WorldWideScience

Sample records for solar coronal structures

  1. Solar Coronal Structure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Nariaki; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Saba, Julia; Strong, Keith; Harvey, Karen

    2000-01-01

    The subject of this investigation is to study the physics of the solar corona through the analysis of the EUV and UV data produced by two flights (12 May 1992 and 25 April 1994) of the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment (SPDE) sounding rocket payload, in combination with Yohkoh and ground-based data. Each rocket flight produced both spectral and imaging data. These joint datasets are useful for understanding the physical state of various features in the solar atmosphere at different heights ranging from the photosphere to the corona at the time of the, rocket flights, which took place during the declining phase of a solar cycle, 2-4 years before the minimum. The investigation is narrowly focused on comparing the physics of small- and medium-scale strong-field structures with that of large-scale, weak fields. As we close th is investigation, we have to recall that our present position in the understanding of basic solar physics problems (such as coronal heating) is much different from that in 1995 (when we proposed this investigation), due largely to the great success of SOHO and TRACE. In other words, several topics and techniques we proposed can now be better realized with data from these missions. For this reason, at some point of our work, we started concentrating on the 1992 data, which are more unique and have more supporting data. As a result, we discontinued the investigation on small-scale structures, i.e., bright points, since high-resolution TRACE images have addressed more important physics than SPDE EUV images could do. In the final year, we still spent long time calibrating the 1992 data. The work was complicated because of the old-fashioned film, which had problems not encountered with more modern CCD detectors. After our considerable effort on calibration, we were able to focus on several scientific topics, relying heavily on the SPDE UV images. They include the relation between filaments and filament channels, the identification of hot

  2. MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURES TRIGGERING SOLAR FLARES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, K.; Bamba, Y.; Yamamoto, T. T.; Iida, Y.; Toriumi, S.; Asai, A.

    2012-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections, the most catastrophic eruptions in our solar system, have been known to affect terrestrial environments and infrastructure. However, because their triggering mechanism is still not sufficiently understood, our capacity to predict the occurrence of solar eruptions and to forecast space weather is substantially hindered. Even though various models have been proposed to determine the onset of solar eruptions, the types of magnetic structures capable of triggering these eruptions are still unclear. In this study, we solved this problem by systematically surveying the nonlinear dynamics caused by a wide variety of magnetic structures in terms of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. As a result, we determined that two different types of small magnetic structures favor the onset of solar eruptions. These structures, which should appear near the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), include magnetic fluxes reversed to the potential component or the nonpotential component of major field on the PIL. In addition, we analyzed two large flares, the X-class flare on 2006 December 13 and the M-class flare on 2011 February 13, using imaging data provided by the Hinode satellite, and we demonstrated that they conform to the simulation predictions. These results suggest that forecasting of solar eruptions is possible with sophisticated observation of a solar magnetic field, although the lead time must be limited by the timescale of changes in the small magnetic structures.

  3. Recent perspectives in solar physics - Elemental composition, coronal structure and magnetic fields, solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Elemental abundances in the solar corona are studied. Abundances in the corona, solar wind and solar cosmic rays are compared to those in the photosphere. The variation in silicon and iron abundance in the solar wind as compared to helium is studied. The coronal small and large scale structure is investigated, emphasizing magnetic field activity and examining cosmic ray generation mechanisms. The corona is observed in the X-ray and EUV regions. The nature of coronal transients is discussed with emphasis on solar-wind modulation of galactic cosmic rays. A schematic plan view of the interplanetary magnetic field during sunspot minimum is given showing the presence of magnetic bubbles and their concentration in the region around 4-5 AU by a fast solar wind stream.

  4. 3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramar, Maxim [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Airapetian, Vladimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States); NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Lin, Haosheng, E-mail: vladimir.airapetian@nasa.gov [College of Natural Sciences, Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Pukalani, HI (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131) to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D) coronal electron density in the range of heights from 1.5 to 4 R{sub ⊙} using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 Å band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below ~2.5 R{sub ⊙}. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the accuracy of the magnetic field approximations for coronal modeling.

