innovative agroecosystems, exemplified by CFE, are less resources demanding and amenable to local environments and helps conserve the ecosystem services in terms of sustainable supply of soil nutrients...

  2. USING FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING METHODS TO FURTHER DEVELOP AND COMMUNICATE ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING USING EMERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that the methods and models of accounting and bookkeeping might be useful in describing, understanding, and managing environmental systems is implicit in the title of H.T. Odum's book, Environmental Accounting: Emergy and Environmental Decision Making. In this paper, I ...

  3. Evaluating Ground-based Proxies for Solar Irradiance Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor); Jordan, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine what ground-based proxies are best for evaluating solar irradiance variation before the advent of space observations, it is necessary to test these proxies against space observations. We have tested sunspot number, total sunspot area, and sunspot umbral area against the Nimbus-7 measurements of total solar irradiance variation cover the eleven year period 1980-1990. The umbral area yields the best correlation and the total sunspot area yields the poorest. Reasons for expecting the umbral area to yield the best correlation are given, the statistical procedure followed to obtain the results is described, and the value of determining the best proxy is discussed. The latter is based upon the availability of an excellent database from the Greenwich Observatory obtained over the period 1876-1976, which can be used to estimate the total solar irradiance variation before sensitive space observations were available. The ground-based observations used were obtained at the Coimbra Solar Observatory. The analysis was done at Goddard using these data and data from the Nimbus-7 satellite.

  4. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  5. Evaluation of the cloudy sky solar UVA radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J

    2014-09-05

    The influence of cloud on the solar UVA (320-400 nm) exposures over five minute periods on a horizontal plane has been investigated. The first approach used cloud modification factors that were evaluated using the influence of clouds on the global solar exposures (310-2800 nm) and a model developed to apply these to the clear sky UVA exposures to allow calculation of the five minute UVA exposures for any cloud conditions. The second approach established a relationship between the UVA and the global solar exposures. The models were developed using the first six months of data in 2012 for SZA less than or equal to 70° and were applied and evaluated for the exposures in the second half of 2012. This comparison of the modelled exposures for all cloud conditions to the measured data provided an R(2) of 0.8 for the cloud modification model, compared to an R(2) of 0.7 for the UVA/global model. The cloud modification model provided 73% of the five minute exposures within 20% of the measured UVA exposures. This was improved to 89% of the exposures within 20% of the measured UVA exposures for the cases of cloud with the sun not obscured. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 1: Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The utilization of solar energy to meet the energy needs of the U.S. is discussed. Topics discussed include: availability of solar energy, solar energy collectors, heating for houses and buildings, solar water heater, electric power generation, and ocean thermal power.

  7. Solar Technology Test, Evaluation, and Data Collection: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albin, David S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-08

    Under this Agreement, NREL will work with Abengoa Solar Inc. on the testing, evaluation, and collection of data related to Abengoa Solar Inc. solar technologies and systems. This work includes, but is not limited to, testing and evaluation of solar component and system technologies, data collection and monitoring, performance evaluation, reliability testing, thermal energy storage integration, solar resource measurement and forecasting, grid impact testing, and analysis. This work will be conducted at NREL, SolarTAC (Aurora), and other field test locations.

  8. Evaluation of the Measured Energy Performance of Four Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    exception occurred because a building occupant manually operated the system. Although the manual operacion of this one system prevented damage to the solar...Specification 13985, Solar Equipment and the Army Technical Manual 5-804-2, Solar Energy Systems. -....... .. . .. . 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE SOLAR...standard built-up roof. *Metric Conversion Table is on p 81. 3C. Knapp, T. Stoffel, and S. Whitaker, Insolation Data Manual , SERI/SP-755- 789 (Solar

  9. Evaluation of Radiometers in Full-Time Use at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, S. M.; Myers, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the relative performance of the complement of solar radiometers deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL).

  10. Emergy-based ecological account for the Chinese economy in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M. M.; Zhou, J. B.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2008-12-01

    This paper provides an integrated study on the ecological account for the Chinese economy in 2004 based on emergy synthesis theory. The detailed flows of the Chinese economy is diagramed, accounted and analyzed in categories using the biophysically based ecological accounting. Through calculating environmental and economic inputs within and outside the Chinese economy, this paper discusses the Chinese international exchange, describes the resource structure, and assesses its sustainability as a whole. Also, the comparison of systematic indicators, such as emergy/dollar ratio, environmental load ratio, and emergy self-support ratio, with those of the other countries is tabled and explored to illustrate the general status of the Chinese economy in the world. Take, for example, the environmental load ratio, which was 9.29 in China 2004, it reveals that the Chinese economy put high pressure on the local environment compared with those of the environment-benign countries, such as Brazil (0.75), Australia (0.86) and New Zealand (0.81). In addition, in this paper, the accounting method of tourism is adjusted based on the previous researches.

  11. Emergy-Based City’s Sustainability and Decoupling Assessment: Indicators, Features and Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decoupling human well-being and local economic growth from resources consumption and environmental degradation has been recognized as a common vision to meet global sustainability. This paper taking Shenyang city as studied case aims to measure the decoupling process by proposing a set of new emergy-based and efficiency-oriented indicators. Decoupling process was verified in period of 1995–2010, and five new indicators including economic efficiency, the environmental pressure, the emergy-based five-year yield efficiency, the investment cost for decoupling, and the job-opportunities cost for decoupling were developed and applied. The results indicate that decoupling in Shenyang shows an erratic appearance, the trajectory of economic growth, and environmental pressure show absolute decoupling, while that of economic growth and resources utilization shows frequentative bending; emergy-based economic efficiency has been improved and the environmental pressure decreased along with the economic growth but the relative job cost per unit remains almost at the same level. However, this isolated and methodology-oriented case study provided the open-mind understandings to policy-making, thus, a wider scale comparison between different cities should be carried out for more knowledge mining.

  12. Standard Practice for Evaluating Solar Absorptive Materials for Thermal Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a testing methodology for evaluating absorptive materials used in flat plate or concentrating collectors, with concentrating ratios not to exceed five, for solar thermal applications. This practice is not intended to be used for the evaluation of absorptive surfaces that are (1) used in direct contact with, or suspended in, a heat-transfer liquid, (that is, trickle collectors, direct absorption fluids, etc.); (2) used in evacuated collectors; or (3) used in collectors without cover plate(s). 1.2 Test methods included in this practice are property measurement tests and aging tests. Property measurement tests provide for the determination of various properties of absorptive materials, for example, absorptance, emittance, and appearance. Aging tests provide for exposure of absorptive materials to environments that may induce changes in the properties of test specimens. Measuring properties before and after an aging test provides a means of determining the effect of the exposure. 1.3 Th...

  13. Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Modular Solar Trigeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of solar thermal power (STP system, a novel modular system combining cooling, heating, and power generation (CCHP is proposed and introduced in this work. This modular CCHP system can simultaneously provide 10 kW electricity, −15~5°C coolant, and 60°C hot water to meet the requirements of cooling, heating, and electricity in a general family or other fields. The flow chart and working process of the modular system are introduced, based on which the energy and exergy efficiencies at the CCHP and STP operation modes are primarily evaluated and discussed. The results show that when the output electricity is constant, the overall efficiencies of energy and exergy of the system operating at the CCHP mode are 9.37 times and 2.62 times as big as those of the system operating at the STP mode, respectively. Thus, the modular solar thermal CCHP system can improve the energy and exergy efficiencies. Furthermore, calculation shows that both the overall energy and exergy efficiencies decrease with increase of inlet vapor temperature at given inlet vapor pressure, but both the efficiencies increase with increase of inlet vapor pressure at given inlet temperature.

  14. Evaluation of Solar Photosensitised River Water Treatment in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tota-Maharaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An economical supply of hygienic potable water is one of the most pressing public health issues facing developing countries in the Caribbean region today. This project investigates the performance of a novel solar photochemical reactor for disinfecting river water. The prototype photochemical reactor was designed, constructed, and tested for the microbiological degradation of faecal coliform present in River Water. The experiments evaluated the efficacy of two photosensitive dyes (malachite green and methylene blue as agents for detoxification with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/L. The photochemical reactor operated in a single-pass mode and compared the disinfection rates with direct photolysis. The photosensitizers showed a high efficacy rate using natural sunlight with microbial reduction ranging from 97 to 99% for concentrations as low as 0.5 mg/L of dye. The sensitizers were found to be photobleaching and were very effective at lower concentrations (0.01. Post-solar disinfection included the use of a coconut fiber filter which polished the water removing residual dye concentrations and bacterial contaminants.

  15. Evaluation of solar thermal storage for base load electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adinberg R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to stabilize solar electric power production during the day and prolong the daily operating cycle for several hours in the nighttime, solar thermal power plants have the options of using either or both solar thermal storage and fossil fuel hybridization. The share of solar energy in the annual electricity production capacity of hybrid solar-fossil power plants without energy storage is only about 20%. As it follows from the computer simulations performed for base load electricity demand, a solar annual capacity as high as 70% can be attained by use of a reasonably large thermal storage capacity of 22 full load operating hours. In this study, the overall power system performance is analyzed with emphasis on energy storage characteristics promoting a high level of sustainability for solar termal electricity production. The basic system parameters, including thermal storage capacity, solar collector size, and annual average daily discharge time, are presented and discussed.

  16. Performance evaluation of hybrid modified micro-channel solar cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Solar cell thermal tile, Micro-channel, Electrical efficiency, Thermal modeling. 1. ... performance of building integrated photovoltaic water –heating system for ... experimental study on energy generation with a photovoltaic (PV) solar ...

  17. Performance evaluation for solar liquid desiccant air dehumidification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elhelw

    2016-06-01

    In addition, the maximum solar thermal energy was determined to meet the regeneration demand according to the hourly average solar radiation data. For 220 m2 evacuated tube collector area, the maximum required heat energy is obtained as 38,286 kW h on December, while using solar energy, will save energy by 30.28% annual value.

  18. Evaluation of a solar PV tracking prototype on tropic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Manuel Agudelo Restrepo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays climate change is a big concern for human society, due to our high dependence on fossil fuels. A great amount of research effort is focused in solar photovoltaic (PV systems, particularly on the improvement of the conversion efficiency. One technique commonly used is the tracking systems, where the solar PV moves with the sun in order to capture the maximum direct solar radiation. This paper presents a solar PV single-axis tracking system prototype, and a comparison regarding its energy conversion efficiency with a fixed solar PV installation. The system was tested in Fusagasugá, Colombia, which is located in the tropics region.

  19. Emergía de tres sistemas agroforestales en el sur del municipio de Lempira, Honduras Emergy of tree agroforestry systems in southern Lempira, Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    óscar I. Ferreira C.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron el uso de recursos y la sostenibilidad de tres sistemas agroforestales (bosque secundario- BS, tala y quema-TQ y sistema conservacionista Quesungual-SAQ. Se utilizaron datos de 15 parcelas de 200 m² ubicadas entre 14° 05' N y 88° 30' W y transformicidades reportadas en otros estudios. Los mayores valores de emergía se presentaron en la variable Lluvia (1.35E15 sej/ha por año y las mayores diferencias de emergía entre sistemas se observaron en suelo erosionado, especialmente en TQ, BS y SAQ tuvieron mayor Razón de Carga Ambiental que TQ (0.63, 0.14 y 0.02, respectivamente. El sistema TQ presenta el valor más alto del índice de Huella Ecológica seguido por SAQ y BS. El índice de Sostenibilidad de Emergía del sistema TQ fue 34.8, el de SAQ = 135.6 y el de BS = 4123.8, con mayores valores de sostenibilidad en el SAQ y el BS, lo cual indica que son sistemas que favorecen el uso de recursos renovables y locales.Resource use and sustainability of three agroforestry systems (Secondary Woods - BS; Fell and Burn - TQ; and Quesungal Conservation mode - SAQ were evaluated by analyzing data from fifteen 200 m² plots (14° 05' N; 88° 30' W, making use of transformity values reported in other related studies. The highest emergy values were observed for the variable rain (1.35E15 sej/ha per year; and the largest emergy differences were found in eroded soils, especially those of TQ. BS and SAQ exhibited a greater Environmental Load Ratio than TQ (0.63, 0.14 and 0.02, respectively. TQ showed the largest Ecological Footprint Index value, followed by SAQ and BS. Emergy Sustainability Index for TQ was 34.8, whereas SAQ and BS reached respective values of 135.6 and 4,123.8. The latter two data, as compared to the former, reveal how these systems (SAQ and BS favor the use of local renewable resources.

  20. Comparative Analysis for the Urban Metabolic Differences of Two Types of Cities in the Resource-Dependent Region Based on Emergy Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban metabolism analysis has become a useful and effective tool to explore urban socio-economic processes. In this research, in order to explore the similarities and differences of metabolic characteristics and variation rules of different types of resource-dependent cities, we selected two cities—Taiyuan and Jincheng, the capital and a traditional resource-dependent city of Shanxi province, respectively, as research subjects, we also established an urban metabolic evaluation framework by employing a set of eight emergy-based indicators from socio-economic data from 2007 to 2014, and compared the similarities and discrepancies from the perspectives of metabolic structure, intensity, pressure, and efficiency, and put forward some suggestions for pursuing sustainable development for both cities and pointed out that more types of resource-dependent cities should be incorporated in future research work.

  1. Energy Self-sufficiency from an Emergy Perspective Exemplified by a Model System of a Danish Farm Cooperative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Markussen, Mads Ville

    2010-01-01

    Danish organic farm cooperative with a small biogas plant shared between five farms. We model the energy, matter and emergy flows in a crop rotation scenario developed by the Danish organic farmers association including grass-clover lays, cereals, oilseed rape and legumes; also we consider the emergy......Contemporary food production is highly dependent on fossil fuel for production of fertilizer and as diesel for field operations. One way to enhance agricultural resilience is to increase self-sufficiency at the farm level with necessities such as energy, food, fodder, nutrients and seed. It is even...

  2. Evaluation of solar thermal storages with quantitative flow visualisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logie, W.; Frank, E.; Luzzi, A.

    2008-07-15

    The non-intrusive Quantitative Flow Visualisation (QFV) Techniques of Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) have been evaluated in the context of experimental investigations on solar Thermal Energy Storages (TES). Much competence and experience has been gained in the integration of these powerful yet complex and time consuming flow analysis methods into the realm of laboratory experimentation. In addition to gathering experience in the application of QFV techniques, a number of charging and discharging variations were considered in light of exergetic evaluation for the influence they have on the ability of a TES to stratify. The contemporary awareness that poorly chosen pitch to diameter ratios by the design of immersed coil heat exchangers leads to a reduction in heat exchange and an increase in mixing phenomenon has been confirmed. The observation of two combitank (combined domestic hot water and space heating) configurations has shown that free convective heat transfer forces in the form of mixing energy play a significant role in the stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages. (author)

  3. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California solar energy system performance evaluation, July 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory site is an office building in California with an active solar energy system designed to supply from 23 to 33% of the space heating load and part of the hot water load. The solar heating system is equipped with 1428 square feet of flat-plate collectors, a 2000-gallon water storage tank, and two gas-fired boilers to supply auxiliary heat for both space heating and domestic hot water. Poor performance is reported, with the solar fraction being only 4%. Also given are the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and the coefficient of performance. The performance data are given for the collector, storage, solar water heating and solar space heating subsystems as well as the total system. Typical system operation and solar energy utilization are briefly described. The system design, performance evaluation techniques, weather data, and sensor technology are presented. (LEW)

  4. performance evaluation of a pebble bed solar crop dryer abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    build up on the open air sun dried products. This indicates that drying under solar crop dryer offers high quality products and is time saving than the open-air sun drying. Keywords: pebble bed, solar, storage, crop dryer. 1.0 Introduction. Food drying is a major processing activity, which involves dehydration of moisture.

  5. Evaluation of the photochemical production of hydrogen from solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppert, J. A.

    1977-08-09

    The potential for utilizing solar energy through photochemical storage were investigated. Both water and nitrosyl chloride systems are examined. A comprehensive review of the literature led to the conclusion that many major questions must be answered before photochemical energy storage becomes a viable alternate means of exploiting solar energy.

  6. Evaluating solar radiation on a tilted surfaces - a study case in Timis (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasar, C.; Prostean, O.; Prostean, G.

    2016-02-01

    In the last years the usage of solar energy has grown considerably in Romania, as well as in Europe, stimulated by various factors as government programs, green pricing policies, decreasing of photovoltaic components cost etc. Also, the rising demand of using Solar Energy Conversion Systems (SECS) is driven by the desire of individuals or companies to obtain energy from a clean renewable source. In many applications, remote consumers far from other energetic grids can use solar systems more cost-effectively than extending the grid to reach the location. Usually the solar energy is measured or forecast on horizontal surface, but in SECS there is needed the total solar radiation incident on the collector surface, that is oriented in a position that maximize the harvested energy. There are many models that convert the solar radiation from horizontal surface to a tilted surface, but they use empirical coefficients and the accuracy is influenced by different facts as geographical location or sky conditions. Such models were used considering measured values for solar radiation on horizontal plane, in the western part of Romania. Hourly values measured for global solar irradiation on the horizontal plane, diffuse solar irradiation on the horizontal plane and reflected solar irradiation by ground are used to compute the total solar radiation incident on different tilted surfaces. The calculated incident radiation is then compared with the real radiation measured on tilted surface in order to evaluate the performance of the considered conversion models.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of thin-film solar cells using solar cell local characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J.-M.; Carstensen, J.; Schütt, A.; Föll, H.

    2013-02-01

    The light-beam-induced current-based CELLO measurement technique (solar CELl LOcal characterization), originally developed for wafer-based silicon solar cells, can successfully be applied to thin-film solar cells, provided that contacting of a single cell is possible. This is shown exemplarily for several crystalline silicon on glass samples, having varying quality with respect to photocurrent extraction, series resistance, and power losses. For the latter, a comparison with results obtained from dark lock-in thermography gives quantitative agreement, provided that the cells are not severely shunted.

  8. Evaluation of Glare at the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sims, Cianan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian, Joshua Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), located on I - 15 about 40 miles (60 km) south of Las Vegas, NV, consists of three power towers 459 ft (140 m) tall and over 170,000 reflective heliostats with a rated capacity of 390 MW. Reports of glare from the plant have been submitted by pilots and air traffic controllers and recorded by the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the California Energy Commission since 2013. Aerial and ground - based surveys of the glare were conducted in April, 2014, to identify the cause and to quantify the irradiance and potential ocular impact s of the glare . Results showed that the intense glare viewed from the airspace above ISEGS was caused by he liostats in standby mode that were aimed to the side of the receiver. Evaluation of the glare showed that the retinal irradiance and subtended source angle of the glare from the heliostats in standby were sufficient to cause significant ocular impact (pot ential for after - image) up to a distance of %7E6 miles (10 km), but the values were below the threshold for permanent eye damage . Glare from the receivers had a low potential for after - image at all ground - based monitoring locations outside of the site bound aries. A Letter to Airmen has been issued by the Federal Aviation Administration to notify pilots of the potential glare hazards. Additional measures to mitigate the potential impacts of glare from ISGES are also presented and discussed. This page intentionally left blank

  9. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR GREENHOUSE DRYER FOR DRYING HERBALS

    OpenAIRE

    *Rajesh. K , Dr. K. Karuppasamy

    2016-01-01

    A solar greenhouse dryer is specially designed for drying herbals. The designed system is efficient because, the energy is trapped in greenhouse system thus maintains high temperature and leads to drying of herbals in an efficient and quickly manner. The theoretical calculations of greenhouse solar dryer is calculated by using various parameters such as solar intensity, mass flow rate, slope angle of the dryer for two different areas (CASE-I 2m² and CASE-II 0.5m²) of greenhouse dryer. And sug...

  10. New model to estimate and evaluate the solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. El Mghouchi

    2014-12-01

    The results indicate that the proposed model can be successfully used to estimate the solar radiation during all the seasons of year for studied position and for considered day, using as input the altitude (degrees, longitude (degrees and latitude (m.

  11. Evaluation of the operation efficiency of solar panels in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakova, A. D.; Burakova, L. N.; Anisimov, I. A.; Burakova, O. D.

    2017-06-01

    The article deals with the issue of increasing the comfort and safety of life in cities by applying an alternative energy source for power supply of transport infrastructure facilities. Due to the peculiarity of the Russian Federation territory location, most cities are characterized by a long winter period, which makes it necessary to consider the features of using solar panels under these conditions. It has been established that the efficiency of solar panels depends on their type and location, the presence of snow cover on their surface, and the ambient air temperature. It has been revealed that flexible solar panels have some advantages that determine their ability to be used for power supply of transport infrastructure facilities. In the paper, the optimum angle of inclination of rigid solar panels in the winter period of the year is determined.

  12. Numerical evaluation of the Kalina cycle for concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish

    of using a Kalina cycle is evaluated with a thermoeconomic optimization with a turbine inlet temperature of 500 C for a central receiver solar power plant with direct vapour generation, and 370 C for a parabolic trough solar power plant with Therminol VP-1 as the solar field heat transfer fluid. No thermal...... a higher specific capital investment cost and a higher levelized cost of electricity than the state-of-the-art steam Rankine cycle for both the central receiver and the parabolic trough plants. This is mainly because of worse power cycle design point efficiency than the corresponding steam Rankine cycle......Concentrating solar power plants use a number of reflecting mirrors to focus and convert the incident solar energy to heat, and a power cycle to convert this heat into electricity. One of the key challenges currently faced by the solar industry is the high cost of electricity production...

  13. Evaluation of Shunt Losses in Industrial Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Somasundaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shunting is one of the key issues in industrial silicon solar cells which degrade cell performance. This paper presents an approach for investigation of the performance degradation caused by the presence of ohmic extended shunts at various locations in industrial silicon solar cells. Location, nature, and area of the shunts existing in solar cells have been examined by lock-in infrared thermography (LIT. Based on LIT images and experimental dark I-V curves of solar cell, shunted cell has been modeled, from which loss in fill factor and efficiency due to the specific shunt has been obtained. Distributed diode modeling approach of solar cell has been exploited for obtaining simulation results which were supported by experimental measurements. The presented approach is useful to estimate performance reduction due to specific shunts and to quantify losses, which can help in improving the efficiency of solar cell during production by tackling the shunt related problems based on the level of severity and tolerance.

  14. Performance evaluation of low cost domestic parabolic solar cooker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandale, M.S. [Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Technological Univ., Lonere (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Khandekar, T.N. [Rizvi College of Engineering, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    India's domestic sector is one of the largest consumers of primary energy, with 90 per cent of household energy attributed to cooking. The demand for cooking energy is increasing annually at a rate of 8.1 per cent. In the residential sector, 75 per cent of energy requirements are met by fuel wood and agricultural waste, while the rest is met by kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas. Solar energy is regarded as a clean and safe source of energy to substitute for conventional fuels. This paper presented historical background on the solar cooker, with particular reference to the development of a low-cost domestic parabolic type solar cooker. The cooker has an aperture area of 1.5 m{sup 2} and provides an adequate temperature for cooking or frying for a family of 3 to 4 persons. The performance of the cooker was tested using international testing standards. The maximum efficiency of the solar cooker was found to be 13.76 per cent. The assembly and disassembly times was 30 to 40 minutes. It was determined that the competitive price of this portable, parabolic solar cooker encourages the substitution of solar energy for conventional energy and can improve the quality of life. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Evaluating the spatial and temporal solar energy potential in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Si-Young; Park, Jin-Ki; Park, Jong-Hwa

    2012-11-01

    Recent issues of climate changes and natural disasters have brought many changes in world energy utilization. Especially due to the Japan's earthquake and tsunami, potential of nuclear power have made negative. And thus many countries are looking for a new renewable energy that can replace. Of which solar energy has emerged as a useful alternative. Under these circumstances, it is highly desirable that detailed information about the availability of solar radiation on the surface is essential for the optimum design and study of solar energy systems. And its components at a given location are very essential. Hence the solar radiation data is one of the key parameters required to be monitored at any meteorological station. But solar radiation measurements are not easily available due to the cost and maintenance requirements of the measuring equipment. Therefore, solar resource modeling or mapping is one of the essential tools for proper design, planning, maintenance and pricing of solar energy system. In this study, the feasibility of a regression model using image fusion for the prediction of solar energy potential in Republic of Korea was investigated. Meteorological and geographical data of 22 cities in South Korea for period of 10 years (2001-2011) were used. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, sunshine duration, temperature, and relative humidity) were used as inputs to the model, while the regional solar radiation was used as the output of the model. The model for evaluating the spatial and temporal solar radiation was executed for South Korea. The annual mean solar radiation estimates in South Korea vary from a minimum of 5.48 MJ/m2/day to a maximum of 19.51 MJ/m2/day. Our proposed annual mean solar radiation is 13.5 MJ/m2/day. These compare favorably with the observed data as expected. This study has shown that a simple method can accurately predict solar radiation potential in South Korea.

  16. Evaluating the enablers in solar power developments in the current scenario using fuzzy DEMATEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan; Kharb, Ravinder K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining solar power initiatives and developments for a country as large as India is difficult due to the involvement of different enablers. The decisions of these enablers will influence the formulation of strategies to encourage solar power development in India. The present research work...... critically analyzes Indian solar power developments to recognize and to evaluate key enablers that will encourage greater usage in Indias current scenario. A literature review that explores the Indian solar power sector is included, with a focus on need potential, and an examination of the key enablers...... is useful in dealing with the inherent ambiguity involved in studying interrelationships among the evaluated enablers. Research findings suggest that Initiatives taken at the state level (E7) and Power sector reforms (E12) have significant influence in adopting and encouraging Indias solar power development...

  17. Solar production of industrial-process hot water. Phase 3: Operation and evaluation of the York Building Products Co., Inc. solar facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, J. M.; Kaplan, N.; Wilkening, H. A., Jr.

    1981-10-01

    A solar heating system to provide hot water for curing concrete blocks is discussed. The objective is to operate, collect data, and evaluate the solar system for a 3 year period. The solar facility utilizes 35 collectors. The system is designed to deliver a water/ethylene glycol solution at 2000 F to a heat exchanger, which, in turn, supplies water at 1800 F to a rotorclave (underground tank) for the concrete block curing process. A fossil fuel boiler system also supplies the rotorclave with processed hot water to supplement the solar system. The program demonstrates the technical feasibility of generating industrial process hot water with solar energy.

  18. Evaluation of hybrid solar – biomass dryer with no load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassen Tadahmun Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study was carried out to investigate the performance of designed and fabricated hybrid solar-biomass dryer without load. The solar side was a natural convection mixed mode, while the biomass side was a hot air produced from a burner/gas to gas heat exchanger. The experiments have been conducted to test the dryer temperature, inlet and outlet relative humidity, outlet velocity, and biomass feeding rate. In the solar mode the maximum dryer temperature was 63°C. Behaviours of the velocity in the dryer was found to follow solar radiation available to the dryer. The velocity was in the range of 0.6 – 1.35 m/s through the 0.0176 m2 area of the outlet when the solar radiation was in the range of 150 – 880 W/m2. Two feeding rates of wood were used to investigate the dryer performance through the night. The results showed that at feeding rate 278 g/hr, the drying air mean temperature was 62 ºC. This temperature was more suitable than the measured drying air temperature at feeding rate 490 g/hr. Also the 62 °C drying environment is more stable and feasible for drying almost all types of products.

  19. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  20. A figure of merit to evaluate transparent conductor oxides for solar cells using photonic flux density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez-Gamboa, J.A., E-mail: jmendez@uady.mx [Engineering School, University of Yucatan, AP 150 Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Castro-Rodriguez, R. [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-IPN Mérida, C.P. 97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Perez-Quintana, I.V.; Medina-Esquivel, R.A.; Martel-Arbelo, A. [Engineering School, University of Yucatan, AP 150 Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2016-01-29

    We report an alternative method to evaluate transparent conductor oxides (TCO) from their photonic flux density (PFD(hυ)) to be used in solar cells. From the transmittance spectrum (T(hυ)) in the visible region, we calculate the PFD(hυ) and the solar photon flux-weighted transmittance (T{sub SW}) of one specific TCO with potential application in solar cells. The photo-current density (J{sub PH}) in mA/cm{sup 2} of one specific TCO when exposed to white light is evaluated when PFD(hυ) is integrated over the whole solar electromagnetic spectrum. Finally, we define a figure of merit as J{sub PH} over the TCO film sheet resistance to find the best equilibrium between the transmission and its electrical resistance. To carry out this work, a bibliographical search of investigations about development of TCOs was extensively made to evaluate its T(hυ), T{sub SW,} PFD(hυ), J{sub PH} and the figure of merit that we propose. From our results, we consider that the proposed method is a good tool for a fine comparison of transparent conductive films in solar cell development. - Highlights: • A figure of merit is presented for the evaluation of TCO used in solar cells. • It is defined as the ratio of photo-current density over TCO sheet resistance. • It is a tool for a fine comparison of TCO films in solar cell development.

  1. Performance evaluation of solar box cooker assisted with latent heat energy storage system for cooking application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneswaran, V. S.; Kumaresan, G.; Sudhakar, P.; Santosh, R.

    2017-05-01

    Solar cooking is one of the most promising techniques to meet the cooking needs in remote areas where electricity and fuel supplies are meager. Solar box cooker is an efficient device used in solar cooking as it is simple to fabricate, easy to operate and hazard-free. In this context, the performance evaluation of a solar box cooker with varied number of reflectors has been undertaken. It was found that the time consumed for cooking in a box type solar cooker with four reflectors is lesser compared to that of a single reflector and its overall utilization efficiency increases with increase in the cooking mass. Further, a latent heat energy storage system was designed and fabricated to cook the food at off-peak hours of solar radiation. This latent heat energy storage system was combined with the solar box cooker. Oxalic acid dihydrate was used as the phase change material due to its high specific enthalpy and its melting point lying close to the cooking temperature. It was found that the solar box cooker with phase change material could be effectively utilized to cook food during off-peak hours of solar radiation.

  2. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  3. High Performance Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collector Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbaugh, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lovullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lisell, Lars [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barker, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hanckock, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report was prepared for the General Services Administration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Honeycomb Solar Thermal Collector (HSTC) is a flat plate solar thermal collector that shows promising high efficiencies over a wide range of climate zones. The technical objectives of this study are to: 1) verify collector performance, 2) compare that performance to other market-available collectors, 3) verify overheat protection, and 4) analyze the economic performance of the HSTC both at the demonstration sites and across a matrix of climate zones and utility markets.

  4. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 4. Appendices. Final report. [Solar Total Energy System Evaluation Program (STESEP) code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    A methodology has been developed by Atomics International under contract to the Department of Energy to define the applicability of solar total energy systems (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., retail stores, shopping centers, offices, etc.) in the United States. Candidate STES concepts were selected to provide on-site power generation capability, as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. Each concept was evaluated on the basis of its cost effectiveness (i.e., as compared to other concepts) and its ability to ultimately penetrate and capture a significant segment of this market, thereby resulting in a saving of fossil fuel resources. This volume contains the appendices. Topics include deterministic insolation model computer code; building energy usage data; computer simulation programs for building energy demand analysis; model buildings for STES evaluation; Solar Total Energy System Evaluation Program (STESEP) computer code; transient simulation of STES concept; solar data tape analysis; program listings and sample output for use with TRNSYS; transient simulation, and financial parameters sensitivities. (WHK)

  5. Evaluation of Sources of Uncertainties in Solar Resource Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-25

    This poster presents a high-level overview of sources of uncertainties in solar resource measurement, demonstrating the impact of various sources of uncertainties -- such as cosine response, thermal offset, spectral response, and others -- on the accuracy of data from several radiometers. The study provides insight on how to reduce the impact of some of the sources of uncertainties.

  6. evaluation of a modified passive solar housing system for poultry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    lector and storage media of the heat energy from the sun. The fibre glass serves as a cover material to the collector. The description of the passive solar poultry chick brooder. The poultry brooding house by Ahiaba (2009). Nwakonobi et al. 51 consists of rectangular shape clay brick ma- sonry wall with internal dimension ...

  7. Evaluation of the effects of solar radiation on glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Four optical materials were exposed to simulated solar and particulate radiation in a space environment. Sapphire and fused silica experienced little change in transmittance while optical crown glass and ultra low expansion glass darkened appreciably. A complete analysis of the 500 hour simulated space exposure test was conducted. Additionally, studies were performed to aid in sample selection for a 100 hour simulated exposure test.

  8. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The appendices present the following: A) Cad-drawing of the Marstal CSHP design. B) Key values - large-scale solar heating in Denmark. C) Monitoring - a system description. D) WMO-classification of pyranometers (solarimeters). E) The computer simulation model in TRNSYS. F) Selected papers from the author. (EHS)

  9. Evaluation of an evacuated-tube liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor thermal performances of collectors are compared in report. Tests conducted on indoor solar simulator with data from both diffuse and specular reflectors are presented graphically and in tables. Comparisons with previous data for prototype show effects of improved mainfold.

  10. Evacuated-tube solar collector--performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report gives thermal performance test procedures and results for commercially produced, water-filled, 8-tube collectors. Tests include efficiency, time constant for temperature drop after solar flux is cut, change in efficiency as function of sun angle, and test to see if tubes break when filled with hot water.

  11. Evaluating the fisheries potential of solar salt works reservoirs at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artisanal fisheries are important livelihoods for coastal communities in many developing countries, where uncontrolled fishing can easily lead to depleted stocks in nearshore waters. Man-made reservoirs associated with solar salt works along the coast of Ungwana Bay provide alternative fishing grounds for local fishers ...

  12. Thermal performance evaluation of the Suncatcher SH-11 (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Solar Unlimited, Inc., Suncatcher SH-11 (liquid) solar collector are presented. The flat-plate collector case assembly is made of .08 inch aluminum 3003 H14 riveted with fiberglass board insulation. The absorber consists of collared aluminum fins mechanically bonded to 3/8 inch copper tubing and coated with 3M Nextel black. Water is used as the working fluid. The glazing is made of a single glass, 1/8 inch water white, tempered and antireflective. The collector weight is 85 pounds with overall external dimensions of about 35.4 in x 82.0 in x 4.0 in. Thermal performance data on the Solar Unlimited Suncatcher SH-11 solar collector under simulated conditions were conducted using the MSFC Solar Simulator.

  13. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  14. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Cathedral Square, Burlington, Vermont, July-December 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, K.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Cathedral Square solar site is a 10-story multiunit apartment building in Vermont. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 51% of the hot water load, and consists of 1798 square feet of flat plate collectors, 2699-gallon water tank in an enclosed mechanical room on the roof, and two auxiliary natural gas boilers to supply hot water to immersed heat exchanger in an auxiliary storage tank. The measured solar fraction was only 28%, not 51%, which, it is concluded, is an unreasonable expectation. Other performance data include the solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Monthly performance data are given for the solar system overall, and for the collector, storage, and hot water subsystems. Also included are insolation data, typical storage fluid temperatures, domestic hot water consumption, and solar heat exchangers inlet/outlet temperatures, and typical domestic hot water subsystem temperatures. In addition, the system operating sequence and solar energy utilization are given. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques, long-term weather data. (LEW)

  15. EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGETICS ON THE BASIS OF ACCURATE GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aculinin A.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Expected quantity of a solar energy received by solar panel is estimated on the basis of accurate measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev. Optimal orientation of solar panels and apparent volume of the electric power generated by solar panels are determined.

  16. EVALUATION OF OPPORTUNITIES OF SOLAR ENERGETICS ON THE BASIS OF ACCURATE GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR RADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Aculinin A.; Smikov V.

    2008-01-01

    Expected quantity of a solar energy received by solar panel is estimated on the basis of accurate measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev. Optimal orientation of solar panels and apparent volume of the electric power generated by solar panels are determined.

  17. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoying; Chen, Wei; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhao, Sainan

    2015-12-04

    Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors' tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector (NDASC) employing uncoated collector tubes has been proposed, and its operating characteristics for medium-temperature solar collection were theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. CuO/oil nanofluid was prepared and used as working fluid of the NDASC. The heat-transfer mechanism of the NDASC with parabolic trough concentrator was theoretically evaluated and compared with a conventional indirect absorption solar collector (IASC). The theoretical analysis results suggested that the fluid's temperature distribution in the NDASC was much more uniform than that in the IASC, and an enhanced collection efficiency could be achieved for the NDASC operated within a preferred working temperature range. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed NDASC, experimental performances of an NDASC and an IASC with the same parabolic trough concentrator were furthermore evaluated and comparatively discussed.

  18. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoying Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors’ tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector (NDASC employing uncoated collector tubes has been proposed, and its operating characteristics for medium-temperature solar collection were theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. CuO/oil nanofluid was prepared and used as working fluid of the NDASC. The heat-transfer mechanism of the NDASC with parabolic trough concentrator was theoretically evaluated and compared with a conventional indirect absorption solar collector (IASC. The theoretical analysis results suggested that the fluid’s temperature distribution in the NDASC was much more uniform than that in the IASC, and an enhanced collection efficiency could be achieved for the NDASC operated within a preferred working temperature range. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed NDASC, experimental performances of an NDASC and an IASC with the same parabolic trough concentrator were furthermore evaluated and comparatively discussed.

  19. Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of seven Elcam fin-tube solar collector configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted to obtain thermal performance data on seven Elcam fin-tube solar collector configurations under simulated conditions are described. These tests were made using the Marshall Space Flight Center solar facilities. The Elcam fin-tube (liquid) solar collectors each consist of an absorber plate 5.9 inches wide by 83 inches long and a type M copper tube of 0.569 inch nominal inside diameter. No cover plate was used with any of the specimens. The uniqueness of each of the seven configurations is described, and tests were performed on each separate configuration.

