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Sample records for solar desalination system

  1. Economical analysis of a solar desalination system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Wang, Tie-Zhu; He, Xiao-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Based on the calculation of the single-factor impact values of the parameters of a triple stage tower-type of solar desalination unit by utilizing a single-factor analyzing method, the influences of the cost of solar heating system, the cost of hot water tank, the costs of desalination unit...... and yearly electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful to do the further investigation on solar desalination systems for reducing the cost of fresh water...

  2. Combined desalination and solar-assisted air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a new desalination process utilizing low grade thermal energy is presented. In this process, fresh water is distilled from saline water under near-vacuum pressures created by passive means, enabling low-temperature distillation with lower energy requirements. The energy for low-temperature distillation is provided by a thermal energy storage (TES) system maintained at 55 deg. C utilizing any low grade waste heat source. In this study, heat rejected by the condenser of a modified absorption refrigeration system (ARS) is evaluated as a possible source to drive this desalination process. The energy for the generator of the ARS is provided by a combination of solar collector system and grid power. Results of this study show that the thermal energy rejected by an ARS of cooling capacity of 3.25 kW (0.975 tons of refrigeration) along with an additional energy input of 208 kJ/kg of desalinated water is adequate to produce desalinated water at an average rate of 4.5 kg/h. This energy consumption is competitive with that of the multi-stage flash distillation process of similar capacity (338 kJ/kg). An integrated process model and performance curves of the proposed approach are presented in this paper. Effects of process parameters on the performance of the system are also presented

  3. Solar Distillation Practice For Water Desalination Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mahian, Omid; Kianifar, Ali; Jumpholkul, Chaiwat; Thiangtham, Phubate; Wongwises, Somchai; Srisomba, Raviwat

    2015-01-01

    references, it is suggested to add a chapter concerning CFD simulations of solar stills. In addition, a part can be devoted to using novel technologies such as nanotechnology for productivity enhancement of solar stills

  4. Developments in solar still desalination systems: A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.; Malaeb, Lilian

    2012-01-01

    Solar still desalination uses a sustainable and pollution-free source to produce high-quality water. The main limitation is low productivity and this has been the focus of intensive research. A major concern while increasing productivity

  5. New solar desalination system using humidification/ dehumidification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Dayem, Adel M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, 5555 Makah (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-07-01

    An innovative solar desalination system is successfully designed, manufactured and experimentally tested at Makkah, 21.4 °N. The system consists of 1.15 m2 flat-plate collector as a heat source and a desalination unit. The unit is about 400 liter vertical cylindrical insulated tank. It includes storage, evaporator and condenser of hot salt-water that is fed from the collector. The heated water in the collector is raised naturally to the unit bottom at which it is used as storage. A high pressure pump is used to inject the water vertically up through 1-mm three nozzles inside the unit. The hot salt-water is atomized inside the unit where the produced vapor is condensed on the inner surfaces of the unit outer walls to outside. The system was experimentally tested under different weather conditions. It is obtained that the system can produce about 9 liter a day per quadratic meter of collector surface area. By that it can produce about 1.6 liters per kWh of solar energy. Moreover the water temperature has a great effect on the system performance although the scaling possibility is becoming significant. By that way the cost of a liter water production is relatively high and is obtained as 0.5 US$.

  6. Mathematical model development for a new solar desalination system (SDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsafty, A.F. [Arab Academy for Science and Technology and Maritime Transport, Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical and Marine Engineering; Fath, H.E. [Alexandria Univ., Alexandria (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Desalination, as a non-conventional water resource, has become one of the most promising alternative water sources to address the fresh water shortage in the near future. Desalination technologies are constrained in that they are driven almost entirely by the combustion of fuels which are still of finite supply, pollute the air, and contribute to the risk of global climate change. Solar distillation is preferred to other processes of distillation because of the low operating cost, low maintenance, lack of moving parts, and clean energy offered. The development of solar distillation has demonstrated its suitability for saline water desalination when weather conditions are favorable and when demand is not large. Solar energy in the Arab region is available at relatively high intensity during most of the year. This paper presented a general mathematical model for a newly developed solar still that uses a parabolic reflector-tube absorber desalination technology. A computer program was developed to simulate the still operation and to solve the governing heat and mass transfer action which occurred during the operation. The program was used to study the still production in different cases. The paper provided a description of the mathematical model and discussed the governing equations. It was concluded that unit productivity improved by increasing the solar intensity, ambient temperature, efficiency of reflector material, reflector aperture area and evaporation area. In addition, increasing the wind velocity, saline water depth, condenser emissivity and condenser thickness had only a small effect on the productivity. 3 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  7. Solar Desalination System Model for Sizing of Photovoltaic Reverse Osmosis (PVRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Habib, Abdulelah; Zamani, Vahraz; Kleissl, Jan

    2015-01-01

    loads, are considered as an ON/OFF units to track these solar energy variations. Reverse osmosis units are different in sizes and numbers. Various combinations of reverse osmosis units in size and capacity provide different water desalination system

  8. Developments in solar still desalination systems: A critical review

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2012-10-01

    Solar still desalination uses a sustainable and pollution-free source to produce high-quality water. The main limitation is low productivity and this has been the focus of intensive research. A major concern while increasing productivity is to maintain economic feasibility and simplicity. The authors present a critical review of the research work conducted on solar stills development. Studies addressing each parameter of concern are grouped together and results compared. Novelty in design and newly introduced features are presented. Modeling efforts of flow circulation within the still and methods to estimate internal heat transfer coefficients are discussed and future research needs are outlined. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  9. Theoretical investigation of solar humidification-dehumidification desalination system using parabolic trough concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.M.I.; El-Minshawy, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We evaluated the performance of sea water HDD system powered by solar PTC. → The proposed design to the expected desalination plant performance was introduced. → The collector thermal efficiency was a function of solar radiation value. → The highest fresh water productivity is found to be in the summer season. → The production time reaches 42% of the day time in the summer season. - Abstract: This paper deals with the status of solar energy as a clean and renewable energy applications in desalination. The object of this research is to theoretically investigate the principal operating parameters of a proposed desalination system based on air humidification-dehumidification principles. A parabolic trough solar collector is adapted to drive and optimize the considered desalination system. A test set-up of the desalination system was designed and a theoretical simulation model was constructed to evaluate the performance and productivity of the proposed solar humidification-dehumidification desalination system. The theoretical simulation model was developed in which the thermodynamic models of each component of the considered were set up respectively. The study showed that, parabolic trough solar collector is the suitable to drive the proposed desalination system. A comparison study had been presented to show the effect of the different parameters on the performance and the productivity of the system. The productivity of the proposed system showed also an increase with the increase of the day time till an optimum value and then decreased. The highest fresh water productivity is found to be in the summer season, when high direct solar radiation and long solar time are always expected. The production time reaches a maximum value in the summer season, which is 42% of the day.

  10. Optimal design and control of solar driven air gap membrane distillation desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yih-Hang; Li, Yu-Wei; Chang, Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Air gap membrane distillation unit was used in the desalination plants. ► Aspen Custom Molder was used to simulate each unit of desalination plants. ► Design parameters were investigated to obtain the minimum total annual cost. ► The control structure was proposed to operate desalination plants all day long. -- Abstract: A solar heated membrane distillation desalination system is constructed of solar collectors and membrane distillation devices for increasing pure water productivity. This technically and economically feasible system is designed to use indirect solar heat to drive membrane distillation processes to overcome the unstable supply of solar radiation from sunrise to sunset. The solar heated membrane distillation desalination system in the present study consisted of hot water storage devices, heat exchangers, air gap membrane distillation units, and solar collectors. Aspen Custom Molder (ACM) software was used to model and simulate each unit and establish the cost function of a desalination plant. From Design degree of freedom (DOF) analysis, ten design parameters were investigated to obtain the minimum total annual cost (TAC) with fixed pure water production rate. For a given solar energy density profile of typical summer weather, the minimal TAC per 1 m 3 pure water production can be found at 500 W/m 2 by varying the solar energy intensity. Therefore, we proposed two modes for controlling the optimal design condition of the desalination plant; day and night. In order to widen the operability range of the plant, the sensitivity analysis was used to retrofit the original design point to lower the effluent temperature from the solar collector by increasing the hot water recycled stream. The simulation results show that the pure water production can be maintained at a very stable level whether in sunny or cloudy weather.

  11. Economic Investigation of Different Configurations of Inclined Solar Water Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Phillips Agboola

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically investigated the performance of four configurations of inclined solar water desalination (ISWD system for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost, and distilled water production cost. The empirical findings show that in terms of daily productivity improved inclined solar water desalination (IISWD performed best with 6.41 kg/m2/day while improved inclined solar water desalination with wire mesh (IISWDWM produced the least with 3.0 kg/m2/day. In terms of cost price of the systems, the control system inclined solar water desalination (ISWD is the cheapest while IISWDWM is the most expensive system. Distilled water cost price ranges from 0.059 TL/kg, for IISWDW, to 0.134 TL/kg, for IISWDWM system. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar desalination system for potable water in northern Cyprus. Potable water from vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 TL/kg.

  12. Desalination with thermal solar systems: technology assessment and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajona, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Solar desalination is among the most promising alternatives to apply solar energy as solar availability and the load requirements use to be matched. Solar thermal energy offers a full set of alternatives to desalt water, being the main difference among them the temperature range at which the load has to be fed. Solar technologies for the low temperature range (solar stills, plastic collectors,...) are quite suited for small loads in isolated placed or whenever the main constrain is to indigenize technology and to perform the operation and maintenance work with low qualified local labor, such as in less developed countries. The main drawback of this low temperature use of solar energy is that it is not possible to recover neither the heat of condensation of the water vapor, nor from the reject brine, to warm up the feed saline water. Higher temperature collectors, such as flat plate collectors with transparent insulation material and evacuated tubes, allow to work with conventional desalination units fed at 60-90C, as Multiple Effect Units or Multistage Flash Units, which get a performance ratio (quotient between heat required without recovery and with heat recovery) between 5 and 10. To further increase the performance ratio it is necessary to work with vapor in the 200C range. To attain this temperature range the solar option is based on the Parabolic Trough collector. This has been the line we have followed in our STD project in the Plataforma Solar in Almeria (Spain) when we have run a Multiple Effect Unit with an Absorption Heat Pump able to attain a performance ratio of 20. In this report, included within the STD project activities, we assess the potential of the solar thermal technology to desalt water in all the above mentioned temperature ranges. Beside the technology description and some characteristics results, we present a set of tool that, as the final result is dramatically dependent on the technical and economical scenario selected, will allow to

  13. Numerical Study on Radiation Effects to Evaporator in Natural Vacuum Solar Desalination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, R. E. T.; Ronowikarto, A. D.; Setyawan, E. Y.; Ambarita, H.

    2018-01-01

    The need for clean water is increasing day by day due to the increasing factor of living standard of mankind, hence designed natural vacuum solar desalination. The natural vacuum Solar desalination is studied experimentally. A small-scale natural vacuum desalination study consists of evaporator and condenser as the main components designed and manufactured. To transfer heat from the solar collector into the evaporator, the fluid transfer system uses a pump powered by a solar cell. Thus, solar collectors are called hybrid solar collectors. The main purpose of this exposure is to know the characteristics of the radiation effects on incoming energy on the evaporator during the process. This system is tested by exposing the unit to the solar radiation in the 4th floor building in Medan. The experiment was conducted from 8.00 to 16.00 local time. The results show that natural vacuum solar desalination with hybrid solar collectors can be operated perfectly. If the received radiation is high, then the incoming energy received by the evaporator will also be high. From measurements with HOBO microstation, obtained the highest radiation 695.6 W/m2, and the calculation result of incoming energy received evaporator obtained highest result 1807.293 W.

  14. Theoretical simulation of small scale psychometric solar water desalination system in semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatat, Mahmoud; Omer, Siddig; Gillott, Mark; Riffat, Saffa

    2013-01-01

    Many countries around the world suffer from water scarcity. This is especially true in remote and semi-arid regions in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) where per capita water supplies decline as populations increase. This paper presents the results of a theoretical simulation of an affordable small scale solar water desalination plant using the psychometric humidification and dehumidification process coupled with an evacuated tube solar collector with an area of about 2 m 2 . A mathematical model was developed to describe the system's operation. Then a computer program using Simulink Matlab software was developed to provide the governing equations for the theoretical calculations of the humidification and dehumidification processes. The experimental and theoretical values for the total daily distillate output were found to be closely correlated. After the experimental calibration of the mathematical model, a model simulating solar radiation under the climatic conditions in the Middle East region proved that the performance of the system could be improved to produce a considerably higher amount of fresh water, namely up to 17.5 kg/m 2 day. This work suggests that utilizing the concept of humidification and dehumidification, a compact water desalination unit coupled with solar collectors would significantly increase the potable water supply in remote area. It could be a unique solution of water shortages in such areas. -- Highlights: • An affordable small scale desalination system is proposed. • A mathematical model of the desalination system is developed and programmed using Matlab Simulink. • The model describes the psychometric process based on humidification and dehumidification. • The model is used in optimal selection of elements and operating conditions for solar desalination system. • The use of solar water desalination contributes significantly to reducing global warming

  15. Economic feasibility of a solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2014-02-01

    Solar still desalination systems offer sustainable tools for fresh water production. However, their widespread application is often hindered by their relatively low production rates compared to other desalination methods. In this study, a simple amendment, in the form of a slowly-rotating hollow cylinder, was introduced within the solar still, significantly increasing the evaporative surface area. This new modified still was analyzed in terms of both operation and economic feasibility. The introduced cylinder resulted in a 200-300% increase in water output relative to a control, which did not include the cylinder. The resulting percent improvement far exceeds that obtained by other modifications. Unit production cost estimates varied between 6 and 60$/m3 depending on discount rates, productivity, service lifetime and initial capital costs. These projections are well within reported cost ranges for renewable-based technologies. In order to evaluate the system\\'s feasibility in real market value, different scenarios that introduce carbon-trading schemes and environmental degradation costs for fuel-based desalination, were performed. Reported costs for fuel-based brackish water and seawater desalination were thus adjusted to include unaccounted-for costs related to environmental damage. This analysis yielded results that further justify the economic feasibility of the new modified solar still, particularly for seawater desalination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Simulation and experimental study of a solar heat pump desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawlader, M.N.A.; Tjandra, Tobias Bestari [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Univ. of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore)

    2008-07-01

    With the rising price of oil and gas, the energy cost of desalination process increases significantly. Also, the consumption of fuel to provide thermal and electrical energy in a desalination process will pollute the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to find a new source of energy which is clean and renewable. Solar energy fulfills this challenge to a great extent. An experimental rig was constructed in order to investigate the use of solar energy in desalination. A series of experiments were performed under the meteorological conditions of Singapore. A simulation study was then performed for the system, and comparisons of the predicted and experimental results showed good agreement. The experimental system is capable of producing 1 liter of water per hour. The system has a coefficient of performance that varies from 5 to 9, and a performance ratio of 0.6 to 1.38. (orig.)

  17. Development of an active solar humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system integrated with geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elminshawy, Nabil A.S.; Siddiqui, Farooq R.; Addas, Mohammad F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Productivity increases with increasing geothermal water flow rate up to 0.15 kg/s. • Geothermal energy increases productivity by 187–465% when used with solar energy. • Daytime experimental productivity (8AM-5PM) up to 104 L/m"2 was achieved. • Daily experimental productivity (24 h) up to 192 L/m"2 was achieved. • Fresh potable water can be produced at 0.003 USD/L using this desalination setup. - Abstract: This paper investigates the technical and economic feasibility of using a hybrid solar-geothermal energy source in a humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system. The newly developed HDH system is a modified solar still with air blower and condenser used at its inlet and outlet respectively. A geothermal water tank in a temperature range 60–80 °C which imitates a low-grade geothermal energy source was used to supply heat to water inside the humidification chamber. The experiments were conducted in January 2015 under the climatological conditions of Madinah (latitude: 24°33′N, longitude: 39°36′0″E), Saudi Arabia to study the effect of geothermal water temperature and flow rate on the performance and productivity of proposed desalination system. Analytical model was also developed to compare the effect of solar energy and combined solar-geothermal energy on accumulated productivity. Daytime experimental accumulated productivity up to 104 L/m"2 and daily average gained output ratio (GOR) in the range 1.2–1.58 was achieved using the proposed desalination system. Cost of fresh water produced using the presented desalination system is 0.003 USD/L.

  18. A hybrid desalination system using humidification-dehumidification and solar stills integrated with evacuated solar water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshir, S.W.; Peng, Guilong; Yang, Nuo; Eltawil, Mohamed A.; Ali, Mohamed Kamal Ahmed; Kabeel, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Evacuated solar water heater integrated with humidification-dehumidification system. • Reuse of warm water drained from humidification-dehumidification to feed solar stills. • The thermal performance of hybrid system is increased by 50% and maximum yield is 63.3 kg/day. • The estimated price of the freshwater produced from the hybrid system is $0.034/L. - Abstract: This paper offers a hybrid solar desalination system comprising a humidification-dehumidification and four solar stills. The developed hybrid desalination system reuses the drain warm water from humidification-dehumidification to feed solar stills to stop the massive warm water loss during desalination. Reusing the drain warm water increases the gain output ratio of the system by 50% and also increased the efficiency of single solar still to about 90%. Furthermore, the production of a single solar still as a part of the hybrid system was more than that of the conventional one by approximately 200%. The daily water production of the conventional one, single solar still, four solar still, humidification- dehumidification and hybrid system were 3.2, 10.5, 42, 24.3 and 66.3 kg/day, respectively. Furthermore, the cost per unit liter of distillate from conventional one, humidification- dehumidification and hybrid system were around $0.049, $0.058 and $0.034, respectively.

  19. Solar Desalination System Model for Sizing of Photovoltaic Reverse Osmosis (PVRO)

    KAUST Repository

    Habib, Abdulelah

    2015-06-28

    The focus of this paper is to optimize the solar energy utilization in the water desalination process. Due to variable nature of solar energy, new system design is needed to address this challenge. Here, reverse osmosis units, as the electrical loads, are considered as an ON/OFF units to track these solar energy variations. Reverse osmosis units are different in sizes and numbers. Various combinations of reverse osmosis units in size and capacity provide different water desalination system performances. To assess each scenario of reverse osmosis units, the total capital cost and operation and maintenance (O&M) cost are considered. The implemented optimization algorithm search all of the possible scenarios to find the best solution. This paper deploys the solar irradiance data which is provided from west coast (Red Sea) of Saudi Arabia for model construction and optimization algorithm implementation.

  20. Performance evaluation of a continuous flow inclined solar still desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Agouz, S.A.; El-Samadony, Y.A.F.; Kabeel, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model was presented to analyze the performance of inclined still. • The effect of air speed, water masses, film thickness and velocity was studied. • Productivity for the Model 3 was higher than conventional still by 57.2%. • The performance was strongly affected by water film thickness and velocity. • Model 3 gave the highest performance while Model 1 gave the lowest performance. - Abstract: In the present work, theoretical study of the performance evaluation of a continuous water flow inclined solar still desalination system is performed. Three models are studied for inclined solar still desalination system with and without water close loop. The effects of the water mass, water film thickness, water film velocity and air wind velocity on the performance of the three models are studied. The results show that the inclined solar still with a makeup water is superior in productivity (57.2% improvement) compared with a conventional basin-type solar still. Also, the application of inclined solar still with open water loop is recommended when combined with other still desalination system due to high water temperature output. The inclined solar still with a makeup (Model 3) gives the highest performance while Model 1 gives the lowest performance. Finally, the water film thickness, and velocity as well as wind velocity plays important roles in improving the still productivity and efficiency

  1. Humidification dehumidification desalination system using parabolic trough solar air collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Zubair, M. Ifras; Atif, Maimoon; Gandhidasan, Palanichamy; Al-Dini, Salem A.; Antar, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with a detailed thermodynamic analysis to assess the performance of an HDH system with an integrated parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC). The HDH system considered is an open air, open water, air heated system that uses a PTSC as an air heater. Two different configurations were considered of the HDH system. In the first configuration, the solar air heater was placed before the humidifier whereas in the second configuration the solar air heater was placed between the humidifier and the dehumidifier. The current study revealed that PTSCs are well suited for air heated HDH systems for high radiation location, such as Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The comparison between the two HDH configurations demonstrates that the gained output ratio (GOR) of the first configuration is, on average, about 1.5 whereas for the second configuration the GOR increases up to an average value of 4.7. The study demonstrates that the HDH configuration with the air heater placed between the humidifier and the dehumidifier has a better performance and a higher productivity. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of an HDH system driven by a parabolic trough solar collector was conducted. • The first configuration reveals a GOR of 1.5 while the second configuration reveals a GOR of 4.7. • Effective heating of the HDH system was obtained through parabolic trough solar collector

  2. Seawater desalination with solar-energy-integrated vacuum membrane distillation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study designed and tested a novel type of solar-energy-integrated vacuum membrane distillation (VMD system for seawater desalination under actual environmental conditions in Wuhan, China. The system consists of eight parts: a seawater tank, solar collector, solar cooker, inclined VMD evaporator, circulating water vacuum pump, heat exchanger, fresh water tank, and brine tank. Natural seawater was used as feed and a hydrophobic hollow-fiber membrane module was used to improve seawater desalination. The experiment was conducted during a typical summer day. Results showed that when the highest ambient temperature was 33 °C, the maximum value of the average solar intensity was 1,080 W/m2. The system was able to generate 36 kg (per m2 membrane module distilled fresh water during 1 day (7:00 am until 6:00 pm, the retention rate was between 99.67 and 99.987%, and electrical conductivity was between 0.00276 and 0.0673 mS/cm. The average salt rejection was over 90%. The proposed VMD system shows favorable potential application in desalination of brackish waters or high-salt wastewater treatment, as well.

  3. A solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2014-07-10

    Abstract: Increasing the productivity of solar stills has been the focus of intensive research. Many introduced developments, however, require complex components and entail notable increases in cost and land requirements. Developing a compact, productive, and easy-to-operate system is a main challenge. This paper describes a sustainable modification of the solar still that significantly enhances its productivity without forsaking its basic features. A simple amendment in the form of a slowly rotating drum is introduced allowing the formation of thin water films that evaporate rapidly and are continually renewed. The performance of this system was compared against a control without the introduced drum. Throughout the experiment, the new system gave considerably higher yield than the control with an average increase in daily productivity of 200%. Moreover, during sunshine hours, the increase in yield could surpass 6–8 times that of the control. Important parameters such as ease of handling, material availability, efficacy, low cost, safe water quality, and space conservation are maintained. One side-benefit of this design is solving stagnation problems that usually develop in conventional stills. The new simple modification in this study presents a cost-effective and efficient design to solar stills especially in areas with abundant sunshine.

  4. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2016-01-01

    water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150

  5. Numerical simulation of solar-assisted multi-effect distillation (SMED) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2013-01-01

    We present a simulation model for the transient behavior of solar-assisted seawater desalination plant that employs the evacuated-tube collectors in conjunction with a multieffect distillation plant of nominal water production capacity of 16m3/day. This configuration has been selected due to merits in terms of environment-friendliness and energy efficiency. The solar-assisted multi-effect distillation system comprises 849 m2 of evacuated-tube collectors, 280 m3 water storage tanks, auxiliary heater, and six effects and a condenser. The present analysis employs a baseline configuration, namely; (i) the local solar insolation input (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia), (ii) a coolant flow rate through the headers of collector based on ASHRAE standards, (iii) a heating water demand, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from the solar tank drops below the set point. It is observed that the annual collector efficiency and solar fraction decrease from 57.3 to 54.8% and from 49.4 to 36.7%, respectively, with an increase in the heating water temperature from 80 to 90 °C. The overall water production rate and the performance ratio increase slightly from 0.18 to 0.21 kg/s and from 4.11 to 4.13, respectively. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  6. A solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.; Al Hindi, Mahmoud; Malaeb, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Increasing the productivity of solar stills has been the focus of intensive research. Many introduced developments, however, require complex components and entail notable increases in cost and land requirements. Developing a compact

  7. Development of a desalination system driven by solar energy and low grade waste heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elminshawy, Nabil A.S.; Siddiqui, Farooq R.; Sultan, Gamal I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Productivity increases significantly up to critical waste gas flow rate. • Productivity decreases for waste gas flow rate higher than critical flow rate. • Increasing evaporator inlet waste gas temperature increases productivity. • The proposed system coupled with combined cycle has a fuel saving 1844 kg/h. • The cost of potable water produced is 0.014 USD/L. - Abstract: Various thermal power systems emit flue gases containing significant amount of waste energy. The aim of this research is to recover a valuable amount of this energy to develop an efficient desalination system coupled with solar energy. Experiments were performed in the month of June 2014 at Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia (26°4′53″N, 43°58′32″E) for different hot air (waste gas) flow rates and evaporator inlet water temperature to study the effect on daily potable water productivity. The proposed setup comprised an evaporator, condenser, air blower, electric heaters, storage tank and evacuated tube solar collectors. It was found that increasing the hot air flow rate increases the water productivity up to the critical flow rate after which the productivity decreases. Analytical model was developed for this desalination setup and the results were compared to that obtained from experiments. The overall daily (9 AM–5 PM) potable water productivity of the proposed system is about 50 L for corresponding useful waste heat varying from 130 to 180 MJ/day and a global solar radiation on a horizontal surface ranging from 15 to 29 MJ/m 2 /day. Water is produced at the cost of 0.014 USD/L and the fuel saving equal to 1844 kg/h is achieved for the proposed desalination system

  8. EVALUATION OF A SOLAR DESALINATION SYSTEM, TYPE CYLINDRICAL PARABOLIC CONCENTRATOR FOR SEA WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Mercado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the methodology for the design, construction and commissioning of a solar desalinator, based on a parabolic trough collector and a solar still occurs, is presented. The energy is supplied through the solar collector, which is connected to the distiller. The equipment was set up on the premises of the Universidad Católica del Norte. It is compact, modular, low cost, easy maintenance and long life, with an average production capacity of distilled water of 2.37 l / d, however, it has to be considered that this rate is directly related with weather conditions and sea water flow entering the system, generating an average percentage of 34.04% efficiency. The results obtained with the respective findings, conclusions and recommendations for future projects associated to renewable energy equipment designed analyzed.

  9. Optimization Study of Small-Scale Solar Membrane Distillation Desalination Systems (s-SMDDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD, which can utilize low-grade thermal energy, has been extensively studied for desalination. By incorporating solar thermal energy, the solar membrane distillation desalination system (SMDDS is a potential technology for resolving energy and water resource problems. Small-scale SMDDS (s-SMDDS is an attractive and viable option for the production of fresh water for small communities in remote arid areas. The minimum cost design and operation of s-SMDDS are determined by a systematic method, which involves a pseudo-steady-state approach for equipment sizing and dynamic optimization using overall system mathematical models. Two s-SMDDS employing an air gap membrane distillation module with membrane areas of 11.5 m2 and 23 m2 are analyzed. The lowest water production costs are $5.92/m3 and $5.16/m3 for water production rates of 500 kg/day and 1000 kg/day, respectively. For these two optimal cases, the performance ratios are 0.85 and 0.91; the recovery ratios are 4.07% and 4.57%. The effect of membrane characteristics on the production cost is investigated. For the commercial membrane employed in this study, the increase of the membrane mass transfer coefficient up to two times is beneficial for cost reduction.

  10. Innovative Design of Solar-Powered Desalination (SPD System using Vacuum-Multi Effect Membrane Distillation (V-MEMD Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafidz Achmad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on the development of an innovative design of solar-powered desalination (SPD system which was expected to solve the water and energy problem simultaneously. We have developed a portable and hybrid solar-powered desalination (SPD system for producing potable water from saline water. It is a self-contained and integrated system which combines solar-thermal collector and solar-photovoltaic for its operation, and thus the system can operate to produce water by only using solar energy. Therefore, the system is highly suitable to be implemented in remote arid and coastal areas without infrastructures or connection to the grid (water and power, but blessed with abundant solar irradiation, like in Saudi Arabia. A Memsys Vacuum Multi-Effect Membrane Distillation (V-MEMD unit was used as the core of the SPD system. A heat pump was also integrated into the SPD system for energy recovery and to improve the performance of the system. The system could be considered as sustainable and “green” desalination technology, which will be very useful for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To study the performance of the system, small-scale tests have been carried out at the Engineering College - King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Based on the experimental results, the system has run successfully by only utilizing solar energy.

  11. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Deuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon; Amy, Gary L; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m(2) of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m(3) seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy, exergy, economic and environmental (4E) analysis of a solar desalination system with humidification-dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, Emrah; Çınar, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Possibility of suppling all energy consumption from solar energy was tested. • Air and water-heated humidification-dehumidification desalination system was proposed. • Energy, exergy, economic and environmental analysis were performed. • Productivity and performance of the desalination system was analyzed. • Various operational parameters were investigated. - Abstract: A novel humidification-dehumidification (HDH) solar desalination system is designed and tested with actual conditions and solar energy was used to provide both thermal and electrical energy. Energy-exergy analyses of the system are made and economic and enviro-economic properties are investigated using data obtained from experimental studies. In this way, economic and environmental impacts of the HDH solar desalination systems have also been determined. The maximum daily energy efficiency of the system was calculated as 31.54% and the maximum exergy efficiency was found as 1.87%. The maximum fresh water production rate is obtained as 1117.3 g/h. The estimated cost of fresh water produced through the designed HDH system is 0.0981 USD/L and enviro-economic parameter is 2.4041 USD/annum.

  13. A novel integrated thermal-/membrane-based solar energy-driven hybrid desalination system: Concept description and simulation results

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2016-05-03

    In this paper, a hybrid desalination system consisting of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and adsorption desalination (AD) units, designated as VMD-AD cycle, is proposed. The synergetic integration of the VMD and AD is demonstrated where a useful effect of the AD cycle is channelled to boost the operation of the VMD process, namely the low vacuum environment to maintain the high pressure gradient across the microporous hydrophobic membrane. A solar-assisted multi-stage VMD-AD hybrid desalination system with temperature modulating unit is first designed, and its performance is then examined with a mathematical model of each component in the system and compared with the VMD-only system with temperature modulating and heat recovery units. The total water production and water recovery ratio of a solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD hybrid system are found to be about 21% and 23% higher, respectively, as compared to the VMD-only system. For the solar-assisted 24-stage VMD-AD desalination system having 150 m2 of evacuated-tube collectors and 10 m3 seawater storage tanks, both annual collector efficiency and solar fraction are close to 60%.

  14. Performance and cost assessment of solar driven humidification dehumidification desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubair, M. Ifras; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A.; Antar, M.A.; Al-Dini, Salem A.; Ibrahim, Nasiru I.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of a new HDH system integrated solar evacuated tubes collectors was conducted. • The mathematical models developed for the collector and the HDH system were validated. • A multi-location analysis was then performed for six locations in Saudi Arabia. • Sharurah was found to have the highest annual output and Dhahran the lowest at 19,445 and 16,430 L. • The cost per liter of water produced varies from $0.032 to $0.038, depends on the location. - Abstract: A humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination system integrated with solar evacuated tubes was optimized. Then, the optimized system was assessed for the operation in different geographical locations, and the rate of freshwater production and cost per liter were determined in each location. The system design proposed in this paper uses a heat pipe design evacuated tube collector, which performs significantly better based on cost. An HDH desalination system with a closed-air/open-water loop, connected to the collector, was evaluated to determine the optimum operating parameters and the system performance during daytime (from 8 am to 3 pm), as well as the average day of each month for an entire year. The impact of the effectiveness of the humidifier and the dehumidifier, as well as, the number of collectors, were also studied. The analyses were performed for Dhahran, Jeddah, Riyadh, Sharurah, Qassim, and Tabuk to determine the effects of varying the geographical location. Sharurah has the highest calculated productivity of freshwater and Dhahran has the lowest at 19,445 and 16,430 L, respectively. To have a comprehensive study of the system proposed, a cost analysis was also performed to determine the feasibility of the system and the cost of water production. Results show that the price varied from $0.032 to $0.038 per liter for the locations evaluated.

  15. Development of an innovative polygeneration process in hybrid solar-biomass system for combined power, cooling and desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, U.; Kumar, R.; Pant, P.C.; Chaudhary, R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat utilization from solar and biomass resources are considered for hybridization. • Modeling of polygeneration process in hybrid solar-biomass power plant is considered. • Thermodynamic evaluation are performed to identify the effect of various parameters. • Primary Energy Saving of polygeneration process is determined. - Abstract: In the polygeneration process simultaneous production of power, vapor absorption refrigeration (VAR) cooling and multi-effect humidification and dehumidification (MEHD) desalination system from different heat sources in hybrid solar-biomass (HSB) system with higher energy efficiency take place. It is one of the solutions to fulfill energy requirements from renewable sources and also helps in the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. The VAR cooling system operates using the extracted heat taken from turbine and condenser heat of the VAR cooling system is used in desalination system for production of drinking water as per demand requirement. Though the production of electricity decreases due to extraction of heat from turbine for VAR cooling and desalination, the complete system meets the energy requirements & increases the primary energy savings (PES). The thermodynamic evaluation and optimization of HSB system in polygeneration process for combined power, cooling and desalination is investigated to identify the effects of various operating parameters. Primary energy savings (PES) of polygeneration process in HSB system is achieved to 50.5%. The energy output is increased to 78.12% from this system as compared to simple power plant.

  16. Sustainable desalination using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2010-01-01

    Global potable water demand is expected to grow, particularly in areas where freshwater supplies are limited. Production and supply of potable water requires significant amounts of energy, which is currently being derived from nonrenewable fossil fuels. Since energy production from fossil fuels also requires water, current practice of potable water supply powered by fossil fuel derived energy is not a sustainable approach. In this paper, a sustainable phase-change desalination process is presented that is driven solely by solar energy without any reliance on grid power. This process exploits natural gravity and barometric pressure head to maintain near vacuum conditions in an evaporation chamber. Because of the vacuum conditions, evaporation occurs at near ambient temperature, with minimal thermal energy input for phase change. This configuration enables the process to be driven by low-grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Results of theoretical analysis and prototype scale experimental studies conducted to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of operating the process using solar energy are presented. Predictions made by the theoretical model correlated well with measured performance data with r 2 > 0.94. Test results showed that, using direct solar energy alone, the system could produce up to 7.5 L/day of freshwater per m 2 of evaporator area. With the addition of a photovoltaic panel area of 6 m 2 , the system could produce up to 12 L/day of freshwater per m 2 of evaporator area, at efficiencies ranging from 65% to 90%. Average specific energy need of this process is 2930 kJ/kg of freshwater, all of which can be derived from solar energy, making it a sustainable and clean process.

  17. Prospects of solar desalination in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saif-ur-Rehman, M; Bhatti, M R; Malik, M A

    1973-01-01

    This paper deals with the present state-of-the-art of solar desalination and evaluates the possibility of using solar stills in Pakistan. Along with the world survey of solar desalination units a brief description of the process and solar still is described. The areas of prospective users, i.e., having acute shortage of freshwater, even for drinking, are outlined.

  18. Performance evaluation of a solar energy assisted hybrid desiccant air conditioner integrated with HDH desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabeel, A.E.; Abdelgaied, Mohamed; Zakaria, Yehya

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of a solar hybrid air conditioner integrated with HDH desalination system is numerically investigated. • For increase the regeneration air from 70 to 130 m 3 /h, the distillate water productivity increases from 2.988 to 4.78 L/h. • For increase the regeneration air from 70 to 130 m 3 /h, COP overall daily decreases from 4.66 to 3.386. • For increases the regeneration air temperature from 75 to 95 °C, the distillate water increases from 3.1752 to 5.011 L/h. • For increases the regeneration air temperature from 75 to 95 °C, COP overall daily decreases from 4.392 to 3.636. - Abstract: In this study, the performances of a solar energy assisted hybrid desiccant air conditioning system integrated with humidification–dehumidification (HDH) desalination system are numerically investigated. The aim of this study is to benefit from the temperature rise of the regeneration air outside of the desiccant conditioning system as well as the water vapor content in this regeneration air by feeding it to the humidification-dehumidification water desalination unit to produce distillate water. The distillate water productivity, human thermal comfort issues, and energy saving represent the main objective of the present numerical study. The simulated results developed for subsystems are validated with the published experimental results. The effects of regeneration air temperature and flow rate on supply cooled air temperature, distillate water productivity, the cooling coefficient of performance and overall daily coefficient of performance of the proposed system are investigated. The results show that (i) the distillate water productivity increases from 3.175 to 5.011 L/h and overall daily coefficient of performance decreases from 4.392 to 3.636 with increasing the regeneration air temperature from 75 to 95 as (ii) the increase in the regeneration air flow rate from 70 to 130 m 3 /h, increases the distillate water productivity from 2.988 to 4

  19. Design and development of solar desalination plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu Thaneissha a/p

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct sunlight has been utilized long back for desalination of water. The desalination process takes place in solar still. Solar still is a device that converts saline water to potable water. This process requires seawater and sunlight which are widely available on Earth. However, the current solar desalination generation capacity is generally low and has high installation cost. Hence, there is a need for the enhancement of the productivity which can be achieved through few modifications. This paper explores the challenges and opportunities of solar water desalination worldwide. It presents a comprehensive review of solar desalination technologies that have been developed in recent years which covers the economic and environmental aspects.

  20. Solar desalination system of combined solar still and humidification-dehumidification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Ahmed; Fath, Hassan E. S.

    2016-11-01

    Solar stills, as a simple technology, have many advantages such as simple design; unsophisticated fabrication; low capital and operation costs and easily maintained. However, their low daily production has put constraints on their usage. A radical improvement in the performance of solar stills can be achieved by the partial recovery of the energy losses from the glass cover of the still. This paper simulates a direct solar distillation system of combined solar still with an air heating humidification-dehumidification (HDH) sub-system. The main objective of the Still-HDH system is to improve the productivity and thermal efficiency of the conventional solar still by partially recovering the still energy losses to the ambient for additional water production. Various procedures have been employed to improve the thermal performance of the integrated system by recovering heat losses from one component in another component of the system. Simulations have been carried out for the performance of the Still-HDH system under different weather conditions. A comparison has been held between the Still-HDH system and a conventional solar still of the same size and under the same operating conditions.

  1. Analysis of an innovative solar water desalination system using gravity induced vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayhan, T.; Al-Madani, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the theoretical analysis, design and appropriate models of a new desalination system using gravity induced vacuum. The system utilizes natural means (gravity and atmospheric pressure) to create a vacuum under which water can be rapidly evaporated at much lower temperatures with less energy than conventional techniques. This technique is developed to overcome water storage, in the areas where good solar radiation (or waste heat sources) and sea water (or waste water sources). The developed system consists of an evaporator connected to condenser by means of a vacuum tank. The vapour produced in the evaporator is driven to condenser through the vacuum tank, where it condenses and collected as a product. Vacuum equivalent to 7 kPa (abs) or less can be created depending on ambient temperature of Bahrain climatic conditions. The effect of various operating conditions, namely water levels in condensation and evaporating columns on the system performance were studied. The theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental results show that the performance of this system depends on the condensation temperature

  2. Solar photovoltaic power for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J. R.; Crutcher, J. L.; Norbedo, A. J.; Cummings, A. B.

    1980-07-01

    There is a considerable global need for systems which can meet the drinking water requirements of small communities (7000 people or less) from brackish water or from seawater. Solar photovoltaic panels are an ideal source of power for the purpose, primarily because they produce electricity, which can be used to power a membrane type desalting unit, i.e., either a reverse osmosis plant or an electrodialysis unit. In addition, electricity is most convenient for feedwater pumping. This paper addresses considerations which arise in the design and construction of a complete solar powered water desalination system which requires no supply of fuel nor any form of backup power (grid connection or engine generator).

  3. Economical analysis and study on a solar desalination unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of desalination unit and electrical power, the life time of solar desalination unit and the yearly yield of fresh water, on the cost of the fresh water production of the solar desalination unit are studied. It is helpful for the further investigation of solar desalination and for reducing the cost of fresh water...

  4. Solar-Powered Desalination: A Modelling and Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Jimmy; Andrews, John

    2007-10-01

    Water shortage is becoming one of the major problems worldwide. As such, desalination technologies have been implemented to meet growing demands for fresh water. Among the desalination technologies, thermal desalination, including multi stage flash (MSF) and multi effect evaporation (MEE), is the current leading desalination process. Reverse osmosis (RO) is also being increasingly used. Despite technological improvements, thermal desalination and reverse osmosis continue to be intensive fossil-fuel consumers and contribute to increased levels of greenhouse gases. As energy costs rise, thermal desalination by solar energy and/or low cost waste heat is likely to become increasingly attractive. As part of a project investigating the productive use of saline land and the development of sustainable desalination systems, the feasibility of producing potable water from seawater or brackish water using desalination systems powered by renewable energy in the form of low-temperature solar-thermal sources has been studied. A salinity-gradient solar pond and an evacuated tube solar collector system have been used as heat sources. Solar ponds combine solar energy collection with long-term storage and can provide reliable thermal energy at temperature ranges from 50 to 90 °C. A visual basic computer model of the different multi-stage flash desalination processes coupled with a salinity-gradient solar pond was developed to determine which process is preferable in regards to performance and greenhouse impact. The governing mathematical equations are derived from mass balances, heat energy balances, and heat transfer characteristics. Using the results from the modelling, a small-scale solar-powered desalination system, capable of producing up to 500 litres of fresh water per day, was designed and manufactured. This single-stage flash system consists of two main units: the heat supply and storage system and the flash desalination unit. Two different condenser heat exchanger

  5. Technology development and application of solar energy in desalination: MEDRC contribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2011-12-01

    Desalination has become one of the sources for water supply in several countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa region. There is a great potential to develop solar desalination technologies especially in this region where solar source is abundantly available. The success in implementing solar technologies in desalination at a commercial scale depends on the improvements to convert solar energy into electrical and/or thermal energies economically as desalination processes need these types of energies. Since desalination is energy intensive, the wider use of solar technologies in desalination will eventually increase the demand on these technologies, making it possible to go for mass production of photovoltaic (PV) cells, collectors and solar thermal power plants. This would ultimately lead to the reduction in the costs of these technologies. The energy consumed by desalination processes has been significantly reduced in the last decade meaning that, if solar technologies are to be used, less PV modules and area for collectors would be needed. The main aspects to be addressed to make solar desalination a viable option in remote location applications is to develop new materials or improve existing solar collectors and find the best combinations to couple the different desalination processes with appropriate solar collector. In the objective to promote solar desalination in MENA, the Middle East Desalination Research Center has concentrated on various aspects of solar desalination in the last twelve years by sponsoring 17 research projects on different technologies and Software packages development for coupling desalination and renewable energy systems to address the limitations of solar desalination and develop new desalination technologies and hybrid systems suitable for remote areas. A brief description of some of these projects is highlighted in this paper. The full details of all these projects are available the Centers website. © 2011 Elsevier

  6. Final Scientific/Technical Report for Program Title: Solar Powered Dewvaporation Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Shashidhar [Polestar Technologies Inc., Needham Heights, MA (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Desalination technologies have been used increasingly throughout the world to produce the drinking water from the brackish ground and sea water for the past few decades. Among the commercially available desalination technologies, reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash distillation are the most widely used technologies globally. However, these technologies are difficult to be directly integrated with green energies without converting them to electricity. Dewvaporation, a desalination process, uses saturated steam as a carrier-gas to evaporate water from saline feeds and form pure condensate. It has the major technical benefit of reusing energy, released from vapor condensation, multiple times. The current proposal has been planned to address this issue. In Phase I, we have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a new plasmonic nanoparticle based approach through fabrication and evaluation of a solar powered water vapor generation module. The water vapor generation module allows generation of high temperature plasmon on a fiber bundle end, where strong water and plasmon interaction occurs generating water vapor. Plasmon enhanced water evaporation has been realized on plasmonic nanoparticle immobilized substrate with an energy conversion efficiency of over 50%.

  7. Design and Manufacturing of Desalination System Powered by Solar Energy Using CDI Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Mohammad Sajjad; Khashehchi, Morteza; Pipelzadeh, Ehsan

    2017-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an emerging energy efficient, low pressure and low capital intensive desalination process where ions are separated by a pure electrostatic force imposed by a small bias potential as low as 1 V That funded by an external Renewable (Solar) power supply to materials with high specific surface area. The main objective of this configuration is to separate the cation and anions on oppositely charged electrodes. One of the key parameters for commercial realization of CDI is the salt adsorption capacity of the electrodes. State-of-the-art electrode materials are based on porous activated carbon particles or carbon aerogels. Various electrode materials have been developed in the past, which have suffered from instability and lack of performance. Preliminary experimental results using carbon black, graphite powder, graphene ∖ graphite ∖ PTFE (Active ∖ Conductive ∖ binder) show that the graphene reduced via urea method is a suitable method to develop CDI electrode materials. Although some progress has been made, production of efficient and stable carbon based electrode materials for large scale desalination has not been fully realized. A new desalination technique using capacitive deionization.