  5. 3D Global Coronal Density Structure and Associated Magnetic Field near Solar Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Kramar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the coronal magnetic field is a crucial ingredient in understanding the nature of solar coronal dynamic phenomena at all scales. We employ STEREO/COR1 data obtained near maximum of solar activity in December 2012 (Carrington rotation, CR 2131 to retrieve and analyze the three-dimensional (3D coronal electron density in the range of heights from $1.5$ to $4 R_odot$ using a tomography method and qualitatively deduce structures of the coronal magnetic field. The 3D electron density analysis is complemented by the 3D STEREO/EUVI emissivity in 195 AA band obtained by tomography for the same CR period. We find that the magnetic field configuration during CR 2131 has a tendency to become radially open at heliocentric distances below $sim 2.5 R_odot$. We compared the reconstructed 3D coronal structures over the CR near the solar maximum to the one at deep solar minimum. Results of our 3D density reconstruction will help to constrain solar coronal field models and test the accuracy of the magnetic field approximations for coronal modeling.

  6. Solar radio bursts and their relation of coronal magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattenberg, A.

    1981-01-01

    Following a general introduction, chapters II and III describe a model for coronal flux tubes. The model tube is a cylindrically symmetric localized force free current, that is embedded in a potential field. In both chapters the growth rates and sizes of the kink mode instability are calculated by solving the linearized equation of motion. In chapters IV and V, observations of solar Type-I radio bursts are presented and analysed. The observations were gathered with the 60-channel radio spectrograph in Dwingeloo. Chapters VI, VII, VIII, IX and X are concerned with observations of solar microwave bursts. The observations, with high time resolution (0.1 s) and high one-dimensional angular resolution (max. 4'') were made with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. (Auth.)

  7. Prediction of coronal structure of the solar eclipse of October 23, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    Earlier work on the prediction of solar eclipse coronal structures is briefly summarised. A computer drawn plot made on October 18 1976 showed the field time structure predicted for the time of the solar eclipse on October 23. A very dipolar coronal field was indicated, and a very large equatorial streamer was predicted for both the east and west limbs of the Sun, due to the lack of very strong active regions near either limb. Nested coronal arches were seen within this equatorial streamer, and many small arches were also seen on both limbs. The main feature, however, is the prediction of the two large bright streamers marking the solar equator, with polar plumes in a characteristic dipole fashion. At the time of the eclipse it is hoped that a high resolution photograph will allow much of the structure to be discovered. (U.K.)

  8. Solar wind and coronal structure near sunspot minimum - Pioneer and SMM observations from 1985-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Hundhausen, A. J.; Smith, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in solar wind speed and magnetic polarity observed at the Pioneer spacecraft are discussed here in terms of the changing magnetic geometry implied by SMM coronagraph observations over the period 1985-1987. The pattern of recurrent solar wind streams, the long-term average speed, and the sector polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field all changed in a manner suggesting both a temporal variation, and a changing dependence on heliographic latitude. Coronal observations during this epoch show a systematic variation in coronal structure and the magnetic structure imposed on the expanding solar wind. These observations suggest interpretation of the solar wind speed variations in terms of the familiar model where the speed increases with distance from a nearly flat interplanetary current sheet, and where this current sheet becomes aligned with the solar equatorial plane as sunspot minimum approaches, but deviates rapidly from that orientation after minimum.

  9. Solar Coronal Plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Poletto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polar plumes are thin long ray-like structures that project beyond the limb of the Sun polar regions, maintaining their identity over distances of several solar radii. Plumes have been first observed in white-light (WL images of the Sun, but, with the advent of the space era, they have been identified also in X-ray and UV wavelengths (XUV and, possibly, even in in situ data. This review traces the history of plumes, from the time they have been first imaged, to the complex means by which nowadays we attempt to reconstruct their 3-D structure. Spectroscopic techniques allowed us also to infer the physical parameters of plumes and estimate their electron and kinetic temperatures and their densities. However, perhaps the most interesting problem we need to solve is the role they cover in the solar wind origin and acceleration: Does the solar wind emanate from plumes or from the ambient coronal hole wherein they are embedded? Do plumes have a role in solar wind acceleration and mass loading? Answers to these questions are still somewhat ambiguous and theoretical modeling does not provide definite answers either. Recent data, with an unprecedented high spatial and temporal resolution, provide new information on the fine structure of plumes, their temporal evolution and relationship with other transient phenomena that may shed further light on these elusive features.