  20. Thermoeconomic Evaluation of Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems (ISCCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three alternatives for integrating a solar field with the bottoming cycle of a combined cycle plant are modeled: parabolic troughs with oil at intermediate and low cycle pressures and Fresnel linear collectors at low cycle pressure. It is assumed that the plant will always operate at nominal conditions, using post-combustion during the hours of no solar resource. A thermoeconomic study of the operation of the plant throughout a year has been carried out. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant working in fuel only and hybrid modes are compared. The energy efficiencies obtained are very similar; slightly better for the fuel only mode. The exergy efficiencies are slightly better for hybrid operation than for fuel-only mode, due to the high exergy destruction associated with post-combustion. The values for solar electric efficiency are in line with those of similar studies. The economic study shows that the Fresnel hybridization alternative offers similar performance to the others at a significantly lower cost.

  1. Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

    1999-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

  2. Macroalgae - an environmental problem or a resource from an eMergy perspective?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Østergård, Hanne; Bastianoni, Simone

    Eutrophication is an environmental problem in a majority of shallow water basins all over the world. The flow of nutrients into the water basin leads to an undesired flowering of macroalgae and their decomposition decreases dissolved oxygen which hampers heterothrophic organisms from breathing....... Could the macroalgae biomass be harvested and used for biofuels in a sustainable way? Two case studies are analyzed: Orbetello Lagoon, Italy, and Køge bay, Denmark. Today, macroalgae are collected and stored in landfills to limit the problem. This study models a scenario where the macroalgae are used...... systems the collected algae represent the main emergy contribution. However, also the modeled biorefinery is a critical part since it consumes significant amounts of non-renewable resources. In conclusion, at present macroalgae provide environmental problems but in future they may be used as a resource...

  3. A Systematic Approach to Explorative Scenario Analysis in Emergy Assessment with Emphasis on Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Fossil energy depletion (specifically peak oil) and climate change are imagined to profoundly affect human civilisation. This motivates assessment of resilience, a concept associated with the ability to persist and maintain function. Explorative scenarios may be used to cast light on what...... the future may bring. We develop a systematic approach to explorative scenario analysis and attempt to quantify aspects of resilience specifically for emergy assessment (EmA) of production systems. We group system inputs into five categories: (1) fossil fuels, their derivatives, metals and minerals, (2) on....... A comparison of two specific production systems showed that different expectations of the future lead to contrasting conclusions regarding prioritisation. We use the insight gained in the study to suggest venues for sustainable development under changing societal conditions....

  4. An assessment of emergy, energy, and cost-benefits of grain production over 6 years following a biochar amendment in a rice paddy from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Ji, Chunying; Yue, Qian; Bian, Rongjun; Pan, Genxing

    2018-01-24

    Biochar soil amendment had been increasingly advocated for improving crop productivity and reducing carbon footprint in agriculture worldwide. However, the long-term benefits of biochar application with farming systems had not been thoroughly understood. This study quantified and assessed emergy, energy, and economic benefits of rice and wheat production throughout 6 rotation years following a single biochar amendment in a rice paddy from Southeastern China. Using the data from farm inventory, the quantified emergy indices included grain outputs, unit emergy value, and relative percentage of free renewable resources, environmental loading ratio, emergy yield ratio, and emergy sustainability index (ESI). The results indicated contrasting differences in these emergy values between biochar-amended and unamended production systems over the 6 years. The overall emergy efficiency of rice and wheat productions in biochar-amended system were higher by 11-28 and 15-47%, respectively, than that of unamended one of which the production being highly resource intensive. Moreover, ESI on average was 0.46 for rice and 0.63 for wheat in amended system, compared to 0.35 for rice and 0.39 for wheat in unamended one. Furthermore, over the 6 years following a single application, the ESI values showed considerable variation in the unamended system but consistently increasing in the amended system. Again, the biochar-amended system exerted significantly higher energy and economic return than the unamended one. Nonetheless, there was a tradeoff between rice and wheat in grain yield and net economic gain. Overall, biochar amendment could be a viable measure to improve the resilience of grain production while to reduce resource intensity and environment impacts in paddy soil from China.

  5. Final report : testing and evaluation for solar hot water reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); He, Hongbo (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Menicucci, David F. (Building Specialists, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Mammoli, Andrea A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Burch, Jay (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO)

    2011-07-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems are being installed by the thousands. Tax credits and utility rebate programs are spurring this burgeoning market. However, the reliability of these systems is virtually unknown. Recent work by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has shown that few data exist to quantify the mean time to failure of these systems. However, there is keen interest in developing new techniques to measure SHW reliability, particularly among utilities that use ratepayer money to pay the rebates. This document reports on an effort to develop and test new, simplified techniques to directly measure the state of health of fielded SHW systems. One approach was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and is based on the idea that the performance of the solar storage tank can reliably indicate the operational status of the SHW systems. Another approach, developed by the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses adaptive resonance theory, a type of neural network, to detect and predict failures. This method uses the same sensors that are normally used to control the SHW system. The NREL method uses two additional temperature sensors on the solar tank. The theories, development, application, and testing of both methods are described in the report. Testing was performed on the SHW Reliability Testbed at UNM, a highly instrumented SHW system developed jointly by SNL and UNM. The two methods were tested against a number of simulated failures. The results show that both methods show promise for inclusion in conventional SHW controllers, giving them advanced capability in detecting and predicting component failures.

  6. Performance Evaluation Of A Grain Maize Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osondu L. C.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drying under direct sunlight is one of the oldest techniques used by mankind to preserve Agriculture based food and non-food products. This paper focused on the use of solar dryer to reduce the moisture content of Agriculture produce such as maize. The experiment performed showed the moisture content of maize reduced from 20 to 13. It was also observed that the temperature increased with time. The assumed maximum temperature of the collector plate in the experiment was 100.

  7. Application of solar energy to industrial drying of soybeans: Phase III, performance evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, B.R.

    1979-10-31

    A 15-month performance evaluation was conducted on a solar system designed and constructed to augment the industrial drying of soybeans at the Gold Kist, Inc., extraction plant in Decatur, Alabama. The plant employs three oil-fired, continuous-flow dryers of 3,000 bu/hr each. The solar system consists of 672 Solaron air collectors that temper the airflow into the existing dryers. Since the requirement for energy exceeds the peak solar system capacity, no storage is provided. The interface with the existing facility is simply accomplished by three ducts that release the solar heated air directly adjacent to the dryer air intakes, and no mechanical coupling is needed. The solar system was operated for 1,752 hr on 290 days during the 15-month period without a single failure sufficient to cause shutdown. No interference with normal plant operations was experienced. Maintenance of the solar system, consisting of service to the air handling unit, cleaning of collector glazing, and minor duct repair, totaled $1,564. System utilization was only 46.3%. This was primarily due to daytime routine maintenance performed on the conventional drying and processing equipment. The solar fraction was not large enough to justify maintenance shift changes. An average collector efficiency of 26.2% was experienced. Contamination caused by the local plant environment reduced the average collector efficiency by 9.3 percentage points. A prototype of an automatic cleaning system was constructed and tested.

  8. Power Systems Evaluated for Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Gefert, Leon P.

    2000-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission architectures are applicable to a wide range NASA missions including the robotic exploration of the outer planets in the next decade and the human exploration of Mars within the next 2 decades. SEP enables architectures that are very mass efficient with reasonable power levels (1-MW class) aerobrake and cryogenic upper-stage transportation technologies are utilized. In this architecture, the efficient SEP stage transfers the payload from low Earth orbit (LEO) High Energy Elliptical Parking Orbit (HEEPO) within a period of 6 to 12 months. highthrust, cryogenic upper stage and payload then separate from the SEP vehicle for injection to the planetary target, allowing for fast heliocentric trip times. This mission architecture offers a potential reduction in mass to LEO in comparison to alternative all-chemical nuclear propulsion schemes. Mass reductions may allow launch vehicle downsizing enable missions that would have been grounded because of cost constraints. The preceding figure illustrates a conceptual SEP stage design for a human Mars mission. Researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed conceptual SEP vehicle, conceived the mission architecture to use this vehicle, and analyzed the vehicle s performance. This SEP stage has a dry mass of 35 metric tons (MT), 40 MT of xenon propellant, and a photovoltaic array that spans 110 m, providing power to a cluster of eight 100-kW Hall thrusters. The stage can transfer an 80-MT payload and upper stage to the desired HEEPO. Preliminary packaging studies show this space-station-class SEP vehicle meets the proposed "Magnum" launch vehicle and volume requirements with considerable margin. An SEP vehicle for outer planetary missions, such as the Europa Mapper Mission, would be dramatically smaller than human Mars mission SEP stage. In this mission architecture, the SEP power system with the payload to provide spacecraft power throughout the mission. Several

  9. Spearfish High School, Sparfish, South Dakota solar energy system performance evaluation, September 1980-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Spearfish High School in South Dakota contains 43,000 square feet of conditioned space. Its active solar energy system is designed to supply 57% of the space heating and 50% of the hot water demand. The system is equipped with 8034 square feet of flat plate collectors, 4017 cubic feet of rock bin sensible heat storage, and auxiliary equipment including 8 heat pumps, 6 of which are solar supplied and instrumented, air conditioning units, and natural-gas-fired boilers. Performance data are given for the system including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor and solar system coefficient of performance. Insolation, solar energy utilization and operation data are also given. The performance of the collector, storage, domestic hot water and space heating subsystems, the operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are also evaluated. Appended are a system description, performance evaluation techniques and equations, site history, long-term weather data, sensor technology, and typical monthly data. (LEW)

  10. Performance evaluation of polycrystalline solar photovoltaic module in weather conditions of Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mustapha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many Solar PV modules exhibit significant loss in their expected performance due to variations in weather conditions such as ambient temperature and solar irradiance which result in inaccurate prediction of the module performance in the field. Obviously, the Standard Test Conditions (STC and the Nominal Operating Cell Temperatures (NOCT do not represent real operating conditions of PV module at the site of installation. This paper evaluates the performance of commercially used polycrystalline solar photovoltaic module KD 315 under Maiduguri-Nigeria weather conditions. The model of the PV module was implemented using a MATLAB program and the model parameters are evaluated using daily data of temperature and solar irradiance obtained from Maiduguri for a period of one year. Simulation results confirm that current generated is directly proportional to solar irradiance and is almost independent of temperature. The voltage of the module decreases by about 0.5% per degree centigrade temperature increase. It was found that the power produced by the panel is dependent on the solar irradiance and ambient temperature. The manufacturer’s maximum power of 315 W was achieved during the sunniest month. Thus the photovoltaic module exhibited good performance in the region under study.

  11. Solar photovoltaic. Competitiveness and economic evaluation. Comparative and models; Energia solar fotovoltaica. Competitividad y evaluacion economica. comparativa y modelos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado Fernandez, E.; Colmenar Santos, A.; Peire Arroba, J.; Carpio Ibanez, J.; Castro Gil, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    Limits have been evaluated in the medium and long term economic competitiveness of solar photovoltaic energy in general and Spain in particular, considering the level of evolution that must have this form of energy production, until it become cevitamin with the other traditional energy sources and other emerging growth. to conduct the study, has developed a scenario-based methodology photovoltaic, which has taken account of the Spanish state regulation because it is vital operation on the road to real competitiveness relative to other types of energy. (Author) 10 refs.

  12. A numerical model to evaluate the flow distribution in a large solar collector field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bava, Federico; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a numerical model to evaluate the flow distribution in a large solar collector field, with solar collectors connected both in series and in parallel. The boundary conditions of the systems, such as flow rate, temperature, fluid type and layout of the collector field can...... be easily changed in the model. The model was developed in Matlab and the calculated pressure drop and flow distribution were compared with measurements from a solar collector field. A good agreement between model and measurements was found. The model was then used to study the flow distribution...... in different conditions. Balancing valves proved to be an effective way to achieve uniform flow distribution also in conditions different from those for which the valves were regulated. For small solar collector fields with limited number of collector rows connected in parallel, balancing valves...

  13. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  14. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for IBM System 1B, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A hot solar heating and hot water system's operational performance from April 1979 through March 1980 is evaluated. The space heating and hot water loads were near expected values for the year. Solar energy provided 43 percent of the space heating and 53 percent of the hot water energy. The system did not meet the total system solar fraction design value of 69 percent because of a combination of higher estimated space heating load than was actually encountered and the apportioning of solar energy between the space heating and the domestic hot water loads. System losses and high building temperatures also contributed to this deviation. Total net savings were 23.072 million BTUs. Most of the energy savings came during the winter months, but hot water savings were sufficient to justify running the system during the summer months.

  15. Evaluation and Error Analysis for a Solar thermal Receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfander, M.

    2001-07-01

    In the following study a complete balance over the REFOS receiver module, mounted on the tower power plant CESA-1 at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), is carried out. Additionally an error inspection of the various measurement techniques used in the REFOS project is made. Especially the flux measurement system Prohermes that is used to determine the total entry power of the receiver module and known as a major error source is analysed in detail. Simulations and experiments on the particular instruments are used to determine and quantify possible error sources. After discovering the origin of the errors they are reduced and included in the error calculation. the ultimate result is presented as an overall efficiency of the receiver module in dependence on the flux density at the receiver module's entry plane and the receiver operating temperature. (Author) 26 refs.

  16. Evaluation of Surface Slope Irregularity in Linear Parabolic Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Francini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology, very simple in its application, for measuring surface irregularities of linear parabolic collectors. This technique was principally developed to be applied in cases where it is difficult to use cumbersome instruments and to facilitate logistic management. The instruments to be employed are a digital camera and a grating. If the reflector surface is defective, the image of the grating, reflected on the solar collector, appears distorted. Analyzing the reflected image, we can obtain the local slope of the defective surface. These profilometric tests are useful to identify and monitor the mirror portions under mechanical stress and to estimate the losses caused by the light rays deflected outside the absorber.

  17. Analysis of data user's needs for performance evaluation of solar heating and cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a successful data acquisition program, the information needs must be evaluated, the design and cost factors of the program must be determined, and a data management loop must be organized and operated in order to collect, process, and disseminate the needed information in useable formats. This paper describes each of these program elements in detail as an aid for the solar heating and cooling data manager and user to implement effective data acquisition and monitoring systems. Consideration is given to the development of evaluation techniques which will aid in the determination of solar energy systems performances.

  18. PKI solar thermal plant evaluation at Capitol Concrete Products, Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauger, J. S.; Borton, D. N.

    1982-07-01

    A system feasibility test to determine the technical and operational feasibility of using a solar collector to provide industrial process heat is discussed. The test is of a solar collector system in an industrial test bed plant at Capitol Concrete Products in Topeka, Kansas, with an experiment control at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque. Plant evaluation will occur during a year-long period of industrial utilization. It will include performance testing, operability testing, and system failure analysis. Performance data will be recorded by a data acquisition system. User, community, and environmental inputs will be recorded in logs, journals, and files. Plant installation, start-up, and evaluation, are anticipated for late November, 1981.

  19. Direct Heat-Flux Measurement System (MDF) for Solar central Receiver Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestrin, J.

    2001-07-01

    A direct flux measurement system, MDF, has been designed, constructed and mounted on top of the SSPS-CRS tower at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in addition to an indirect flux measurement system based on a CCD camera. It's one of the main future objectives to compare systematically both measurements of the concentrated solar power, increasing in this way the confidence in the estimate of this quantity. Today everything is prepared to perform the direct flux measurement on the aperture of solar receivers: calorimeter array, data acquisition system and software. the geometry of the receiver determines the operation and analysis procedures to obtain the indecent power onto the defined area. The study of previous experiences with direct flux measurement systems ha been useful to define a new simpler and more accurate system. A description of each component of the MDF system is included, focusing on the heat-flux sensors or calorimeters, which enables these measurements to be done in a few seconds without water-cooling. The incident solar power and the spatial flux distribution on the aperture of the volumetric receiver Hitrec II are supplied by the above-mentioned MDF system. The first results obtained during the evaluation of this solar receiver are presented including a sunrise-sunset test. All these measurements have been concentrated in one coefficient that describes the global behavior of the Solar Power Plant. (Author) 18 refs.

  20. Anti-reflective microstructure array and its performance evaluation in thin film flexible solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Zhan, Xinghua; Gao, Mengyu; Tie, Shengnian; Gao, Wei

    2017-07-01

    The anti-reflective (AR) structure greatly reduces the light reflection. When it is applied on solar cells, it enables more light to be absorbed by the cells, increasing the energy of the incident light and improving the light-to-electricity conversion efficiency. In this study, the optical properties of AR microstructures are investigated followed by the performance evaluation of solar cells. The AR microstructure is arrayed in a uniform and periodic fashion. When it is applied on PMMA, only 1.0% of the light is reflected away while 2.6% of the light is reflected on glass. The angular dependence performance is also improved with AR structure with 9.4% more light absorption, which can increase the effective energy generation duration for the solar cell. The AR structure is applied to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells by nano-imprinting technology. The solar cell with AR structure gained 8.63% more power compared to the conventional solar cells.

  1. An evaluation on the cost efficiency of wind and solar hybrid power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Hugo

    Solar energy generation is intermittent due to the limitation of night time and weather, so batteries are normally used to stabilize the solar energy output in the distributed generation system. However, batteries are still expensive and have relatively short life span. The motivation of this research is to evaluate if wind energy can be a more cost efficient solution to replace battery storage. An algorithm is created to analyze the solar irradiance, wind speed and load data from two different cities, Atlantic City and San Diego. Then find the most cost efficient renewable energy solution for each city under different renewable energy penetration level. The result shows that the wind energy is not a good substitution for battery. The solar and wind hybrid system can reach higher renewable energy penetration level, but the cost of the system and the wasted energy percentage is also extremely high. In San Diego, the integration of wind energy does not bring any economic benefit to the solar system. In Atlantic City, where the wind energy resource is abundant, adding wind turbines to the solar battery system can lower the system cost while maintaining the same level of renewable energy penetration.

  2. A model for managing and evaluating solar radiation for indoor thermal comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Gennusa, Maria; Rizzo, Gianfranco [Dipartimento di Ricerche Energetiche ed Ambientali (DREAM), Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Nucara, Antonino; Pietrafesa, Matilde [Dipartimento di Informatica, Matematica, Elettronica e Trasporti (DIMET), Universita Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, 89060 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    Thermal comfort of people occupying indoor spaces depends, to a large extent, on the direct component of solar radiation incident on the human body. In turn, even the diffuse component of the solar radiation could affect the thermal sensations of people. Despite this evidence, at the present there is a lack in the availability of simple and reliable methods capable of taking into account the influence of the solar radiation on thermal balance in the human body. In this work a comprehensive method is presented for the computation of the mean radiant temperature of people in thermal moderate indoor environments in the presence of solar radiation. The effects produced on the amount of solar radiation entering rooms in the presence of shadowing devices are also analysed. Finally, an application of the method is provided for a non-parallelepiped room equipped with a south window: results are shown in terms of the mean radiant temperature. A simple evaluation of thermal comfort conditions, referring to the present international standards, is also provided. The model can be easily linked to the computerized methods for analyzing the thermal behaviour of buildings, and is intended as a support for the thermal comfort evaluation methods. (author)

  3. Economic Evaluation of Single-Family-Residence Solar-Energy Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Long-term economic performance of a commercial solar-energy system was analyzed and used to predict economic performance at four additional sites. Analysis described in report was done to demonstrate viability of design over a broad range of environmental/economic conditions. Report contains graphs and tables that present evaluation procedure and results. Also contains appendixes that aid in understanding methods used.

  4. Evaluation of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle using dry organic working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to evaluate the performance of a solar-powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The system was evaluated in Jackson, MS, using five dry organic working fluids, R218, R227ea, R236ea, R236fa, and RC318. The purpose of this study is to investigate how hourly temperature change affects the electricity production and exergy destruction rates of the solar ORC, and to determine the effect of the working fluid on the proposed system. The system was also evaluated in Tucson, AZ, to investigate the effect of average hourly outdoor temperatures on its performance. The potential of the system to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions is also investigated. A parametric analysis to determine how temperature and pressure of the organic working fluid, the solar collector area, and the turbine efficiency affect the electricity production is performed. Results show that the ORC produces the most electricity during the middle of the day, when the temperatures are the highest and when the solar collectors have the highest efficiency. Also, R-236ea is the working fluid that shows the best performance of the evaluated fluids. An economic analysis was performed to determine the capital cost available for the proposed system.

  5. Outdoor test for thermal performance evaluation of the Owens-Illinois Sunpack SEC-601 (air) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The test procedures used and the test results obtained during the performance of an evaluation test program on the Owens-Illinois Sunpak, model SEC-601, air solar collector under natural outdoor weather conditions are presented. All testing activities were performed on a single module. The test was performed and the data evaluated as applicable to outdoor testing of solar collectors.

  6. Design, construction and evaluation of solarized airlift tubular photobioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, A.; Zubair, M.; Khan, M. B.

    2013-06-01

    An innovative photobioreactor is developed for growing algae in simulated conditions. The proposed design comprises of a continuous tubular irradiance loop and air induced liquid circulation with gas separation through air lift device. The unique features of air lift system are to ensure the shear free circulation of sensitive algal culture and induce light/dark cycles to the photosynthetic micro-organisms. The design strategy employs to model and construct a 20-liter laboratory scale unit using Boro-silicate glass tubing. The material is selected to ensure maximum photon transmission. All components of the device are designed to have flexibility to be replaced with an alternative design, providing fair chance of modification for future investigators. The principles of fluid mechanics are applied to describe geometrical attributes of the air lift system. Combination of LEDs and Florescent tube lights (Warm white) were used to illuminate the photosynthesis reaction area providing a possibility to control both illumination duration and light intensity. 200 Watt Solar PV system is designed to power up the device which included air pump (100 Watt) and illumination system (100 Watt). Algal strain Chlorella sp was inoculated in photobioreactor which was sparged with air and carbon dioxide. The growth was sustained in the batch mode with daily monitoring of temperature, pH and biomass concentration. The novel photobioreactor recorded a maximum experimental average yield of 0.65 g/l.day (11.3 g/m2.day) as compared to theoretical modeled yield of 0.82 g/l.day (14.26 g/m2.day), suggesting the device can be efficiently and cost-effectively employed in the production of algal biomass for biofuels, concomitantly mitigating CO2.

  7. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  8. Evaluation of solar-air-heating central-receiver concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, S.P.; Drost, M.K.; Williams, T.A.; Brown, D.R.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Hauser, S.G.; McLean, M.A.; Paluszek, A.M.; Young, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The potential of seven proposed air-heating central receiver concepts are evaluated based on an independent, uniform of each one's performance and cost. The concepts include: metal tubes, ceramic tubes, sodium heat pipes, ceramic matrix, ceramic domes, small particles, and volumetric heat exchange. The selection of design points considered in the analysis, the method and ground rules used in formulating the conceptual designs are discussed, and each concept design is briefly described. The method, ground rules, and models used in the performance evaluation and cost analysis and the results are presented. (LEW)

  9. Intermediate load modules for test and evaluation: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a 36 stainless steel solar module were built. The first version was built as a commercial module for marine applications and was purchased for evaluation by JPL. Design deficiencies were identified as a result of the evaluation. The second version was built and the improvements that resulted from design changes are described. Assembly problems, electrical performance, and qualification test results are provided.

  10. Baker Construction, Cincinnati, Ohio. Solar energy system performance evaluation, October 1980-May 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Baker Construction site is a single family residence in Ohio with a passive solar heating system, which consists of 302 square feet of 62 degree sloped greenhouse glazing, a 35,500-pound concrete mass wall, 10,400-pound concrete slab floor, 20 phase change storage rods, six 1-kW electric baseboard heaters, and a wood stove. A solar fraction of 55% is reported. Also the solar savings ratio and conventional fuel savings are given. The performance of the greenhouse collector subsystem, the heat storage subsystem, and the space heating subsystem are summarized as well as total system performance. Energy savings and weather data are also included. The design of the system, performance evaluation techniques, and sensor technology are also presented. (LEW)

  11. A performance evaluation of various coatings, substrate materials, and solar collector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental apparatus was constructed and utilized in conjunction with both a solar simulator and actual sunlight to test and evaluate various solar panel coatings, panel designs, and scaled-down collector subsystems. Data were taken by an automatic digital data acquisition system and reduced and printed by a computer system. The solar collector test setup, data acquisition system, and data reduction and printout systems were considered to have operated very satisfactorily. Test data indicated that there is a practical or useful limit in scaling down beyond which scaled-down testing cannot produce results comparable to results of larger scale tests. Test data are presented as are schematics and pictures of test equipment and test hardware.

  12. Inclusive analysis and performance evaluation of solar domestic hot water system (a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ghorab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Solar Domestic Hot Water systems have increased significantly their market share. In order to better understand the real-life performance of SDHW systems, a single detached house was selected for extensive monitoring. Two solar panels were installed on the house roof to provide thermal energy to the Domestic Hot Water (DHW system. The house was equipped with data logging system and remotely monitored with performance data collected and analyzed over one year. The paper presents the inclusive analysis and performance evaluation of SDHW system, including DHW recirculation loop, under Canadian weather conditions for average family occupancy (two adults and two kids with daily average DHW, draws of 246 L. Moreover, the study is carried out a significant recommendation to improve the SDHW performance, decrease the gas energy consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The SDHW performance depends mainly on DHW flow rate, draw time and duration, city water temperature, DHW recirculation loop control strategy and system layout. The performance analysis results show that 91.5% of the collected solar energy is transferred to the DHW heating load through the solar tank. The contribution to DHW heating load is about 69.4% from natural gas and 30.6% from solar. The recirculation loop is responsible for close to 34.9%, of DHW total energy.

  13. Evaluation performance of helix tube solar collector from nano carbon composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonchom, K. [Rajabhat ChiangMai Univ., ChiangMai (Thailand). Faculty of Science and Technology; Vorasingha, A.; Bongran, T. [Naresuan Univ., Phitsanuloke (Thailand). Faculty of Science; Ketjoy, N. [Naresuan Univ., Phitsanuloke (Thailand). School of Renewable Energy; Souvakon, C. [Rajabhat Uttaradit Univ., Uttaradit , (Thailand). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2006-07-01

    Hot fluid is an essential requirement in both the domestic and industrial sectors. Reducing electricity consumption and energy costs as well as reducing environmental pollution are concerns that have led to the search for more viable and efficient renewable energy sources. A helix tube solar oil heater was designed and manufactured for preheating water in the distillation process of natural products and to preheat seed oil or vegetable oil in the production of bio-diesel. The thermal performance was evaluated by using solar radiation data from the province of Phitsanuloke, Thailand as well as optical parameter absorbance and infrared emissions of nano carbon composite. A solar collector is a device that absorbs the incoming solar radiation, converts it into heat, and then subsequently transfer this heat to a fluid (usually air, water, or oil) flowing through the collector. The design, thermal analysis of collectors, and results and discussion were presented in this paper. It was concluded that there is a good capability of the system to convert the solar energy to heat. 15 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Energy dashboard for real-time evaluation of a heat pump assisted solar thermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, David Allen

    The emergence of net-zero energy buildings, buildings that generate at least as much energy as they consume, has lead to greater use of renewable energy sources such as solar thermal energy. One example is a heat pump assisted solar thermal system, which uses solar thermal collectors with an electrical heat pump backup to supply space heating and domestic hot water. The complexity of such a system can be somewhat problematic for monitoring and maintaining a high level of performance. Therefore, an energy dashboard was developed to provide comprehensive and user friendly performance metrics for a solar heat pump system. Once developed, the energy dashboard was tested over a two-week period in order to determine the functionality of the dashboard program as well as the performance of the heating system itself. The results showed the importance of a user friendly display and how each metric could be used to better maintain and evaluate an energy system. In particular, Energy Factor (EF), which is the ratio of output energy (collected energy) to input energy (consumed energy), was a key metric for summarizing the performance of the heating system. Furthermore, the average EF of the solar heat pump system was 2.29, indicating an efficiency significantly higher than traditional electrical heating systems.

  15. Reliability evaluation of isolated solar-diesel power systems using a Monte Carlo simulation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Billinton, B.; Karki, R. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Power Systems Research Group

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a Monte Carlo simulation technique for determining the reliability of an isolated solar-diesel power system (ISDPS). ISDPS is commonly used around the world to generate electricity in remote areas. The reliability of solar-hybrid systems differs from conventional generating sources because of the extremely variable nature of solar irradiation at any given location, energy conversion by the PV array, energy storage capability, and solar energy input. The proposed method is based on the use of an hourly simulation that imitates the operation of a generating system with energy storage. The simulation considers the stochastic nature of solar radiation along with other system factors. The newly developed method has been used in a series of analyses on hypothetical power systems using data from two different sites in Canada. Results indicate that reliability depends greatly on the actual site location. Therefore, accurate and detailed data for a particular location is a crucial requirement for evaluating ISDPS. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Solar Lighting Technologies for Highway Green Rest Areas in China: Energy Saving Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking Lushan West Sea highway green rest area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the suitable types, applicability, advantages, and effective methods of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area were determined based on the analysis of characteristics of highway green rest area. It was proved that solar lighting technologies including the natural light guidance system, solar LED lighting, and maximizing natural light penetration were quite suitable for highway rest area in terms of lighting effects and energy and economic efficiency. The illuminance comparison of light guidance system with electrical lighting was made based on the on-site experiment. Also, the feasibility of natural light guidance system was well verified in terms of the lighting demand of the visitor centre in the rest area by the illuminance simulation analysis. The evaluation of the energy saving, economic benefits, and environmental effects of solar lighting technologies for highway rest area was, respectively, made in detail. It was proved that the application of solar technology for green lighting of highway rest facilities not only could have considerable energy saving capacity and achieve high economic benefits, but also make great contributions to the reduction of environment pollution.

  17. Solar energy system economic evaluation: Fern Tunkhannock, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic performance of an Operational Test Site (OTS) is described. The long term economic performance of the system at its installation site and extrapolation to four additional selected locations to demonstrate the viability of the design over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions is reported. Topics discussed are: system description, study approach, economic analysis and system optimization, and technical and economical results of analysis. Data for the economic analysis are generated through evaluation of the OTS. The simulation is based on the technical results of the seasonal report simulation. In addition localized and standard economic parameters are used for economic analysis.

  18. Information Theory Approach to Evaluate the Geomagnetic and Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemala, G. K.; R, S.; Bhaskara, V.; Ramesh, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of space weather and understanding onset o geomagnetic storms is increasing day by day as the space missions increase. It is known from the ground-based and space-borne observations that a geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance of earth's magnetosphere caused by a solar wind and/or solar eruptions. Geomagnetic storms are more disruptive now than in the past because of our greater dependence on technical systems that can be affected by electric currents and energetic particles high in the Earth's magnetosphere. It is known that number of phenomena occurs during the space weather events; and there are many un-solved questions like solar wind coupling with magnetosphere and ionosphere, relationship between geomagnetic storms & sub-storms etc. To evaluate contribution of various interplanetary parameters that have major role in the geomagnetic storm/geomagnetic variations, the information theory approach is used. In information theory, the measure of uncertainty or randomness of a signal can be quantified by using Shannon entropy or entropy for short. And Transfer entropy is capable of quantifying the directional flow of information between two signals. Thus the Transfer entropy is capable of distinguishing effectively driving and responding signals. In this study, we use Transfer entropy function on Solar wind parameters and ground magnetic data to derive the drivers and relations between them, and also study their contributed effect on ionospheric TEC. In this presentation, we will evaluate and present the results obtained, and discuss about the driving forces on the geomagnetic field disturbances.

  19. Evaluating the potential energy of a heliostat field and solar receiver of solar tower power plants in the southern region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad Kadhim Al-Dualimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A prior study on the performance of high-efficient models for a heliostat field and solar receiver at various candidate locations (e.g., certain regions in the south of Turkey helped determine suitable locations for installing solar tower power plant units. This study considered the fact that solar tower power plants are affected by the working conditions of a particular site, which helps realize the highest performance of the solar power tower plant. An optimized heliostat field consisting of 2650 SENER heliostats and a model of a solar receiver based on the data obtained using Gemasolar in Seville, Spain, was used as a reference in this work. Each heliostat position is specified using an optimization algorithm that refines previously proposed models, and two parameters are added to this model to further optimize the heliostat layout. Then, a sample analytical thermal model is used for predicting the radiative and convective heat losses from the receiver system. Article History: Received March 13rd 2016; Received in revised form Jun 22nd 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available onlineHow to Cite This Article: Ra'ad, K, M, A. and Mehmet, S, S. (2016, Evaluating the potential energy of a heliostat field and solar receiver of solar tower power plants in the southern region of Turkey. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2, 151-161, http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.151-161

  20. Assessing sustainability of a low-input single-farm vegetable box-scheme using emergy and LCA methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Kulak, M.; Østergård, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    and successfully worked on reducing external inputs. The system provides over 70 varieties of seasonal vegetables as well as biodiversity conservation and other ecosystem services. As a main goal of the study was to locate opportunities for sustainability improvements for the food production, we chose the yearly...... as well as the comparison between LCA and emergy analysis will be presented at the conference. In conclusion, from a biophysical perspective, agricultural systems’ primary societal function is to convert local renewable flows of sun, rain and wind into food, fodder and fiber by investing a minimum...

  1. Evaluation of solar radio bursts' effect on GPS receiver signal tracking within International GPS Service network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyu; Gao, Yang; Liu, Zhizhao

    2005-06-01

    The direct interference from solar radio bursts (SRB) has not usually been considered as a potential threat to global positioning system (GPS) signal tracking, since the flux densities of most bursts are below 40,000 solar flux units (sfu), a threat threshold to GPS L1 frequency proposed by Klobuchar et al. (1999). Recent analysis indicated that a much lower threshold should be adopted for codeless or semicodeless dual-frequency GPS receivers. In this investigation, severe signal corruptions were found at dayside International GPS Service GPS receiver stations during a large solar radio burst that accompanied the super flare of 28 October 2003. Almost no GPS L2 signals were tracked during the solar flux peak time for areas near the subsolar point. Correlation analysis was performed between the rate of loss of lock on GPS L2 frequency and solar radio flux density at different bands, and a correlation index as high as 0.75 is revealed in the 1415 MHz solar radiation band, which is located between the two GPS operating frequencies L2 (1227.60 MHz) and L1 (1575.42 MHz). The correlation analysis indicates that GPS signal losses of lock were primarily caused by microwave in-band interference and that the threat threshold of SRB effects on the GPS system should be re-evaluated, since the flux density of the burst at 1415 MHz was just 4,000-12,000 sfu, which is far below the previously proposed threat threshold. The signal-tracking performance of different types of GPS receivers during such a super flare event is also presented.

  2. Solar radiation and cooling load calculation for radiant systems: Definition and evaluation of the Direct Solar Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The study of the influence of solar radiation on the built environment is a basic issue in building physics and currently it is extremely important because glazed envelopes are widely used in contemporary architecture. In the present study, the removal of solar heat gains by radiant cooling systems...... is investigated. Particular attention is given to the portion of solar radiation converted to cooling load, without taking part in thermal absorption phenomena due to the thermal mass of the room. This specific component of the cooling load is defined as the Direct Solar Load. A simplified procedure to correctly...... calculate the magnitude of the Direct Solar Load in cooling load calculations is proposed and it is implemented with the Heat Balance method and the Radiant Time Series method. The F ratio of the solar heat gains directly converted to cooling load, in the case of a low thermal mass radiant ceiling...

  3. Evaluation and comparison of return of investment for proposed use of solar systems in the Czech and Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Weiss

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate return of investment (ROI and cost savings from proposed use of solar systems for residents funded by government grants. The paper deals with proposals for solar energy systems for various use, simple calculations of payback periods of solar systems financed with subsidy and without subsidy. Apart from climatic conditions, chemical composition the of the absorber and structural elements that are made of copper, respectively aluminum and Al-Mg alloy play an important role in assessing the payback period of the investment in solar panels.

  4. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solar cell metallization pattern design on solar cell performance and the costs and performance effects of different metallization processes are discussed. Definitive design rules for the front metallization pattern for large area solar cells are presented. Chemical and physical deposition processes for metallization are described and compared. An economic evaluation of the 6 principal metallization options is presented. Instructions for preparing Format A cost data for solar cell manufacturing processes from UPPC forms for input into the SAMIC computer program are presented.

  5. Standard Practice for Evaluating Thermal Insulation Materials for Use in Solar Collectors

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth a testing methodology for evaluating the properties of thermal insulation materials to be used in solar collectors with concentration ratios of less than 10. Tests are given herein to evaluate the pH, surface burning characteristics, moisture adsorption, water absorption, thermal resistance, linear shrinkage (or expansion), hot surface performance, and accelerated aging. This practice provides a test for surface burning characteristics but does not provide a methodology for determining combustibility performance of thermal insulation materials. 1.2 The tests shall apply to blanket, rigid board, loose-fill, and foam thermal insulation materials used in solar collectors. Other thermal insulation materials shall be tested in accordance with the provisions set forth herein and should not be excluded from consideration. 1.3 The assumption is made that elevated temperature, moisture, and applied stresses are the primary factors contributing to the degradation of thermal insulation mat...