  8. A study on the performance enhancement of low-temperature solar applications : Daylighting and Adsorption Desalination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong Min

    2011-02-01

    Thermal applications of solar energy are categorized by low, medium and high temperature. The present study has explored two major applications of solar energy widely researched and practiced these days. Of these, one deals with the utilization of solar energy for lighting in buildings, which is responsible for a great portion of electricity consumption, especially, for office and public buildings. Rapid improvements in lighting technology harnessing solar energy (daylight) have greatly contributed to radically reduce its consumption levels - and thereby reduce CO 2 emissions and cost. The other case considered here for solar utilization is so-called solar desalination using adsorbents (silica gels). This technology utilizes a silica gel adsorbent (desiccant) as a medium between an evaporator and a condenser to reject and facilitate latent heat of vaporization. Vapour is adsorbed and desorbed between evaporation and condensation phases. 1. Daylighting simulation A lighting upgrade is an obvious step toward improving a building's energy consumption, which could be easily assessed by using computer simulations. The present study has carried out a series of computer simulations for a lightless space as well as an actual classroom (in Jeju National University) when sun pipe systems are installed. They were first modeled by ECOTECT before RADIANCE was called in to conduct lighting analysis. Simulations were performed for equinoxes and solstices when the sun is at its highest altitude, i.e. at noon (12 PM). A lightless space and classroom of the same dimensions revealed the effectiveness of sun pipe systems to improve indoor lighting conditions throughout the year. 2. Development of adsorption desalination system utilizing silica-gel Some major components of an adsorption desalination system were designed and fabricated to assess its desalination efficiency when packs of silica-gel were used at different operating conditions. The amount of fresh water yield was studied

  9. A study on the performance enhancement of low-temperature solar applications : Daylighting and Adsorption Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Min

    2011-02-15

    Thermal applications of solar energy are categorized by low, medium and high temperature. The present study has explored two major applications of solar energy widely researched and practiced these days. Of these, one deals with the utilization of solar energy for lighting in buildings, which is responsible for a great portion of electricity consumption, especially, for office and public buildings. Rapid improvements in lighting technology harnessing solar energy (daylight) have greatly contributed to radically reduce its consumption levels - and thereby reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and cost. The other case considered here for solar utilization is so-called solar desalination using adsorbents (silica gels). This technology utilizes a silica gel adsorbent (desiccant) as a medium between an evaporator and a condenser to reject and facilitate latent heat of vaporization. Vapour is adsorbed and desorbed between evaporation and condensation phases. 1. Daylighting simulation A lighting upgrade is an obvious step toward improving a building's energy consumption, which could be easily assessed by using computer simulations. The present study has carried out a series of computer simulations for a lightless space as well as an actual classroom (in Jeju National University) when sun pipe systems are installed. They were first modeled by ECOTECT before RADIANCE was called in to conduct lighting analysis. Simulations were performed for equinoxes and solstices when the sun is at its highest altitude, i.e. at noon (12 PM). A lightless space and classroom of the same dimensions revealed the effectiveness of sun pipe systems to improve indoor lighting conditions throughout the year. 2. Development of adsorption desalination system utilizing silica-gel Some major components of an adsorption desalination system were designed and fabricated to assess its desalination efficiency when packs of silica-gel were used at different operating conditions. The amount of fresh water yield was

  10. Status of solar desalination in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjunan, T.V. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Adhiyamaan College of Engineering, Hosur, Krishnagiri 635109, Tamilnadu (India); Aybar, H.S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Eastern Mediterranean University, G. Magosa, KKTC, Mersin 10 (Turkey); Nedunchezhian, N. [Automobile Engineering, Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-12-15

    The work was motivated by the increasing awareness of the need for enhancing water supplies schemes in arid lands featuring an appropriate technology for solar energy use in the desalination field in India. The fresh water crisis is already evident in many parts of India, varying in scale and intensity at different times of the year. India's rapidly rising population and changing lifestyles also increases the need for fresh water. Fresh water is increasingly taking centre stage on the economic and political agenda, as more and more disputes between and within states, districts, regions, and even at the community level arises. The conventional desalination technologies like multi stage flash, multiple effect, vapor compression, iron exchange, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis are expensive for the production of small amount of fresh water, also use of conventional energy sources has a negative impact on the environment. Solar distillation represents a most attractive and simple technique among other distillation processes, and it is especially suited to small-scale units at locations where solar energy is considerable. India, being a tropical country is blessed with plenty of sunshine. The average daily solar radiation varies between 4 and 7 kWh per square meter for different parts of the country. There are on an average 250-300 clear sunny days in a year, thus it receives about 5000 trillion kWh of solar energy in a year. In spite of the limitations of being a dilute source and intermittent in nature, solar energy has the potential for meeting and supplementing various energy requirements. Solar energy systems being modular in nature could be installed in any capacity as per the requirement. This paper consists of an overall review and technical assessments of various passive and active solar distillation developments in India. This review also recommended some research areas in this field leading to high efficiency are highlighted. (author)

  11. Experimental investigation of a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens solar concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Zheng, Hongfei; Ma, Xinglong; Kutlu, Cagri; Su, Yuehong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar desalination system heated directly by curved Fresnel lens concentrator. • Desalination system is based on the humidification-dehumidification process. • Four-stage multi-effect desalination system is proposed. • Condensation latent heat and residual heat in the brine are recycled and reutilized. • The maximum yield and GOR of the unit can reach 3.4 kg/h and 2.1, respectively. - Abstract: This study demonstrates a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification (HDH) solar desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator. In this novel system, the solar radiation is sent directly into desalination unit. That is to say, the solar receiver and the evaporator of the system are a whole in which the black fillers in seawater directly absorb the concentrated solar lights to heat the seawater film to produce the evaporation. The configuration and working processes of the proposed design are described in detail. In order to analyze its performance, a small solar desalination prototype unit incorporated with a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator was designed and built in our laboratory. Using three-stage isothermal tandem heating mode, the variation of the fresh water yield rate and the absorber temperature with time were measured experimentally and were compared with theoretical calculations. The experimental results show that the maximum yield of the unit is about 3.4 kg/h, the maximum gained output ratio (GOR) is about 2.1, when the average intensity of solar radiation is about 867 W/m"2. This study indicates that the proposed system has the characteristics of compact structure and GOR high. It still can be improved when the design and operation are optimized further.

  12. Control and Modelling of Seawater Desalination Using Solar Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, L.; Yebra, L. J.; Berenguel, M.; Alarcon, D. C.

    2006-07-01

    Desalination plants play a fundamental role in fighting the shortage of fresh water in places with plentiful seawater resources. This paper briefly describes a solar desalination system designed, erected and operated in the AQUASOL project at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), consisting basically of a CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) solar collector field, two water storage tanks, a multi-effect distillation plant (MED) and a Double Effect Absorption Heat Pump (DEAHP). These subsystems have been modeled to estimate system behaviour and develop control techniques for maintaining optimal operating conditions. (Author)

  13. Analysis and optimization of a solar thermal power generation and desalination system using a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leovigildo

    Using a novel approach for a Photovoltaic-Thermal (PV-T) panel system, analytical and optimization analyses were performed for electricity generation as well as desalinated water production. The PV-T panel was design with a channel under it where seawater would be housed at a constant pressure of 2.89 psia and ambient temperature of 520°R. The surface of the PV panel was modeled by a high absorption black chrome surface. Irradiation flux on the surface and the heat addition on the saltwater were calculated hourly between 9:00am and 6:00pm. At steady state conditions, the saturation temperature of 600°R was limited at PV tank-channel outlet and the evaporation rate was measured to be 2.53 lbm/hr-ft2. The desorbed air then passed through a turbine, where it generated electrical power at 0.84 Btu/hr, condensing into desalinated water at the outlet. Optimization was performed for max capacity yield based on available temperature distribution of 600°R to 1050°R at PV tank-channel outlet. This gave an energy generation range for the turbine of 0.84 Btu/hr to 3.84 Btu/hr, while the desalinated water production range was 2.53 lbm/hr-ft2 to 10.65 lbm/hr-ft2. System efficiency was found to be between 7.5% to 24.3%. Water production efficiency was found to be 40% to 43%.

  14. Study on water desalination system by solar energy distillation; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita joryugata kaisui tansuika system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, M; Ameku, K; Yonamine, K [Univ. of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Discussions have been given on developing a seawater desalination system by solar energy distillation. The system is composed of evaporators installed on the seawater level, condensers placed on high and cool locations, and steam transport pipes to connect these two pieces of equipment. Steam is generated from seawater heated by solar heat in evaporators, and the steam is transported driven by low power consuming fans to higher locations through the steam transport pipes, where it is condensed by cool air in the condensers, and recovered as plain water. The concept is such that electric power required to operate the fans is supplied from photovoltaic panels, and all other energy is obtained from the sun. First, an experiment was performed upon noticing on methods of transporting and condensing the steam. The experiment used plain water rather than seawater. The heat source and evaporators were installed on the first floor, and the steam transporting fans on the second floor of an atrium. The thermal load was set to 1.5 times greater than average outdoor insolation amount. Increase in the distilled water recovery rate and distillation efficiency was verified by using the fans. The evaporation efficiency was found to tend to increase when the steam flow rate is increased. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Simulation with Trnsys of thermal Solar System for desalination by means of inverse osmosis; Simulacion con Trnsys de sistemas solares termicos para desalinizacion mediante osmosis inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Villada, J.; Bruno, J. C.; Coronas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The use of power cycles driven by solar energy to provide the required mechanical energy to drive the high-pressure pump of Reverse Osmosis systems for desalination is an interesting alternative to the conventional electric systems. In this paper it is presented a model developed in Trnsys/Trnopt for the optimisation of the operating temperature in these systems to maximise the desalted water production. The results obtained show that adjusting the plant operation to this optimal temperature following the ambient conditions at each moment, a very important increase in the desalted water production could be achieved. (Author)

  16. Preliminary design of seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination systems driven by low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycles (ORC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M.; Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the coupling between the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination units has been carried out. Four substances have been considered as working fluids of the solar cycle (butane, isopentane, R245fa and R245ca). With these four fluids the volumetric flow of fresh water produced per unit of aperture area of stationary solar collector has been calculated. The former has been made with the optimized direct vapour generation (DVG) configuration and heat transfer fluid (HTF) configuration of the solar ORC. In the first one (DVG), working fluid of the ORC is directly heated inside the absorber of the solar collector. In the second one (HTF), a fluid different than the working fluid of the ORC (water in this paper) is heated without phase change inside the absorber of the solar collector. Once this fluid has been heated it is carried towards a heat exchanger where it is cooled. Thermal energy delivered in this cooling process is transferred to the working fluid of the ORC. Influence of condensation temperature of the ORC and regeneration's process effectiveness over productivity of the system has also been analysed. Finally, parameters of several preliminary designs of the low-temperature solar thermal driven RO desalination are supplied. R245fa is chosen as working fluid of the ORC in these preliminary designs. The information of the proposed preliminary designs can also be used, i.e., for the assessment of the use of thermal energy rejected by the solar cycle. Overall analysis of the efficiency of the solar thermal driven RO desalination technology is given with the results presented in this paper and the results obtained with the medium temperature solar thermal RO desalination system presented by the authors in previous papers. This work has been carried out within the framework of the OSMOSOL and POWERSOL projects.

  17. Preliminary design of seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination systems driven by low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycles (ORC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M. [Dpto. Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Civil e Industrial, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez s/n. 38206 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes [Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad de Sevilla Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros, Camino de los Descubrimientos, s/n 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, the coupling between the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination units has been carried out. Four substances have been considered as working fluids of the solar cycle (butane, isopentane, R245fa and R245ca). With these four fluids the volumetric flow of fresh water produced per unit of aperture area of stationary solar collector has been calculated. The former has been made with the optimized direct vapour generation (DVG) configuration and heat transfer fluid (HTF) configuration of the solar ORC. In the first one (DVG), working fluid of the ORC is directly heated inside the absorber of the solar collector. In the second one (HTF), a fluid different than the working fluid of the ORC (water in this paper) is heated without phase change inside the absorber of the solar collector. Once this fluid has been heated it is carried towards a heat exchanger where it is cooled. Thermal energy delivered in this cooling process is transferred to the working fluid of the ORC. Influence of condensation temperature of the ORC and regeneration's process effectiveness over productivity of the system has also been analysed. Finally, parameters of several preliminary designs of the low-temperature solar thermal driven RO desalination are supplied. R245fa is chosen as working fluid of the ORC in these preliminary designs. The information of the proposed preliminary designs can also be used, i.e., for the assessment of the use of thermal energy rejected by the solar cycle. Overall analysis of the efficiency of the solar thermal driven RO desalination technology is given with the results presented in this paper and the results obtained with the medium temperature solar thermal RO desalination system presented by the authors in previous papers. This work has been carried out within the framework of the OSMOSOL and POWERSOL projects. (author)

  18. Selection of groundwater sites in Egypt, using geographic information systems, for desalination by solar energy in order to reduce greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam G. Salim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Egypt has already reached the water poverty limit, it possesses a high potential of brackish groundwater available from different aquifers. All Arab countries lie in the best sun-belt region in the world and Egypt has the highest number of sun hours all year round. Solar energy for groundwater desalination is an independent infinite energy resource; it has low running costs and reduces the contribution of greenhouse gases (GHG to global warming. Perfect meteorological conditions and land space are available in remote areas, where solar desalination could supply freshwater for drinking, industry, and for greenhouse agriculture. The present study uses Geographic Information System(s (GIS as a spatial decision support tool to select appropriate sites in Egypt for groundwater solar desalination. Solar radiation, aquifer depth, aquifer salinity, distance from the Delta and the Nile Valley, incidence of flash floods, sand dunes, rock faults, and seawater intrusion in the North Delta, are the criteria that have been taken into consideration in the process of analysis. A specific weight is given to each criterion according to its relative influence on the process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology determine the relative suitability of sites for groundwater solar desalination. These sites are ranked in descending order to help decision-makers in Egypt. The results show that groundwater solar desalination is suitable in remote regions on the North Western Coast, on the North Sinai Coast, and at the Southern Oasis, for reducing greenhouse gases and that it is particularly useful for poor communities suffering from polluted water.

  19. Procedures of water desalination with solar energy and f-chart method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Andrija A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid population growth, and climate change caused by environmental pollution needs for drinking water are increasing while amount of freshwater are decreasing. However possible solution for freshwater scarcity can be found in water desalination procedures. In this article three representative water desalination solar powered plants are described. Except explanation of processes it is also mentioned basic advantages and disadvantages of humidification, reverse osmosis and desalination evaporation by using solar energy. Simulation of the solar desalination system is analyzed with f-chart method monthly, located on located 42 degrees north latitude.

  20. Exergy Analysis of a Solar Humidification- Dehumidification Desalination Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed A. Elhaj; Jamal S. Yassin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the exergy analysis of a desalination unit using humidification-dehumidification process. Here, this unit is considered as a thermal system with three main components, which are the heating unit by using a solar collector, the evaporator or the humidifier, and the condenser or the dehumidifier. In these components the exergy is a measure of the quality or grade of energy and it can be destroyed in them. According to the second law of thermodynamics thi...

  1. Entropy, exergy, and cost analyses of solar driven cogeneration systems using supercritical CO_2 Brayton cycles and MEE-TVC desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouta, Amine; Al-Sulaiman, Fahad; Atif, Maimoon; Marshad, Saud Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The entropy, exergy, and cost analyses for two solar cogeneration configurations are conducted. • The recompression cogeneration cycle achieves lower LCOE as compared to the regeneration cogeneration cycle. • The solar tower is the largest contributor to entropy generation in both configurations reaching almost 80%. • The specific entropy generation in the MEE-TVC decreases with decreasing the fraction. - Abstract: In this study, performance and cost analyses are conducted for a solar power tower integrated with supercritical CO_2 (sCO_2) Brayton cycles for power production and a multiple effect evaporation with a thermal vapor compression (MEE-TVC) desalination system for water production. The study is performed for two configurations based on two different supercritical cycles: the regeneration and recompression sCO_2 Brayton cycles. A two-tank molten salt storage is utilized to ensure a uniform operation throughout the day. From the entropy analysis, it was shown that the solar tower is the largest contributor to entropy generation in both configurations, reaching almost 80% from the total entropy generation, followed by the MEE-TVC desalination system, and the sCO_2 power cycle. The entropy generation in the two-tank thermal storage is negligible, around 0.3% from the total generation. In the MEE-TVC system the highest contributing component is the steam jet ejector, which is varying between 50% and 60% for different number of effects. The specific entropy generation in the MEE-TVC decreases as the fraction of the input heat to the desalination system decreases; while the specific entropy generation of the sCO_2 cycle remains constant. The cost analysis performed for different regions in Saudi Arabia and the findings reveal that the regions characterized by the highest average solar irradiation throughout the year have the lowest LCOE and LCOW values. The region achieving the lowest cost is Yanbu, followed by Khabt Al-Ghusn in the second

  2. Solar desalination by freezing and distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvajic, G.

    It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

  3. Batteryless photovoltaic reverse-osmosis desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, M.; Miranda, M.; Gwillim, J.; Rowbottom, A.; Draisey, I.

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this project was to design an efficient cost-effective batteryless photovoltaic-powered seawater reverse-osmosis desalination system, to deliver in the order of 3 m{sup 3} of fresh drinking water per day. The desalination of seawater to produce fresh drinking water is extremely valuable on islands and in coastal regions wherever natural freshwater is scarce. Existing small-scale desalination equipment, suitable for areas of medium and low population density, often requires a copious and constant supply of energy, either electricity or diesel. If supply of these fuels is expensive or insecure, but the area has a good solar resource, the use of photovoltaic power is an attractive option. Existing demonstrations of photovoltaic-powered desalination generally employ lead-acid batteries, which allow the equipment to operate at a constant flow, but are notoriously problematic in practice. The system developed in this project runs at variable flow, enabling it to make efficient use of the naturally varying solar resource, without need of batteries. In a sense, the freshwater tank is providing the energy storage. In this project, we have reviewed the merits of a wide variety of reverse-osmosis system configurations and component options. We have completed extensive in-house testing and characterisation of major hardware components and used the results to construct detailed software models. Using these, we have designed a system that meets the above project aim, and we have predicted its performance in detail. Our designs show that a system costing 23,055 pounds stirling will produce 1424 m{sup 3} of fresh drinking water annually - an average of just over 3.9 m{sup 3}/day. The system has no fuel costs and no batteries. The overall cost of water, including full maintenance, is 2.00 pounds stirling per m{sup 3}. The energy consumption (photovoltaic-electricity) is typically between 3.2 and 3.7 kWh/m{sup 3} depending on the solar irradiance and feed water

  4. Numerical simulation of solar-assisted multi-effect distillation (SMED) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Myat, Aung; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    demand, and (iv) the augmentation of water temperature by auxiliary when the supply temperature from the solar tank drops below the set point. It is observed that the annual collector efficiency and solar fraction decrease from 57.3 to 54.8% and from 49

  5. Solar field control for desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, Lidia [Convenio Universidad de Almeria, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Berenguel, Manuel [Universidad de Almeria, Dpto. Lenguajes y Computacion, Ctra. Sacramento s/n, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Yebra, Luis; Alarcon-Padilla, Diego C. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes s/n, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper presents the development and application of a feedback linearization control strategy for a solar collector field supplying process heat to a multi-effect seawater distillation plant. Since one objective is to use as much as possible the solar resource, control techniques can be used to produce the maximum heat process in the solar field. The main purpose of the controller presented in this paper is to manipulate the water flow rate to maintain an outlet-inlet temperature gradient in the collectors, thereby ensuring continuous process heating, or in other words, continuous production of fresh water in spite of disturbances. The dynamic behaviour of this solar field was approximated by a simplified lumped-parameters nonlinear model based on differential equations, validated with real data and used in the feedback linearization control design. Experimental results in the seawater desalination plant at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain) show good agreement of the model and real data despite the approximations included. Moreover, by using feedback linearization control it is possible to track a constant gradient temperature reference in the solar field with good results. (author)

  6. Economic feasibility of a solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.; Malaeb, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    amendment, in the form of a slowly-rotating hollow cylinder, was introduced within the solar still, significantly increasing the evaporative surface area. This new modified still was analyzed in terms of both operation and economic feasibility

  7. Thermodynamical research of using solar energy for desalination of seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsović Marjan R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world face the problem of saline water. Water desalination processes, which require significant energy consumption, are a common solution to produce drinking water. This study evaluated the influence of the following process operational parameters on the energy consumption of seawater RO systems: water salinity, permeate recovery ratio, membrane performance and feed water temperature. Optimal operational conditions for the theoretical minimum energy consumption were determined with experiments by varying water qualities and operational parameters. In order to further reduce energy consumption a RO system was integrated with a PV solar system and a pilot PVRO system was built and tested. The results obtained from this study indicated that even though a Solar PV system incurs a huge initial capital investment, it will yield significant benefits in the long run of the RO operational period.

  8. Technology development and application of solar energy in desalination: MEDRC contribution

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Reddy, V. K.; Abu-Arabi, Mousa K.

    2011-01-01

    Desalination has become one of the sources for water supply in several countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa region. There is a great potential to develop solar desalination technologies especially in this region where solar

  9. Optimization of a combined solar chimney for desalination and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayesh, Mohammad; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Ataei, Abtin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • One dimensional code is developed for simulation of a hybrid solar chimney. • The code is validated using experimental data of a simple solar chimney. • Partial coverage of the collector area by the desalination system is more beneficial. • The optimal configuration of the combined system is found using PSO algorithm. - Abstract: Large footprint and very low efficiency are main disadvantages of solar chimneys. To resolve this, solar desalination system has been added under the collector of a solar chimney power plant. Generally the collector ground is completely covered by the desalination pond but here it is shown that more benefit can be achieved by partial occupation of the collector area. This is performed by implementing the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in conjunction with a one dimensional simulation code. The code is first validated using data of a laboratory scale solar chimney. Then, optimization results show that for a collector diameter of 250 m and tower height of 200 m, a solar pond located between radii 85 and 125 m of the collector can maximize the outcome of the combined system. Generally, dimensions of the desalination system depend on local cost of building the system and price of electricity and fresh water produced.

  10. Low temperature desalination using solar collectors augmented by thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany; Deng, Shuguang; Maganti, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new low temperature desalination process using solar collectors was investigated. ► A thermal energy storage tank (TES) was included for continuous process operation. ► Solar collector area and TES volumes were optimized by theoretical simulations. ► Economic analysis for the entire process was compared with and without TES tank. ► Energy and emission payback periods for the solar collector system were reported. -- Abstract: A low temperature desalination process capable of producing 100 L/d freshwater was designed to utilize solar energy harvested from flat plate solar collectors. Since solar insolation is intermittent, a thermal energy storage system was incorporated to run the desalination process round the clock. The requirements for solar collector area as well as thermal energy storage volume were estimated based on the variations in solar insolation. Results from this theoretical study confirm that thermal energy storage is a useful component of the system for conserving thermal energy to meet the energy demand when direct solar energy resource is not available. Thermodynamic advantages of the low temperature desalination using thermal energy storage, as well as energy and environmental emissions payback period of the system powered by flat plate solar collectors are presented. It has been determined that a solar collector area of 18 m 2 with a thermal energy storage volume of 3 m 3 is adequate to produce 100 L/d of freshwater round the clock considering fluctuations in the weather conditions. An economic analysis on the desalination system with thermal energy storage is also presented.

  11. Investigation of exergy and yield of a passive solar water desalination system with a parabolic concentrator incorporated with latent heat storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabeel, A.E.; Elkelawy, Medhat; Alm El Din, Hagar; Alghrubah, Adel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The impact of PCM and solar concentrator on the production of solar still studied experimentally under Egyptian conditions. • Exergetic analysis studied for passive solar still in winter and summer at different water depth. • Experimental study of water depth effect on solar still with PCM and solar concentrator. • A comparison between improved still with and usual still is carried out for winter and summer. - Abstract: In the present study, two solar stills were assembled and experienced to evaluate the yield and energy performance of an improved passive solar desalination system compared to a conventional one. The improved still is incorporated with a latent heat thermal energy storage medium and a parabolic solar concentrator. A parabolic solar concentrator was added to concentrate and increase the amount of solar irradiance absorbed by the still basin. Paraffin wax was applied as phase change material (PCM) in the solar still bottom plate. In the current study also, the effect of impure water profundity inside the still on still’s accumulated yield have been assessed. The following study involved a mathematical analysis for calculation of the exergetic proficiency as an efficient tool for the optimization, and yield evaluation of any energy systems and solar stills as well. Experimental research conducted in steady days of summer and winter at six different values of impure water profundity inside the solar still basin. The salinity of the impure water tested was about 3000–5000 ppm, while the salinity for the resulted drinkable water was about 550–500 ppm. The performed outcomes revealed that during summer, exergetic efficiency is higher than its qualified value in winter with approximately (10–15%) for the same water profundity. Results also disclosed that, the exergetic efficiency is higher when the water profundity in the basin is lower with approximately (6–9%). The experimental findings reveals that, the solar still with

  12. Solar radiation for sea-water desalination and electric power generation via vacuum solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottinelli, L.; Reali, M.; El-Nashar, A.M.; Giusiano, F.; Vigotti, R.

    1996-01-01

    The present report concerns the energetic potential of vacuum solar which are rather versatile and efficient devices for converting solar energy into thermal energy. Two main energetic applications have been analysed: the first one for a solar sea water desalination plant which has been operated in Abu Dhabi for the past ten years, the other for a conceptual solar thermoelectric-power plant having a fair thermodynamic efficiency (15-20%). A simple technology for the manufacture of vacuum solar collectors in a standard mechanical shop is being developed in collaboration between ENEL Sp A (DSR-CRIS, Milano) and WED (Abu Dhabi). Such technology should have an important economy-saving potential per se and would also make repair and substitution operations simple enough for the actual operators of the vacuum solar collector system without any need of external assistance. The technic-operative-economical features of the Abu Dhabi solar desalination plant suggest that the use novel simplified vacuum solar collectors could have a considerable technic economical potential. The analysis of the conceptual solar thermo-electric-power plant focuses on its general layout and singles out key technological issues which ought to be addressed in an overall feasibility study. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Solar Desalination by Humidification-Dehumidification of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumouh J.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of supplying potable water can hardly be overstressed. In many arid zones, coastal or inlands, seawater or brackish water desalination may be the only solution to the shortage of fresh water. The process based on humidification-dehumidification of air (HDH principle mimic the natural water cycle. HDH technique has been subjected to many studies in recent years due to the low temperature, renewable energy use, simplicity, low cost installation and operation. An experimental test set-up has been fabricated and assembled. The prototype equipped with appropriate measuring and controlling devices. Detailed experiments have been carried out at various operating conditions. The heat and mass transfer coefficients have been obtained experimentally. The results of the investigation have shown that the system productivity increases with the increase in the mass flow rate of water through the unit. Water temperature at condenser exit increases linearly with water temperature at humidifier inlet and it decreases as water flow rate increases. HDH desalination systems realised on also work at atmospheric pressure; hence they do not need mechanical energy except for circulation pumps and fans. These kinds of systems are suitable for developing countries. The system is modular, it is possible to increase productivity with additional solar collectors and additional HDH cycles.

  14. Techno-economic evaluation of a solar powered water desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorenza, G.; Sharma, V.K.; Braccio, G.

    2003-01-01

    Water desalination technologies and their possible coupling with solar energy have been evaluated. The topic is of particular interest, especially for countries located within the Southern Mediterranean belt, generally characterized with vast arid and isolated areas having practically no access to electric power from the national grid. Economic factors being one of the main barriers to diffusion of solar devices so far, an attempt has been made to estimate the water production cost for two different seawater desalination systems: reverse osmosis and multiple effect, powered by a solar thermal and a photovoltaic field, respectively. The results obtained for plants of capacity varying between 500 and 5000 m 3 /d have been compared to results concerning a conventional desalination system. In addition, the influences of various parameters, such as depreciation factor, economic incentives, PV modules cost and oil price, have also been considered

  15. Mathematical model for solar-hydrogen heated desalination plant using humidification-dehumidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassin, Jamal S.; Eljrushi, Gibril S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for thermal desalination plant operating with solar energy and hydrogen. This plant is composed of two main systems, the heating system and the distillation system. The distillation system is composed of multi-cells; each cell is using the humidification-dehumidification (H-D) process in the distillation unit and getting the required amount of heat from feed seawater heater. The feed seawater heater is a heat exchanger used to raise the temperature of the preheated seawater coming from the condensation chamber (Dehumidifier) of each cell to about 85 degree centigrade. The heating amount in the heat exchangers is obtained from the thermal storage tank, which gets its energy from solar thermal system and is coupled with a hydrogen-fired backup system to guaranty necessary operating conditions and permit 24 hours solar H-D desalination plant to enhance the performance of this system. The mathematical model studies the performance of the proposed desalination system using thermal solar energy and hydrogen as fuel. Other pertinent variable in the heating and distillation system are also studied. The outcomes of this study are analyzed to enhance the used solar desalination process and make commercial.(Author)

  16. Impact of solar energy cost on water production cost of seawater desalination plants in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamei, A.; Zaag, P. van der; Munch, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries in North Africa and the Middle East are experiencing localized water shortages and are now using desalination technologies with either reverse osmosis (RO) or thermal desalination to overcome part of this shortage. Desalination is performed using electricity, mostly generated from fossil fuels with associated greenhouse gas emissions. Increased fuel prices and concern over climate change are causing a push to shift to alternative sources of energy, such as solar energy, since solar radiation is abundant in this region all year round. This paper presents unit production costs and energy costs for 21 RO desalination plants in the region. An equation is proposed to estimate the unit production costs of RO desalination plants as a function of plant capacity, price of energy and specific energy consumption. This equation is used to calculate unit production costs for desalinated water using photovoltaic (PV) solar energy based on current and future PV module prices. Multiple PV cells are connected together to form a module or a panel. Unit production costs of desalination plants using solar energy are compared with conventionally generated electricity considering different prices for electricity. The paper presents prices for both PV and solar thermal energy. The paper discusses at which electricity price solar energy can be considered economical to be used for RO desalination; this is independent of RO plant capacity. For countries with electricity prices of 0.09 US$/kWh, solar-generated electricity (using PV) can be competitive starting from 2 US$/W p (W p is the number of Watts output under standard conditions of sunlight). For Egypt (price of 0.06 US$/kWh), solar-generated electricity starts to be competitive from 1 US$/W p . Solar energy is not cost competitive at the moment (at a current module price for PV systems including installation of 8 US$/W p ), but advances in the technology will continue to drive the prices down, whilst penalties on usage

  17. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR PERFORMANCE SOLAR DESALINATION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmatulin I.R.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of using renewable energy for water purification. Results of analysis of a preferred energy source for a water purification using installed in places where fresh water shortages and a lack of electrical energy. The possibility of desalination of salt water using solar energy for regions with temperate climate. Presented desalination plant working on energy vacuum solar collectors, principles of action developed by the desalination plant. The experimental results of a constructed distiller when working with vacuum glass tubes and vacuum tubes with copper core inside. Conclusions about the possibility of using solar collectors for water desalination, are tips and tricks to improve the performance of solar desalination plant.

  18. Technical and economic assessment of photovoltaic-driven desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Renne, David; Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar desalination systems are approaching technical and cost viability for producing fresh-water, a commodity of equal importance to energy in many arid and coastal regions worldwide. Solar photovoltaics (PV) represent an ideal, clean alternative to fossil fuels, especially for remote communities such as grid-limited villages or isolated islands. These applications for water production in remote areas are the first to be nearing cost-competitiveness due to decreasing PV prices and increasing fossil fuel prices over the last five years. The electricity produced from PV systems for desalination applications can be used for electro-mechanical devices such as pumps or in direct-current (DC) devices. Reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis (ED) desalination units are the most favorable alternatives to be coupled with PV systems. RO usually operates on alternating current (AC) for the pumps, thus requiring a DC/AC inverter. In contrast, electrodialysis uses DC for the electrodes at the cell stack, and hence, it can use the energy supplied from the PV panels with some minor power conditioning. Energy storage is critical and batteries are required for sustained operation. In this paper, we discuss the operational features and system designs of typical PV-RO and PV-ED systems in terms of their suitability and optimization for PV operation. For PV-RO and PV-ED systems, we evaluate their electricity need, capital and operational costs, and fresh-water production costs. We cover ongoing and projected research and development activities, with estimates of their potential economics. We discuss the feasibility of future solar desalination based on expected (or predicted) improvements in technology of the desalination and PV systems. Examples are provided for Middle East and other parts of the World. (author)

  19. Graphene oxide-based efficient and scalable solar desalination under one sun with a confined 2D water path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuqiang; Xu, Weichao; Tang, Mingyao; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Bin; Zhu, Shining; Zhu, Jia

    2016-12-06

    Because it is able to produce desalinated water directly using solar energy with minimum carbon footprint, solar steam generation and desalination is considered one of the most important technologies to address the increasingly pressing global water scarcity. Despite tremendous progress in the past few years, efficient solar steam generation and desalination can only be achieved for rather limited water quantity with the assistance of concentrators and thermal insulation, not feasible for large-scale applications. The fundamental paradox is that the conventional design of direct absorber-bulk water contact ensures efficient energy transfer and water supply but also has intrinsic thermal loss through bulk water. Here, enabled by a confined 2D water path, we report an efficient (80% under one-sun illumination) and effective (four orders salinity decrement) solar desalination device. More strikingly, because of minimized heat loss, high efficiency of solar desalination is independent of the water quantity and can be maintained without thermal insulation of the container. A foldable graphene oxide film, fabricated by a scalable process, serves as efficient solar absorbers (>94%), vapor channels, and thermal insulators. With unique structure designs fabricated by scalable processes and high and stable efficiency achieved under normal solar illumination independent of water quantity without any supporting systems, our device represents a concrete step for solar desalination to emerge as a complementary portable and personalized clean water solution.

  20. Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine power cycles for a small scale solar driven reverse osmosis desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchanche, B.F.; Lambrinos, Gr.; Frangoudakis, A.; Papadakis, G.

    2010-01-01

    Exergy analysis of micro-organic Rankine heat engines is performed to identify the most suitable engine for driving a small scale reverse osmosis desalination system. Three modified engines derived from simple Rankine engine using regeneration (incorporation of regenerator or feedliquid heaters) are analyzed through a novel approach, called exergy-topological method based on the combination of exergy flow graphs, exergy loss graphs, and thermoeconomic graphs. For the investigations, three working fluids are considered: R134a, R245fa and R600. The incorporated devices produce different results with different fluids. Exergy destruction throughout the systems operating with R134a was quantified and illustrated using exergy diagrams. The sites with greater exergy destruction include turbine, evaporator and feedliquid heaters. The most critical components include evaporator, turbine and mixing units. A regenerative heat exchanger has positive effects only when the engine operates with dry fluids; feedliquid heaters improve the degree of thermodynamic perfection of the system but lead to loss in exergetic efficiency. Although, different modifications produce better energy conversion and less exergy destroyed, the improvements are not significant enough and subsequent modifications of the simple Rankine engine cannot be considered as economically profitable for heat source temperature below 100 °C. As illustration, a regenerator increases the system's energy efficiency by 7%, the degree of thermodynamic perfection by 3.5% while the exergetic efficiency is unchanged in comparison with the simple Rankine cycle, with R600 as working fluid. The impacts of heat source temperature and pinch point temperature difference on engine's performance are also examined. Finally, results demonstrate that energy analysis combined with the mathematical graph theory is a powerful tool in performance assessments of Rankine based power systems and permits meaningful comparison of different

  1. Predictive Control Applied to a Solar Desalination Plant Connected to a Greenhouse with Daily Variation of Irrigation Water Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Roca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The water deficit in the Mediterranean area is a known matter severely affecting agriculture. One way to avoid the aquifers’ exploitation is to supply water to crops by using thermal desalination processes. Moreover, in order to guarantee long-term sustainability, the required thermal energy for the desalination process can be provided by solar energy. This paper shows simulations for a case study in which a solar multi-effect distillation plant produces water for irrigation purposes. Detailed models of the involved systems are the base of a predictive controller to operate the desalination plant and fulfil the water demanded by the crops.

  2. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    and Multi Stage Flash (MSF) desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP). The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts......Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst...... others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity...

  3. Thermal coupling system analysis of a nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, A.K.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    When a nuclear reactor is used to supply steam for desalination plant, the method of coupling has a significant technical and economic impact. The exact method of coupling depends upon the type of reactor and type of desalination plant. As a part of Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP), BARC has successfully commissioned a 4500 m 3 /day MSF desalination plant coupled to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) at Kalpakkam. Desalination plant coupled to nuclear power plant of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) type is a good example of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plant. This paper presents the thermal coupling system analysis of this plant along with technical and safety aspects. (author)

  4. Experimental Analysis of Desalination Unit Coupled with Solar Water Lens Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaithanya, K. K.; Rajesh, V. R.; Suresh, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    The main problem that the world faces in this scenario is shortage of potable water. Hence this research work rivets to increase the yield of desalination system in an economical way. The integration of solar concentrator and desalination unit can project the desired yield, but the commercially available concentrated solar power technologies (CSP) are not economically viable. So this study proposes a novel method to concentrate ample amount of solar radiation in a cost effective way. Water acting as lens is a highlighted technology initiated in this work, which can be a substitute for CSP systems. And water lens can accelerate the desalination process so as to increase the yield economically. The solar irradiance passing through the water will be concentrated at a focal point, and the concentration depends on curvature of water lens. The experimental analysis of water lens makes use of transparent thin sheet, supported on a metallic structure. The Plano convex shape of water lens is developed by varying the volume of water that is being poured on the transparent thin sheet. From the experimental analysis it is inferred that, as the curvature of water lens increases, solar irradiance can be focused more accurately on to the focus and a higher water temperature is obtained inside the solar still.

  5. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  6. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  7. Performance analysis in stepped solar still for effluent desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velmurugan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Infant Jesus College of Engineering, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu 628 851 (India); Naveen Kumar, K.J.; Noorul Haq, T.; Srithar, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu 625 015 (India)

    2009-09-15

    In this work, a stepped solar still and an effluent settling tank are fabricated and tested for desalinating the textile effluent. The effluent is purified in an effluent settling tank. In this tank, large and fine solid particles are settled and clarified. The settled effluents are used as raw water in the stepped solar still. For better performance, the stepped solar still consists of 50 trays with two different depths. First 25 trays with 10 mm height and the next 25 trays with 5 mm height are used. Fin, sponge, pebble and combination of the above are used for enhancing the productivity of the stepped solar still. A maximum increase in productivity of 98% occurs in stepped solar still when fin, sponge and pebbles are used in this basin. Theoretical analysis agrees well with experimental results. (author)

  8. A Cost Effective Desalination Plant Using a Solar Chimney with Recycled Aluminum Can Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singuru Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work was to use solar energy for desalination of water. A solar chimney desalination system, which includes the solar chimney, solar collector, evaporation system, and passive condenser, was designed and built. The air enters into collector and gets heated and released at the bottom of chimney. Due to draught effect dry air goes upward. The air is humidified by spraying salt water into the hot air stream using a mistifier at the middle of chimney. Then, the partial vapours contained in the air are condensed to give desalinated water. The performance of the integrated system including power and potable water production was estimated and the results were discussed. With a 3.4 m height setup, experimental test rig was capable of evaporating 3.77 L water daily condensing 2.3 L water. It is compact in nature as it is easy to assemble and dissemble. It can be used for purifying rain water in summer under rain water harvesting. Because of using country wood, recycled Al cans, and GI sheet in fabrication, it is lower in cost.

  9. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO driven by electricity and Multi Stage Flash (MSF desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP. The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts on energy system performance. Results indicate that RO and MSF are similar in fuel use. While there is no use of waste heat from condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to results in lower fuel usage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity Production (CEEP even at relatively modest wind power penetrations. Here RO assists the energy system in decreasing CEEP – and even more if water storage is applied.

  10. Optimal Design of a Solar Desalination Unit with Heliostats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to improve the yield of a solar desalination cell using concentration of solar rays by means of automatically controlled heliostats. The vertical cell is orientated towards the north. It is mainly composed of two plates; the one being heated by the solar rays reflected by the mirrors is used for evaporation of a falling water film; the other one is used for water vapor condensation. Each heliostat consists of an altitude-azimuth mount having two degrees of freedom and supporting a plane mirror. The heliostat permanently follows the sun trajectory and reflects the solar rays on the cell by means of automatic control implemented in a control card based on a microcontroller. Model predictive control allows us to maximize the distilled water production.

  11. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Poul Alberg Østergaard; Henrik Lund; Brian Vad Mathiesen

    2014-01-01

    Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigatesa Jordanian energy sc...

  12. Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jun W.; Hu, Eric J.; Biggs, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic cycles of adsorption desalination (AD) system have been identified all possible evaporator temperature scenarios. ► Temperature of evaporator determines the cycle. ► Higher evaporator temperature leads to higher water production if no cooling is required. -- Abstract: The potential to use waste heat to co-generate cooling and fresh water from saline water using adsorption on silica is attracting increasing attention. A variety of different thermodynamic cycles of such an adsorption desalination (AD) system arise as the temperature of the saline water evaporator is varied relative to temperature of the water used to cool the adsorbent as it adsorbs the evaporated water. In this paper, all these possible thermodynamic cycles are enumerated and analysed to determine their relative performances in terms of specific energy consumption and fresh water productivity.

  13. A multi evaporator desalination system operated with thermocline energy for future sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-05-05

    All existing commercial seawater desalination processes, i.e. thermally-driven and membrane-based reverse osmosis (RO), are operated with universal performance ratios (UPR) varying up to 105, whilst the UPR for an ideal or thermodynamic limit (TL) of desalination is at 828. Despite slightly better UPRs for the RO plants, all practical desalination plants available, hitherto, operate at only less than 12% of the TL, rendering them highly energy intensive and unsustainable for future sustainability. More innovative desalination methods must be sought to meet the needs of future sustainable desalination and these methods should attain an upper UPR bound of about 25 to 30% of the TL. In this paper, we examined the efficacy of a multi-effect distillation (MED) system operated with thermocline energy from the sea; a proven desalination technology that can exploit the narrow temperature gradient of 20°C all year round created between the warm surface seawater and the cold-seawater at depths of about 300–600m. Such a seawater thermocline (ST)-driven MED system, simply called the ST-MED process, has the potential to achieve up to 2 folds improvement in desalination efficiency over the existing methods, attaining about 18.8% of the ideal limit. With the major energy input emanated from the renewable solar, the ST-MED is truly a “green desalination” method of low global warming potential, best suited for tropical coastal shores having bathymetry depths of 300m or more.

  14. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  15. A desalination plant with solar and wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H; Ye, Z; Gao, W

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of freshwater resources has become a worldwide problem. China has a water shortage, although the total amount of water resources is the sixth in the world, the per capita water capacity is the 121th (a quarter of the world's per capita water capacity), and the United Nations considers China one of the poorest 13 countries in the world in terms of water. In order to increase the supply of fresh water, a realistic way is to make full use of China's long and narrow coastline for seawater desalination. This paper discusses a sea water desalination device, the device adopts distillation, uses the greenhouse effect principle and wind power heating principle, and the two-type start is used to solve the problem of vertical axis wind turbine self-starting. Thrust bearings are used to ensure the stability of the device, and to ensure absorbtion of wind energy and solar energy, and to collect evaporation of water to achieve desalination. The device can absorb solar and wind energy instead of input energy, so it can be used in ship, island and many kinds of environment. Due to the comprehensive utilization of wind power and solar power, the efficiency of the device is more than other passive sea water desalting plants, the initial investment and maintenance cost is lower than active sea water desalting plant. The main part of the device cannot only be used in offshore work, but can also be used in deep sea floating work, so the device can utilise deep sea energy. In order to prove the practicability of the device, the author has carried out theory of water production calculations. According to the principle of conservation of energy, the device ais bsorbing solar and wind power, except loose lost part which is used for water temperature rise and phase transition. Assume the inflow water temperature is 20 °C, outflow water temperature is 70 °C, the energy utilization is 60%, we can know that the water production quantity is 8 kg/ m 2 per hour. Comparing

  16. A novel small dynamic solar thermal desalination plant with a fluid piston converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahkamov, Khamid; Orda, Eugene; Belgasim, Basim; Makhkamova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic solar desalination plant was developed which works cyclically. • It integrates an evacuated tube solar collector and fluid piston converter. • Pressure during desalination process varies with frequency of 2–4 Hz. • The system has a small increase in fresh water yield and provides pumping capacity. • Mathematical modelling provides accurate description of experimental performance. - Abstract: An innovative small dynamic water desalination plant was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. The system is a combination of a heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector, conventional condenser and novel fluid piston converter. Saline water is boiled and turned into vapour in the manifold of the solar collector. A small fraction of the solar energy supplied to the plant is used to drive the fluid piston converter. Oscillations of the fluid piston periodically change the volume and pressure in the plant. For the duration of approximately half of the periodic cycle the pressure in the plant drops below the atmospheric level causing flash boiling of saline water in the manifold of the solar collector. Generated vapour is turned into fresh water in the condenser which is surrounded by a cooling jacket with saline water. The flash boiling effect improves the fresh water production capacity of the plant. Additionally, the fluid piston converter drives a pump which provides lifting of saline water from a well and pumps this through the cooling jacket of the condenser to a saline water storage tank. This tank replenishes saline water in the manifold of the solar collector. Experimental investigations demonstrated the saline water self-circulation capability of the plant and increase in the fresh water production compared to the static mode of operation. Experimental data was also used to calibrate the mathematical model of the plant. Comparison of theoretical and experimental information demonstrates that the model accurately predicts the

  17. Solar fired combined RO/MED desalination plant integrated with electrical power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrobaei, H.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, there is a strong demand for efficient seawater desalination plants, which can meet the tougher environment regulation and energy saving requirements. From this standpoint the present work was undertaken to include proposed scheme (solar Fired Combined Reverse Osmosis (ROY Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) Seawater desalination Plant (SCDP) integrated with electrical power grid (EPG)) for repowering and modification of the conventional grid connected RO desalination plants. The model of SCDP during sunny periods may be applied to the following modes operation: *Full solar desalination (i.e. solar thermal and electrical power generation in solar plant is elivered to the desalination process and the surplus electricity is fed into EPG). *Hybrid solar desalination (I.e. a small share of the electrical power consumption for desalination process compensated by EPG). During cloudly periods and at night the SCDP operates as a conventional RO desalination plant. To establish the range, in which solar energy for seawater desalination would be competitive to fossil energy and investigates the potential effect of the proposed scheme on the repowering effectiveness, mathematical model has been developed. The repowered effectiveness, mathematical model has been developed.The repowered effectiveness in optaimizing model was characterized by the condition of attaining maximum fuel saving in the EPG. The study result shows the effectiveness of proposed scheme for modification and repowering the RO plant. For the case study. (SCDP with maual share of solar electrical power generation 67.4%) the economical effect amount 138.9 ton fuel/year for each MW design thermal energy of parabolic solar collectors array and the corresponding decrease in exhaust gases emission (Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) 0.55 ton/year.MW, carbon dioxides (CO2) 434.9 ton/year.MW). Moreover, implementation of combined RO/MED design for repowering and modification of conventional grid connected RO plant will

  18. THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN THE DESALINATION SEA WATER IN AGRICULTURAL GREENHOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tahri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited resources of fresh water in arid areas like the Middle East and North Africa MENA have led to the use of poor quality water in irrigation agriculture. These can reduce crop yield and environmental damage. Agriculture accounts for 70% of overall consumption in freshwater. Given the evaporation phenomena that occur in arid regions, this figure rises to 90%. This study focuses on the concept of combining the greenhouse with the desalination of seawater This concept is intended for small scale applications in remote areas where only saline water and solar energy are available.  The main objective of this research work is to analyze the production of fresh water using solar energy in the desalination of sea water in the greenhouse. This operating system is in need of thorough study of evaporators, condensers and design of the greenhouse. Desalination, combining the greenhouse to the use of sea water while exploiting the phenomenon of condensation of water vapor in the air, seems to respond positively to the needs of agricultural irrigation.

  19. Characterization of thermophysical properties of phase change materials for non-membrane based indirect solar desalination application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, J.; Mansoor, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal cycling of paraffin waxes phase change materials. • Differential Scanning Calorimetry and thermogravimetric study of the materials. • Characterization of the phase change materials via Temperature History Method. • Investigation of suitability of materials for indirect solar desalination system. • Paraffin waxes are suitable for non-membrane indirect solar desalination system. - Abstract: Phase change material as a thermal energy storage medium has been widely incorporated in various technologies like solar air/water heating, buildings, and desalination for efficient use and management of fluctuating solar energy. Temperature and thermal energy requirements dictate the selection of an appropriate phase change material for its application in various engineering systems. In this work, two phase change materials belonging to organic paraffin wax class have been characterized to obtain their thermophysical properties. The melting/solidification temperatures, latent heat of fusion and heat capacities of the phase change materials have been investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric analysis and Temperature History Method. Thermal cycles up to 300 are performed to investigate melting and solidification reversibility as well as degradation over time. It is shown that the selected paraffin waxes have reversible phase change with no degradation of thermophysical properties over time. It is also shown that melting/solidification temperature and thermal energy storage capabilities make them suitable for their application as a thermal energy storage medium, in high temperature vapour compression, multi-stage flash and multi-effect distillation processes of non-membrane based indirect desalination systems.