  10. Solar wind and coronal structure near sunspot minimum: Pioneer and SMM observations from 1985-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalov, J.D.; Barnes, A.; Hundhausen, A.J.; Smith, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    The solar wind speeds observed in the outer heliosphere (20 to 40 AU heliocentric distance, approximately) by Pioneers 10 an 11, and at a heliocentric distance of 0.7 AU by the Pioneer Venus spacecraft, reveal a complex set of changes in the years near the recent sunspot minimum, 1985-1987. The pattern of recurrent solar wind streams, the long-term average speed, and the sector polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field all changed in a manner suggesting both a temporal variation, and a changing dependence on heliographic latitude. Coronal observations made from the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft during the same epoch show a systematic variation in coronal structure and (by implication) the magnetic structure imposed on the expanding solar wind. These observations suggest interpretation of the solar wind speed variations in terms of the familiar model where the speed increases with distance from a nearly flat interplanetary current sheet (or with heliomagnetic latitude), and where this current sheet becomes aligned with the solar equatorial plane as sunspot minimum approaches, but deviates rapidly from that orientation after minimum. The authors confirm here that this basic organization of the solar wind speed persists in the outer heliosphere with an orientation of the neutral sheet consistent with that inferred at a heliocentric distance of a few solar radii, from the coronal observations

  11. A comparison of solar wind streams and coronal structure near solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, J. T.; Davis, J. M.; Gerassimenko, M.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar wind data from the MIT detectors on the IMP 7 and 8 satellites and the SOLRAD 11B satellite for the solar-minimum period September-December, 1976, were compared with X-ray images of the solar corona taken by rocket-borne telescopes on September 16 and November 17, 1976. There was no compelling evidence that a coronal hole was the source of any high speed stream. Thus it is possible that either coronal holes were not the sources of all recurrent high-speed solar wind streams during the declining phase of the solar cycle, as might be inferred from the Skylab period, or there was a change in the appearance of some magnetic field regions near the time of solar minimum.

  12. The Three-part Structure of a Filament-unrelated Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y.; Wang, B.; Li, B. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Cheng, X. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Zhang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Li, L. P. [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Hu, Q.; Li, G., E-mail: hqsong@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) often exhibit the typical three-part structure in the corona when observed with white-light coronagraphs, i.e., the bright leading front, dark cavity, and bright core, corresponding to a high-low-high density sequence. As CMEs result from eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), which can possess either lower (e.g., coronal-cavity MFRs) or higher (e.g., hot-channel MFRs) density compared to their surroundings in the corona, the traditional opinion regards the three-part structure as the manifestations of coronal plasma pileup (high density), coronal-cavity MFR (low density), and filament (high density) contained in the trailing part of MFR, respectively. In this paper, we demonstrate that filament-unrelated CMEs can also exhibit the classical three-part structure. The observations were made from different perspectives through an event that occurred on 2011 October 4. The CME cavity corresponds to the low-density zone between the leading front and the high-density core, and it is obvious in the low corona and gradually becomes fuzzy when propagating outward. The bright core corresponds to a high-density structure that is suggested to be an erupting MFR. The MFR is recorded from both edge-on and face-on perspectives, exhibiting different morphologies that are due to projection effects. We stress that the zone (MFR) with lower (higher) density in comparison to the surroundings can appear as the dark cavity (bright core) when observed through white-light coronagraphs, which is not necessarily the coronal-cavity MFR (erupted filament).