  6. San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential" explains how the City of San Jose used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  7. Design improvement and performance evaluation of solar photocatalytic reactor for industrial effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ranjith G; Bharadwaj, P J; Samdarshi, S K

    2016-12-01

    This work reports the details of the design components and materials used in a linear compound parabolic trough reactor constructed with an aim to use the photocatalyst for solar photocatalytic applications. A compound parabolic trough reactor has been designed and engineered to exploit both UV and visible part of the solar irradiation. The developed compound parabolic trough reactor could receive almost 88% of UV radiation along with a major part of visible radiation. The performance of the reactor has been evaluated in terms of degradation of a probe pollutant using the parameters such as rate constant, residence time and photonic efficiency. An attempt has been made to assess the performance in different ranges of solar spectrum. Finally the developed reactor has been employed for the photocatalytic treatment of a paper mill effluent using Degussa P25 as the photocatalyst. The paper mill effluent collected from Nagaon paper mill, Assam, India has been treated under both batch mode and continuous mode using Degussa P25 photocatalyst under artificial and natural solar radiation, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of the paper mill effluent has been determined using the reduction in total organic carbon (TOC) values of the effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Solar Chimney Power Plant in Semi-Arid Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Ngala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solar chimney power plant (SCPP is a renewable energy facility that converts the potential energy in the Sun into kinetic energy and subsequently into electrical energy. The problem of global warming and electricity generation/distribution in Nigeria cannot be over emphasized; however with the vast land in the semi arid region and the potentials of the above technology, high prospects exist for solar chimney as it is a decentralized form of power generation. The aim of this paper was to theoretically evaluate the performance of the solar chimney power plant in semi-arid region of Nigeria, and estimate the amount of electrical energy that can possibly be generated. A mathematical model was used to estimate the amount of power generated, and determine the relationship between various meteorological and physical factors to the power produced. A solar chimney power plant with collector diameter of 700 m and chimney height of 700 m can produce up to 3000 MW of electricity.

  9. Evaluating Economic and Environmental Aspects of Using Solar Panels on Multi-Angled Facades of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Gert Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with using solar panels as high-tech cladding materials on multi-angled facades for office buildings. The energy produced by the solar panels will be consumed inside the office rooms by cooling compressors, ventilation, lighting and office equipment. Each multi-angled facade...... unit is directed into two different orientations on a vertical axis (right and left), but not tilted up and down. The different facade orientations will optimize the use of solar radiation to produce the needed energy from the solar panels when placing them on the parapets of these facades......, PVBAT to calculate the cost of the electricity produced by the solar panels and evaluate the total amount of energy produced from these panels along with the ratio to the energy bought directly from the electricity grid. There is also an environmental evaluation for the system by calculating the CO2...

  10. Eco-exergy and emergy based self-organization of three forest plantations in lower subtropical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Fu, Fangyan; Li, Hao; Campbell, Daniel E; Ren, Hai

    2015-10-21

    The bio-thermodynamic structures of a mixed native species plantation, a conifer plantation and an Acacia mangium plantation in Southern China were quantified over a period of 15 years based on eco-exergy methods. The efficiencies of structural development and maintenance were quantified through an integrated application of eco-exergy and emergy methods. The results showed that the storage of eco-exergy increased over 3 times in all three plantations, as predicted by the maximum eco-exergy principle. This trend was primarily seen due to the accumulation of biomass, instead of an increase in the specific eco-exergy (eco-exergy per unit biomass), although species richness did increase. The eco-exergy to emergy and eco-exergy to empower ratios of the three plantations generally increased during the study period, but the rate of increase slowed down after 20 years. The dominant trees are the largest contributors to the eco-exergy stored in the plantations, and thus, the introduction of suitable indigenous tree species should be considered after the existing trees pass through their period of most rapid growth or around 20 years after planting. The combined application of C-values and suggested weighting factors in the eco-exergy calculation can imply opposite results, but may also supply useful information for forest management.

  11. Emergy Perspectives on the Environmental Performance and Sustainability of Small-Scale Gold Production Systems in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Frimpong Asamoah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale gold mining is an important component of the Ghanaian economy but it has also caused enormous damage to local ecosystems. In this paper, an emergy analysis was conducted in Ghana to assess the environmental performance and the relative sustainability of two artisanal and small-scale gold production systems: alluvial “dig and wash” and underground “ghetto” mines. Results show that both production systems have high environmental impacts, as indicated by an environmental loading ratio (ELR of 4.31 and environmental sustainability index (ESI of 0.33 for the alluvial system and 2.53 and 0.52 for the underground system, respectively. Concerning the international trade balance, the emergy exchange ratios of the two systems are both lower than one, at, 0.23 and 0.33 for the alluvial and underground systems, respectively, indicating a significant amount of resource loss to foreign regions. This study could assist in the regulation of the small-scale mining sector bearing in mind the unsustainable nature of their activities. In addition, supporting miners to consider land rehabilitation ethics is urgently needed.

  12. Technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., CdTe module and array at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Strand, T.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Powell, R.; Sasala, R. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Engineering and Technology Validation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules and arrays. This paper focuses on the technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., (SCI) cadmium telluride (CdTe) module and array performance by attempting to correlate individual module and array performance. This is done by examining the performance and stability of the modules and array over a period of more than one year. Temperature coefficients for module and array parameters (P{sub max}, V{sub oc}, V{sub max}, I{sub sc}, I{sub max}) are also calculated.

  13. Design, construction and evaluation of a system of forced solar water heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, E.; Bautista, G. A.; Ortiz, I. L.

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this project was to design, construct and evaluate a system of forced solar water heating for domestic consumption, at the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana-Bucaramanga, Colombia; using solar energy. This is a totally system independent of the electrical grid and an important characteristic is the heating water doesn't mix with the consumption water. The system receives the solar radiation through a flat-plate collector, which it transmits the heat to the water that it flow with impulse from the centrifugal pump of 12VDC, the water circulates toward helical serpentine it is inside of the tank of the storage whose capacity is 100 liters of water. The temperature of the tank is regulated with a controller in such a way that de-energized the pump when it gets the temperature required. The performance thermal or efficiency of the system was evaluated like a relationship between the delivered energy to the water in storage tank and the incident energy in the flat-plate collector.

  14. Evaluation of a High-Performance Solar Home in Loveland, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Hancock, E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.

    2006-01-01

    Building America (BA) partner McStain Neighborhoods built the Discovery House in Loveland, Colorado, with an extensive package of energy-efficient features, including a high-performance envelope, efficient mechanical systems, a solar water heater integrated with the space-heating system, a heat-recovery ventilator (HRV), and ENERGY STAR? appliances. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Building Science Consortium (BSC) conducted short-term field-testing and building energy simulations to evaluate the performance of the house. These evaluations are utilized by BA to improve future prototype designs and to identify critical research needs. The Discovery House building envelope and ducts were very tight under normal operating conditions. The HRV provided fresh air at a rate of about 75 cfm (35 l/s), consistent with the recommendations of ASHRAE Standard 62.2. The solar hot water system is expected to meet the bulk of the domestic hot water (DHW) load (>83%), but only about 12% of the space-heating load. DOE-2.2 simulations predict whole-house source energy savings of 54% compared to the BA Benchmark [1]. The largest contributors to energy savings beyond McStain's standard practice are the solar water heater, HRV, improved air distribution, high-efficiency boiler, and compact fluorescent lighting package.

  15. Evaluation of a High-Performance Solar Home in Loveland, Colorado: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.; Hancock, E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.

    2006-08-01

    Building America (BA) partner McStain Neighborhoods built the Discovery House in Loveland, Colorado, with an extensive package of energy-efficient features, including a high-performance envelope, efficient mechanical systems, a solar water heater integrated with the space-heating system, a heat-recovery ventilator (HRV), and ENERGY STAR appliances. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Building Science Consortium (BSC) conducted short-term field-testing and building energy simulations to evaluate the performance of the house. These evaluations are utilized by BA to improve future prototype designs and to identify critical research needs. The Discovery House building envelope and ducts were very tight under normal operating conditions. The HRV provided fresh air at a rate of about 35 l/s (75 cfm), consistent with the recommendations of ASHRAE Standard 62.2. The solar hot water system is expected to meet the bulk of the domestic hot water (DHW) load (>83%), but only about 12% of the space-heating load. DOE-2.2 simulations predict whole-house source energy savings of 54% compared to the BA Benchmark. The largest contributors to energy savings beyond McStain's standard practice are the solar water heater, HRV, improved air distribution, high-efficiency boiler, and compact fluorescent lighting package.

  16. Evaluation of solar sludge drying alternatives by costs and area requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Mayıs; Aksoy, Ayşegül; Sanin, F Dilek

    2015-10-01

    Thermal drying is a common method to reach above 90% dry solids content (DS) in sludge. However, thermal drying requires high amount of energy and can be expensive. A greenhouse solar dryer (GSD) can be a cost-effective substitute if the drying performance, which is typically 70% DS, can be increased by additional heat. In this study feasibility of GSD supported with solar panels is evaluated as an alternative to thermal dryers to reach 90% DS. Evaluations are based on capital and O&M costs as well as area requirements for 37 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with various sludge production rates. Costs for the supported GSD system are compared to that of conventional and co-generation thermal dryers. To calculate the optimal costs associated with the drying system, an optimization model was developed in which area limitation was a constraint. Results showed that total cost was minimum when the DS in the GSD (DS(m,i)) was equal to the maximum attainable value (70% DS). On average, 58% of the total cost and 38% of total required area were associated with the GSD. Variations in costs for 37 WWTPs were due to differences in initial DS (DS(i,i)) and sludge production rates, indicating the importance of dewatering to lower drying costs. For large plants, GSD supported with solar panels provided savings in total costs especially in long term when compared to conventional and co-generation thermal dryers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prototype Development and Evaluation of Self-Cleaning Concentrated Solar Power Collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Malay K. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Horenstein, Mark N. [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Joglekar, Nitin R. [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The feasibility of integrating and retrofitting transparent electrodynamic screens (EDS) on the front surfaces of solar collectors was established as a means to provide active self-cleaning properties for parabolic trough and heliostat reflectors, solar panels, and Fresnel lenses. Prototype EDS-integrated solar collectors, including second-surface glass mirrors, metallized Acrylic-film mirrors, and dielectric mirrors, were produced and tested in environmental test chambers for removing the dust layer deposited on the front surface of the mirrors. The evaluation of the prototype EDS-integrated mirrors was conducted using dust and environmental conditions that simulate the field conditions of the Mojave Desert. Test results showed that the specular reflectivity of the mirrors could be maintained at over 90% over a wide range of dust loadings ranging from 0 to 10 g/m2, with particle diameter varying from 1 to 50 μm. The measurement of specular reflectivity (SR) was performed using a D&S Reflectometer at wavelength 660 nm. A non-contact reflectometer was designed and constructed for rapid measurement of specular reflectivity at the same wavelength. The use of this new noncontact instrument allowed us to measure SR before and after EDS activation. Several EDS prototypes were constructed and evaluated with different electrode configurations, electrode materials, and encapsulating dielectric materials.

  18. Disinfection of effluent of wastewater treated using solar energy (SODIS): evaluation of a solar concentrator device; Desinfeccao de efluentes com tratamento terciario utilizando energia solar (SODIS): avaliacao do uso do dispositivo para concentracao dos raios solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp; Silva, Marcelo Jacomini Moreira da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Saneamento e Ambiente]. E-mail: pater@agr.unicamp.br

    2005-01-15

    Besides being an available natural resource, the solar energy is very applicable in places with few recourses and low money resources, because there aren't either the need of chemical products neither a huge cost (commercial materials can be reused). To make this job we re-used PET bottles half painted black with the variables: 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours of heat exposition and we also used a concentrator of rays of sunshine. The affluent control parameters were turbidity, apparent color, temperature, total coliforms and E. coli. These last three were evaluated before and after the disinfection process (effluent parameters). To assess the bacteria reactivation we kept the water in bottles for 24 hours, pretending a very common situation in Brazilian rural houses. We conclude that the use of the concentrator of rays of sunshine can reduce the heat exposition from 6 to 4 hours, without harm the SODIS efficiency. Using the concentrator of rays of sunshine for 6 hours we can obtain, besides SODIS, the process of solar pasteurization (SOPAS), which stops the re-growth of bacteria with a 70 deg C water temperature. We also observed that when the sky is cloudy the incidence of solar radiation and, therefore, the SODIS efficiency decrease, even if the water temperature is higher during the disinfection. Although, this factor doesn't mean a significant influence statistically. (author)

  19. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Solar Irrigation Plants Installed in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmul Hoque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the summer season, irrigation sector in Bangladesh suffers a lot due to the country wide electricity crisis. Solar pump offers a clean and simple alternative to the conventional fuel fired engine or grid electricity driven pump in this regard to resolve the issue. In this paper, the techno-economic analyses of solar irrigation plants installed in Bangladesh are evaluated.  It was observed that systems were running around 70% to 80% of the rated power which was quite acceptable. A 10 hp pump was able to pump 600 liter of water per minute which was also satisfactory to irrigate the land. Average operating time was found to be 8 hour/day. It was found that the overall efficiency of the systems were in between 11.39% to 16.52% whereas the typical average value of lit/Wp/year was 9200. On the other hand, the cost of irrigation to cultivate paddy in 0.161 hectares’ land for one season was 1,750 BDT by solar irrigation which was found to be lower than that of other available modes. This charge for grid electricity based irrigation was about 3,000 to 3500 BDT per 0.161 hectares’ and 2,300 to 2,600 BDT per 0.161 hectares’ for diesel engine based irrigation. According to the current financial scheme (15% equity investment, 35% credit support and remaining 50% from government through IDCOL the average value of payback period was 5.43 years, NPV in the range from 7 to 15% and IRR was 18%. By considering 100% equity investment, however, these projects were not economically attractive. The payback period for this case was about 18 years. Study also revealed that each solar irrigation plant reduces 42.8 kg of CO2 emission per day compare to diesel engine operated pump and 2566.24 kg/day compared to grid electricity operated pump. A comprehensive effort from the Government as well as from all the stakeholders is required for further expansion of solar irrigation plants in Bangladesh. Article History: Received Sept 05, 2015; Received in revised form

  20. Evaluation and Optimization of an Innovative Low-Cost Photovoltaic Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researches showed that the cost of the energy produced by photovoltaic (PV concentrators is strongly reduced with respect to flat panels, especially in those countries that have a high solar irradiation. The cost drop comes from the reduction of the expensive high-efficiency photovoltaic surface through the use of optical concentrators of the solar radiation. In this paper, an experimental innovative PV low-concentration system is analysed. Numerical simulations were performed to determine the possible reasons of energy losses in the prototype, primarily due to geometrical factors. In particular, the effect of the shadows produced from the mirrors on the prototype performances was analysed: shadows are often neglected in the design phase of such systems. The study demonstrates that shadows may affect the performances of a hypothetical optimized PV low-concentration system up to 15%. Finally, an economical evaluation was carried out comparing the proposed optimized system to a traditional flat PV panel.

  1. Integrated water quality, emergy and economic evaluation of three bioremediation treatment systems for eutrophic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was targeted at finding one or more environmentally efficient, economically feasible and ecologically sustainable bioremediation treatment modes for eutrophic water. Three biological species, i.e. water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), loach (Misgurus anguillicaudatus) and ...

  2. Agroecology and the Sustainable Production of Food and Fiber: Emergy Evaluation of Agriculture in the Montado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The silvopastoral, agricultural system of the montado in Southern Portugal is an example of the self-organization of an agroecological system adapted to the climate and soil conditions of the Mediterranean basin. This system with its consistent production of food, fiber, and ecos...

  3. Evaluation of visual impact of solar hermal systems on urban landscape; Metodo de evaluacion del impacto visual de las instalaciones de energia solar termica en el paisaje urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, G.; Martinez, J.

    2004-07-01

    This article proposes a methodology and systematics for the valuation and evaluation of the visual impact produced by solar thermal systems on urban landscapes. On the one hand, from the characteristics of solar thermal systems capable of producing a visual impact and, on the second hand, from the analysis of the urban landscape (character and perception; classification in three subtypes), an interrelationship of the system and the urban landscape parameters is established by means of matrixes. The result shall be the visual impact of a solar thermal system on an urban landscape, which may range from a minimum (Nonexistent) to a maximum (Unacceptable), including other categories like Acceptable, Compatible, Compatible with Corrections, and Incompatible. (Author)

  4. Evaluation and optimization of goal strategies for solar tower power plants; Bewertung und Optimierung von Zielpunktstrategien fuer solare Turmkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhomme, Boris

    2011-07-01

    The levelized costs of a solar tower power plant are mainly influenced by the operational strategy of its heliostat field. Ensuring an efficient utilization of the heliostat field during the plant operation and therewith a high overall efficiency requires an optimal aim point strategy. The objective of the present work is to develop a computer-aided method for the optimization of aim point strategies. One main prerequisite for this kind of optimization is a realistic evaluation of a given aim point configuration. For this purpose an efficient ray tracing model for a fast and precise calculation of the flux density distribution caused by heliostats is developed as a first step. It is validated by a comparison of simulated and measured flux density distributions. By coupling the ray tracing model and a physical model of a receiver any variable of the receiver model can act as optimization variable. In a second step a method for the optimization of aim point configurations is developed. By defining a finite number of fixed aims points, the present problems becomes a combinatorial optimization problem. Due to the problem complexity, an exact solution can usually not be determined. On the other hand, this allows applying algorithms for the global optimization of combinatorial problems. Accordingly the Ant Colony Optimization metaheuristic is applied and adapted to the aim point optimization problem. By means of two selected example cases the general suitability of the method for the purpose of aim point optimization is proved and the influence of different optimization parameters on the optimization process is investigated. (orig.)

  5. Performance Evaluation of a Double-Glazed Box-Type Solar Oven with Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Folaranmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes the performance evaluation of a double-glazed box-type solar oven with reflector fabricated using locally available materials, compressed sawdust with binder; size of the box is 700 mm ×  700 mm × 400 mm and 10 mm thickness. The experimental solar cooker consists of an aluminium absorber plate (1 mm painted matt black and a double-glazed lid. The bottom and sides are lagged with fibreglass wool insulator, thickness = 50 mm,  W/m°C. The reflector consists of a wooden-framed commercially available specular plane mirror which is sized to form a cover for the box when not being in use. Its thermal performance was tested according to the ASAE International Test procedure and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS for testing the thermal performance of box-type solar cooker. Thermal performance experiments were conducted in order to determine the first figure of merit (F1, the second figure of merit (F2 and standard cooking power (Ps. The obtained test results were employed to calculate the two figures of merit (F1, and F2 and the standard cooking power (P50 to be 0.11 Km2w−1, 0.31, and 23.95 W, respectively. Finally, the results illustrated that the cooker has a good reliability for cooking food and boiling water.

  6. Efficiency Evaluation of a Photovoltaic System Simultaneously Generating Solar Electricity and Hydrogen for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abermann S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct combination of a photovoltaic system with an energy storage component appears desirable since it produces and stores electrical energy simultaneously, enabling it to compensate power generation fluctuations and supply sufficient energy during low- or non-irradiation periods. A novel concept based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H triple-junction solar cells, as for example a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, and a solar water splitting system integrating a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM electrolyser is presented. The thin film layer-by-layer concept allows large-area module fabrication applicable to buildings, and exhibits strong cost-reduction potential as compared to similar concepts. The evaluation shows that it is possible to achieve a sufficient voltage of greater than 1.5 V for effective water splitting with the a-Si based solar cell. Nevertheless, in the case of grid-connection, the actual energy production cost for hydrogen storage by the proposed system is currently too high.

  7. Efficiency Evaluation of a Photovoltaic System Simultaneously Generating Solar Electricity and Hydrogen for Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abermann, S.

    2012-10-01

    The direct combination of a photovoltaic system with an energy storage component appears desirable since it produces and stores electrical energy simultaneously, enabling it to compensate power generation fluctuations and supply sufficient energy during low- or non-irradiation periods. A novel concept based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) triple-junction solar cells, as for example a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/a-SiGe:H, and a solar water splitting system integrating a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolyser is presented. The thin film layer-by-layer concept allows large-area module fabrication applicable to buildings, and exhibits strong cost-reduction potential as compared to similar concepts. The evaluation shows that it is possible to achieve a sufficient voltage of greater than 1.5 V for effective water splitting with the a-Si based solar cell. Nevertheless, in the case of grid-connection, the actual energy production cost for hydrogen storage by the proposed system is currently too high.

  8. Evaluation of the effects of solar radiation on glass. [space environment simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, R. F.; Harada, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The degradation of glass used on space structures due to electromagnetic and particulate radiation in a space environment was evaluated. The space environment was defined and a simulated space exposure apparatus was constructed. Four optical materials were exposed to simulated solar and particulate radiation in a space environment. Sapphire and fused silica experienced little change in transmittance, while optical crown glass and ultra low expansion glass darkened appreciably. Specimen selection and preparation, exposure conditions, and the effect of simulated exposure are discussed. A selective bibliography of the effect of radiation on glass is included.

  9. Early Evaluation of the Corona at the 2016 March 9 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Seaton, Daniel B.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2016-05-01

    We observed the corona on 2016 March 9 with a variety of assets on the ground and in space. The umbra of the total eclipse swept across Indonesia and into the Pacific, with totality at our Indonesian observation sites lasting 2 min 45 s at Ternate in the Spice Islands (Malukus) and 2 min 10 at Belitung. We compare our ground-based results with the coronal configurations observed with PROBA2/SWAP and Hinode XRT. One of our scientific goals is to follow the coronal configuration over the solar-activity cycle, with the sunspot number now half its maximum of either its 2012 or 2014 peak. We are evaluating temporal changes by comparing eclipse observations made at several ground-based sites along the path, with the longest span being 75 min from Belitung to the Woleia atoll in mid-Pacific, 1:25 UTC to 2:40 UTC; we are evaluating whether the airborne observations made at 3:35 UTC on March 8 (across the International Dateline) are of suitable quality to provide further comparison at high spatial resolution. We also compare our images with the near-simultaneous coronal observations made with SOHO/LASCO, SDO/AIA, STEREO-A/SECCHI, and the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory's K-cor coronagraph. ACS received support for image analysis from the Hinode project.

  10. Evaluation of the 2013 Southeast Asian Haze on Solar Generation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mohammadreza; Hizam, Hashim; Gomes, Chandima; Hajighorbani, Shahrooz; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Pollution in Southeast Asia is a major public energy problem and the cause of energy losses. A significant problem with respect to this type of pollution is that it decreases energy yield. In this study, two types of photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays were used to evaluate the effect of air pollution. The performance of two types of solar arrays were analysed in this research, namely, two units of a 1 kWp tracking flat photovoltaic (TFP) and two units of a 1 kWp fixed flat photovoltaic arrays (FFP). Data analysis was conducted on 2,190 samples at 30 min intervals from 01st June 2013, when both arrays were washed, until 30th June 2013. The performance was evaluated by using environmental data (irradiation, temperature, dust thickness, and air pollution index), power output, and energy yield. Multiple regression models were predicted in view of the environmental data and PV array output. Results showed that the fixed flat system was more affected by air pollution than the tracking flat plate. The contribution of this work is that it considers two types of photovoltaic arrays under the Southeast Asian pollution 2013. PMID:26275303

  11. Evaluation of the 2013 Southeast Asian Haze on Solar Generation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Mohammadreza; Hizam, Hashim; Gomes, Chandima; Hajighorbani, Shahrooz; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Pollution in Southeast Asia is a major public energy problem and the cause of energy losses. A significant problem with respect to this type of pollution is that it decreases energy yield. In this study, two types of photovoltaic (PV) solar arrays were used to evaluate the effect of air pollution. The performance of two types of solar arrays were analysed in this research, namely, two units of a 1 kWp tracking flat photovoltaic (TFP) and two units of a 1 kWp fixed flat photovoltaic arrays (FFP). Data analysis was conducted on 2,190 samples at 30 min intervals from 01st June 2013, when both arrays were washed, until 30th June 2013. The performance was evaluated by using environmental data (irradiation, temperature, dust thickness, and air pollution index), power output, and energy yield. Multiple regression models were predicted in view of the environmental data and PV array output. Results showed that the fixed flat system was more affected by air pollution than the tracking flat plate. The contribution of this work is that it considers two types of photovoltaic arrays under the Southeast Asian pollution 2013.

  12. Evaluation of CLM4 Solar Radiation Partitioning Scheme Using Remote Sensing and Site Level FPAR Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaichun Zhu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a land surface solar radiation partitioning scheme, i.e., that of the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4 with coupled carbon and nitrogen cycles. Taking advantage of a unique 30-year fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR dataset, derived from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data set, multiple other remote sensing datasets, and site level observations, we evaluated the CLM4 FPAR’s seasonal cycle, diurnal cycle, long-term trends, and spatial patterns. Our findings show that the model generally agrees with observations in the seasonal cycle, long-term trends, and spatial patterns, but does not reproduce the diurnal cycle. Discrepancies also exist in seasonality magnitudes, peak value months, and spatial heterogeneity. We identify the discrepancy in the diurnal cycle as, due to, the absence of dependence on sun angle in the model. Implementation of sun angle dependence in a one-dimensional (1-D model is proposed. The need for better relating of vegetation to climate in the model, indicated by long-term trends, is also noted. Evaluation of the CLM4 land surface solar radiation partitioning scheme using remote sensing and site level FPAR datasets provides targets for future development in its representation of this naturally complicated process.

  13. Testing and evaluation of large-area heliostats for solar thermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J.W.; Houser, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Two heliostats representing the state-of-the-art in glass-metal designs for central receiver (and photovoltaic tracking) applications were tested and evaluated at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico from 1986 to 1992. These heliostats have collection areas of 148 and 200 m{sup 2} and represent low-cost designs for heliostats that employ glass-metal mirrors. The evaluation encompassed the performance and operational characteristics of the heliostats, and examined heliostat beam quality, the effect of elevated winds on beam quality, heliostat drives and controls, mirror module reflectance and durability, and the overall operational and maintenance characteristics of the two heliostats. A comprehensive presentation of the results of these and other tests is presented. The results are prefaced by a review of the development (in the United States) of heliostat technology.

  14. Evaluation of a sulfur oxide chemical heat storage process for a steam solar electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayan, J.; Lynn, S.; Foss, A.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate technically feasible process configurations for the use of the sulfur oxide system, 2 SO/sub 3/ reversible 2 SO/sub 2/ + O/sub 2/, in energy storage. The storage system is coupled with a conventional steam-cycle power plant. Heat for both the power plant and the storage system is supplied during sunlit hours by a field of heliostats focussed on a central solar receiver. When sunlight is not available, the storage system supplies the heat to operate the power plant. A technically feasible, relatively efficient configuration is proposed for incorporating this type of energy storage system into a solar power plant. Complete material and energy balances are presented for a base case that represents a middle range of expected operating conditions. Equipment sizes and costs were estimated for the base case to obtain an approximate value for the cost of the electricity that would be produced from such an installation. In addition, the sensitivity of the efficiency of the system to variations in design and operating conditions was determined for the most important parameters and design details. In the base case the solar tower receives heat at a net rate of 230 MW(t) for a period of eight hours. Daytime electricity is about 30 MW(e). Nighttime generation is at a rate of about 15 MW(e) for a period of sixteen hours. The overall efficiency of converting heat into electricity is about 26%. The total capital cost for the base case is estimated at about $68 million, of which about 67% is for the tower and heliostats, 11% is for the daytime power plant, and 22% is for the storage system. The average cost of the electricity produced for the base case is estimated to be about 11 cents/kW(e)-hr.

  15. Evaluating economic and environmental aspects of using solar panels on multi-angled facades of office buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannoudi, Loay Akram; Lauring, Michael; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2017-09-01

    This paper is concerned with using solar panels as high-tech cladding materials on multi-angled facades for office buildings. The energy produced by the solar panels will be consumed inside the office rooms by cooling compressors, ventilation, lighting and office equipment. Each multi-angled facade unit is directed into two different orientations on a vertical axis (right and left), but not tilted up and down. The different facade orientations will optimize the use of solar radiation to produce the needed energy from the solar panels when placing them on the parapets of these facades. In this regard, four scenarios with different facade configurations and orientations are evaluated and discussed. The method for the simulations and calculations depends on two main programs: first, IDA ICE program to calculate the energy consumption and evaluate the indoor climate of the building; and second, PVBAT to calculate the cost of the electricity produced by the solar panels and evaluate the total amount of energy produced from these panels along with the ratio to the energy bought directly from the electricity grid. There is also an environmental evaluation for the system by calculating the CO2 emissions in the different scenarios.

  16. Evaluation and testing of image quality of the Space Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jilong; Yi, Zhong; Zhou, Shuhong; Yu, Qian; Hou, Yinlong; Wang, Shanshan

    2018-01-01

    For the space solar extreme ultraviolet telescope, the star point test can not be performed in the x-ray band (19.5nm band) as there is not light source of bright enough. In this paper, the point spread function of the optical system is calculated to evaluate the imaging performance of the telescope system. Combined with the actual processing surface error, such as small grinding head processing and magnetorheological processing, the optical design software Zemax and data analysis software Matlab are used to directly calculate the system point spread function of the space solar extreme ultraviolet telescope. Matlab codes are programmed to generate the required surface error grid data. These surface error data is loaded to the specified surface of the telescope system by using the communication technique of DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange), which is used to connect Zemax and Matlab. As the different processing methods will lead to surface error with different size, distribution and spatial frequency, the impact of imaging is also different. Therefore, the characteristics of the surface error of different machining methods are studied. Combining with its position in the optical system and simulation its influence on the image quality, it is of great significance to reasonably choose the processing technology. Additionally, we have also analyzed the relationship between the surface error and the image quality evaluation. In order to ensure the final processing of the mirror to meet the requirements of the image quality, we should choose one or several methods to evaluate the surface error according to the different spatial frequency characteristics of the surface error.

  17. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation (LITE). Post-Test Grease Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Martinez, James E.; Devivar, Rodrigo V.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a mechanism of the International Space Station (ISS) that orients the solar power generating arrays toward the sun as the ISS orbits our planet. The orientation with the sun must be maintained to fully charge the ISS batteries and maintain all the other ISS electrical systems operating properly. In 2007, just a few months after full deployment, the starboard SARJ developed anomalies that warranted a full investigation including ISS Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The EVA uncovered unexpected debris that was due to degradation of a nitride layer on the SARJ bearing race. ISS personnel identified the failure root-cause and applied an aerospace grease to lubricate the area associated with the anomaly. The corrective action allowed the starboard SARJ to continue operating within the specified engineering parameters. The SARJ LITE (Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation) program was initiated by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing to simulate the operation of the ISS SARJ for an extended time. The hardware was designed to test and evaluate the exact material components used aboard the ISS SARJ, but in a controlled area where engineers could continuously monitor the performance. After running the SARJ LITE test for an equivalent of 36+ years of continuous use, the test was opened to evaluate the metallography and lubrication. We have sampled the SARJ LITE rollers and plate to fully assess the grease used for lubrication. Chemical and thermal analysis of these samples has generated information that has allowed us to assess the location, migration, and current condition of the grease. The collective information will be key toward understanding and circumventing any performance deviations involving the ISS SARJ in the years to come.

  18. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...... and the main tasks in principle are working and what are important aspects which should influence the concept design in general....

  19. Performance Evaluation of a Solar Adsorption Refrigeration System with a Wing Type Compound Parabolic Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Simulation study of a solar adsorption refrigeration system using a wing type compound parabolic concentrator (CPC is presented. The system consists of the wing type collector set at optimum angles, adsorption bed, a condenser and a refrigerator. The wing type collector captures the solar energy efficiently in the morning and afternoon and provides the effective temperature for a longer period of time compared to that achieved by a linear collector. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the system behavior, the effect of wing length, and to compare the performance of the systems with wing type and linear CPCs. A detailed dynamic simulation model was developed based on mass and energy balance equations. The simulation results show that the system performance with wing type CPC increases by up to 6% in the summer and up to 2% in the winter, compared to the performance with a linear CPC having same collector length. The ice production also increases up to 13% in the summer with the wing type CPC. This shows that the wing type CPC is helpful to increase the performance of the system compared to the linear CPC with the same collector length and without the need for tracking.

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diehl, Robert H; Valdez, Ernest W; Preston, Todd M; Wellik, Michael J; Cryan, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    .... Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light ("solar flux") in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine...

  1. Evaluation of steam and soil solarization for Meloidogyne arenaria control in Florida floriculture crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in two years of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if pre-plant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effective...

  2. Procedures and practices for evaluating thin-film solar cell stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesch, R; Faber, T; von Hauff, E.L.; Brown, T. M.; Lira-Cantu, M.; Hoppe, H.

    2015-01-01

    During the last few decades, and in some cases only the last few years, novel thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), organic solar cells (OPV), and, more recently, perovskite-based solar cells (PSC) have been growing in maturity with respect to device

  3. Evaluating a Small Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) Designed Solar Kiln in Southwestern New Mexico - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Ted E.M. Bilek

    2012-01-01

    With increasing energy costs, using small dry kilns for drying lumber for small-volume value-added wood products has become more of an option when compared with conventional drying. Small solar kilns are one such option, and a number of solar kiln designs exist and are in use. However, questions remain about the design and operation of solar kilns, particularly during...

  4. Evaluation of solar PV-projects of housing corporations; Evaluatie zon PV-projecten bij woningcorporaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurstjens, M.J.H. [W/E Adviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    A study has been carried out to determine the failure and success factors with regard to the use of solar panels in the housing sector. Lessons learned from this evaluation form the basis for targeted communication and development of a guide for corporations. In the spring of 2013, stakeholders in eight representative initiatives in the Netherlands were interviewed. The failure and success factors are translated into recommendations to further develop tools for corporations [Dutch] Er is gezocht naar de faal- en succesfactoren rondom de toepassing van zonnepanelen in de woningbouwsector. Leerpunten uit deze evaluatie vormen de basis voor gerichte communicatie en ontwikkeling van (een) handreiking(en) voor corporaties. In het voorjaar van 2013 zijn betrokkenen bij acht representatieve initiatieven in Nederland geinterviewd. De faal- en succesfactoren zijn omgezet in aanbevelingen voor nader uit te werken hulpmiddelen voor corporaties.

  5. Experimental evaluation of opacity in the deep solar interior using the concept of ``microscopic equivalence''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, Yair; Hazak, Giora; Bailey, James; Nagayama, Taisuke

    2017-10-01

    A problem for stellar astrophysics is that existing opacity models have been called into question both by experiments and by solar model comparisons with helioseismology, but an alternative opacity model does not yet exist. Importantly, the experiments measured opacity only for iron, at 182 eV - 195 eV temperatures (Te) comparable to the value at 0.7. Experimental validation of opacity models at higher Te and density (ne) are required to understand the entire Sun. Unfortunately, controlled transmission measurements at the required conditions are extremely difficult to achieve at lab. We propose to help resolve this dilemma using experiments at achieved conditions combined with the ``microscopic equivalence'' principle. Thus, using this principle, we can use a lower-atomic-number surrogate element to test opacity model physics important for iron at higher Te and ne than can be reached in present experiments. Theoretical modeling to evaluate this idea, using the CRSTA/PRCRSTA models will be discussed.

  6. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for Contemporary-Manchester, Manchester, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The operational and thermal performance of the solar energy system, Contemporary-Manchester, is described. The system was designed by Contemporary Systems Incorporated to provide space heating and domestic hot water preheating for a three story dwelling located on the New Hampshire Vocational Technical College campus, Manchester, New Hampshire. The net fossil energy savings for the period from March, 1979 to February, 1980 was 14.52 million Btu. However, the performance of the system must be degraded due to the fact that the building was unoccupied throughout the data assessment and analysis period. The unoccupied status prevented the normal adjustment of heating and ventilating controls for maintenance of comfort levels within the building. This lack of occupancy also prevented the typical family hot water usage, which would have allowed for more realistic evaluation of the hot water subsystem.

  7. Comparative evaluation of distributed-collector solar thermal electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; El Gabalawi, N.; Herrera, G. G.; Caputo, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Distributed-collector solar thermal-electric power plants are compared by projecting power plant economics of selected systems to the 1990-2000 timeframe. The approach taken is to evaluate the performance of the selected systems under the same weather conditions. Capital and operational costs are estimated for each system. Energy costs are calculated for different plant sizes based on the plant performance and the corresponding capital and maintenance costs. Optimum systems are then determined as the systems with the minimum energy costs for a given load factor. The optimum system is comprised of the best combination of subsystems which give the minimum energy cost for every plant size. Sensitivity analysis is done around the optimum point for various plant parameters.

  8. Design, Development and Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Solar Assisted Paddy Dryer for on Farm Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrah Ashfaq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the continued escalation in population growth and the expansion of international food trade and demand of high quality product for food security at low cost has created considerable interest in the development of new post-harvest technologies. This is particularly important for developing countries where post-harvest losses of cereals are between 10-20% and of fruits and vegetables as high as 20- 100% A new solar assisted paddy dryer with central air distribution model (along the length of drying chamber has been developed. Due to this distinct feature of the dryer high drying rate was achieved during the drying processes .Other components of the dryer are perforated drying chamber, blower and flat plat solar air collector. Dryer was evaluated using 100kg of freshly harvested paddy at 23.78% moisture content (wb. Performance evaluation results showed that the mean drying rate of the solar assisted paddy dryer was 0.87kg/hr per for every 100kg, whereas 0.46kg/hr was the sun drying rate comparatively. The faster drying rate of the dryer reveals its suability to dry the paddy for its safe storage moisture content rapidly. By using the solar assisted paddy dryer, approximately 50% saving in time was also achieved as compared with the traditional sun drying method. Solar assisted paddy dryer took 10hr for drying the 100kg paddy up to 14%, while sun drying method dried paddy up to 13.89% in 19 hours. Cost analysis also showed that, by using solar assisted paddy dryer we candry good quality paddy at low cost as compared with the open sun drying method. For development of agriculture in the rural areas, commercial size of the solar assisted paddy dryer can be amplified and produced at community level.