  20. Performance of indigenously fabricated pyramid type solar desalination unit at Nawabshah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.H.; Rajpar, A.H.; Memon, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of locally fabricated pyramid type solar desalination unit was studied and compared with the conventional basin type solar still. Both stills were initially filled with same quantity of brackish water. Their performance was studied in terms of the quality of water produced, quantity of water desalinated per hour and total quantity of water desalinated per day during the time under study. The experiments were conducted and various parameters were recorded from 9-15 hours daily. These results showed that pyramid solar still produced 20% higher desalinated water as compared to the conventional double slope basin type solar still. This study showed that the productivity rate of soar still is dependent upon geometrical configuration of solar still. It was observed that the units can highly reduce the salinity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) and EC (Electrical Conductivity) of the saline ground water providing the availability of safe drinking water. (author)

  1. Minimizing the Environmental Impact of Sea Brine Disposal by Coupling Desalination Plants with Solar Saltworks: A Case Study for Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Gialis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The explosive increase in world population, along with the fast socio-economic development, have led to an increased water demand, making water shortage one of the greatest problems of modern society. Countries such as Greece, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia face serious water shortage issues and have resorted to solutions such as transporting water by ships from the mainland to islands, a practice that is expensive, energy-intensive and unsustainable. Desalination of sea-water is suitable for supplying arid regions with potable water, but extensive brine discharge may affect marine biota. To avoid this impact, we explore the option of directing the desalination effluent to a solar saltworks for brine concentration and salt production, in order to achieve a zero discharge desalination plant. In this context, we conducted a survey in order to evaluate the potential of transferring desalination brine to solar saltworks, so that its disposal to the sea is avoided. Our analysis showed that brine transfer by trucks is prohibitively expensive. In order to make the zero discharge desalination plant economically feasible, efforts should be directed into developing a more efficient technology that will result in the production of only a fraction of the brine that is produced from our systems today.

  2. The effect of cover geometry on the productivity of a modified solar still desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian; Ayoub, George M.; Al Hindi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Desalination methods based on renewable energy offer a promising solution to both water shortage and environmental degradation problems that continue to grow globally. The solar still is one such method that uses a sustainable energy source

  3. A parametric study on a humidification–dehumidification (HDH) desalination unit powered by solar air and water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yıldırım, Cihan; Solmuş, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A time dependent humidification–dehumidification desalination process is investigated. • Fourth-order Runge–Kutta method is used to simulate the problem. • Daily and annual performance are examined. • Various operational parameters are investigated. - Abstract: The performance of a solar powered humidification–dehumidification desalination system is theoretically investigated for various operating and design parameters of the system under climatological conditions of Antalya, Turkey. The primary components of the system are a flat plate solar water heater, a flat plate double pass solar air heater, a humidifier, a dehumidifier and a storage tank. The mathematical model of the system is developed and governing conservation equations are numerically solved by using the Fourth order Runge–Kutta method. Daily and annual yields are calculated for different configurations of the system such as only water heating, only air heating and water–air heating

  4. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Nordell, B

    2006-01-01

    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  5. Utilization of solar energy for direct contact membrane distillation process: An experimental study for desalination of real seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisami, Nallasamy; He, Ke; Moon, Il Shik

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD), a non-isothermal membrane separation process, is based on the phenomenon that pure water in its vapor state can be extracted from aqueous solutions by passing vapor through a hydrophobic microporous membrane when a temperature difference is established across it. We used three commercially available hydrophobic microporous membranes (C02, C07 and C12; based on the pore size 0.2, 0.7 and 1.2 µm respectively) for desalination via direct contact MD (DCMD). The effects of operating parameters on permeation flux were studied. In addition, the desalination of seawater by solar assisted DCMD process was experimentally investigated. First, using solar power only short-term (one day), successful desalination of real seawater was achieved without temperature control under the following conditions: feed inlet temperature 65.0 .deg. C, permeate inlet temperature 25.0 .deg. C, and a flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The developed system also worked well in the long-term (150 days) for seawater desalination using both solar and electric power. Long-term test flux was reduced from 28.48 to only 26.50 L/m 2 hr, indicating system feasibility

  6. Utilization of solar energy for direct contact membrane distillation process: An experimental study for desalination of real seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanisami, Nallasamy; He, Ke; Moon, Il Shik [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Membrane distillation (MD), a non-isothermal membrane separation process, is based on the phenomenon that pure water in its vapor state can be extracted from aqueous solutions by passing vapor through a hydrophobic microporous membrane when a temperature difference is established across it. We used three commercially available hydrophobic microporous membranes (C02, C07 and C12; based on the pore size 0.2, 0.7 and 1.2 µm respectively) for desalination via direct contact MD (DCMD). The effects of operating parameters on permeation flux were studied. In addition, the desalination of seawater by solar assisted DCMD process was experimentally investigated. First, using solar power only short-term (one day), successful desalination of real seawater was achieved without temperature control under the following conditions: feed inlet temperature 65.0 .deg. C, permeate inlet temperature 25.0 .deg. C, and a flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The developed system also worked well in the long-term (150 days) for seawater desalination using both solar and electric power. Long-term test flux was reduced from 28.48 to only 26.50 L/m{sup 2}hr, indicating system feasibility.

  7. Synergies of solar energy use in the desalination of seawater: A case study in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servert, Jorge F.; Cerrajero, Eduardo; Fuentealba, Edward L.

    2016-05-01

    The mining industry is a great consumer of water for hydrometallurgical processes. Despite the efforts in minimizing the use of fresh water through reuse, recycling and process intensification, water demand for mining is expected to rise a 40% from 2013 to 2020. For seawater to be an alternative to groundwater, it must be pumped up to the mine (thousands of meters uphill) and desalinated. These processes require intensive energy and investment in desalination and piping/pumping facilities. A conventional solution for this process would be desalination by reverse osmosis at sea level, powered by electricity from the grid, and further pumping of the desalinated water uphill. This paper compares the feasibility of two solar technologies versus the "conventional" option. LCOW (Levelized Cost of Water) was used as a comparative indicator among the studied solutions, with values for a lifetime of 10, 15, 20 and 25 years, calculated using a real discount rate equal to 12%. The LCOW is lower in all cases for the RO + grid solution. The cost of desalination, ignoring the contribution of pumping, is similar for the three technologies from twenty years of operation. The use of solar energy to desalinate sea water for consumption in the mines of the Atacama region is technically feasible. However, due to the extra costs from pumping whole seawater, and not just the desalinated water, solar solutions are less competitive than the conventional process.

  8. Candidate for solar power: a novel desalination technology for coal bed methane produced water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, Allan; Hanley, Charles; Hightower, Michael; Wright, Emily; Wallace, Sam; Pohl, Phillip; Donahe, Ryan; Andelman, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory and field developments are underway to use solar energy to power a desalination technology - capacitive deionization - for water produced by remote Coal Bed Methane (CBM) natural gas wells. Due to the physical remoteness of many CBM wells throughout the Southwestern U>S> as shown in Figure 1, this approach may offer promise. This promise is not only from its effectiveness in removing salt from CBM water and allowing it to be utilized for various applications, but also for its potentially lower energy consumption compared Figure 1: Candidate remote well sites for planned field implementation of new PV-powered desalination process: (a) Raton Basin and (b) San Juan Basin, New Mexico to other technologies, such as reverse osmosis. This coupled with the remoteness (Figure 1) of thousands these wells, makes them more feasible for use with photovoltaic (solar, electric, PV) systems. Concurrent laboratory activities are providing information about the effectiveness of this technology and of the attender energy requirements of this technology under various produced water qualities and water reuse applications, such as salinity concentrations and water flows. These parameters are being used to drive the design of integrated PV-powered desalination systems. Full-scale field implementations are planned, with data collection and analysis designed to optimize the system design for practical remote applications. Earlier laboratory (and very recent laboratory) studies of capacitive deionization have shown promise at common CBM salinity levels. The technology may require less energy. be less susceptible to fouling and is more compact than equivalent reverse osmosis (RO) systems. The technology uses positively and negatively charged electrodes to attract charged ions in a liquid, such as dissolved salts, metals, and some organics, to the electrodes. This concentrates the ions at the electrodes and reduced the ion concentrations in the liquid. This paper discusses the

  9. Operational strategy of adsorption desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents the performances of an adsorption desalination (AD) system in two-bed and four-bed operational modes. The tested results are calculated in terms of key performance parameters namely, (i) specific daily water production (SDWP), (ii) cycle time, and (iii) performance ratio (PR) for various heat source temperatures, mass flow rates, cycle times along with a fixed heat sink temperature. The optimum input parameters such as driving heat source and cycle time of the AD cycle are also evaluated. It is found from the present experimental data that the maximum potable water production per tonne of adsorbent (silica gel) per day is about 10 m3 whilst the corresponding performance ratio is 0.61, and a longer cycle time is required to achieve maximum water production at lower heat source temperatures. This paper also provides a useful guideline for the operational strategy of the AD cycle. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar desalination using humidification dehumidification processes. Part I. A numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafey, A.S.; Fath, H.E.S.; El-Helaby, S.O.; Soliman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical investigation of a humidification dehumidification desalination (HDD) process using solar energy is presented. The HDD system consists mainly of a concentrating solar water heating collector, flat plate solar air heating collector, humidifying tower and dehumidifying exchanger. Two separate circulating loops constitute the HDD system, the first for heating the feed water and the second for heating air. A mathematical model is developed, simulating the HDD system, to study the influence of the different system configurations, weather and operating conditions on the system productivity. The model validity is examined by comparing the theoretical and experimental results of the same authors. It is found that the results of the developed mathematical model are in good agreement with the experimental results and other published works. The results show also that the productivity of the unit is strongly influenced by the air flow rate, cooling water flow rate and total solar energy incident through the day. Wind speed and ambient temperature variations show a very small effect on the system productivity. In addition, the obtained results indicate that the solar water collector area strongly affects the system productivity, more so than the solar air collector area

  11. Performance investigation of a salt gradient solar pond coupled with desalination facility near the Dead Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.; Qudeiri, J.A.; Al-Nimr, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Solar ponds provide the most convenient and least expensive option for heat storage for daily and seasonal cycles. This is particularly important for a desalination facility, if steady and constant water production is required. If, in addition to high storage capacity, other favorable conditions exist, the salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) are expected to be able to carry the entire load of a large-scale flash desalination plants without dependence upon supplementary sources. This paper presents a performance investigation of a SGSP coupled with desalination plant under Jordanian climatic conditions. This is particularly convenient in the Dead Sea region characterized by high solar radiation intensities, high ambient temperature most of the year, and by the availability of high concentration brine. It was found that a 3000 m 2 solar pond installed near the Dead Sea is able to provide an annual average production rate of 4.3 L min -1 distilled water compared with 3.3 L min -1 that would be produced by El Paso solar pond, which has the same surface area. Based on this study, solar ponds appear to be a feasible and an appropriate technology for water desalination near the Dead Sea in Jordan. -- Research highlights: → A performance investigation of a solar pond coupled with desalination plant. → Dead Sea area is characterized by availability of high solar radiation and brine. → The Dead Sea solar pond can provide production rate of 4.3 L min -1 . → El Paso solar pond has production rate of 3.32 L min -1 . The improvement is about 30%. → The solar pond with desalination investigated showed to be a feasible technology.

  12. Water quality assessment of solar-assisted adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, K.; Masry, Moawya Ezet; Ng, Kim Choon

    2014-01-01

    in desalinated water exhibit values of less than 0.1. ppm. Reported conductivity measurements of desalinated water are comparable to distilled water conductivity levels and ranged between 2 and 6. μS/cm while TOC and TIC levels are also extremely low and its

  13. Theoretical and experimental study of a small unit for solar desalination using flashing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafey, A. Safwat; Mohamad, M.A.; El-Helaby, S.O.; Sharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    A small unit for water desalination by solar energy and a flash evaporation process is investigated. The system is built at the Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering at Suez, Egypt. The system consists of a solar water heater (flat plate solar collector) working as a brine heater and a vertical flash unit that is attached with a condenser/preheater unit. In this work, the system is investigated theoretically and experimentally at different real environmental conditions along Julian days of one year (2005). A mathematical model is developed to calculate the productivity of the system under different operating conditions. The BIRD's model for the calculation of solar insolation is used to predict the solar insolation instantaneously. Also, the solar insolation is measured by a highly sensitive digital pyranometer. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental results is performed. The average accumulative productivity of the system in November, December and January ranged between 1.04 to 1.45 kg/day/m 2 . The average summer productivity ranged between 5.44 to 7 kg/day/m 2 in July and August and 4.2 to 5 kg/day/m 2 in June

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of a small unit for solar desalination using flashing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafey, A. Safwat; El-Helaby, S.O.; Sharaf, M.A. [Department of Engineering Science, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez 43522 (Egypt); Mohamad, M.A. [Solar Energy Department, National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-02-15

    A small unit for water desalination by solar energy and a flash evaporation process is investigated. The system is built at the Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering at Suez, Egypt. The system consists of a solar water heater (flat plate solar collector) working as a brine heater and a vertical flash unit that is attached with a condenser/preheater unit. In this work, the system is investigated theoretically and experimentally at different real environmental conditions along Julian days of one year (2005). A mathematical model is developed to calculate the productivity of the system under different operating conditions. The BIRD's model for the calculation of solar insolation is used to predict the solar insolation instantaneously. Also, the solar insolation is measured by a highly sensitive digital pyranometer. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental results is performed. The average accumulative productivity of the system in November, December and January ranged between 1.04 to 1.45 kg/day/m{sup 2}. The average summer productivity ranged between 5.44 to 7 kg/day/m{sup 2} in July and August and 4.2 to 5 kg/day/m{sup 2} in June. (author)

  15. The application of nuclear energy for seawater desalination. The Candesal nuclear desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, J.R.; Sweeney, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    As the global consumption of water increases with growing population and rising levels of industrialization, major new sources of potable water production must be developed. Desalination of seawater is an energy intensive process which brings with it a demand for additional energy generation capacity. The Candesal nuclear desalination/cogeneration system has been developed to address both requirements, providing improved water production efficiency and lower costs. To meet large scale water production requirements the Candesal system integrates a nuclear energy source, such as the CANDU reactor, with a reverse osmosis (ro) desalination facility, capturing the waste heat from the electrical generation process to improve the efficiency of the ro process. By also using advanced feed water pre-treatment and sophisticated system design integration and optimization techniques, the net results is a substantial improvement in energy efficiency, economics, and environmental impact. The design is also applicable to a variety of conventional energy sources, and applies over the full range of desalination plant sizes. Since potable water production is based on membrane technology, brackish water and tertiary effluent from waste water treatment can also be used as feed streams to the system. Also considered to be a fundamental component of the Candesal philosophy is a technology transfer program aimed at establishing a complete local capability for the design, fabrication, operation and maintenance of these facilities. Through a well defined and logical technology transfer program, the necessary technologies are integrated into a nation's industrial capability and infrastructure, thus preparing local industry for the long term goal of manufacturing large scale, economical and environmentally benign desalination facilities. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs

  16. Solar desalination using humidification-dehumidification processes. Part II. An experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nafey, A.S.; Fath, H.E.S.; El-Helaby, S.O.; Soliman, A.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a humidification-dehumidification desalination (HDD) process using solar energy at the weather conditions of Suez City, Egypt, is presented. A test rig is designed and constructed to conduct this investigation under different environmental and operating conditions. The test rig consists of a solar water heater (concentrator solar collector type), solar air heater (flat plate solar collector type), humidifier tower and dehumidifier exchanger. Different variables are examined including the feed water flow rate, the air flow rate, the cooling water flow rate in the dehumidifier and the weather conditions. Comparisons between the experimental results and other published results are presented. It is found that the results of the developed mathematical model by the same authors are in good agreement with the experimental results. The tested results show that the productivity of the system is strongly affected by the saline water temperature at the inlet to the humidifier, dehumidifier cooling water flow rate, air flow rate and solar intensity. The wind speed and ambient temperature variation were found to have a very small effect on the system productivity. A general correlation is developed to predict the unit productivity under different operating conditions. The results of this correlation have a reasonable confidence level (maximum error ±6%)

  17. Water quality assessment of solar-assisted adsorption desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2014-07-01

    This study focuses on the water quality assessment (feed, product and brine) of the pilot adsorption desalination (AD) plant. Seawater from the Red Sea is used as feed to the AD plant. Water quality tests are evaluated by complying the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards with major primary and secondary inorganic drinking water pollutants and other commonly tested water quality parameters. Chemical testing of desalinated water at the post desalination stage confirms the high quality of produced fresh water. Test results have shown that the adsorption desalination process is very effective in eliminating all forms of salts, as evidenced by the significant reduction of the TDS levels from approximately 40,000. ppm in feed seawater to less than 10. ppm. Test results exhibit extremely low levels of parameters which are generally abundant in feed seawater. The compositions of seawater and process related parameters such as chloride, sodium, bromide, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and silicate in desalinated water exhibit values of less than 0.1. ppm. Reported conductivity measurements of desalinated water are comparable to distilled water conductivity levels and ranged between 2 and 6. μS/cm while TOC and TIC levels are also extremely low and its value is less than 0.5. ppm. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Mesoporous Three-Dimensional Graphene Networks for Highly Efficient Solar Desalination under 1 sun Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanghyun; Yu, Sunyoung; An, Cheolwon; Kim, Sung-Wook; Jang, Ji-Hyun

    2018-05-09

    Solar desalination via thermal evaporation of seawater is one of the most promising technologies for addressing the serious problem of global water scarcity because it does not require additional supporting energy other than infinite solar energy for generating clean water. However, low efficiency and a large amount of heat loss are considered critical limitations of solar desalination technology. The combination of mesoporous three-dimensional graphene networks (3DGNs) with a high solar absorption property and water-transporting wood pieces with a thermal insulation property has exhibited greatly enhanced solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency. 3DGN deposited on a wood piece provides an outstanding value of solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency, about 91.8%, under 1 sun illumination and excellent desalination efficiency of 5 orders salinity decrement. The mass-producible 3DGN enriched with many mesopores efficiently releases the vapors from an enormous area of the surface by heat localization on the top surface of the wood piece. Because the efficient solar desalination device made by 3DGN on the wood piece is highly scalable and inexpensive, it could serve as one of the main sources for the worldwide supply of purified water achieved via earth-abundant materials without an extra supporting energy source.

  19. CFD Analysis of Evaporation-Condensation Phenomenon In an Evaporation Chamber of Natural Vacuum Solar Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Ronowikarto, A. D.; Siregar, R. E. T.; Setyawan, E. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Desalination technologies is one of solutions for water scarcity. With using renewable energy, like solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy, expected will reduce the energy demand. This required study on the modeling and transport parameters determination of natural vacuum solar desalination by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to simulate the model. A three-dimensional case, two-phase model was developed for evaporation-condensation phenomenon in natural vacuum solar desalination. The CFD simulation results were compared with the avalaible experimental data. The simulation results shows inthat there is a phenomenon of evaporation-condensation in an evaporation chamber. From the simulation, the fresh water productivity is 2.21 litre, and from the experimental is 2.1 litre. This study shows there’s an error of magnitude 0.4%. The CFD results also show that, vacuum pressure will degrade the saturation temperature of sea water.

  20. Renewable energy-driven desalination technologies: A comprehensive review on challenges and potential applications of integrated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous improvements in conventional desalination technologies, its wide use is still limited due primarily to high energy requirements which are currently met with expensive fossil fuels. The use of alternative energy sources is essential to meet the growing demand for water desalination. In the last few decades a lot of effort has being directed in the use of different renewable energy (RE) sources to run desalination processes. However, the expansion of these efforts towards larger scale plants is hampered by several techno-economic challenges. Several medium-scale RE-driven desalination plants have been installed worldwide. Nevertheless, most of these plants are connected to the electrical grid to assure a continuous energy supply for stable operation. Furthermore, RE is mostly used to produce electric power which can be used to run desalination systems. This review paper focuses on an integrated approach in using RE-driven with an emphasis on solar and geothermal desalination technologies. Innovative and sustainable desalination processes which are suitable for integrated RE systems are presented. An assessment of the benefits of these technologies and their limitations are also discussed.

  1. Graphene-Based Standalone Solar Energy Converter for Water Desalination and Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhao, Ruiqi; Zhang, Tengfei; Zhao, Kai; Xiao, Peishuang; Ma, Yanfeng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Shi, Gaoquan; Chen, Yongsheng

    2018-01-23

    Harvesting solar energy for desalination and sewage treatment has been considered as a promising solution to produce clean water. However, state-of-the-art technologies often require optical concentrators and complicated systems with multiple components, leading to poor efficiency and high cost. Here, we demonstrate an extremely simple and standalone solar energy converter consisting of only an as-prepared 3D cross-linked honeycomb graphene foam material without any other supporting components. This simple all-in-one material can act as an ideal solar thermal converter capable of capturing and converting sunlight into heat, which in turn can distill water from various water sources into steam and produce purified water under ambient conditions and low solar flux with very high efficiency. High specific water production rate of 2.6 kg h -1 m -2 g -1 was achieved with near ∼87% under 1 sun intensity and >80% efficiency even under ambient sunlight (solar thermal water purification system for a variety of environmental conditions.

  2. An experimental study of solar desalination using free jets and an auxiliary hot air stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Eldesouki I.; Khalaf-Allah, Reda A.; Dahab, Mohamed A.

    2018-04-01

    An experimental study for a solar desalination system based on jet-humidification with an auxiliary perpendicular hot air stream was carried out at Suez city, Egypt 29.9668°N, 32.5498°E. The tests were done from May to October 2016. The effects of nozzles situations and nozzle diameter with and without hot air stream on fresh water productivity were monitored. The results show that; the lateral and downward jets from narrow nozzles have more productivities than other situations. The hot air stream has to be adapted at a certain flow rate to get high values of productivity. The system productivity is (5.6 L/m 2 ), the estimated cost is (0.030063 / L) and the efficiency is 32.8%.

  3. A framework for investigating the interactions between climate, dust, solar power generation and water desalination processes in Desert Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siam, M. S.; Alqatari, S.; Ibrahim, H. D.; AlAloula, R. A.; Alrished, M.; AlSaati, A.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing water demand in Saudi Arabia due to rapid population growth has forced the rapid expansion of seawater desalination plants in order to meet both current and future freshwater needs. Saudi Arabia has a huge potential for solar energy, hence, solar-powered desalination plants provide an opportunity to sustainably address the freshwater demand in the kingdom without relying on fossil fuels energy. However, the desert climate of Saudi Arabia and limited access to the open ocean imposes several challenges to the expansion and sustainability of solar-powered desalination plants. For example, the frequent and intense dust storms that occur in the region can degrade solar panels and significantly reduce their efficiency. Moreover, the high salinity Arabian Gulf is both the source of feedwater and sink of hypersaline discharge (brine) for many plants in the east of the Kingdom, and the brine may alter the salinity, temperature and movement of the water thereby reducing the quality of the feedwater to the desalination plants. Here, we propose a framework to investigate the different interactions between climate, dust, solar power generation and seawater desalination in order to identify optimal parameters such as locations of solar panels and seawater intake for sustainable implementation of solar-powered desalination plants. This framework integrates several numerical models including regional climate, hydrodynamics, Photovoltaics (PV) and Photovoltaic-Reverse Osmosis (PV-RO) models that are used to investigate these interactions for a solar-powered desalination plant at AlKhafji on the Northeastern coast of Saudi Arabia.

  4. Integration of solar process heat into an existing thermal desalination plant in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, S.; Krishnamoorthy, G.; Aboumadi, M.; Pandian, Y.; Dersch, J.; Krüger, D.; Al-Rasheed, A. S.; Krüger, J.; Ottenburger, U.

    2016-05-01

    The water supply of many countries in the Middle East relies mainly on water desalination. In Qatar, the water network is completely fed with water from desalination plants. One of these power and desalination plants is located in Ras Abu Fontas, 20 km south of the capital Doha. The heat required for thermal desalination is provided by steam which is generated in waste heat recovery boilers (HRB) connected to gas turbines. Additionally, gas fired boilers or auxiliary firing in the HRBs are used in order to decouple the water generation from the electricity generation. In Ras Abu Fontas some auxiliary boilers run 24/7 because the HRB capacity does not match the demand of the desalination units. This paper contains the techno-economic analysis of two large-scale commercial solar field options, which could reduce the fuel consumption significantly. Both options employ parabolic trough technology with a nominal saturated steam output of 350 t/h at 15 bar (198°C, 240 MW). The first option uses direct steam generation without storage while the second relies on common thermal oil in combination with a molten salt thermal storage with 6 hours full-load capacity. The economic benefit of the integration of solar power depends mainly on the cost of the fossil alternative, and thus the price (respectively opportunity costs) of natural gas. At a natural gas price of 8 US-/MMBtu the internal rate of return on equity (IRR) is expected at about 5%.

  5. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    from 3.65 - 4.63 ppm. The definite volumes of seawater samples (3.7 litres) taken in stills for desalination correspond to 13.08 - 31.16 mg of net boron content. Analyses on the recovery of the total content of boron in brines as well as in the bitterns...

  6. Thermal Desalination using MEMS and Salinity-Gradient Solar Pond Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H.; Walton, J. C.; Hein, H.

    2002-08-01

    MEMS (multi-effect, multi-stage) flash desalination (distillation) driven by thermal energy derived from a salinity-gradient solar pond is investigated in this study for the purpose of improving the thermodynamic efficiency and economics of this technology. Three major tasks are performed: (1) a MEMS unit is tested under various operating conditions at the El Paso Solar Pond site; (2) the operation and maintenance procedures of the salinity-gradient solar pond coupled with the MEMS operation is studied; and (3) previous test data on a 24-stage, falling-film flash distillation unit (known as the Spinflash) is analyzed and compared with the performance of the MEMS unit. The data and information obtained from this investigation is applicable to a variety of thermal desalination processes using other solar options and/or waste heat.

  7. Solar Desalination by Humidification-Dehumidification of Air

    OpenAIRE

    Moumouh J.; Tahiri M.; Balli L.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of supplying potable water can hardly be overstressed. In many arid zones, coastal or inlands, seawater or brackish water desalination may be the only solution to the shortage of fresh water. The process based on humidification-dehumidification of air (HDH) principle mimic the natural water cycle. HDH technique has been subjected to many studies in recent years due to the low temperature, renewable energy use, simplicity, low cost installation and operation. An experimental tes...

  8. Comparison of Configurations for High-Recovery Inland Desalination Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Davies

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Desalination of brackish groundwater (BW is an effective approach to augment water supply, especially for inland regions that are far from seawater resources. Brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO desalination is still subject to intensive energy consumption compared to the theoretical minimum energy demand. Here, we review some of the BWRO plants with various system arrangements. We look at how to minimize energy demands, as these contribute considerably to the cost of desalinated water. Different configurations of BWRO system have been compared from the view point of normalized specific energy consumption (SEC. Analysis is made at theoretical limits. The SEC reduction of BWRO can be achieved by (i increasing number of stages, (ii using an energy recovery device (ERD, or (iii operating the BWRO in batch mode or closed circuit mode. Application of more stages not only reduces SEC but also improves water recovery. However, this improvement is less pronounced when the number of stages exceeds four. Alternatively and more favourably, the BWRO system can be operated in Closed Circuit Desalination (CCD mode and gives a comparative SEC to that of the 3-stage system with a recovery ratio of 80%. A further reduction of about 30% in SEC can be achieved through batch-RO operation. Moreover, the costly ERDs and booster pumps are avoided with both CCD and batch-RO, thus furthering the effectiveness of lowering the costs of these innovative approaches.

  9. A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.

    2014-01-01

    A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes was developed and successfully tested. A greenhouse as part of a test rig, with different sorts of mangroves, was installed. Measurements showed promising results concerning fresh water relative yielding rates up to 1.4 kg/h/m2 (leaf

  10. Model-based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, Rachel; Dees, Elizabeth

    2017-03-23

    The focus of this research effort centered around water recovery from high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) extracted waters (180,000 mg/L) using a combination of water recovery (partial desalination) technologies. The research goals of this project were as follows: 1. Define the scope and test location for pilot-scale implementation of the desalination system, 2.Define a scalable, multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, salt from saline brines, and 3. Validate overall system performance with field-sourced water using GE pre-pilot lab facilities. Conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) technology was established as a baseline desalination process. A quality function deployment (QFD) method was used to compare alternate high TDS desalination technologies to the base case FF-MVR technology, including but not limited to: membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO). Technoeconomic analysis of high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) was performed comparing the following two cases: 1. a hybrid seawater RO (SWRO) plus HPRO system and 2. 2x standard seawater RO system, to achieve the same total pure water recovery rate. Pre-pilot-scale tests were conducted using field production water to validate key process steps for extracted water pretreatment. Approximately 5,000 gallons of field produced water was processed through, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and steam regenerable sorbent operations. Improvements in membrane materials of construction were considered as necessary next steps to achieving further improvement in element performance at high pressure. Several modifications showed promising results in their ability to withstand close to 5,000 PSI without gross failure.

  11. Plasmonic heating from indium nanoparticles on a floating microporous membrane for enhanced solar seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Xing, Jun; Wen, Xinglin; Chai, Jianwei; Wang, Shijie; Xiong, Qihua

    2017-09-14

    Passive solar evaporation represents a promising and environmentally benign method of water purification/desalination. Plasmonic nanoparticles have been demonstrated as an effective approach for enhancing solar steam generation through a plasmonic heating effect, nonetheless the efficiency is constrained by unnecessary bulk heating of the entire liquid volume, while the noble metals commonly used are not cost-effective in terms of availability and their sophisticated preparation. Herein, a paper-like plasmonic device consisting of a microporous membrane and indium nanoparticles (In NPs/MPM) is fabricated through a simple thermal evaporation method. Due to the light-weight and porous nature of the device, the broadband light absorption properties, and theoretically the excellent plasmonic heating effect from In NP which could be even higher than gold, silver and aluminium nanoparticles, our device can effectively enhance solar water evaporation by floating on the water surface and its utility has been demonstrated in the solar desalination of a real seawater sample. The durability of the device in solar seawater desalination has also been investigated over multiple cycles with stable performances. This portable device could provide a solution for individuals to do water/seawater purification in under-developed areas with limited/no access to electricity or a centralized drinking water supply.

  12. Optimum design of cogeneration system for nuclear seawater desalination - 15272

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.H.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2015-01-01

    A nuclear desalination process, which uses the energy released by nuclear fission, has less environmental impact and is generally cost-competitive with a fossil-fuel desalination process. A reference cogeneration system focused on in this study is the APR-1400 coupled with a MED (multi-effect distillation) process using the thermal vapor compression (TVC) technology. The thermal condition of the heat source is the most crucial factor that determines the desalination performance, i.e. energy consumption or freshwater production, of the MED-TVC process. The MED-TVC process operating at a higher motive steam pressure clearly shows a higher desalination performance. However, this increased performance does not necessarily translate to an advantage over processes operated at lower motive steam pressures. For instance, a higher motive steam pressure will increase the heat cost resulting from larger electricity generation loss, and thus may make this process unfavorable from an economic point of view. Therefore, there exists an optimum design point in the coupling configuration that makes the nuclear cogeneration system the most economical. This study is mainly aimed at investigating this optimum coupling design point of the reference nuclear cogeneration system using corresponding analysis tools. The following tools are used: MEE developed by the MEDRC for desalination performance analysis of the MED-TVC process, DE-TOP and DEEP developed by the IAEA for modeling of coupling configuration and economic evaluation of the nuclear cogeneration system, respectively. The results indicate that steam extraction from the MS exhaust and condensate return to HP FWHTR 5 is the most economical coupling design

  13. A new desalination system using a combination of heat pipe, evacuated tube and parabolic trough collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari Mosleh, H.; Jahangiri Mamouri, S.; Shafii, M.B.; Hakim Sima, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new desalination uses a combination of heat pipe and parabolic trough collector. • A twin-glass evacuated tube is used to decrease the thermal losses from heat pipe. • Adding oil into the space between heat pipe and tube collector enhances the yield. • The yield and efficiency reach up to 0.933 kg/(m 2 h) and 65.2%, respectively. - Abstract: The solar collectors have been commonly used in desalination systems. Recent investigations show that the use of a linear parabolic trough collector in solar stills can improve the efficiency of a desalination system. In this work, a combination of a heat pipe and a twin-glass evacuated tube collector is utilized with a parabolic trough collector. Results show that the rate of production and efficiency can reach to 0.27 kg/(m 2 h) and 22.1% when aluminum conducting foils are used in the space between the heat pipe and the twin-glass evacuated tube collector to transfer heat from the tube collector to the heat pipe. When oil is used as a medium for the transfer of heat, filling the space between heat pipe and twin-glass evacuated tube collector, the production and efficiency can increase to 0.933 kg/(m 2 h) and 65.2%, respectively

  14. Multi-objective Optimization of a Solar Humidification Dehumidification Desalination Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafigh, M.; Mirzaeian, M.; Najafi, B.; Rinaldi, F.; Marchesi, R.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, a humidification-dehumidification desalination unit integrated with solar system is considered. In the first step mathematical model of the whole plant is represented. Next, taking into account the logical constraints, the performance of the system is optimized. On one hand it is desired to have higher energetic efficiency, while on the other hand, higher efficiency results in an increment in the required area for each subsystem which consequently leads to an increase in the total cost of the plant. In the present work, the optimum solution is achieved when the specific energy of the solar heater and also the areas of humidifier and dehumidifier are minimized. Due to the fact that considered objective functions are in conflict, conventional optimization methods are not applicable. Hence, multi objective optimization using genetic algorithm which is an efficient tool for dealing with problems with conflicting objectives has been utilized and a set of optimal solutions called Pareto front each of which is a tradeoff between the mentioned objectives is generated.

  15. Potential of Solar-driven CDI Technology for Water Desalination in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Seleym

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity is one of the most challenging problems facing the world today. Rivers, lakes, and surface ice represent only 1.2% of the fresh water sources on earth, while ground water represent over 30% of the potential fresh water. The Egyptian quota from the Nile River is limited to 55 billion m3/yr, and expected to decrease due to increasing demand of water by other Nile basin countries. According to an Egyptian government report, the total population of Egypt increased from 22 million in 1950 to around 85 million in 2010. This increase in population growth will continue for decades and it is likely to increase to between 120-150 million by 2050. Egypt has reached a state where the quantity of water available is imposing limits on its national economic development.  As indication of water scarcity, Egypt passed the international threshold value of 1000 m3/capita/year in the nineties, and it is expected to cross the threshold of absolute water scarcity of 500 m3/capita/yr by 2025. Capacitive de-ionization (CDI is a relatively new technology that was developed as recently as the late 1960s. In CDI systems, saline water is made to pass between a pair of electrodes connected to a voltage source. Ions are stored inside the pores of electrodes in CDI via the applied electric field strength. CDI is a membrane less technology, and the problems of membrane fouling in the Reverse Osmosis technology is not present in CDI. It has the potential to be energy efficient compared with other related techniques, robust technology for water desalination. This paper explores low cost and efficient desalination technologies for brackish water for irrigation and drinking purposes using the abundant solar energy in Egypt.

  16. Potential of Solar-driven CDI Technology for Water Desalination in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa El Shafei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity is one of the most challenging problems facing the world today. Rivers, lakes, and surface ice represent only 1.2% of the fresh water sources on earth, while ground water represents over 30% of the potential fresh water. The Egyptian quota from the River Nile is limited to 55 billion m/yr, and expected to decrease due to increasing demand of water by other Nile basin countries. According to an Egyptian government report, the total population of Egypt increased from 22 million in 1950 to around 85 million in 2010. This increase in population will continue for decades and it is likely to increase to between 120-150 million by 2050. Egypt has reached a state where the quantity of water available is imposing limits on its national economic development. As indication of water scarcity, Egypt passed the international threshold value of 1000 m3/capita/year in the nineties, and it is expected to cross the threshold of absolute water scarcity of 500 m3/capita/yr by 2025. Capacitive deionization (CDI is a relatively new technology that was developed as recently as the late 1960s. In CDI systems, saline water is made to pass between a pair of electrodes connected to a voltage source. Ions are stored inside the pores of electrodes in CDI via the applied electric field strength. CDI is a membrane less technology and the problems of membrane fouling in the Reverse Osmosis technology are not present in CDI. It has the potential to be energy efficient compared with other related techniques and robust technology for water desalination. This paper explores low cost and efficient desalination technologies for brackish water for irrigation and drinking purposes using the abundant solar energy in Egypt.

  17. Exergy Evaluation of Desalination Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veera Gnaneswar Gude

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Desalination of sea or brackish water sources to provide clean water supplies has now become a feasible option around the world. Escalating global populations have caused the surge of desalination applications. Desalination processes are energy intensive which results in a significant energy portfolio and associated environmental pollution for many communities. Both electrical and heat energy required for desalination processes have been reduced significantly over the recent years. However, the energy demands are still high and are expected to grow sharply with increasing population. Desalination technologies utilize various forms of energy to produce freshwater. While the process efficiency can be reported by the first law of thermodynamic analysis, this is not a true measure of the process performance as it does not account for all losses of energy. Accordingly, the second law of thermodynamics has been more useful to evaluate the performance of desalination systems. The second law of thermodynamics (exergy analysis accounts for the available forms of energy in the process streams and energy sources with a reference environment and identifies the major losses of exergy destruction. This aids in developing efficient desalination processes by eliminating the hidden losses. This paper elaborates on exergy analysis of desalination processes to evaluate the thermodynamic efficiency of major components and process streams and identifies suitable operating conditions to minimize exergy destruction. Well-established MSF, MED, MED-TVC, RO, solar distillation, and membrane distillation technologies were discussed with case studies to illustrate the exergy performances.

  18. Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Elizabeth M. [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Moore, David Roger [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Li, Li [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Kumar, Manish [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-05-28

    Over the last 1.5 years, GE Global Research and Pennsylvania State University defined a model-based, scalable, and multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, optionally, salt. The team explored saline brines that ranged across the expected range for extracted water for carbon sequestration reservoirs (40,000 up to 220,000 ppm total dissolved solids, TDS). In addition, the validated the system performance at pilot scale with field-sourced water using GE’s pre-pilot and lab facilities. This project encompassed four principal tasks, in addition to Project Management and Planning: 1) identify a deep saline formation carbon sequestration site and a partner that are suitable for supplying extracted water; 2) conduct a techno-economic assessment and down-selection of pre-treatment and desalination technologies to identify a cost-effective system for extracted water recovery; 3) validate the downselected processes at the lab/pre-pilot scale; and 4) define the scope of the pilot desalination project. Highlights from each task are described below: Deep saline formation characterization The deep saline formations associated with the five DOE NETL 1260 Phase 1 projects were characterized with respect to their mineralogy and formation water composition. Sources of high TDS feed water other than extracted water were explored for high TDS desalination applications, including unconventional oil and gas and seawater reverse osmosis concentrate. Technoeconomic analysis of desalination technologies Techno-economic evaluations of alternate brine concentration technologies, including humidification-dehumidification (HDH), membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), turboexpander-freeze, solvent extraction and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO), were conducted. These technologies were evaluated against conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) as a baseline desalination process. Furthermore, a

  19. Feasibility investigation of coupling a desalination prototype functioning by Aero-Evapo-Condensation with solar units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourouni, K.; Bouden, C.; Chaibi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The rural regions of south Mediterranean countries suffer from problems of drinking water supply. However, the majority of these regions have important resources of brackish salt water. Thus, brackish water desalination on a small scale presents a potential solution to this problem. For this reason, a number of small desalination prototypes are being developed worldwide. Bourouni et al. have developed a water desalination unit functioning by the Aero-Evapo-Condensation-Process (AECP) in order to satisfy this kind of water demand. One of the advantages of this prototype is that it allows the use of low temperature energy such as geothermal and solar energies abundant in these countries. An initial experiment was carried on an AECP prototype coupled to a geothermal spring in the south of Tunisia. The results relative to the technical and economic performances of the unit have shown that this kind of coupling is promising. On the other hand, the brackish water springs in these countries are often non-geothermal. In this case, the use of solar energy can be considered. Thus, we develop, in the present article, a feasibility investigation on the coupling of the AECP prototype with solar units. In fact, we analyse, in the first part of this article, the possibilities of this coupling in a manner that the functioning mode of the solar units will be compatible with that of the AECP prototype. To attempt this objective, two kinds of solar installation scenarios are considered and modelled to obtain their energetic contribution. Hence, the elaborated models are coupled to the one developed by Bourouni et al. for the AECP prototype to determine the technical and economic performances of the whole installation. In the last part of this article, a solar unit dimensioning is performed in order to minimise the total cost of the distilled water. (author)

  20. Desalination using spray tower and vapour compression refrigeration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathish Kumar, S.; Mani, A.

    2006-01-01

    A desalination system using a spray tower and Vapour Compression Refrigeration (VCR) system is proposed for obtaining fresh water from brackish water. In the spray tower, simultaneous heat and mass transfer take place between the brackish water and air, which results in the evaporation of the brackish water and humidification of the air. Fresh water is obtained from the humidified air by condensing the water vapour using a VCR system. Parametric studies were carried out to study the effect of various operational parameters on the fresh water production rate. (author)

  1. A floating desalination/co-generation system using the KLT-40 reactor and Canadian RO desalination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, J.R.; Davies, K.

    2000-01-01

    As the global consumption of water increases with growing populations and rising levels of industrialization, major new sources of potable water production must be developed. To address this issue efficiently and economically, a new approach has been developed in Canada for the integration of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems with nuclear reactors as an energy source. The resulting nuclear desalination/cogeneration plant makes use of waste heat from the electrical generation process to preheat the RO feedwater, advanced feedwater pre-treatment and sophisticated system design integration and optimization techniques. These innovations have led to improved water production efficiency, lower water production costs and reduced environmental impact. The Russian Federation is developing the KLT-40 reactor for application as a Floating Power Unit (FPU). The reactor is ideally suited for such purposes, having bad many years of successful operation as a marine propulsion reactor aboard floating nuclear powered icebreakers and other nuclear propelled vessels. Under the terms of a cooperation agreement with the Russian Federation Ministry of Atomic Energy, CANDESAL Enterprises Ltd has evaluated the FPU, containing two KLT-40 reactors, as a source of electrical energy and waste heat for RO desalination. A design concept for a floating nuclear desalination complex consisting of the FPU and a barge mounted RO desalination unit has been analyzed to establish preliminary performance characteristics for the complex. The FPU, operating as a barge mounted electrical generating station, provides electricity to the desalination barge. In addition, the condenser cooling water from the FPU is used as a source of preheated feedwater for the RO system on the desalination barge. The waste heat produced by the electrical generating process is sufficient to provide RO feedwater at a temperature of about 10 deg. C above ambient seawater temperature. Preliminary design studies have

  2. Solar desalination, brine and fine chemicals - a preliminary report

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Nagarajan, R.

    Solar stills put into operation by taking known quantities of sea water of different salinities varying from 27.75-36.27 x 10 super(3) during April-May 1990, indicated fresh water yield of 55-68% (av. 64). The volumes of brine as well as those...

  3. Desalination of effluent using fin type solar still

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velmurugan, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Infant Jesus College of Engineering, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu 628 851 (India); Deenadayalan, C.K.; Vinod, H.; Srithar, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, Tamil Nadu 625 015 (India)

    2008-11-15

    In this work, an attempt is made to produce potable water from industrial effluents. An ordinary basin type solar still integrated with fins at the basin plate is used for experimentation. Since industrial effluent is used as feed, before this still, an effluent settling tank is provided to get clarified effluent. This effluent settling tank is fabricated with three chambers, consists of pebble, coal and sand for settling the impurities and removing the bacteria in the effluents. Sponges, pebbles, black rubber and sand are used in the fin type single basin solar still for enhancing the yield. Results show that the productivity increases considerably due to this modification. A theoretical analysis is also carried out which, closely converges with experimental results. The economic analysis proved that the approximate payback period of such kinds of still is 1 year. (author)

  4. The Development of a Renewable-Energy-Driven Reverse Osmosis System for Water Desalination and Aquaculture Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Clark C K Liu

    2013-01-01

    Water and energy are closely linked natural resources-the transportation, treatment, and distribution of water depends on low-cost energy;while power generation requires large volumes of water. Seawater desalination is a mature technology for increasing freshwater supply, but it is essentially a trade of energy for freshwater and is not a viable solution for regions where both water and energy are in short supply. This paper discusses the development and application of a renewable-energy-driven reverse osmosis (RO) system for water desalination and the treatment and reuse of aquaculture wastewater. The system consists of (1) a wind-driven pumping subsystem, (2) a pressure-driven RO membrane desalination subsystem, and (3) a solar-driven feedback control module. The results of the pilot experiments indicated that the system, operated under wind speeds of 3 m s-1 or higher, can be used for brackish water desalination by reducing the salinity of feedwater with total dissolved solids (TDS) of over 3 000 mg L-1 to product water or permeate with a TDS of 200 mg L-1 or less. Results of the pilot experiments also indicated that the system can remove up to 97%of the nitrogenous wastes from the fish pond effluent and can recover and reuse up to 56%of the freshwater supply for fish pond operation.

  5. Renewable energy-driven desalination technologies: A comprehensive review on challenges and potential applications of integrated systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Bundschuh, Jochen; Mahmoudi, Hacè ne; Goosen, Mattheus F A

    2015-01-01

    desalination technologies. Innovative and sustainable desalination processes which are suitable for integrated RE systems are presented. An assessment of the benefits of these technologies and their limitations are also discussed.

  6. Feasibility study of a dedicate nuclear desalination system: Low-pressure inherent heat sink nuclear desalination plant (LIND)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Sik; No, Hee Cheon; Jo, Yu Gwan; Wivisono, Andhika Feri; Park, Byung Ha; Choi, Jin Young; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Cho, Nam Zin [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we suggest the conceptual design of a water-cooled reactor system for a low-pressure inherent heat sink nuclear desalination plant (LIND) that applies the safety-related design concepts of high temperature gas-cooled reactors to a water-cooled reactor for inherent and passive safety features. Through a scoping analysis, we found that the current LIND design satisfied several essential thermal-hydraulic and neutronic design requirements. In a thermal-hydraulic analysis using an analytical method based on the Wooton-Epstein correlation, we checked the possibility of safely removing decay heat through the steel containment even if all the active safety systems failed. In a neutronic analysis using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, we estimated a cycle length of approximately 6 years under 200 MW{sub th} and 4.5% enrichment. The very long cycle length and simple safety features minimize the burdens from the operation, maintenance, and spent-fuel management, with a positive impact on the economic feasibility. Finally, because a nuclear reactor should not be directly coupled to a desalination system to prevent the leakage of radioactive material into the desalinated water, three types of intermediate systems were studied: a steam producing system, a hot water system, and an organic Rankine cycle system.

  7. Feasibility study of a dedicated nuclear desalination system: Low-pressure Inherent heat sink Nuclear Desalination plant (LIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Sik Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest the conceptual design of a water-cooled reactor system for a low-pressure inherent heat sink nuclear desalination plant (LIND that applies the safety-related design concepts of high temperature gas-cooled reactors to a water-cooled reactor for inherent and passive safety features. Through a scoping analysis, we found that the current LIND design satisfied several essential thermal–hydraulic and neutronic design requirements. In a thermal–hydraulic analysis using an analytical method based on the Wooton–Epstein correlation, we checked the possibility of safely removing decay heat through the steel containment even if all the active safety systems failed. In a neutronic analysis using the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code, we estimated a cycle length of approximately 6 years under 200 MWth and 4.5% enrichment. The very long cycle length and simple safety features minimize the burdens from the operation, maintenance, and spent-fuel management, with a positive impact on the economic feasibility. Finally, because a nuclear reactor should not be directly coupled to a desalination system to prevent the leakage of radioactive material into the desalinated water, three types of intermediate systems were studied: a steam producing system, a hot water system, and an organic Rankine cycle system.