  13. The Three-part Structure of a Filament-unrelated Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y.; Wang, B.; Li, B.; Cheng, X.; Zhang, J.; Li, L. P.; Hu, Q.; Li, G.

    2017-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) often exhibit the typical three-part structure in the corona when observed with white-light coronagraphs, i.e., the bright leading front, dark cavity, and bright core, corresponding to a high-low-high density sequence. As CMEs result from eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), which can possess either lower (e.g., coronal-cavity MFRs) or higher (e.g., hot-channel MFRs) density compared to their surroundings in the corona, the traditional opinion regards the three-part structure as the manifestations of coronal plasma pileup (high density), coronal-cavity MFR (low density), and filament (high density) contained in the trailing part of MFR, respectively. In this paper, we demonstrate that filament-unrelated CMEs can also exhibit the classical three-part structure. The observations were made from different perspectives through an event that occurred on 2011 October 4. The CME cavity corresponds to the low-density zone between the leading front and the high-density core, and it is obvious in the low corona and gradually becomes fuzzy when propagating outward. The bright core corresponds to a high-density structure that is suggested to be an erupting MFR. The MFR is recorded from both edge-on and face-on perspectives, exhibiting different morphologies that are due to projection effects. We stress that the zone (MFR) with lower (higher) density in comparison to the surroundings can appear as the dark cavity (bright core) when observed through white-light coronagraphs, which is not necessarily the coronal-cavity MFR (erupted filament).

  14. The Three-part Structure of a Filament-unrelated Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. Q.; Cheng, X.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, J.; Wang, B.; Li, L. P.; Li, B.; Hu, Q.; Li, G.

    2017-10-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) often exhibit the typical three-part structure in the corona when observed with white-light coronagraphs, I.e., the bright leading front, dark cavity, and bright core, corresponding to a high-low-high density sequence. As CMEs result from eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), which can possess either lower (e.g., coronal-cavity MFRs) or higher (e.g., hot-channel MFRs) density compared to their surroundings in the corona, the traditional opinion regards the three-part structure as the manifestations of coronal plasma pileup (high density), coronal-cavity MFR (low density), and filament (high density) contained in the trailing part of MFR, respectively. In this paper, we demonstrate that filament-unrelated CMEs can also exhibit the classical three-part structure. The observations were made from different perspectives through an event that occurred on 2011 October 4. The CME cavity corresponds to the low-density zone between the leading front and the high-density core, and it is obvious in the low corona and gradually becomes fuzzy when propagating outward. The bright core corresponds to a high-density structure that is suggested to be an erupting MFR. The MFR is recorded from both edge-on and face-on perspectives, exhibiting different morphologies that are due to projection effects. We stress that the zone (MFR) with lower (higher) density in comparison to the surroundings can appear as the dark cavity (bright core) when observed through white-light coronagraphs, which is not necessarily the coronal-cavity MFR (erupted filament).

  15. White light coronal structures and flattening during six total solar eclipses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Marzouk

    2016-12-01

    Flattening index is the first quantitative parameter introduced for analyses of the global structure of the solar corona. It varies with respect to the phase of the solar activity and sunspot number. In this paper we study the solar corona during the 1990, 1999, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2012 total solar eclipses. We obtain flattening coefficients for all the six eclipses by using a new computer program. Our results are in a good agreement with published results.

  16. DARK JETS IN SOLAR CORONAL HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Peter R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    A new solar feature termed a dark jet is identified from observations of an extended solar coronal hole that was continuously monitored for over 44 hr by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode spacecraft in 2011 February 8–10 as part of Hinode Operation Plan No. 177 (HOP 177). Line of sight (LOS) velocity maps derived from the coronal Fe xii λ195.12 emission line, formed at 1.5 MK, revealed a number of large-scale, jet-like structures that showed significant blueshifts. The structures had either weak or no intensity signal in 193 Å filter images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, suggesting that the jets are essentially invisible to imaging instruments. The dark jets are rooted in bright points and occur both within the coronal hole and at the quiet Sun–coronal hole boundary. They exhibit a wide range of shapes, from narrow columns to fan-shaped structures, and sometimes multiple jets are seen close together. A detailed study of one dark jet showed LOS speeds increasing along the jet axis from 52 to 107 km s{sup −1} and a temperature of 1.2–1.3 MK. The low intensity of the jet was due either to a small filling factor of 2% or to a curtain-like morphology. From the HOP 177 sample, dark jets are as common as regular coronal hole jets, but their low intensity suggests a mass flux around two orders of magnitude lower.