  9. Doping evaluation of InP nanowires for tandem junction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindelöw, F; Heurlin, M; Otnes, G; Dagytė, V; Lindgren, D; Hultin, O; Storm, K; Samuelson, L; Borgström, M

    2016-02-12

    In order to push the development of nanowire-based solar cells further using optimized nanowire diameter and pitch, a doping evaluation of the nanowire geometry is necessary. We report on a doping evaluation of n-type InP nanowires with diameters optimized for light absorption, grown by the use of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in particle-assisted growth mode using tetraethyltin (TESn) as the dopant precursor. The charge carrier concentration was evaluated using four-probe resistivity measurements and spatially resolved Hall measurements. In order to reach the highest possible nanowire doping level, we set the TESn molar fraction at a high constant value throughout growth and varied the trimethylindium (TMIn) molar fraction for different runs. Analysis shows that the charge carrier concentration in nanowires grown with the highest TMIn molar fraction (not leading to kinking nanowires) results in a low carrier concentration of approximately 10(16) cm(-3). By decreasing the molar fraction of TMIn, effectively increasing the IV/III ratio, the carrier concentration increases up to a level of about 10(19) cm(-3), where it seems to saturate. Axial carrier concentration gradients along the nanowires are found, which can be correlated to a combination of changes in the nanowire growth rate, measured in situ by optical reflectometry, and polytypism of the nanowires observed in transmission electron microscopy.

  10. 2010 Solar Program Peer Review Report: An Independent Evaluation of Program Activities for FY2009 and FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2010-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program's 2010 Program Review meeting, held on May 24?27, 2010, in Washington, D.C.

  11. Indoor test for the thermal performance evaluation of the DEC 8A large manifold sunmaster evacuated tube (liquid) solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Sunmaster DEC 8A Large Manifold solar collector using simulated conditions was evaluated. The collector provided 17.17 square feet of gross collector area. Test conditions, test requirements, an analysis of results, and tables of test data are reported.

  12. Changing perceptions one classroom at a time: Evaluation results from the Solar Dynamics Observatory formal Education and Public Outreach programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawro, Martha; Haden, Carol

    2014-06-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory’s (SDO) education and public outreach (EPO) team has developed and implemented a number of formal education programs for K-12 students and teachers. Programs include the Day At Goddard field trip for high school students, SDO Ambassador in the Classroom outreach to elementary classrooms, and teacher support materials for solar science education. These programs have been designed to foster student interest and engagement in science especially solar science, and increase their awareness and interest in NASA and STEM careers. Magnolia Consulting, who worked closely with the SDO EPO team to both design a substantive evaluation program, as well as improve the education programs offered, has extensively evaluated these programs. Evaluation findings indicate that teachers highly value the opportunities and resources provided by SDO EPO and that student impacts include increased interest and engagement in solar science topics and awareness of STEM careers. This presentation will be a summary of the results of the evaluation of these formal education programs including lessons learned that can be of value to the STEM EPO community.

  13. Evaluation of Various Methods for Estimating Global Solar Radiation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.

    2012-05-01

    Global solar radiation Rg is an important input for crop models to simulate crop responses. Because the scarcity of long and continuous records of Rg is a serious limitation in many countries, Rg is estimated using models. For crop-model application, empirical Rg models that use commonly measured meteorological variables, such as temperature and precipitation, are generally preferred. Although a large number of models of this kind exist, few have been evaluated for conditions in the United States. This study evaluated the performances of 16 empirical, temperature- and/or precipitation-based Rg models for the southeastern United States. By taking into account spatial distribution and data availability, 30 locations in the region were selected and their daily weather data spanning eight years obtained. One-half of the data was used for calibrating the models, and the other half was used for evaluation. For each model, location-specific parameter values were estimated through regressions. Models were evaluated for each location using the root-mean-square error and the modeling efficiency as goodness-of-fit measures. Among the models that use temperature or precipitation as the input variable, the Mavromatis model showed the best performance. The piecewise linear regression based Wu et al. model (WP) performed best not only among the models that use both temperature and precipitation but also among the 16 models evaluated, mainly because it has separate relationships for low and high radiation levels. The modeling efficiency of WP was from ~5% to more than 100% greater than those of the other models, depending on models and locations.

  14. Commercial solar demonstration performance evaluation report: Basking Ridge, New Jersey, Environmental Education Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The Somerset County Park Commission for Somerset County, New Jersey, undertook the project of incorporating a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system as part of its newly-constructed Environmental Education Center (EEC) located in Lord Stirling Park, Basking Ridge, New Jersey. It is the objective of this solar energy project to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using solar energy collected via 3100 sq.ft. of flat plate solar collectors to space heat, cool, and supply domestic hot water to the 18,000 sq.ft. EEC building. The project is also intended to demonstrate the aesthetics and effectiveness of incorporating an integrated solar collector array onto the roof of the newly constructed EEC facility. The results of the solar system performance for the one-year operational period are presented. (MHR)

  15. Evaluation of the solar water disinfection process (SODIS) against Cryptosporidium parvum using a 25-L static solar reactor fitted with a compound parabolic collector (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontán-Sainz, María; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Ares-Mazás, Elvira

    2012-02-01

    Water samples of 0, 5, and 30 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) spiked with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to natural sunlight using a 25-L static solar reactor fitted with a compound parabolic collector (CPC). The global oocyst viability was calculated by the evaluation of the inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide and the spontaneous excystation. After an exposure time of 8 hours, the global oocyst viabilities were 21.8 ± 3.1%, 31.3 ± 12.9%, and 45.0 ± 10.0% for turbidity levels of 0, 5, and 30 NTU, respectively, and these values were significantly lower (P 10 times).

  16. Developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating systems. Project status report for October and November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This report describes progress on 3 projects: Integrated tank/heat exchanger modeling and experiments for solar thermal storage; Advanced residential solar domestic hot water systems; and Incident angle modifiers (IAMs) by the Monte Carlo method for cylindrical solar collectors. IAMs are used to correct for effects such as shading, back plane reflectance, inter-reflection, etc. Summaries are given for the first two projects; however, a full draft report is given for the third.

  17. Evaluation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB): 1998-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Sengupta, Manajit; Lopez, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    This paper validates the performance of the physics-based Physical Solar Model (PSM) data set in the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) to quantify the accuracy of the magnitude and the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiation data. Achieving higher penetrations of solar energy on the electric grid and reducing integration costs requires accurate knowledge of the available solar resource. Understanding the impacts of clouds and other meteorological constituents on the solar resource and quantifying intra-/inter-hour, seasonal, and interannual variability are essential for accurately designing utility-scale solar energy projects. Solar resource information can be obtained from ground-based measurement stations and/or from modeled data sets. The availability of measurements is scarce, both temporally and spatially, because it is expensive to maintain a high-density solar radiation measurement network that collects good quality data for long periods of time. On the other hand, high temporal and spatial resolution gridded satellite data can be used to estimate surface radiation for long periods of time and is extremely useful for solar energy development. Because of the advantages of satellite-based solar resource assessment, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed the PSM. The PSM produced gridded solar irradiance -- global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), and diffuse horizontal irradiance -- for the NSRDB at a 4-km by 4-km spatial resolution and half-hourly temporal resolution covering the 18 years from 1998-2015. The NSRDB also contains additional ancillary meteorological data sets, such as temperature, relative humidity, surface pressure, dew point, and wind speed. Details of the model and data are available at https://nsrdb.nrel.gov. The results described in this paper show that the hourly-averaged satellite-derived data have a systematic (bias) error of approximately +5% for GHI and less than +10% for

  18. Solar heating, wood chips and pellets at Harpsund. An evaluation; Solvaerme, flis och pellets paa Harpsund. Utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Leif; Perers, Bengt

    2006-06-15

    be possible to improve this result slightly through some optimization measures, possibly to 10.72 SEK/kWh,year. This evaluation presents a thorough analysis of the performance of the solar heating system, together with data for the overall system coordination and details for the temperature dynamics of the heat accumulator. In all, the analysis shows a very attractive plant, well suited for demonstration purposes.

  19. Evaluation of Attenuation of Solar Radiation by Space System for Regulate the Thermal Conditions of Earth's Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Starovoitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming in the future is an existential threat to human civilization. To prevent further changes in the Earth's climate is intended of space system for regulate the temperature of Earth's atmosphere, proposed of G.A. Sizentsev. In this system, the main role is played by the solar-sailing ship (SSS arranged in a Lagrange point L1 of the Earth-Sun system. Due to the large area of sails SSS, drifting in the plane normal to the flow of sunlight, reduces the amount of solar radiation incident on the Earth. For practical implementation of space system for regulate the temperature of Earth's atmosphere is necessary to solve complex problems related primarily to the efficiency of attenuation of solar radiation flux. In this paper we study the solar limb darkening on the reduce of the outgoing radiation flux from sun with using the SSS. On the basis of well-known law of solar limb darkening, expressions are obtained for attenuation of the radiation flux when the SSS is at the center of the solar disk, and with deviation the SSS from center of the solar disk at a certain angle. Evaluation is made for the total stream and separate sections the spectral range (from average UV- to the near IR-range. Found that attenuation will decrease at the displacement of SSS to solar disk center, because from there comes the most intense radiation flux. For constant attenuation values of the radiation flux is necessary to ensure a stable position of the SSS with respect to the center of the solar disk, or design should allow the SSS to regulate the transmission amount of the radiation flux. Is shown, that the greatest attenuation occurs in the spectral range of 260 ... 300 nm, corresponding to middle UV-range. Currently, there are published data on the significant effect of fluctuations in the UV radiation on the Earth's climate. Conclusion, that more research is needed of possible effects of reduce UV-radiation on the Earth's climate when regulating of the solar

  20. Outdoor work and solar radiation exposure: Evaluation method for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenese, Alberto; Bisegna, Fabio; Borra, Massimo; Grandi, Carlo; Gugliermetti, Franco; Militello, Andrea; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    The health risk related to an excessive exposure to solar radiation (SR) is well known. The Sun represents the main exposure source for all the frequency bands of optical radiation, that is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging between 100 nm and 1 mm, including infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV) and visible radiation. According to recent studies, outdoor workers have a relevant exposure to SR but few studies available in scientific literature have attempted to retrace a detailed history of individual exposure. We propose a new method for the evaluation of SR cumulative exposure both during work and leisure time, integrating subjective and objective data. The former is collected by means of an interviewer administrated questionnaire. The latter is available through the Internet databases for many geographical regions and through individual exposure measurements. The data is integrated into a mathematical algorithm, in order to obtain an esteem of the individual total amount of SR the subjects have been exposed to during their lives. The questionnaire has been tested for 58 voluntary subjects. Environmental exposure data through online databases has been collected for 3 different places in Italy in 2012. Individual exposure by electronic UV dosimeter has been measured in 6 fishermen. A mathematical algorithm integrating subjective and objective data has been elaborated. The method proposed may be used in epidemiological studies to evaluate specific correlations with biological effects of SR and to weigh the role of the personal and environmental factors that may increase or reduce SR exposure. Med Pr 2016;67(5):577-587.

  1. Summerwood Associates, House M, Old Saybrook, Connecticut: Solar energy system performance evaluation, June 1980-May 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, M.

    1981-01-01

    Summerwood Associates, House M is a single-family rowhouse residence in Connecticut. The active solar energy system is designed to supply 78% of the space heating and 100% of the hot water loads. It is equipped with 378 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 600-gallon concrete storage tank, and for auxiliary heating, a heat pump and electrical resistance heater. The system and subsystem performance are measured, including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Also given are the system operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions. (LEW)

  2. Summerwood Associates, House M, Old Saybrook, Connecticut: Solar energy system performance evaluation, June 1980 - May 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, M.

    1981-09-01

    The active solar energy system is designed to supply 78% of the space heating and 100% of the hot water loads. It is equipped with 378 square feet of flat plate collectors, a 600-gallon concrete storage tank, and for auxiliary heating, a heat pump and electrical resistance heater. The system and subsystem performance are measured, including the solar fraction, solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance. Also given are the system operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions.

  3. Solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer-Larsen, P.; Krebs, F.C. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Plaza, D.M. (Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT (Spain))

    2010-11-15

    Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource on earth. In a sustainable future with an ever-increasing demand for energy, we will need to use this resource better. Solar energy technologies either convert sunlight directly into heat and electrical energy or use it to power chemical conversions which create 'solar fuels' or synthetic compounds. Solar heating technologies have developed steadily for many years and solar heating and cooling is one of the world's commonest renewable energy technologies. This chapter, however, focuses on technologies for electricity production and touches more briefly on the prospects for solar fuels. The section on Danish perspectives also discusses solar thermal heating in district heating plants. In recent decades, two technologies for converting solar energy into electrical energy have dominated: photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP). Today's silicon and thin-film PV technologies are advancing steadily, with new materials and technologies constantly being developed, and there are clear roadmaps for lowering production costs. In the discussion below we assess the maturation potential of currently emerging PV technologies within the next 40 years. Concentrating solar power is already a proven technology, and below we evaluate its potential to become a substantial part of the energy mix by 2050. Solar fuels cover a range of technologies. The chapter is to a great extent based on two recent roadmaps from the International Energy Agency (IEA). Many reports, predictions, scenarios and roadmaps for solar energy deployment exist. The IEA predictions for the penetration of solar energy in the future energy system are low relative to many of the other studies. The IEA roadmaps, however, cover most aspects of the future deployment of the technologies and reference older work. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of power block arrangements for 100MW scale concentrated solar thermal power generation using top-down design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Alexander; Beath, Andrew; Sauret, Emilie; Persky, Rodney

    2017-06-01

    Concentrated solar thermal power generation poses a unique situation for power block selection, in which a capital intensive heat source is subject to daily and seasonal fluctuations in intensity. In this study, a method is developed to easily evaluate the favourability of different power blocks for converting the heat supplied by a concentrated solar thermal plant into power at the 100MWe scale based on several key parameters. The method is then applied to a range of commercially available power cycles that operate over different temperatures and efficiencies, and with differing capital costs, each with performance and economic parameters selected to be typical of their technology type, as reported in literature. Using this method, the power cycle is identified among those examined that is most likely to result in a minimum levelised cost of energy of a solar thermal plant.

  5. Solar energy system economic evaluation: final report for SEMCO-Loxahatchee, Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge, Palm Beach County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system that was installed at Loxahatchee, Florida Operational Test Site (OTS) is developed for Loxahatchee and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-Chart design procedure with inputs based on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system costs over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. The results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  6. Evaluation and comparing of natural and forced solar dryer for mint drying in Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Habibi Asl

    2017-05-01

    Research Center during the years 2011-2013. Materials and Methods In this research an indirect cabinet solar dryer with three trays and grooved collector was constructed. To improve air convection, a chimney was mounted above the dryer. The dryer performance was evaluated by drying mint leaves in three levels of mass density of 2, 3, and 4 kg m-2 at two drying manners of natural and forced convection and compared with drying mint leaves in shade as the traditional method. Results and Discussion The results showed that total drying time required in different solar drier treatments was 3.5 to 15 h, while it was about 5 days in traditional method. Drying time in upper trays was more as the air flow decreased due to increase in mass density. Mean required drying time in forced convection was 29.7% less than that of natural convection. Maximum essences with 0.80% and 0.76% were belonged to "natural convection and 3kg m-2 mass density" and "forced convection and 4 kg m-2 mass density" treatments respectively, while minimum one with 0.30% was for "forced convection and 2 kg m-2 mass density" treatment. Also, the highest and lowest chlorophyll content with 8.51 and 4.18 mg ml-1 were measured in "natural convection and 3 kg m-2 mass density" and "forced convection and 4 kg m-2 mass density" treatments respectively. According to obtained results, 3 and 4 kg m-2 mass density can be suggested for natural and forced convection solar drying of mint leaves in Khuzestan condition respectively. Conclusions In order to reduce vegetable losses and increase Khuzestan vegetable producers income, indirect cabinet solar dryer for drying mint leaves in winter season, could be an appropriate option. For natural and forced convection drying methods, mass density of 3 and 4 kg m-2 is recommended respectively.

  7. Design and evaluation of a conical solar cooker in glazed and non-glazed configurations: Cooking tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, S.; Sidibé, M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of a conical solar cooker. This prototype was designed in galvanized sheet with an opening diameter of 120 cm. The experiment was carried out on the roof of the building of the solar energy laboratory of FHB University. Tests of boiling eggs were carried out. During operation, two configurations of the conical cooker were adopted. In the first configuration, the cooker was used without modification. On the other hand, in the second configuration, a removable glass plate is placed in the cone and at a distance of 25 cm from the base. This contribution has the role of creating a greenhouse effect between the absorber and the glass. During the tests, the temperature of cooking, the ambient temperature as well as the solar illumination were measured. The tests were conducted in accordance with the maximum cooking time of some foods given by "Solar cookers international". Despite the observed cloudy periods, maximum temperatures obtained by the eggs were 82°C in 2 hours cooking for the first configuration and 100°C in cooking 1h10 for the second configuration. These results show that the addition of the glass plate in the conical solar cooker gives good satisfaction. In addition, in both cases, a perfect cooking of the eggs was observed.

  8. Field Measurement and Evaluation of the Passive and Active Solar Heating Systems for Residential Building Based on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Passive and active solar heating systems have drawn much attention and are widely used in residence buildings in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau due to its high radiation intensity. In fact, there is still lack of quantitative evaluation of the passive and active heating effect, especially for residential building in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau areas. In this study, three kinds of heating strategies, including reference condition, passive solar heating condition and active solar heating condition, were tested in one demonstration residential building. The hourly air temperatures of each room under different conditions were obtained and analyzed. The results show the indoor air temperature in the living room and bedrooms (core zones was much higher than that of other rooms under both passive and active solar heating conditions. In addition, the heating effect with different strategies for core zones of the building was evaluated by the ratio of indoor and outdoor degree hour, which indicates that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment. The passive solar heating could undertake 49.8% degree hours for heating under an evaluation criterion of 14 °C and the active solar heating could undertake 75% degree hours for heating under evaluation criterion of 18 °C, which indicated that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment in this area. These findings could provide reference for the design and application of solar heating in similar climate areas.

  9. Evaluation of the solar building, Albuquerque, NM. Annual progress report, March 31, 1976--April 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, S.F.

    1977-05-02

    Data validation procedures and correlations are detailed as well as system performance results. The latter includes solar collection, heat pump performance, tank temperature stratification, building infiltration and system heating output/building energy requirements. The procedure to computer model the Solar Building and correlate the model with field collected data is described.

  10. An evaluation of solar energy for heating a highway maintenance headquarters building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A highway maintenance area headquarters building having overall dimensions of 64 ft - 8 in by 42 ft - 0 in was equipped with an active solar heating system to assist in heating space and domestic hot water. The solar system was instrumented and its o...

  11. Findings from an Independent Evaluation of the AMNH's Online Seminars on Science Course: "The Solar System"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverness Research, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Inverness Research studied the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) Seminars on Science program for eight years, from its inception in 1998 to 2006. In 2009, Inverness Research conducted additional studies of the AMNH's new online course, The Solar System. This paper presents teacher survey ratings for The Solar System, along with profiles of…

  12. Spatiotemporal Pattern and Driving Forces of Arable Land-Use Intensity in China: Toward Sustainable Land Management Using Emergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The level of arable land-use intensity has important impacts on food security and rural sustainable development. Using the emergy method, we investigate the spatial disparities and driving forces of arable land-use intensity in China from 1999 to 2008 at the national, regional and provincial levels. The empirical results show that chemical fertilizer was the largest component of agricultural inputs and that agricultural diesel oil recorded the highest growth rate. The degree of heterogeneities in arable land-use intensity in China showed a decreasing trend, which resulted mainly from the differences among the eastern, northeastern, central and western regions. The regional disparities in labor, pesticides and plastic sheeting decreased from 1999 to 2008. The per capita annual net incomes of household operations and the agricultural policies had a significant positive correlation with total inputs, fertilizer inputs, pesticide inputs and agricultural plastic sheeting. In addition, the nonagricultural population had a greater impact on agricultural plastic sheeting. Finally, we suggest that there is an urgent need to focus on the effects of chemical fertilizer and pesticide inputs on the ecological environment. Agricultural support policies should be introduced for the poor agricultural production provinces.

  13. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Summerwood Associates, House G, Old Saybrook, connecticut, June 1980 - May 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, M.

    An active solar energy system designed to supply 62% of the space heating and 100% of the hot water is described. It is equipped with flat plate collectors with pyramidal optics reflectors, a 600-gallon concrete storge tank, and an auxiliary system consisting of a dual-source heat pump with electrical resistance heater. The solar fraction of space and water heating was 36%, substantially less than was expected, due to less solar energy being collected than was calculated. The solar savings ratio, conventional fuel savings, system performance factor, and solar system coefficient of performance are also given as well as outdoor temperature, heating degree-days, and daily insolation. The performance of the total system and of the collector, storage, hot water and space heating subsystems is analyzed, and the system operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions are reported. The system is described and the sensors used are discussed.

  14. Evaluating the effectiveness of wildlife detection and observation technologies at a solar power tower facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Preston, Todd M.; Wellik, Mike J.; Cryan, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light (“solar flux”) in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world’s largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  15. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H; Valdez, Ernest W; Preston, Todd M; Wellik, Michael J; Cryan, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light ("solar flux") in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world's largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance) could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Wildlife Detection and Observation Technologies at a Solar Power Tower Facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Diehl

    Full Text Available Solar power towers produce electrical energy from sunlight at an industrial scale. Little is known about the effects of this technology on flying animals and few methods exist for automatically detecting or observing wildlife at solar towers and other tall anthropogenic structures. Smoking objects are sometimes observed co-occurring with reflected, concentrated light ("solar flux" in the airspace around solar towers, but the identity and origins of such objects can be difficult to determine. In this observational pilot study at the world's largest solar tower facility, we assessed the efficacy of using radar, surveillance video, and insect trapping to detect and observe animals flying near the towers. During site visits in May and September 2014, we monitored the airspace surrounding towers and observed insects, birds, and bats under a variety of environmental and operational conditions. We detected and broadly differentiated animals or objects moving through the airspace generally using radar and near solar towers using several video imaging methods. Video revealed what appeared to be mostly small insects burning in the solar flux. Also, we occasionally detected birds flying in the solar flux but could not accurately identify birds to species or the types of insects and small objects composing the vast majority of smoking targets. Insect trapping on the ground was somewhat effective at sampling smaller insects around the tower, and presence and abundance of insects in the traps generally trended with radar and video observations. Traps did not tend to sample the larger insects we sometimes observed flying in the solar flux or found dead on the ground beneath the towers. Some of the methods we tested (e.g., video surveillance could be further assessed and potentially used to automatically detect and observe flying animals in the vicinity of solar towers to advance understanding about their effects on wildlife.

  17. Scattering matrix analysis for evaluating the photocurrent in hydrogenated-amorphous-silicon-based thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myunghun; Lee, Seong Hyun; Lim, Jung Wook; Yun, Sun Jin

    2014-11-01

    A scattering matrix (S-matrix) analysis method was developed for evaluating hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H)-based thin film solar cells. In this approach, light wave vectors A and B represent the incoming and outgoing behaviors of the incident solar light, respectively, in terms of coherent wave and incoherent intensity components. The S-matrix determines the relation between A and B according to optical effects such as reflection and transmission, as described by the Fresnel equations, scattering at the boundary surfaces, or scattering within the propagation medium, as described by the Beer-Lambert law and the change in the phase of the propagating light wave. This matrix can be used to evaluate the behavior of angle-incident coherent and incoherent light simultaneously, and takes into account not only the light scattering process at material boundaries (haze effects) but also nonlinear optical processes within the material. The optical parameters in the S-matrix were determined by modeling both a 2%-gallium-doped zinc oxide transparent conducting oxide and germanium-compounded a-Si:H (a-SiGe:H). Using the S-matrix equations, the photocurrent for an a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H tandem cell and the optical loss in semitransparent a-Si:H solar cells for use in building-integrated photovoltaic applications were analyzed. The developed S-matrix method can also be used as a general analysis tool for various thin film solar cells.

  18. EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1981-06-01

    The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

  19. Evaluation of WRF model-derived direct irradiance for solar thermal resource assessment over South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Young; Yun, Chang-Yeol; Kim, Chang Ki; Kang, Yong-Heack; Kim, Hyun-Goo; Lee, Sang-Nam; Kim, Shin-Young

    2017-06-01

    The South Korean government has been started monitoring and reassessment for new and renewable resource under greenhouse reduction related with the climate agreement in Paris. This study investigated characteristics of the model-derived direct normal irradiance(DNI) using ten-minute data of the Weather Research and Forecasting(WRF) model with 1 km grid spacing. First, ground horizontal irradiance(GHI) and direct normal irradiance(DNI) from the model was compared with those of ground stations throughout South Korea to evaluate the uncertainty of the GHI-derived DNI. Then solar thermal resource potential was assessed using a DNI map. Uncertainty of irradiances appeared highly dependent on sky conditions. Root mean square errors in DNI(GHI) was 45.39%(18.06%) for all sky with the range of 9.92˜51.93%(14.49˜51.47%) for clear to overcast sky. These indicate DNI is further sensitive to cloud condition in Korea which is around 72% of cloud days during a whole year. Finally DNI maps showed high value over most areas except southeastern areas and Jeju island which is humid regions in South Korea.

  20. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 3: Photon production evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    Lower limits of photon fluxes were evaluated from electron capture during acceleration in solar flares, because the arbitrary q sub c asterisk assumed in this work evolves very slow with velocity, probably much more slowly than the physical actual situation: in fact, more emission is expected toward the IR region. Nevertheless the authors claim to show that the factibility of sounding acceleration processes, charge evolution processes and physical parameters of the source itself, by the observational analysis of this kind of emissions. For instance, it would be interesting to search observationally, for the predicted flux and energy drift of F sub e ions interacting with the atomic 0 and F sub e of the source matter, or, even more feasible for the X-ray lines at 4.2 keV and 2.624 + 0.003 KeV from Fe and S ions in ionized Fe at T = 10 to the 7th power K respectively, the 418 + or - 2 eV and 20 + or - 4 eV lines of Fe and S in ionized Fe at 5 x 10 to the 6th power K, which are predicted from Fermi acceleration.

  1. Thermal Performance Evaluation of the 200kWth SolAir Volumetric Solar Receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez Sufrategui, F. M.

    2003-07-01

    The goal of the Solair project the design and test of a fully modular, high efficient and durable open volumetric high-flux receiver, which can be easily and safety operated at mean air outlet temperatures of up to 800 degree centigree. The project was thought in two phases, in the first one an advanced 200 kW Hitrec receiver called Solair 200 was designed and tested. The Solair 200 was built like one single receiver module (subassembly), to test the thermal performance of the receiver as well as the receiver module behavior. Out of a set of these receiver modules have been developed to assemble the 3 MWth receiver in the second phase of the project. This report describes the used procedure or methodology for data processing for thermal performance evaluation purposes and the data processing results for the first phase of the project. Test campaign started in March 2002 and produced fifty data sheets (each corresponding to a test day) and ended in February 2003. During the test phase three absorber material types (or configurations) have been tested during the test campaign. The data processing and evaluation results show that performance goals for the receiver have been fully accomplished. Temperatures of more than 800 degree centigree were achieved for the first two configurations in five test days. For the two absorber configurations for which incident solar power was measured the estimated efficiency at 700 degree centigree was 81 ({+-}6)% for configuration 1 and 83({+-}6)% for configuration 2 of the absorber. (Author). 20 refs.

  2. Economic evaluation of solar-powered triple-fluid Einstein refrigeration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qenawy, A.M.; El-Dib, A.W.F.; Ghoraba, M.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Mechanical Power Dept., Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The renewed interest in solar cooling systems can be attributed to rising energy prices and environmental concerns. However, the controlling factor for successful commercialization of such systems is their economic feasibility. In response, systems using solar energy are being actively developed. An alternative to vapor compression systems is the absorption refrigerator cycle which can be driven by low grade energy such as solar energy. Single pressure absorption systems are characterized by absorbing and refrigerant mediums as well as by a pressure-equalizing medium. Two cycles of this type exist, namely the ammonia-water-hydrogen (AWH) and the Einstein cycles. In the Einstein refrigeration cycle, the generator produces ammonia, the pressure-equalizing fluid that lowers the liquid butane partial pressure in the evaporator, thereby producing a cooling effect. In the proposed system, the solar collector acts as the generator. This paper investigated the economics of solar powered Einstein refrigeration system for use in the food industry or for ice production in isolated fish villages in Egypt. Such an icemaker could be used to refrigerate vaccines, meat, dairy products or vegetables. The ice can be sold as a commercial product, or used in a cooler or icebox refrigerator. Solar energy is required to produce the cooling effect in the solar powered Einstein refrigeration cycle. Although solar radiant energy is free, the equipment required to convert it to a useful cooling is not. The system ice production cost was found to be approximately 50 per cent more than other conventional refrigeration systems. Although the initial cost of the solar refrigerator was found to be relatively high, it could be an acceptable solution if this equipment is mass produced. The use of the system is essential in rural areas which do not have electric service. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for fern, Tunkhannock, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The operational and thermal performance of a variety of solar systems installed in operational test sites are described. The analysis is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for at least one full season of operation. The long-term field performance of the installed system is reported, and technical contributions to the definition of techniques and requirements for solar energy system design are made. The solar energy system was designed to supply space heating and domestic hot water for single-family residences. The system consists of air flat plate collectors, storage tank, pumps, heat exchangers, associated plumbing, and controls.

  4. Evaluation of Steam and Soil Solarization for Meloidogyne arenaria Control in Florida Floriculture Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N; Butler, David M; Fennimore, Steven A; Holzinger, John

    2016-09-01

    Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in 2 yr of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if preplant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effectively controlled nematodes compared to methyl bromide (MeBr). Trials were conducted in a field with naturally occurring populations of M. arenaria. Treatments were solarization alone, steam treatment after solarization using standard 7.6-cm-diameter perforated plastic drain tile (steam 1), steam treatment following solarization using custom-drilled plastic drain tile with 1.6-mm holes spaced every 3.8 cm (steam 2), and MeBr applied at 392 kg/ha 80:20 MeBr:chloropicrin. Drain tiles were buried approximately 35 cm deep with four tiles per 1.8 by 30 m plot. Steam application followed a 4-wk solarization period concluding in mid-October. All steam was generated using a Sioux propane boiler system. Plots were steamed for sufficient time to reach the target temperature of 70°C for 20 min. Solarization plastic was retained on the plots during steaming and plots were covered with a single layer of carpet padding to provide additional insulation. The floriculture crops larkspur (Delphinium elatum and Delphinium × belladonna), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were produced according to standard commercial practices. One month after treatment in both years of the study, soil populations of M. arenaria were lower in both steam treatments and in MeBr compared to solarization alone. At the end of the season in both years, galling on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflowers was lower in both steam treatments than in solarization. Both steam treatments also provided control of M. arenaria in soil at the end of the season comparable to, or exceeding that provided by MeBr. Both steam treatments also reduced M. arenaria in snapdragon roots comparable to, or exceeding

  5. Test and evaluation of Fern Engineering Company, Incorporated, solar heating and hot water system. [structural design criteria and system effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Tests, test results, examination and evaluation by Underwriters Laboratory, Inc., of a single family solar heating and hot water system consisting of collector, storage, control, transport, and data acquisition are presented. The structural characteristics of the solar flat plate collectors were evaluated according to snow and wind loads indicated in various building codes to determine their suitability for use both Michigan and Pennsylvania where prototype systems were installed. The flame spread classification of the thermal insulation is discussed and the fire tests conducted on components are described. The operation and dielectrics withstand tests of the energy transport module indicate the module is capable of rated air delivery. Tests of the control panel indicate the relay coil temperatures exceed the temperature limits allowed for the insulating materials involved.

  6. Thermal performance evaluation of the Northrop model NSC-01-0732 concentrating solar collector array at outdoor conditions. [Marshall Space Flight Center solar house test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The thermal efficiency of the concentrating, tracking solar collector was tested after ten months of operation at the Marshall Space Flight Center solar house. The test procedures and results are presented.

  7. Design, construction and evaluation of solar flat-plate collector simulator based on the thermohydraulic coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Rahmati Aidinlou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Increasing the area of absorber plate between the flowed air through the duct can be accomplished by corrugating the absorber plate or by using the artificial roughness underside of the absorber plate as the commercial methods for enhancing the thermohydraulic performance of the flat plate solar air heaters. Evaluation of this requires the construction of separated solar air heater which is costly and time consuming. The constructed solar flat-plate collector simulator can be a sufficient solution for obtaining the heat transfer and thermodynamic parameters for evaluating the absorber plate. The inclined broken roughness was chosen as the optimum roughness which is surrounded by three aluminum smooth walls. Materials and Methods The duct for both smooth and roughened plate have been constructed based on the ASHRAE 93-2010 standard. In order to achieve a fully thermal and hydraulic developed flow, the plenum is constructed. The centrifugal fan is considered by applying the required air volume at the pressure drop obtained by the duct, plenum and the orifice meter. The TSI velocity-meter 8355 is used to measure the velocity of air crossing through the pipe connected to the centrifugal fan. The micro manometer Kimo CPE310-s with the resolution of 0.1 Pa is used to measure the pressure drop across the test section of the smooth and roughened duct. The LM35 sensors are used to measure the absorber plate and air temperature through the test section. Obtained parameters are used to calculate the Nusselt number and friction factor across the test section for smooth and roughened absorber plate. The Nusselt number and friction factor parameters which is obtained for smooth absorber plate based on experimental set-up, is compared with Dittus-Bolter and Blasius equations, respectively, for validating the simulator. By calculating the Nusselt number and friction factor, Stanton number is obtained based on the equation (6, and thermohydraulic

  8. Evaluation of linear interpolation method for missing value on solar radiation dataset in Perlis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saaban, Azizan; Zainudin, Lutfi [School of Science Quantitative, UUMCAS, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia); Bakar, Mohd Nazari Abu [Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper intends to reveal the ability of the linear interpolation method to predict missing values in solar radiation time series. Reliable dataset is equally tends to complete time series observed dataset. The absence or presence of radiation data alters long-term variation of solar radiation measurement values. Based on that change, the opportunities to provide bias output result for modelling and the validation process is higher. The completeness of the observed variable dataset has significantly important for data analysis. Occurrence the lack of continual and unreliable time series solar radiation data widely spread and become the main problematic issue. However, the limited number of research quantity that has carried out to emphasize and gives full attention to estimate missing values in the solar radiation dataset.

  9. Evaluation of thermal control coatings for use on solar dynamic radiators in low earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Slemp, Wayne S.; Stoyack, Joseph E.

    1991-01-01

    Thermal control coatings with high thermal emittance and low solar absorptance are needed for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic power module radiator (SDR) surfaces for efficient heat rejection. Additionally, these coatings must be durable to low earth orbital (LEO) environmental effects of atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation and deep thermal cycles which occur as a result of start-up and shut-down of the solar dynamic power system. Eleven candidate coatings were characterized for their solar absorptance and emittance before and after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation (200 to 400 nm), vacuum UV (VUV) radiation (100 to 200 nm) and atomic oxygen. Results indicated that the most durable and best performing coatings were white paint thermal control coatings Z-93, zinc oxide pigment in potassium silicate binder, and YB-71, zinc orthotitanate pigment in potassium silicate binder. Optical micrographs of these materials exposed to the individual environmental effects of atomic oxygen and vacuum thermal cycling showed that no surface cracking occurred.

  10. Solar energy system economic evaluation for IBM system 1B, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic performance of an operational test site of a solar energy system is described. The viability of the system was tested over a broad range of environmental and economic conditions. Significant results are reported.

  11. EVALUATION OF EVACUATED TUBULAR SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR LARGE SDHW SYSTEMS AND COMBINED SPACE HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    . Based on thesemodels, the thermal performance of large solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems and combined domestichot water and space heating systems with the four evacuated tubular collectors was determined. To make acomparison with traditional flat-plate collectors, similar simulations were also......In the present study, detailed investigations on evacuated tubular solar collectors for large solarheating systems have been carried out. Four types of evacuated tubular solar collectors were used in theinvestigation. Based on laboratory tests, simulation models for the collectors were determined...... carried out for systems with atypical flat-plate collector. The results show that the thermal advantage of evacuated tubular collectors variesgreatly from system to system, and increases with the solar fraction. Furthermore, the higher the operationtemperature of the collector in the system is...

  12. Calibration and Evaluation of Different Estimation Models of Daily Solar Radiation in Seasonally and Annual Time Steps in Shiraz Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Fooladmand

    2017-06-01

    2006 to 2008 were used for calibrating fourteen estimated models of solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps and the measured data of years 2009 and 2010 were used for evaluating the obtained results. The equations were used in this study divided into three groups contains: 1 The equations based on only sunshine hours. 2 The equations based on only air temperature. 3 The equations based on sunshine hours and air temperature together. On the other hand, statistical comparison must be done to select the best equation for estimating solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps. For this purpose, in validation stage the combination of statistical equations and linear correlation was used, and then the value of mean square deviation (MSD was calculated to evaluate the different models for estimating solar radiation in mentioned time steps. Results and Discussion: The mean values of mean square deviation (MSD of fourteen models for estimating solar radiation were equal to 24.16, 20.42, 4.08 and 16.19 for spring to winter respectively, and 15.40 in annual time step. Therefore, the results showed that using the equations for autumn enjoyed high accuracy, however for other seasons had low accuracy. So, using the equations for annual time step were appropriate more than the equations for seasonally time steps. Also, the mean values of mean square deviation (MSD of the equations based on only sunshine hours, the equations based on only air temperature, and the equations based on the combination of sunshine hours and air temperature for estimating solar radiation were equal to 14.82, 17.40 and 14.88, respectively. Therefore, the results indicated that the models based on only air temperature were the worst conditions for estimating solar radiation in Shiraz region, and therefore, using the sunshine hours for estimating solar radiation is necessary. Conclusions: In this study for estimating solar radiation in seasonally and annual time steps in Shiraz region

  13. An Evaluation of Solar Air Heating at United States Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    we selected Albuquerque, New Mexico . Since USAFA and Peterson AFB are both using identical climate data, the UTC system performance estimates will...supply as well. During the 2005 hurricane season, the Gulf of Mexico suffered severe damage, causing a substantial shutdown of 25 percent of the...of Various SolarWall® Colors Color Name Solar Absorptivity Black 0.94 Classic Bronze 0.91 Chocolate Brown 0.90 Hartford Green 0.90 Med. Bronze

  14. Experimental evaluation of LED-based solar blind NLOS communication links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Abou-Galala, Feras; Xu, Zhengyuan; Sadler, Brian M

    2008-09-15

    Experimental results are reported demonstrating non-line of sight short-range ultraviolet communication link losses, and performance of photon counting detectors, operating in the solar blind spectrum regime. We employ light emitting diodes with divergent beams, a solar blind filter, and a wide field-of-view detector. Signal and noise statistics are characterized, and receiver performance is demonstrated. The effects of transmitter and receiver elevation angles, separation distance, and path loss are included.