  8. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  9. Financing of an integrated nuclear desalination system in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzguenda, N.; Albouy, M.; Nisan, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on a case study of financing a project of an integrated nuclear desalination system at la Skhira site in Tunisia. More specifically, it shows the financial characteristics of this project, known as TUNDESAL, the main financing mechanisms that can be used, and the principal actions required to attract the potential investors and lenders. The paper describes the basic requirements for the deployment of nuclear energy in a developing or an emerging country, with no previous experience of nuclear power; the specific financial considerations corresponding to the particular characteristics of nuclear desalination projects: high capital costs, high level of risks and uncertainties related in particular to long construction lead times and social and environmental concerns; the main risks of these projects; the profitability study of the TUNDESAL project: application of the discounted cash flow analysis; the main financing sources for the project; the financing schemes that can be used for project implementation and comparison between these schemes in terms of benefits generated, after covering project costs and repayment of lenders and investors; the main actions to be done for making the project financially attractive in order to gain the confidence of investors and international financial institutions (optimal allocation of project risks and uncertainties, a suitable and flexible energy and water tariffs policy, etc.). The analysis has shown that in particular conditions of Tunisia, the most attractive financial scheme could be the 'project financing + leasing'. (authors)

  10. A parametric study of a humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system using low grade heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, W.F.; Han, D.; Yue, C.; Pu, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The HDH desalination system coupling with the waste heat plate LGHC is proposed. • Performance of the desalination system and the plate LGHC is presented. • Influence from the operation pressure on the system performance is investigated. • Gained investment ratio is proposed to characterize the desalination system consumption. - Abstract: Humidification dehumidification (HDH) desalination system is applicable to recover the low grade heat source to heat the seawater before the humidifier. In the paper, plate heat exchangers are integrated to recover the waste heat from the exhaust in the water heated closed air open water (CAOW) HDH desalination system. The performance of the HDH desalination system as well as the plate type of low grade heat collector (LGHC) is investigated at different operation pressures. Gain investment ratio (GIR) is proposed and defined to depict the overall consumption of the whole system. The simulation results show that the modified heat capacity ratio of the dehumidifier (HCRd) is vital for the performance of the HDH desalination system as well as the plate LGHC with a top value of gain output ratio (GOR) at the balance point, HCRd = 1, and the maximum GOR, GOR = 2.44, results from the raised pressure of p = 0.15 MPa. Furthermore, taking the cost for the heat transfer surface area of the LGHC and the air and seawater pipes into consideration, it is revealed that the conditions, HCRd > 1, are more economical due to the increase of GIR, which indicates the profit of unit consumption is more significant.

  11. Desalination by renewable energy: A mini review of the recent patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Rawajfeh Aiman Eid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent patents on water desalination by using renewable energy technologies are critically reviewed with highlighting on environmental impacts and sustainable development. An overview of using wind, hydroelectric, wave and tidal, wind/solar, geothermal, and solar renewable energy technologies for desalinated water production are assessed. Solar energy is the mother of all other renewable energies; it does not pollute, it is free and available everywhere. Several patents have been invented systems and methods that collected and converted solar energy to electrical energy via solar energy which can be used for water desalination. Wind farm with wind-driven pressurizing devices is used to desalinate salt water by reverse osmosis. Geothermal has been used as an effective method for water desalination. It is highly recommended to provide seawater desalination powered by a renewable energy source in remote areas. On the other hand, sequentially staged of energy conversion steps operate at low efficiencies.

  12. Design and development of an air humidifier using finite difference method for a solar desalination plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiranjeevi, C.; Srinivas, T.

    2017-11-01

    Humidifier is an important component in air humidification-dehumidification desalination plant for fresh water production. Liquid to air flow rate ratio is optimization is reported for an industrial cooling towers but for an air humidifier it is not addressed. The current work is focused on the design and analysis of an air humidifier for solar desalination plant to maximize the yield with better humidification, using finite difference method (FDM). The outlet conditions of air from the humidifier are theoretically predicted by FDM with the given inlet conditions, which will be further used in the design calculation of the humidifier. Hot water to air flow rate ratio and inlet hot water temperature are identified as key operating parameters to evaluate the humidifier performance. The maximum and optimal values of mass flow rate ratio of water to air are found to be 2.15 and 1.5 respectively using packing function and Merkel Integral. The height of humidifier is constrained to 1.5 m and the diameter of the humidifier is found as 0.28m. The performance of humidifier and outlet conditions of air are simulated using FDM and compared with experimental results. The obtained results are within an agreeable range of deviation.

  13. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Kim, Youngdeuk; Rachman, Rinaldi; Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great

  14. Combined solar organic Rankine cycle with reverse osmosis desalination process: Energy, exergy, and cost evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nafey, A.S.; Sharaf, M.A. [Department of Engineering Science, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt)

    2010-11-15

    Organic Rankine cycles (ORC) have unique properties that are well suited to solar power generation. In this work design and performance calculations are performed using MatLab/SimuLink computational environment. The cycle consists of thermal solar collectors (Flat Plate Solar Collector (FPC), or Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC), or Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)) for heat input, expansion turbine for work output, condenser unit for heat rejection, pump unit, and Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit. Reverse osmosis unit specifications used in this work is based on Sharm El-Shiekh RO desalination plant. Different working fluids such as: butane, isobutane, propane, R134a, R152a, R245ca, and R245fa are examined for FPC. R113, R123, hexane, and pentane are investigated for CPC. Dodecane, nonane, octane, and toluene are allocated for PTC. The proposed process units are modeled and show a good validity with literatures. Exergy and cost analysis are performed for saturation and superheated operating conditions. Exergy efficiency, total exergy destruction, thermal efficiency, and specific capital cost are evaluated for direct vapor generation (DVG) process. Toluene and Water achieved minimum results for total solar collector area, specific total cost and the rate of exergy destruction. (author)

  15. Effect of the scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuhua; Liu, Zhenfa; Zhang, Lihui; Li, Haihua

    2017-09-01

    A scale inhibitor was synthesized from polysuccinimide with 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid and aspartic acid. The effect of scale inhibitor on ion content in reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination was studied. The results showed that the ion content of permeate water is lower with the scale inhibitor added in RO system for seawater desalination than without scale inhibitor. On the contrary, the ion content of concentrate water is higher when with scale inhibitor in RO system.

  16. Estimation of solar energy resources for low salinity water desalination in several regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Shakun, V. P.; Gabderakhmanova, T. S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimation of demanded photovoltaic (PV) array areas and capital expenses to feed a reverse osmosis desalination unit (1 m3/day fresh water production rate). The investigation have been made for different climatic conditions of Russia using regional data on ground water salinity from different sources and empirical dependence of specific energy consumption on salinity and temperature. The most optimal results were obtained for Krasnodar, Volgograd, Crimea Republic and some other southern regions. Combination of salinity, temperature and solar radiation level there makes reverse osmosis coupled with photovoltaics very attractive to solve infrastructure problems in rural areas. Estimation results are represented as maps showing PV array areas and capital expenses for selected regions.

  17. Autonomous system without batteries for brackish water desalination; Sistema autonomo sem baterias para dessalinizacao de agua salobra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Eduardo Henrique Pereira de; Bezerra, Luiz Daniel Santos; Antunes, Fernando Luiz Marcelo [Universidade Federal do Ceara (PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Programa de Pos -Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica

    2008-07-01

    Ones of the goods most precious of the humanity, in the current times, with certainty is the drinking waters. Each scarcer and basic time for survival. In everybody more than 6,000 children die every day victims of some type of illness provoked for contaminated water (WHO, 2003). The underground water for being free of contamination is a good alternative, however its exploration if it becomes each more expensive time, since the water of better quality, is located in deeper sheets. In the state of the Ceara, techniques to explore water of deep well are each more frequent time, however, present a great inconvenience, most of the excavated wells, present brackish water, improper for the human consumption. In the attempt to make possible these wells the water is treated by desalination process. This article presents the practical implementation of a desalination the reverse Osmosis, Pump high-pressure supplied by solar photovoltaic energy system. (author)

  18. Technical and economic evaluation of nuclear seawater desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechko, A.G.; Romenkov, A.A.; Shishkin, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA Cogeneration/Desalination Cost Model spreadsheets were used for the economic evaluation of sea water desalination plants coupled with small and medium size nuclear reactors developed in RDIPE. The results of calculations have shown that the cost of potable water is equal to or even below 1$/m 3 . This is very close to similar indices of the best fossil driven desalination plants. For remote and difficult-to-access regions, where the transportation share contributes significantly to the product water cost at fossil plants, the nuclear power sources of these reactor types are cost-efficient and can successfully compete with fossil power sources. (author)

  19. The Energy-Water Nexus: Spatially-Resolved Analysis of the Potential for Desalinating Brackish Groundwater by Use of Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B. Kjellsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research looks at coupling desalination with renewable energy sources to create a high-value product (treated water from two low value resources (brackish groundwater and intermittent solar energy. Desalination of brackish groundwater is already being considered as a potential new water supply in Texas. This research uses Texas as a testbed for spatially-resolved analysis techniques while considering depth to brackish groundwater, water quality, and solar radiation across Texas to determine the locations with the best potential for integrating solar energy with brackish groundwater desalination. The framework presented herein can be useful for policymakers, regional planners, and project developers as they consider where to site desalination facilities coupled with solar photovoltaics. Results suggest that the northwestern region of Texas—with abundant sunshine and groundwater at relatively shallow depths and low salinity in areas with freshwater scarcity—has the highest potential for solar powered desalination. The range in capacity for solar photovoltaic powered reverse osmosis desalination was found to be 1.56 × 10—6 to 2.93 × 10—5 cubic meters of water per second per square meter of solar panel (m3/s/m2.

  20. Solar desalination System of Sea Water for Efficient Irrigation of a Crop Module; Sistema de desalacion solar de agua de mar para riego eficiente en un modulo de cultivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta Gandara, Miguel Angel; Rubio Cerda, Eduardo; Fernandez Zayas, Jose Luis [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noreste (Mexico)

    2002-06-01

    The lack of vegetables in the diet of people living by the seaside in Mexican California results in important health problems. It is not easy to produce vegetable due to the lack of potable water. In order to solve this problem, this paper introduces a household agricultural production system utilizing seawater, which is distilled by means of a shallow solar still. The still has a free surface of 10 m{sup 2} and can yield an average daily quantity of 5/m{sup 2} daily. Distilled water is employed to grow vegetable (basically radishes, pumpkins and tomatoes) in an experimental plot of land where a highly efficient irrigation is pursued. Hence, it is possible to obtain biomass production of about 1 kg of fresh product for every 19 to 200 liters of distilled water, depending on the crop, in also variable crop cycles, between 30 and 150 days of duration. This paper ends with an economic evaluation and the assessment of water use. In comparison with the irrigation district of the valley of Santo Domingo, B. C. S., where extreme lack of water is felt, water is used in the latter in a proportion of between 180 and 500 times more than the strictly indispensable per unit product. [Spanish] La carencia de verduras en la dieta de los habitantes del litoral californiano produce graves problemas de salud, pero no es facil producir hortaliza, dada la carencia de agua potable. Con el fin de subsanar esta deficiencia, se presenta un sistema para producir alimentos a escala unifamiliar, usando agua de mar destilada mediante un destilador solar somero de 10 m{sup 2} de superficie, capaz de arrojar una produccion promedio de 5 l/m{sup 2} cada dia. El agua destilada se utiliza para producir hortalizas (primordialmente rabanos, calabazas y tomates) en una parcela experimental de alta eficiencia de empleo del agua, que permite obtener producto fresco del orden de 1 kg de rabanos por cada 10 litros de agua destilada en 30 dias, o 1 kg de tomate por cada 200 litros de agua en 150 dias

  1. Conceptual design and economic evaluation about the coupling of high power PWRs and desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Both electricity and fresh water become basic human needs in modern days. This paper describes the coupling methods of high power pressurized water reactors and desalination system, and evaluates the economics of coupling systems. OPR1000 designed by Korea was chosen for the reference reactor. Because MED (Mulct-Effect Distillation) with TVC (Thermal Vapor Compressor) have been evaluated as an effective desalination system for high power reactors, it was used for the reference desalination method in simulation. In order to simulate the secondary circuit of PWRs with heat exchangers for MED-TVC, PEPSE program which is normally used for performance evaluation of power system efficiencies was used. The coupling of OPR1000 and desalination systems were set under the restriction it had to make as small changes as possible. From the results PEPSE simulation, the economics of the coupling systems were calculates using equations form DEEP4.0 (Desalination Economic Evaluation Program) which was developed by IAEA because Deep simulates just two simple couplings which are back pressure and condensation/extraction. In the secondary circuit simulation seven coupling cases were set and outlet powers to heat exchanger for desalination were varied to be dependent on the thermohydraulic conditions on each part. The results of changed electrical power generation were calculated with the thermal outputs for desalination. It is concluded that two coupling method using the steam from high-pressure turbine have high performance and are economical among the simulated cases. The first one is to add a heat exchanger on the branch from high-pressure turbine into moisture separator and the other is on the branch into feedwater heating parts. It proves desalination plants can be added to current high power PWRs.

  2. Integrated solar energy system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. K.

    1982-11-01

    The computer program SYSOPT, intended as a tool for optimizing the subsystem sizing, performance, and economics of integrated wind and solar energy systems, is presented. The modular structure of the methodology additionally allows simulations when the solar subsystems are combined with conventional technologies, e.g., a utility grid. Hourly energy/mass flow balances are computed for interconnection points, yielding optimized sizing and time-dependent operation of various subsystems. The program requires meteorological data, such as insolation, diurnal and seasonal variations, and wind speed at the hub height of a wind turbine, all of which can be taken from simulations like the TRNSYS program. Examples are provided for optimization of a solar-powered (wind turbine and parabolic trough-Rankine generator) desalinization plant, and a design analysis for a solar powered greenhouse.

  3. Hybrid membrane system for desalination and wastewater treatment: Integrating forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 97% of the water in the world is seawater, desalination technologies have the potential to solve the fresh water crisis. The most used desalination technology nowadays is seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the water, using high hydraulic pressure as the driving force. However, the use of high hydraulic pressure imposes a high cost on operation of these systems, in addition to the known persistent fouling p...

  4. The effect of cover geometry on the productivity of a modified solar still desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Desalination methods based on renewable energy offer a promising solution to both water shortage and environmental degradation problems that continue to grow globally. The solar still is one such method that uses a sustainable energy source to produce potable water albeit at a relatively low productivity rate. A new modification has been introduced to the conventional solar still to enhance its productivity. The modification consists of a light weight, black finished, slowly-rotating drum, which leads to a sustainable, cost-effective, and low-tech amendment that preserves the key features of the still while considerably increasing its yield compared to a control still that does not include the drum. In this paper, three different cover geometries of the modified still are studied and the effect of cover design on the performance of the still in terms of measured temperatures and productivity is considered. The three cover designs are as follows: double-sloped or triangular, single-sloped and curved cover. In addition, a conventional double-sloped still without the rotating drum is operated in parallel as a control and the findings of this study are reported and discussed. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. System Design and Analysis of Electricity Provision for a Desalination Plant: A Study for Pozo Colorado, Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiner, Ingerid

    2014-01-01

    Fresh water scarcity and drinking water quality is a challenge in Pozo Colorado, a district in the northern part of Paraguay. The area has groundwater resources that have not yet been exploited, but this water is saline and undrinkable unless it is treated. Establishing a brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) desalination plant that produces potable water could be a solution to the problem. With high solar intensity in the region, a grid-connected battery back-up PV system could provide a rel...

  6. Advances in desalination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratz, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Seawater desalination has been the cornerstone of the Middle East's water supply strategy since the mid-1950s, and most of the installed desalination capacity is still provided by multistage flash evaporators. But, desalination is changing. In fact, the term 'desalination' is no longer limited to seawater applications; desalination technologies are now routinely employed to desalinate brackish groundwater and repurify municipal effluents. Recent advances in desalination technology have simultaneously reduced costs while dramatically improving performance and reliability to the point where desalination technologies now compete with 'conventional' treatment processes in many applications. New commercial strategies and a realisation of the economies-of-scale have led to further improvements in plant economics, and an increase in the size of plants now being developed and constructed. This presentation reviews advances in membrane and membrane pretreatment systems, energy recovery devices, materials of construction, hybrid process configurations, increased unit capacities, and the use of public-private partnerships; all of which have led to reduced capital and operating costs, enabling desalination to be economically competitive with traditional treatment options. Advances in desalination technology have resulted in better performances, lower capital and operating costs, and increased application of desalination systems. In the face of increased water shortages and growing costs of 'conventional treatment', this trend will certainly continue. (author)

  7. Optimization of the coupling of nuclear reactors and desalination systems. Final report of a coordinated research project 1999-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Project (CRP) on Optimization of the Coupling of Nuclear Reactors and Desalination Systems with participation of institutes from nine Member States. The CRP was initiated as a step forward for facilitating an early deployment in developing countries, where nuclear desalination is being considered as an option to cope with fresh water deficit as well as energy in the coming decade. The CRP has enabled the IAEA and participating institutes to accumulate relevant information on the latest research and development in the field of nuclear desalination and share it with interested Member States. The CRP has produced optimum coupling configurations of nuclear and desalination systems, evaluated their performance and identified technical features, which may require further assessment for detailed specifications of large-scale nuclear desalination plants. This publication highlights the outcomes of projects under this CRP and draw lessons and suggestions for further investigation for deployment of nuclear desalination

  8. Safety analysis of coupling system of hybrid (MED-RO) nuclear desalination system utilising waste heat from HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raha, Abhijit; Kishore, G.; Rao, I.S.; Adak, A.K.; Srivastava, V.K.; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    To meet the generation IV goals, High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are designed to have relatively higher thermal efficiency and enhanced safety and environmental characteristics. It can provide energy for combined production of hydrogen, electricity and other industrial applications. The waste heat available in the HTGR power cycle can also be utilized for the desalination of seawater for producing potable water. Desalination is an energy intensive process, so use of waste heat from HTGR certainly makes desalination process more affordable to create fresh water resources. So design of the coupling system, as per the safety design requirement of nuclear desalination plant, of desalination plant with HTGR is very crucial. In the first part of this paper, design of the coupling system between hybrid Multi Effect Desalination-Reverse Osmosis (MED-RO) nuclear desalination plant and HTGR to utilize the waste heat in HTGR are discussed. In the next part deterministic safety analysis of the designed coupling system of are presented in detail. It was found that all the coupling system meets the acceptance criteria for all the Postulated Initiating Events (PIE's) limited to DBA. (author)

  9. Generation of Electric Energy and Desalinating Water from Solar Energy and the Oceans Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfikky, Niazi

    will decrease or when the Solar thermal radiation of the Sun will increase, the efficiency of the Solar Voltiac Cells will nearly fully degrade at the ambient temperature 55C?(131Fahrenheit). As known, in the African countries near the Atlantic Ocean like Mauritania, Senegal, South Africa and Guinea ..etc, also the middle east countries like Moroco, Tuniz, Lybia, Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emarates and Iraq etc. the range of the ambient temerature in the Summer seasons especially in the Desrt near the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and the Persian Gulf is around (60-70)C? or (140F-158F). Similarly the majority of the Latin American countries with India and China. So, all the environments of the antecedent countries are not the suitable envuironment for generating electric energy from the Solar Voltiac cells in all seasons along the year. Characteristics of the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). It uses half cylindrical mirrors to reflect with concentration the Solar thermal Radiation around a pipe to heat a special liquid. When the liquid will be heated it will pass through a water tank to exchange its heat in water tank to evaporate the water and create a steam to drive the Power Turbine for generating electricity. Also the capacity of the electric power generated by such technique is so much limited with respect to the wide area (3000 acres, about five miles end to end) occupied by the Concentrated Solar Power Plant . 3. The New Project Profile. Employing the water from the Oceans, Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and Chinees sea to generate the bulky Hydraulic power capacity which will be deliverd directly to the electric power Grid without any inverters. The Salt water will be drawn for desalination after driving A Steam Power Turbine for genrating additional electric power. Invited Call, Speaker No.41445.

  10. A Plan to Develop a Red Tide Warning System for Seawater Desalination Process Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Woo; Yun, Hong Sik

    2017-04-01

    The holt of the seawater desalination process for fifty five days due to the eight-month long red tide in 2008 in the Persian Gulf, the Middle East, had lost about 10 billion KRW. The POSCO Seawater Desalination facility, located in Gwangyang Bay Area in the Southern Sea, has produced 30,000 tons of fresh water per day since 2014. Since there has been an incident of red time in the area for three months in August, 2012, it is necessary to establish a warning system for red tide that threatens the stable operation of the seawater desalination facility. A red tide warning system can offer the seawater desalination facility manager customized services on red tide information and potential red tide inflow to the water intake. This study aimed to develop a red tide warning system in Gwangyang Bay Area by combining RS, modeling and monitoring technologies, which provides red tide forecasting information with which to effectively control the seawater desalination process. Using the proposed system, the seawater desalination facility manager can take phased measures to cope with the inflow of red tide. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was supported by a grant(16IFIP-C088924-03) from Industrial Facilities & Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport(MOLIT) of the Korea government and the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA). This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education(NRF-2014R1A1A2054975).

  11. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2014-04-13

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group\\'s contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Lattemann, Sabine; Missimer, Thomas M.; Ng, Kim Choon; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group's contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimisation of the coupling of nuclear reactors and desalination systems in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabet, M.; Htet, A.; Alami, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study has been undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP on 'Optimisation of the Coupling of Nuclear Reactors and Desalination Systems in Morocco'. Two sites have been selected to host nuclear desalination plants, and different combinations with nuclear reactors have been investigated. Other combinations with fossil fuel plants have been examined for comparison. The results obtained showed the competitiveness of nuclear energy, which could be a solution to supply the region that will suffer from water shortage. On the other hand, this study could help the decision makers in the management and planning of water, energy resources and supply. (author)

  14. Application of S-CO{sub 2} Cycle for Small Modular Reactor coupled with Desalination System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Woong; Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Korean small modular reactor, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor, 100MWe), is designed to achieve enhanced safety and improved economics through reliable passive safety systems, a system simplification and component modularization. SMART can generate electricity and provide water by seawater desalination. However, due to the desalination aspect of SMART, the total amount of net electricity generation is decreased from 100MWe to 90MWe. The authors suggest in this presentation that the reduction of electricity generation can be replenished by applying S-CO{sub 2} power cycle technology. The S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle, which is recently receiving significant attention as the next generation power conversion system, has some benefits such as high cycle efficiency, simple configuration, compactness and so on. In this study, the cycle performance analysis of the S-CO{sub 2} cycles for SMART with desalination system is conducted. The simple recuperated S-CO{sub 2} cycle is revised for coupling with desalination system. The three revised layout are proposed for the cycle performance comparison. In this results of the 3rd revised layout, the cycle efficiency reached 37.8%, which is higher than the efficiency of current SMART with the conventional power conversion system 30%.

  15. Application of S-CO_2 Cycle for Small Modular Reactor coupled with Desalination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Woong; Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2016-01-01

    The Korean small modular reactor, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor, 100MWe), is designed to achieve enhanced safety and improved economics through reliable passive safety systems, a system simplification and component modularization. SMART can generate electricity and provide water by seawater desalination. However, due to the desalination aspect of SMART, the total amount of net electricity generation is decreased from 100MWe to 90MWe. The authors suggest in this presentation that the reduction of electricity generation can be replenished by applying S-CO_2 power cycle technology. The S-CO_2 Brayton cycle, which is recently receiving significant attention as the next generation power conversion system, has some benefits such as high cycle efficiency, simple configuration, compactness and so on. In this study, the cycle performance analysis of the S-CO_2 cycles for SMART with desalination system is conducted. The simple recuperated S-CO_2 cycle is revised for coupling with desalination system. The three revised layout are proposed for the cycle performance comparison. In this results of the 3rd revised layout, the cycle efficiency reached 37.8%, which is higher than the efficiency of current SMART with the conventional power conversion system 30%

  16. Research and development of utilization system of photovoltaic power generation. R and D of stand-alone system (desalination system for remote island-reverse osmosis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This system is an independent system which utilizes DC power obtained by a solar cell for the power source for a sea water desalination plant. The system is constructed of 2 series of a reverse osmosis membrane module system by which the power storage requirement in the battery is minimized by storing in the form of water instead. Effective battery capacity is 46.2 KWH which corresponds to the operation of 0.7 days. Hoso-jima in the central part of the Seto Inland Sea is estimated as the plant location and satisfies the conditions of this verification test. It is being examined to use the solar cells of single and poly crystal types as they have been often practically used to a considerable extent, because the test plant is going to be used as a commercial plant after the test operation is completed. Nominal capacity of 0.55 m/sup 2//h was set for the reverse osmosis sea water desalination unit on the basis of 4.5 m/sup 2//d (a daily average for the agricultural water required for 1,000 m/sup 2/ hydroponic area). Annual average water production is roughly 5.3 m/sup 2//d. (2 figs, 1 tab)

  17. Effects of Bloom-Forming Algae on Fouling of Integrated Membrane Systems in Seawater Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, David Allen

    2009-01-01

    Combining low- and high-pressure membranes into an integrated membrane system is an effective treatment strategy for seawater desalination. Low-pressure microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes remove particulate material, colloids, and high-molecular-weight organics leaving a relatively foulant-free salt solution for treatment by…

  18. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffour, Noreddine; Lattemann, Sabine; Missimer, Thomas; Ng, Kim Choon; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Amy, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy-driven desalination technologies are highlighted. • Solar, geothermal, and wind energy sources were explored. • An innovative hybrid approach (combined solar–geothermal) has also been explored. • Innovative desalination technologies developed by our group are discussed. • Climate change and GHG emissions from desalination are also discussed. - Abstract: Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m 3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3–4 kW h e /m 3 ). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h e /m 3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source

  19. Desalination for a thirsty world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Shortages of fresh water for some, unbridled consumption by others create intolerable planetary imbalances. The treatment of seawater and brackish water can really be effective in readjusting this inequality. Because they are reliable and efficient and their output is stable, the techniques preferred by the desalination industry are thermal distillation and reverse osmosis. Because thermal distillation processes consume considerable energy, they are often paired with gas-, coal- or fuel oil-fired heating plant to take advantage of the steam produced. More than three-quarters of this energy is effectively used to preheat the seawater. In the nuclear option (fresh water + electric power), the reactors simultaneously produce fresh water and electric power, ensuring a stable, continuous supply of energy. A portion of the steam produced by the turbine of the plant's secondary circuit is customarily used to run the alternator to generate electricity. The other portion can be fed to a desalination installation, which may be composed of a combination of several systems (hybrid installations). Highly competitive, this type of cogeneration is particularly appropriate for large scale desalination installations. This is the case for some of the Gulf Emirates and for Jordan: both are investigating the nuclear option to cover their electric power and fresh water requirements. The first nuclear desalination plant dedicated to producing fresh water was built for the city of Aktau (170,000 inhabitants) in Kazakhstan on the Caspian Sea in 1963 and continued operation through 1999. Experiments for producing potable water are taking place in India, Pakistan, Egypt and Libya. In Japan, around ten small desalination units coupled with nuclear power plants produce fresh water for industrial use, and nuclear-run district heating projects are currently being developed in Russia and China. The problem of what to do with the hyper-saline brine produced by desalination and its affect on

  20. Summary of experience and practice in Japanese nuclear desalination plants at the interface between nuclear and desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Y.; Minato, A.

    1998-01-01

    The widely prevalent large scale desalination of seawater is accomplished by two primary methods: Distillation and reverse osmosis (RO). In any case, an external energy supply source is mandatory for the operation of the desalination plants. Reverse Osmosis is more energy efficient than distillation. The energy input for RO is usually supplied by electric power, whereas thermal energy is extracted from an electric power plant for the distillation processes (dual purpose plant). There are no impediments in using nuclear power plants to supply energy to desalination plants in an integral site. However, it is essential to eliminate the possibility of penetration of radioactive contamination into produced water. Besides, the investigation of possible back-up facilities is detrimental to meet the demand of electric power and water. In accordance with the Japanese regulations, a nuclear power plant cannot be operated if any amount of radioactive contamination resulted from the failure of fuel is detected in the cooling water. In our experience, we have found that no special provisions and no additional selection criteria are needed to install the desalination plants within the nuclear power plants, except for the carbon steel shell utilized for the RO module. (author)

  1. Modeling and simulation of a New Design of the SMCEC Desalination Unit Using Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhani, K.; Ben Bacha, H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to parametrically study a new process working design with Humidification/Dehumidification (HD) technique using solar energy which is developed to ameliorate the production of the SMCEC unit (Solar Multiple Condensation Evaporation Cycle). The SMCEC unit is currently operating at Sfax's national engineering school in Tunisia. The improvement of the production consists in increasing the capacity of air to load water vapor with heating and subsequent humidification of air at the exit of the condensation tower instead of rejecting or recycling it. So, to attend our objective, we need to integrate into the SMCEC unit a flat plate solar air collector for heating air and a humidifier for its humidification. Then, the newly designed system is basically composed of a flat plate solar air collector, a flat plate solar water collector, a humidifier, an evaporation tower and a condensation tower. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit is developed in a steady state regime. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations is converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to investigate both the effect of different operating modes on the water condensation rate and the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions.

  2. Application of nuclear steam supply system of NIKA series for seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Achkasov, A.N.; Grechko, G.I.; Pavlov, V.L.; Shishkin, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) NIKA has been developed on the basis of experience available in Russia in designing, construction and operation of similar systems for ship propulsion reactors. Major systems and equipment of the NSSS are designed to take advantage of the proven engineering features and to meet Russian regulations, standards, practices and up-to-date safety philosophy. NSSS NIKA-75 has been designed for arrangement on barge. This permits to manufacture all NSSS equipment at the factory and to deliver it to the exploitation area ready for operation. NSSS NIKA-300 is designed for erection on land. It seems very interesting to use those NSSS types for seawater desalination. The main technical solutions, concept statements, technical and economical evaluations of NIKA series nuclear steam supply systems for seawater desalination are described. (author)

  3. Volume 1: Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aghajanzadeh, Arian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheaffer, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Morrow, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brueske, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dollinger, Caroline [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Kevin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sarker, Prateeti [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Nicholas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cresko, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set a goal to reduce the cost of seawater desalination systems to $0.50/ cubic meter (m3) through the development of technology pathways to reduce energy, capital, operating, soft, and system integration costs.1 In support of this goal and to evaluate the technology pathways to lower the energy and carbon intensity of desalination while also reducing the total water cost, DOE is undertaking a comprehensive study of the energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for desalination technologies and systems. This study is being undertaken in two phases. Phase 1, Survey of Available Information in Support of the Energy-Water Bandwidth Study of Desalination Systems, collected the background information that will underpin Phase 2, the Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems. This report (Volume 1) summarizes the results from Phase 1. The results from Phase 2 will be summarized in Volume 2: Energy Water Bandwidth Study for Desalination Systems (Volume 2). The analysis effort for Phase 2 will utilize similar methods as other industry-specific Energy Bandwidth Studies developed by DOE,2 which has provided a framework to evaluate and compare energy savings potentials within and across manufacturing sectors at the macroscale. Volume 2 will assess the current state of desalination energy intensity and reduction potential through the use of advanced and emerging technologies. For the purpose of both phases of study, energy intensity is defined as the amount of energy required per unit of product water output (for example, kilowatt-hours per cubic meter of water produced). These studies will expand the scope of previous sectorial bandwidth studies by also evaluating CO2 intensity and reduction opportunities and informing a techno-economic analysis of desalination systems. Volume 2 is expected to be completed in 2017.

  4. Integrated Wireless Monitoring and Control System in Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Haji Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The operational processes of the Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane desalination plants require continuous monitoring through the constant attendance of operators to ensure proper productivity and minimize downtime and prevent membrane failure. Therefore, the plant must be equipped with a control system that monitors and controls the operational variables. Monitoring and controlling the affecting parameters are critical to the evaluation of the performance of the desalination plant, which will help the operator find and resolve problems immediately. Therefore, this paper was aimed at developing an RO unit by utilizing a wireless sensor network (WSN system. Hence, an RO pilot plant with a feed capacity of 1.2 m3/h was utilized, commissioned, and tested in Kuwait to assess and verify the performance of the integrated WSN in RO membrane desalination system. The investigated system allowed the operators to remotely monitor the operational process of the RO system. The operational data were smoothly recorded and monitored. Furthermore, the technical problems were immediately determined, which reduced the time and effort in rectifying the technical problems relevant to the RO performance. The manpower requirements of such treatment system were dramatically reduced by about 50%. Based on a comparison between manual and wireless monitoring operational processes, the availability of the integrated RO unit with a wireless monitoring was increased by 10%

  5. Simulation on the start-up of MED seawater desalination system coupled with nuclear heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zhihua; Du Xiaoze; Yang Lijun; Yang Yongping; Wu Shaorong

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical control model for dynamic start-up process of the VTE-MED seawater desalination system was established employing the previous developed non-linear differential equations for system design and performance analysis. The influences on the start-up process of the operating parameters, such as the initial feed brine flow rate and the top brine temperature were analyzed. The relationships among the feed brine flow rate, the gained output ratio (GOR) and the start-up time were also investigated, which can be evidence to determine the optimal initial feed brine flow rate. The results also indicate that the system can consume the total heat rating generated by the low temperature nuclear heating reactor (LT-NHR) even at the most initial start-up stage, implying the present desalination system has excellent coupling characteristics with the LT-NHR. With necessary experiments verifications, the start-up control model developed in this paper can be the theoretical base for the analysis of dynamic performances of the seawater desalination system

  6. Efficient production of electricity and water in cogeneration systems. [Desalination plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadros, S.K.

    1981-11-01

    This paper discusses two topping cycle steam turbine cogeneration systems. The water desalination plant selected is the multistage flash evaporator cycle which uses brine recirculation and high temperature additives for scale protection and 233F maximum brine temperature. The paper mentions briefly the impact of future fuel prices on design and factors which would further improve thermal efficiency. The fuel chargeable to power is determined. 6 refs.

  7. Adsorption Characteristics of Water and Silica Gel System for Desalination Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Cevallos, Oscar R.

    2012-07-01

    An adsorbent suitable for adsorption desalination cycles is essentially characterized by a hydrophilic and porous structure with high surface area where water molecules are adsorbed via hydrogen bonding mechanism. Silica gel type A++ possesses the highest surface area and exhibits the highest equilibrium uptake from all the silica gels available in the market, therefore being suitable for water desalination cycles; where adsorbent’s adsorption characteristics and water vapor uptake capacity are key parameters in the compactness of the system; translated as feasibility of water desalination through adsorption technologies. The adsorption characteristics of water vapor onto silica gel type A++ over a temperature range of 30 oC to 60 oC are investigated in this research. This is done using water vapor adsorption analyzer utilizing a constant volume and variable pressure method, namely the Hydrosorb-1000 instrument by Quantachrome. The experimental uptake data is studied using numerous isotherm models, i. e. the Langmuir, Tóth, generalized Dubinin-Astakhov (D-A), Dubinin-Astakhov based on pore size distribution (PSD) and Dubinin-Serpinski (D-Se) isotherm for the whole pressure range, and for a pressure range below 10 kPa, proper for desalination cycles; isotherms type V of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) classification were exhibited. It is observed that the D-A based on PSD and the D-Se isotherm models describe the best fitting of the experimental uptake data for desalination cycles within a regression error of 2% and 6% respectively. All isotherm models, except the D-A based on PSD, have failed to describe the obtained experimental uptake data; an empirical isotherm model is proposed by observing the behavior of Tóth and D-A isotherm models. The new empirical model describes the water adsorption onto silica gel type A++ within a regression error of 3%. This will aid to describe the advantages of silica gel type A++ for the design of

  8. Solar Distillation System Based on Multiple-Effect Diffusion Type Still

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine; Chong, Tze-Ling; Chang, Hsien-Shun; Wu, Po-Hsien; Kao, Yeong-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The present study intends to develop a high-performance solar-assisted desalination system (SADS) using multi-effect diffusion type still (MEDS) and the vacuum tube solar collector (VTSC). A MEDS prototype was designed and built. The measured result

  9. Desalination of salty water using vacuum spray dryer driven by solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hamawand, Ihsan; Lewis, Larry; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses evaporation under vacuum condition with the aid from solar energy and the recovered waste heat from the vacuum pump. It is a preliminary attempt to design an innovative solar-based evaporation system under vacuum. The design details, equipment required, theoretical background and work methodology are covered in this article. Theoretically, based on the energy provided by the sun during the day, the production rate of pure water can be around 15 kg/m2/day. Assumptions were made for the worst case scenario where only 30% of the latent heat of evaporation is recycled and the ability of the dark droplet to absorb sun energy is around 50%. Both the waste heat from the pump and the heat collected from the photovoltaic (PV) panels are proposed to raise the temperature of the inlet water to the system to its boiling point at the selected reduced pressure.

  10. Desalination of salty water using vacuum spray dryer driven by solar energy

    KAUST Repository

    Hamawand, Ihsan

    2016-11-18

    This paper addresses evaporation under vacuum condition with the aid from solar energy and the recovered waste heat from the vacuum pump. It is a preliminary attempt to design an innovative solar-based evaporation system under vacuum. The design details, equipment required, theoretical background and work methodology are covered in this article. Theoretically, based on the energy provided by the sun during the day, the production rate of pure water can be around 15 kg/m2/day. Assumptions were made for the worst case scenario where only 30% of the latent heat of evaporation is recycled and the ability of the dark droplet to absorb sun energy is around 50%. Both the waste heat from the pump and the heat collected from the photovoltaic (PV) panels are proposed to raise the temperature of the inlet water to the system to its boiling point at the selected reduced pressure.

  11. Solar process heat for industry, seawater desalination and solar chemistry; Solare Prozesswaerme fuer Industrie, Meerwasserentsalzung und Solarchemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennecke, K. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin (Germany); Lokurlu, A. [Solitem GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Rommel, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Spaete, F. [Fachhochschule Aachen, Juelich (Germany). Solar-Institut Juelich

    2006-02-15

    The examples discussed in this paper show that solar process heat can make an important contribution to climate protection and resource conservation. Marketable technologies providing temperatures up to approx. 200 C will be available in the short to medium term future. Continue low prices for fossil fuels and high consulting and planning costs impede the further spread of these technologies. Politicians must be called upon to facilitate the development of the market through suitable promotion programmes. There is still a long-term requirement for research, especially regarding high-temperature applications and solar chemistry.

  12. Analysis of environmental effect of hybrid solar-assisted desalination cycle in Sirdarya Thermal Power Plant, Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikulov, Khusniddin; Xuan, Tran Dang; Higashi, Osamu; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Aminov, Zarif

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid solar-assisted desalination cycle was designed and stimulated. • Maximum of 21,064.00 kW effective solar heat can be achieved. • The use of parabolic-trough collectors in the Multi Effect Distillation is potential. • The cycle can be applied in other regions with high Direct Normal Irradiation. - Abstract: This study was to investigate possible reduction of fossil fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission in one of energy sectors of Sirdarya Thermal Power Plant (TPP), Uzbekistan. A hybrid solar-assisted desalination cycle has been designed and simulated for partially supplying saturated steam with 200 °C, 8 bar, and 32 t/h parameters to a Multi Effect Distillation (MED) process in the Sirdarya Thermal Power Plant. The outcome of the parental design model stated that maximum, 21,064.00 kW effective solar heat can be achieved, which is equivalent to 31.76 t/h of saturated steam with 200 °C and 8 bar parameters. Total saved fossil fuel in each month proved that it is possible to reduce fossil fuel (heavy oil and natural gas) consumption with 59.64, 95.24, 389.96, and 298.26 tons during available Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) by using parabolic-trough collectors. Moreover, the above-mentioned fossil fuel savings accounted for CO_2 reduction with amounts of 182.50, 255.46, 1045.87 & 799.96 tons per each consistent month. Findings proved that integration of parabolic-trough collectors into the MED process is feasible in terms of high DNI availability and demand for retrofitting old existing heat-consuming facilities in Sirdarya Thermal Power Plant. Besides, the cycle also can be applied in other regions of Uzbekistan with high DNI for generating solar heat. Therefore, conducted study is eligible to be applied on the research site by taking into account of sufficient meteorological data and required steam parameters.

  13. Comparative productivity of distillation and reverse osmosis desalination using energy from solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tleimat, B.W.; Howe, E.D.

    1982-11-01

    This paper presents comparative analyses of two methods for producing desalted water using the heat collected by a solar pond - the first by distillation, and the second by reverse osmosis. The distillation scheme uses a multiple-effect distiller supplied with steam generated in a flash boiler using heat from a solar pond. Solar pond water passes through a heat exchanger in the water system ahead of the flash boiler. The second scheme uses a similar arrangement to generate hydrocarbon vapor which drives a Rankine cycle engine. This engine produces mechanical/ electrical power for the RO plant. The analyses use two pond water temperatures -82.2/sup 0/C (180/sup 0/F) and 71.1/sup 0/C (160/sup 0/F) -- which seem to cover the range expected from salt-gradient ponds. In each case, the pond water temperature drops by 5.56/sup 0/C (10/sup 0/F) while passing through the vapor generator system. Results of these analyses show that, based on the assumptions made, desalted water could be produced by distillation at productivity rates much greater than those estimated for the RO plant.

  14. Comparative productivity of distillation and reverse osmosis desalination using energy from solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tleimat, B.W.; Howe, E.D.

    1982-11-01

    This paper presents comparative analyses of two methods for producing desalted water using the heat collected by a solar pond - the first by distillation, and the second by reverse osmosis. The distillation scheme uses a multiple-effect distiller supplied with steam generated in a flash boiler using heat from a solar pond. Solar pond water passes through a heat exchanger in the water system ahead of the flash boiler. The second scheme uses a similar arrangement to generate hydrocarbon vapor which drives a Rankine cycle engine. This engine produces mechanical/ electrical power for the RO plant. The analyses use two pond water temperatures 82.2/sup 0/C (180/sup 0/F) and 71.1/sup 0/C (160/sup 0/F) - which seem to cover the range expected from salt-gradient ponds. In each case, the pond water temperature drops by 5.56/sup 0/C (10/sup 0/F) while passing through the vapor generator system. Results of these analyses show that, based on the assumptions made, desalted water could be produced by distillation at productivity rates much greater than those estimated for the RO plant.

  15. Application of a multi-criteria analysis for the selection of the most suitable energy source and water desalination system in Mauritania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayod Rujula, Angel Antonio; Dia, Nourou Khalidou

    2010-01-01

    Water deficits and their associated shortages are serious problems in many areas of the world. The paper presents a multi-criteria analysis for selection of the most suitable system in Mauritania. Six scenarios, different energy sources, technologies of water desalination processes and water use and five criteria are analyzed. The multi-criteria analysis shows that the optimal solution is different for each scenario; in some cases the photovoltaic-reverse osmosis option is preferable; in others, the best option is reverse-osmosis powered by wind energy or concentrating solar parabolic.

  16. A multi evaporator desalination system operated with thermocline energy for future sustainability

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-01-01

    ) of desalination is at 828. Despite slightly better UPRs for the RO plants, all practical desalination plants available, hitherto, operate at only less than 12% of the TL, rendering them highly energy intensive and unsustainable for future sustainability. More

  17. Seawater desalination in micro grids. An integrated planning approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognar, Kristina; Behrendt, Frank [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Blechinger, Philipp [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy Engineering; Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Islands often depend on the import of fossil fuels for power generation. Due to the combined effect of high oil prices and transportation costs, energy supply systems based on renewable energies are already able to compete successfully with fossil fuel systems for a number of these islands. Depending on local and regional conditions, not only energy supply is a challenge, but also the finding of a reliable supply of water. A promising alternative to freshwater shipments is seawater desalination. Desalination processes can act as a flexible load whenever excess electricity generated by renewable sources is present. Numerical simulations of combined energy and water supply systems for the Caribbean island, Petite Martinique, Grenada, are accomplished. Considering renewable energy sources like wind and solar radiation, energy storage technologies, and desalination processes, various scenarios are introduced and simulated, and the results are compared. An extension of the current energy supply system with renewable energy technologies reduces power generation costs by approximately 40%. The excess energy generated by renewables can supply a significant share of a desalination plant's energy demand. The levelized costs of electricity and water show that the integration of desalination as a deferrable load is beneficial to the considered micro grid. The implementation of renewable energy generation and desalination as deferrable load is recommendable in Petite Martinique. Possible refinancing strategies depending on the combination of different electricity and water tariffs can be derived and applied to similar business cases in remote regions. (orig.)