  17. The Large-scale Coronal Structure of the 2017 August 21 Great American Eclipse: An Assessment of Solar Surface Flux Transport Model Enabled Predictions and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Dibyendu; Bhowmik, Prantika; Yeates, Anthony R.; Panda, Suman; Tarafder, Rajashik; Dash, Soumyaranjan

    2018-01-01

    On 2017 August 21, a total solar eclipse swept across the contiguous United States, providing excellent opportunities for diagnostics of the Sun’s corona. The Sun’s coronal structure is notoriously difficult to observe except during solar eclipses; thus, theoretical models must be relied upon for inferring the underlying magnetic structure of the Sun’s outer atmosphere. These models are necessary for understanding the role of magnetic fields in the heating of the corona to a million degrees and the generation of severe space weather. Here we present a methodology for predicting the structure of the coronal field based on model forward runs of a solar surface flux transport model, whose predicted surface field is utilized to extrapolate future coronal magnetic field structures. This prescription was applied to the 2017 August 21 solar eclipse. A post-eclipse analysis shows good agreement between model simulated and observed coronal structures and their locations on the limb. We demonstrate that slow changes in the Sun’s surface magnetic field distribution driven by long-term flux emergence and its evolution governs large-scale coronal structures with a (plausibly cycle-phase dependent) dynamical memory timescale on the order of a few solar rotations, opening up the possibility for large-scale, global corona predictions at least a month in advance.

  18. An equatorial coronal hole at solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromage, B. J. I.; DelZanna, G.; DeForest, C.; Thompson, B.; Clegg, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    The large transequatorial coronal hole that was observed in the solar corona at the end of August 1996 is presented. It consists of a north polar coronal hole called the 'elephant's trunk or tusk'. The observations of this coronal hole were carried out with the coronal diagnostic spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The magnetic field associated with the equatorial coronal hole is strongly connected to that of the active region at its base, resulting in the two features rotating at almost the same rate.

  19. FADING CORONAL STRUCTURE AND THE ONSET OF TURBULENCE IN THE YOUNG SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeForest, C. E. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO (United States); Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Viall, N. M. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cranmer, S. R. [University of Colorado, Duane E226, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    Above the top of the solar corona, the young, slow solar wind transitions from low- β , magnetically structured flow dominated by radial structures to high- β , less structured flow dominated by hydrodynamics. This transition, long inferred via theory, is readily apparent in the sky region close to 10° from the Sun in processed, background-subtracted solar wind images. We present image sequences collected by the inner Heliospheric Imager instrument on board the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO /HI1) in 2008 December, covering apparent distances from approximately 4° to 24° from the center of the Sun and spanning this transition in the large-scale morphology of the wind. We describe the observation and novel techniques to extract evolving image structure from the images, and we use those data and techniques to present and quantify the clear textural shift in the apparent structure of the corona and solar wind in this altitude range. We demonstrate that the change in apparent texture is due both to anomalous fading of the radial striae that characterize the corona and to anomalous relative brightening of locally dense puffs of solar wind that we term “flocculae.” We show that these phenomena are inconsistent with smooth radial flow, but consistent with the onset of hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities leading to a turbulent cascade in the young solar wind.