  15. Design and Evaluation of Solar Grain Dryer with a Back-up Heater

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Tonui; E.B.K. Mutai; D.A. Mutuli; D.O. Mbuge; K.V. Too

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to design and construct a solar grain dryer integrated with a simple biomass burner using locally available materials. This was to address the limitations of the natural sun drying for example drying exposure, liability to pests and rodents, over-dependence on sun and escalated cost of mechanical dryers. This became beneficial especially in reducing post-harvest losses as well as helping in the preservation of agricultural product. The dryer is composed of solar colle...

  16. Comparative Study for Evaluation of Mass Flow Rate for Simple Solar Still and Active with Heat Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidouri Khaoula

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In isolated and arid areas, especially in the almost Maghreb regions, the abundant solar radiation intensity along the year and the available brackish water resources are the two favorable conditions for using solar desalination technology to produce fresh water. The present study is based on the use of three groups of correlation, for evaluating mass transfer. Theoretical results are compared with those obtained experimentally for a Simple Solar Distiller (SSD and a Simple Solar Distiller Hybrid with a Heat Pump (SSDHP stills. Experimental results and those calculated by Lewis number correlation show good agreements. Results obtained by Dunkle, Kumar and Tiwari correlations are not satisfactory with the experimental ones. Theoretical results, as well as statistical analysis, are presented. The model with heat pump ( for two configurations (111 and (001 give more output compared with the model without heat pump ((000 and (110. This results where agree for the use of the statistic results, the error it less with Lewis number as compared with the different correlation.

  17. Simulation and Evaluation of Small Scale Solar Power Tower Performance under Malaysia Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamil, A. M.; Gilani, S. I.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.

    2013-06-01

    Solar energy is the most available, clean, and inexpensive source of energy among the other renewable sources of energy. Malaysia is an encouraging location for the development of solar energy systems due to abundant sunshine (10 hours daily with average solar energy received between 1400 and 1900 kWh/m2). In this paper the design of heliostat field of 3 dual-axis heliostat units located in Ipoh, Malaysia is introduced. A mathematical model was developed to estimate the sun position and calculate the cosine losses in the field. The study includes calculating the incident solar power to a fixed target on the tower by analysing the tower height and ground distance between the heliostat and the tower base. The cosine efficiency was found for each heliostat according to the sun movement. TRNSYS software was used to simulate the cosine efficiencies and field hourly incident solar power input to the fixed target. The results show the heliostat field parameters and the total incident solar input to the receiver.

  18. Solar-energy-system performance evaluation: Honeywell OTS 44, Ocmulgee, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, A. K.; Pederson, S.

    1982-01-01

    The operation and technical performance of the solar operational test site (OTS 44) are described, based on data collected between April, 1981 and August, 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 44 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 5040 square feet of liquid cooled flat plate collectors; a 4000 gallon thermal storage tank; one 25 ton capacity organic Rankine cycle engine assisted water chillers; a forced draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes for providing space conditioning and hot water to the building. Data monitored during the 4 months of the operational test period found that the solar system collected 285 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 1040 MMBtu and provided 210 MMBtu for cooling and 10 MMBtu for heating and hot water. The net electrical energy saving due to the solar system was approximately 2600 kWh(e), and fossil energy saving was about 20 million Btu (MMBtu).

  19. Solar energy system performance evaluation - final report for Honeywell OTS 45, Salt River Project, Phoenix, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A K

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 45) at Salt River Project in Phoenix, Arizona, based on the analysis of data collected between April 1981 and March 31, 1982. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 45 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 8208 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 2500-gallon thermal storage tank; two 25-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted water chillers; a forced-draft cooling tower; and associated piping, pumps, valves, controls and heat rejection equipment. The solar system has eight basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 8 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 1143 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 3440 MMBtu and provided 241 MMBtu for cooling and 64 MMBtu for heating. The projected net annual electrical energy savings due to the solar system was approximately 40,000 kWh(e).

  20. Evaluation of the Solar Water Disinfection Process (SODIS) Against Cryptosporidium parvum Using a 25-L Static Solar Reactor Fitted with a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontán-Sainz, María; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar; Ares-Mazás, Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Water samples of 0, 5, and 30 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) spiked with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to natural sunlight using a 25-L static solar reactor fitted with a compound parabolic collector (CPC). The global oocyst viability was calculated by the evaluation of the inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide and the spontaneous excystation. After an exposure time of 8 hours, the global oocyst viabilities were 21.8 ± 3.1%, 31.3 ± 12.9%, and 45.0 ± 10.0% for turbidity levels of 0, 5, and 30 NTU, respectively, and these values were significantly lower (P 10 times). PMID:22302852

  1. Lethbridge wind research test site evaluation of wind and solar pumping systems, 1985 - 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, B.A. (Land Evaluation and Reclamation Branch, Alberta Agriculture, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)); Baker, D.R. (DRB Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)); Jensen, N.E. (Jensen Engineerging Ltd., Olds, AB (Canada))

    1988-01-01

    The performance of wind pumping systems has been evaluated over the past 3 years at a field test facility in Alberta. A total of eight wind turbines (6 mechanical and 2 electromechanical) and 2 photovoltaic-powered pumpers were tested. Data are presented on each machine's availability and reliability. Performance curves (pumping rate versus wind speed) are included. The data format is based on the International Enegry Agency's wind performance testing standard, so that extrapolation of the information world-wide is possible. The test procedures and the data acquisition and monitoring systems are also described. In addition, the applications and markets for wind pumps, notably in agriculture (land drainage, irrigation, livestock watering), are discussed. The results of the testing have been encouraging. Long-term reliability is a key factor which needs improvement, and which has been seen to be of much greater importance than overall performance numbers or improvements. The availability of water pumping systems tested at the site ranges from a low of 24% to a high of 100%. The test program has shown that full measurement of the overall availability and reliability of a machine requires that it be monitored at least 2-3 years. Most of the machines at the site have not met this requirement because of continuous changes and upgrading by the manufacturers, who are responsible for installation and maintenance of the wind turbine units. The exceptions to this are the 2 solar pumping systems, which have performed very reliably over the last 3 years, with very low maintenance requirements. Their disadvantage at present is a higher capital cost per unit of water pumped compared with the wind turbines. 43 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Solar energy system performance evaluation: final report for Honeywell OTS 41, Shenandoah (Newnan), Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, A K; Pederson, S

    1982-08-01

    The operation and technical performance of the Solar Operational Test Site (OTS 41) located at Shenandoah, Georgia, are described, based on the analysis of data collected between January and August 1981. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, system maintenance, and conclusions. The solar energy system at OTS 41 is a hydronic heating and cooling system consisting of 702 square feet of liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors; a 1000-gallon thermal storage tank; a 3-ton capacity organic Rankine-cycle-engine-assisted air conditioner; a water-to-air heat exchanger for solar space heating; a finned-tube coil immersed in the storage tank to preheat water for a gas-fired hot water heater; and associated piping, pumps, valves, and controls. The solar system has six basic modes of operation and several combination modes. The system operation is controlled automatically by a Honeywell-designed microprocessor-based control system, which also provides diagnostics. Based on the instrumented test data monitored and collected during the 7 months of the Operational Test Period, the solar system collected 53 MMBtu of thermal energy of the total incident solar energy of 219 MMBtu and provided 11.4 MMBtu for cooling, 8.6 MMBtu for heating, and 8.1 MMBtu for domestic hot water. The projected net annual energy savings due to the solar system were approximately 50 MMBtu of fossil energy (49,300 cubic feet of natural gas) and a loss of 280 kWh(e) of electrical energy.

  3. Coupled optical and thermal detailed simulations for the accurate evaluation and performance improvement of molten salts solar towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Mutuberria, Amaia; Palacin, Luis G.; Sanz, Javier L.; Pereira, Daniel; Bernardos, Ana; Sanchez, Marcelino; Rocha, Alberto R.

    2017-06-01

    The National Renewable Energy Centre of Spain, CENER, and the Technology & Innovation area of ACS Cobra, as a result of their long term expertise in the CSP field, have developed a high-quality and high level of detail optical and thermal simulation software for the accurate evaluation of Molten Salts Solar Towers. The main purpose of this software is to make a step forward in the state-of-the-art of the Solar Towers simulation programs. Generally, these programs deal with the most critical systems of such plants, i.e. the solar field and the receiver, on an independent basis. Therefore, these programs typically neglect relevant aspects in the operation of the plant as heliostat aiming strategies, solar flux shapes onto the receiver, material physical and operational limitations, transient processes as preheating and secure cloud passing operating modes, and more. The modelling approach implemented in the developed program consists on effectively coupling detailed optical simulations of the heliostat field with also detailed and full-transient thermal simulations of the molten salts tube-based external receiver. The optical model is based on an accurate Monte Carlo ray-tracing method which solves the complete solar field by simulating each of the heliostats at once according to their specific layout in the field. In the thermal side, the tube-based cylindrical external receiver of a Molten Salts Solar Tower is modelled assuming one representative tube per panel, and implementing the specific connection layout of the panels as well as the internal receiver pipes. Each tube is longitudinally discretized and the transient energy and mass balances in the temperature dependent molten salts and steel tube models are solved. For this, a one dimensional radial heat transfer model based is used. The thermal model is completed with a detailed control and operation strategy module, able to represent the appropriate operation of the plant. An integration framework has been

  4. Campaigns for renewable energy - the evaluation of 'Solar-na klar.' and a framework concept for new campaigns; Kampagnen fuer erneuerbare Energien - Die Evaluation von 'Solar-na klar.' und Empfehlungen fuer neue Kampagnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, M.; Schuele, R.; Gross, D.; Lambrecht, K.; Lucius, W.; Johansson, J.; Rieder, S.

    2002-04-01

    (a) Since 1999, the 'Solar - na klar.' campaign has supported the expansion of the market for solar collectors in Germany by providing public relations activities and consulting services. The evaluation revealed predominantly positive results regarding the external effects of the campaign. The campaign was successful in reaching its main target groups, especially private house owners and craftsmen and delivered useful information regarding the installation of solar collectors to both groups. More than 25% of private home owners who had installed a collector expressed the view that the campaign had a significant influence in their decision. However, many home owners that were interviewed in the evaluation study expressed the need for more and detailed information, e.g. regarding the economic efficiency of solar collectors. Interviews with owners of businesses that install solar collectors revaled the material provided by the campaign was rarely used although most of businesses expressed a high level of satisfaction with the campaign itself. The evaluation of the internal principles and processes of the campaign yielded an ambivalent picture. While the campaign was successful in involving a heterogeneous spectrum of stakeholders flexibly reacted to changes in the political and other conditions, problems emerged with the conflict management in the campaign itself. These problems were accelerated by the lack of both an integrated project planning and large structural differences between the actors involved. The main recommendation of the evaluators is that the campaign be continued in a modified manner. Among other issues, stronger emphasis should be placed to include activities on the regional level since these have the potential to further increase the external effects of the campaign. (b) In developing recommendations for other campaigns on renewable energies, the ifeu-Institute analysed existing evaluations of other marketing campaigns in the field

  5. Optical Evaluation of the Rear Contacts of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Coupled Electromagnetic and Statistical Ray-Optics Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dabirian, Ali

    2017-02-15

    High-efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells increasingly feature sophisticated electron and hole contacts aimed at minimizing electronic losses. At the rear of photovoltaic devices, such contacts—usually consisting of stacks of functional layers—offer opportunities to enhance the infrared response of the solar cells. Here, we propose an accurate and simple modeling procedure to evaluate the infrared performance of rear contacts in c-Si solar cells. Our method combines full-wave electromagnetic modeling of the rear contact with a statistical ray optics model to obtain the fraction of optical energy dissipated from the rear contact relative to that absorbed by the Si wafer. Using this technique, we study the impact of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, and thickness of the rear-passivating layer and establish basic design rules. In addition, we evaluate novel optical structures, including stratified thin films, nanoparticle composites, and conductive nanowires embedded in a low-index dielectric matrix, for integration into advanced rear contacts in c-Si photovoltaic devices. From an optical perspective, nanowire structures preserving low contact resistance appear to be the most effective approach to mitigating dissipation losses from the rear contact.

  6. EVALUATION OF A SOLAR DESALINATION SYSTEM, TYPE CYLINDRICAL PARABOLIC CONCENTRATOR FOR SEA WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Mercado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the methodology for the design, construction and commissioning of a solar desalinator, based on a parabolic trough collector and a solar still occurs, is presented. The energy is supplied through the solar collector, which is connected to the distiller. The equipment was set up on the premises of the Universidad Católica del Norte. It is compact, modular, low cost, easy maintenance and long life, with an average production capacity of distilled water of 2.37 l / d, however, it has to be considered that this rate is directly related with weather conditions and sea water flow entering the system, generating an average percentage of 34.04% efficiency. The results obtained with the respective findings, conclusions and recommendations for future projects associated to renewable energy equipment designed analyzed.

  7. Solar energy system performance evaluation-seasonal report for Elcam San Diego, San Diego, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system, Elcam San Diego, was designed to supply domestic hot water heating for a single family residence located in Encinitas, California. System description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, and conclusions are presented. The system is a 'Sunspot' two tank cascade type, where solar energy is supplied to either a 66 gallon preheat tank (solar storage) or a 40 gallon domestic hot water tank. Water is pumped directly from one of the two tanks, through the 65 square feet collector array and back into the same tank. Freeze protection is provided by automatically circulating hot water from the hot water tank through the collectors and exposed plumbing when freezing conditions exist. Auxiliary energy is supplied by natural gas. Analysis is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for one full season of operation.

  8. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for Elcam Tempe Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system, Elcam-Tempe, was designed by Elcam Incorporated, Santa Barbara, California, to supply commercial domestic hot water heating systems to the Agriculture Department residence at Arizona State University. The building is a single story residence located at the agriculture experiment farm of the Arizona State University. The energy system's four modes of operation are described. Electrical energy savings at the site was a net of 5.54 million Btu after the 0.17 million Btu of operating energy required to operate collector loop circulating pump were subtracted. The energy savings due to solar was less than the system's potential. On an average, twice as much hot water could have been used with significant solar energy contribution. The system corrosion and deposits caused by using dissimilar metals in the collector loop was the only problem noted with the Elcam-Tempe system.

  9. Solar energy system performance evaluation. Seasonal report for SEMCO, Macon, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The analysis used is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for at least one full season of operation. The objective of the analysis is to report the long-term field performance of the installed system and to make technical contributions to the definition of techniques and requirements for solar energy system design. The solar energy system was designed to supply domestic hot water for a family of four, single-family residence. The SEMCO System 80 consists of liquid (silicone) flat plate collectors, single tank, pump, controls and transport lines.

  10. Evaluation of a integral systems greenhouse - solar dryer for small growers; Evaluacion de un sistema integral invernadero - secadero solar para pequenos productores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Victor O; Iriarte, Adolfo A [INENCO, Universidad Nacional de Catamarca, Catamarca (Argentina); Carabajal, Dante; Sabadzija, Gabriela; Tomalino, Luis [E.E.A. INTA, Catamarca, Catamarca (Argentina)

    2000-07-01

    Due to poor yielding capacity in the province of Catamarca, Argentina, it is necessary to improve solar drying systems in order to have a better quality final product. It is also essential to divide the costs of infrastructure with other complementary activities because of the need to make drying methods profitable. The system proposed in this work is a dryer-greenhouse with a double purposed macrotunnel greenhouse: during Winter it is used as a yielding system, and in Summer it is prepared to fulfill the functions of a solar dryer. The crops evaluated in winter were: small vegetable marrow (Curcubita maxima L), melon (Cucumis melo), ad cucumber (Cucuis sativus). Crop cycle, harvest time and tield in Kg/m were determined for each species. The assessment of the dryer was made using pepper for paprika observation of the thermal behavior of the product during drying and its final quality. The product obtained had a very good quality in color, taste and aroma with a classification of extra quality according to the Argentine Nutritional Code and the 7541 ISO Standard. Drying time decreased considerably compared to that observed in open air drying, 1995, 1996 and 1997 campaigns were economically assessed, and an evaluation of investments in five years was also conducted obtaining a positive VAN and a TIR above the cost of the best alternative for money expenditure. This integrated system is valid alternative in a sustainable production for small growers. [Spanish] Debido a las caracteristicas productivas de la Provincia de Catamarca Argentina, es necesario optimizar los procesos del secado solar teniendo en cuenta la calidad final del producto. Ademas, debido a la necesidad de rentabilizar los metodos de secado, imprescindible repartir los costos de infraestructura con otro tipo de actividad complementaria. El sistema propuesto en este trabajo es un invernadero secadero que utiliza un invernadero macrotunel que cumple una doble funcion, durante el invierno se usa como

  11. Economic evaluation of the solar thermal co-production of zinc, synthesis gas, and hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinfeld, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Spiewak, I. [EC Joint Research Centre (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    The use of concentrated solar energy for co-producing Zn and synthesis gas from Zn O and natural gas upgrades the calorific value of the initial reactants by 39% and, when compared to the traditional carbothermic reduction of Zn O, has the potential of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by up to 78%. An economic assessment for an industrial thermochemical plant, 30 to 51 MW solar input, indicates that the cost of solar production of zinc ranges between 89-133 $/t (excluding the cost of Zn O feed and credit for pollution abatement), and thus might be competitive with conventional fossil-fuel-based processes at current fuel prices. The cost of solar H{sub 2}, produced by splitting water with zinc, is estimated to be in the range 0.10-0.14 $/kWh, and it is a favorable long term prospect once the cost of energy will account for the environmental externalities from fossil fuel burning such as the costs for CO{sub 2} mitigation and pollution abatement. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 5 refs.

  12. Evaluation of solar thermal driven cooling system in office buildings in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linjawi, Majid T.; Talal, Qazi; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study solar driven absorption chiller is used to reduce the peak cooling load in office buildings in Saudi Arabia for different selected cities. The study is conducted for six cities of Abha, Dhahran, Hail, Jeddah, Nejran and Riyadh under three operating durations of 4, 6, and 8 hours using flat plate or evacuated tube collectors. The energy analysis concluded that flat plate collectors are better than evacuated tube collectors. However, the results from economic analysis suggest that while proposing a gas fired absorption chiller will reduce running costs, further reduction by using solar collectors is not feasible because of its high initial cost. At the best case scenario the Net Present Value of a 10 Ton Absorption chiller operated by natural gas boiler and two large flat plate collectors (12m2 each) running for 8 hours/day, 5days/week has a value of 117,000 and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 12%. Solar driven absorption chiller could be more feasible if the gas prices increases or the solar collector prices decreases significantly. Finally, government economic incentives and taxes are recommended to provide a boost for the feasibility of such projects.

  13. Solar Energy System Performance Evaluation: seasonal report for Wormser, Columbia, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    The Wormser Solar Energy System located in a four unit townhouse apartment (5400 square feet) in Columbia, South Carolina was designed to provide 50% of the hot water and 70% of the space heating by the Wormser Scientific Corporation, Stamford, Connecticut. The Solar Energy System consists of 266 ft/sup 2/ of pyramidal optics, flat-plate liquid collectors, a solar window area of 1152 ft/sup 2/, a 2500 gallon thermal water storage tank, an energy transport system (water), heat exchangers, pumps, controls and four domestic hot water (DHW) tanks. Electrical elements in each domestic hot water tank provide necessary auxiliary energy for hot water. Four multifunctional heat pumps, supplied with solar heated water provide space heating energy to the apartments, collector freeze protection is provided through the location of the collectors inside the attic. The system with six modes of operation became oprational in February 1978. The following topics are discussed: system description, performance assessment, operating energy, energy savings, maintenance, summary and conclusions.

  14. Evaluation of temperature-based global solar radiation models in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Mei, Xurong; Li, Yuzhong

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of global solar radiation (Rs) from the daily range of air temperature (¿T) offers an important alternative in the absence of measured Rs or sunshine duration because of the wide availability of air temperature data. In this paper, we assessed 16 Rs models including modified versions...

  15. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system, SIMS Prototype System 2, was designed to supply domestic hot water to single family residences. The system consists of flat plate collectors, silicone working fluid, storage tanks, pumps, heat exchanger, controls, and associated plumbing. The long term field performance of the installed system was analyzed and the results are described.

  16. Evaluation of alternative phase change materials for energy storage in solar dynamic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, R. A.; Dustin, M. O.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of fluoride salt and metallic thermal energy storage materials are compared in terms of basic performance as applied to solar dynamic power generation. Specific performance considerations include uniformity of cycle inlet temperature, peak cavity temperature, TES utilization, and system weights. Also investigated were means of enhancing the thermal conductivity of the salts and its effect on the system performance.

  17. Evaluation of global solar radiation using multiple weather parameters as predictors for South Africa provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeala Adeyemi A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Models for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation were developed for South African provinces. These models, in addition to the traditional sunshine hours used in existing models incorporates ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed as variable parameters for predicting global solar radiation, making it different from most of the existing models that use only sunshine hours as variable. Meteorological data obtained for nine locations in South Africa were employed in the model formulation. The accuracy of the models were verified by comparing estimated values with measured values in terms of the following statistical error tests: mean bias error (MBE, mean absolute bias error (MABE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, root mean square error (RMSE, and the regression coefficient (R2.The values of R2 for the formulated models are between the ranges of 90% - 99%. It was also observed that for an accurate estimation of global solar radiation in Eastern Cape Province, all weather elements are needed. This implies that the models give an excellent prediction for global solar radiation for their corresponding locations. Also, different errors calculated for the formulated models are close to zero especially MAPE. The result shows that the formulated models are good enough to be used to predict monthly average daily radiation for South Africa and also, the inclusion of some other elements in some of the models improved the accuracy of the predictions made by the models.

  18. Evaluation of a solar crop dryer for rural applications in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of using forced convection dryers in rural Nigeria by using a photovoltaic powered direct current backward curved centrifugal fan in an indirect solar crop dryer targeted at the subsistent small-scale farmers, who constitute over 90% of the Nigerian farming population. The drying rate, collector and system drying efficiencies ...

  19. Exposure testing and evaluation of solar utilization materials. Semiannual report, May 1, 1975--October 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan, J.E.; Brzuskiewicz, J.

    1975-01-01

    The initial efforts of a program of research and experimental testing is described in which the optical performance of materials for use in solar energy utilization devices will be determined before and after exposure to outdoor weathering tests. Materials which are currently in use and others which are being considered or developed for these applications will be characterized and exposed to natural solar radiation. Outdoor testing will be accomplished in Phoenix (Ariz.), Miami (Fla.), and Chicago (Ill.). The results of these tests, primarily the effects of outdoor exposure on optical and physical properties, will be compiled in a handbook, along with cost, availability and other pertinent information. These data are vital to the intelligent selection of solar utilization materials, since a knowledge of the cost performance and lifetime characteristics of candidate materials will greatly assist the design of efficient and reliable solar energy utilization devices. Primary accomplishments include the definition of sample requirements, specification of test samples and test configurations, formulation of acceptance/rejection criteria and contacts with numerous potential materials suppliers.

  20. Economic Evaluation of Single-Family-Residence Solar-Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Report concludes that where solar-energy system investment costs are presently high, future promise of savings due to increased conventional energy costs is not optimistic. This is because cost of system tends to increase at a rate not significantly less than the cost of conventional energy.

  1. Theoretical and experimental evaluation of solar chimney with thermal inertia; Evaluacion energetica teorica y experimental de una chimenea solar con enercia termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti Herrero, J.; Heras Celemin, M. R.

    2004-07-01

    A simple study has been realized about the solar chimney built at the LECE, using FLUENNT, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. The more important restrictions imposed to the simulation has bee: stationary state and no interaction between the solar chimney and the atmosphere. The results shows a discrepancy between the theory and experimental data, because the conditions employed on the simulation. The solar chimney has a concrete wall with thermal inertia, that is not represented on the simulation because the stationary state. It is necessary to research on more detailed dynamic studies using CDF, in order to obtain the energetic performance of a solar chimney with thermal inertia. (Author)

  2. Evaluating Different Green School Building Designs for Albania: Indoor Thermal Comfort, Energy Use Analysis with Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvi, Ambalika Rajendra

    Improving the conditions of schools in many parts of the world is gradually acquiring importance. The Green School movement is an integral part of this effort since it aims at improving indoor environmental conditions. This would in turn, enhance student- learning while minimizing adverse environmental impact through energy efficiency of comfort-related HVAC and lighting systems. This research, which is a part of a larger research project, aims at evaluating different school building designs in Albania in terms of energy use and indoor thermal comfort, and identify energy efficient options of existing schools. We start by identifying three different climate zones in Albania; Coastal (Durres), Hill/Pre-mountainous (Tirana), mountainous (Korca). Next, two prototypical school building designs are identified from the existing stock. Numerous scenarios are then identified for analysis which consists of combinations of climate zone, building type, building orientation, building upgrade levels, presence of renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic and solar water heater). The existing building layouts, initially outlined in CAD software and then imported into a detailed building energy software program (eQuest) to perform annual simulations for all scenarios. The research also predicted indoor thermal comfort conditions of the various scenarios on the premise that windows could be opened to provide natural ventilation cooling when appropriate. This study also estimated the energy generated from solar photovoltaic systems and solar water heater systems when placed on the available roof area to determine the extent to which they are able to meet the required electric loads (plug and lights) and building heating loads respectively. The results showed that there is adequate indoor comfort without the need for mechanical cooling for the three climate zones, and that only heating is needed during the winter months.

  3. Thermal analysis and performance optimization of a solar hot water plant with economic evaluation

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2012-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to optimize the long-term performance of an existing active-indirect solar hot water plant (SHWP), which supplies hot water at 65 °C for use in a flight kitchen, using a micro genetic algorithm in conjunction with a relatively detailed model of each component in the plant and solar radiation model based on the measured data. The performance of SHWP at Changi International Airport Services (CIASs), Singapore, is studied for better payback period using the monthly average hourly diffuse and beam radiations and ambient temperature data. The data input for solar radiation model is obtained from the Singapore Meteorological Service (SMS), and these data have been compared with long-term average data of NASA (surface meteorology and solar energy or SSE). The comparison shows a good agreement between the predicted and measured hourly-averaged, horizontal global radiation. The SHWP at CIAS, which comprises 1200m 2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 50m 3 water storage tanks and a gas-fired auxiliary boiler, is first analyzed using a baseline configuration, i.e., (i) the local solar insolation input, (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a thermal load demand pattern amounting to 100m 3/day, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from solar tank drops below the set point. A comparison between the baseline configuration and the measured performance of CIAS plant gives reasonably good validation of the simulation code. Optimization is further carried out for the following parameters, namely; (i) total collector area of the plant, (ii) storage volume, and (iii) three daily thermal demands. These studies are performed for both the CIAS plant and a slightly modified plant where the hot water supply to the load is adjusted constant at times when the water temperature from tank may exceed the set temperature. It is found that the latter

  4. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Dryer Integrated with Biomass Furnace for Red Chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace has been designed and evaluated for drying red chillies, and drying kinetics of red chillies were evaluated. The red chillies were dried from 22 kg with moisture content of 4.26 db to moisture content of 0.08 db which needed 11 hours, with the average drying chamber temperature, drying chamber relative humidity, and an air mass flow rate of 70.5°C, 10.1%, and 0.124 kg/s, respectively, while the open sun drying needed 62 hours. Compared to open sun drying, this dryer yielded 82% saving in drying time. The drying rate, the specific moisture extraction rate, and thermal efficiency of the dryer were estimated in average to be about 1.57 kg/h, 0.14 kg/kWh, and 9.03%, respectively. Three mathematical models, the Newton, Henderson-Pabis, and Page models, were fitted to the experimental data on red chillies dried by solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace and open sun drying. The performance of these models was evaluated by comparing the coefficient of determination (R2, mean bias error (MBE, and root mean-square error (RMSE. The Page model gave the best results for representing drying kinetics of red chillies.

  5. Evaluation of flat-plate collector efficiency under controlled conditions in a solar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. M.; Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    The measured thermal efficiencies of 35 collectors tested with a solar simulator, along with the correlation equations used to generalize the data, are presented in this report. The single correlation used is shown to apply to all the different types of collectors tested, including one with black paint and one cover, one with a selective surface coating and two covers, and an evacuated-tube collector. The test and correlation technique is also modified by using a shield so that collectors larger than the simulator test area can also be tested. This technique was verified experimentally for a shielded collector for which the collector shielded area was 31% of the solar simulator radiation area. A table lists all the collectors tested, the collector areas, and the experimental constants used to correlate the data for each collector.

  6. Karasek Home, Blackstone, Massachusetts solar-energy-system performance evaluation, Nov. 1981 - Mar. 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, M.

    1982-06-01

    The Karasek Home is a single family Massachusetts residence whose active-solar-energy system is equipped with 640 square feet of trickle-down liquid flat-plate collectors, storage in a 300-gallon tank and a 2000-gallon tank embedded in a rock bin in the basement, and an oil-fired glass-lined 40-gallon domestic hot water tank for auxiliary water and space heating. Monthly performance data are tabulated for the overall system and for the collector, storage, space heating, and domestic hot water subsystems. For each month a graph is presented of collector array efficiency versus the difference between the inlet water temperature and ambient temperature divided by insolation. Typical system operation is illustrated by graphs of insolation and temperatures at different parts of the system versus time for a typical day. The typical system operating sequence for a day is also graphed as well as solar energy utilization and heat losses.

  7. Evaluation of ORC processes and their implementation in solar thermal DSG plants

    OpenAIRE

    Degli Esposti, Dalma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In recent years Direct Steam Generation (DSG) systems using water have been developed as an alternative to state-of-the-art parabolic trough plants with thermal oil. After a comprehensive research, first commercial DSG plants have already been realized. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) that have been widely used for electricity production with low-temperature heat (e.g. geothermal energy) are also suited for the implementation in solar thermal power plants. To the knowledge of t...

  8. Flat-plate collector performance evaluation. The case for a solar simulation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.; Harlamert, P.

    1973-01-01

    A method is proposed for determining the performance of flat-plate solar collector using a simulated sun. Collector test variables that will help establish the basis for the indoor test facility at the Lewis Research Center are discussed. The use of the indoor testing should permit a standard test for the convenient and accurate determination of collector performance. Preliminary test results are reported as an example of the type of collector performance data to be expected from the simulation approach.

  9. Comparative evaluation of solar, fission, fusion, and fossil energy resources. Part 5: Conclusions and recomendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Air pollution resulting from the use of fossil fuels is discussed. Phenomena relating to the emission of CO2 such as the greenhouse effect and multiplier effect are explored. Particulate release is also discussed. The following recommendations are made for the elimination of fossil fuel combustion products in the United States: development of nuclear breeder reactors, use of solar energy systems, exploration of energy alternatives such as geothermal and fusion, and the substitution of coal for gas and oil use.

  10. Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems: Project status report for the months of October and November, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report describes a project to develop tools for evaluating solar heating and cooling systems. Current work on this project has been to validate the Florida Solar Energy Center`s (FSEC) models of the Solahart 302K and 302K-AS systems to prepare a rating for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s rebate program for solar domestic hot water heaters. A preliminary rating has been issued by FSEC and updated ratings will be released as necessary. Two of the problems that were mentioned in the August/September report are addressed and a tank heat loss test is discussed. Work continues on improving and validating the models.

  11. Evaluation of television as a method of disseminating solar energy information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edington, E.D.

    1980-08-01

    This project included three separate studies undertaken to determine the effectiveness of television instruction as a method of effectively delivering information about solar energy systems to present and future workers in related industries, and as a method of delivery for adult continuing education instruction. All three studies used a series of five half-hour videotapes. A survey of the general public in the Las Cruces area was conducted to determine the number and occupational status of people watching the series on a local public broadcasting station. Surveys of random samples then assessed the prior level of knowledge on solar energy of residents from differing socioeconomic strata and any increase in knowledge after viewing the series. The worker study included apprentices, journeymen sheet metal workers, and materials handlers. These workers were given a pretest, shown the television series, and given a posttest. The relative effectiveness of television and regular instruction were compared in solar energy related vocational classes at two postsecondary institutions, and student attitudes concerning television instruction were assessed.

  12. Performance evaluation of 10 MW grid connected solar photovoltaic power plant in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shiva Kumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing energy demand in developing nations has triggered the issue of energy security. This has made essential to utilize the untapped potential of renewable resources. Grid connected PV systems have become the best alternatives in renewable energy at large scale. Performance analysis of these grid connected plants could help in designing, operating and maintenance of new grid connected systems. A 10 MW photovoltaic grid connected power plant commissioned at Ramagundam is one of the largest solar power plants with the site receiving a good average solar radiation of 4.97 kW h/m2/day and annual average temperature of about 27.3 degrees centigrade. The plant is designed to operate with a seasonal tilt. In this study the solar PV plant design aspects along with its annual performance is elaborated. The various types of power losses (temperature, internal network, power electronics, grid connected etc. and performance ratio are also calculated. The performance results of the plant are also compared with the simulation values obtained from PV syst and PV-GIS software. The final yield (Y F of plant ranged from 1.96 to 5.07 h/d, and annual performance ratio (PR of 86.12%. It has 17.68% CUF with annual energy generation of 15798.192 MW h/Annum.

  13. Evaluation of pathogen removal in a solar sludge drying facility using microbial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Emily F; Roiko, Anne; Tindale, Neil W; Thomas, Michael P; Walpole, Ronald; Kurtböke, D Ipek

    2010-02-01

    South East Queensland is one of the fastest growing regions in Australia with a correspondingly rapid increase in sewage production. In response, local councils are investing in more effective and sustainable options for the treatment and reuse of domestic and industrial effluents. A novel, evaporative solar dryer system has been installed on the Sunshine Coast to convert sewage sludge into a drier, usable form of biosolids through solar radiation exposure resulting in decreased moisture concentration and pathogen reduction. Solar-dried biosolids were analyzed for selected pathogenic microbial, metal and organic contaminants at the end of different drying cycles in a collaborative study conducted with the Regional Council. Although fecal coliforms were found to be present, enteroviruses, parasites, E. coli, and Salmonella sp. were not detected in the final product. However, elevated levels of zinc and copper were still present which restricted public use of the biosolids. Dilution of the dried biosolids with green waste as well as composting of the biosolids is likely to lead to the production of an environmentally safe, Class A end-product.

  14. Evaluation of Pathogen Removal in a Solar Sludge Drying Facility Using Microbial Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. İpek Kurtböke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available South East Queensland is one of the fastest growing regions in Australia with a correspondingly rapid increase in sewage production. In response, local councils are investing in more effective and sustainable options for the treatment and reuse of domestic and industrial effluents. A novel, evaporative solar dryer system has been installed on the Sunshine Coast to convert sewage sludge into a drier, usable form of biosolids through solar radiation exposure resulting in decreased moisture concentration and pathogen reduction. Solar-dried biosolids were analyzed for selected pathogenic microbial, metal and organic contaminants at the end of different drying cycles in a collaborative study conducted with the Regional Council. Although fecal coliforms were found to be present, enteroviruses, parasites, E. coli, and Salmonella sp. were not detected in the final product. However, elevated levels of zinc and copper were still present which restricted public use of the biosolids. Dilution of the dried biosolids with green waste as well as composting of the biosolids is likely to lead to the production of an environmentally safe, Class A end-product.

  15. Solar energy system performance evaluation: seasonal report for IBM System IA, Huntsville, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The analysis used is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for at least one full season of operation. The long-term field performance of the installed system is reported. The Solar Energy System, Sims Prototype System 1A, was designed by IBM to provide 50 to 60% of the space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) preheating load to a 2000 square foot floor space single faily residence in the Huntsville area. The load design temperature inside the building was to be maintained at 70 degrees fahrenheit with auxiliary energy for heating supplied by an electric heat pump assisted by an electric resistance strip heater. Auxiliary energy for domestic hot water is from a conventional 20-gallon DHW storage tank. The solar energy system, uses air as the heat transport medium, has a 720 square foot Solar Energy Products Collector Array, a 22-ton rock storage located within the office building, a pump, heat exchanger, air handler, pre-heat tank, fan and associated plumbing. The system has five different modes of operation.

  16. Solar energy system performance evaluation report for Solaron-Duffield, Duffield, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The Solaron Duffield Solar Energy System was designed to provide 51 percent of the space heating, and 49 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) to a two story 1940 square foot area residence using air as the transport medium. The system consists of a 429 square foot collector array, a 265 cubic foot rock thermal storage bin, heat exchangers, an 80 gallon DHW preheat tank, pumps, blowers, controls, air ducting and associated plumbing. A air-to-liquid heat pump coupled with a 1,000gallon water storage tank provides for auxiliary space heating and can also be used for space cooling. A 52 gallon electric DHW tank using the solar preheated water provides domestic hot water to the residence. The solar system, which became operational July 1979, has the following modes of operation: First Stage: (1) collector to storage and DHW; (2)collector to space heating; (3) storage to load. Second Stage: (4) heat pump auxiliary direct; (5) auxiliary heat from heat pump storage. Third Stage: (6) electrical resistance (strip) heat.