  18. Thermo-economic performance of inclined solar water distillation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agboola Phillips O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the thermo-economic performance of different configurations of inclined solar water desalination for parameters such as daily production, efficiency, system cost and distilled water production cost. The four different configurations considered for this study are as follows; 1. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (IISWD with daily production of 5.46 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 48.3%. 2. Inclined solar water distillation with wick on absorber plate (IISWDW with daily production of 6.41kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 50.3%. 3. Inclined solar water distillation with wire mesh on absorber plate (IISWDWM with daily production n of 3.03 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency 32.6%. 4. Inclined solar water distillation with bare absorber plate (ISWD. (Control System with daily production of 3.25 kg/m2 day and daily efficiency of 40.1%. The systems potable water cost price ranges from 0.03 $/L for IISWDW to 0.06$/L for IISWDWM System. All the systems are economically and technically feasible as a solar distillation system for potable water in Northern Cyprus. The price of potable water from water vendors/hawkers ranges from 0.11-0.16 $/L. It is more economically viable to have the rooftop inclined solar water desalination system than procuring potable water from vendors.`

  19. Design of desalination system based on multistage flash distillation (MSF) method : MSF desalination process and thermodynamics aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaryo, G.R.; Sumijanto; Latifah, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    During the development of making fresh water for supplying the potable water in Jakarta and eastern Indonesia, Indonesia Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) has been developing the application of small power reactor for dual purposes,electricity and fresh water producing. One of the most popular method, because of the cheapest maintenance, is the Multi Stage Flash Distillation (MSF) which us study on designing the miniscale of MDF, the process fundamental aspects are the scale formation, degassing dissolved gas and diminishing foam, and from the thermodynamic aspect it is known that the total amount of heat required for MSF desalination is equal to free energy differences between water in solution and pure water times the ratio of total boiling temperature and the boiling temperature elevation with boiling temperature, where the range value is 35-40 kj/kg. Since the complex aspect of irreversible the heat required become 7 times higher as 240∼280 kj/kg

  20. Solar engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, K.K.; Bahrom Sanugi; Chen, L.C.; Chong, K.K.; Jasmy Yunus; Kannan, K.S.; Lim, B.H.; Noriah Bidin; Omar Aliman; Sahar Salehan; Sheikh Ab Rezan Sheikh A H; Tam, C.M.; Chen, Y.T.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the revolutionary solar engine system in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The solar engine is a single cylinder stirling engine driven by solar thermal energy. A first prototype solar engine has been built and demonstrated. A new-concept non-imaging focusing heliostat and a recently invented optical receiver are used in the demonstration. Second generation of prototype solar engine is described briefly. In this paper, the solar engine system development is reported. Measurement for the first prototype engine speed, temperature and specifications are presented. The benefits and potential applications for the future solar engine system, especially for the electricity generating aspect are discussed. (Author)

  1. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  2. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  3. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, A; Yusof, K W; Sapari, N; Hashim, A M; Singh, B S

    2013-01-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  4. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis – low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis – low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor – reverse osmosis – advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m3 d−1 of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m3 produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  5. Simulation of the performance and economical study of a hybrid thermal desalination (solar and natural gas); Simulacao do desempenho e estudo economico de um dessalinizador hibrido (solar e gas natural)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria E.V. da; Coutinho, Lecimara D.E.; Soares, Bruno de L. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Schwarzer, Klemens [Universidade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Aachen (Germany); Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This article presents a simulation of the performance and the results of an economic study of a hybrid thermal desalination equipment to produce drinkable water using solar energy and natural gas at its energy sources. The components of the desalination equipment are two solar flat plate collectors with reflectors, a natural gas burner, and a desalination tower. A piping circuit connects the tower to the collectors and the burner. In this circuit, a fluid transports heat from the thermal sources (collectors or burner) to the salty water in the first stage of the tower. When the salty water receives heat, it warms up and evaporates. The vapor produced flows up the bottom walls of the next stage, where it condenses, as it transfers the phase change heat to the water in this upper stage. The condensate flows in lateral channels to be collected outside the tower. Experimental measurements results obtained for a desalination unit with 4m{sup 2} of collector area and a seven stage tower, and the natural gas properties were used in the calculation. In the economic study, fabrication, installation, and maintenance costs were included. The results also show the water daily production for solar and hybrid. (author)

  6. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  7. Renewable Energies and Water Security: Thermo Solar Energy as an Alternative for Seawater Desalination in North Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Enrique Vieira de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change-related events, added to estimations about economical and population growth – tend to aggravate water scarcity, which is already affecting almost every country in the North of Africa and the Middle East. Based on a critical analysis of the “ACQUA-CSP” report, we discuss the initiatives devoted to the mitigation of water stress in these regions, with an emphasis on the seawater desalination processes. Since existing desalination plants are currently powered by fossil fuels, the use of thermo solar energy will be introduced as a sustainable strategy for the increase of water supply. We conclude that, in order to achieve the successful management of water resources, engineering and infrastructure solutions must be oriented by democratic institutions able to mediate conflicts over the allocation of water resources.

  8. Thermodynamic study of multi-effect thermal vapour-compression desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaké, Oumar; Galanis, Nicolas; Sorin, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The parametric analysis of a multi-effect-evaporation (MEE) desalination system combined with a thermal-vapour-compression (TVC) process activated by a gaseous stream of specified flowrate and temperature was performed based on the principles of classical (1st and 2nd laws) and finite-size thermodynamics. The MEE subsystem was treated as a black box and therefore the results are valid for any combination of physical characteristics and internal operational conditions of this subsystem. They show the effects of four design variables (the motive fluid pressure and the compression ratio of the ejector, the condenser temperature pinch and the ratio of rejected to supplied seawater) on significant operating quantities and performance indicators such as: energy supplied by the heat source; motive fluid flowrate; flowrates of the supplied seawater and produced potable water; specific heat consumption; thermal conductance of the vapour generator and the condenser; exergy destruction by the MEE, the ejector and the vapour generator. Based on the obtained results recommendations are formulated for the optimal choice of values for the four design variables. - Highlights: • Model of a MEE-TVC desalination system independent of MEE characteristics. • Parametric study based on classical (1st and 2nd law) and finite-size thermodynamics. • Effect of 4 design parameters on operating conditions and performance indicators. • Recommended values for the design parameters

  9. Feasibilty study of renewable energy powered seawater desalination technology using natural vacuum technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayhan, Teoman; Al Madani, Hussain [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Bahrain, P.O. box 32038, Isatown 32036 (Bahrain)

    2010-02-15

    With an ever-increasing population and rapid growth of industrialization, there is great demand for fresh water. Desalination has been a key proponent to meet the future challenges due to decreasing availability of fresh water. However, desalination uses significant amount of energy, today mostly from fossil fuels. It is, therefore, reasonable to rely on renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, ocean thermal energy, waste heat from the industry and other renewable sources. The present study deals with the energy-efficient seawater desalination system utilizing renewable energy sources and natural vacuum technique. A new desalination technology named Natural Vacuum Desalination is proposed. The novel desalination technique achieve remarkable energy efficiency through the evaporation of seawater under vacuum and will be described in sufficient detail to demonstrate that it requires much less electric energy compared to any conventional desalination plant of fresh water production of similar capacity. The discussion will highlight the main operative and maintenance features of the proposed natural vacuum seawater desalination technology which seems to have promising techno-economic potential providing also advantageous coupling with renewable energy sources. (author)

  10. STUDY ON DISCHARGE HEAT UTILIZATION OF 250 MWe PCMSR TURBINE SYSTEM FOR DESALINATION USING MODIFIED MED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andang Widiharto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor is one type of Advanced Nuclear Reactors. The PCMSR has benefit charasteristics of very efficient fuel use, high safety charecteristic as well as high thermodinamics efficiency. This is due to its breeding capability, inherently safe characteristic and totally passive safety system. The PCMSR design consists of three module, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. Analysis in performed by parametric calculation of the turbine system to calculate the turbine system efficiency and the hat available for desalination. After that the mass and energi balance of desalination process are calculated to calculate the amount of distillate produced and the amount of feed sea water needed. The turbine module is designed to be operated at maximum temperature cycle of 1373 K (1200 0C and minimum temperature cycle of 333 K (60 0K. The parametric calculation shows that the optimum turbine pressure ratio is 4.3 that gives the conversion efficiency of 56 % for 4 stages turbine and 4 stages compressor and equiped with recuperator. In this optimum condition, the 250 MWe PCMSR turbine system produces 196 MWth of waste heat with the temperature of cooling fluid in the range from 327 K (54 0C to 368 K (92 0C. This waste heat can be utilized for desalination. By using MMED desalination system, this waste heat can be used to produce fresh water (distillate from sea water feed. The amount of the destillate produced is 48663 ton per day by using 15 distillation effects. The performance ratio value is 2.8727 kg/MJ by using 15 distillation effects. Keywords: PCMSR, discharged heat, MMED desalination   PCMSR (Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor merupakan salah satu tipe dari Reaktor Nuklir Maju. PCMSR memiliki keuntungan berupa penggunaan bahan bakar yang sangat efisisien, sifat keselamatan tinggi dan sekaligus efisiensi termodinamika yang tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kemampuan pembiakan bahan bakar, sifat

  11. Sustainable desalination using ocean thermocline energy

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2017-09-22

    The conventional desalination processes are not only energy intensive but also environment un-friendly. They are operating far from thermodynamic limit, 10–12%, making them un-sustainable for future water supplies. An innovative desalination processes are required to meet future sustainable desalination goal and COP21 goal. In this paper, we proposed a multi-effect desalination system operated with ocean thermocline energy, thermal energy harnessed from seawater temperature gradient. It can exploit low temperature differential between surface hot water temperature and deep-sea cold-water temperature to produce fresh water. Detailed theoretical model was developed and simulation was conducted in FORTRAN using international mathematical and statistical library (IMSL). We presented four different cases with deep-sea cold water temperature varies from 5 to 13°C and MED stages varies from 3 to 6. It shows that the proposed cycle can achieve highest level of universal performance ratio, UPR = 158, achieving about 18.8% of the ideal limit. With the major energy input emanated from the renewable solar, the proposed cycle is truly a “green desalination” method of low global warming potential (GWP), best suited for tropical coastal shores having bathymetry depths up to 300m or more.

  12. Improved aquifer characterization and the optimization of the design of brackish groundwater desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Malivaa, Robert G.

    2011-07-01

    Many water scarce regions possess brackish-water resources that can be desalted to provide alternative water supplies. Brackish groundwater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is less expensive than seawater systems because of reduced energy and pretreatment requirements and lesser volumes of concentrate that require disposal. Development of brackish groundwater wellfields include the same hydraulic issues that affect conventional freshwater wellfields. Managing well interference and prevention of adverse impacts such as land subsidence are important concerns. RO systems are designed to treat water whose composition falls within a system-specific envelope of salinities and ion concentrations. A fundamental requirement for the design of brackish groundwater RO systems is prediction of the produced water chemistry at both the start of pumping and after 10-20 years of operation. Density-dependent solute-transport modeling is thus an integral component of the design of brackish groundwater RO systems. The accuracy of groundwater models is dependent upon the quality of the hydrogeological data upon which they are based. Key elements of the aquifer characterization are the determination of the three-dimensional distribution of salinity within the aquifer and the evaluation of aquifer heterogeneity with respect to hydraulic conductivity. It is necessary to know from where in a pumped aquifer (or aquifer zone) water is being produced and the contribution of vertical flow to the produced water. Unexpected, excessive vertical migration (up-coning) of waters that are more saline has adversely impacted some RO systems because the salinity of the water delivered to the system exceeded the system design parameters. Improved aquifer characterization is possible using advanced geophysical techniques, which can, in turn, lead to more accurate solute-transport models. Advanced borehole geophysical logs, such as nuclear magnetic resonance, were run as part of the exploratory test

  13. Financial study of an integrated nuclear desalination system in Tunisia: the Tundesal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzguenda Benzarti, Neila; Albouy, Michel; Nisan, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on a case study of financing an integrated nuclear desalination system at la Skhira site in Tunisia. More specifically, it shows the financial characteristics of the study, known as the TUNDESAL project, the main financing mechanisms that can be used, and the principal actions required to attract the potential investors and lenders. The paper describes: - The specific financial considerations corresponding to the particular characteristics of nuclear desalination projects: high capital costs, high level of risks and uncertainties, relatively long construction lead times and social and environmental concerns; - The main risks involved in nuclear energy projects; - The profitability study of the TUNDESAL project with the application of the Discounted Cash Flow Analysis; - The main financing sources for the project; - The financing schemes that can be used for project implementation and comparison between these schemes in terms of benefits generated, after covering project costs and repayment of lenders and investors; - The main actions to be done for making the project financially attractive in order to gain the confidence of investors and international financial institutions (optimal allocation of project risks and uncertainties, a suitable and flexible energy and water tariffs policy). Analysis has shown that in particular conditions of Tunisia, the most attractive financial scheme could be the 'project financing + leasing'. (authors)

  14. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  15. Evaluation of hydroacid complex in the forward osmosis–membrane distillation (FO–MD) system for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng; Cui, Yue; Ge, Qingchun; Fern Tew, Tjin; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of membrane distillation (MD) into forward osmosis (FO) provides process sustainability to regenerate the draw solution and to produce clean water simultaneously. However, the reverse salt flux is the major hurdle in the FO-MD system because it not only reduces the effective osmotic driving force across the membrane but also increases the replenishment cost and scaling issue. For the first time, a hydroacid complex with abundant hydrophilic groups and ionic species is evaluated as the draw solutes in the hybrid FO-MD system consisting of multi-bore PVDF MD membranes for seawater/brackish desalination. In order to evaluate the practicality of the hydroacid complex in the FO-MD system, FO and MD experiments were conducted at elevated temperatures and concentrations. The hydroacid complex has displayed desired properties such as high solubility, low viscosity, excellent thermal stability and minimal reverse salt flux suitable for FO and MD operations. FO-MD desalination process was demonstrated with a highest seawater desalination flux of 6/32 LMH (FO/MD). This study may open up the prospective of employing the hydroacid complex as the draw solute in FO-MD hybrid systems for seawater /brackish desalination. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Evaluation of hydroacid complex in the forward osmosis–membrane distillation (FO–MD) system for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The incorporation of membrane distillation (MD) into forward osmosis (FO) provides process sustainability to regenerate the draw solution and to produce clean water simultaneously. However, the reverse salt flux is the major hurdle in the FO-MD system because it not only reduces the effective osmotic driving force across the membrane but also increases the replenishment cost and scaling issue. For the first time, a hydroacid complex with abundant hydrophilic groups and ionic species is evaluated as the draw solutes in the hybrid FO-MD system consisting of multi-bore PVDF MD membranes for seawater/brackish desalination. In order to evaluate the practicality of the hydroacid complex in the FO-MD system, FO and MD experiments were conducted at elevated temperatures and concentrations. The hydroacid complex has displayed desired properties such as high solubility, low viscosity, excellent thermal stability and minimal reverse salt flux suitable for FO and MD operations. FO-MD desalination process was demonstrated with a highest seawater desalination flux of 6/32 LMH (FO/MD). This study may open up the prospective of employing the hydroacid complex as the draw solute in FO-MD hybrid systems for seawater /brackish desalination. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  17. An investigation into a laboratory scale bubble column humidification dehumidification desalination system powered by biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaseenivasan, T.; Srithar, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A biomass based humidification dehumidification desalination system is tested. • System is analyzed with the direct and preheated air supply. • Highest distillate rate of 6.1 kg/h is collected with the preheated air supply. • The minimum fuel feed of 0.2 kg is needed to produce 1 kg of fresh water. - Abstract: This article describes a biomass powered bubble column humidification-dehumidification desalination system. This system mainly consists of a biomass stove, air heat exchanger, bubble column humidifier and dehumidifier. Saw dust briquettes are used as biomass fuel in the stove. First level of experiments are carried out in bubble column humidifier with ambient air supply to select the best water depth, bubble pipe hole diameter and water temperature. Experiments are conducted by integrating the humidifier with the dehumidifier. Air is sent to the humidifier with and without pre-heating. Preheating of air is carried out in the air heat exchanger by using the flue gas and flame from the combustion chamber. It is observed that the humidifier ability is augmented with the rise in water depth, water temperature, mass flow rate of air and cooling water flow rate, and reduction in bubble pipe hole diameter. It is found from Taguchi analysis that the water temperature dominates in controlling the humidifier performance compared to other parameters. Better specific humidity is recorded with a bubble pipe hole diameter of 1 mm, water depth of 170 mm and water temperature of 60 °C. Highest distillate of 6.1 kg/h and 3.5 kg/h is collected for the HDH desalination system with preheated air and direct air supply respectively. Recovery of waste heat using an air heat exchanger reduces the fuel consumption from 0.36 kg to 0.2 kg for producing 1 kg of distilled water. Lowest distilled water cost of 0.0133 US $/kg through preheated air supply and 0.0231 US $/kg through direct air supply is observed. A correlation is developed to estimate the mass transfer

  18. Desalination Using the Condensation Irrigation System, A Case Study of the Research Farm of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Yousefi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensation Irrigation (CI is a combination of simultaneous desalination and irrigation/drinking water production. As saline water evaporates in a solar distiller and the hot and humid air is transferred into an underground pipeline, fresh water will condense on the inner pipe surface due to cooling of air by the ground. The water thus condensed infiltrates into the soil through pores in the perforated drainage pipes laid in the ground to transfer the humidified air. In this study, the CI system was developed using common buried pipes to determine the amount of water produced. In this setup, condensed water is collected at the end of the pipe to be used for drinking. Observations and calculations indicated a mean water production capacity of 4 liters every 8 hours along a pipe 25m long. Less water was produced on the first day because some of the water was lost to the wetting of the internal pipe walls. Finally, examination of temperature effects revealed that water production along the pipe reduces as we move farther away from the inlet part of the pipe.

  19. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  20. Development of an environmental impact assessment and decision support system for seawater desalination plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lattemann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater desalination is a rapidly growing coastal-based industry. The combined production capacity of all seawater desalination plants worldwide has increased by 30% over the last two years: from 28 million cubic meters per day in 2007—which is the equivalent of the average discharge of the River

  1. Hybrid membrane system for desalination and wastewater treatment : Integrating forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 97% of the water in the world is seawater, desalination technologies have the potential to solve the fresh water crisis. The most used desalination technology nowadays is seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the

  2. The performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system equipped with adsorption desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration plant, shortly in TCCP, equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP or cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling, and (iv) dehumidification and distilled water by utilizing single energy source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heatactivated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption desalination system, and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The analysis is performed under different operation conditions such as heat source temperatures, flow rates of heat transfer fluids and chilled water inlet temperatures. The only single heat source for TCCP is obtained from exhaust gas of micro-turbine and it is channeled to a series of waste heat recovery heat exchangers to steam and hot water at different temperatures. Hot water produced by such a compact heat exchangers is the driving heat source to produce steam of 15 kg/h, cooling of 2 Rton, dehumidification of 2 Rton, and distilled water of 0.7 m3/day. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor could achieve as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio is found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  3. The performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system equipped with adsorption desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration plant, shortly in TCCP, equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP or cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling, and (iv) dehumidification and distilled water by utilizing single energy source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heatactivated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption desalination system, and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The analysis is performed under different operation conditions such as heat source temperatures, flow rates of heat transfer fluids and chilled water inlet temperatures. The only single heat source for TCCP is obtained from exhaust gas of micro-turbine and it is channeled to a series of waste heat recovery heat exchangers to steam and hot water at different temperatures. Hot water produced by such a compact heat exchangers is the driving heat source to produce steam of 15 kg/h, cooling of 2 Rton, dehumidification of 2 Rton, and distilled water of 0.7 m3/day. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor could achieve as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio is found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on photovoltaic power systems. Development of dispersed stand-alone system (seawater desalination system for remote island areas-osmosis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-09-01

    This study deals with development of a system of seawater osmosis desalination for remote island areas and agricultural-process water-supply. The demonstration system, installed in Hosojima, was simulated for examination. The yearly-averaged generated electric energy was 76 kWh/day, and the consumed energy 72 kWh/day. The calculated water productivity was 5.5 m/sup 3//day in the first step, and 4.9 m/sup 3//day in the second. This amount had a high balance with that required for hydropholic water of 4.5 m/sup 3//day. The generated output was 30.8 kWp (power range of 10-100 kW) for the solar cells, and 840 Ah for the electric batteries. The generated direct-current power was supplied to the loads without use of a DA converter, which contributes to the high energy efficiency and the inexpensiveness of the system. This system can be unattendantly operated in the normal conditions. After construction of the demonstration plant, the respective units and the total system were adjusted to give good results. (1 fig, 1 tab)

  5. Heat transfer performance of condenser tubes in an MSF desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, T.; Kalendar, A.; Al Saftawi, A.; Zedan, M.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines the amount of condensed fresh water off the outer-side surface of heat exchangers in an MSF system. The quantitative modeling of condensed water on the outer surface of comparable tubes, enhanced and plain, in a simulated MSF technique is investigated. An adapted simulation design on a test-rig facility, accounting for the condenser tubing in actual industrial desalination plate-form, is used with corrugated and smooth aluminum-brass material tubes 1100mm long and 23mm bore. A single phase flow of authentic brine water that typifies real fouling is utilized to simulate the actual environmental life of a multi-stage flashing desalination system, with coolant flow velocity 0.1 m/s in the two delineated types of condenser tubing. It is demonstrated that the condensate water amount from the specified enhanced tube is about 1.22 times the condensate water amount from the smooth tube, adaptive for 140 running hours under deliberated constrains. The topic covers a comparative analysis of thermal performance. Comparing results with fresh water confirm the effect of fouling on significantly lowering the value of the overall heat transfer coefficient versus time. Fouling resistance R f is reported with the critical coolant flow speed of 0.1 m/s. Comparison between the fouling resistance for both smooth and corrugated tubes versus time is performed. The fouling thermal resistance of the corrugated tube is 0.56 of the fouling thermal resistance of the smooth tube after140 running hours of the experiment are concluded. Overall, in the case of real brine, results prove that heat performance for the corrugated tube is superior to the plain tube over the studied time period (140 hrs) for the chosen range of flow speeds

  6. Efficient solar-driven synthesis, carbon capture, and desalinization, STEP: solar thermal electrochemical production of fuels, metals, bleach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, S. [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-12-15

    STEP (solar thermal electrochemical production) theory is derived and experimentally verified for the electrosynthesis of energetic molecules at solar energy efficiency greater than any photovoltaic conversion efficiency. In STEP the efficient formation of metals, fuels, chlorine, and carbon capture is driven by solar thermal heated endothermic electrolyses of concentrated reactants occuring at a voltage below that of the room temperature energy stored in the products. One example is CO{sub 2}, which is reduced to either fuels or storable carbon at a solar efficiency of over 50% due to a synergy of efficient solar thermal absorption and electrochemical conversion at high temperature and reactant concentration. CO{sub 2}-free production of iron by STEP, from iron ore, occurs via Fe(III) in molten carbonate. Water is efficiently split to hydrogen by molten hydroxide electrolysis, and chlorine, sodium, and magnesium from molten chlorides. A pathway is provided for the STEP decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels to pre-industrial age levels in 10 years. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Performance Evaluation of An Innovative-Vapor- Compression-Desalination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna R. Lubis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two dominant desalination methods are reverse osmosis (RO and multi-stage flash (MSF. RO requires large capital investment and maintenance, whereas MSF is too energy-intensive. Innovative system of vapor compression desalination is proposed in this study. Comprehensive mathematics model for evaporator is also described. From literature study, it is indicated that very high overall-heat-transfer coefficient for evaporator can be obtained at specific condition by using dropwise condensation in the steam side, and pool boiling in the liquid side. Smooth titanium surface is selected in order to increase dropwise condensation, and resist corrosion. To maximize energy efficiency, a cogeneration scheme of a combined cycle consisting of gas turbine, boiler heat recovery, and steam turbine that drivescompressor is used. The resource for combined cycle is relatively too high for the compressor requirement. Excess power can be used to generate electricity for internal and/or externalconsumptions, and sold to open market. Four evaporator stages are used. Evaporator is fed by seawater, with assumption of 3.5% salt contents. Boiling brine (7% salt is boiled in low pressure side of the heat exchanger, and condensed vapor is condensed in high pressure side of the heat exchanger. Condensed steam flows at velocity of 1.52 m/s, so that it maximize the heat transfer coefficient. This unit is designed in order to produce 10 million gallon/day, and assumed it is financed with 5%, 30 years of passive obligation. Three cases are evaluated in order to determine recommended condition to obtain the lowest fixed capital investment. Based on the evaluation, it is possible to establish four-stage unit of mechanical vapor compression distillation with capital $31,723,885.

  8. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Yangali-Quintanilla, V; Ghaffour, N; Amy, G; Leiknes, T; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis - low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis - advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m(3) d(-1) of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m(3) produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  9. A comprehensive economic evaluation of integrated desalination systems using fossil fuelled and nuclear energies and including their environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.; Benzarti, N.

    2008-01-01

    Seawater desalination is now widely accepted as an attractive alternative source of freshwater for domestic and industrial uses. Despite the considerable progress made in the relevant technologies desalination, however, remains an energy intensive process in which the energy cost is the paramount factor. This Study is a first of a kind in that we have integrated the environmental costs into the power and desalination costs. The study has focused on the seawater desalination cost evaluation of the following systems. It is supposed that they will be operating in the co-generation mode (Simultaneous production of electrical power and desalted water) in 2015: Fossil fuelled based systems such as the coal and oil fired plants and the gas turbine combined cycle plant, coupled to MED, and RO; Pressurised water reactors such as the PWR-900 and the AP-600, coupled to MED, and RO; High temperature reactors such as the GT-MHR, the PBMR, coupled to MED, with the utilisation of virtually free waste-heat provided by these reactors. The study is made in real site-specific conditions of a site In Southern Europe. Sensitivity studies for different parameters such as the fossil fuel prices, interest and discount rates, power costs etc., have also been undertaken. The results obtained are then used to evaluate the financial interest of selected integrated desalination systems in terms of a detailed cash flow analysis, providing the net present values, pay back periods and the internal rate of returns. Analysis of the results shows that among the fossil fuelled systems the power and desalination costs by circulating fluidized bed coal fired plant would be the lowest with current coal prices. Those by oil fired plants would be highest. In all cases, integrated nuclear energy systems would lead to considerably lower power and water costs than the corresponding coal based systems. When external costs for different energies are internalized in power and water costs, the relative cost

  10. The Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of the Water Lubricated Bearing-Rotor System in Seawater Desalination Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Ye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the water lubricated bearing-rotor system in seawater desalination pump, this paper is based on the coupling between the lubricating flow field and the rotor dynamics. The fluid-solid interaction (FSI method, Rigid Body, was adopted to study the journal orbit of the bearing-rotor system under the periodic unbalancing load. The influences of geometric and working parameter to the journal orbit were combined to analyze the stability and reliability of the bearing-rotor system. The result shows that increasing the rotating speed would increase the journal whirling amplitude and the system sensitivity to the external excitation and unbalancing load were promoted; increasing the aspect ratio would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable; increasing the inlet pressure would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable; increasing the unbalancing load would reduce the stability margin and the system is easy to be unstable if obstructed; increasing the radial clearance would reduce the journal whirling amplitude and cause the system to be more unstable. The attitude angle has no influence on the journal whirling amplitude but would influence the stability of system and the value of attitude angle should not be large.

  11. Homemade Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

  12. Theoretical modelling and optimization of bubble column dehumidifier for a solar driven humidification-dehumidification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitha, P. Raj; Ratheesh, R.; Jayakumar, J. S.; Balakrishnan, Shankar

    2018-02-01

    Availability and utilization of energy and water are the top most global challenges being faced by the new millennium. At the present state water scarcity has become a global as well as a regional challenge. 40 % of world population faces water shortage. Challenge of water scarcity can be tackled only with increase in water supply beyond what is obtained from hydrological cycle. This can be achieved either by desalinating the sea water or by reusing the waste water. High energy requirement need to be overcome for either of the two processes. Of many desalination technologies, humidification dehumidification (HDH) technology powered by solar energy is widely accepted for small scale production. Detailed optimization studies on system have the potential to effectively utilize the solar energy for brackish water desalination. Dehumidification technology, specifically, require further study because the dehumidifier effectiveness control the energetic performance of the entire HDH system. The reason attributes to the high resistance involved to diffuse dilute vapor through air in a dehumidifier. The present work intends to optimize the design of a bubble column dehumidifier for a solar energy driven desalination process. Optimization is carried out using Matlab simulation. Design process will identify the unique needs of a bubble column dehumidifier in HDH system.

  13. A comprehensive economic evaluation of integrated desalination systems, including environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater desalination is now widely accepted as an attractive alternative source of freshwater for domestic and industrial uses. Despite the considerable progress made in the relevant technologies desalination, however, remains an energy intensive process in which the energy cost is the paramount factor. Many papers have already been published on desalination economics but a comprehensive study, based on the exhaustive analysis of a combination of energy sources and desalination processes, using state of the art economic models and realistic assumptions, is still quite rare. The aim of this paper is to fulfil this gap with a view to provide clear choices of techno-economic options to decision makers in a wide range of countries be they from the developed regions or emerging countries

  14. Desalination processes and technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Reasons of the development of desalination processes, the modern desalination technologies, such as multi-stage flash evaporation, multi-effect distillation, reverse osmosis, and the prospects of using nuclear power for desalination purposes are discussed. 9 refs

  15. Solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    The focus in the present Ph.D. thesis is on the active use of solar energy for domestic hot water and space heating in so-called solar combi systems. Most efforts have been put into detailed investigations on the design of solar combi systems and on devices used for building up thermal...... the thermal behaviour of different components, and the theoretical investigations are used to study the influence of the thermal behaviour on the yearly thermal performance of solar combi systems. The experimental investigations imply detailed temperature measurements and flow visualization with the Particle...... Image Velocimetry measurement method. The theoretical investigations are based on the transient simulation program TrnSys and Computational Fluid Dynamics. The Ph.D. thesis demonstrates the influence on the thermal performance of solar combi systems of a number of different parameters...

  16. Exploring the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system is one of humanity's greatest scientific achievements. The last fifty years in particular have seen huge steps forward in our understanding of the planets, the sun, and other objects in the solar system. Whilst planetary science is now a mature discipline - involving geoscientists, astronomers, physicists, and others - many profound mysteries remain, and there is indeed still the tantalizing possibility that we may find evidence of life on another planet in our system.Drawing upon the latest results from the second golden age of Solar System exploration, aut

  17. Nuclear desalination activities in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, B.

    1999-01-01

    The main emphasis of this article is on utilization of nuclear energy for desalination. Nuclear desalination is cheaper, eco-friendly and assists in sustainable growth of total energy generation programme in a country. PHWR type reactors are the main stay of nuclear energy programme in India. Nuclear waste heat for desalination is available in the moderator system of the 220 MW(e) and 500 MW(e) PHWRs. The low temperature evaporation technology (LET) for producing pure water from sea water is also discussed

  18. Energy and exergy analysis of multi-effects distillation with thermo vapour compressor (MED-TVC) desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffari, A.; Sayyaadi, H. [Khaje Nasir Toosi Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy Division; Alishiri, M. [Fan Niroo Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Desalination and Water Solutions

    2008-07-01

    Countries around the world have a significant need for high-quality water. The desalination industry is especially important in ensuring the supply of high-quality water, especially the countries around the Persian Gulf such as Iran. A multiple-effect distiller (MED) with thermal vapor compression (TVC) system is more attractive than other thermal systems due to its effectiveness, easier operation and maintenance, and good economics. This paper presented a heat and mass balance relation and comprehensive exergy analysis of a typical MED with a thermal vapour compression desalination system. The purpose of the study was to provide a cost-effective tool that could be applied in the design, development and optimization of thermal desalination plants. The paper discussed the energy simulation, with particular reference to the temperatures for each effect; the condenser, gain output ratio, distillate production rate, brine outlet and feed water rates for each effect; steam consumption; coolant sea water and total sea water inlet rate; pressure distribution in the evaporators; and the entertained vapour rate at TVC. Exergy analysis revealed that the steam ejector and evaporators are the main sources of exergy destruction. It was also shown that lowering the temperature difference can minimize exergy losses. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 16 figs.

  19. Solar Distillation System Based on Multiple-Effect Diffusion Type Still

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2014-03-01

    The present study intends to develop a high-performance solar-assisted desalination system (SADS) using multi-effect diffusion type still (MEDS) and the vacuum tube solar collector (VTSC). A MEDS prototype was designed and built. The measured result is very close to the estimation. The 10-effect MEDS will produce pure water at about 13.7 L/day/m2 collector area at a solar irradiation of 600 W/m2 and 19.7 L/day/m2 collector area at solar irradiation 800 W/m2. For 20-effect still, the yield rate increase is 32% compared to 10-effect still.

  20. Thermal desalination in GCC and possible development

    KAUST Repository

    Darwish, Mohamed Ali

    2013-01-01

    The Water Desalination and Reuse Center in King Abdulla University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia, held a workshop on thermal desalination on the 11th and 12th of March, 2013. This paper was presented as part of a lecture at the workshop. It presents the status and possible developments of the two main thermal desalination systems processing large quantities of seawater in the Gulf Cooperation Council, multi-stage flash, and thermal vapor compression systems. Developments of these systems were presented to show how these systems are competing with the more energy-efficient seawater reverse osmosis desalting. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal desalination in GCC and possible development

    KAUST Repository

    Darwish, Mohamed Ali

    2013-06-28

    The Water Desalination and Reuse Center in King Abdulla University of Science and Technology, in Saudi Arabia, held a workshop on thermal desalination on the 11th and 12th of March, 2013. This paper was presented as part of a lecture at the workshop. It presents the status and possible developments of the two main thermal desalination systems processing large quantities of seawater in the Gulf Cooperation Council, multi-stage flash, and thermal vapor compression systems. Developments of these systems were presented to show how these systems are competing with the more energy-efficient seawater reverse osmosis desalting. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  2. Solar system fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  3. The solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the most recent findings on the solar system. The physical processes in the sun are presented, their interactions in the interplanetary space, and the planets and moons of the solar system. The sun and its moon are discussed in great detail. The text is supplemented by excellent satellite pictures, including the latest pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons. (HM) [de

  4. Wave Power as Solution for Off-Grid Water Desalination Systems: Resource Characterization for Kilifi-Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater scarcity is one of humanity’s reoccurring problems that hamper socio-economic development in many regions across the globe. In coastal areas, seawater can be desalinated through reverse osmosis (RO and transformed into freshwater for human use. Desalination requires large amounts of energy, mostly in the form of a reliable electricity supply, which in many cases is supplied by diesel generators. The objective of this work is to analyze the wave power resource availability in Kilifi-Kenya and evaluate the possible use of wave power converter (WEC to power desalination plants. A particular focus is given use of WECs developed by Uppsala University (UU-WEC. The results here presented were achieved using reanalysis—wave data revealed that the local wave climate has an approximate annual mean of 7 kW/m and mode of 5 kW/m. Significant wave height and wave mean period are within 0.8–2 m and 7–8 s respectively, with a predominant wave mean direction from southeast. The seasonal cycle appeared to be the most relevant for energy conversion, having the highest difference of 6 kW/m, in which April is the lowest (3.8 kW/m and August is the peak (10.5 kW/m. In such mild wave climates, the UU–WEC and similar devices can be suitable for ocean energy harvesting for water desalination systems. Technically, with a capacity factor of 30% and energy consumption of 3 kWh/m3, a coastal community of about five thousand inhabitants can be provided of freshwater by only ten WECs with installed capacity of 20 kW.

  5. Assessment of silt density index (SDI) as fouling propensity parameter in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Wali, F.; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity, silt density index (SDI) is extensively used in reverse osmosis systems despite its limitations in predicting membrane fouling. Employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. The aim of this investigation is to assess the reliability of SDI in order to understand the reasons for the low level of precision and accuracy. Different commercial SDI membranes and feed water quality were used in this study. Results showed the existence of membrane properties' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role in SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity-assisted SDI measurements along with determination of ultrafiltration permeate and clean water fouling potential, establish the indication of nonfouling-related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic conditions that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI values. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  6. Enhancing organic matter removal in desalination pretreatment systems by application of dissolved air flotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shutova, Yulia; Karna, Barun Lal; Hambly, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    on the sample, respectively. The optimal normalised coagulant dose (Fe3+ to DOC ratio) was observed to be 0.5-4 at pH5.5 increasing to 4-12 at pH7.5. At pH5.5, the optimum coagulant dose increased with increasing humic character of the feed water. Overall, the OM removal efficiency by DAF observed in this study......Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems caused by organic matter (OM) remains a significant operational issue during desalination. Dissolved air flotation (DAF) has recently received attention as a pre-treatment option for seawater OM removal; however, only a limited number of studies have...... been undertaken. This may be because it is difficult to characterise OM in seawater due to the high salt content and low carbon concentration. In this study, DAF pre-treatment experiments were conducted using a model seawater solution, and real seawater and brackish water samples. DAF performance...

  7. Assessment of silt density index (SDI) as fouling propensity parameter in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity, silt density index (SDI) is extensively used in reverse osmosis systems despite its limitations in predicting membrane fouling. Employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. The aim of this investigation is to assess the reliability of SDI in order to understand the reasons for the low level of precision and accuracy. Different commercial SDI membranes and feed water quality were used in this study. Results showed the existence of membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role in SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity-assisted SDI measurements along with determination of ultrafiltration permeate and clean water fouling potential, establish the indication of nonfouling-related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic conditions that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI values. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  8. Impact of well intake systems on bacterial, algae, and organic carbon reduction in SWRO desalination systems, SAWACO, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2014-07-18

    The intake system can play a significant role in improving the feed water quality and ultimately influence the performance of downstream components of the seawater reverse osmosis desalination processes. In most cases, open-ocean intakes produce poor feed water quality in terms of the abundance of naturally occurring organic matter, which increases the risk of membrane fouling. An alternative intake is the subsurface system, which is based on the riverbank filtration concept that provides natural filtration and biological treatment of the feed water prior to the entry of the water into the desalination plant. The use of subsurface intakes normally improves the raw water quality by reducing suspended solids, algae, bacterial, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Therefore, the risk of biofouling caused by these substances can be reduced by implementing the appropriate type of intake system. The use of well intake systems was investigated along the Red Sea shoreline of Saudi Arabia in the Jeddah region. Data were collected from a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant with a capacity of 10,000 m3/d. The well system produces feed water from an artificial-fill peninsula that was constructed atop of the seabed. Ten wells have been constructed on the peninsula for extracting raw seawater. Water samples were collected from nearby surface seawater as a reference and from selected individual wells. The percentage of algae and bacterial removal by induced filtration process was evaluated by comparison of the seawater concentrations with the well discharges. Transparent exopolymer particles and organic carbon fractions reduction was also measured. The quality of raw water extracted from the well systems was highly improved compared with the raw seawater source. It was observed that algae were virtually 100% removed and the bacterial concentration was significantly removed by the aquifer matrix. The detailed analysis of organic carbon fraction using liquid

  9. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humplik, T; Lee, J; O' Hern, S C; Fellman, B A; Karnik, R; Wang, E N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Baig, M A; Hassan, S F; Atieh, M A; Rahman, F; Laoui, T, E-mail: tlaoui@kfupm.edu.sa, E-mail: karnik@mit.edu, E-mail: enwang@mit.edu [Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Chemical Engineering and Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-07-22

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity. (topical review)

  10. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humplik, T; Lee, J; O'Hern, S C; Fellman, B A; Karnik, R; Wang, E N; Baig, M A; Hassan, S F; Atieh, M A; Rahman, F; Laoui, T

    2011-01-01

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity. (topical review)

  11. Nanostructured materials for water desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplik, T.; Lee, J.; O'Hern, S. C.; Fellman, B. A.; Baig, M. A.; Hassan, S. F.; Atieh, M. A.; Rahman, F.; Laoui, T.; Karnik, R.; Wang, E. N.

    2011-07-01

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity.

  12. The New Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, J. Kelly; Collins Petersen, Carolyn; Chaikin, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    As the definitive guide for the armchair astronomer, The New Solar System has established itself as the leading book on planetary science and solar system studies. Incorporating the latest knowledge of the solar system, a distinguished team of researchers, many of them Principal Investigators on NASA missions, explain the solar system with expert ease. The completely-revised text includes the most recent findings on asteroids, comets, the Sun, and our neighboring planets. The book examines the latest research and thinking about the solar system; looks at how the Sun and planets formed; and discusses our search for other planetary systems and the search for life in the solar system. In full-color and heavily-illustrated, the book contains more than 500 photographs, portrayals, and diagrams. An extensive set of tables with the latest characteristics of the planets, their moon and ring systems, comets, asteroids, meteorites, and interplanetary space missions complete the text. New to this edition are descriptions of collisions in the solar system, full scientific results from Galileo's mission to Jupiter and its moons, and the Mars Pathfinder mission. For the curious observer as well as the student of planetary science, this book will be an important library acquisition. J. Kelly Beatty is the senior editor of Sky & Telescope, where for more than twenty years he has reported the latest in planetary science. A renowned science writer, he was among the first journalists to gain access to the Soviet space program. Asteroid 2925 Beatty was named on the occasion of his marriage in 1983. Carolyn Collins Petersen is an award-winning science writer and co-author of Hubble Vision (Cambridge 1995). She has also written planetarium programs seen at hundreds of facilities around the world. Andrew L. Chaikin is a Boston-based science writer. He served as a research geologist at the Smithsonian Institution's Center for Earth and Planetary Studies. He is a contributing editor to

  13. The nuclear energy in the seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno A, J.; Flores E, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In general, the hydric resources of diverse regions of the world are insufficient for to satisfy the necessities of their inhabitants. Among the different technologies that are applied for the desalination of seawater are the distillation processes, the use of membranes and in particular recently in development the use of the nuclear energy (Nuclear Desalination; System to produce drinkable water starting from seawater in a complex integrated in that as much the nuclear reactor as the desalination system are in a common location, the facilities and pertinent services are shared, and the nuclear reactor produces the energy that is used for the desalination process). (Author)

  14. Microbial desalination cells for energy production and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2013-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are a new, energy-sustainable method for using organic matter in wastewater as the energy source for desalination. The electric potential gradient created by exoelectrogenic bacteria desalinates water by driving ion transport through a series of ion-exchange membranes (IEMs). The specific MDC architecture and current conditions substantially affect the amount of wastewater needed to desalinate water. Other baseline conditions have varied among studies making comparisons of the effectiveness of different designs problematic. The extent of desalination is affected by water transport through IEMs by both osmosis and electroosmosis. Various methods have been used, such as electrolyte recirculation, to avoid low pH that can inhibit exoelectrogenic activity. The highest current density in an MDC to date is 8.4A/m2, which is lower than that produced in other bioelectrochemical systems. This implies that there is a room for substantial improvement in desalination rates and overall performance. We review here the state of the art in MDC design and performance, safety issues related to the use of MDCs with wastewater, and areas that need to be examined to achieve practical application of this new technology. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Discovering the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barrie W.

    1999-04-01

    Discovering the Solar System Barrie W. Jones The Open University, Milton Keynes, UK Discovering the Solar System is a comprehensive, up-to-date account of the Solar System and of the ways in which the various bodies have been investigated and modelled. The approach is thematic, with sequences of chapters on the interiors of planetary bodies, on their surfaces, and on their atmospheres. Within each sequence there is a chapter on general principles and processes followed by one or two chapters on specific bodies. There is also an introductory chapter, a chapter on the origin of the Solar System, and a chapter on asteroids, comets and meteorites. Liberally illustrated with diagrams, black and white photographs and colour plates, Discovering the Solar System also features: * tables of essential data * question and answers within the text * end of section review questions with answers and comments Discovering the Solar System is essential reading for all undergraduate students for whom astronomy or planetary science are components of their degrees, and for those at a more advanced level approaching the subject for the first time. It will also be of great interest to non-specialists with a keen interest in astronomy. A small amount of scientific knowledge is assumed plus familiarity with basic algebra and graphs. There is no calculus. Praise for this book includes: ".certainly qualifies as an authoritative text. The author clearly has an encyclopedic knowledge of the subject." Meteorics and Planetary Science ".liberally doused with relevant graphs, tables, and black and white figures of good quality." EOS, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union ".one of the best books on the Solar System I have seen. The general accuracy and quality of the content is excellent." Journal of the British Astronomical Association

  16. Adsorption Desalination: A Novel Method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2010-11-15

    The search for potable water for quenching global thirst remains a pressing concern throughout many regions of the world. The demand for new and sustainable sources and the associated technologies for producing fresh water are intrinsically linked to the solving of potable water availability and hitherto, innovative and energy efficient desalination methods seems to be the practical solutions. Quenching global thirst by adsorption desalination is a practical and inexpensive method of desalinating the saline and brackish water to produce fresh water for agriculture irrigation, industrial, and building applications. This chapter provides a general overview of the adsorption fundamentals in terms of adsorption isotherms, kinetics, and heat of adsorption. It is then being more focused on the principles of thermally driven adsorption desalination methods. The recent developments of adsorption desalination plants and the effect of operating conditions on the system performance in terms of specific daily water production and performance ratio are presented. Design of a large commercial adsorption desalination plant is also discussed herein.

  17. Solar system sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The sites and materials involved in solar system sputtering of planetary surfaces are reviewed, together with existing models for the processes of sputtering. Attention is given to the interaction of the solar wind with planetary atmospheres in terms of the role played by the solar wind in affecting the He-4 budget in the Venus atmosphere, and the erosion and differentiation of the Mars atmosphere by solar wind sputtering. The study is extended to the production of isotopic fractionation and anomalies in interplanetary grains by irradiation, and to erosion effects on planetary satellites with frozen volatile surfaces, such as with Io, Europa, and Ganymede. Further measurements are recommended of the molecular form of the ejected material, the yields and energy spectra of the sputtered products, the iosotopic fractionation sputtering causes, and the possibility of electronic sputtering enhancement with materials such as silicates.

  18. Use of nuclear reactors for seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The last International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) status report on desalination, including nuclear desalination, was issued nearly 2 decades ago. The impending water crisis in many parts of the world, and especially in the Middle East, makes it appropriate to provide an updated report as a basis for consideration of future activities. This report provides a state-of-the-art review of desalination and pertinent nuclear reactor technology. Information is included on fresh water needs and costs, environmental risks associated with alternatives for water production, and data regarding the technical and economic characteristics of immediately available desalination systems, as well as compatible nuclear technology. 68 refs, 60 figs, 11 tabs

  19. Solar system exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.; Quaide, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the solar system. It is noted that most of the planetary data collected by space probes are always eventually applied to improving the understanding of the earth, moon, Venus and Mars, the planets of greatest interest to humans. Significant data gathered by the Mariner, Viking, Apollo, Pioneer, and Voyager spacecraft are summarized, along with the required mission support capabilities and mission profiles. Proposed and planned future missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, the asteroids and for a comet rendzvous are described

  20. Baby Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  1. An experimental study of a solar humidifier for HDD systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghazal, M.T.; Atikol, U.; Egelioglu, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar water and air heating and humidification processes have been merged in one unit. • The effectiveness of the solar humidifier was improved. • Bubbles regeneration enhanced the mass and heat transfer to air. • Reflector mirror enhanced the productivity of the system. - Abstract: This paper investigates the performance of a solar humidification prototype suitable for using in humidification dehumidification desalination (HDD) systems. This unit replaces the solar air heater, solar water heater and the evaporator of the traditional HDD plants, facilitating compact system designs. The prototype is composed of a solar collector, filled with water, through which air is forced to travel upwards in the form of bubbles. Experiments are conducted under the weather conditions of North Cyprus. It is discovered that the air temperature is found to approach the hot water temperature in the collector (thus increasing the vapor carrying capacity) and the relative humidity is raised to almost 100% at the exit. The collector inlet and outlet temperatures and relative humidity values are recorded for different flow rates in the period between the 1st and the 14th of December, 2012. It was found that for an average intensity of solar radiation of 700 W/m 2 and a mass flow rate of 12.6 kg/h of air; the amount of water evaporated was 0.75 kg/h on a square meter basis. Introduction of a reflector mirror at the bottom side of the humidifier increased the average absolute humidity by 32%

  2. Drainback solar thermal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botpaev, R.; Louvet, Y.; Perers, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Although solar drainback systems have been used for a long time, they are still generating questions regarding smooth functioning. This paper summarises publications on drainback systems and compiles the current knowledge, experiences, and ideas on the technology. The collective research exhibits...... of this technology has been developed, with a brief description of each hydraulic typology. The operating modes have been split into three stages: filling, operation, and draining, which have been studied separately. A difference in the minimal filling velocities for a siphon development in the solar loop has been...

  3. Solar System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jack

    2002-01-01

    In these 18 years, the research has touched every major dynamical problem in the solar system, including: the effect of chaotic zones on the distribution of asteroids, the delivery of meteorites along chaotic pathways, the chaotic motion of Pluto, the chaotic motion of the outer planets and that of the whole solar system, the delivery of short period comets from the Kuiper belt, the tidal evolution of the Uranian arid Galilean satellites, the chaotic tumbling of Hyperion and other irregular satellites, the large chaotic variations of the obliquity of Mars, the evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and the resonant core- mantle dynamics of Earth and Venus. It has introduced new analytical and numerical tools that are in widespread use. Today, nearly every long-term integration of our solar system, its subsystems, and other solar systems uses algorithms that was invented. This research has all been primarily Supported by this sequence of PGG NASA grants. During this period published major investigations of tidal evolution of the Earth-Moon system and of the passage of the Earth and Venus through non-linear core-mantle resonances were completed. It has published a major innovation in symplectic algorithms: the symplectic corrector. A paper was completed on non-perturbative hydrostatic equilibrium.