  20. Fading Coronal Structure and the Onset of Turbulence in the Young Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, C. E.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Viall, N. M.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Above the top of the solar corona, the young, slow solar wind transitions from low-beta, magnetically structured flow dominated by radial structures to high-beta, less structured flow dominated by hydrodynamics. This transition, long inferred via theory, is readily apparent in the sky region close to 10deg from the Sun in processed, background-subtracted solar wind images. We present image sequences collected by the inner Heliospheric Imager instrument on board the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO/HI1) in 2008 December, covering apparent distances from approximately 4deg to 24deg from the center of the Sun and spanning this transition in the large-scale morphology of the wind. We describe the observation and novel techniques to extract evolving image structure from the images, and we use those data and techniques to present and quantify the clear textural shift in the apparent structure of the corona and solar wind in this altitude range. We demonstrate that the change in apparent texture is due both to anomalous fading of the radial striae that characterize the corona and to anomalous relative brightening of locally dense puffs of solar wind that we term "flocculae." We show that these phenomena are inconsistent with smooth radial flow, but consistent with the onset of hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic instabilities leading to a turbulent cascade in the young solar wind.

  1. Three-dimensional structure of the coronal magnetic field and the solar wind speed distribution projected on the photosphere in 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakamada, K.

    1987-01-01

    Since the solar wind and coronal holes were relatively steady in 1974, the average distribution of the solar wind speed on the source surface and that of the line-of-sight component of the photospheric magnetic fields (B 1 ) can be constructed, with fair accuracy, by the superposed epoch analysis. The three-dimensional structure of the coronal magnetic fields is then computed from this average map of B 1 based on the potential model. The average distribution of the solar wind speed on the source surface, obtained from interplanetary scintillation observations, is then projected onto the photosphere along the open field lines in the corona. The high-speed regions thus projected are compared with the He I (1083 nm) coronal holes and are found to have a similar geometry. The results are also suggestive that the solar wind does not blow out uniformly from the vicinity of a coronal hole and that the speed is higher at the east side in that region than at the west side. The slower speed regions on the source surface have a sinusoidal structure in heliographic latitude-longitude coordinates and are similar to the brightness distribution of the K corona and the structure of closed field line regions projected onto the photosphere. copyrightAmerican Geophysical Union 1987

  2. The physical structure of coronal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneuman, G.W.

    1978-11-01

    The longitudinal geometrical structure of solar wind streams as observed at the orbit of earth is governed by two mechanisms - solar rotation and, most importantly, the geometry of the inner coronal magnetic fields. Here, we study the influence of the latter for the polar coronal hole observed by Skylab in 1973 and modeled by Munro and Jackson (1977). The influence of coronal heating on the properties of the solar wind in this geometry is also investigated. To do this, a crude exponentially damped heating function similar to that used by Kopp and Orrall (1976) is introduced into the solar wind equations. We find that increased heating produces higher temperatures in the inner corona but has little effect upon the temperature at 1 A.U. However, the density at 1 A.U. is increased significantly due to the increase in scale height. The most surprising consequence of coronal heating is its effect on the solar wind velocity, being that the velocity at 1 A.U. is actually decreased by heating in the inner corona. Physical reasons for this effect are discussed. (orig./WL) [de

  3. Solar Coronal Jets: Observations, Theory, and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raouafi, N. E.; Patsourakos, S.; Pariat, E.; Young, P. R.; Sterling, A.; Savcheva, A.; Shimojo, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Devore, C. R.; Archontis, V.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Chromospheric and coronal jets represent important manifestations of ubiquitous solar transients, which may be the source of signicant mass and energy input to the upper solar atmosphere and the solar wind. While the energy involved in a jet-like event is smaller than that of nominal solar ares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), jets share many common properties with these major phenomena, in particular, the explosive magnetically driven dynamics. Studies of jets could, therefore, provide critical insight for understanding the larger, more complex drivers of the solar activity. On the other side of the size-spectrum, the study of jets could also supply important clues on the physics of transients closeor at the limit of the current spatial resolution such as spicules. Furthermore, jet phenomena may hint to basic process for heating the corona and accelerating the solar wind; consequently their study gives us the opportunity to attack a broadrange of solar-heliospheric problems.