  17. Development and performance evaluation of a solar tunnel date dryer in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Basunia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the date harvesting and landholding capacities of the marginalized rural farmers in Oman, a 12 meter long and 2 meter wide tunnel was designed and constructed to dry about 180-200 kg of freshly harvested dates per batch. Half of the tunnel base was used as a flat plate air heating solar collector and the other half as a dryer. The drying air was forced from the collector region (South side to the drying region (North side of the half circled tunnel where the product is to be dried. The drying temperature could be easily raised by some 5-30 oC above the ambient temperature inside the tunnel at an air velocity of approximately 0.5 m/sec. The test was conducted with 190.2 kg freshly harvested dates with initial moisture content of 32.8% (wet-basis to analyze the performance of the dryer. The dates were dried to a final average moisture content of 18.6% (wet-basis within two days (20 hours. The results indicated that the drying was faster in a solar tunnel dryer than the natural open air sun drying. It was possible to reach the moisture content level for safe storage within less than two days (20 hrs with a solar tunnel dryer and 5-7 days in open air natural sun drying. The improvement in the quality of dates in terms of color and brightness was distinctly recognized.

  18. Feasibility evaluation solar heated textile process water. Volume II. Appendices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, J. C.; Beard, J. N.; Robinson, G. F.; Harnett, R. M.

    1977-02-01

    The general objectives of this study are to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the use of solar energy for heating waters in the textile industry and to develop a plan for efforts beyond this feasibility study phase. Specific objectives include (1) determine the industry requirements for heated process water, (2) assess particular schemes and their economic impact, (3) study the total cost environment for solar water heating in this industry, and (4) recommend future experiments. This volume contains the appendices: (A) fiber distribution and end use data; (B) computer model description for textile plant energy balances; (C) computer model description to generate local solar potential; (D) computer model description for system synthesis and analysis; (E) computer model to determine pressure drop, flow distribution and plumbing components; (F) area requirement plots for various use rates, temperature levels, seasons, orientations and collector types for textile operations; (G) computer model description of economic variables for COSMO1 and COSMO2; (H) rate of return plots for various textile applications and energy cost scenerios; and (I) data base for efficiency curves for six collector types. (WHK)

  19. Environmental certification: a scientific tool for sustainability. Evaluation of possible indicators for the environmental performance evaluation (EPE) of Ravenna province (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzieri, Margherita; Marchettini, Nadia; Ridolfi, Roberto

    2003-04-01

    Environmental certification is becoming the main tool for application of sustainable development principles. The European Regulation Emas and the international standard ISO 14001 both require for certification, to perform an environmental management system to prevent environmental impacts and to continuously improve environmental performance. For a good environmental performance evaluation (EPE), certification needs to use scientific methodologies and to interface with scientific research; here we proposed emergy analysis as a valid method for EPE and emergetic environmental performance and condition indicators (EPIs, ECIs) to monitor a territorial system: Ravenna province (Italy). Together with emergy indicators were selected other indicators for a deeper EPE: emitted/adsorbed CO2, energy consumptions, air and water pollution measures. The paper showed that Ravenna system has a good environmental performance and demonstrated how different indicators from the most advanced chemical research (chemical-physical, analytical, etc.) contribute to a complete EPE of a complex territorial system and are useful for environmental certification and sustainable development.

  20. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  1. Solar support of the cold supply of an office building. Operation analysis and energetic evaluation; Solare Unterstuetzung der Kaelteversorgung eines Buero- und Verwaltungsgebaeudes. Betriebsanalyse und energetische Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Klaus; Bollin, Elmar; Scheck, Eva [Hochschule Offenburg (HSO) (Germany); Wiemken, Edo; Wewior, Jakub [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Eicker, Ursula; Pietruschka, Dirk; Dalibard, Antoine [Hochschule fuer Technik (HFT), Stuttgart (Germany); Meissner, Rolf; Kettner, Christiane [Paradigma Deutschland GmbH, Karlsbad (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Since July 2006 and in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy (Freiburg) and the Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences, the University Offenburg accompanies the solar supported air conditioning of Festo AG and Co. KG in Esslingen (Federal Republic of Germany). The plant was promoted by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) in the context of the research project 'Solarthermie2000plus'. The already existing adsorption refrigerant plant which so far was operated with compressor warmth and gas-fuelled boilers, was supplemented by a solar plant as a third heat supplier.

  2. Simulated Solar Flare X-Ray and Thermal Cycling Durability Evaluation of Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Candidate Replacement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Scheiman, David A.

    1998-01-01

    During the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) second servicing mission (SM2), astronauts noticed that the multilayer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was damaged. Large pieces of the outer layer of MLI (aluminized Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP)) were torn in several locations around the telescope. A piece of curled up Al-FEP was retrieved by the astronauts and was found to be severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) organized a HST MLI Failure Review Board (FRB) to determine the damage mechanism of FEP in the HST environment, and to recommend replacement insulation material to be installed on HST during the third servicing mission (SM3) in 1999. Candidate thermal control replacement materials were chosen by the FRB and tested for environmental durability under various exposures and durations. This paper describes durability testing of candidate materials which were exposed to charged particle radiation, simulated solar flare x-ray radiation and thermal cycling under load. Samples were evaluated for changes in solar absorptance and tear resistance. Descriptions of environmental exposures and durability evaluations of these materials are presented.

  3. Current distribution evaluation of dye-sensitized solar cell using HTS-SQUID-based magnetic measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Kenji, E-mail: Sakai-k@okayama-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Kohei; Kiwa, Toshihiko; Tsukada, Keiji

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Current distribution and direction of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was measured. • Electrical current flowing in the indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate was uniform. • The distribution of electrical current depended on I–V characteristic. • Current direction changed when the performance of DSSC is low. - Abstract: The current flowing inside a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was measured using a high-temperature superconductor superconducting quantum interference device (HTS-SQUID)-based magnetic measurement system. Further, a new evaluation method of the DSSC, which is difficult to measure using the conventional method, was investigated to improve the characteristics of the DSSC. The tangential components of the magnetic field generated from the DSSC were measured using two HTS-SQUIDs, and the intensity and direction related to the electrical current were obtained by the measured magnetic field. The DSSCs prepared with different dyes and catalytic substances showed different current-intensity mapping. The current direction was different for the DSSC with low performance. In addition, the current flowing in the ITO layer of the ITO glass substrate was also measured and the results confirmed that it had uniform distribution. These results show that the current mapping and the direction of the electrical current depend on the internal factors of the DSSC, and the detection of the magnetic field distribution generated from it is expected to lead to its new evaluation method.

  4. Performance and Policy Evaluation of Solar Energy Technologies for Domestic Application in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Ayompe, Lacour

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the techno-economic and environmental performance of domestic scale grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) and forced circulation solar water heating (SWH) systems in Ireland; and propose a new feed-in tariff designed using a large sample of high resolution electricity demand data in order to provide credible information for informed policy formulation. Detailed field trials of experimental installations of a 1.72 kWp grid-connected PV and two SWH systems ...

  5. Solar house heating system using reflective pyramid optical condensing system. Evaluation of performance, June 1, 1975--December 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The prototype system, previously built on Westover Road, Stamford, Connecticut, was upgraded, instrumented, and evaluated. It was found to perform essentially as expected, but the open construction was found to have problems. A fully enclosed model Pyramidal Optics house was built by Better Homes of Delaware near Rehoboth, Delaware. After a number of significant improvements were made in the optical concentrating system and the flat plate receiver assembly, the system was monitored throughout the winter of 1976/1977 and found to perform very well. The solar contribution to heating amounted to 70 percent during the severe winter months and is expected to exceed 80 percent throughout the year. The Pyramidal Optics system has been found to have a number of economic and operational advantages. It is planned to evaluate additional systems in other locations and different climatic conditions.

  6. Solar production of industrial process hot water. Phase 3: Operation and evaluation of the York Building Products Company, Incorporated. Solar Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, J. M.; Kaplan, N.; Wilkening, H. A., Jr.

    1981-10-01

    The solar facility utilizes 35 collectors with a total aperture area of 8960 sq ft. The system is designed to deliver a water/ethylene glycol solution at 200 F to a heat exchanger, which, in turn, supplies water at 180 F to a rotoclave (underground tank) for the concrete block curing process. A fossil fuel boiler system also supplies the rotoclave with processed hot water to supplement the solar system. The system was operational 92.5% of the days during which the data acquisition system was functional. Sufficient solar heating was available to deliver hot water to the heat exchanger on 448 days, or 81.8% of the days on which reliable data was recorded. Total fuel saved during the three year period was 10,284 gallons. Thus, this program successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process hot water with solar energy.

  7. Evaluation of solar energy resources in areas with complex topography; Evaluacion de los recursos energeticos solares en zonas de topografia compleja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batlles, F. J.; Martinez-Durban, M.; Miralles, I.; Ortega, R.; Barbero, F. J.; Lopez, G.; Tovar, J.; Puzo, D.

    2004-07-01

    On a local scale, topography is the main factor affecting the solar radiation reaching the ground. Topographical characteristics of the ground surface may give rise to higher local gradients of insolation. In this work, daily global radiation is estimated under cloudless skies in sites with complex topography. For that, a solar radiation model is used along with a digital elevation model of 20x20 m. Measurements of global radiation recorded at 14 stations located at the Northern face of the Natural Park in Sierra Nevada (Spain) during two years are available. Each radiometric station presents different topographical conditions. This allows to study the topographical influence on the solar radiation budget as well as developing of maps of global, direct and diffuse solar radiation. (Author)

  8. Retrofitted Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems for Swedish Single-Family Houses—Evaluation of a Prototype and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Bernardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to recent technology road maps, system cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. Previous studies have investigated such retrofitting, using theoretical simulations and laboratory tests, but no actual installations were made and tested in practice. This article describes the installation, measured performance and cost effectiveness of a retrofitting solution that converts existing domestic hot water heaters to a solar domestic hot water system. The measured performance is characterised by the monthly and annual solar fractions. The cost effectiveness is evaluated by a life-cycle cost analysis, comparing the retrofitted system to a conventional solar domestic hot water system and the case without any solar heating system. Measurements showed that approximately 50% of the 5000 kWh/year of domestic hot water consumption was saved by the retrofitted system in south Sweden. Such savings are in agreement with previous estimations and are comparable to the energy savings when using a conventional solar domestic hot water system. The life-cycle cost analysis showed that, according to the assumptions and given climate, the return on investment of the retrofitted system is approximately 17 years, while a conventional system does not reach profitability during its lifetime of 25 years.

  9. Emergy-based life cycle assessment (Em-LCA of multi-unit and single-family residential buildings in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Reza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction and building process depends on substantial consumption of natural resources with far-reaching impacts beyond their development area. In general, a significant portion of annual resource consumption by the building and construction industry is a result of applying traditional building strategies and practices such as designing and selecting types of development (e.g. multi-unit condo and single-family house, etc., building materials and structure, heating/cooling systems, and planning renovation and maintenance practices. On the other hand, apart from structural suitability, building developers mostly consider the basic requirements of public owners or private occupants of the buildings, where the main criteria for selecting building strategies are costs, and long-term environmental and socio-economic impacts are generally ignored. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an improved building sustainability assessment framework to measure and integrate different sustainability factors, i.e. long-term environmental upstream and downstream impacts and associated socio-economic costs, in a unified and quantitative basis. The application of the proposed framework has been explained through a case study of single-family houses and multi-unit residential buildings in Canada. A comprehensive framework based on the integration of emergy synthesis and life cycle assessment (LCA has been developed and applied. The results of this research prove that the proposed emergy-based life cycle assessment (Em-LCA framework offers a practical sustainability assessment tool by providing quantitative and transparent results for informed decision-making.

  10. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. Optical analysis and performance evaluation of a solar parabolic dish concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Saša R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the optical design of a solar parabolic dish concentrator is presented. The parabolic dish concentrator consists from 11 curvilinear trapezoidal reflective petals made of polymethyl methacrylate with special reflective coating. The dish diameter is equal to 3.8 m and the theoretical focal point distance is 2.26 m. Numerical simulations are made with the commercial software TracePro from Lambda Research, USA, and the final optimum position between absorber and reflector was calculated to 2.075 m; lower than focus distance. This paper presents results for the optimum position and the optimum diameter of the receiver. The decision for selecting these parameters is based on the calculation of the total flux over the flat and corrugated pipe receiver surface; in its central region and in the peripheral region. The simulation results could be useful reference for designing and optimizing of solar parabolic dish concentrators as for as for CFD analysis, heat transfer and fluid flow analysis in corrugated spiral heat absorbers. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III42006: Research and development of energy and environmentally highly effective polygeneration systems based on renewable energy resources i br. III45016: Fabrication and characterization of nanophotonic functional structures in biomedicine and informatics

  15. Evaluating the Dynamical Stability of Outer Solar System Objects in the Presence of Planet Nine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Juliette; Adams, Fred C.; Khain, Tali; Hamilton, Stephanie; Gerdes, David W.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of an N-body analysis of the dynamical stability of a selection of outer solar system objects in the presence of the proposed new Solar System member Planet Nine. Our simulations show that some combinations of orbital elements ($a,e$) result in Planet Nine acting as a stabilizing influence on the TNOs, which can otherwise be destabilized by interactions with Neptune. We also see that some TNOs transition between several different mean-motion resonances during their lifetimes while still retaining approximate apsidal anti-alignment with Planet Nine. This behavior suggests that remaining in one particular orbit is not a requirement for orbital stability. As one product of our simulations, we present an {\\it a posteriori} probability distribution for the semi-major axis and eccentricity of the proposed Planet Nine based on TNO stability. We discuss this result in the broader context of the Planet Nine debate and the dynamical stability of the detached Kuiper Belt. We also announce the discovery of a new large semi-major axis, highly-inclined TNO, found in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) data. This new object’s orbit places it in the same population as was used to predict the existence of Planet Nine, and so this new object also helps constrain the orbital elements of the proposed Planet Nine.

  16. Evaluation of physics-based numerical modelling for diverse design architecture of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Catalan, Jorge; Camacho, Diana; Martinez, Miguel; Hodges, D.

    2017-08-01

    Solution processed organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite based solar cells are emerging as a new cost effective photovoltaic technology. In the context of increasing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and sustainability of perovskite solar cells (PSC) devices, we comprehensively analyzed a physics-based numerical modelling for doped and un-doped PSC devices. Our analytics emphasized the role of different charge carrier layers from the view point of interfacial adhesion and its influence on charge extraction rate and charge recombination mechanism. Morphological and charge transport properties of perovskite thin film as a function of device architecture are also considered to investigate the photovoltaic properties of PSC. We observed that photocurrent is dominantly influenced by interfacial recombination process and photovoltage has functional relationship with defect density of perovskite absorption layer. A novel contour mapping method to understand the characteristics of current density-voltage (J-V) curves for each device as a function of perovskite layer thickness provide an important insight about the distribution spectrum of photovoltaic properties. Functional relationship of device efficiency and fill factor with absorption layer thickness are also discussed.

  17. Evaluation of thermal and photovoltaic solar systems in agricultural production units, Northern Huetar Region, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás de Jesús Guzmán Hernández

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dependence on fossil fuels urges society to seek for clean energy alternatives, in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of solar energy used for water heating and electricity generation. The study was conducted at the dairy of the Technology Institute of Costa Rica, San Carlos Headquarter, from May 15 to April 2016. The data related to the amount of the electricity produced and the temperature reached by water was obtained from the installed photovoltaic and thermal systems, the data was recorded by a computerized register. The obtained information about electricity production allowed researchers to calculate the amount of carbon dioxide equivalent that was not emitted into the atmosphere, and also the acquired economic saving on consumption. The use of these systems allowed the production unit have a self- sufficient source of electrical energy percentage, actually around 30 to 40% of the total electrical consumption. According to the energy production, the solar thermal system was capable to increase water temperature between 20 to 37 °C, temperature that represents more than 70% of the energy needed in order to reach the required water temperature (70 °C for cleaning and sanitizing the milking equipment, and also an economical saving around $90 per month was achieved. The results showed that these systems allow to improve the economical and productive efficiency of agricultural production units in the Northern Huetar Region of Costa Rica.

  18. Evaluation and prediction of solar radiation for energy management based on neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoshina, O. V.; Van Tai, Dinh

    2017-08-01

    Currently, there is a high rate of distribution of renewable energy sources and distributed power generation based on intelligent networks; therefore, meteorological forecasts are particularly useful for planning and managing the energy system in order to increase its overall efficiency and productivity. The application of artificial neural networks (ANN) in the field of photovoltaic energy is presented in this article. Implemented in this study, two periodically repeating dynamic ANS, that are the concentration of the time delay of a neural network (CTDNN) and the non-linear autoregression of a network with exogenous inputs of the NAEI, are used in the development of a model for estimating and daily forecasting of solar radiation. ANN show good productivity, as reliable and accurate models of daily solar radiation are obtained. This allows to successfully predict the photovoltaic output power for this installation. The potential of the proposed method for controlling the energy of the electrical network is shown using the example of the application of the NAEI network for predicting the electric load.

  19. Analytical evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation process in a solar pilot power plant; Evaluacion analitica y optimizacion de procesos de oxidacion avanzada en planta piloto solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Vazquez, J.; Malato Rodriguez, S.; Rodriguez Fernandez-Alba, A.

    2003-07-01

    The technical feasibility mechanisms and performance of degradation of several pesticides (imidacloprid, methomyl and diuron) dissolved in water have been studies at pilot scale in two well-defined photocatalytic systems of special interest because natural UV light can be used: heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide and homogeneous photocatalysis by photo-Fenton.Equivalent pilot-scale (made up of Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPCs) specially designed for solar photocatalytic applications) and field conditions used for both systems and the three pesticides allowed adequate comparison of the degree of mineralization and toxicity achieved as well as the transformation products generated en route to mineralization. Total disappearance of the parent compounds and 90% mineralisation have been attained with all pesticides tested, methomyl being the most difficult to be degraded with both treatments. First order rate constants, initial rate,time necessary for mineralizing 90% of the initial TOC and hydrogen peroxide consumption were calculated in all cases, enabling comparison both of treatments and of the selected pesticide reactivity. Complete mineralisation of TOC is not achieved even after quite a long time (more than 300 minutes). Three different bioassays (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and a Microalga) have been used for testing the progress of toxicity during treatments. All remained toxic down to very low pesticide disappearance of the pesticide. Only if treatment is maintained throughout enough mineralisation (i. e. TOC disappearance), the toxicity is reduced to below the threshold (EC 50%). Transformation products evaluated by GC-MS/AED (after two SPE procedures), LC-IT-MS and LC-IC were the same in both phototreatments. The main differences between the two processes are in the amount of transformation products (TPs) generated, not in the TPs detected which were always the same. (Author)

  20. Evaluation of the performance of a meso-scale NWP model to forecast solar irradiance on Reunion Island for photovoltaic power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalecinski, Natacha; Haeffelin, Martial; Badosa, Jordi; Periard, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    Solar photovoltaic power is a predominant source of electrical power on Reunion Island, regularly providing near 30% of electrical power demand for a few hours per day. However solar power on Reunion Island is strongly modulated by clouds in small temporal and spatial scales. Today regional regulations require that new solar photovoltaic plants be combined with storage systems to reduce electrical power fluctuations on the grid. Hence cloud and solar irradiance forecasting becomes an important tool to help optimize the operation of new solar photovoltaic plants on Reunion Island. Reunion Island, located in the South West of the Indian Ocean, is exposed to persistent trade winds, most of all in winter. In summer, the southward motion of the ITCZ brings atmospheric instabilities on the island and weakens trade winds. This context together with the complex topography of Reunion Island, which is about 60 km wide, with two high summits (3070 and 2512 m) connected by a 1500 m plateau, makes cloudiness very heterogeneous. High cloudiness variability is found between mountain and coastal areas and between the windward, leeward and lateral regions defined with respect to the synoptic wind direction. A detailed study of local dynamics variability is necessary to better understand cloud life cycles around the island. In the presented work, our approach to explore the short-term solar irradiance forecast at local scales is to use the deterministic output from a meso-scale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, AROME, developed by Meteo France. To start we evaluate the performance of the deterministic forecast from AROME by using meteorological measurements from 21 meteorological ground stations widely spread around the island (and with altitudes from 8 to 2245 m). Ground measurements include solar irradiation, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, air temperature, precipitation and pressure. Secondly we study in the model the local dynamics and thermodynamics that

  1. Roof mounted solar collectors with reflectors. Evaluation; Takmonterade solfaangare med reflektorer i Markbacken. Utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Leif [Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Goeteborg (Sweden). Maetcentralen; Perers, B. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-09-01

    A solar heating plant designed for preheating of domestic hot water was built during the spring of 1998 at Markbacken, Oerebro. The collector panels were built with a very low profile, less than 1 m high, but they were quite wide in the east-west direction (6.6 m). The roof-placed collectors, 210 m{sup 2} in all, were thus very discreet and can not be seen from the main facades of the three-storey building on which they are placed. Also, the slim design meant that the entire collector box could be manufactured in a one-step process, bottom and sides being pressed from a single sheet of aluminium. Each collector and its reflector, also of aluminium, shared the same frame. The frame was attached to heavy bars of concrete which was placed on the flat roof. No further anchoring was needed. The tubing from the collectors was drawn to the cellar of the building through an obsolete refuse chute. The circulation pumps, heat exchangers and accumulator were placed in a cellar room. The accumulator consists of three cylindrical tanks with a maximum allowed pressure of 3 bar and a volume of 11 m{sup 3}. Heat from the accumulator is heat-exchanged to the cold water supplied to the system for producing domestic hot water. If the resulting temperature is less required extra heat is added from the district heating net. The solar heating plant has operated very well and has even produced more energy than was calculated in the pre-study. At a system temperature of 40 deg C the specific energy production is about 600 kWh/m{sup 2},year. The typical production is 126 MWh per annum, corresponding to 35% of the hot water consumption. The final cost of the system was some 20% higher than calculated. Some unforeseen additional costs resulted from the need for cellar floor reinforcement and also some roof improvement measures. Too high flow through the solar collectors and through the loading circuit for the accumulator has a destructive action on the temperature stratification in the heat

  2. An improved methodology for heliostat testing and evaluation at the Plataforma Solar de Almería

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterreal, Rafael; Enrique, Raúl; Fernández-Reche, Jesús

    2017-06-01

    The optical quality of a heliostat basically quantifies the difference between the scattering effects of the actual solar radiation reflected on its optical surface, compared to the so called canonical dispersion, that is, the one reflected on an optical surface free of constructional errors (paradigm). However, apart from the uncertainties of the measuring process itself, the value of the optical quality must be independent of the measuring instrument; so, any new measuring techniques that provide additional information about the error sources on the heliostat reflecting surface would be welcome. That error sources are responsible for the final optical quality value, with different degrees of influence. For the constructor of heliostats it will be extremely useful to know the value of the classical sources of error and their weight on the overall optical quality of a heliostat, such as facets geometry or focal length, as well as the characteristics of the heliostat as a whole, i.e., its geometry, focal length, facets misalignment and also the possible dependence of these effects with mechanical and/or meteorological factors. It is the goal of the present paper to unfold these optical quality error sources by exploring directly the reflecting surface of the heliostat with the help of a laser-scanner device and link the result with the traditional methods of heliostat evaluation at the Plataforma Solar de Almería.

  3. A Critical Evaluation of the Influence of the Dark Exchange Current on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Villanueva-Cab, Julio; Anta, Juan A.; Oskam, Gerko

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the thickness of the nanostructured, mesoporous TiO2 film on several parameters determining the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We pay special attention to the effect of the exchange current density in the dark, and we compare the values obtained by steady state measurements with values extracted from small perturbation techniques. We also evaluate the influence of exchange current density, the solar cell ideality factor, and the effective absorption coefficient of the cell on the optimal film thickness. The results show that the exchange current density in the dark is proportional to the TiO2 film thickness, however, the effective absorption coefficient is the parameter that ultimately defines the ideal thickness. We illustrate the importance of the exchange current density in the dark on the determination of the current–voltage characteristics and we show how an important improvement of the cell performance can be achieved by decreasing values of the total series resistance and the exchange current density in the dark. PMID:28787833

  4. Optimization of a Deep Convective Cloud Technique in Evaluating the Long-Term Radiometric Stability of MODIS Reflective Solar Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaozhen Mu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available MODIS reflective solar bands are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser and near-monthly lunar observations. To monitor the performance and effectiveness of the on-orbit calibrations, pseudo-invariant targets such as deep convective clouds (DCCs, Libya-4, and Dome-C are used to track the long-term stability of MODIS Level 1B product. However, the current MODIS operational DCC technique (DCCT simply uses the criteria set for the 0.65-µm band. We optimize several critical DCCT parameters including the 11-µm IR-band Brightness Temperature (BT11 threshold for DCC identification, DCC core size and uniformity to help locate DCCs at convection centers, data collection time interval, and probability distribution function (PDF bin increment for each channel. The mode reflectances corresponding to the PDF peaks are utilized as the DCC reflectances. Results show that the BT11 threshold and time interval are most critical for the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR bands. The Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function model is most effective in reducing the DCC anisotropy for the visible channels. The uniformity filters and PDF bin size have minimal impacts on the visible channels and a larger impact on the SWIR bands. The newly optimized DCCT will be used for future evaluation of MODIS on-orbit calibration by MODIS Characterization Support Team.

  5. Evaluation of a proposal for reliable low-cost grid power with 100% wind, water, and solar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Christopher T M; Qvist, Staffan A; Apt, Jay; Bazilian, Morgan; Brandt, Adam R; Caldeira, Ken; Davis, Steven J; Diakov, Victor; Handschy, Mark A; Hines, Paul D H; Jaramillo, Paulina; Kammen, Daniel M; Long, Jane C S; Morgan, M Granger; Reed, Adam; Sivaram, Varun; Sweeney, James; Tynan, George R; Victor, David G; Weyant, John P; Whitacre, Jay F

    2017-06-27

    A number of analyses, meta-analyses, and assessments, including those performed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the International Energy Agency, have concluded that deployment of a diverse portfolio of clean energy technologies makes a transition to a low-carbon-emission energy system both more feasible and less costly than other pathways. In contrast, Jacobson et al. [Jacobson MZ, Delucchi MA, Cameron MA, Frew BA (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(49):15060-15065] argue that it is feasible to provide "low-cost solutions to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of WWS [wind, water and solar power] across all energy sectors in the continental United States between 2050 and 2055", with only electricity and hydrogen as energy carriers. In this paper, we evaluate that study and find significant shortcomings in the analysis. In particular, we point out that this work used invalid modeling tools, contained modeling errors, and made implausible and inadequately supported assumptions. Policy makers should treat with caution any visions of a rapid, reliable, and low-cost transition to entire energy systems that relies almost exclusively on wind, solar, and hydroelectric power.

  6. A Critical Evaluation of the Influence of the Dark Exchange Current on the Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García-Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the thickness of the nanostructured, mesoporous TiO2 film on several parameters determining the performance of a dye-sensitized solar cell is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We pay special attention to the effect of the exchange current density in the dark, and we compare the values obtained by steady state measurements with values extracted from small perturbation techniques. We also evaluate the influence of exchange current density, the solar cell ideality factor, and the effective absorption coefficient of the cell on the optimal film thickness. The results show that the exchange current density in the dark is proportional to the TiO2 film thickness, however, the effective absorption coefficient is the parameter that ultimately defines the ideal thickness. We illustrate the importance of the exchange current density in the dark on the determination of the current–voltage characteristics and we show how an important improvement of the cell performance can be achieved by decreasing values of the total series resistance and the exchange current density in the dark.

  7. Evaluating the ability of current energy use assessment methods to study contrasting livestock production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Mathieu; Vayssières, Jonathan; Lecomte, Philippe; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2012-12-15

    Environmental impact assessment of agriculture has received increased attention over recent decades, leading to development of numerous methods. Among them, three deal with energy use: Energy Analysis (EA), Ecological Footprint (EF) and Emergy synthesis (Em). Based on a review of 197 references applying them to a variety of agricultural systems, this paper evaluates their ability to assess energy use. While EF assesses energy use as land use via a global accounting approach in which energy is only one component of the assessment, EA and Em are energy-focused and appear more appropriate to highlight ways to increase energy-use efficiency. EA presents a clear methodology via fossil energy use and its associated impacts but does not consider all energy sources. With inclusion of natural and renewable resources, Em focuses on other energy resources, such as solar radiation and energy from labour, but does not present impact indicators nor establish a clear link between activities and their environmental impacts. Improvements of the EA and Em methods could increase their ability to perform realistic and unbiased energy analysis or the diversity of livestock systems encountered in the world. First, to consider all energy sources, as Em does, EA could include solar radiation received by farm surfaces and energy expenditure by humans and animals to accomplish farm operations. Second, boundaries of the studied system in EA and Em must include draft animals, humans and communal grazing lands. Third, special attention should be given to update and locally adapt energy coefficients and transformities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance evaluation of a solar ejector-vapour compression cycle for cooling application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdouli, K.; Elakhdar, M.; Nahdi, E.; Kairouani, L.; Mhimid, A.

    2015-04-01

    This study deals with the performance of the ejector-vapour compression cycle assisted by solar. The effect of operating conditions on the combined cycle performance is examined. Also, a comparison of the system performance with environment friendly refrigerants (R134a, R600, R123, R141b, R142b, R152a, R290, and R245fa) is made. This performance is calculated using an empirical correlation. Thermodynamic properties of functioning fluids are obtained with package REFPROP 8. Using the typical meteorological year file containing the weather data of the city of Tunis, the system performance is computed for three collector types. The theoretical results show that the R290 offers the highest coefficient of performance, COP=3.75, for generator temperature TB = 78°C, condenser temperature Tc = 30°C and the intercooler temperature Te = 15°C.

  9. Solar energy system performance evaluation. Seasonal report for Contemporary-Manchester, Manchester, New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The solar energy system was designed to provide space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) preheating for a three-story dwelling located on the New Hampshire Vocational Technical College campus, Manchester, New Hampshire. The systems consist of twenty double glazed flat plate roof mounted warm air collectors (area 805 square feet) mounted with a tilt angle of 60 degrees from the horizontal, a 720 cubic foot horizontal rock bin for thermal storage, a central air handler, an 80 gallon DHW preheat tank, pumps, controls, plumbing and associated air ducting. Hot water pre-heating is accomplished by an air-to-water heat exchanger with auxiliary energy provided by conventional electric 80 gallon hot water tank. Auxiliary space heating is provided by a 112,000 Btu per hour, 1200 cubic feet per minute oil fired furnace. The analysis is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for at least one full season of operation.

  10. Solar energy system performance evaluation: seasonal report for IBM System 3, Glendo, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The IBM System 3 Solar Energy System was designed by the Federal Systems Division of IBM in Huntsville, Alabama to provide 46% of the space heating and 80% of the domestic hot water (DHW) for a 1078 square foot retrofit of an existing building used as a residence at the Glendo Reservoir State Park Ranger Station. The system consists of fourteen Sunworks Model LA1001A flat plate liquid collectors (294 square feet), a 1000 gallon hot water storage tank, a 65 gallon electric domestic hot water tank, pumps, heat exchangers, controls, and associated plumbing. Water is the heat transfer medium for this closed volume, passive drain down system. A gas furnace is used for auxiliary space heating energy. The system which became operational in October 1978 has five modes of operation. Performance data for the year of 1979 are presented and assessed.

  11. Round robins of solar cells to evaluate measurement systems of different european research institutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshanden, P.; Van der Brog, N.J.C.M. [ECN Solar, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Bliss, M.; Mihaylov, B.; Gottschlag, R. [CREST, Holywell Park MBG GJ/Gx, Loughborough Univeristy, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Izzi, M.; Tucci, M. [ENEA CASACCIA, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy); Roca, F.; Pellegrino, M.; Romano, A.; Graditi, G. [ENEA PORTICI, P. le E. Fermi Localita Granatello, 80055 Portici Napoli (Italy); Hohl-Ebinger, J.; Warta, W. [Fraunhofer ISE, Berliner Allee 30, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Debucquoy, M.; El Daif, O.; Gordon, I. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Champliaud, J.; Jouini, A. [INES, 50 avenue du lac Leman, BP 332, 73377, Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Glatz-Reichenbach, J. [ISC, Rudolf Diesel Str. 15, D-78467 Konstanz (Germany); Bothe, K. [ISFH, Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Herguth, A. [University of Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Determination of the solar cell efficiency and internal quantum efficiency are standard characterization methods used by the majority of research institutes. Random errors can be assessed by institutes themselves by repeated measurements, but systematic deviations cannot be assessed without comparisons with other institutes. The comparisons were performed for illuminated IV, spectral response and reflection measurements. The results were split into systematic differences between the partners and random differences within an institute for a single measurement session. The total differences are: J{sub sc}: 0.27 A, V{sub oc}: 8.5 mV, FF: 2.4 %, {eta}: 0.6%, spectral response: 0.14 A/W and reflection: 0.08. For all measurement methods, the systematic differences exceeded the random differences. The major component for the systematic differences is likely the reference device, but also temperature control, contacting scheme and setup differences play a part.

  12. Evaluating Micro-Power Management of Solar Energy Harvesting using a Novel Modular Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokert, J.; Beckedahl, T.; Reindl, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    Micro-Power Management (μPM) is essential to supply power to autarkic sensor nodes from energy harvesting sources. As there are numerous ways to realize a μPM, the question arises of how to benchmark different managements under reproducible boundary conditions. In this paper we present these conditions for solar harvesting. Further, we propose a system efficiency definition, which is applicable to all self-powered systems. For verification, we use our modular construction kit, which is used to set up four different μPM configurations. We examined the interplay of state-of-the-art power converters with a supercapacitor array. As one result, the improvement of using a buck converter compared to an LDO was quantified by an increase of 10 percentage points in the system efficiency. The experiments show that the modular setup and the boundary conditions are suitable for such investigations.

  13. Solar energy system performance evaluation: M. F. Smith, Jamestown, Rhode Island, October 1979 - April 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, E. N.

    The active solar energy system is designed to supply 78% of the space heating requirements and 51% of the hot water. The gross collector array is 512 sq ft. The cover of the collector is made of a double glazing, light weight durable translucent fiberglass material, bonded to support aluminum I beam guide core. Water is the transfer medium of the collector. Heat from the collector is stored in a standing 3150 gallon concrete tank located in the basement of the house. Heat is distributed to the living area by a water to air heat pump with a heating capacity of 33,000 Btu/hr. The heat pump draws heat from the water and heats air which is blown throughout the house by means of a duct system. The systems actually produced 78% of the space heating requirements and 73% of the hot water.

  14. Development and evaluation of a reflective solar disinfection pouch for treatment of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D Carey; Len, Soo-Voon; Sheehan, Brita

    2004-04-01

    A second-generation solar disinfection (SODIS) system (pouch) was constructed from food-grade, commercially available packaging materials selected to fully transmit and amplify the antimicrobial properties of sunlight. Depending upon the season, water source, and challenge organism, culturable bacteria were reduced between 3.5 and 5.5 log cycles. The system was also capable of reducing the background presumptive coliform population in nonsterile river water below the level of detection. Similar experiments conducted with a model virus, the F-specific RNA bacteriophage MS2, indicated that the pouch was slightly less efficient, reducing viable plaques by 3.5 log units in comparison to a 5.0 log reduction of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O18:H11 within the same time period. These results suggest that water of poor microbiological quality can be improved by using a freely available resource (sunlight) and a specifically designed plastic pouch constructed of food-grade packaging materials.

  15. Long term vision on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico: Solar energy. First Part: Evaluation of the Solar Resource in Mexico (Annexe 6-I in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Vision a largo plazo sobre la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico: Energia solar. Primera Parte: Evaluacion del Recurso Solar en Mexico (Anexo 6-I en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada Gasca, Claudio A; Arancibia Bulnes, Camilo A; Dorantes Rodriguez, Ruben; Islas Samperio, Jorge; Muhlia Velasquez, Agustin [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The application of the solar energy requires an evaluation of the solar resource. It is understood by evaluation the determination of the amount of solar energy available to be used in an application; from the point of view of the present applications it is advisable to distinguish two: the direct solar radiation and the diffuse solar radiation, that conform what it is known as the global solar radiation, or hemispheric. All the solar collectors have capacity to use the direct radiation, their capacity to use diffuse radiation depends on the concentration factor of the radiation that characterizes them. Another distinction that can be done is the measurement of different parts from the spectrum. It is not simple to predict the value of the solar radiation in a site or given moment, this has implications in the design of solar facilities, which are constructed to operate during a large number of years. [Spanish] La aplicacion de la energia solar requiere una evaluacion del recurso solar. Se entiende por evaluacion a la determinacion de la cantidad de energia solar disponible para ser utilizada en una aplicacion; desde el punto de vista de las aplicaciones actuales conviene distinguir dos: la radiacion solar directa y la radiacion solar difusa, que conforman lo que se conoce como la radiacion solar global, o hemisferica. Todos los colectores solares tienen capacidad de utilizar la radiacion directa, su capacidad de usar radiacion difusa depende del factor de concentracion de la radiacion que los caracteriza. Otra distincion que se puede hacer es la medicion de diferentes partes del espectro. No es sencillo predecir el valor de la radiacion solar en un sitio o momento dado, esto tiene implicaciones en el diseno de instalaciones solares, las cuales se construyen para operar durante un numero grande de anos.