  4. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  5. The New Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2009-01-01

    Since 2006, the details of bodies making up our solar system have been revised. This was largely as a result of new discoveries of a number of planet-like objects beyond the orbit of Pluto. The International Astronomical Union redefined what constituted a planet and established two new classifications--dwarf planets and plutoids. As a result, the…

  6. Can the Adoption of Desalination Technology Lead to Aquifer Preservation? A Case Study of a Sociotechnical Water System in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie McEvoy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about the sustainability of groundwater supplies worldwide. In many regions, desalination—the conversion of saline water to freshwater—is viewed as a way to increase water supplies and reduce pressure on overdrawn aquifers. Using data from reports, articles, interviews, a survey, and a focus group, this paper examines if, and how, the adoption of desalination technology can lead to aquifer preservation in Baja California Sur (BCS, Mexico. The paper outlines existing institutional arrangements (i.e., laws, rules, norms, or organizations surrounding desalination in BCS and concludes that there are currently no effective mechanisms to ensure aquifer preservation. Four mechanisms that could be implemented to improve groundwater management are identified, including: 1 integrated water-and land-use planning; 2 creation of an institute responsible for coordinated and consistent planning; 3 improved groundwater monitoring; and 4 implementation of water conservation measures prior to the adoption of desalination technology. This paper concludes that viewing water technologies, including desalination, as sociotechnical systems—i.e., a set of technological components that are embedded in complex social, political, and economic contexts—has the potential to create a more sustainable human–environment–technology relationship. By assessing desalination technology as a sociotechnical system, this study highlights the need to focus on institutional development and capacity building, especially within local water utilities and urban planning agencies.

  7. Experimental study on a parabolic concentrator assisted solar desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunkumar, T.; Denkenberger, David; Velraj, R.; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Vinothkumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We optimized the augmentation of condense by enhanced desalination methodology. • Parabolic concentrator has been integrated with solar distillation systems. • We measured ambient together with solar radiation intensity. - Abstract: This paper presents a modification of parabolic concentrator (PC) – solar still with continuous water circulation using a storage tank to enhance the productivity. Four modes of operation were studied experimentally: (i) PC-solar still without top cover cooling; (ii) PC-solar still with top cover cooling, PC-solar still integrated with phase change material (PCM) without top cover cooling and PC-solar still integrated PCM with cooling. The experiments were carried out for the cooling water flow rates of 40 ml/min; 50 ml/min, 60 ml/min, 80 ml/min and 100 ml/min. Diurnal variations of water temperature (T_w), ambient air temperature (T_a), top cover temperature (T_o_c) and production rate are measured with frequent time intervals. Water cooling was not cost effective, but adding PCM was.

  8. The Economic Pre-feasibility Study of Madura Nuclear Desalination System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko-Birmanto, Moch; Suparman

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility study is needed in the planning of construction of NPPs SMART type coupled with desalination technology of MED tpe to produce clean water in Madura island. One important part of the feasibility study is the economical and financial analysis. The feasibility criteria of nuclear desalination project is analyzed by using the general parameters that is commonly used in evaluating a project, which is Financial Net Present Value (FNPV), Financial Internal Rate of Return (FIRR) and Payback Period. The calculation result shows that with the electricity selling price of 54.17 mills/KWh, for entirely project funded by the foreign loan, local loan and equity, it could be obtained FIRR 12.73 %, FNPV US$ 75.29 million and Payback Period is 8 years. By seeing from the project feasibility criteria, this nuclear desalination project can be feasible and the investment aspect shows that this project is beneficial because the capital return rate is rather high, the benefit in the end of the economic life-time is rather big and the capital payback period is fast. (author)

  9. Adsorption Characteristics of Water and Silica Gel System for Desalination Cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Cevallos, Oscar R.

    2012-01-01

    (D-Se) isotherm for the whole pressure range, and for a pressure range below 10 kPa, proper for desalination cycles; isotherms type V of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) classification were exhibited. It is observed that the D-A based on PSD and the D-Se isotherm models describe the best fitting of the experimental uptake data for desalination cycles within a regression error of 2% and 6% respectively. All isotherm models, except the D-A based on PSD, have failed to describe the obtained experimental uptake data; an empirical isotherm model is proposed by observing the behavior of Tóth and D-A isotherm models. The new empirical model describes the water adsorption onto silica gel type A++ within a regression error of 3%. This will aid to describe the advantages of silica gel type A++ for the design of adsorption desalination processes where reducing capital cost and footprint area are highly important parameters to take into account.

  10. Impact of well intake systems on bacterial, algae, and organic carbon reduction in SWRO desalination systems, SAWACO, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Almashharawi, Samir; Kammourie, Nizar; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    natural filtration and biological treatment of the feed water prior to the entry of the water into the desalination plant. The use of subsurface intakes normally improves the raw water quality by reducing suspended solids, algae, bacterial, and dissolved

  11. Solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is based on a previous, related, one which was quantitative in character and relied on 500 telephone interviews with house-owners. The aim of this, following, report was to carry out a more deep-going, qualitative analysis focussed on persons who already own a solar heating system (purchased during 1992) or were/are considering having one installed. Aspects studied were the attitudes, behaviour and plans of these two groups with regard to solar heating systems. Some of the key questions asked concerned general attitudes to energy supply, advantages and disadvantages of using solar heating systems, related decision-making factors, installation problems, positive and negative expectations, evaluation of the information situation, suggestions related to information systems regarding themes etc., dissemination of information, sources of advice and information, economical considerations, satisfaction with the currently-owned system which would lead to the installation of another one in connection with the purchase of a new house. The results of this investigation directed at Danish house-owners are presented and discussed, and proposals for following activities within the marketing situation are given. It is concluded that the basic attitude in both groups strongly supports environmental protection, renewable energy sources and is influenced by considerations of prestige and independence. Constraint factors are confusion about environmental factors, insecurity in relation to the effect of established supplementary energy supply and suspicion with regard to the integrity of information received. (AB)

  12. Thermoeconomic analysis of an integrated multi-effect desalination thermal vapor compression (MED-TVC) system with a trigeneration system using triple-pressure HRSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaebi, Hadi; Abbaspour, Ghader

    2018-05-01

    In this research, thermoeconomic analysis of a multi-effect desalination thermal vapor compression (MED-TVC) system integrated with a trigeneration system with a gas turbine prime mover is carried out. The integrated system comprises of a compressor, a combustion chamber, a gas turbine, a triple-pressure (low, medium and high pressures) heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) system, an absorption chiller cycle (ACC), and a multi-effect desalination (MED) system. Low pressure steam produced in the HRSG is used to drive absorption chiller cycle, medium pressure is used in desalination system and high pressure superheated steam is used for heating purposes. For thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of the proposed integrated system, Engineering Equation Solver (EES) is used by employing mass, energy, exergy, and cost balance equations for each component of system. The results of the modeling showed that with the new design, the exergy efficiency in the base design will increase to 57.5%. In addition, thermoeconomic analysis revealed that the net power, heating, fresh water and cooling have the highest production cost, respectively.

  13. Membraneless seawater desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Richard A.; Knust, Kyle N.; Perdue, Robbyn K.

    2018-04-03

    Disclosed are microfluidic devices and systems for the desalination of water. The devices and systems can include an electrode configured to generate an electric field gradient in proximity to an intersection formed by the divergence of two microfluidic channels from an inlet channel. Under an applied bias and in the presence of a pressure driven flow of saltwater, the electric field gradient can preferentially direct ions in saltwater into one of the diverging microfluidic channels, while desalted water flows into second diverging channel. Also provided are methods of using the devices and systems described herein to decrease the salinity of water.

  14. Nuclear Desalination Newsletter, No. 3, September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The continuing improvement of technologies and decrease of cost, seawater desalination is expected to play an important role in the global economic and social development as well as in the ecological environment, especially for regions having severe water shortages such as China and the Middle East. Seawater desalination using nuclear energy is not only technically feasible but economically an option in varying site conditions and with a variety of nuclear reactor concepts. In any given country, nuclear desalination will become a viable option if the following two prerequisites exist: lack of potable water and the ability to deploy nuclear energy. In most regions, only one of the two is fulfilled. Many countries; e.g. China, the Republic of Korea and, even more so, India and Pakistan have both factors present. These countries already account for almost half the world's population, and thus represent a potential long term market for nuclear desalination. The accumulated experience in nuclear desalination will undoubtedly contribute to what many consider as the world wide central issue of the 21st century: the crucial need for new sources of freshwater for sustainable development. Within its continuing efforts to support Member States through various forums of information exchange, technical cooperation projects, and publications, the IAEA updated and released a new version of Desalination Economic Evaluation Program (DEEP 4.0) in 2011 with new features and easier usability for both newcomers and experts. The IAEA also released a new tool named DEsalination Thermodynamic Optimization Program (DE-TOP), which complements DEEP and is used to analyze the thermodynamics of cogeneration systems with emphasis on water desalination. The IAEA toolkit on nuclear desalination, intended for Member States considering nuclear power for seawater desalination, provides access to information on nuclear desalination including DEEP and DE-TOP. This tool was further improved in 2010

  15. Energy extraction and water treatment in one system: The idea of using a desalination battery in a cooling tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Barak; Cohen, Izaak; Penki, Tirupathi Rao; Avraham, Eran; Aurbach, Doron

    2018-02-01

    The use of sodium manganese oxide as an intercalation electrode for water treatment was recently explored, and referred to as a "desalination battery" and "hybrid capacitive deionization". Here, we examine the feasibility of using such a desalination battery, comprising crystalline Na4Mn9O18 as the cathode and Ag/AgCl/Cl- electrode as the anode, to extract energy from low-grade waste heat sources. Sodium manganese oxide electrode's material was produced via a solid-state synthesis. Electrodes were produced by spray-coated onto graphite foils, and showed a temperature dependence of the electrode potential, namely, ∂ E / ∂ T , of -0.63 mV/K (whereas, the Ag/AgCl/Cl- mesh electrode showed much lower temperature dependence, < 0.1 mV/K). In order to demonstrate ion-removal capabilities together with the feasibility of thermal-energy conversion, a flow battery system was constructed. Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycles (TREC) were constructed for the flow battery cell. The thermal energy conversion, in this particular system, was shown to be feasible at relatively low C-rate (C/19) with temperatures varying between 30 °C and 70 °C.

  16. Today's and future challenges in applications of renewable energy technologies for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, Mattheus F A

    2013-08-28

    Recent trends and challenges in applications of renewable energy technologies for water desalination are critically reviewed with an emphasis on environmental concerns and sustainable development. After providing an overview of wind, wave, geothermal, and solar renewable energy technologies for fresh water production, hybrid systems are assessed. Then scale-up and economic factors are considered. This is followed with a section on regulatory factors, environmental concerns, and globalization, and a final segment on selecting the most suitable renewable energy technology for conventional and emerging desalination processes. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  17. Today's and future challenges in applications of renewable energy technologies for desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, Mattheus F A; Mahmoudi, Hacè ne; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2013-01-01

    Recent trends and challenges in applications of renewable energy technologies for water desalination are critically reviewed with an emphasis on environmental concerns and sustainable development. After providing an overview of wind, wave, geothermal, and solar renewable energy technologies for fresh water production, hybrid systems are assessed. Then scale-up and economic factors are considered. This is followed with a section on regulatory factors, environmental concerns, and globalization, and a final segment on selecting the most suitable renewable energy technology for conventional and emerging desalination processes. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. The photovoltaic-powered water desalination plant 'SORO' design, start up, operating experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaeusser, G.; Mohn, J.; Petersen, G.

    Design features, operational parameters, and test results of a year of operation of the SORO prototype photovoltaic (PV) reverse osmosis salt water desalinization plant are described. Chemicals are added to the salt water to control the pH, prevent formation of compounds which could plug the flow system, and kill bacteria and slime which might grow in the solution. The water is pressurized and forced into contact with membranes which separate the fresh water from the brackish or sea water. The flow rate in the project was 180 l/h, with the main electrical energy load being the high pressure pump and the well pump. Batteries are charged before current is switched to power the desalinization system. The plant yielded 1.50 cu of fresh water/day and is concluded to be a viable design for scale-up to larger production figures, besides being economically competitive with solar desalinization installations where the salt content is 2000 ppm.

  19. Nuclear Desalination Newsletter, No. 2, September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    Seawater desalination is increasingly becoming a vital option for alleviating severe water shortages around the world, and especially in developing countries. Worldwide seawater desalination capacity is expected to increase beyond the current contracted estimate of about 60 million m3/d. The need for an adequate supply of potable water for growing populations and complex problems is now globally recognized. Desalination using nuclear energy could play a vital role in supplying the much needed potable water for sustainable development and alleviate some of the environment impact of using fossil fuels for desalination. The IAEA programme on nuclear desalination continues to provide support to Member States through various forums of information exchange, technical cooperation projects, and publications. In the last year, the IAEA launched a new coordinated research programme which aims at investigating new technologies for seawater desalination using nuclear energy; updated and released a new version of the IAEA DEEP software; released a newly developed toolkit on nuclear desalination; and organized (jointly with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics ICTP) a training workshop on Technology and Performance of Desalination Systems

  20. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  1. Solar system plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  2. Integration of renewables and reverse osmosis desalination – Case study for the Jordanian energy system with a high share of wind and photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novosel, T.; Ćosić, B.; Pukšec, T.

    2015-01-01

    and solar potential but practically no utilization with 99% of the produced electricity coming from imported fossil fuels resulting in high CO2 emissions and a potential security of supply issue. The utilization of reverse osmosis desalination in a combination with brine operated pump storage units and wind......Jordan is a country faced with several environmental and energy related issues. It is the Worlds' fourth most water deprived country with a water consumption of only 145m3 per capita annually, less than a third of the established severe water poverty line. Jordan is also a country rich in wind...... and (PV) photovoltaic plants can tackle both issues. The desalination plants can produce the much needed water and act as a flexible demand to increase the penetration of intermittent renewables supported by the brine operated pump storage units. This paper presents six scenarios for the development...

  3. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  4. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  5. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  6. Pushing desalination recovery to the maximum limit: Membrane and thermal processes integration

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-05-05

    The economics of seawater desalination processes has been continuously improving as a result of desalination market expansion. Presently, reverse osmosis (RO) processes are leading in global desalination with 53% share followed by thermally driven technologies 33%, but in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries their shares are 42% and 56% respectively due to severe feed water quality. In RO processes, intake, pretreatment and brine disposal cost 25% of total desalination cost at 30–35% recovery. We proposed a tri-hybrid system to enhance overall recovery up to 81%. The conditioned brine leaving from RO processes supplied to proposed multi-evaporator adsorption cycle driven by low temperature industrial waste heat sources or solar energy. RO membrane simulation has been performed using WinFlow and IMSDesign commercial softwares developed by GE and Nitto. Detailed mathematical model of overall system is developed and simulation has been conducted in FORTRAN. The final brine reject concentration from tri-hybrid cycle can vary from 166,000ppm to 222,000ppm if RO retentate concentration varies from 45,000ppm to 60,000ppm. We also conducted economic analysis and showed that the proposed tri-hybrid cycle can achieve highest recovery, 81%, and lowest energy consumption, 1.76kWhelec/m3, for desalination reported in the literature up till now.

  7. Low temperature humidification dehumidification desalination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Enezi, Ghazi; Ettouney, Hisham; Fawzy, Nagla

    2006-01-01

    The humidification dehumidification desalination process is viewed as a promising technique for small capacity production plants. The process has several attractive features, which include operation at low temperature, ability to utilize sustainable energy sources, i.e. solar and geothermal, and requirements of low technology level. This paper evaluates the characteristics of the humidification dehumidification desalination process as a function of operating conditions. A small capacity experimental system is used to evaluate the process characteristics as a function of the flow rate of the water and air streams, the temperature of the water stream and the temperature of the cooling water stream. The experimental system includes a packed humidification column, a double pipe glass condenser, a constant temperature water circulation tank and a chiller for cooling water. The water production is found to depend strongly on the hot water temperature. Also, the water production is found to increase upon the increase of the air flow rate and the decrease of the cooling water temperature. The measured air and water temperatures, air relative humidity and the flow rates are used to calculate the air side mass transfer coefficient and the overall heat transfer coefficient. Measured data are found to be consistent with previous literature results

  8. Desalination of Seawater using Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Desalination technologies have been well established since the mid 20th century and are widely deployed in many parts of the world having acute water scarcity problems. The energy for these plants is generally supplied in the form of either steam or electricity largely using fossil fuels. The intensive fuels of fossil fuels raises environmental concerns especially in relation to greenhouse gas emissions. The depleting sources and future price uncertainty of the fossil fuels and their better use for other vital industrial applications is also a factor to be considered for sustainability. The desalination of sea water using nuclear energy is a feasible option to meet the growing demand of potable water. Over 150 reactor-years of operating experience of a nuclear desalination have been accumulated worldwide. Several demonstration programs of nuclear desalination are also in progress to confirm its technical and economic viability under country specific conditions, with the technical coordination or support of IAEA. Recent techno-economic feasibility studies carried out by some Member States indicate the competitiveness of nuclear desalination. This paper presents the salient activities on nuclear desalination in the Agency and in the interested Member states. Economic research on further water cost reduction includes investigation on utilization of waste heat from different reactor types for thermal desalination pre-heat reverse osmosis and hybrid desalination systems. The main challenge for the large scale deployment of nuclear seawater desalination is the lack of infrastructure and the resources in the countries affected by water scarcity problems which are however, interested in adoption of nuclear desalination for the sustainable water resources. Socio-economic and environmental aspects and the public perception are also important factors requiring greater information exchange. (author)

  9. Solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, James M.; Dorsey, George F.

    1982-01-01

    An improved solar heating system in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75.degree. to 180.degree. F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing and releasing heat for distribution.

  10. Improved solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  11. Origin of solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokorny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The generally accepted concept has it that the Sun and the planets originated almost simultaneously from nebula (the nebular hypothesis). It is assumed that the temperature of the nebula decreased in the direction from the centre which led to the segregation of elements and to the different chemical composition of the individual planets. The planets formed either from the gravitational collapse of part of the nebula or by gradual accretion. In the scenario of the origin of the solar system there are many blank spots, namely as concerns the initial stages of development and the period when the formation of the planets had ''almost been completed''.

  12. Origin of solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The generally accepted concept has it that the Sun and the planets originated almost simultaneously from nebula (the nebular hypothesis). It is assumed that the temperature of the nebula decreased in the direction from the centre which led to the segregation of elements and to the different chemical composition of the individual planets. The planets formed either from the gravitational collapse of part of the nebula or by gradual accretion. In the scenario of the origin of the solar system there are many blank spots, namely as concerns the initial stages of development and the period when the formation of the planets had ''almost been completed''. (Ha)

  13. The solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B W

    2013-01-01

    Presents a contemporary picture of the solar system, including a description of the Earth, Mars, Venus, cratered worlds, exotic rocks and ices, and giant planets. It is pitched at an introductory level and assumes no previous knowledge of planetary astronomy. Little mathematics is used in the text and the numerous graphs and diagrams are kept as simple as possible. End of chapter exercises are provided. The book can be used as an end in itself, or as a preparation for more advanced study, for which references are given.

  14. Solar technology in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with the status of solar research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented at a conference in Greece with the object of promoting international cooperation in solar energy utilization. The reports focus on solar collector designs, solar systems, heat pumps, solar homes, solar cooling and refrigeration, desalination and electric power generation. Numerous examples of systems produced by German manufacturers are illustrated and described, and performance data are presented.

  15. Microbial desalination cells for energy production and desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) are a new, energy-sustainable method for using organic matter in wastewater as the energy source for desalination. The electric potential gradient created by exoelectrogenic bacteria desalinates water by driving

  16. Potential of desalination in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    It has been well recognized in India that the availability of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial requirement is going to be a serious constraint in the coming years. It may adversely effect economic development and human health. Hence the growing need for developing and introducing science and technology based desalination system, which are economically and environmentally sustainable, is very important

  17. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  18. Apparatus and method for improved desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Thu, Kyaw; Hideharu, Yanagi; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Al-Ghasham, Tawfiq

    2009-01-01

    A water desalination system comprising an evaporator for evaporating saline water to produce water vapor; a condenser for condensing the water vapor; wherein the evaporator and the condenser are in heat transfer communication such that heat used

  19. Investigations of solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2005-01-01

    ). However, it is still too early to draw conclusions on the design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions needs to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal domestic hot water preparation? Is a stratification manifold always more......A large variety of solar combi systems are on the marked to day. The best performing systems are highly advanced energy systems with thermal stratification manifolds, an efficient boiler and only one control system, which controls both the boiler and the solar collector loop (Weiss et al., 2003...... desirable than a fixed inlet position? This paper presents experimental investigations of an advanced solar combi system with thermal stratification manifold inlets both in the solar collector loop and in the space heating system and with an external domestic hot water preparation. Theoretical...

  20. Adsorption desalination: An emerging low-cost thermal desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Desalination, other than the natural water cycle, is hailed as the panacea to alleviate the problems of fresh water shortage in many water stressed countries. However, the main drawback of conventional desalination methods is that they are energy intensive. In many instances, they consumed electricity, chemicals for pre- and post-treatment of water. For each kWh of energy consumed, there is an unavoidable emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) at the power stations as well as the discharge of chemically-laden brine into the environment. Thus, there is a motivation to find new direction or methods of desalination that consumed less chemicals, thermal energy and electricity.This paper describes an emerging and yet low cost method of desalination that employs only low-temperature waste heat, which is available in abundance from either the renewable energy sources or exhaust of industrial processes. With only one heat input, the Adsorption Desalination (AD) cycle produces two useful effects, i.e., high grade potable water and cooling. In this article, a brief literature review, the theoretical framework for adsorption thermodynamics, a lumped-parameter model and the experimental tests for a wide range of operational conditions on the basic and the hybrid AD cycles are discussed. Predictions from the model are validated with measured performances from two pilot plants, i.e., a basic AD and the advanced AD cycles. The energetic efficiency of AD cycles has been compared against the conventional desalination methods. Owing to the unique features of AD cycle, i.e., the simultaneous production of dual useful effects, it is proposed that the life cycle cost (LCC) of AD is evaluated against the LCC of combined machines that are needed to deliver the same quantities of useful effects using a unified unit of $/MWh. In closing, an ideal desalination system with zero emission of CO2 is presented where geo-thermal heat is employed for powering a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant.

  1. Three-objective optimization of a novel triple-effect absorption heat transformer combined with a water desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, S.M.S.; Salehi, S.; Yari, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new type of triple-effect absorption heat transformers is proposed. • A temperature lift of 180 °C is obtained by the proposed system. • The proposed system is observed to be the most effective. • The highest distilled water mass flow rate is obtained by the proposed system. - Abstract: A novel triple-effect absorption heat transformer is proposed and compared with a most studied configuration of triple-effect absorption heat transformer and a modified form of it from the viewpoint of exergoeconomics. All systems are integrated with water desalination system to produced distilled water. Sensitivity analyses are performed to identify the influence on the systems’ performance of such decision parameters as the temperatures of evaporator, condenser, absorber and absorbing evaporators for all the configurations. Then a three-objective optimization is accomplished to specify the optimal design points for the purpose of minimizing the product unit cost and maximizing the exergy coefficient of performance as well as the distilled water mass flow rate. In this regard, the Pareto frontiers are plotted for all the systems. The results show that, under the optimized conditions, the exergy coefficient of performance and distilled water mass flow rate for the proposed configuration can be higher by 16% and 38% with respect to the corresponding values in the other two systems. In addition, it is observed that the maximum gross temperature lift in the proposed system is about 20–40% higher than those in the other systems.

  2. Wind in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor I am always looking for commonly experienced Earthly phenomena to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote short "TPT" articles on frost and precipitation. The present article is on winds in the solar system. A windy day or storm might…

  3. Solar system astrophysics background science and the inner solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2008-01-01

    Solar System Astrophysics: A Text for the Science of Planetary Systems covers the field of solar system astrophysics beginning with basic tools of spherical astronomy, coordinate frames, and celestial mechanics. Historical introductions precede the development and discussion in most chapters. After a basic treatment of the two- and restricted three-body system motions in Background Science and the Inner Solar System, perturbations are discussed, followed by the Earth's gravitational potential field and its effect on satellite orbits. This is followed by analysis of the Earth-Moon system and the interior planets. In Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System, the atmospheres chapters include detailed discussions of circulation, applicable also to the subsequent discussion of the gas giants. The giant planets are discussed together, and the thermal excesses of three of them are highlighted. This is followed by chapters on moons and rings, mainly in the context of dynamical stability, comets and meteors, m...

  4. Solar system astrophysics background science and the inner solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Background Science and the Inner Solar System provides new insights into the burgeoning field of planetary astronomy. As in the first edition, this volume begins with a rigorous treatment of coordinate frames, basic positional astronomy, and the celestial mechanics of two and restricted three body system problems. Perturbations are treated in the same way, with clear step-by-step derivations. Then the Earth’s gravitational potential field and the Earth-Moon system are discussed, and the exposition turns to radiation properties with a chapter on the Sun. The exposition of the physical properties of the Moon and the terrestrial planets are greatly expanded, with much new information highlighted on the Moon, Mercury, Venus, and Mars. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sister volume, Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System, are pedagogically well written, providing cl...

  5. Optimal scheduling of biocide dosing for seawater-cooled power and desalination plants

    KAUST Repository

    Mahfouz, Abdullah Bin; Atilhan, Selma; Batchelor, Bill; Linke, Patrick; Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal desalination systems are typically integrated with power plants to exploit the excess heat resulting from the power-generation units. Using seawater in cooling the power plant and the desalination system is a common practice in many parts

  6. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2015-10-25

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  7. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  8. Advances in nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP) at Kalpakkam aims to demonstrate the safe and economic production of good quality water by desalination of seawater comprising 4,500 m 3 /d Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) and 1,800 m 3 /d Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant. The design of the hybrid MSF-RO plant to be set up at an existing nuclear power station is presented. The MSF plant based on long tube design requires less energy. The effect on performance of the MSF plant due to higher seawater intake temperature is marginal. The preheat RO system part of the hybrid plant uses reject cooling seawater from the MSF plant. This allows lower pressure operation, resulting in energy saving. The two qualities of water produced are usable for the power station as well as for drinking purposes with appropriate blending. The post treatment is also simplified due to blending of the products from MSF and RO plants. The hybrid plant has a number of advantages: part of high purity desalted water produced from the MSF plant will be used for the makeup demineralised water requirement (after necessary polishing) for the power station; blending of the product water from RO and MSF plants would provide requisite quality drinking water; and the RO plant will continue to be operated to provide water for drinking purposes during the shut down of the power station. Commissioning of the RO section is expected in 2002 and that of the MSF section in 2003. Useful design data are expected from the plant on the coupling of small and medium size reactors (SMR) based on PHWR. This will enable us to design a large size commercial plant up to 50,000 m 3 /d capacity. India will share the O and M experience of NDDP to member states of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) when the plant is commissioned. The development work for producing good quality water for power station from high salinity water utilizing low grade waste heat is presented. About 40 and 100 MWth low temperature waste heat is

  9. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D.; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. A desalination battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  11. A Desalination Battery

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na 2-xMn 5O 10 nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l -1 for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (∼ 0.2 Wh l -1), the most efficient technique presently available. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Electrokinetic desalination of glazed ceramic tiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ferreira, Celia; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination is a method where an applied electric DC field is the driving force for removal of salts from porous building materials. In the present paper, the method is tested in laboratory scale for desalination of single ceramic tiles. In a model system, where a tile...... was contaminated with NaCl during submersion and subsequently desalinated by the method, the desalination was completed in that the high and problematic initial Cl(-) concentration was reduced to an unproblematic concentration. Further conductivity measurements showed a very low conductivity in the tile after...... treatment, indicating that supply of ions from the poultice at the electrodes into the tile was limited. Electroosmotic transport of water was seen when low ionic content was reached. Experiments were also conducted with XVIII-century tiles, which had been removed from Palacio Centeno (Lisbon) during...

  13. Nuclear desalination newsletter, No. 1, September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This issue discusses the recent IAEA and Member States activities in the field of desalination. Reports about these activities in Algeria, China, Germany, India, Cuba, France, Indonesia, Kuwait, Libya, South Africa, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Spain and USA are given. The new version of the DEEP software - DEEP 3.2 - is presented. A newly developed toolkit on nuclear desalination is also presented. The ongoing IAEA activities include organization and participation in meetings on nuclear desalination, or related topics, like Technical Meeting on Non Electric Applications, held in Daejeon, Rep. of Korea, 3-6 March 2009; Management of Water Use and Consumption in Water Cooled Nuclear Power; Joint ICTP/IAEA Training Workshop on Technology and Performance of Desalination Systems; Advances in Nuclear Power for Process Heat Applications. The plans for future activities and meetings are also presented

  14. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K.; Bacha, H. Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results

  15. Numerical study of a water distillation system using solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzoum, K.; Zhani, K. [Sfax University, (Turkey); Bacha, H. Ben [Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper tackles an optimization approach in order to boost the fresh water production of a new design of a solar still which is located at Sfax engineering national school in Tunisia. This optimization approach is based upon the above mentioned design's improvement by coupling the conventional solar still into at a condenser, solar air and water collector and humidifier. This new concept of a distiller solar still using humidification- dehumidification processes (HD) is exploited for the desalination purpose. As a result of this work, the humidification- dehumidification processes have an essential effect in improving the solar still performance. Performance has been predicted theoretically in terms of water and inner glass cover temperatures, the inlet temperature of air and water of the new concept of distiller on water condensation rate and fresh water production. A general model based on heat and mass transfers in each component of the unit has been developed in steady dynamic regime. The developed model is used, simulating the HD system, to investigate the influence of the meteorological and operating parameters on the system productivity. The obtained set of ordinary differential equations has been converted to a set of algebraic system of equations by the functional approximation method of orthogonal collocation. The developed model is used to simulate the HD system in order to investigate the steady state behavior of each component of the unit and the entire system exposed to a variation of the entrance parameters and meteorological conditions. The obtained results were compared with those of other studies and the comparison gives a good validity of the present results.

  16. Dynamics of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidlichovsky, M.

    1987-01-01

    The conference proceedings contains a total of 31 papers of which 7 have not been incorporated in INIS. The papers mainly discuss the mathematical methods of calculating the movement of planets, their satellites and asteroids in the solar system and the mathematical modelling of the past development of the solar system. Great attention is also devoted to resonance in the solar system and to the study of many celestial bodies. Four papers are devoted to planetary rings and three to modern astrometry. (M.D.). 63 figs., 10 tabs., 520 refs

  17. Design concepts of nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    Interest in using nuclear energy for producing potable water has been growing worldwide in the past decade. This has been motivated by a variety of factors, including economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, the growing need for worldwide energy supply diversification, the need to conserve limited supplies of fossil fuels, protecting the environment from greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially advantageous spin-off effects of nuclear technology for industrial development. Various studies, and at least one demonstration project, have been considered by Member States with the aim of assessing the feasibility of using nuclear energy for desalination applications under specific conditions. In order to facilitate information exchange on the subject area, the IAEA has been active for a number of years in compiling related technical publications. In 1999, an inter regional technical co-operation project on Integrated Nuclear Power and desalination System Design was launched to facilitate international collaboration for the joint development by technology holders and potential end users of an integrated nuclear desalination system. This publication presents material on the current status of nuclear desalination activities and preliminary design concepts of nuclear desalination plants, as made available to the IAEA by various Member States. It is aimed at planners, designers and potential end-users in those Member States interested in further assessment of nuclear desalination. Interested readers are also referred to two related and recent IAEA publications, which contain useful information in this area: Introduction of Nuclear Desalination: A Guidebook, Technical Report Series No. 400 (2000) and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Plants Coupled with Seawater Desalination Units, IAEA-TECDOC-1235 (2001)

  18. Corrosion and Protection of Metal in the Seawater Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiangyu; Gao, Lili; Cui, Zhendong; Yin, Jianhua

    2018-01-01

    Seawater desalination develops rapid for it can solve water scarcity efficiently. However, corrosion problem in the seawater desalination system is more serious than that in normal water. So, it is important to pay attention to the corrosion and protection of metal in seawater desalination. The corrosion characteristics and corrosion types of metal in the seawater desalination system are introduced in this paper; In addition, corrosion protect methods and main influencing factors are stated, the latest new technologies about anti-corrosion with quantum energy assisted and magnetic inhibitor are presented.

  19. A CONCEPT OF SOLAR TRACKER SYSTEM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Meita Rumbayan *, Muhamad Dwisnanto Putro

    2017-01-01

    Improvement of solar panel efficiency is an ongoing research work recently. Maximizing the output power by integrating with the solar tracker system becomes a interest point of the research. This paper presents the concept in designing a solar tracker system applied to solar panel. The development of solar panel tracker system design that consist of system display prototype design, hardware design, and algorithm design. This concept is useful as the control system for solar tracker to improve...

  20. Solar-Cooled Hotel in the Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, H.

    1982-01-01

    Performance of solar cooling system is described in 21-page report. System provides cooling for public areas including ball rooms, restaurant, lounge, lobby and shops. Chilled water from solar-cooling system is also used to cool hot water from hotel's desalinization plant.

  1. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu

    1982-01-01

    Many studies on the origin of the solar system have so far been made until now. These are divided into three categories; Cameron's model, Safronov's model and Kyoto model. In Cameron's model, as an initial stage of the formation of the solar system, a massive solar nebula is assumed whose mass is as large as one solar mass. This solar nebula is unstable against gravitational fragmentation, which leads to massive gaseous protoplanets. On the other hand, in both models of Safronov and us, the mass of the nebula is of the order of a few percent of the solar mass or less. However, a significant difference between Safronov's and ours lies in the continuing accumulation process of planetesimals; in the former, the accumulation is assumed to proceed in a gas-free space, but in the latter, the gas drag effect of the solar nebula is fully taken into account on the planetary growth. In this paper, the scenario of Kyoto model is reviewed, which has been developed by Hayashi and his co-workers in Kyoto group for these ten years. We will see that the gas of the solar nebula has played extensively important roles on the various stages of the planetary formation. (author)

  2. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chushiro; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Miyama, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The study on the origin of the solar system entered a stage of synthetic and positivistic science around 1960, as the observation and the theory of protostars began to develop, the solar chemical composition became almost definite, and the amounts of chemical and mineralogical data greatly increased. In accordance with this scientific situation, the first research meeting in Japan on the origin of the solar system was held in 1965 at the Research Institute for Fundamental Physics, Kyoto University. It was discussed how a variety of the data on the solar system can be explained in a unified way. Since 1977, the workshop on the origin has been held annually. Through a series of the workshops, so-called Kyoto model has been talked and discussed frequently. For three years from 1985, the workshop in Kyoto was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, and one of the main items of this grant was to publish the results of the workshop as the Supplement of the Progress of Theoretical Physics. The chronology of the solar system, the formation processes of protostars, the stability of solar nebulae, the physical processes in solar nebulae, the physical processes related to planetary growth, the growth of planets, and the formation of asteroids and meteorites are described in this book. (K.I.)

  3. Eyes on the Solar System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Eyes on the Solar System is a software package developed by NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the California Institute of Technology using data provided by NASA's...

  4. Views of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, C.

    1995-02-01

    Views of the Solar System has been created as an educational tour of the solar system. It contains images and information about the Sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets found within the solar system. The image processing for many of the images was done by the author. This tour uses hypertext to allow space travel by simply clicking on a desired planet. This causes information and images about the planet to appear on screen. While on a planet page, hyperlinks travel to pages about the moons and other relevant available resources. Unusual terms are linked to and defined in the Glossary page. Statistical information of the planets and satellites can be browsed through lists sorted by name, radius and distance. History of Space Exploration contains information about rocket history, early astronauts, space missions, spacecraft and detailed chronology tables of space exploration. The Table of Contents page has links to all of the various pages within Views Of the Solar System.

  5. Performance investigation of an advanced multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young Deuk; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Saththasivam, Jayaprakash; Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the development of an advanced adsorption desalination system with quantum performance improvement. The proposed multi-effect adsorption desalination (MEAD) cycle utilizes a single heat source i.e., low-temperature hot water

  6. Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Misra, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to gainfully employ the years of experience and expertise in various aspects of desalination activity, BARC (India) has undertaken installation of a hybrid nuclear desalination plant coupled to 170 MW(e) PHWR station at Kalpakkam, Chennai in the Southeast coast of India. The integrated system, called the Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP), will thus meet the dual needs of process water for nuclear power plant and drinking water for the neighbouring people. NDDP aims for demonstrating the safe and economic production of good quality water by nuclear desalination of seawater. It comprises a 4500 m 3 /d Multistage Flash (MSF) and a 1800 m 3 /d Reverse Osmosis (RO) plant. MSF section uses low pressure steam from Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam. The objectives of the NDDP (Kalpakkam) are as follows: to establish the indigenous capability for the design, manufacture, installation and operation of nuclear desalination plants; to generate necessary design inputs and optimum process parameters for large scale nuclear desalination plant; to serve as a demonstration project to IAEA welcoming participation from interested member states. The hybrid plant is envisaged to have a number of advantages: a part of high purity desalted water produced from MSF plant will be used for the makeup demineralised water requirement (after necessary polishing) for the power station; blending of the product water from RO and MSF plants would provide requisite quality drinking water; the RO plant will continue to be operated to provide the water for drinking purposes during the shutdown of the power station

  7. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System provides a timely update of our knowledge of planetary atmospheres and the bodies of the outer solar system and their analogs in other planetary systems. This volume begins with an expanded treatment of the physics, chemistry, and meteorology of the atmospheres of the Earth, Venus, and Mars, moving on to their magnetospheres and then to a full discussion of the gas and ice giants and their properties. From here, attention switches to the small bodies of the solar system, beginning with the natural satellites. Then comets, meteors, meteorites, and asteroids are discussed in order, and the volume concludes with the origin and evolution of our solar system. Finally, a fully revised section on extrasolar planetary systems puts the development of our system in a wider and increasingly well understood galactic context. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sist...

  8. The solar system barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Not all solar eclipses are fascinating visual spectacles. The 'eclipse' that the thermal solar sector underwent between the 1984 oil price's collapse and the beginning of the 90's almost succeeded in sending it straight into a 'black hole'. Luckily, the steadfastness of some sector professionals and the intrinsic qualities of an energy which can be adapted to a great number of different situations got the better of this difficult period. After ten lean years, the sector has been experiencing a new youth for the past four years now. (author)

  9. Solar home systems in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryson, Jessica; Haakansson, Teresa

    1999-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and environmentally friendly technology that does not require any fuels. The high reliability of operation and little need for maintenance makes it ideally suited for rural areas. Today PV systems are used in Nepal to power telecommunications centres, navigational aids, in pumping systems for irrigation and drinking water, and for household electrification. A solar home system consists of a PV module, a battery, a charge controller and 3-4 fluorescent light bulbs with fixture. The system provides power for lighting and operation of household appliances for several hours. The success of donor supported programs have shown that solar home systems can be a practical solution for many rural households. In 1996 the Government of Nepal launched a subsidy program for solar home systems, which dramatically has increased the demand for solar home systems among rural customers. This report includes a survey of 52 households with solar home systems in two villages. The field-study shows that the villagers are very happy with their systems and the technical performance of the systems in both villages is satisfactory. The study also shows the positive impact electricity has on education, health, income generation and quality of life. The beneficiaries of introducing electricity in remote areas are the children and the women 39 refs, 18 tabs. Examination paper

  10. Hybrids of Solar Sail, Solar Electric, and Solar Thermal Propulsion for Solar-System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Solar sails have long been known to be an attractive method of propulsion in the inner solar system if the areal density of the overall spacecraft (S/C) could be reduced to approx.10 g/sq m. It has also long been recognized that the figure (precise shape) of useful solar sails needs to be reasonably good, so that the reflected light goes mostly in the desired direction. If one could make large reflective surfaces with reasonable figure at an areal density of approx.10 g/sq m, then several other attractive options emerge. One is to use such sails as solar concentrators for solar-electric propulsion. Current flight solar arrays have a specific output of approx. 100W/kg at 1 Astronomical Unit (AU) from the sun, and near-term advances promise to significantly increase this figure. A S/C with an areal density of 10 g/sq m could accelerate up to 29 km/s per year as a solar sail at 1 AU. Using the same sail as a concentrator at 30 AU, the same spacecraft could have up to approx. 45 W of electric power per kg of total S/C mass available for electric propulsion (EP). With an EP system that is 50% power-efficient, exhausting 10% of the initial S/C mass per year as propellant, the exhaust velocity is approx. 119 km/s and the acceleration is approx. 12 km/s per year. This hybrid thus opens attractive options for missions to the outer solar system, including sample-return missions. If solar-thermal propulsion were perfected, it would offer an attractive intermediate between solar sailing in the inner solar system and solar electric propulsion for the outer solar system. In the example above, both the solar sail and solar electric systems don't have a specific impulse that is near-optimal for the mission. Solar thermal propulsion, with an exhaust velocity of the order of 10 km/s, is better matched to many solar system exploration missions. This paper derives the basic relationships between these three propulsion options and gives examples of missions that might be enabled by

  11. K2 & Solar System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack

    2015-01-01

    All of the fields that K2 observes are near the ecliptic plane in order to minimize the spin-up of the spacecraft in response to the effects of solar irradiation. The fields observed by K2 are thus rich in Solar System objects including planets, asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). K2 has already performed observations of Neptune and its large moon Triton, 68 Trojan and Hilda asteroids, 5 TNOs (including Pluto) and Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Springs). About 10,000 main-belt asteroids that fell into the pixel masks of stars have been serendipitously observed. Observations of small bodies are especially useful for determining rotation periods. Uranus will be observed in a future campaign (C8), as will many more small Solar System bodies. The status of various K2 Solar System studies will be reviewed and placed within the context of our current knowledge of the objects being observed.

  12. Smart solar tanks for small solar domestic hot water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of small SDHW systems based on smart solar tanks are presented. The domestic water in a smart solar tank can be heated both by solar collectors and by means of an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system – in this study electric heating elements – heats up...... systems, based on differently designed smart solar tanks and a traditional SDHW system were investigated by means of laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations. The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of SDHW systems with smart solar tanks is 5-35% higher than the thermal...... performance of traditional SDHW systems. Estimates indicate that the performance/cost ratio can be improved by up to 25% by using a smart solar tank instead of a traditional tank when the backup energy system is electric heating elements. Further, smart solar tanks are suitable for unknown, variable, large...

  13. Solar System Update

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    This book, the first in a series of forthcoming volumes, consists of topical and timely reviews of a number of carefully selected topics in solar systemn science. Contributions, in form of up-to-date reviews, are mainly aimed at professional astronomers and planetary scientists wishing to inform themselves about progress in fields closely related to their own field of expertise.

  14. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Is your library up to date on the Solar System? When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term "planet," Pluto was stripped of its designation as the solar system''s ninth planet. New Views of the Solar System looks at scientists'' changing perspectives on the solar system, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid and detailed images of the solar system.

  15. Origins of Inner Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Rebekah Ilene

    2017-06-01

    Over the past couple decades, thousands of extra-solar planetshave been discovered orbiting other stars. The exoplanets discovered to date exhibit a wide variety of orbital and compositional properties; most are dramatically different from the planets in our own Solar System. Our classical theories for the origins of planetary systems were crafted to account for the Solar System and fail to account for the diversity of planets now known. We are working to establish a new blueprint for the origin of planetary systems and identify the key parameters of planet formation and evolution that establish the distribution of planetary properties observed today. The new blueprint must account for the properties of planets in inner solar systems, regions of planetary systems closer to their star than Earth’s separation from the Sun and home to most exoplanets detected to data. I present work combining simulations and theory with data analysis and statistics of observed planets to test theories of the origins of inner solars, including hot Jupiters, warm Jupiters, and tightly-packed systems of super-Earths. Ultimately a comprehensive blueprint for planetary systems will allow us to better situate discovered planets in the context of their system’s formation and evolution, important factors in whether the planets may harbor life.

  16. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  17. Magnetotails in the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Keiling, Andreas; Delamere, Peter

    2014-01-01

    All magnetized planets in our solar system (Mercury, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) interact strongly with the solar wind and possess well developed magnetotails. It is not only the strongly magnetized planets that have magnetotails. Mars and Venus have no global intrinsic magnetic field, yet they possess induced magnetotails. Comets have magnetotails that are formed by the draping of the interplanetary magnetic field. In the case of planetary  satellites (moons), the magnetotail refers to the wake region behind the satellite in the flow of either the solar wind or the magnetosp

  18. Sistemas híbridos con base en las energías renovables para el suministro de energía a plantas desaladoras / Hybrid systems with base in the renewable energy for the energy supply to desalination plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivis Ávila‐Prats

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente trabajo se modelan los sistemas híbridos con base en las energías renovables, quegaranticen las necesidades energéticas en plantas desaladoras de ósmosis inversa, con unacapacidad de hasta 50 m3 de producción diaria, a fin de obtener la combinación óptima. Para elprocesamiento de los datos se hará uso del software especializado HOMER. Se tomarán comoelementos de partida: la demanda eléctrica de una planta desaladora tipo, las especificacionestécnicas de los equipos propuestos, así como los potenciales de radiación solar y las velocidades deviento de la región analizada (Islas Canarias.Las conclusiones muestran que el sistema híbrido óptimo, desde el punto de vista técnico-económicopara el suministro de energía a desaladoras de ósmosis inversa con capacidad de producción de 50m3/día, será un sistema eólico- diesel, compuesto por: dos aerogeneradores, un banco de baterías yun generador diesel. Se demuestra que la velocidad del viento es la variable termodinámicadeterminante para la configuración de los sistemas híbridos estudiados, considerando los potencialesenergéticos naturales existentes en la región estudiada.Palabras claves: desalinización, ósmosis inversa, HOMER, Islas Canarias, sistemas híbridos, energíasrenovables._____________________________________________________________________AbstractIn the following work the hybrid systems with base in the renewable energy are modeled, to comparemany different design options based on their technical and economic merits. The energy necessitieswill be guaranteed in reverse osmosis desalination plants, with a capacity of up to 50 m3 of dailyproduction. The data processing was analyzed using the computer model, HOMER. The departureelements were: the electric demand of the desalination plant, the technical specifications of theequipments, as well as the potentials of solar radiation and the speeds of wind of the analyzed region(Canary Island

  19. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2008-01-01

    Solar System Astrophysics opens with coverage of the atmospheres, ionospheres and magnetospheres of the Earth, Venus and Mars and the magnetosphere of Mercury. The book then provides an introduction to meteorology and treating the physics and chemistry of these areas in considerable detail. What follows are the structure, composition, particle environments, satellites, and rings of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, making abundant use of results from space probes. Solar System Astrophysics follows the history, orbits, structure, origin and demise of comets and the physics of meteors and provides a thorough treatment of meteorites, the asteroids and, in the outer solar system, the Kuiper Belt objects. The methods and results of extrasolar planet searches, the distinctions between stars, brown dwarfs, and planets, and the origins of planetary systems are examined. Historical introductions precede the development and discussion in most chapters. A series of challenges, useful as homework assignments or as foc...

  20. Approach for smart application to desalination and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Moon Hee; Kim Si-Hwan

    1998-01-01

    A 330 MWt integral reactor, SMART, and an integrated nuclear seawater desalination system coupled with SMART are currently under conceptual development at KAERI. The SMART will provide energy to the desalination system either in the form of heat or electricity, or both. The integrated nuclear desalination system aims to produce about 40,000 m 3 /day potable water from seawater for demonstration purposes. The remaining energy produced by SMART will be converted into electrical energy. Several important factors are especially considered in the process of SMART and its application system development. The development emphasizes the adoption of technically proven and advanced technology, measures to secure the safety and reliability of the reactor system, consideration of the desalination process for coupling with SMART, a licensing strategy for SMART and the integrated nuclear desalination system, and international cooperation for promoting nuclear desalination with the SMART development program. The current effort to establish the concept of SMART and its application for desalination is being pursued intensively to secure the safety and reliability of SMART, to prove the implemented concepts/technology considering the coupling with the desalination process, and to formulate an optimum licensing approach. This paper aims to present the technical and strategic approach of SMART and its application system. (author)

  1. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  2. Performance assessment of a new solar energy-based multigeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozlu, Sinan; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a thermodynamic analysis is conducted on a multigeneration energy system based on renewable energy sources. The proposed system is developed for residential applications, including individual- and multi-building complexes, utilizing solar energy to produce useful outputs, namely electricity, heat, fresh water and hydrogen. Hydrogen is used for the purpose of storing energy to offset the mismatch between demand and supply when dealt with renewables, such as solar energy. The system is modeled thermodynamically to obtain the optimal energy and exergy efficiencies, heat and work outputs for the overall system. Moreover, greenhouse gas emissions caused by conventional energy systems utilized for the same outputs are calculated and compared with the studied systems. A solar collector area of 24 m 2 is considered for the present system and its analysis. The maximum energy efficiency is 36% and the maximum exergy efficiency is 44%. The total work output for electricity is 116 kW, and hence the CO 2 reduction achieved by this system is 476 tons per year. It can produce 0.04 kg/s desalinated water. The optimum number of suites, as an application for a building complex, which can be sustained with the proposed system is determined as 106 suites. - Highlights: • A solar energy based multigeneration system is proposed. • Energy, exergy efficiencies, heat, work outputs of the system are determined. • Optimization is done on efficiencies and work output. • Domestic heating, desalination, hydrogen, electricity is obtained. • Overall system energy and exergy efficiency is found to be 36% and 44%.

  3. Chaos in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecar, Myron; Franklin, Fred A.; Holman, Matthew J.; Murray, Norman J.

    2001-01-01

    The physical basis of chaos in the solar system is now better understood: In all cases investigated so far, chaotic orbits result from overlapping resonances. Perhaps the clearest examples are found in the asteroid belt. Overlapping resonances account for its kirkwood gaps and were used to predict and find evidence for very narrow gaps in the outer belt. Further afield, about one new "short-peroid" comet is discovered each year. They are believed to come from the "Kuiper Belt" (at 40 AU or more) via chaotic orbits produced by mean-motion and secular resonances with Neptune. Finally, the planetary system itself is not immune from chaos. In the inner solar system, overlapping secular resonances have been identified as the possible source of chaos. For example, Mercury in 1012 years, may suffer a close encounter with Venus or plunge into the Sun. In the outer solar system, three-body resonances have been identified as a source of chaos, but on an even longer time scale of 109 times the age of the solar system. On the human time scale, the planets do follow their orbits in a stately procession, and we can predict their trajectories for hundreds of thousands of years. That is because the mavericks, with shorter instability times, have long since been ejected. The solar system is not stable; it is just old!

  4. Adsorption desalination: An emerging low-cost thermal desalination method

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, K. C.; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Youngdeuk; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Desalination, other than the natural water cycle, is hailed as the panacea to alleviate the problems of fresh water shortage in many water stressed countries. However, the main drawback of conventional desalination methods is that they are energy

  5. On the optimal design of forward osmosis desalination systems with NH3-CO2-H2O solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazzani, Matteo; Pérez-Calvo, José Francisco; Sutter, Daniel; Mazzotti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Membrane-based forward osmosis, especially when NH3-CO2-H2O mixtures are adopted as draw solutions, is a promising new process for clean water production, including seawater desalination and wastewater treatment. In such a process, water is first removed from the feed (e.g. seawater) by exploiting

  6. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  7. Low Energy Desalination Using Battery Electrode Deionization

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Taeyoung

    2017-09-21

    New electrochemical technologies that use capacitive or battery electrodes are being developed to minimize energy requirements for desalinating brackish waters. When a pair of electrodes is charged in capacitive deionization (CDI) systems, cations bind to the cathode and anions bind to the anode, but high applied voltages (>1.2 V) result in parasitic reactions and irreversible electrode oxidation. In the battery electrode deionization (BDI) system developed here, two identical copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) battery electrodes were used that release and bind cations, with anion separation occurring via an anion exchange membrane. The system used an applied voltage of 0.6 V, which avoided parasitic reactions, achieved high electrode desalination capacities (up to 100 mg-NaCl/g-electrode, 50 mM NaCl influent), and consumed less energy than CDI. Simultaneous production of desalinated and concentrated solutions in two channels avoided a two-cycle approach needed for CDI. Stacking additional membranes between CuHCF electrodes (up to three anion and two cation exchange membranes) reduced energy consumption to only 0.02 kWh/m3 (approximately an order of magnitude lower than values reported for CDI), for an influent desalination similar to CDI (25 mM decreased to 17 mM). These results show that BDI could be effective as a very low energy method for brackish water desalination.

  8. Solar thermophotovoltaic system using nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungaro, Craig; Gray, Stephen K; Gupta, Mool C

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents results on a highly efficient experimental solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system using simulated solar energy. An overall power conversion efficiency of 6.2% was recorded under solar simulation. This was matched with a thermodynamic model, and the losses within the system, as well as a path forward to mitigate these losses, have been investigated. The system consists of a planar, tungsten absorbing/emitting structure with an anti-reflection layer coated laser-microtextured absorbing surface and single-layer dielectric coated emitting surface. A GaSb PV cell was used to capture the emitted radiation and convert it into electrical energy. This simple structure is both easy to fabricate and temperature stable, and contains no moving parts or heat exchange fluids.

  9. Origin of Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    Our ongoing research program combines extensive deep and wide-field observations using a variety of observational platforms with numerical studies of the dynamics of small bodies in the outer solar system in order to advance the main scientific goals of the community studying the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. These include: (1) determining the relative populations of the known classes of KBOs as well as other possible classes; ( 2 ) determining the size distributions or luminosity function of the individual populations or the Kuiper belt as a whole; (3) determining the inclinations distributions of these populations; (4) establishing the radial extent of the Kuiper belt; ( 5 ) measuring and relating the physical properties of different types of KBOs to those of other solar system bodies; and, (6) completing our systematic inventory of the satellites of the outer planets.

  10. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  11. Force convective solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents design and performance of V-groove back-pass solar collector for solar drying system. In this study three V-groove back-pass solar collector each with dimension of 4.6 m x 1.0 m x 0.15 m have been fabricated for solar drying system. An outdoor test at mean solar intensity for 600-800 Wm -2 by using 0.15m 3 s -1 of air flow rate which also been suggested by (Zeroul et al. 1994) was carried out at Solar Research Energy Park. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Analysis on the collector performance based on daily data was reported that the value of FR ) e and FRUL was 0.709 ± 0.001 and 5.89 ± 0.31 Wm -2o C -1 respectively with 60-70 o C of output temperature (Ruslan et al. 2001). The three V-groove collectors each with dimension 4.6 m x 0.15 m were connected in series array mounted on the roof of a solar assisted drying system. By using two electric fans of 85W and 2700 rpm each, the speed of air was regulated at 0.11 kgs -1 to 0.31 kgs -1 using a voltage regulator. Performance of the collector based on the thermal analysis showed that at mean daily solar radiation 700 Wm -2 , the output temperature of 52 o C to 73 o C could be achieved using 0.11-0.31 kgs -1 of flow rate. Thermal analysis also showed that the efficiencies of 45% to 61% could be obtains using the same flow rate and solar radiation. Analysis of daily data showed that for radiation from 300 Wm -2 to 1000 Wm -2 the power generated from the collector was within 1.5 kW to 8.9 kW. The study concluded that the levels of the levels of the solar radiation and flow rate used influenced the performance of the collector

  12. Nuclear energy and water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprince-Ringuet, L.

    1976-01-01

    A short state-of-the-art survey is given of desalination methods, the involvement of nuclear power reactors in some desalination process, the cost of certain methods, and quantities produced and required in different parts of the world

  13. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Spohn, Tilman; Johnson, Torrence

    2014-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System, Third Edition-winner of the 2015 PROSE Award in Cosmology & Astronomy from the Association of American Publishers-provides a framework for understanding the origin and evolution of the solar system, historical discoveries, and details about planetary bodies and how they interact-with an astounding breadth of content and breathtaking visual impact. The encyclopedia includes the latest explorations and observations, hundreds of color digital images and illustrations, and over 1,000 pages. It stands alone as the definitive work in this field, and will serve

  14. Performance test of solar energy distillation system; Taiyonetsu riyo kaisui tansuika system no zosui seino shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, T; Toyoshima, Y [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Narasaki, Y; Kamiya, I [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Sato, H [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1997-11-25

    In order to develop a seawater desalination equipment utilizing solar heat, a performance test was performed on a three-stage solar heat vacuum distiller. The equipment can evaporate and condense water at low temperatures by reducing the pressure in a distilling section. Solar heat is collected by a heat collecting plate, by which water as the working fluid is evaporated and moved to a heat conducting section in an evaporation pipe in a state of steam. The steam is condensed in a low-temperature heat conducting pipe, the heat is released outside the heat conducting pipe, and seawater is evaporated under low pressure condition. The working fluid is circulated for repetitive use. Solar cells are used as a motive power source for a vacuum pump, hence the system is self-sustainable even if installed in a desert area and the like places. The construction is simple, highly durable, and easy in maintenance. The system has high water producing performance, uses no harmful substances whatsoever such as fluorocarbons, and is a friendly system to the global environment. Because of evaporation at low temperatures, heat loss to the surroundings and sensible heat due to temperature rise are small, and the system response is quick. The solar heat can be utilized more effectively as multiple effects. When a heat collecting plate of 7.76 m {sup 2} was used, maximum yield of 105.45 kg/day was obtained. The system`s distillation efficiency is higher than other types of solar heat utilizing distillers. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Our Solar System. Our Solar System Topic Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Glen

    2006-01-01

    This book examines the planets and other objects in space that make up the solar system. It also shows how technology helps students learn about our neighbors in space. The suggested age range for this book is 3-8 with a guided reading level of Q-R. The Fry level is 3.2.

  16. Encyclopedia of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, Paul; Johnson, Torrence

    1998-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of the Solar System provides a series of comprehensive and authoritative articles written by more than 50 eminent planetary and space scientists. Each chapter is self-contained yet linked by cross-references to other related chapters. This beautifully designed book is a must for the library of professional astronomers and amateur star-gazers alike, in fact for anyone who wishes to understand the nature of our solar system.Key Features* Cross-referenced throughout for easy comprehension* Superbly illustrated with over 700 photos, drawings, and diagrams, including 36 color plates* Provides 40 thematically organized chapters by more than 50 eminent contributors* Convenient glossaries of technical terms introduce each chapter* Academic Press maintains a web site for the Encyclopedia at www.academicpress.com/solar; Author-recommended web resources for additional information, images, and research developments related to each chapter of this volume, are available here

  17. Sizing up the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi; Rogers, Meredith Park; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

    2011-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 1993) states that by the end of fifth grade, students should understand that a model, such as those depicting the solar system, is a smaller version of the real product, making it easier to physically work with and therefore learn from. However, for students and even adults,…

  18. Precipitation in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    As an astronomy instructor, I am always looking for commonly observed Earthly experiences to help my students and me understand and appreciate similar occurrences elsewhere in the solar system. Recently I wrote a short TPT article on frost. This paper is on the related phenomena of precipitation. Precipitation, so common on most of the Earth's…

  19. Solar system for soil drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, Z.R.; Stojanovic, J.B.; Antic, M.A.; Pavlovic, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reviews solar system for drainage of the cultivable agricultural surfaces which can be situated near the rivers in plains. These are usually very fertile surfaces which cannot be cultivated die to constant presence of the water. Using such solar systems should increase the percentage of cultivable surfaces. These systems can also be installed on the cultivable agricultural surfaces, where the water surfaces or so called still waters appear, which make impossible the application of agritechnical measures on these surfaces, significantly decreasing crops and creating conditions for the growth of pond plants and animals. Increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces would increase national agricultural income. At the same time, increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces decreases the surfaces of unhealthy bog, swamp and marshland soils, where many insect breed. They are the cause for soil spraying from the air, which causes the pollution of environment. Solar systems do not pollute the environment because they use solar energy as the purest source of energy. Their usage has special significance in the places where there is no electricity distribution network

  20. Solar active region display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  1. Effect of water and air flow on concentric tubular solar water desalting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunkumar, T.; Jayaprakash, R.; Ahsan, Amimul; Denkenberger, D.; Okundamiya, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We optimized the augmentation of condense by enhanced desalination methodology. ► We measured ambient together with solar radiation intensity. ► The effect of cooling air and water flowing over the cover was studied. -- Abstract: This work reports an innovative design of tubular solar still with a rectangular basin for water desalination with flowing water and air over the cover. The daily distillate output of the system is increased by lowering the temperature of water flowing over it (top cover cooling arrangement). The fresh water production performance of this new still is observed in Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore (11° North, 77° East), India. The water production rate with no cooling flow was 2050 ml/day (410 ml/trough). However, with cooling air flow, production increased to 3050 ml/day, and with cooling water flow, it further increased to 5000 ml/day. Despite the increased cost of the water cooling system, the increased output resulted in the cost of distilled water being cut in roughly half. Diurnal variations of a few important parameters are observed during field experiments such as water temperature, cover temperature, air temperature, ambient temperature and distillate output.

  2. Implication of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.

    1983-01-01

    Available dual purpose nuclear desalination schemes are reviewed. Three specific issues namely, impact of availability and reliability of the desalination stage of the plant, integration of the desalination and power production stages and new safety concerns of dual system, relating to desalination schemes are discussed. Results of operational and reliability studies of nuclear power stations, reverse osmosis and multistage flash distillation desalination plants are considered. Operational aspects of nuclear-multistage flash distillation, nuclear-reverse osmosis and nuclear-multistage flash distillation-reverse osmosis are compared. Concludes that the combined nuclear-multistage flash distillation-reverse osmosis plant arrangement permits very large production capacity, high availability, improvement of plant reliability and proovision of savings on the cost of water and power produced. 23 Ref

  3. Solar power satellite system; Uchu hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-05

    The solar power satellite system is a system that converts solar energy into electric energy in the space, transmits power to earth through wireless resort such as microwave and supplies energy of new concept. In order to realize this system it is necessary to have new technologies such as space power transmission at low cost, construction of large space buildings and wireless high power transmission. In this paper, the principles, characteristics and the necessary technology of this system were explained. Besides Japan`s SPS2000 Plan (cooperative research by universities, government agencies and private corporations on the model of solar power satellite) the group of Europe, Russia and the United States has also proposed some ideas concerning the solar power satellite system. As far as the microwave power transmission, which is the key technology for solar power satellite system, is concerned, ground demonstration tests at the level of several tens of kW are discussed in Canada and France. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Desalination and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeijn, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The techniques for fresh water production from seawater have matured and capacities have increased considerably over the past decades. It is feasible to combine seawater desalination with the generation of electricity since power stations can provide energy and low grade heat during off peak periods for the purpose of fresh water production. A dual purpose installation, combining a seawater desalination facility with a light water reactor power generation station promises interesting possibilities. The case in South Africa, where nuclear power stations are most economically sited far from the inland coal fields, is discussed. 1 ill

  5. Energy systems impacts of reverse osmosis and thermal desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst oth...

  6. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  7. Solar engineering 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, D.E.; Hogan, R.E.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 83 papers constitutes the Proceedings of the 1994 International Solar Energy Conference held March 27--30, 1994 in San Francisco, California. The Conference was jointly sponsored by the Solar Energy Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Japan Solar Energy Society. This is the fourth cooperation between ASME, JSME and JSES in cosponsoring the International Solar Energy Conference. The papers cover a wide range of solar technologies from low temperature solar ponds and desalinization to high temperature concentrators for space applications and central receivers for terrestrial power generation. Other topics covered include solar detoxification of hazardous waste, dish Stirling systems, solar cooling, photovoltaics, building energy analysis and conservation, simulation, and testing and measurement techniques. All papers were indexed separately for the data base

  8. The necessity of desalination technology for designing and sizing multi-loop aquaponics systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddek, Simon; Keesman, Karel J.

    2018-01-01

    Providing both fish and plants with optimal environmental conditions is a classical problem in the field of aquaponics. Several studies have tackled this problem by decoupling fish and plant systems. However, in order to achieve both high nutrient levels for the plants and low nutrient and

  9. Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Desalination System Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjun; Cho, Hyeongrak; Shin, Yonghyun; Jang, Yongsun; Lee, Sangho

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO)–reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was applied to analyze the effects of concentration polarization, water, and salt transport coefficient on flux, recovery, seawater concentration, and treated wastewater of the FO process of an FO-RO hybrid system. A simple cost model was applied to analyze the effects of flux; recovery of the FO process; energy; and membrane cost on the FO-RO hybrid process. The simulation results showed that the water transport coefficient and internal concentration polarization resistance are very important factors that affect performance in the FO process; however; the effect of the salt transport coefficient does not seem to be large. It was also found that the flux and recovery of the FO process, the FO membrane, and the electricity cost are very important factors that influence the water cost of an FO-RO hybrid system. This hybrid system can be price-competitive with RO systems when its recovery rate is very high, the flux and the membrane cost of the FO are similar to those of the RO, and the electricity cost is expensive. The most important thing in commercializing the FO process is enhancing performance (e.g.; flux and the recovery of FO membranes). PMID:26729176

  10. Conceptual design and economic evaluation about the coupling of high power PWRs and desalination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung; Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young

    2012-01-01

    REX-10 is a small-sized integral pressurized water reactor designed by Seoul National Univ. (SNU) for supplying electricity and district heating in micro-grid. REX-10 has a rated thermal output of 10 MW and the reactor assemblies are equipped with the thorium-fueled core, the helical-coil steam generator, and the steam-gas pressurizer inside a reactor pressure vessel. Unique technical features and reactor system designs of REX-10 are presented in this paper. To evaluate the system performance and investigate the transient behaviors of REX-10, a thermal-hydraulic system code named TAPIR is developed by SNU on the basis of the momentum integral model. The TASS/SMR code developed by KAERI is also applicable to the transient analyses of the advanced integral reactors. Main design decisions of the REX-10 reactor coolant system are assessed using both codes from the steady-state calculation. In addition, a transient analysis on the uncontrolled reactivity insertion event is performed to evaluate the reactor dynamics coupled with the thermal-hydraulic behavior of REX-10. The predicted results from TAPIR and TASS/SMR are compared with each other and good agreements are obtained

  11. Conceptual design and economic evaluation about the coupling of high power PWRs and desalination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon Min; Heo, Gyun Young [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    REX-10 is a small-sized integral pressurized water reactor designed by Seoul National Univ. (SNU) for supplying electricity and district heating in micro-grid. REX-10 has a rated thermal output of 10 MW and the reactor assemblies are equipped with the thorium-fueled core, the helical-coil steam generator, and the steam-gas pressurizer inside a reactor pressure vessel. Unique technical features and reactor system designs of REX-10 are presented in this paper. To evaluate the system performance and investigate the transient behaviors of REX-10, a thermal-hydraulic system code named TAPIR is developed by SNU on the basis of the momentum integral model. The TASS/SMR code developed by KAERI is also applicable to the transient analyses of the advanced integral reactors. Main design decisions of the REX-10 reactor coolant system are assessed using both codes from the steady-state calculation. In addition, a transient analysis on the uncontrolled reactivity insertion event is performed to evaluate the reactor dynamics coupled with the thermal-hydraulic behavior of REX-10. The predicted results from TAPIR and TASS/SMR are compared with each other and good agreements are obtained.

  12. Entropy Generation Analysis of Desalination Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Lienhard V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies. Entropy generation analysis, and specifically, Second Law efficiency, is an important tool for illustrating the influence of irreversibilities within a system on the required energy input. When defining Second Law efficiency, the useful exergy output of the system must be properly defined. For desalination systems, this is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of water from a feed stream of a given salinity. In order to evaluate the Second Law efficiency, entropy generation mechanisms present in a wide range of desalination processes are analyzed. In particular, entropy generated in the run down to equilibrium of discharge streams must be considered. Physical models are applied to estimate the magnitude of entropy generation by component and individual processes. These formulations are applied to calculate the total entropy generation in several desalination systems including multiple effect distillation, multistage flash, membrane distillation, mechanical vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and humidification-dehumidification. Within each technology, the relative importance of each source of entropy generation is discussed in order to determine which should be the target of entropy generation minimization. As given here, the correct application of Second Law efficiency shows which systems operate closest to the reversible limit and helps to indicate which systems have the greatest potential for improvement.

  13. Solar Heating Systems with Evacuated Tubular Solar Collector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Lin; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Recently different designed evacuated tubular solar collectors were introduced on the market by different Chinese companies. In the present study, investigations on the performance of four different Chinese evacuated tubular collectors and of solar heating systems using these collectors were...... carried out, employing both laboratory test and theoretical calculations. The collectors were tested in a small solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system in a laboratory test facility under realistic conditions. The yearly thermal performance of solar heating systems with these evacuated tubular collectors......, as well as with normal flat-plate collectors was calculated under Danish weather conditions. It is found that, for small SDHW systems with a combi tank design, an increase of 25% -55% net utilized solar energy can be achieved by using these evacuated tubular collectors instead of normal flat...

  14. Economic Considerations of Nuclear Desalination in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man-Ki, Lee; Seung-Su, Kim

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the economics of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) desalination plant in Korea through DEEP (Devaluation Economic Evaluation Program). SMART is mainly designed for the dual purpose of producing water and electricity with the total capacity of 100 MWe which 10 MWe is used for water production and the remains for the electric generation. SMART desalination plant using MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) process is in the stage of the commercial development and its cost information is also being accumulated. In this circumstances, the economic assessment of nuclear desalination by SMART and the effect of water(or electric) supply price to the regional economy is meaningful to the policy maker. This study is focused on the case study analysis about the economics of SMART desalination plant and the meanings of the case study result. This study is composed of two parts. One is prepared to survey the methodology regarding cost allocation between electricity and water in DEEP and the other is for the economic assessment of SMART. The cost allocation methods that have been proposed or used can be classified into two main groups, one is the cost prorating method and the other is the credit method. The cost of an product item in the dual-purpose plant can be determined differently depending on the costing methods adopted. When it comes to applying credit method adopted in this thesis, the production cost of water depends on what kind of the power cost will be chosen in calculating the power credit. This study also analyses the changes of nuclear desalination economics according to the changes of the important factors such as fossil fuel price. I wish that this study can afford to give an insight to the policy maker about SMART desalination plant. (authors)

  15. Water Desalination with Wires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Sales, B.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode

  16. Solar-powered cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENT DESALINATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the research is to develop a thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of cylindrical shape for the desalination of sea water.Methods. To improve the efficiency of the desalination device, a  special thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of  cylindrical shape is developed. The construction of the thin-film  semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump allows the flow rates of  incoming sea water and outflowing fresh water and brine to be  equalised by changing the geometric dimensions of the desalinator.  The cross-sectional area of the pipeline for incoming sea water is equal to the total area of outflowing fresh water and brine.Results. The use of thin-film semiconductor p- and n-type branches  in a thermo-module reduces their electrical resistance virtually to  zero and completely eliminates Joule's parasitic heat release. The  Peltier thermoelectric effect on heating and cooling is completely  preserved, bringing the efficiency of the heat pump to almost 100%, improving the energy-saving characteristics of the  desalinator as a whole. To further increase the efficiency of the  proposed desalinator, thermoelectric modules with radiation can be  used as thermoelectric devices.Conclusion. As a consequence of the creation of conditions of high rarefaction under which water will be converted to steam, which, at  20° C, is cold (as is the condensed distilled water, energy costs can  be reduced. In this case, the energy for heating and cooling is not  wasted; moreover, sterilisation is also achieved using the ultraviolet  radiation used in the thermoelectric devices, which, on the one hand, generate electromagnetic ultraviolet radiation, and, on the other, cooling. Such devices operate in optimal mode without heat  release. The desalination device can be used to produce fresh water and concentrated solutions from any aqueous solutions, including wastewater from industrial

  18. Irradiance sensors for solar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storch, A.; Schindl, J. [Oesterreichisches Forschungs- und Pruefzentrum Arsenal GesmbH, Vienna (Austria). Business Unit Renewable Energy

    2004-07-01

    The presented project surveyed the quality of irradiance sensors used for applications in solar systems. By analysing an outdoor measurement, the accuracies of ten commercially available irradiance sensors were evaluated, comparing their results to those of a calibrated Kipp and Zonen pyranometer CM21. Furthermore, as a simple method for improving the quality of the results, for each sensor an irradiance-calibration was carried out and examined for its effectiveness. (orig.)

  19. Wonders of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The Sunday Times Bestseller In Wonders of the Solar System - the book of the acclaimed BBC TV series - Professor Brian Cox will take us on a journey of discovery where alien worlds from your imagination become places we can see, feel and visit. The Wonders of the Solar System - from the giant ice fountains of Enceladus to the liquid methane seas of Titan and from storms twice the size of the Earth to the tortured moon of Io with its giant super-volcanoes - is the Solar System as you have never seen it before. In this series, Professor Brian Cox will introduce us to the planets and moons beyond our world, finding the biggest, most bizarre, most powerful natural phenomena. Using the latest scientific imagery along with cutting edge CGI and some of the most spectacular and extreme locations on Earth, Brian will show us Wonders never thought possible. Employing his trademark clear, authoritative, yet down-to-earth approach, Brian will explore how these previously unseen phenomena have dramatically expanded our ho...

  20. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1976-01-01

    The methodology of the problem of the origin and evolution of the Solar System is analysed and it is pointed out that one can approach it in two different ways. (1) One can postulate that long ago there was a certain more or less likely-state, and then calculate how this developed into the present state. In principle this approach is 'mythological' and it differs from the old myths mainly in the respect that it is formulated in a mathematical way. (2) One can start from the present state and reconstruct increasingly older states. This is what the geologists call the 'actualist approach' and is the only one which can claim to be scientific. The 'Laplacean' type of theories is criticized. There is no indication that there was a 'Laplacean' homogeneous disc as an intermediate state, and there is no acceptable mechanism through which the present solar system could be formed from such a disc. The solar system today has a band structure, the planets as well as the satellites all fall in certain bands characterized by certain values of the gravitational potential. The band structure is explained as a result of the ionization of infalling matter when its velocity has reached the 'critical velocity' for ionization. (Auth.)

  1. Life Cycle Assessment for desalination: a review on methodology feasibility and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Chang, Victor W-C; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-09-15

    As concerns of natural resource depletion and environmental degradation caused by desalination increase, research studies of the environmental sustainability of desalination are growing in importance. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an ISO standardized method and is widely applied to evaluate the environmental performance of desalination. This study reviews more than 30 desalination LCA studies since 2000s and identifies two major issues in need of improvement. The first is feasibility, covering three elements that support the implementation of the LCA to desalination, including accounting methods, supporting databases, and life cycle impact assessment approaches. The second is reliability, addressing three essential aspects that drive uncertainty in results, including the incompleteness of the system boundary, the unrepresentativeness of the database, and the omission of uncertainty analysis. This work can serve as a preliminary LCA reference for desalination specialists, but will also strengthen LCA as an effective method to evaluate the environment footprint of desalination alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DRINKING WATER FROM DESALINATION OF SEAWATER: OPTIMIZATION OF REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM OPERATING PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARWAN M. SHAMEL

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the use of pilot scale membrane separation system coupled with another pilot scale plate heat exchanger to investigate the possibilities of sweetening seawater from Telok Kalong Beach, Terengganu, Malaysia. Reverse osmosis (RO membrane of a surface area of 0.5 m2 was used during the experimental runs. Experiments were conducted at different transmembrane pressures (TMP ranged from 40 to 55 bars, operation temperature ranged from 35 to 45oC, feed concentration (TDS ranged from 34900 to 52500 ppm and cross flow velocities ranged from 1.4 to 2.1 m/s. The result show that the flux values increased linearly with TMP as well as sodium ion rejection. Permeate flux values increased proportionally with the temperature and the later effect was more significant at high pressures. The temperature changing has also influenced the rejection of sodium ion. The minerals content especially NaCl and total dissolved solid (TDS in the drinking water produced in this research are conforming to the standards of World Health Organization (WHO.

  3. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  4. Basics of Solar Heating & Hot Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    In presenting the basics of solar heating and hot water systems, this publication is organized from the general to the specific. It begins by presenting functional and operational descriptions of solar heating and domestic hot water systems, outlining the basic concepts and terminology. This is followed by a description of solar energy utilization…

  5. Apparatus and method for improved desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2009-12-30

    A water desalination system comprising an evaporator for evaporating saline water to produce water vapor; a condenser for condensing the water vapor; wherein the evaporator and the condenser are in heat transfer communication such that heat used by the evaporator is at least in part derived from the condenser.

  6. Desalination of brackish and sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Dilip R.

    2005-01-01

    In Pali, Rajasthan, a population of 4 lacs gets about 6 million liters of water. Only 34 out of 116 municipalities in AP get regular water. Desalination found acceptance because of the decreasing water table leading to high salinity and making conventional treatment methods irrelevant. While choosing amongst the competitive desalination techniques that are available today for conversion of large quantities of saline water, Reverse Osmosis (RO) and distillation techniques stand out. RO rules the brackish water market where feed salinity is over 700 mg/L. Waste heat is nowadays a non-entity in power plants due to the developments of waste heat recovery systems in power plant technology. Most of the large plants tend to choose thermal desalination. Improved RO economics have in turn increased the attractiveness and use of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) technology for many large drinking water projects through out the world. Energy cost is the single largest factor in the cost of Sea Water System (usually 20 to 30% of total cost of water). Nuclear Power Corporation, Kudankulam proposed to build a SW desalination system based on RO technology to meet the water requirement of the Anu Vijay Nagar township and Nuclear Power Station. Energy recovery turbine helps reduce the overall system energy requirement. (author)

  7. ZVI (Fe0) desalination: catalytic partial desalination of saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, David D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Globally, salinization affects between 100 and 1000 billion m3 a-1 of irrigation water. The discovery that zero valent iron (ZVI, Fe0) could be used to desalinate water (using intra-particle catalysis in a diffusion environment) raises the possibility that large-scale in situ desalination of aquifers could be undertaken to support agriculture. ZVI desalination removes NaCl by an adsorption-desorption process in a multi-stage cross-coupled catalytic process. This study considers the potential application of two ZVI desalination catalyst types for in situ aquifer desalination. The feasibility of using ZVI catalysts when placed in situ within an aquifer to produce 100 m3 d-1 of partially desalinated water from a saline aquifer is considered.

  8. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Solar Powered Reverse Osmosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fire7-

    due to its low energy consumption is one of the best desalination alternatives. ... numerous villages and farmers, it is very difficult to extend an electric grid to every ... osmosis coupling with solar PV systems holds great promise for increasing ...

  10. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  11. Investigations of medium sized solar combi systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    A large variety of solar combi systems are on the market, but it is still too early to draw conclusions on optimum design of solar combi systems. Among others, the following questions need to be answered: Is an external domestic hot water preparation more desirable than an internal? What...... is the advantage by using inlet stratifiers? To answer the questions, theoretical investigations are carried out for differently designed solar combi systems. The work is carried out within the Solar Heating and Cooling Programme of the International Energy Agency (IEA SHC), Task 32 Advanced storage concepts...... for solar houses and low energy buildings....

  12. Forward osmosis niches in seawater desalination and wastewater reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Li, Zhenyu; Sarp, Sarper; Bucs, Szilard; Amy, Gary L.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    for desalination and wastewater treatment: (i) chemical storage and feed water systems may be reduced for capital, operational and maintenance cost, (ii) water quality is improved, (iii) reduced process piping costs, (iv) more flexible treatment units, and (v

  13. Present and future activities of nuclear desalination in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, A.; Hirai, M.

    2004-01-01

    Seawater desalination plants have been installed at several nuclear power plants in Japan in order to satisfy the regulations for nuclear plant installation. This has been done where there is a limited source of water due to the geological conditions. These desalination plants are being operated to ensure supplemental water by using thermal or electrical energy from the nuclear power plant. The desalination plant is not operated continuously during the year because the major function of the plant is to ensure the supply of supplemental water for the nuclear power plant. Regarding maintenance of the desalination plant, some piping was exchanged due to corrosion by high temperature seawater, however, the desalination plants are being operated without any trouble as of today. Recently, the development of innovative and/or small reactor designs, that emphasise safety features, has been promoted in Japan to use for seawater desalination and for installation in developing countries. An advanced RO system with lower energy consumption technology is also being developed. Furthermore, some Japanese industries and universities are now very interested in nuclear desalination. (author)

  14. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  15. Tracking system for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.

    1980-10-01

    A tracking system is provided for pivotally mounted spaced-apart solar collectors. A pair of cables is connected to spaced-apart portions of each collector, and a driver displaces the cables, thereby causing the collectors to pivot about their mounting, so as to assume the desired orientation. The collectors may be of the cylindrical type as well as the flat-plate type. Rigid spar-like linkages may be substituted for the cables. Releasable attachments of the cables to the collectors is also described, as is a fine tuning mechanism for precisely aligning each individual collector.

  16. Solar-gas systems impact analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, C. P.; Hahn, E. F.; Loose, J. C.; Poe, T. E.; Hirshberg, A. S.; Haas, S.; Preble, B.; Halpin, J.

    1984-07-01

    The impacts of solar/gas technologies on gas consumers and on gas utilities were measured separately and compared against the impacts of competing gas and electric systems in four climatic regions of the U.S. A methodology was developed for measuring the benefits or penalties of solar/gas systems on a combined basis for consumers sand distribution companies. It is shown that the combined benefits associated with solar/gas systems are generally greatest when the systems are purchased by customers who would have otherwise chosen high-efficiency electric systems (were solar/gas systems not available in the market place). The role of gas utilities in encouraging consumer acceptance of solar/gas systems was also examined ion a qualitative fashion. A decision framework for analyzing the type and level of utility involvement in solar/gas technologies was developed.

  17. Nuclear power for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Siddhanth; Lanjekar, Sanket; Jagdale, Bhushan; Srivastava, V.K.

    2015-01-01

    Water is one of the most important assets to mankind and without which the human race would cease to exist. Water is required by us right from domestic to industrial levels. As notified by the 'American Nuclear Society' and 'World Nuclear Association' about 1/5 th of the world population does not access to portable water especially in the Asian and African subcontinent. The situation is becoming adverse day by day due to rise in population and industrialization. The need of alternative water resource is thus becoming vital. About 97.5% of Earth is covered by oceans. Desalination of saline water to generate potable water is thus an important topic of research. Currently about 12,500 desalination plants are operating worldwide with a capacity of about 35 million m 3 /day using mainly fossil fuels for generation of large amount of energy required for processing water. These thermal power station release large amount of carbon dioxide and other green house gases. Nuclear reactors are capable of delivering energy to the high energy-intensive processes without any environmental concerns for climate change etc., giving a vision to sustainable growth of desalination process. These projects are currently employed in Kazakhstan, India, Japan, and Pakistan and are coupled to the nuclear reactor for generating electricity and potable water as well. The current climatic scenario favors the need for expanding dual purpose nuclear power plants producing energy and water at the same location. (author)

  18. Microporous Silica Based Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Diniz da Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a global overview of microporous silica based membranes for desalination via pervaporation with a focus on membrane synthesis and processing, transport mechanisms and current state of the art membrane performance. Most importantly, the recent development and novel concepts for improving the hydro-stability and separating performance of silica membranes for desalination are critically examined. Research into silica based membranes for desalination has focussed on three primary methods for improving the hydro-stability. These include incorporating carbon templates into the microporous silica both as surfactants and hybrid organic-inorganic structures and incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into the silica matrix. The literature examined identified that only metal oxide silica membranes have demonstrated high salt rejections under a variety of feed concentrations, reasonable fluxes and unaltered performance over long-term operation. As this is an embryonic field of research several target areas for researchers were discussed including further improvement of the membrane materials, but also regarding the necessity of integrating waste or solar heat sources into the final process design to ensure cost competitiveness with conventional reverse osmosis processes.

  19. Isotopic ratios in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This colloquium is aimed at presentation of isotope ratio measurements in different objects of solar system and surrounding interstellar space and evaluation of what information on composition and structure of primitive solar nebula and on chemical evolution of interstellar space in this part of the galaxy can be deduced from it. Isotope ratio in solar system got from laboratory study of extraterrestrial materials is a subject of this colloquium. Then isotope ratio measured in solar wind, planets and comets. Measurements either are made in-situ by mass spectrometry of ions in solar wind or planetery atmosphere gases either are remote measurements of spectra emitted by giant planets and comets. At last, planetology and astrophysics implications are presented and reviewed. Consraints for solar system formation model can be deduced from isotope ratio measurement. Particularly, isotope anomalies are marks of the processes, which have influenced the primitive solar nebula contraction [fr

  20. Developing solar: PV solar system markets in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asali, Karim

    2002-01-01

    Governments, NGO's and UN organisations are increasingly convinced that renewable energies not only help to solve energy problems in Africa but are indispensable in alleviating regional disparities, social problems and bridging the digital gap. Still, many years after introducing high efficiency solar PV systems the necessary breakthrough of implementing them on a mass scale is still not a reality. The author provides perspectives on developing solar PV in Africa. (Author)

  1. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Larrain, Diego; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The wast...

  2. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Larrain, Diego; Allani, Yassine

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The waste heat from both...

  3. Desalination demonstration plant using nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanra, M.S.; Misra, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the desalination plants which are operating throughout the world utilize the energy from thermal power station which has the main disadvantage of polluting the environment due to combustion of fossil fuel and with the inevitable rise in prices of fossil fuel, nuclear driven desalination plants will become more economical. So it is proposed to set up nuclear desalination demonstration plant at the location of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam. The desalination plant will be of a capacity 6300 m 3 /day and based on both Multi Stage Flash (MSF) and Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) processes. The MSF plant with performance ratio of 9 will produce water total dissolved solids (TDS-25 ppm) at a rate of 4500 m 3 /day from seawater of 35000 ppm. A part of this water namely 1000 m 3 /day will be used as Demineralised (DM) water after passing it through a mixed bed polishing unit. The remaining 3500 m 3 /day water will be mixed with 1800 m 3 /day water produced from the SWRO plant of TDS of 400 ppm and the same be supplied to industrial/municipal use. The sea water required for MSF and SWRO plants will be drawn from the intake/outfall system of MAPS which will also supply the required electric power pumping. There will be net 4 MW loss of power of MAPS namely 3 MW for MSF and 1 MW for SWRO desalination plants. The salient features of the project as well as the technical details of the both MSF and SWRO processes and its present status are given in this paper. It also contains comparative cost parameters of water produced by both processes. (author)

  4. Biospheres and solar system exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Thomas O.

    1990-01-01

    The implications of biosphere technology is briefly examined. The exploration status and prospects of each world in the solar system is briefly reviewed, including the asteroid belt, the moon, and comets. Five program elements are listed as particularly critical for future interplanetary operations during the coming extraterrestrial century. They include the following: (1) a highway to Space (earth orbits); (2) Orbital Spaceports to support spacecraft assembly, storage, repair, maintenance, refueling, launch, and recovery; (3) a Bridge Between Worlds to transport cargo and crews to the moon and beyond to Mars; (4) Prospecting and Resource Utilization Systems to map and characterize the resources of planets, moons, and asteroids; and (5) Closed Ecology Biospheres. The progress in these five field is reviewed.

  5. World interest in nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear power will be used in a desalination plant for the first time in a USSR plant now nearing completion. Studies are in progress to expand the concept of linking the power to chemical industries. These and other developing ideas were subjects of keen discussion by world experts at an Agency conference on nuclear desalination in Madrid. (author)

  6. General Overview of Desalination Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari-Nugroho

    2004-01-01

    Desalination, as discussed in this journal, refers to a water treatment process that removes salts from water. Desalination can be done in a number of ways, but the result is always the same : fresh water is produced from brackish or seawater. The quality of distillate water is indicated by the contents of Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) in it, the less number of TDS contents in it, the highest quality of distillate water it has. This article describes the general analysis of desalination technologies, the varies of water, operation and maintenance of the plant, and general comparison between desalination technologies. Basically, there are two common technologies are being used, i.e. thermal and membrane desalination, which are Multi Effect Distillation (MED), Multi Stage Flash (MSF) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), respectively. Both technologies differ from the energy source. Thermal desalination needs heat source from the power plant, while membrane desalination needs only the electricity to run the pumps. In thermal desalination, the vapour coming from boiling feedwater is condensate, this process produces the lowest saline water, about 10 part per million (ppm). The membrane technology uses semipermeable membrane to separate fresh water from salt dissolve. This technology produces the fresh water about 350-500 ppm. (author)

  7. IAEA's role in nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; )

    2010-01-01

    Currently, several Member States have shown interest in the utilization of the nuclear energy for seawater desalination not only because recent studies have demonstrated that nuclear desalination is feasible, but also economical and has been already demonstrated in several countries. Therefore, the article will provide a highlight on sea water desalination using nuclear energy as a potential for a sustainable development around the world and the IAEA role in this regards. Special emphasis is placed on past, present, and future nuclear desalination experience in various IAEA Member States. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) role could be summarized in facilitating cutting-edge developments in the area of seawater desalination using nuclear energy, and establishing a framework for facilitating activities in Member States through information exchange and provision of technical assistance. (author)

  8. Methanogens in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Schleper, Christa; Firneis, Maria G.; Rittmann, Simon

    2015-04-01

    The last decade of space science revealed that potential habitats in the Solar System may not be limited to the classical habitable zone supporting life as we know it. These microorganisms were shown to thrive under extremophilic growth conditions. Here, we outline the main eco-physiological characteristics of methanogens like their response on temperature, pressure, or pH changes or their resistance against radiation or desiccation. They can withstand extreme environmental conditions which makes them intriguing organisms for astrobiological studies. On Earth, they are found for example in wetlands, in arctic and antarctic subglacial environments, in ruminants, and even in the environment surrounding the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. These obligate anaerobic chemolithoautotrophs or chemolithoheterotrophs are able to use e.g. hydrogen and C1 compounds like CO2, formate, or methanol as energy source and carbon source, respectively. We point out their capability to be able to habitat potential extraterrestrial biospheres all over the planetary system. We will give an overview about these possible environments on Mars, icy moons like Europa or Enceladus, and minor planets. We present an overview about studies of methanogens with an astrobiological relevance and we show our conclusions about the role of methanogens for the search for extraterrestrial life in the Solar System. We will present first results of our study about the possibility to cultivate methanogens under Enceladus-like conditions. For that, based on the observations obtained by the Cassini spacecraft concerning the plume compounds, we produce a medium with a composition similar to the ocean composition of this icy moon which is far more Enceladus-like than in any (published) experiment before. Eventually, we give an outlook on the feasibility and the necessity of future astrobiological studies with these microbes. We point out the importance of future in-situ or even sample and return missions to

  9. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2014-08-04

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  10. Algal blooms: an emerging threat to seawater reverse osmosis desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Dhakal, N.; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination technology has been rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity and global application over the last decade. An emerging threat to SWRO application is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational problems in SWRO plants due to clogging and poor effluent quality of the pre-treatment system which eventually forced the shutdown of various desalination plants to avoid irreversible fouling of downstream SWRO membranes. This article summarizes the current state of SWRO technology and the emerging threat of algal blooms to its application. It also highlights the importance of studying the algal bloom phenomena in the perspective of seawater desalination, so proper mitigation and preventive strategies can be developed in the near future. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  11. Current activities on nuclear desalination in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranaev, Y.D.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the RF desalination programme has been to develop small power floating nuclear seawater desalination complex based on KLT-40 reactor, originally developed for ship propulsion, as an energy source. Russia has sufficient fresh water resource rather evenly distributed over country territory (except for several specific conditions where sea or brackish water desalination is required for reliable long term potable water supply) and only limited internal deployment of this system is expected. Therefore, the development programme is mostly oriented to external market. Development of the floating nuclear desalination complex goes in parallel and is backed by the project of floating nuclear electricity and heat cogeneration plant using two KLT-40 reactors. This plant producing up to 70 MW(e) of electricity and up to 50 Gcal/of heat for district heating is now at the basic design stage and planned to be implemented around the year 2000 in Russia, at the Arctic Sea area

  12. Solar-energy drying systems. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Atul; Chen, C.R.; Vu Lan, Nguyen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949, Da-Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 71003 (China)

    2009-08-15

    In many countries of the world, the use of solar thermal systems in the agricultural area to conserve vegetables, fruits, coffee and other crops has shown to be practical, economical and the responsible approach environmentally. Solar heating systems to dry food and other crops can improve the quality of the product, while reducing wasted produce and traditional fuels - thus improving the quality of life, however the availability of good information is lacking in many of the countries where solar food processing systems are most needed. Solar food dryers are available in a range of size and design and are used for drying various food products. It is found that various types of driers are available to suit the needs of farmers. Therefore, selection of dryers for a particular application is largely a decision based on what is available and the types of dryers currently used widely. A comprehensive review of the various designs, details of construction and operational principles of the wide variety of practically realized designs of solar-energy drying systems reported previously is presented. A systematic approach for the classification of solar-energy dryers has been evolved. Two generic groups of solar-energy dryers can be identified, viz. passive or natural-circulation solar-energy dryers and active or forced-convection solar-energy dryers. Some very recent developments in solar drying technology are highlighted. (author)

  13. Solar Storage Tank Insulation Influence on the Solar Systems Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negoitescu Arina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the storage tank of a solar system for domestic hot water production was analyzed the insulation thickness and material influence. To this end, it was considered a private house, occupied by 3 persons, located in zone I of thermal radiation, for which has been simulated the domestic hot water production process. The tank outlet hot water temperature was considered of 45°C. For simulation purposes, as insulation materials for the storage tank were taking into account glass wool and polyurethane with various thicknesses. Finally, was carried out the comparative analysis of two types of tanks, in terms of the insulation thickness influence on the solar fraction, annual solar contribution and solar annual productivity. It resulted that polyurethane is the most advantageous from all points of view.