  16. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  17. RE-EVALUATION OF THE NEUTRON EMISSION FROM THE SOLAR FLARE OF 2005 SEPTEMBER 7, DETECTED BY THE SOLAR NEUTRON TELESCOPE AT SIERRA NEGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, L. X. [SCiESMEX, Instituto de Geofísica Unidad Michoacán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58190, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Musalem, O.; Hurtado, A. [Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510, D. F. Mexico (Mexico); Sánchez, F. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección de Astropartículas, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, 1429, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Muraki, Y.; Sako, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Shibata, S. [College of Engineering, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Sakai, T. [College of Industrial Technologies, Nihon University, Narashino 275-0005 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    The X17.0 solar flare of 2005 September 7 released high-energy neutrons that were detected by the Solar Neutron Telescope (SNT) at Sierra Negra, Mexico. In three separate and independent studies of this solar neutron event, several of its unique characteristics were studied; in particular, a power-law energy spectra was estimated. In this paper, we present an alternative analysis, based on improved numerical simulations of the detector using GEANT4, and a different technique for processing the SNT data. The results indicate that the spectral index that best fits the neutron flux is around 3, in agreement with previous works. Based on the numerically calculated neutron energy deposition on the SNT, we confirm that the detected neutrons might have reached an energy of 1 GeV, which implies that 10 GeV protons were probably produced; these could not be observed at Earth, as their parent flare was an east limb event.

  18. Performance evaluation of a solar air-heating and nocturnal cooling system in CSU Solar House II. Final report, June 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaki, S.

    1979-04-01

    The solar heating system in Solar House II consists of 67.1 m/sup 2/ of double-glazed air-heating collectors with flat-black absorbers, 10.3 m/sup 3/ of pebble bed storage, air-to-water heat exchanger for preheating domestic water and one blower to circulate the air through the system. The nocturnal cooling system consists of an evaporative cooler and utilizes the pebble bed for cool storage. A schematic diagram of the system is shown.

  19. Evaluation of heat transfer mathematical models and multiple linear regression to predict the inside variables in semi-solar greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Taki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Controlling greenhouse microclimate not only influences the growth of plants, but also is critical in the spread of diseases inside the greenhouse. The microclimate parameters were inside air, greenhouse roof and soil temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation intensity. Predicting the microclimate conditions inside a greenhouse and enabling the use of automatic control systems are the two main objectives of greenhouse climate model. The microclimate inside a greenhouse can be predicted by conducting experiments or by using simulation. Static and dynamic models are used for this purpose as a function of the metrological conditions and the parameters of the greenhouse components. Some works were done in past to 2015 year to simulation and predict the inside variables in different greenhouse structures. Usually simulation has a lot of problems to predict the inside climate of greenhouse and the error of simulation is higher in literature. The main objective of this paper is comparison between heat transfer and regression models to evaluate them to predict inside air and roof temperature in a semi-solar greenhouse in Tabriz University. Materials and Methods In this study, a semi-solar greenhouse was designed and constructed at the North-West of Iran in Azerbaijan Province (geographical location of 38°10′ N and 46°18′ E with elevation of 1364 m above the sea level. In this research, shape and orientation of the greenhouse, selected between some greenhouses common shapes and according to receive maximum solar radiation whole the year. Also internal thermal screen and cement north wall was used to store and prevent of heat lost during the cold period of year. So we called this structure, ‘semi-solar’ greenhouse. It was covered with glass (4 mm thickness. It occupies a surface of approximately 15.36 m2 and 26.4 m3. The orientation of this greenhouse was East–West and perpendicular to the direction of the wind prevailing

  20. Performance Evaluation of Various Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage of A Solar Cooker via Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Tarwidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, thermal performance of various phase change materials (PCMs used as thermal energy storage in a solar cooker has been investigated numerically. Heat conduction equations in cylindrical domain are used to model heat transfer of the PCMs. Mathematical model of phase change problem in the PCM storage encompasses heat conduction equations in solid and liquid region separated by moving solid-liquid interface. The phase change problem is solved by reformulating heat conduction equations with emergence of moving boundary into an enthalpy equation. Numerical solution of the enthalpy equation is obtained by implementing Godunov method and verified by analytical solution of one-dimensional case. Stability condition of the numerical scheme is also discussed. Thermal performance of various PCMs is evaluated via the stored energy and temperature history. The simulation results show that phase change material with the best thermal performance during the first 2.5 hours of energy extraction is shown by erythritol. Moreover, magnesium chloride hexahydrate can maintain temperature of the PCM storage in the range of 110-116.7°C for more than 4 hours while magnesium nitrate hexahydrate is effective only for one hour with the PCM storage temperature around 121-128°C. Among the PCMs that have been tested, it is only erythritol that can cook 10 kg of the loaded water until it reaches 100°C for about 3.5 hours. Article History: Received June 22nd 2016; Received in revised form August 26th 2016; Accepted Sept 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tarwidi, D., Murdiansyah, D.T, Ginanja, N. (2016 Performance Evaluation of Various Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage of A Solar Cooker via Numerical Simulation. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(3, 199-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.3.199-210

  1. Desinfecção de efluentes com tratamento terciário utilizando energia solar (SODIS: avaliação do uso do dispositivo para concentração dos raios solares Disinfection of effluent of wastewater treated using solar energy (SODIS: evaluation of a solar concentrator device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2005-03-01

    concentrator of rays of sunshine. The affluent control parameters were turbidity, apparent color, temperature, total coliforms and E. coli. These last three were evaluated before and after the desinfection process (effluent parameters. To assess the bacteria reactivation we kept the water in bottles for 24 hours, pretending a very common situation in Brazilian rural houses. We conclude that the use of the concentrator of rays of sunshine can reduce the heat exposion from 6 to 4 hours, without harm the SODIS efficience. Using the concentrator of rays of sunshine for 6 hours we can obtain, besides SODIS, the process of solar pasteurization (SOPAS, which stops the re-growth of bacteria with a 70ºC water temperature. We also observed that when the sky is cloudy the incidention of solar radiation and, therefore, the SODIS efficience decrease, even if the water temperature is higher during the desinfection. Although, this factor doesn't mean a significative influence statistically.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Load Rejection Over-Voltage from Grid-Tied Solar Inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin; Hoke, Andy, Chakraborty, Sudipta; Ropp, Michael; Chebahtah, Justin; Wang, Trudie; Zimmerly, Brian

    2017-05-11

    This paper investigates the impact of load rejection over-voltage (LRO) from commercially available grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) solar inverters. LRO can occur when a local feeder or breaker opens and the power output from a distributed energy resource exceeds the load power. Simplified models of current controlled inverters can over-predict over-voltage magnitudes, thus it is useful to quantify testing. The load rejection event was replicated using a hardware testbed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and a set of commercially available PV inverters was tested to quantify the impact of LRO for a range of generation-to-load ratios. The magnitude and duration of the over-voltage events are reported in this paper along with a discussion of characteristic inverter output behavior. The results for the inverters under test showed that maximum over-voltage magnitudes were less than 200 percent of nominal voltage, and much lower in many test cases. These research results are important because utilities that interconnect inverter-based DER need to understand their characteristics under abnormal grid conditions.

  3. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  4. Evaluation of performance for solar house with Trombe wall. Part 5; Trombe hekishiki solar house no hyoka kenkyu (nichisekisan Trombe heki kyuhonetsuryo yosoku senzu no teian)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, N. [Nishimatsu Construction Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Nakajima, Y. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Service Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Abe, H. [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaga, K. [Mitsubishi Estate Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A regression equation that can calculate the daily accumulated absorption heat of Trombe Wall was given, and the performance estimated chart of Trombe Wall in which the daily unit effect of Trombe Wall can be visually recognized was proposed. The absorption heat was multivariate-analyzed by two variables of solar radiation of that day and the previous day. The data obtained from simulation was used for analysis. The absorption heat was analyzed using the meteorological data at eight spots (Sapporo, Sendai, Niigata, Tokyo, Shizuoka, Kochi, Fukushima, and Kagoshima). In this case, the result of multivariate analysis almost coincided with the simulation result. A chart that predicts the absorption heat of Trombe Wall in eight cities from the daily accumulated global solar radiation of that day and the previous day was then created as the performance estimated chart of Trombe Wall. As a result, the solar radiation of that day little influences the absorption heat when the Trombe Wall increases in thickness. Conversely, the solar radiation of the previous day significantly influences the absorption heat. In future, an equivalent heat loss coefficient will be calculated from the performance estimated chart. 2 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Stability of CIGS Solar Cells and Component Materials Evaluated by a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Method: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15oC and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40oC/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85oC/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 μm to 0.50 μm on the cells. No clear 'stepwise' feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH ≥ 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and 'capacitor quality' factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells? p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH ≥ 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of

  6. Follow-up of solar lentigo depigmentation with a retinaldehyde-based cream by clinical evaluation and calibrated colour imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questel, E; Durbise, E; Bardy, A-L; Schmitt, A-M; Josse, G

    2015-05-01

    To assess an objective method evaluating the effects of a retinaldehyde-based cream (RA-cream) on solar lentigines; 29 women randomly applied RA-cream on lentigines of one hand and a control cream on the other, once daily for 3 months. A specific method enabling a reliable visualisation of the lesions was proposed, using high-magnification colour-calibrated camera imaging. Assessment was performed using clinical evaluation by Physician Global Assessment score and image analysis. Luminance determination on the numeric images was performed either on the basis of 5 independent expert's consensus borders or probability map analysis via an algorithm automatically detecting the pigmented area. Both image analysis methods showed a similar lightening of ΔL* = 2 after a 3-month treatment by RA-cream, in agreement with single-blind clinical evaluation. High-magnification colour-calibrated camera imaging combined with probability map analysis is a fast and precise method to follow lentigo depigmentation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. UV-B absorbing compounds in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles seed coats and wood: evaluation of a proxy for solar UV-B radiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Blokker, P.; Mayoral Fuertes, M.; Broekman, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    UV-B absorbing compounds (UACs) in present-day and fossil pollen, spores, cuticles, seed coats and wood have been evaluated as a proxy for past UV. This proxy may not only provide information on variation of stratospheric ozone and solar UV in the period preceding and during the Antarctic ozone hole

  8. Evaluation of the Solar Water Disinfection Method Using an Ultraviolet Measurement Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H.

    2015-12-01

    Drinking water security is a growing problem for the population of planet Earth. According to WHO, more than 750 million people on our planet lack access to safe drinking water, resulting in approximately 502,000 diarrhoea deaths in 2012. In order to solve this problem, the Swiss water research institute, Eawag, has developed a method of solar water disinfection, called, "SODIS" The theory of SODIS is simple to understand: a clear plastic bottle filled with water is placed under full sunlight for at least 6 hours. The ultraviolet radiation kills the pathogens in the water, making the originally contaminated water safe for drinking. In order to improve this method, Helioz, an Austrian social enterprise, has created the WADI, a UV measurement device which determines when water is safe for drinking using the SODIS method. When using the WADI, the device should be placed under the sun and surrounded with bottles of water that need to be decontaminated. There is a UV sensor on the WADI, and since the bottles of water and the WADI will have equal exposure to sunlight, the WADI will be able to measure the impact of the sunlight on the contaminated water. This experiment tests the accuracy of the WADI device regarding the time interval needed for contaminated water to be disinfected. The experiment involves using the SODIS method to purify bottles of water contaminated with controlled samples of E. coli. Samples of the water are taken at different time intervals, and the E. coli levels are determined by growing the bacteria from the water samples on agar plates. Ultimately, this helps determine when the water is safe for drinking, and are compared against the WADI's measurements to test the reliability of the device.

  9. Development of Surfaces Optically Suitable for Flat Solar Panels. [using a reflectometer which separately evaluates spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A reflectometer which can separately evaluate the spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces is described. A phase locked detection system for the reflectometer is also described. A selective coating on aluminum potentially useful for flat plate solar collector applications is presented. The coating is composed of strongly bound copper oxide (divalent) and is formed by an etching process performed on an aluminum alloy with high copper content. Fabrication costs are expected to be small due to the one stop fabrication process. A number of conclusions gathered from the literature as to the required optical properties of flat plate solar collectors are discussed.

  10. Dimensioning and efficiency evaluation of hybrid solar systems for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays hybrid panels for joint production of thermal and electrical energy are available on the market. The main contribution of this work is to evaluate the performances of hybrid systems and to determine the field of application. Mathematical models of panels are considered to evaluate thermal and electrical behavior of the problem. A software produced by the authors is shown that calculates the energy production of these devices in several operating situations; a comparison to that of photovoltaic and thermal systems is performed. Moreover, the economic validity of a such investment is evaluated. Finally a simplified criterion has been developed to calculate the best subdivision of the available deployment surface among thermal, photovoltaic, and hybrid panels.

  11. Influence of atmospheric phenomenon in the evaluation of solar plate collectors efficiency; Influencia de los episodios de calima en la evaluacion de la eficiencia de captadores solares planos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, R. P.

    2004-07-01

    Canary Islands are occasionally affected by an atmospheric phenomenon produced when a haze of sand or dust microscope particles filled the atmosphere. It can be as light as mist or as thick as smog. This paper describes the influence of this phenomenon in the thermal performance of already installed solar collectors and in the results of efficiency tests (according to EN-12975-2), which are necessary in order to calculate the efficiency curve. The Solar Collector Test Laboratory of Canary Islands Institute of Technology has verified that this phenomenon is sometimes compatible with the climatic conditions detailed in EN 12975-2. This study is made with the purpose of assure the test results. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of surface solar radiation trends from WRF simulations over Europe with satellite and ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Alexandri, Georgia; Katragkou, Eleni; Pavlidis, Vasileios; Kartsios, Stergios; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we evaluate the ability of WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model) to capture the surface solar radiation (SSR) trends over Europe during the "brightening" period 1990-2008. For the needs of this work, two WRF hindcasts were implemented for the EURO-CORDEX (European Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment) domain at a spatial resolution of 0.44o. Both simulations are driven by the ERA-interim reanalysis. Different model parameterizations are used to investigate the sensitivity of model physics on the radiation components. The simulations are evaluated against high-resolution satellite measurements from the CM SAF (Satellite Application Facilities for Climate Monitoring) and ground-based observations from the GEBA (Global Energy Balance Archive). The ability of the model to reproduce the SSR annual and seasonal patterns is discussed taking into account cloudiness, which is the main driver of the SSR patterns. Then, the SSR trends from WRF are compared against trends from the CM SAF and GEBA datasets. Our results highlight the importance of such studies in order to understand the current limitations of WRF climate simulations in predicting future trends in SSR.

  13. A New Method To Evaluate Excited States Lifetimes Based on Green's Function: Application to Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, David; Iuchi, Satoru; Yasuda, Koji

    2016-07-12

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) are the promising device for electricity generation. However, the initial stage in which an electron is injected from a dye to the semiconductor has not been precisely understood. Standard quantum chemistry methods cannot handle infinite number of orbitals coming from the band structure of the semiconductor, whereas solid state calculations cannot handle many excited states at a reasonable computational cost. In this regard, we propose a new method to evaluate lifetimes of many excited states of a molecule on a semi-infinite surface. On the basis of the theory of resonance state, the effect of the semi-infinite semiconductor is encoded into the complex self-energy from surface Green's function. The lifetimes of excited states are evaluated through the imaginary part of the self-energy, and the self-energy correction is included into excitation energies obtained from time-dependent density functional theory calculations. This new method is applied to a DSSC system composed of black dye attached to the TiO2 semiconductor, and the computed lifetimes are linked to the natures of excited states and to the surface properties. The present method provides the firm ground for analysis of interplay between many excited states of the dye and band structure of the semiconductor.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Simple Thermal Storage Control Strategies in Low-Energy Solar Houses to Reduce Electricity Consumption during Grid On-Peak Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Ho Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in zero-energy and low-energy buildings, which have a net energy consumption (on an annual basis of almost zero. Because they can generate both electricity and thermal energy through the use of solar photovoltaic (PV and solar thermal collectors, and with the help of reduced building thermal demand, low-energy buildings can not only make a significant contribution to energy conservation on an annual basis, but also reduce energy consumption and peak demand. This study focused on electricity consumption during the on-peak period in a low-energy residential solar building and considers the use of a building’s thermal mass and thermal storage to reduce electricity consumption in summer and winter by modulation of temperature setpoints for heat pump and indoor thermostats in summer and additional use of a solar heating loop in winter. Experiments were performed at a low-energy solar demonstration house that has solar collectors, hot water storage, a ground-coupled heat pump, and a thermal storage tank. It was assumed that the on-peak periods were from 2 pm to 5 pm on hot summer days and from 5 pm to 8 pm on cold winter days. To evaluate the potential for utilizing the building’s thermal storage capacity in space cooling and heating, the use of simple control strategies on three test days in summer and two test days in the early spring were compared in terms of net electricity consumption and peak demand, which also considered the electricity generation from solar PV modules on the roof of the house.

  15. Silicon Nanowires for Solar Thermal Energy Harvesting: an Experimental Evaluation on the Trade-off Effects of the Spectral Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekone, Abdoul Karim; Chen, Yu-Bin; Lu, Ming-Chang; Chen, Wen-Kai; Liu, Chia-An; Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2016-12-01

    Silicon nanowire possesses great potential as the material for renewable energy harvesting and conversion. The significantly reduced spectral reflectivity of silicon nanowire to visible light makes it even more attractive in solar energy applications. However, the benefit of its use for solar thermal energy harvesting remains to be investigated and has so far not been clearly reported. The purpose of this study is to provide practical information and insight into the performance of silicon nanowires in solar thermal energy conversion systems. Spectral hemispherical reflectivity and transmissivity of the black silicon nanowire array on silicon wafer substrate were measured. It was observed that the reflectivity is lower in the visible range but higher in the infrared range compared to the plain silicon wafer. A drying experiment and a theoretical calculation were carried out to directly evaluate the effects of the trade-off between scattering properties at different wavelengths. It is clearly seen that silicon nanowires can improve the solar thermal energy harnessing. The results showed that a 17.8 % increase in the harvest and utilization of solar thermal energy could be achieved using a silicon nanowire array on silicon substrate as compared to that obtained with a plain silicon wafer.

  16. Evaluating the biological potential in samples returned from planetary satellites and small solar system bodies: framework for decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff

    1998-01-01

    ... from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies Framework for Decision Making Task Group on Sample Return from Small Solar System Bodies Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998 i Copyrightthe true use are Please breaks...

  17. Time-resolved photoluminescence for evaluating laser-induced damage during dielectric stack ablation in silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parola, Stéphanie [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France); Blanc-Pélissier, Danièle, E-mail: daniele.blanc@insa-lyon.fr [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France); Barbos, Corina; Le Coz, Marine [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France); Poulain, Gilles [TOTAL MS—New Energies, R& D Division, La Défense (France); Lemiti, Mustapha [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon INL-UMR5270, CNRS, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, F-69621 (France)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Ablation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub x} on Si substrates was performed with a nanosecond UV laser. • Ablation thresholds were found in good agreement with COMSOL simulation, around 0.85 and 0.95 J cm{sup −2} for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub X}, respectively. • Laser-induced damage was evaluated at room temperature by time-resolved photoluminescence decay with a single photon counting detector. • Minority carrier lifetime in silicon as a function of the ablation fluence was derived from the photoluminescence decay and related to the thickness of the heat affected zone. • Quantitative measurements of laser-induced damage can be used to evaluate laser ablation of dielectrics in photovoltaics. - Abstract: Selective laser ablation of dielectric layers on crystalline silicon wafers was investigated for solar cell fabrication. Laser processing was performed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and bi-layers Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiN{sub X}:H with a nanosecond UV laser at various energy densities ranging from 0.4 to 2 J cm{sup −2}. Ablation threshold was correlated to the simulated temperature at the interface between the dielectric coatings and the silicon substrate. Laser-induced damage to the silicon substrate was evaluated by time-resolved photoluminescence. The minority carrier lifetime deduced from time-resolved photoluminescence was related to the depth of the heat affected zone in the substrate.

  18. Solar-energy-system performance-evaluation update: Wood Road School, Ballston Spa, New York, October 1982-April 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, P

    1983-01-01

    The Wood Road School Solar Project is a 216,000 square foot combined elementary and middle school in Ballston Spa, New York. The solar energy system supplies energy to the space heating and domestic hot water subsystems. Heat is collected by flat plate collector panels and stored in two storage tanks. Performance data are given for the system overall and for each of the four subsystems - energy collection, storage, space heating, and domestic hot water. Data are also provided on operating energy, energy savings, and weather conditions. Design and actual system solar fraction are compared, and percentage of incident solar energy and collected solar energy utilized are given. Also given are building loads analysis, system thermal losses, and system coefficient of performance. (LEW)

  19. Health gains from solar water disinfection (SODIS): evaluation of a water quality intervention in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Jürg; Zebaze Togouet, Serge; Kemka, Norbert; Niyitegeka, Domitille; Meierhofer, Regula; Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    In developing countries, the burden of diarrhoea is still enormous. One way to reduce transmission of pathogens is by water quality interventions. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a low-cost and simple method to improve drinking water quality on household level. This paper evaluates the implementation of SODIS in slum areas of Yaoundé, Cameroon. Promoters trained 2,911 households in the use of SODIS. Two surveys with randomly selected households were conducted before (N=2,193) and after (N=783) the intervention. Using a questionnaire, interviewers collected information on the health status of children under five, on liquid consumption, hygiene and other issues. Prior to the intervention, diarrhoea prevalence amounted to 34.3% among children. After the intervention, it remained stable in the control group (31.8%) but dropped to 22.8% in the intervention group. Households fully complying with the intervention exhibited even less diarrhoea prevalence (18.3%) and diarrhoea risk could be reduced by 42.5%. Multivariate analyses revealed that the intervention effects are also observed when other diarrhoea risk factors, such as hygiene and cleanliness of household surroundings, are considered. According to the data, adoption of the method was associated with marital status. Findings suggest health benefits from SODIS use. Further promotional activities in low-income settings are recommended.

  20. Intertechnology Corporation proposed test and evaluation plan, commercial buildings. National Solar Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-09-01

    This report has three major parts. The first of these derives the requirements for the Test and Evaluation plan from the System Level Plan which is summarized in Section II. The second part contains the proposed plan to fill these requirements and includes hardware and software recommendations as well as procedures and management considerations. Primary emphasis has been given to the remote site because this is the area in which the commercial part of the demonstration is most unique. Finally, some pre-demonstration activities are described. The pilot program is intended to resolve a number of issues which arose in the course of the T and E plan. These relate to choice of scan frequencies, compression algorithms, etc. It is also intended to confirm performance and cost effectiveness of the site data collection package. The base line measurements of attitudes, etc. provide a reference mark against which one can measure the non-technical effectiveness of the demonstration program. (WDM)

  1. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  2. Evaluation of the flat-plate solar collector system for electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    This evaluation of the flat-plate collector system was designed to determine the number of flat-plate collectors required to generate a given amount of electricity with optimum efficiency. Variable parameters are the temperature of the heat-transport fluid, both to and from the collector field. In the analysis, the efficiency of the flat-plate collectors was coupled to the efficiency of the thermal cycle to calculate optimal overall system efficiencies. Overall system efficiencies for the system are on the order of 3.5 per cent or less. Over two million 4 ft-by-4 ft collectors would be required to produce 100,000 kW(e). Based on the results, it can be shown that the limiting factor in the use of the flat-plate collector system for electric power generation is the efficiency of the collectors. An increase in the overall system efficiency can occur only if the collector efficiency can be increased at higher surface temperatures.

  3. Design, Development, and Performance Evaluation of Solar Heating System for Disinfection of Domestic Roof-Harvested Rainwater

    OpenAIRE

    Akintola, O. A.; Sangodoyin, A. Y.

    2015-01-01

    A box-type solar heater was designed, constructed, and used to determine the effect of solar heating on quality of domestic roof-harvested rainwater (DRHRW). During testing, naturally contaminated DRHRW was harvested in Ibadan, Nigeria, and released into the system at 93.96?Lh?1 (2.61 ? 10?5?m3?s?1) in a continuous flow process. Water temperatures at inlet, within the heating chamber, and at outlet from the heating chamber and solar radiation were monitored at 10?min interval. Samples were co...

  4. Thermal performance evaluation of a latent heat storage unit for late evening cooking in a solar cooker having three reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddhi, D.; Sharma, A. [Devi Ahilya University, Indore (India). School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Thermal Energy Storage Laboratory; Sharma, S.D. [Mie University, Tsu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering, Department of Architecture

    2003-04-01

    In this paper, a phase change material (PCM) storage unit for a solar cooker was designed and developed to store energy during sunshine hours. The stored energy was utilised to cook food in the late evening. Commercial grade acetanilide (melting point 118.9 {sup o}C, latent heat of fusion 222 kJ/kg) was used as a latent heat storage material. Evening cooking experiments were conducted with different loads and loading times during the winter season. The experimental results showed that late evening cooking is possible in a solar cooker having three reflectors to enhance the incident solar radiation with the PCM storage unit. (author)

  5. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  6. Results of thermal performance evaluation of the Owens-Illinois sunpack liquid solar collector at indoor conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Test procedures and results of the thermal performance of a liquid, evacuated tube, solar collector under simulated conditions are presented. The collector tested was a module used on the early demonstration projects.

  7. Statistical evaluation of the significance of the influence of abrupt changes in solar activity on the dynamics of the epidemic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhinin, I. P.; Khamyanova, N. V.; Yagodinskiy, V. N.

    1974-01-01

    Statistical evaluations of the significance of the relationship of abrupt changes in solar activity and discontinuities in the multi-year pattern of an epidemic process are reported. They reliably (with probability of more than 99.9%) show the real nature of this relationship and its great specific weight (about half) in the formation of discontinuities in the multi-year pattern of the processes in question.

  8. Comparison of different solar reactors for household disinfection of drinking water in developing countries: evaluation of their efficacy in relation to the waterborne enteropathogen Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Couso, H; Fontán-Sainz, M; Navntoft, C; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Ares-Mazás, E

    2012-11-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a type of treatment that can significantly improve the microbiological quality of drinking water at household level and therefore prevent waterborne diseases in developing countries. Cryptosporidium parvum is an obligate protozoan parasite responsible for the diarrhoeal disease cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. Recently, this parasite has been selected by the WHO as a reference pathogen for protozoan parasites in the evaluation of household water treatment options. In this study, the field efficacy of different static solar reactors [1.5 l transparent plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles as well as 2.5 l borosilicate glass and 25 l methacrylate reactors fitted with compound parabolic concentrators (CPC)] for solar disinfection of turbid waters experimentally contaminated with C. parvum oocysts was compared. Potential oocyst viability was determined by inclusion/exclusion of the fluorogenic vital dye propidium iodide. The results demonstrate that static solar reactors fitted with CPCs are an excellent alternative to the conventional SODIS method with PET bottles. These reactors improved the efficacy of the SODIS method by enabling larger volumes of water to be treated and, in some cases, the C. parvum oocysts were rendered totally unviable, minimising the negative effects of turbidity. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance Evaluation of a Continuous Operation Adsorption Chiller Powered by Solar Energy Using Silica Gel and Water as the Working Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zohair Hassan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, dynamic analysis and performance evaluation of a solar-powered continuous operation adsorption chiller are introduced. The adsorption chiller uses silica gel and water as the working pair. The developed mathematical model represents the heat and mass transfer within the reactor coupled with the energy balance of the collector plate and the glass cover. Moreover, a non-equilibrium adsorption kinetic model is taken into account by using the linear driving force equation. The variation of solar radiation, wind speed, and atmospheric temperature along a complete cycle are considered for a more realistic simulation. Based on the case studied  and the baseline parameters, the chiller is found to acquire a coefficient of performance of 0.402. The average thermal efficiency of the solar collector is estimated to be 62.96% and the average total efficiency  approaches a value of 50.91%. Other performance parameters obtained are 363.8 W and 1.82 W/kg for the cooling capacity and the specific cooling power of the chiller, respectively. Furthermore, every 1 kg of silica gel inside the adsorption reactor produces a daily chilled water mass of 3 kg at a temperature of 10 ◦C. In addition, the cooling system harnesses 25.35% of the total available solar radiation and converts it to a cooling effect.

  10. Co-Production Performance Evaluation of a Novel Solar Combi System for Simultaneous Pure Water and Hot Water Supply in Urban Households of UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutakki Tirumala Uday Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Water is the most desirable and sparse resource in Gulf cooperation council (GCC region. Utilization of point-of-use (POU water treatment devices has been gaining huge market recently due to increase in knowledge of urban population on health related issues over contaminants in decentralized water distribution networks. However, there is no foolproof way of knowing whether the treated water is free of contaminants harmful for drinking and hence reliance on certified bottled water has increased worldwide. The bottling process right from treatment to delivery is highly unsustainable due to huge energy demand along the supply chain. As a step towards sustainability, we investigated various ways of coupling of membrane distillation (MD process with solar domestic heaters for co-production of domestic heat and pure water. Performance dynamics of various integration techniques have been evaluated and appropriate configuration has been identified for real scale application. A solar combi MD (SCMD system is experimentally tested for single household application for production 20 L/day of pure water and 250 L/day of hot water simultaneously without any auxiliary heating device. The efficiency of co-production system is compared with individual operation of solar heaters and solar membrane distillation.

  11. Evaluation of characteristics on the bulk heterojunction solar cells prepared by PCDTBT: PC71BM composite thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masakazu; Santhakumar, Kannappan; Kumar, Palanisamy; Kojima, Kenzo; Shin, Paik-Kyun; Ochiai, Shizuyasu

    2012-09-01

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on blends comprising conjugated polymers and fullerene acceptors are the subject of considerable investigation because of their potential to enable the fabrication of low-cost devices that convert sunlight into electricity. Recently, poly(2,7-carbazole) derivatives have gained momentum as a class of promising alternative materials to poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) in organic solar cell applications. Among them, poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzo thiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) has a relatively deeper highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of 5.45 eV compared to the HOMO of 5.1 eV of the P3HT. In this work we systematically study the effect of donor and acceptor ratio on the device performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells made with blends of PCDTBT and PC71BM. We used PEDOT: PSS as a hole transport layer, and TiOX as a hole-blocking layer in order to improve the power conversion efficiency. The current density-voltage (JV) characteristics of photovoltaic cells were measured under the illumination of simulated solar light with 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5G) by an Oriel 1000 W solar simulator. The power conversion efficiency of the solar cell is more than 5%.

  12. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  13. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  14. Analysis of the California solar resource. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, P.; Grether, D.; Martin, M.; Wahlig, M.

    1978-11-01

    The following appendices are included: summaries of conferences with solar data users; solar data user questionnaire and sample formats; evaluation of the solar data user questionnaire; remarks stimulated by the solar data user questionnaire; effects of solar data accuracy on the performance and economics of solar energy systems; summary of solar data measurements; reports of site visits to solar data measurement stations; data correction factors; the regionalization of California for solar monitoring; participants at the Solar Data Management Conference, 19 November 1976; and rehabilitation techniques for daily solar radiation data. (MHR)

  15. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  16. Tanzania - Kigoma Solar Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation of the Kigoma solar activity was designed to answer questions about the implementation of the program and about outcomes that may have...

  17. Design, Development, and Performance Evaluation of Solar Heating System for Disinfection of Domestic Roof-Harvested Rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, O A; Sangodoyin, A Y

    2015-01-01

    A box-type solar heater was designed, constructed, and used to determine the effect of solar heating on quality of domestic roof-harvested rainwater (DRHRW). During testing, naturally contaminated DRHRW was harvested in Ibadan, Nigeria, and released into the system at 93.96 Lh(-1) (2.61 × 10(-5) m(3) s(-1)) in a continuous flow process. Water temperatures at inlet, within the heating chamber, and at outlet from the heating chamber and solar radiation were monitored at 10 min interval. Samples were collected at both inlet to and outlet from the heating chamber at 10 min interval for microbiological analysis. The highest plate stagnation temperature, under no-load condition, was 100°C. The solar water heater attained a maximum operational temperature of 75°C with 89.6 and 94.4% reduction in total viable count and total coliform count, respectively, while Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were completely eradicated at this temperature. The solar heater developed proved to be effective in enhancing potability of DRHRW in Ibadan, Nigeria. This may be an appropriate household water treatment technology for developing countries, hence, a way of resolving problem of low quality water for potable uses.

  18. An evaluation eMergetics of Itacoatiara's city in the central Amazon, their plywood, and cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river; Uma avaliacao eMergetica da cidade de Itacoatiara na Amazonia Central, sua industria de compensado e laminado e a varzea da bacia do rio Madeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comar, Vito

    1994-12-01

    The plywood production system of Itacoatiara's industry and the wooden extraction impact of cultivated plain of basin of Madeira's river are presented. The incorporated energy flows - eMergy are evaluated by the models mathematical simulation, which applies to specific indices derivation aiming at the comparison with other similar processes. Itacoatiara's city was going analyzed regarding the industry load energetics and of others urban components.

  19. Solar array welding developement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elms, R. V., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The present work describes parallel gap welding as used for joining solar cells to the cell interconnect system. Sample preparation, weldable cell parameter evaluation, bond scheduling, bond strength evaluation, and bonding and thermal shock tests are described. A range of weld schedule parameters - voltage, time, and force - can be identified for various cell/interconnect designs that will provide adequate bond strengths and acceptably small electrical degradation. Automation of solar array welding operations to a significant degree has been achieved in Europe and will be receiving increased attention in the U.S. to reduce solar array fabrication costs.

  20. Evaluation of a Magneto-optical Filter and a Fabry-perot Interferometer for the Measurement of Solar Velocity Fields from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Cacciani, A.; Blamont, J.; Tomczyk, S.; Ulrich, R. K.; Howard, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    A program was developed to evaluate the performance of three different devices as possible space-borne solar velocity field imagers. Two of these three devices, a magneto-optical filter and a molecular adherence Fabry-Perot interferometer were installed in a newly-constructed observing system located at the 60-foot tower telescope at the Mt. Wilson Observatory. Time series of solar filtergrams and Dopplergrams lasting up to 10 hours per day were obtained with the filter while shorter runs were obtained with the Fabry-Perot. Two-dimensional k (sub h)-omega power spectra which show clearly the well-known p-mode ridges were computed from the time series obtained with the magneto-optical filter. These power spectra were compared with similar power spectra obtained recently with the 13.7-m McMath spectrograph at Kitt Peak.

  1. Analysis of solar radiation and other variables for the evaluation of locations of thermo solar power stations; Analisis de radiacion solar y otras vairables para la evaluacion de emplazamientos de centrales termosolares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero, I.; Miranda, M. T.; Rojas, S.; Bolinaga, B.; Tierra, C.; Pico, J. del

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of various measuring weather stations located in future CCP thermal plants, showing the different systems they are equipped with, among others, pyrheliometer, pyrano meter, anemometers, thermo-hygrometer and data transmission system. Some results of solar radiation and other climate variables obtained in these stations are presented and analyzed in relation to existing data in the area, taking into account different external parameters that can influence the direct radiation obtained and, therefore, the future operation of the thermal plant. (Author)

  2. Evaluation of ink-jet printed current collecting grids and bushbars for ITO-free organic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galagan, Y.O.; Coenen, E,W.C.; Sabik, S.; Gorter, H.H.; Barink, M.; Veenstra, S.C.; Kroon, J.M.; Andriessen, H.A.J.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    ITO-free organic solar cells with ink-jet printed current collecting grids and high conducting PEDOT:PSS as composite anode are demonstrated. Inkjet printed current collecting grids with different cross-sectional are as have been investigated. The effect of the width and height of the gridlines and

  3. Solar ultraviolet radiation in Africa: a systematic review and critical evaluation of the health risks and use of photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Robyn M; Norval, Mary; Wright, Caradee Y

    2016-01-01

    Most information on the harmful health effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been obtained in populations in which the majority has fair skin. Here a systematic review of evidence on diseases related to solar UVR in Africa was undertaken, and the appropriateness of effective photoprotection for these people considered. There are few population-based studies on UV-induced skin cancers (melanoma, squamous and basal cell carcinomas) in Africa, although limited reports indicated that they occur, even in people with deeply pigmented skin. The incidence of melanoma is particularly high in the white population living in the Western Cape of South Africa and has increased significantly in recent years. Cataract is extremely common in people of all skin colours and is a frequent cause of blindness, particularly in the elderly. For both skin cancer and cataract, the proportion of the disease risk that is attributable to exposure to solar UVR in African populations, and therefore the health burden caused by UV irradiation is unclear. There was little published information on the use of sun protection in Africa. The potential disease burden attributable to solar UVR exposure of Africans is high, although accurate data to quantify this are sparse. Information is required on the incidence, prevalence and mortality for the range of UV-related diseases in different populations living throughout Africa. Photoprotection is clearly required, at least for those subpopulations at particularly high risk, but may be limited by cost and cultural acceptability.

  4. Evaluating Potential Human Health Risks Associated with the Development of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Facilities on Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J. -J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chang, Y. -S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartmann, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wescott, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kygeris, C. [Indiana Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report presents a general methodology for obtaining preliminary estimates of the potential human health risks associated with developing a utility-scale solar energy facility on a contaminated site, based on potential exposures to contaminants in soils (including transport of those contaminants into the air).

  5. Evaluation of annual efficiencies of high temperature central receiver concentrated solar power plants with thermal energy storage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhart, Brian David; Gill, David Dennis

    2013-07-01

    The current study has examined four cases of a central receiver concentrated solar power plant with thermal energy storage using the DELSOL and SOLERGY computer codes. The current state-of-the-art base case was compared with a theoretical high temperature case which was based on the scaling of some input parameters and the estimation of other parameters based on performance targets from the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This comparison was done for both current and high temperature cases in two configurations: a surround field with an external cylindrical receiver and a north field with a single cavity receiver. There is a fairly dramatic difference between the design point and annual average performance, especially in the solar field and receiver subsystems, and also in energy losses due to the thermal energy storage being full to capacity. Additionally, there are relatively small differences (<2%) in annual average efficiencies between the Base and High Temperature cases, despite an increase in thermal to electric conversion efficiency of over 8%. This is due the increased thermal losses at higher temperature and operational losses due to subsystem start-up and shut-down. Thermal energy storage can mitigate some of these losses by utilizing larger thermal energy storage to ensure that the electric power production system does not need to stop and re-start as often, but solar energy is inherently transient. Economic and cost considerations were not considered here, but will have a significant impact on solar thermal electric power production strategy and sizing.

  6. The Evaluation of Science Learning Program, Technology and Society Application of Audio Bio Harmonic System with Solar Energy to Improve Crop Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rosana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in science learning is how to integrate a wide range of basic scientific concepts of physics, chemistry, and biology into an integrated learning material. Research-based teaching material in this area is still very poor and does not much involve students of science education in its implementation as part of the learning program science technology and society (STS. The purpose of this study is to get the result of evaluation of the teaching and learning of STS in the form of public service in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. The program to improve crop productivity through the application of Audio Bio Harmonic System (ABHS with solar energy have been selected for utilizing the natural animal sounds to open stomata of the leaves conducted during foliar fertilization, making it suitable for integrated science lessons. Component of evaluation model used is Stufflebeam model evaluation (CIPP. CIPP evaluation in these activities resulted in two aspects: The first aspect was improving the skills of students and farmers in using ABHS, and these two aspects, namely food crop productivity; (1 cayenne increased 76.4%, (2 increased red onions (56.3% and (3 of maize increased by 67.8%. Besides, it was also the effect of the application of ABHS on the rate of plant growth. The outcome of this study is the STS teaching materials and appropriate technology of ABHS with solar energy.

  7. Fundamentals of solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. E.

    This textbook strives to strengthen a student's knowledge of the basic sciences as well as to provide a practical background in solar energy conversion. Particular consideration is given to solar geometry, the availability of solar energy, solar concentrators, elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer in solar systems, flat-plate collectors, and thermal storage of solar energy. The use of solar energy for specific types of loads is then discussed. The application of active solar systems to space and hot-water heating is considered, and a description is given of the empirical f-chart method for thermal-performance analysis. The economics of solar systems is examined along with the application of solar energy to cooling and dehumidification loads as well as the application of solar energy to industrial and other thermal loads. The concept of passive systems is explained, and the evaluation of thermal performance on the basis of the empirical load/collector ratio method is described. Appendixes are presented with such information as solar-position charts, tables of solar radiation and climatic data, and programs for hand-held calculators.

  8. Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Solar Energy's solar panels are collectors for a solar energy system which provides heating for a drive-in bank in Akron, OH. Collectors were designed and manufactured by Solar Energy Products, a firm established by three former NASA employees. Company President, Frank Rom, an example of a personnel-type technology transfer, was a Research Director at Lewis Research Center, which conducts extensive solar heating and cooling research, including development and testing of high-efficiency flat-plate collectors. Rom acquired solar energy expertise which helped the company develop two types of collectors, one for use in domestic/commercial heating systems and the other for drying grain.

  9. A Little Solar Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    Experiences from use of solar cookers in India and many other places are different. But the story which is based on a field study in Gujarat state of India shows that during last twenty years there has been a tendency that many families do not continue to use their solar cookers. The study shows...... that the tendency is related with the lack of compatibility of this new technology (solar cooker) with the everyday real-life conditions of the families. In principle the findings are supported by an evaluation report on a solar cooker project in Burkina Faso. The conclusion is that the user should be involved...... in the solar cooker technological development process....

  10. Evaluation of an economical sunlamp that emits a near solar UV power spectrum for conducting photoimmunological and sunscreen immune protection studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, D.G.; Roberts, L.K. [Schering-Plough HealthCare Products, Memphis, TN (United States). Advanced Product Research; Beard, J.; Stanfield, J.W. [Schering-Plough HealthCare Products, Memphis, TN (United States). Solar Research Laboratories

    1996-08-01

    Unlike FS-type UVB sunlamps, which have a significant amount of effective immunosuppressive non-solar UV energy at wavelengths below 295 nm, the immunosuppression effectiveness spectrum of UVA-340 sunlamps was nearly identical to that of a solar simulator. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this sunlamp for conducting photoimmunological and sunscreen immune protection studies. Groups of C3H mice were exposed to a range of UVA-340 sunlamp doses (0.25 kJ/m{sup 2} to 20.0 kJ/m{sup 2}) to establish a dose-response curve and determine the minimum immune suppression dose (MISD) for induction of local-type suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CH). The MISD, defined as the lowest UV dose given to produce {approx} 50% suppression of the CH response in mice, was determined to be 1.0 kJ/m{sup 2} for UVA-340 sunlamps. Immune protection tests on four marketed sunscreen lotions (sun protection factors [SPF] 4, 8, 15 and 30) were then conducted with UVA-340 sunlamps using MISD as the endpoint. The immune protection factors for these sunscreens were equivalent to the level of protection predicted by their labeled SPF. These results are similar to those we have previously obtained using a solar simulator. (author).

  11. Evaluation of the performance in the solar assisted heat pump system; Taiyonetsu riyo heat pump system no seino hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Y. [Osaka Institute of Technology, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Performance of a solar heating system with a hydrothermal source heat pump was evaluated and compared with that of a direct solar heating system. The sun-dependency rates ({Sigma}D and {Sigma}H)of the direct system and heat pump (HP)-provided system were expressed as a function of the rate ({alpha}) of the auxiliary heat against the collected heat and as a function of the performance coefficient and {alpha}, respectively. When the sun-dependency rates are compared, it is found that the HP-provided system is the more advantageous when {Sigma}H/{Sigma}D>1. The relationship between the {alpha}`s of the two systems was clarified and computation was performed to compare the sun-dependency rates on condition that the two are equal in the heat collecting area. Although the sun-dependence rate cannot be elevated to 100% in the HP-provided system, it achieves a sun-dependency rate higher than that of the direct system even when the heat collecting area is small. In cases where the building is economically limited, for instance, with respect to the area for solar collector installation, it is advantageous to employ the HP-provided system. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of the photocatalytic performance of Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} solar light driven plasmonic photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Rajesh; Malla, Shova; Gyawali, Gobinda [Research Center for Eco-Multifunctional Nanomaterials, Sun Moon University (Korea, Republic of); Sekino, Tohru [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University (Japan); Lee, Soo Wohn, E-mail: swlee@sunmoon.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sun Moon University, Asan Si, Chungnam 336-708 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} solar light driven photocatalyst was successfully synthesized. • Photocatalyst exhibited strong absorption in the visible region. • Photocatalytic activity was significantly enhanced. • Enhanced activity was caused by the SPR effect induced by Ag nanoparticles. - Abstract: Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} plasmonic photocatalyst was synthesized in ethanol/water mixture by photo assisted co-precipitation method at room temperature. As synthesized powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area analyzer. Photocatalytic activity was evaluated by performing the degradation experiment over methylene blue (MB) and indigo carmine (IC) as model dyes under simulated solar light irradiation. The results revealed that the Ag-CdMoO{sub 4} showed the higher photocatalytic performance as compared to CdMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles. Dispersion of Ag nanoparticles over the surface of CdMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles causes the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and enhances the broad absorption in the entire visible region of the solar spectrum. Hence, dispersion of Ag nanoparticles over CdMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles could be the better alternative to enhance the absorption of visible light by scheelite crystal family for effective photocatalysis.

  13. A Dynamic Evaluation Of A Model And An Estimate Of The Air Quality And Regional Climate Impacts Of Enhanced Solar Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Brown, N. J.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2012-12-01

    We use the WRF/Chem model (Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry) and pollutant emissions based on the EPA National Emission Inventories from 2005 and 2008 to model regional climate and air quality over the continental United States. Additionally, 2030 emission scenarios are developed to investigate the effects of future enhancements to solar power generation. Modeling covered 6 summer and 6 winter weeks each year. We model feedback between aerosols and meteorology and thus capture direct and indirect aerosol effects. The grid resolution is 25 km and includes no nesting. Between 2005 and 2008 significant emission reductions were reported in the National Emission Inventory. The 2008 weekday emissions over the continental U.S. of SO2 and NO were reduced from 2005 values by 28% and 16%, respectively. Emission reductions of this magnitude are similar in scale to the potential emission reductions from various energy policy initiatives. By evaluating modeled and observed air quality changes from 2005 to 2008, we analyze how well the model represents the effects of historical emission changes. We also gain insight into how well the model might predict the effects of future emission changes. In addition to direct comparisons of model outputs to ground and satellite observations, we compare observed differences between 2005 and 2008 to corresponding modeled differences. Modeling was extended to future scenarios (2030) to simulate air quality and regional climate effects of large-scale adoption of solar power. The 2030-year was selected to allow time for development of solar generation infrastructure. The 2030 emission scenario was scaled, with separate factors for different economic sectors, from the 2008 National Emissions Inventory. The changes to emissions caused by the introduction of large-scale solar power (here assumed to be 10% of total energy generation) are based on results from a parallel project that used an electricity grid model applied over

  14. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  15. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  16. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  17. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Livi, Francesco; Hagemann, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The results presented demonstrate how the screening of 104 light-absorbing low band gap polymers for suitability in roll coated polymer solar cells can be accomplished through rational synthesis according to a matrix where 8 donor and 13 acceptor units are organized in rows and columns. Synthesis...... evaluation is carried out with specific reference to scalable manufacture, which includes large area (1 cm 2 ), stable inverted device architecture, an indium-tin-oxide-free fully printed flexible front electrode with ZnO/PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate), and a printed...

  18. Phase 0: goal study for the technical and economic evaluation of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) concept applied to solar thermal and photovoltaic collectors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-06-01

    This report presents the results of a quick, six-week technical and economic evaluation of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) solar collector. The purpose of this effort was to provide an initial phase of a goals study that is directed toward recommending relative priorities for development of the compound parabolic concentrator concept. The findings of this study are of a very preliminary nature. Conclusions based on study findings at this depth should be considered preliminary and subject to revision and review in later phases.

  19. Application for solar thermal facilities evaluation in Asturias (A.V.I.S.T.A); Aplicacion para valoracion de instalaciones solares termica en Asturias (A.V.I.S.T.A.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, J. L.; Aguilera, J. C.; Garcia, D.

    2004-07-01

    The Fundacion Asturiana de la Energia, with the grant of the Consejeria de Industria y Empleo del Principado de Asturias, has recently promoted a software tool to evaluate domestic hot water installations that use solar energy in Asturias. The application is based on numerical simulation methods, thus it provides a knowledge on the influence of several performance parameters, which is interesting not only for tasks of designing but also from the viewpoint of installation controlling. It essentially consists of one utility for preliminary designing, where most parameters are prefixed, and another one for analysing, where the parameters can be modified either to optimize designs or to study existing installations. Complementary utilities are provided for shadow analysing by means of stereographic projection, as well as for preliminary studies of economic feasibility. (Author)

  20. 2D simulation and performance evaluation of bifacial rear local contact c-Si solar cells under variable illumination conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Th.

    2017-09-23

    A customized 2D computational tool has been developed to simulate bifacial rear local contact PERC type PV structures based on the numerical solution of the transport equations through the finite element method. Simulations were performed under various device material parameters and back contact geometry configurations in order to optimize bifacial solar cell performance under different simulated illumination conditions. Bifacial device maximum power output was also compared with the monofacial equivalent one and the industrial standard Al-BSF structure. The performance of the bifacial structure during highly diffused irradiance conditions commonly observed in the Middle East region due to high concentrations of airborne dust particles was also investigated. Simulation results demonstrated that such conditions are highly favorable for the bifacial device because of the significantly increased diffuse component of the solar radiation which enters the back cell surface.

  1. 2D simulation and performance evaluation of bifacial rear local contact c-Si solar cells under variable illumination conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Katsaounis, Theodoros

    2017-09-18

    A customized 2D computational tool has been developed to simulate bifacial rear local contact PERC type PV structures based on the numerical solution of the transport equations through the finite element method. Simulations were performed under various device material parameters and back contact geometry configurations in order to optimize bifacial solar cell performance under different simulated illumination conditions. Bifacial device maximum power output was also compared with the monofacial equivalent one and the industrial standard Al-BSF structure. The performance of the bifacial structure during highly diffused irradiance conditions commonly observed in the Middle East region due to high concentrations of airborne dust particles was also investigated. Simulation results demonstrated that such conditions are highly favorable for the bifacial device because of the significantly increased diffuse component of the solar radiation which enters the back cell surface.

  2. Solar Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  3. Solar urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female and a 41-year-old male presented with clinical features suggestive of solar urticaria. The diagnosis of solar urticaria and the effectiveness of a combination of H1 and H2 blocking antihistamines were confirmed by phototesting with a solar simulator

  4. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors...

  5. Evaluation of an alternative method for wastewater treatment containing pesticides using solar photocatalytic oxidation and constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberidou, Chrysanthi; Kitsiou, Vasiliki; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Antoniadis, Αpostolos; Ntonou, Eleftheria; Zalidis, George C; Poulios, Ioannis

    2017-06-15

    The present study proposes an integrated system based on the synergetic action of solar photocatalytic oxidation with surface flow constructed wetlands for the purification of wastewater contaminated with pesticides. Experiments were conducted at pilot scale using simulated wastewater containing the herbicide clopyralid. Three photocatalytic methods under solar light were investigated: the photo-Fenton and the ferrioxalate reagent as well as the combination of photo-Fenton with TiO 2 P25, which all led to similar mineralization rates. The subsequent treatment in constructed wetlands resulted in further decrease of DOC and inorganic ions concentrations, especially of NO 3 - . Clopyralid was absent in the outlet of the wetlands, while the concentration of the detected intermediates was remarkably low. These findings are in good agreement with the results of phytotoxicity of the wastewater, after treatment with the ferrioxalate/wetlands process, which was significantly reduced. Thus, this integrated system based on solar photocatalysis and constructed wetlands has the potential to effectively detoxify wastewater containing pesticides, producing a purified effluent which could be exploited for reuse applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Solar Sailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2009-01-01

    Solar sailing is a topic of growing technical and popular interest. Solar sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to destinations within (and beyond) the solar system that are currently beyond our technical reach. The lecture will describe solar sails, how they work, and what they will be used for in the exploration of space. It will include a discussion of current plans for solar sails and how advanced technology, such as nanotechnology, might enhance their performance. Much has been accomplished recently to make solar sail technology very close to becoming an engineering reality and it will soon be used by the world s space agencies in the exploration of the solar system and beyond. The first part of the lecture will summarize state-of-the-art space propulsion systems and technologies. Though these other technologies are the key to any deep space exploration by humans, robots, or both, solar-sail propulsion will make space exploration more affordable and offer access to distant and difficult destinations. The second part of the lecture will describe the fundamentals of space solar sail propulsion and will describe the near-, mid- and far-term missions that might use solar sails as a propulsion system. The third part of the lecture will describe solar sail technology and the construction of current and future sailcraft, including the work of both government and private space organizations.

  8. Evaluation of the potential of optical switching materials for overheating protection of thermal solar collectors - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huot, G.; Roecker, Ch.; Schueler, A.

    2008-01-15

    Providing renewable energy for domestic hot water production and space heating, thermal solar collectors are more and more widespread, and users' expectations with respect to performance and service lifetime are rising continuously. The durability of solar collector materials is a critical point as the collector lifetime should be at least 25 years. Overheating and the resulting stagnation of the collector is a common problem with solar thermal systems. During stagnation high temperatures lead to water evaporation, glycol degradation, and stresses in the collector with increasing pressure. Special precautions are necessary to release this pressure; only mechanical solutions exist nowadays. Additionally, the occurring elevated temperatures lead to degradation of the materials that compose collectors: seals, insulation materials, and also the selective coating which is the most important part of the collector. A promising way to achieve active cooling of collectors without any mechanical device for pressure release or collector emptying is to produce a selective coating which is able to switch its optical properties at a critical temperature Tc. An optical switch allows changing the selective coating efficiency; the goal is to obtain a coating with a poor selectivity above Tc (decreasing of absorptance, increasing of emittance). Obtaining self-cooling collectors will allow increasing collector surfaces on facades and roofs in order to get high efficiency and hot water production during winter without inconvenient overheating during summer. Optical switching of materials can be obtained by many ways. Inorganic and organic thermochromic compounds, and organic thermotropic coatings are the main types of switching coatings that have been studied at EPFL-LESO-PB. Aging studies of organic thermochromic paints fabricated at EPFL suggest that the durability of organic compounds might not be sufficient for glazed metallic collectors. First samples of inorganic coatings

  9. El Salvador - Rural Electrification - Solar Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is a summative qualitative performance evaluation (PE) of the solar panel component of the solar panel component of the RE Sub-Activity. The final report will...

  10. The cost of energy from utility-owned solar electric systems. A required revenue methodology for ERDA/EPRI evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This methodology calculates the electric energy busbar cost from a utility-owned solar electric system. This approach is applicable to both publicly- and privately-owned utilities. Busbar cost represents the minimum price per unit of energy consistent with producing system-resultant revenues equal to the sum of system-resultant costs. This equality is expressed in present value terms, where the discount rate used reflects the rate of return required on invested capital. Major input variables describe the output capabilities and capital cost of the energy system, the cash flows required for system operation amd maintenance, and the financial structure and tax environment of the utility.

  11. Evaluation of Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron; Wilcox, Stephen; Stoffel, Thomas

    2015-12-23

    This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances. These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and a pyranometer with fixed internal shading and are all deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. Data from 32 global horizontal irradiance and 19 direct normal irradiance radiometers are presented. The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference global horizontal irradiances and direct normal irradiances.

  12. Toxicological evaluation of liquids proposed for use in direct contact liquid--liquid heat exchangers for solar heated and cooled buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchan, R.M.; Majestic, J.R.; Billau, R.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains the results of the toxicological evaluation part of the project entitled, ''Direct Contact Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers for Solar Heated and Cooled Buildings.'' Obviously any liquid otherwise suitable for use in such a device should be subjected to a toxicological evaluation. 34 liquids (24 denser than water, 10 less dense) have physical and chemical properties that would make them suitable for use in such a device. In addition to the complexity involved in selecting the most promising liquids from the standpoint of their chemical and physical properties is added the additional difficulty of also considering their toxicological properties. Some of the physical and chemical properties of these liquids are listed. The liquids are listed in alphabetical order within groups, the denser than water liquids are listed first followed by those liquids less dense than water.

  13. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  14. LEED{sup TM} : evaluating the impact potential on passive/active solar buildings and renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boake, T.M. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). School of Architecture

    2004-08-01

    This paper described the guiding principles and rating system of LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) and its relationship with the building industry. Buildings are awarded platinum, gold, silver or certified status, based on a system of reward points. The rating system is divided into five sections: sustainable sites; water efficiency; energy and atmosphere; materials and resources; and indoor environmental quality and design process. The paper includes a chart based analysis of the 69 points used in the LEED rating system, with a particular emphasis on the relationship of passive and active solar technologies and other renewable energy systems to various LEED categories, using examples of buildings that have been rated in the past. A spreadsheet is provided diagramming the relationship between LEED and the Solar Energy Society of Canada Inc. (SESCI), along with charts providing detailed breakdowns of the relationships between the interests of SESCI and LEED categories. The paper concludes by emphasizing LEED as an effective environmental marketing tool in promoting the use of passive and active renewables. 10 figs., 11 tables, 2 refs.

  15. Avaliação de modelos de estimativa da radiação solar incidente em Cruz das Almas, Bahia Evaluating models for estimation of incoming solar radiation in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria P. Borges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos agroambientais a radiação solar incidente (Rs é uma das mais importantes variáveis meteorológicas. Na ausência de dados observados de Rs é possível estimá-los mediante modelos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar modelos baseados na temperatura do ar para estimativa diária de Rs nas condições do Recôncavo Sul da Bahia. Utilizaram-se dados de Rs do período de 2004 a 2006, medidos por uma estação meteorológica automática pertencente ao INMET, instalada em Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Como etapa preliminar, verificou-se a qualidade dos dados de Rs tomando-se como referência curvas de radiação esperada em dias claros. Os seguintes modelos foram avaliados: Hargreaves-Samani para regiões interiores e regiões costeiras, Thornton-Running e o de Weiss. O desempenho de cada método foi avaliado através dos seguintes indicadores: coeficiente de determinção (R², razão média (RM, erro absoluto médio (EAM, raiz quadrada do quadrado médio do erro (RQME e índice de concordância de Wilmott (dW. Os resultados obtidos recomendam o modelo de Hargreaves-Samani para regiões costeiras por apresentar o valor de RM mais próximo de 1 (1,01, menor EAM (2,54 MJ m-2 d-1, menor RQME (3,13 MJ m-2 d-1 e o maior dW (0,90.Solar radiation at the earth's surface (Rs is one of the essential weather variables for several agro-environmental studies. In the absence of measured Rs, it's possible to simulate them by models. Using three years of daily Rs data (2004-2006 collected by an INMET (Brazilian Meteorological Service automatic weather station installed in the municipality of Cruz das Almas, BA, three air temperature-based Rs simulation models were evaluated. As a preliminary step, data quality was investigated and, when needed, adjustments were made based on clear sky solar radiation envelopes. The following models were evaluated: Hargreaves-Samani for both interior and coastal regions, Thornton-Running, and the Weiss model. Linear

  16. Evaluation of Detector-to-Detector and Mirror Side Differences for Terra MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Using Simultaneous MISR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Barnes, W.

    2011-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the five Earth-observing instruments on-board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth-Observing System(EOS) Terra spacecraft, launched in December 1999. It has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.4 mm and collects data at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25 km for 2 bands with 40 detectors each, 0.5 km for 5 bands with 20 detectors each and 1 km for the remaining 29 bands with 10 detectors each. MODIS bands are located on four separate focal plane assemblies (FPAs) according to their spectral wavelengths and aligned in the cross-track direction. Detectors of each spectral band are aligned in the along-track direction. MODIS makes observations using a two-sided paddle-wheel scan mirror. Its on-board calibrators (OBCs) for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) include a solar diffuser (SD), a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) and a spectral-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Calibration is performed for each band, detector, sub-sample (for sub-kilometer resolution bands) and mirror side. In this study, a ratio approach is applied to MODIS observed Earth scene reflectances to track the detector-to-detector and mirror side differences. Simultaneous observed reflectances from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), also onboard the Terra spacecraft, are used with MODIS observed reflectances in this ratio approach for four closely matched spectral bands. Results show that the detector-to-detector difference between two adjacent detectors within each spectral band is typically less than 0.2% and, depending on the wavelengths, the maximum difference among all detectors varies from 0.5% to 0.8%. The mirror side differences are found to be very small for all bands except for band 3 at 0.44 mm. This is the band with the shortest wavelength among the selected matching bands, showing a time-dependent increase for the mirror side difference. This

  17. Quasi-Fermi level splitting evaluation based on electroluminescence analysis in multiple quantum-well solar cells for investigating cell performance under concentrated light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoyuki; Toprasertpong, Kasidit; Delamarre, Amaury; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Paire, Myriam; Lombez, Laurent; Guillemoles, Jean-François; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2016-03-01

    Insertion of InGaAs/GaAsP strain-balanced multiple quantum wells (MQWs) into i-regions of GaAs p-i-n solar cells show several advantages against GaAs bulk p-i-n solar cells. Particularly under high-concentration sunlight condition, enhancement of the open-circuit voltage with increasing concentration ratio in thin-barrier MQW cells has been reported to be more apparent than that in GaAs bulk cells. However, investigation of the MQW cell mechanisms in terms of I-V characteristics under high-concentration sunlight suffers from the increase in cell temperature and series resistance. In order to investigate the mechanism of the steep enhancement of open-circuit voltage in MQW cells under high-concentration sunlight without affected by temperature, the quasi-Fermi level splitting was evaluated by analyzing electroluminescence (EL) from a cell. Since a cell under current injection with a density Jinjhas similar excess carrier density to a cell under concentrated sunlight with an equivalent short-circuit current Jsc = Jinj, EL measurement with varied Jinj can approximately evaluate a cell performance under a variety of concentration ratio. In addition to the evaluation of quasi-Fermi level splitting, the external luminescence efficiency was also investigated with the EL measurement. The MQW cells showed higher external luminescence efficiency than the GaAs reference cells especially under high-concentration condition. The results suggest that since the MQW region can trap and confine carriers, the localized excess carriers inside the cells make radiative recombination more dominant.

  18. Development of measurement device for evaluation of solar cell module output. 2; Taiyo denchi module shutsuryoku hyokayo sokuteiki no kaihatsu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minoda, M.; Itsumi, J. [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Enhancement in design efficiency may be attained as well as utilization in maintenance if on-the-spot data is made available, for the purpose of flexibly dealing with changes in design or matching with a house structure, in calculating the power generation output of a solar cell (PV) module. Under the circumstances, a small-sized compound measuring device was produced as a prototype which, using an I-V curve tracer, measured output and condition of a roof at the time of installation, compared with the optimum operation and predicted the power generation. The device was structured with the main body consisting of a computing part, measurement controller and power supply and with various sensor modules. The electron load control method was employed in order to measure I-V characteristics of the PV module, since it was desirable to use a variable load and to cover the range from the release voltage of a solar cell to the short-circuit state through the maximum output point. The reference module method was used for the system evaluation. The device was presumably applicable to a PV system design by incorporating a sensor module for measuring design environment data, which was essential at the time of a system design, in addition to those for measuring output. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Ecotoxicity evaluation of a WWTP effluent treated by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH in a raceway pond reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A M; Rivas, G; Campos-Mañas, M C; Casas López, J L; Agüera, A; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2017-01-01

    Some pollutants can be resistant to wastewater treatment, hence becoming a risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota even at the very low concentrations (ng L -1 -μg L -1 ) they are commonly found at. Tertiary treatments are used for micropollutant removal but little is known about the ecotoxicity of the treated effluent. In this study, a municipal secondary effluent was treated by a solar photo-Fenton reactor at initial neutral pH in a raceway pond reactor, and ecotoxicity was evaluated before and after micropollutant removal. Thirty-nine micropollutants were identified in the secondary effluent, mainly pharmaceuticals, with a total concentration of ≈80 μg L -1 . After treatment, 99 % microcontaminant degradation was reached. As for ecotoxicity reduction, the assayed organisms showed the following sensitivity levels: Tetrahymena thermophila > Daphnia magna > Lactuca sativa > Spirodela polyrhiza ≈ Vibrio fischeri. The initial effluent showed an inhibitory effect of 40 % for T. thermophila and 20 % for D. magna. After 20 min of photo-Fenton treatment, no toxic effect was observed for T. thermophila and toxicity dropped to 5 % for D. magna. Graphical abstract Ecotoxicity removal by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH. ᅟ.

  20. Fin-tube solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report presents test procedures and results of thermal-performance evaluation of seven commercial fin tube (liquid) solar collector-absorber plates. Tests were conducted indoors at Marshall Space Flight Center Solar simulator. Results are graphically shown along with supporting test data and summary, indicating efficiency as function of collector inlet temperature.

  1. Solar cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over two billion people face fuel wood shortages, causing tremendous personal and environmental stress. Over 4 million people die prematurely from indoor air pollution. Solar cooking can reduce fuel wood consumption and indoor air pollution. Solar cooking has been practiced and published since th...

  2. Solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo

    1988-08-18

    Concerning the exsisting solar cell utilizing wavelength transition, the area of the solar cell element necessary for unit electric power output can be made small, but transition efficiency of the solar cell as a whole including a plastic plate with phosphor is not high. This invention concerns a solar cell which is appropriate for transferring the light within a wide spectrum range of the sunlight to electricilty efficiently, utilizes wavelength transition and has high efficiency per unit area. In other words, the solar cell of this invention has the feature of providing in parallel with a photoelectric transfer layer a layer of wavelength transitioning material (phosphor) which absorbs the light within the range of wavelength of low photoelectric transfer efficiency at the photoelectric transfer layer and emits the light within the range of wavelength in which the photoelectric transfer rate is high on the light incident side of the photoelectric transfer layer. (5 figs)

  3. Solar History An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Beyond the four centuries of sunspot observation and the five decades during which artificial satellites have monitored the Sun – that is to say for 99.99999% of the Sun’s existence – our knowledge of solar history depends largely on analogy with kindred main sequence stars, on the outcome of various kinds of modelling, and on indirect measures of solar activity. They include the analysis of lunar rocks and meteorites for evidence of solar flares and other components of the solar cosmic-ray (SCR) flux, and the measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in wood, stratified ice and marine sediments to evaluate changes in the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux and thus infer changes in the sheltering magnetic fields of the solar wind. In addition, shifts in the global atmospheric circulation which appear to result from cyclic fluctuations in solar irradiance have left their mark in river sediments and in the isotopic composition of cave deposits. In this volume the results these sources have already produced have bee...

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Working under Supercritical Conditions in a Solar Organic Rankine Cycle Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Lazova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide interest in low grade heat valorization using organic Rankine cycle (ORC technologies has increased significantly. A new small-scale ORC with a net capacity of 3 kW was efficiently integrated with a concentrated solar power technology for electricity generation. The excess heat source from Photovoltaic (PV collectors with a maximum temperature of 100 °C was utilized through a supercritical heat exchanger that uses R-404A as working medium. By ensuring supercritical heat transfer leads to a better thermal match in the heat exchanger and improved overall cycle efficiency. A helical coil heat exchanger was designed by using heat transfer correlations from the literature. These heat transfer correlations were derived for different conditions than ORCs and their estimated uncertainty is ~20%. In order to account for the heat transfer correlation uncertainties this component was oversized by 20%. Next, a prototype was built and installed in an integrated concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (CPV/T/Rankine system. The results from the measurements show that for better estimation of the sizing of the heat exchanger a more accurate correlation is required in order to design an optimal configuration and thus employ cheaper components.

  5. Nanoemulsions containing octyl methoxycinnamate and solid particles of TiO₂: preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of the solar protection factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flavia F F; Ricci-Júnior, Eduardo; Mansur, Claudia R E

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate the physical-chemical properties of oil-in-water nanoemulsions for application as nanocosmetics for sun protection. Oil-in-water dispersions were processed by ultrasound (US) to obtain small emulsion droplets. These emulsions were obtained in the presence of commercial nonionic surfactants based on polyoxides and avocado oil as the oil phase. The US generated small but unstable droplets. This problem was solved by using a different surfactant, with a longer ethylene oxide chain, able to promote stabilization by steric mechanisms. The light scattering technique was used to characterize the nanoemulsions by their dispersed droplets' size, size distribution and variation of distribution with time (stability). Chemical and physical sunscreens - octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and titanium dioxide (TiO₂), respectively - were added to the stable system. The anti-UVB activity of the nanoemulsions and their components were evaluated by the method of Mansur et al. (1986) and spectral transmittance. The solar protection factor (SPF) was proportional to the OMC and TiO₂ concentrations. The in vitro OMC release was evaluated, and the presence of TiO₂ in the nanoemulsion did not affect the release profile, which showed the diffusion-dependent kinetics of the active ingredient in the formulation.

  6. Solar generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkats, G.; Chenin, C.; Foucras, J.; Marnay, L.

    1978-07-18

    The present invention relates to a solar generator for producing electrical energy from solar energy, mounted in particular on board an artificial satellite and constituted by a plurality of pivoted panels, stacked but unfoldable, each of which comprises a thick frame inside which is disposed a thin flexible support carrying solar cells, said frame comprising intermediate stiffeners connecting two opposite sides of the frame, wherein each panel comprises, between two intermediate stiffeners and between the end intermediate stiffeners and the sides of the frame there-opposite, a plurality of wide, flat auxiliary stiffeners, transverse with respect to the intermediate stiffeners and on which said flexible support is fixed at least partially.

  7. Liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report documents evaluation test on commercial flat-plate solar collector that uses water as working fluid. Performance was measured before and after 34-day exposure to natural environment. Tables in metric and English units present data on air and water temperatures, waterflow, insolation, efficiency, and windspeed and direction.

  8. Interstate Solar Coordination Council. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L.

    1981-02-15

    The ISCC program accomplishments and future plans are reported as follows: overall activities; development of a national standards and certification program for solar collectors; development of a national organization for operating the collector certification program; review of applicability and use of solar collector rating procedures; development of a program for evaluation/testing/certification of solar systems; development of ISCC as a formal and independent organization; development of sizing and installation manual; and coordination efforts with other solar groups. (MHR)

  9. Desinfecção de efluentes com tratamento terciário utilizando energia solar (SODIS): avaliação do uso do dispositivo para concentração dos raios solares Disinfection of effluent of wastewater treated using solar energy (SODIS): evaluation of a solar concentrator device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Marcelo Jacomini Moreira da Silva

    2005-01-01

    A energia solar, além de ser uma fonte natural disponível, é perfeitamente aplicável para desinfecção de águas em regiões menos favorecidas em infra-estrutura e recursos financeiros, uma vez que...

  10. Solar chulha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, P. H.; Patrikar, S. R.

    2016-05-01

    The main goal of the proposed system is to transfer energy from sun to the cooking load that is located in the kitchen. The energy is first collected by the solar collector lens system and two curve bars of same radius of curvature are mounted parallel and adjacent to each other at different height the solar collector is clamed on this two bars such that solar collector is exactly perpendicular to sunlight. The topology includes an additional feature which is window in the wall through which the beam is collimated is directed in the of kitchen. The solar energy that is collected is directed by the mirror system into the kitchen, where it is redirected to cooking platform located in the kitchen. The special feature in this system full Indian meal can be made since cooking platform is indoors.

  11. Solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Engvold, Oddbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e.g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P.A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence “object” with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of promine...

  12. Solar Radio

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  13. Solar industrial process heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  14. Solar Features - Solar Flares - Patrol

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.

  15. Solar Features - Solar Flares - SIDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) is any of several radio propagation anomalies due to ionospheric changes resulting from solar or geophysical events.

  16. Colorado State University Program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, August--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hittle, D.C.

    1994-11-01

    The current work has been to validate Florida Solar Energy Center`s models of the Solahart 302K and 302K-AS systems to prepare a rating for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s rebate program for solar domestic hot water heaters.

  17. Long range heliostat target using array of normal incidence pyranometers to evaluate a beam of solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Cheryl M; Ho, Clifford K; Kolb, Gregory J

    2014-03-04

    Various technologies described herein pertain to evaluating a beam reflected by a heliostat. A portable target that has an array of sensors mounted thereupon is configured to capture the beam reflected by the heliostat. The sensors in the array output measured values indicative of a characteristic of the beam reflected by the heliostat. Moreover, a computing device can generate and output data corresponding to the beam reflected by the heliostat based on the measured values indicative of the characteristic of the beam received from the sensors in the array.

  18. A diagram for defined solar radiation absorbed per unit area of flat plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Altuntop, N. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada University, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In Erciyes University, the Solar House (28.75 m{sup 2}) is heated from the floor by using flat plate liquid solar collectors. Required solar radiation for heating and heat losses are calculated. In this work, the required calculations for Erciyes Solar House were generalized and required calculation were done to evaluate absorbed solar radiation per unit surface of the flat plate liquid collector. At the end, three generalized diagrams for nine different months are obtained using obtained numerical values. The goal of preparing diagrams is to determine absorbed solar radiation per unit surface area of flat plate liquid collector at any instant at any latitude, In this work, the diagram is explained by means of sample calculations for November. This diagram was prepared to find out absorbed solar radiation per unit area of black surface collector by means obtained equations. With this diagram, all instant solar radiation can be evaluated in 19 steps. (authors)

  19. Solar retinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIRLEY, S Y

    1963-07-20

    Retinal burns can be produced by direct gazing at the sun. This lesion is caused by the thermal effects of the visible and near infrared rays focused on the pigment structure behind the retina. It is rarely seen, as the normal eye will tolerate only fleeting glances at the sun, but is fairly common during a solar eclipse. A case of solar retinitis is presented in which treatment with corticosteroids lessened the retinal edema but the patient suffered a bilateral central scotoma and vision reduced to the 20/40 level. In viewing a solar eclipse a No. 4 density filter is recommended; as a rough test this filter will abolish the readability of print on a 60-watt incandescent frosted electric light bulb.

  20. Evaluation of limiting factors affecting photovoltaic performance of low-temperature-processed TiO₂ films in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taek-Yong; Kim, Hui-Seon; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2014-04-14

    Limiting factors affecting photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell employing low-temperature-processed TiO2 films were investigated. TiO2 films were prepared at a low temperature of 200 °C using the normal alcohol-containing binder-free TiO2 paste (LT200). Their photovoltaic performance was compared to a high-temperature (550 °C) annealed TiO2 film prepared using a polymer binder containing TiO2 paste (HT550). Compared to the proportional increase in conversion efficiency with TiO2 film thickness upto 14 μm for HT550, the increase in efficiency was terminated at relatively smaller thickness of about 8 μm for LT200 mainly due to unaugmented photocurrent. From the transient photocurrent-voltage studies, the electron transport rate was found to be almost identical, while charge recombination was one order of magnitude faster for LT200. Consequently, the electron diffusion length was more than 2-3 times shorter for LT200 than for HT550. Electron diffusion length and electron life time obtained from electrochemical impedance analysis were well consistent with those observed from transient measurement. Density of states (DOS) was evaluated to be shallow and narrow in LT200, which was responsible for limiting photovoltaic performance in the low-temperature processed TiO2 film. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.