  14. Economics of Renewable Energy for Water Desalination in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas R. Shouman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the economics of renewable energy- powered desalination, as applied to water supply for remote coastal and desert communities in developing countries. In this paper, the issue of integration of desalination technologies and renewable energy from specified sources is addressed. The features of Photovoltaic (PV system combined with reverse osmosis desalination technology, which represents the most commonly applied integration between renewable energy and desalination technology, are analyzed. Further, a case study for conceptual seawater reverse osmosis (SW-RO desalination plant with 1000 m3 /d capacity is presented, based on PV and conventional generators powered with fossil fuel to be installed in a remote coastal area in Egypt, as a typical developing country. The estimated water cost for desalination with PV/ SW-RO system is about $1.25 m3 , while ranging between $1.22-1.59 for SW-RO powered with conventional generator powered with fossil fuel. Analysis of the economical, technical and environmental factors depicts the merits of using large scale integrated PV/RO system as an economically feasible water supply relying upon a renewable energy source.

  15. Microfluidic desalination techniques and their potential applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Susan Helena; van den Berg, Albert; Odijk, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss recent developments in the emerging research field of miniaturized desalination. Traditionally desalination is performed to convert salt water into potable water and research is focused on improving performance of large-scale desalination plants. Microfluidic desalination

  16. New Technologies for Seawater Desalination Using Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    As seawater desalination technologies are rapidly evolving and more States are opting for dual purpose integrated power plants (i.e. cogeneration), the need for advanced technologies suitable for coupling to nuclear power plants and leading to more efficient and economic nuclear desalination systems is obvious. The Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) New Technologies for Seawater Desalination using Nuclear Energy was organized in the framework of the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Desalination (TWG-ND). The TWGND was established in 2008 with the purpose of advising the IAEA Deputy Director General and promoting the exchange of technical information on national programmes in the field of seawater desalination using nuclear energy. This CRP project was conducted within the Nuclear Power Technology Development Section of the IAEA. It was launched in 2009 and completed by 2011, with research proposals received from nine Member States: Algeria, Egypt, France, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Syrian Arab Republic, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The project aimed to review innovative technologies for seawater desalination which could be coupled to main types of existing nuclear power plant. Such coupling is expected to help making nuclear desalination safer and more economical, and hence more attractive for newcomer States interested in nuclear desalination. The project also aimed to collect ideas and suggestions necessary to update the IAEA desalination economic evaluation program (DEEP) software to become more robust and versatile. The specific objectives of the project were the introduction of innovative technologies and their economic viability, which could help make nuclear desalination a globally viable option for the safe and sustainable production of fresh water. The technologies under scrutiny in this CRP involve the low temperature horizontal tube multi-effect distillation, heat recovery systems using heat pipe based heat exchangers

  17. The Solar System Origin Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred M.

    2016-10-01

    A novel theory will be presented based in part on astronomical observations, plasma physics experiments, principles of physics and forensic techniques. The new theory correctly predicts planetary distances with a 1% precision. It accounts for energy production mechanism inside all of the planets including our Earth. A log-log mass-luminosity plot of G2 class stars and solar system planets results in a straight line plot, whose slope implies that a fission rather than a proton-proton fusion energy production is operating. Furthermore, it is a confirmation that all our planets had originated from within our Sun. Other still-born planets continue to appear on the Sun's surface, they are mislabeled as sunspots.

  18. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed

  19. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  20. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  1. The origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormand, J.R.; Woolfson, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book describes in detail the capture theory of the origin of the solar system. Traces the history of solar system theories from pre-Christian Greece through the late 1920's. The authors examine the shortcomings of modern theories, and show how new knowledge supports the capture hypothesis

  2. Pumps for medium sized solar systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated.......The suitability of the electronically controlled circulation pump type UPE 2000 from Grundfos for large solar heating systems was elucidated....

  3. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for ages 10-17, this work takes a look at the developments in research about the solar system, including articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. It includes photos and drawings that showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and also a collection of images of the solar system.

  4. Solar thermal systems successful planning and construction

    CERN Document Server

    Peuser, Dr Felix A; Schnauss, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Solar Thermal Systems summarizes the theoretical and practical knowledge gained from over 20 years of research, implementation and operation of thermal solar installations. This work provides answers to a variety of key questions by examining current solar installations, drawing upon past experiences and making proposals for future planning.- how do system components and materials behave under continuous operation?- which components have proven themselves and how are they used properly?- what are the causes of defects and how can they be avoided?- how long is the service life of modern solar i

  5. Small solar system bodies as granular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestroffer, Daniel; Campo Bagatín, Adriano; Losert, Wolfgang; Opsomer, Eric; Sánchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Staron, Lydie; Taberlet, Nicolas; Yano, Hajime; Eggl, Siegfried; Lecomte, Charles-Edouard; Murdoch, Naomi; Radjai, Fahrang; Richardson, Derek C.; Salazar, Marcos; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Tanga, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs) are currently of great scientific and even industrial interest. Asteroids exist as the permanent record of the formation of the Solar System and therefore hold many clues to its understanding as a whole, as well as insights into the formation of planetary bodies. Additionally, SSSBs are being investigated in the context of impact risks for the Earth, space situational awareness and their possible industrial exploitation (asteroid mining). In all these aspects, the knowledge of the geophysical characteristics of SSSB surface and internal structure are of great importance. Given their size, constitution, and the evidence that many SSSBs are not simple monoliths, these bodies should be studied and modelled as self-gravitating granular systems in general, or as granular systems in micro-gravity environments in particular contexts. As such, the study of the geophysical characteristics of SSSBs is a multi-disciplinary effort that lies at the crossroads between Granular Mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Aerospace Engineering and Computer Sciences.

  6. Grid-connected distributed solar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, R.; Chernoff, H.; Schweizer, T.

    This paper discusses some important, though often ignored, technical and economic issues of distributed solar power systems: protection of the utility system and nonsolar customers requires suitable interfaced equipment. Purchase criteria must mirror reality; most analyses use life-cycle costing with low discount rates - most buyers use short payback periods. Distributing, installing, and marketing small, distributed solar systems is more costly than most analyses estimate. Results show that certain local conditions and uncommon purchase considerations can combine to make small, distributed solar power attractive, but lower interconnect costs (per kW), lower marketing and product distribution costs, and more favorable purchase criteria make large, centralized solar energy more attractive. Specifically, the value of dispersed solar systems to investors and utilities can be higher than $2000/kw. However, typical residential owners place a value of well under $1000 on the installed system.

  7. Proceedings of the IASTED international conference on solar energy : SOE 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, M.H. [International Association of Science and Technology for Development, Calgary, AB (Canada)] (ed.)

    2009-07-01

    This solar energy conference was attended by international researchers and practitioners working with leading edge solar energy technology as well as related areas such as renewable energy and clean energy. The topics of discussion included nanotechnologies for solar energy; photovoltaic energy; solar fuel cells; solar-powered vehicles; solar thermal energy; thin film batteries; desalination systems; solar cooling; clean energy; renewable energy; biomass energy; sustainability; flexible solar cells; hybrid power generation; organic solar cells; remote sensing of solar radiation; solar thermal conversion; sustainable buildings; and thin film silicon solar cells. Some of the presentations discussed the application of solar energy in agriculture, environment, economics and home construction. The sessions were entitled: grid connection and energy conversion; photovoltaic and nanotechnology; solar energy and applications; and solar thermal energy. Seventeen of the 18 presentations have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  8. PBMR desalination options: An economic study - HTR2008-58212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, R.; Van Ravenswaay, J. P.; Hannink, R.; Kuhr, R.; Bhagat, K.; Zervos, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), under development in South Africa, is an advanced helium-cooled graphite moderated high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor. The heat output of the PBMR is primarily suited for process applications or power generation. In addition, various desalination technologies can be coupled to the PBMR to further improve the overall efficiency and economics, where suitable site opportunities exist. Several desalination application concepts were evaluated for both a cogeneration configuration as well as a waste heat utilization configuration. These options were evaluated to compare the relative economics of the different concepts and to determine the feasibility of each configuration. The cogeneration desalination configuration included multiple PBMR units producing steam for a power cycle, using a back-pressure steam turbine generator exhausting into different thermal desalination technologies. These technologies include Multi-Effect Distillation (MED), Multi-Effect Distillation with Thermal Vapor Compression (MED-TVC) as well as Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) with all making use of extraction steam from back-pressure turbines. These configurations are optimized to maximize gross revenue from combined power and desalinated water sales using representative economic assumptions with a sensitivity analysis to observe the impact of varying power and water costs. Increasing turbine back pressure results in a loss of power output but a gain in water production. The desalination systems are compared as incremental investments. A standard MED process with minimal effects appears most attractive, although results are very sensitive with regards to projected power and water values. (authors)

  9. Future sustainable desalination using waste heat: kudos to thermodynamic synergy

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2015-12-02

    There has been a plethora of published literature on thermally-driven adsorption desalination (AD) cycles for seawater desalination due to their favorable environmentally friendly attributes, such as the ability to operate with low-temperature heat sources, from either the renewable or the exhaust gases, and having almost no major moving parts. We present an AD cycle for seawater desalination due to its unique ability to integrate higher water production yields with the existing desalination methods such as reverse osmosis (RO), multi-stage flashing (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED), etc. The hybrid cycles exploit the thermodynamic synergy between processes, leading to significant enhancement of the systems\\' performance ratio (PR). In this paper, we demonstrate experimentally the synergetic effect between the AD and MED cycles that results in quantum improvement in water production. The unique feature is in the internal latent heat recovery from the condenser unit of AD to the top-brine stage of MED, resulting in a combined, or simply termed as MEAD, cycle that requires no additional heat input other than the regeneration of an adsorbent. The batch-operated cycles are simple to implement and require low maintenance when compared with conventional desalination methods. Together, they offer a low energy and environmentally friendly desalination solution that addresses the major issues of the water-energy-environment nexus. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  11. The Solar System and Its Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormand, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a brief explanation of the solar system, including planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, planetary orbits, as well as, old and recent cosmogonic theories. Indicates that man is nearer a solution to the origin of the planetary system than ever before.

  12. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  13. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  14. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.

    2010-08-03

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  15. Thermal performance of a linear Fresnel reflector solar concentrator PV/T energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomaa, Mohamed R. [State Engineering University of Armenia (Armenia)], E-Mail: Dmoh_elbehary@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    This is a report on an investigation of photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors. Solar energy conversion efficiency was increased by taking advantage of PV/T collectors and low solar concentration technologies, combined into a PV/T system operated at elevated temperature. The main novelty is the coupling of a linear Fresnel mirror reflecting concentrator with a channel PV/T collector. Concentrator PV/T collectors can function at temperatures over 100 degrees celsius, and thus thermal energy can be made to drive processes such as refrigeration, desalination and steam production. Solar system analytical thermal performance gives efficiency values over 60%. Combined electric and thermal (CET) efficiency is high. A combined electric and heat power for the linear fresnel reflector approach that employs high performance CPV technology to produce both electricity and thermal energy at low to medium temperatures is presented. A well-functioning PV/T system can be designed and constructed with low concentration and a total efficiency of nearly 80% can be attained.

  16. Cheap electricity with autonomous solar cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouwens, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the costs of an autonomous solar cell system and a centralized electricity supply system. In both cases investment costs are the main issue. It is shown that for households in densely populated sunny areas, the use of autonomous solar cell systems is - even with today's market prices - only as expensive or even cheaper than a grid connection, as long as efficient electric appliances are used. The modular nature of solar cell systems makes it possible to start with any number of appliances, depending on the amount of money available to be spent. (author)

  17. Solar radiation for Mars power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  18. solaR: Solar Radiation and Photovoltaic Systems with R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Perpiñan Lamigueiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The solaR package allows for reproducible research both for photovoltaics (PV systems performance and solar radiation. It includes a set of classes, methods and functions to calculate the sun geometry and the solar radiation incident on a photovoltaic generator and to simulate the performance of several applications of the photovoltaic energy. This package performs the whole calculation procedure from both daily and intradaily global horizontal irradiation to the final productivity of grid-connected PV systems and water pumping PV systems.It is designed using a set of S4 classes whose core is a group of slots with multivariate time series. The classes share a variety of methods to access the information and several visualization methods. In addition, the package provides a tool for the visual statistical analysis of the performance of a large PV plant composed of several systems.Although solaR is primarily designed for time series associated to a location defined by its latitude/longitude values and the temperature and irradiation conditions, it can be easily combined with spatial packages for space-time analysis.

  19. A New Method for Water Desalination Using Microbial Desalination Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Xiaoxin

    2009-09-15

    Current water desalination techniques are energy intensive and some use membranes operated at high pressures. It is shownhere that water desalination can be accomplished without electrical energy input or high water pressure by using a source of organic matter as the fuel to desalinate water. A microbial fuel cell was modified by placing two membranes between the anode and cathode, creating a middle chamber for water desalination between the membranes. An anion exchange membrane was placed adjacent to the anode, and a cation exchange membrane was positioned next to the cathode. When current was produced by bacteria on the anode, ionic species in the middle chamber were transferred into the two electrode chambers, desalinating the water in the middle chamber. Proof-of-concept experiments for this approach, using what we call a microbial desalination cell (MDC), was demonstrated using water at different initial salt concentrations (5, 20, and 35 g/L) with acetate used as the substrate for the bacteria. The MDC produced a maximum of 2 W/m2 (31 W/m3) while at the same time removing about 90% of the salt in a single desalination cycle. As the salt was removed from the middle chamber the ohmic resistance of the MDC (measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) increased from 25 Ω to 970 Ω at the end of the cycle. This increased resistance was reflected by a continuous decrease in the voltage produced over the cycle. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility for a new method for water desalination and power production that uses only a source of biodegradable organic matter and bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Developing a solar panel testing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Rácz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is increasingly used togenerate electricity for individual households. There isa wide variety of solar panel technologies, whichshould be tested at an individual level during theirlifetime. In this paper, the development of a testingstation at the University of Debrecen is presented. Thetesting system can be used for research andeducational purposes and for in field applicationsequally well.

  1. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  2. Prototype solar heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of a solar heating and hot water system which uses a pyramidal optics solar concentrator for heating, and consists of the following subsystems: collector, control, transport, and site data acquisition. Improvements made in the components and subsystems are discussed.

  3. Direct seawater desalination by ion concentration polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Jae; Ko, Sung Hee; Kang, Kwan Hyoung; Han, Jongyoon

    2010-04-01

    A shortage of fresh water is one of the acute challenges facing the world today. An energy-efficient approach to converting sea water into fresh water could be of substantial benefit, but current desalination methods require high power consumption and operating costs or large-scale infrastructures, which make them difficult to implement in resource-limited settings or in disaster scenarios. Here, we report a process for converting sea water (salinity ~500 mM or ~30,000 mg l-1) to fresh water (salinity water is divided into desalted and concentrated streams by ion concentration polarization, a phenomenon that occurs when an ion current is passed through ion-selective membranes. During operation, both salts and larger particles (cells, viruses and microorganisms) are pushed away from the membrane (a nanochannel or nanoporous membrane), which significantly reduces the possibility of membrane fouling and salt accumulation, thus avoiding two problems that plague other membrane filtration methods. To implement this approach, a simple microfluidic device was fabricated and shown to be capable of continuous desalination of sea water (~99% salt rejection at 50% recovery rate) at a power consumption of less than 3.5 Wh l-1, which is comparable to current state-of-the-art systems. Rather than competing with larger desalination plants, the method could be used to make small- or medium-scale systems, with the possibility of battery-powered operation.

  4. Experimental and numerical study on a new multi-effect solar still with enhanced condensation surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Jianyin; Xie, Guo; Zheng, Hongfei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel multi-effect solar still with enhanced condensation surface is designed. • The overall desalination efficiency and performance ratio can reach 0.91 and 1.86. • A numerical model characterizing the heat and mass transfer process is developed. - Abstract: A novel multi-effect solar desalination system with enhanced condensation surface is designed. Compared to traditional solar still, it has two main merits: (1) the application of corrugated shape stacked trays decreases the condensation resistance, thus improves the desalination performance and (2) the simultaneous heating both from the collector in the bottom and coating in the top efficiently uses the solar energy, which increases the freshwater yield. Field test is then carried out to study the temperature and freshwater yield characteristics. It is observed that the solar still can generate freshwater not only in the daytime but also in the night, with the latter taking up about 40% of the total freshwater yield. When the starting temperature is relatively high, the overall desalination efficiency and performance ratio of the equipment can reach 0.91 and 1.86, respectively. Furthermore, a numerical model characterizing the heat and mass transfer process in the solar still is developed. The good agreement between the model prediction and experimental data demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed model. For the present solar still, a phenomenon of reverse temperature difference in the second stacked tray is emerged due to the special simultaneous heating pattern, which is also validated by the numerical model

  5. Water Desalination using geothermal energy

    KAUST Repository

    Goosen, M.; Mahmoudi, H.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability

  6. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkerim, A I; Eusuf, M M R Sami; Salami, M J E; Aibinu, A; Eusuf, M A

    2013-01-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors

  7. Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, Soteris A.

    2004-01-01

    All nations of the world depend on fossil fuels for their energy needs. However the obligation to reduce CO 2 and other gaseous emissions in order to be in conformity with the Kyoto agreement is the reason behind which countries turn to non-polluting renewable energy sources. In this paper the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels is initially presented followed by a study on the environmental protection offered by the two most widely used renewable energy systems, i.e. solar water heating and solar space heating. The results presented in this paper show that by using solar energy, considerable amounts of greenhouse polluting gasses are avoided. For the case of a domestic water heating system, the saving, compared to a conventional system, is about 80% with electricity or Diesel backup and is about 75% with both electricity and Diesel backup. In the case of space heating and hot water system the saving is about 40%. It should be noted, however, that in the latter, much greater quantities of pollutant gasses are avoided. Additionally, all systems investigated give positive and very promising financial characteristics. With respect to life cycle assessment of the systems, the energy spent for manufacture and installation of the solar systems is recouped in about 1.2 years, whereas the payback time with respect to emissions produced from the embodied energy required for the manufacture and installation of the systems varies from a few months to 9.5 years according to the fuel and the particular pollutant considered. Moreover, due to the higher solar contribution, solar water heating systems have much shorter payback times than solar space heating systems. It can, therefore, be concluded that solar energy systems offer significant protection to the environment and should be employed whenever possible in order to achieve a sustainable future

  8. Possible mass distributions in the nebulae of other solar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    The supernova shell fragmentation model of solar system formation - previously shown to be successful in describing the mass distribution of our solar system - is used to calculate the mass distributions of other solar nebulae. (Auth.)

  9. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  10. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faiers, Adam; Neame, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified

  11. Solar radiation alert system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The Solar Radiation Alert (SRA) system continuously evaluates measurements of high-energy protons made by instruments on GOES satellites. If the measurements indicate a substantial elevation of effective dose rates at aircraft flight altitudes, the C...

  12. Voltage Quality Improvement Using Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Galzina

    2015-06-01

    This paper briefly shows the methods of power quality improvement, and then the results of on-site power quality measurements in the grid before and after the connection of the solar photovoltaic system.

  13. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  14. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2004-01-01

    , various simulations of solar heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model...... gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated in this paper....

  15. Energy Savings for Solar Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2006-01-01

    showed a good degree of similarity. With the boiler model, various simulations of solar domestic hot water heating systems were done for different hot water demands and collector sizes. The result shows that the potential of fuel reduction can be much higher than the solar gain of the solar thermal...... system. For some conditions the fuel reduction can be up to the double of the solar gain due to a strong increase of the system efficiency. As the monitored boilers were not older than 3 years, it can be assumed that the saving potential with older boilers could be even higher than calculated......In this paper the realistic behaviour and efficiency of heating systems were analysed, based on long term monitoring projects. Based on the measurements a boiler model used to calculate the boiler efficiency on a monthly basis was evaluated. Comparisons of measured and calculated fuel consumptions...

  16. Origin of the solar system. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, A.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A theory for the origin of the solar system, which is based on ideas of supersonic turbulent convection and indicates the possibility that the original Laplacian hypothesis may by valid, is presented. (Auth.)

  17. Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

    1993-05-01

    The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

  18. Solar thermochemical processing system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Humble, Paul H.; Krishnan, Shankar; Leith, Steven D.; Palo, Daniel R.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2018-04-24

    A solar thermochemical processing system is disclosed. The system includes a first unit operation for receiving concentrated solar energy. Heat from the solar energy is used to drive the first unit operation. The first unit operation also receives a first set of reactants and produces a first set of products. A second unit operation receives the first set of products from the first unit operation and produces a second set of products. A third unit operation receives heat from the second unit operation to produce a portion of the first set of reactants.

  19. Data monitoring system for PV solar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, M.; Katerski, A.; Williams, A.

    2000-01-01

    The two 1.5 kWp photovoltaic (PV) solar generators are installed and the new PC data monitoring system is developed by applying EC standards for European Solar Test Installation (ESTI). The schematic system diagram of PV generator is presented. The recording parameters for analytical and global monitoring are discussed. The meteorological data from ESTI sensors, temperature sensor and electrical data from inverter and calibrated shunt are stored via analog digital converters (ADC) on a hard disk of data storage PC. Data Logger and Monitor software for automatic data acquisition, treatment and visual distance control of all output PV data from PV solar generator has been created

  20. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Are you up to date on the solar system? When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term ""planet,"" Pluto was downgraded to a lower status. New Views of the Solar System looks at scientists' changing perspectives, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid images.

  1. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Are you up to date on the solar system?  When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term ""planet,"" Pluto was downgraded to a lower status. New Views of the Solar System 2013 looks at scientists' changing perspectives, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets, new missions, updates for ongoing missions, newly-discovered moons, and updated tables. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid images.

  2. Monitoring of Danish marketed solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellehauge, K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the monitoring of manufactured solar heating systems for domestic hot water combined with space heating and systems for domestic hot water only. Results from the monitoring of 5 marketed combined systems for domestic hot water and space heating are presented. The systems situated at one family houses at different sites in Denmark have been monitored from January/February 1992. For the detailed monitoring of manufactured systems only for domestic hot water a test facility for simultaneous monitoring of 5 solar heating systems has been established at the Thermal Insulation Laboratory. (au)

  3. Thermodynamic investigation of waste heat driven desalination unit based on humidification dehumidification (HDH) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, W.F.; Xu, L.N.; Han, D.; Gao, L.; Yue, C.; Pu, W.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • HDH desalination system powered by waste heat is proposed. • Performance of the desalination unit and the relevant heat recovery effect is calculated. • Sensitive analysis of the performance for the HDH desalination system is investigated. • Mathematical model based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics is established. - Abstract: Humidification dehumidification (HDH) technology is an effective pattern to separate freshwater from seawater or brackish water. In this paper, a closed-air open-water (CAOW) desalination unit coupled with plate heat exchangers (PHEs) is applied to recover the waste heat from the gas exhaust. Sensitivity analysis for the HDH desalination unit as well as the PHEs from the key parameters including the top and initial temperature of the seawater, operation pressure, and the terminal temperature difference (TTD) of the PHEs are accomplished, and the corresponding performance of the whole HDH desalination system is calculated and presented. The simulation results show that the balance condition of the dehumidifier is allowed by the basic thermodynamic laws, followed by a peak value of gained-output-ratio (GOR) and a bottom value of total specific entropy generation. It is concluded that excellent results including the system performance, heat recovery effect and investment of the PHEs can be simultaneously obtained with a low top temperature, while the obtained desalination performance and the heat recovery effect from other measures are always conflicting. Different from other parameters of the desalination unit, the terminal temperature difference of the PHEs has little influences on the final value of GOR.

  4. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  5. Design and Implementation of Dual Axis Solar Tracking system

    OpenAIRE

    Sirigauri N,; Raghav S

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is a promising technology that can have huge long term benefits. Solar cells convert the solar energy into electrical energy. Solar tracking system is the most suited technology to improve the efficiency and enhance the performance by utilizing maximum solar energy through the solar cell. In hardware development we utilize LDR’s as sensors and two servomotors to direct the position of the solar panel. The software part is implemented on a code written using an Arduino...

  6. Combined solar collector and storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Smyth, M.; Eames, P.; Lo, S.N.G.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses reasons why fossil-fuelled water heating systems are included in new houses but solar systems are not. The technology and market potential for evacuated tube systems and integral collector storage systems (ICSS) are explained. The challenge for the designers of ICSSWH has been how to reduce heat loss without compromising solar energy collection. A new concept for enhanced energy storage is described in detail and input/output data are given for two versions of ICSSWH units. A table compares the costs of ICSSWH in houses compared with other (i.e. fossil fuel) water heating systems

  7. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...

  8. Sustainable desalination using ocean thermocline energy

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-01-01

    The conventional desalination processes are not only energy intensive but also environment un-friendly. They are operating far from thermodynamic limit, 10–12%, making them un-sustainable for future water supplies. An innovative desalination

  9. Thermodynamic advantages of nuclear desalination through reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.P.; Prabhakar, S.; Tewari, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) integrated with nuclear power station has significant thermodynamic advantages since it can utilize the waste heat available in the condenser cooling circuit and electrical power from the nuclear power plant with provision for using grid power in case of exigencies and shared infrastructure. Coupling of RO plants to the reactor is simple and straightforward and power loss due to RO unit, resulting in the loss of load, does not impact reactor turbine. Product water contamination probability is also very less since it has in-built mechanical barrier. Preheat reverse osmosis desalination has many thermodynamic advantages and studies have indicated improved performance characteristics thereby leading to savings in operational cost. The significant advantages include the operational flexibility of the desalination systems even while power plant is non-operational and non-requirement of safety systems for resource utilization. This paper brings out a comprehensive assessment of reverse osmosis process as a stand-alone nuclear desalination system. (author)

  10. Solar Radiation Research Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar continuous operation. More than 75 instruments contribute to the Baseline Measurement System by recording

  11. Modeling of optimal energy flows for systems with close integration of sea water desalination and renewable energy sources: Case study for Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perković, Luka; Novosel, Tomislav; Pukšec, Tomislav; Ćosić, Boris; Mustafa, Manal; Krajačić, Goran; Duić, Neven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for optimal management of energy systems is proposed. • Critical excess of electricity production is reduced by optimizing the energy flows. • At the same time, the curtailment from the RES can be decreased. - Abstract: This paper presents a new approach for modeling energy flows in complex energy systems with parallel supply of fresh water and electricity. Such systems consist of renewable energy sources (RES), desalination plant, conventional power plants and the residual brine storage which is used as energy storage. The presented method is treating energy vectors in the system as control variables to provide the optimal solution in terms of the lowest critical excess of electricity production (CEEP) and highest possible share of RES in the supply mix. The optimal solution for supplying the demands for fresh water and electricity is always found within the framework of model constraints which are derived from the physical limitations of the system. The presented method enables the optimization of energy flows for a larger period of time. This increases the role of energy storage when higher integration of RES in the supply mix. The method is tested on a hypothetical case of Jordan for different levels of installed wind and PV capacities, as well as different sizes of the brine storage. Results show that increasing the optimization horizon from one hour to 24 h can reduce the CEEP by 80% and allow the increase of RES in the supply mix by more than 5% without violating the CEEP threshold limit of 5%. The activity of the energy (brine) storage is crucial for achieving this goal.

  12. New Isotopic clues to solar system formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.

    1979-01-01

    The presence of two new extinct nuclides 26 Al and 107 Pd with half-lives approx.10 6 years in the early solar system implies that there were nucleosynthetic activities involving a great many elements almost at the instant of solar system formation. Rare gas and oxygen isotopic abundance variations [''anomalies''] relative to the ''cosmic'' composition were observed in a variety of planetary objects indicating that isotopic heterogeneities caused by the incomplete mixing of distinct nucleosynthetic components permeate of the entire solar system. The correlated nuclear [''FUN''] anomalies in O, Mg, Si, Ca, Sr, Ba, Nd, and Sm were found in three rare inclusions in the Allende meteorite, which show large mass-dependent isotopic fractionation effects. The signature of the nuclear component required to explain these anomalies suggests a source which has received a catastrophic neutron burst [e.g., an r-process event]. These extinct nuclides and nucleosynthetic anomalies provide new clues to solar system formation. In particular, these results have led to the speculation that a nearby supernova had injected freshly synthesized material into the early solar nebula and possibly triggered the collapse of the proto-solar interstellar cloud. Furthermore, these new results have major implications on cosmochronology, nucleosynthesis theory, star formation, planetary heating, and the genetic relationship between different planetary bodies

  13. Desalination using low grade heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of

  14. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  15. Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2011-01-01

    "Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.

  16. Solar power generation system. Solar denryoku hassei sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohaku, T [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1990-12-21

    In a conventional solar power generation system having shunt elements for controlling generated power and supplying the controlled power to a load, it is difficult to carry out a stable power control, because the shunt characteristics of an analogue shunt element driving circuit vary widely as compared with a digital shunt element driving circuit, as the temperature varies. According to the present invention, in a solar power generation system having a plurality of solar cells divided into two of the first and second cell groups and a first and a second shunt element driving means provided for the first and second cell groups, the first shunt element driving means is composed of a combination of a resisance and level shift diode arranged, and the second shunt element driving means is composed of a combination of a transistor and level shift diode arranged. A stable current control of the shunt elements can be therefore realized, because the control voltage range of the first and second shunt element driving means is changed so as to be expanded, as the temperature varies, so that their overlapped voltage range is kept constant. 7 figs.

  17. Analysis and optimization of the low-temperature solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Torres, Agustin M.; Garcia-Rodriguez, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal driven reverse osmosis desalination is a promising renewable energy-driven desalination technology. A joint use of the solar thermal powered organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and the desalination technology of less energy consumption, reverse osmosis (RO), makes this combination interesting in some scarce water resource scenarios. However, prior to any practical experience with any new process, a comprehensive and rigorous theoretical study must be done in order to assess the performance of the new technology or combination of existing technologies. The main objective of the present paper is the expansion of the theoretical analysis done by the authors in previous works to the case in which the thermal energy required by a solar ORC is supplied by means of stationary solar collectors. Twelve substances are considered as working fluids of the ORC and four different models of stationary solar collectors (flat plate collectors, compound parabolic collectors and evacuated tube collectors) are also taken into account. Operating conditions of the solar ORC that minimizes the aperture area needed per unit of mechanical power output of the solar cycle are determined for every working fluid and every solar collector. The former is done considering a direct vapour generation configuration of the solar cycle and also the configuration with water as heat transfer fluid flowing inside the solar collector. This work is part of the theoretical analysis of the solar thermal driven seawater and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination technology. Nevertheless, the supplied information can be also used for the assessment of different applications of the solar ORC. In that case, results presented in this paper can be useful in techno-economic analysis, selection of working fluids of the Rankine cycle, sizing of systems and assessment of solar power cycle configuration.

  18. Solar energy system with wind vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grip, Robert E

    2015-11-03

    A solar energy system including a pedestal defining a longitudinal axis, a frame that is supported by the pedestal and that is rotateable relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis, the frame including at least one solar device, and a wind vane operatively connected to the frame to urge the frame relative to the pedestal about the longitudinal axis in response to wind acting on the wind vane.

  19. Energy-positive wastewater treatment and desalination in an integrated microbial desalination cell (MDC)-microbial electrolysis cell (MEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Styczynski, Jordyn; Huang, Yuankai; Xu, Zhiheng; McCutcheon, Jeffrey; Li, Baikun

    2017-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of nitrogen in municipal wastewater, metal in industrial wastewater and saline in seawater was achieved in an integrated microbial desalination cell-microbial electrolysis cell (MDC-MEC) system. Batch tests showed that more than 95.1% of nitrogen was oxidized by nitrification in the cathode of MDC and reduced by heterotrophic denitrification in the anode of MDC within 48 h, leading to the total nitrogen removal rate of 4.07 mg L-1 h-1. Combining of nitrogen removal and desalination in MDC effectively solved the problem of pH fluctuation in anode and cathode, and led to 63.7% of desalination. Power generation of MDC (293.7 mW m-2) was 2.9 times higher than the one without salt solution. The electric power of MDC was harvested by a capacitor circuit to supply metal reduction in a MEC, and 99.5% of lead (II) was removed within 48 h. A kinetic MDC model was developed to elucidate the correlation of voltage output and desalination efficiency. Ratio of wastewater and sea water was calculated for MDC optimal operation. Energy balance of nutrient removal, metal removal and desalination in the MDC-MEC system was positive (0.0267 kW h m-3), demonstrating the promise of utilizing low power output of MDCs.

  20. The solar system in close-up

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, John

    2016-01-01

    In response to the new information gained about the Solar System from recent space probes and space telescopes, the experienced science author Dr. John Wilkinson presents the state-of-the art knowledge on the Sun, solar system planets and small solar system objects like comets and asteroids. He also describes space missions like the New Horizon’s space probe that provided never seen before pictures of the Pluto system; the Dawn space probe, having just visited the asteroid Vesta, and the dwarf planet Ceres; and the Rosetta probe inorbit around comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko that has sent extraordinary and most exciting pictures. Those and a number of other probes are also changing our understanding of the solar system and providing a wealth of new up close photos. This book will cover all these missions and discuss observed surface features of planets and moons like their compositions, geisers, aurorae, lightning phenomena etc. Presenting the fascinating aspects of solar system astronomy this book is a c...

  1. Protecting solar collector systems from corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The main cause of the reduced life of a solar heating system is corrosion of the exterior parts and the internal components. This report outlines ways of reducing the cost of solar heating by reducing the corrosion in solar heating systems, and hence increasing the system's service life. Mechanisms for corrosion are discussed: these include galvanic corrosion and crevice corrosion. Means of minimizing corrosion at the design stage are then described. Such methods, when designing the solar collector, involve ensuring proper drainage of exterior water; eliminating situations where moisture, dirt and pollutants may collect; preventing condensation inside the collector; using proper gaskets and sealants at appropriate places; and selecting optimum materials and coatings. Interior corrosion can be minimized at the design stage by choosing a good heat transfer fluid and corrosion inhibitor, in the case of systems where liquids are used; ensuring a low enough flow rate to avoid erosion; designing the system to avoid crevices; and avoiding situations where galvanic corrosion could occur. Other procedures are given for minimizing corrosion in the construction and operation of solar heating systems. 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Membrane-based seawater desalination: Present and future prospects

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary L.

    2016-10-20

    Given increasing regional water scarcity and that almost half of the world\\'s population lives within 100 km of an ocean, seawater represents a virtually infinite water resource. However, its exploitation is presently limited by the significant specific energy consumption (kWh/m) required by conventional desalination technologies, further exasperated by high unit costs ($/m) and environmental impacts including GHG emissions (g CO-eq/m), organism impingement/entrainment through intakes, and brine disposal through outfalls. This paper explores the state-of-the-art in present seawater desalination practice, emphasizing membrane-based technologies, while identifying future opportunities in step improvements to conventional technologies and development of emerging, potentially disruptive, technologies through advances in material science, process engineering, and system integration. In this paper, seawater reverse osmosis (RO) serves as the baseline conventional technology. The discussion extends beyond desalting processes into membrane-based salinity gradient energy production processes, which can provide an energy offset to desalination process energy requirements. The future membrane landscape in membrane-based desalination and salinity gradient energy is projected to include ultrahigh permeability RO membranes, renewable-energy driven desalination, and emerging processes including closed-circuit RO, membrane distillation, forward osmosis, pressure retarded osmosis, and reverse electrodialysis according various niche applications and/or hybrids, operating separately or in conjunction with RO.

  3. Modeling of electrokinetic desalination of bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    A model for the reactive transport of matter through porous media induced by an externally applied electric field is discussed. The Nernst–Planck–Poisson system of equations is used for modeling multi-species electro-diffusion transport phenomena, assuming chemical equilibrium during the process....... The system of equations includes the transport of water and the resulting advective flow of the aqueous species. The model takes into account transient change in porosity and its impact on transport. Test examples were performed and compared to experimental data for electrokinetic desalination treatment...

  4. The floating desalination complex GEYSER-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyov, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    A conventional floating desalination complex, GEYSER-1, is presented which is capable of producing 40,000 cubic meters per day (m 3 /d) of fresh water from brackish water or seawater. The complex includes a water intake system, a preliminary water preparation system, a high-pressure pump house and a power installation based on diesel or a gas turbines with service equipment. GEYSER-1 can be transported to the place of operation either by a heavy lift ship or by towing. (author)

  5. Adsorption desalination—Principles, process design, and its hybrids for future sustainable desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ang, Li; Ng, Kim Choon

    2018-01-01

    The energy, water, and environment nexus is a crucial factor when considering the future development of desalination plants or industry in water-stressed economies. The new generation of desalination processes or plants has to meet the stringent environment discharge requirements and yet the industry remains highly energy efficient and sustainable when producing good potable water. Water sources, either brackish or seawater, have become more contaminated as feed while the demand for desalination capacities increases around the world. One immediate solution for energy efficiency improvement comes from the hybridization of the proven desalination processes to the newer processes of desalination: For example, the integration of the available heat-driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as an increase in water production can be expected. The advent of MED with AD cycles, or simply called the MED-AD cycles, is one such example where seawater desalination can be pursued and operated in cogeneration with the electricity production plants: The hybrid desalination cycles utilize only the low exergy bled-stream at low temperatures, complemented with waste exhaust or renewable solar thermal heat at temperatures between 60°C and 80°C. In this chapter, the authors have reported their pioneered research on aspects of AD and related hybrid MED-AD cycles, both at theoretical models and experimental pilots. Using the cogeneration of electricity and desalination concepts, the authors examine the cost apportionment of fuel cost by the quality or exergy of the working steam for such cogeneration configurations.

  6. Adsorption desalination—Principles, process design, and its hybrids for future sustainable desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2018-05-03

    The energy, water, and environment nexus is a crucial factor when considering the future development of desalination plants or industry in water-stressed economies. The new generation of desalination processes or plants has to meet the stringent environment discharge requirements and yet the industry remains highly energy efficient and sustainable when producing good potable water. Water sources, either brackish or seawater, have become more contaminated as feed while the demand for desalination capacities increases around the world. One immediate solution for energy efficiency improvement comes from the hybridization of the proven desalination processes to the newer processes of desalination: For example, the integration of the available heat-driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as an increase in water production can be expected. The advent of MED with AD cycles, or simply called the MED-AD cycles, is one such example where seawater desalination can be pursued and operated in cogeneration with the electricity production plants: The hybrid desalination cycles utilize only the low exergy bled-stream at low temperatures, complemented with waste exhaust or renewable solar thermal heat at temperatures between 60°C and 80°C. In this chapter, the authors have reported their pioneered research on aspects of AD and related hybrid MED-AD cycles, both at theoretical models and experimental pilots. Using the cogeneration of electricity and desalination concepts, the authors examine the cost apportionment of fuel cost by the quality or exergy of the working steam for such cogeneration configurations.

  7. Development of a Solar System Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, Seth D.; Duncan, D.; S, C. A. T.

    2009-01-01

    Concept inventories can provide useful insight into students’ understanding of key physical concepts. Knowing what your students have learned during a course is a valuable tool for improving your own teaching. Unfortunately, current astronomy concept inventories are not suitable for an introductory solar system course because they either cover too broad of a range of topics (e.g. Astronomy Diagnostic Test) or are too narrowly focused (e.g. Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory, Lunar Phase Concept Inventory). We have developed the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) to cover those topics commonly taught in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system. SSCI topics include formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric effects, and small solar system bodies. Student interviews were conducted to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. Preliminary development of the SSCI was completed at the University of Colorado and involved over 400 students. A larger, national, multi-institutional field test is planned for Spring 2009 as a Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) research project. We present here the results from the preliminary development and proposed changes for the next stage of research. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  8. Development of the Solar System Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstein, S.; Prather, E.

    2009-12-01

    Concept inventories can provide useful insight into students’ understanding of key physical concepts. Knowing what your students have learned during a course is a valuable tool for improving your own teaching. Unfortunately, current astronomy concept inventories are not suitable for an introductory solar system course because they either cover too broad of a range of topics (e.g. Astronomy Diagnostic Test) or are too narrowly focused (e.g. Greenhouse Effect Concept Inventory, Lunar Phase Concept Inventory). We have developed the Solar System Concept Inventory (SSCI) to cover those topics commonly taught in an introductory solar system course. The topics included on the SSCI were selected by having faculty identify the key concepts they address when teaching about the solar system. SSCI topics include formation mechanisms, planetary interiors, atmospheric effects, and small solar system bodies. Student interviews were conducted to identify common naive ideas and reasoning difficulties relating to these key topics. The SSCI has been through two semesters of national, multi-institutional field-testing, involving over 1500 students. After the first semester of testing, question statistics were used to flag ineffective questions and flagged questions were revised or eliminated. We will present an overall outline of the SSCI development as well as our question-flagging criteria and question analyses from the latest round of field-testing. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  9. MULTIFUNCTIONAL SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR HEATING AND COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko A.V.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic circuits of multifunctional solar systems of air drainage, heating (hot water supply and heating, cooling and air conditioning are developed on the basis of open absorption cycle with a direct absorbent regeneration. Basic decisions for new generation of gas-liquid solar collectors are developed. Heat-mass-transfer apparatus included in evaporative cooling system, are based on film interaction of flows of gas and liquid and in them, for the creation of nozzle, multi-channel structures from polymeric materials and porous ceramics are used. Preliminary analysis of multifunctional systems possibilities is implemented.

  10. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible, and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in the research contract CNEA - IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. The objective and scope of this work is to know the advantages and disadvantages of each desalination technology, distinctive characteristics of each of them, that make them adapt better to different uses and outline conditions and analysis of related antecedents of its use in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations found in the last years for the different technologies are also included. (author)

  11. Process technologies for water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramilo, Lucia B.; Gomez de Soler, Susana M.; Coppari, Norberto R.

    2003-01-01

    The use of the nuclear energy for simultaneous electricity and potable water production is an attractive, technically feasible and safe alternative to fossil energy options. In Argentina the nuclear desalination option is being studied together with the alternative uses of the innovative advanced Argentinean CAREM reactor, in a research contract between CNEA and the IAEA to evaluate projects of nuclear desalination. This paper analyses the benefits and drawbacks of each desalination technology, the distinctive characteristics of the technology that fit better the different uses, and outlines the related antecedents of its application in the world. In this report a summarized description of those technologies is included by way of introduction, so as to highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of each of them. The improvements and innovations made in the last years for the different technologies are also described. (author)

  12. The cost of nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: What would be the cost of fresh water obtained by desalination of sea or brackish water with the help of a nuclear reactor? What methods are being employed for such costing and evaluation? These are basic questions for the increasing number of countries which are considering water desalination for the production of drinking water or for industrial or agricultural purposes. Following the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the IAEA in Vienna, Austria, in April 1965, the Agency is now preparing a report on the desalination methods used or developed in various countries. Another panel met in Vienna in April of the current year, to help the Agency with the final draft of this report which is due to be published this autumn. The panel, 20 experts from 7 countries, was chaired consecutively by Mr. N. Carrillo (Mexico) and Mr. V.N. Meckoni (India). (author)

  13. Seawater desalination with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power helps reduce costs for energy-intensive processes such as seawater desalination. A new generation of innovative small and medium nuclear power plants could co-generate electricity and potable water from seawater, both safely and at competitive prices in today's market. The IAEA provides technical support to Member States facing water shortage problems, on assessing the viability of nuclear power in seawater desalination. The support, usually channelled through national Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, can take several forms, ranging from educational training and technical advice on feasibility studies to design and safety review of demonstration projects. The IAEA offers a software tool (DEEP) that can be used to evaluate the economics of the different desalination and heat source configurations, including nuclear and fossil options

  14. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solar warming systems of water installed in Colombia. Photovoltaic solar systems installed in the Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez P, F.

    1995-01-01

    Between the systems that operate as of solar energy, the solar collectors to heat water have had wide use and application in the Country. Basically, a solar collector is constituted by: Box, thermal insulator, ducts and transparent roof. Generally, the used materials are the following: As thermal insulator: Polyurethane or glass fiber; as absorbent plate: Copper or aluminum, painting in dull black or selective surfaces; for the ducts: Generally it is used copper pipeline; and for the cover: Common glass or temperate glass

  16. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianze; Lu Hengwei; Jiang Chuan; Hou Luan; Zhang Xia

    2011-01-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  17. Consumer attitudes towards domestic solar power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiers, Adam [Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.j.faiers.so2@cranfield.ac.uk; Neame, Charles [Institute of Water and Environment, Cranfield University at Silsoe, Silsoe, Bedfordshire, MK45 4DT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.neame@cranfield.ac.uk

    2006-09-15

    The success of the UK policy to reduce carbon emissions is partly dependent on the ability to persuade householders to become more energy efficient, and to encourage installation of domestic solar systems. Solar power is an innovation in the UK but the current policy of stimulating the market with grants is not resulting in widespread adoption. This case study, using householders in central England, investigates householder attitudes towards characteristics of solar systems and identifies some of the barriers to adoption. The study utilises Diffusion of Innovations theory to identify attitudes towards system attributes, and isolates the characteristics that are preventing a pragmatic 'early majority' from adopting the technology. A group of 'early adopters', and a group of assumed 'early majority' adopters of solar power were surveyed and the results show that overall, although the 'early majority' demonstrate a positive perception of the environmental characteristics of solar power, its financial, economic and aesthetic characteristics are limiting adoption. Differences exist between the two groups showing support for the concept of a 'chasm' between adopter categories after Moore (Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling High-tech Products to Mainstream Customers, second ed. Harper Perennial, New York). However, if consumers cannot identify the relative advantage of solar power over their current sources of power, which is supplied readily and cheaply through a mains system, it is unlikely that adoption will follow. Recommendations concerning the marketing and development of solar products are identified.

  18. Simulation of an adsorption solar cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.Z.; Mohamad, A.A.; Bennacer, R.

    2011-01-01

    A more realistic theoretical simulation model for a tubular solar adsorption refrigerating system using activated carbon-methanol (AC/M) pair has been introduced. The mathematical model represents the heat and mass transfer inside the adsorption bed, the condenser, and the evaporator. The simulation technique takes into account the variations of ambient temperature and solar radiation along the day. Furthermore, the local pressure, and local thermal conductivity variations in space and time inside the tubular reactor are investigated as well. A C++ computer program is written to solve the proposed numerical model using the finite difference method. The developed program covers the operations of all the system components along the cycle time. The performance of the tubular reactor, the condenser, and the evaporator has been discussed. Time allocation chart and switching operations for the solar refrigeration system processes are illustrated as well. The case studied has a 1 m 2 surface area solar flat plate collector integrated with a 20 stainless steel tubes containing the AC/M pair and each tube has a 5 cm outer diameter. In addition, the condenser pressure is set to 54.2 kpa. It has been found that, the solar coefficient of performance and the specific cooling power of the system are 0.211 and 2.326 respectively. In addition, the pressure distribution inside the adsorption bed has been found nearly uniform and varying only with time. Furthermore, the AC/M thermal conductivity is shown to be constant in both space and time.

  19. Pump efficiency in solar-energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Study investigates characteristics of typical off-the-shelf pumping systems that might be used in solar systems. Report includes discussion of difficulties in predicting pump efficiency from manufacturers' data. Sample calculations are given. Peak efficiencies, flow-rate control, and noise levels are investigated. Review or theory of pumps types and operating characteristics is presented.

  20. Allowed planetary orbits in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintr, P.; Perinova, V.; Luks, A.

    2008-01-01

    A new law of the Titius-Bode type for planetary distances from the Sun is proposed. These distances for each planet are determined using appropriate nodal circle of a vibrating membrane. Regularities in the distribution of bodies in the solar system and in the systems of giant planets and some exoplanets are pointed out