  4. The dynamics of coronal magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis is made of the evolution of coronal magnetic fields due to the interaction with the solar wind. An analysis of the formation of coronal streamers, arising as a result of the stretching of bipolar fields, is given. Numerical simulations of the formation of coronal streamers are presented. Fast-mode shocks as triggers of microturbulence in the solar corona are discussed

  5. Determination of Differential Emission Measure Distribution of Coronal Structures Observed by SphinX During Recent Minimum of Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Anna; Gburek, Szymon; Siarkowski, Marek; Sylwester, Barbara; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw

    SphinX is a high-sensitivity soft X-ray spectrophotometer which measures soft X-ray spectra in the energy range between 0.8 keV and 15 keV. From February to November 2009 the instrument has observed unusually quiet solar coronal emission as well as a number of weak solar flares. Based on SphinX spectra it is possible to study the differential emission measure distributions (DEM) in the temperature range roughly between 1 MK and 10 MK. The aim of the present study is to unveil DEM plasma distributions for selected activity conditions and analyze their variability.

  6. Fast solar hard X-ray bursts and large scale coronal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnett, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions at the Sun at the times corresponding to a selected set 22 fast impulsive hard X-ray bursts reported by Crannell et al. are examined. It is suggested that one of the bursts must arise from a precipitating beam of subrelativistic electrons; the source of the electrons is postulated to be in a region very remote from the X-ray site on the basis of type III and other radio data. The connection is via a coronal magnetic loop extending to approx.3 R/sub sun/ above the photosphere. The energy in the electron beam is estimated at 3 x 10 27 ergs. Intense soft X-ray and/or microwave radio storms at times corresponding to many of the impulsive X-ray bursts lead the conclusion that 14, and possibly 18, of the 22 bursts could have the same interpretation. The energy in such an electron beam could be important when considering the trigger phase of some flares

  7. Coronal mass ejections and coronal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildner, E.; Bassi, J.; Bougeret, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Research on coronal mass ejections (CMF) took a variety of forms, both observational and theoretical. On the observational side there were: case studies of individual events, in which it was attempted to provide the most complete descriptions possible, using correlative observations in diverse wavelengths; statistical studies of the properties of CMEs and their associated activity; observations which may tell us about the initiation of mass ejections; interplanetary observations of associated shocks and energetic particles; observations of CMEs traversing interplanetary space; and the beautiful synoptic charts which show to what degree mass ejections affect the background corona and how rapidly (if at all) the corona recovers its pre-disturbance form. These efforts are described in capsule form with an emphasis on presenting pictures, graphs, and tables so that the reader can form a personal appreciation of the work and its results

  8. Solar Wind Associated with Near Equatorial Coronal Hole M ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... coronal hole and solar wind. For both the wavelength bands, we also com- pute coronal hole radiative energy near the earth and it is found to be of similar order as that of solar wind energy. However, for the wavelength. 193 Å, owing to almost similar magnitudes of energy emitted by coronal hole and ...

  9. Solar wind acceleration in coronal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Past attempts to explain the large solar wind velocities in high speed streams by theoretical models of the expansion have invoked either extended nonthermal heating of the corona, heat flux inhibition, or direct addition of momentum to the expanding coronal plasma. Several workers have shown that inhibiting the heat flux at low coronal densities is probably not adequate to explain quantitatively the observed plasma velocities in high speed streams. It stressed that, in order to account for both these large plasma velocities and the low densities found in coronal holes (from which most high speed streams are believed to emanate), extended heating by itself will not suffice. One needs a nonthermal mechanism to provide the bulk acceleration of the high wind plasma close to the sun, and the most likely candidate at present is direct addition of the momentum carried by outward-propagating waves to the expanding corona. Some form of momentum addition appears to be absolutely necessary if one hopes to build quantitatively self-consistent models of coronal holes and high speed solar wind streams

  10. Thermal instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas: Solar coronal loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbal, S.R.; Rosner, R.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal stability of confined solar coronal structures (''loops'') is investigated, following both normal mode and a new, global instability analysis. We demonstrate that: (a) normal mode analysis shows modes with size scales comparable to that of loops to be unstable, but to be strongly affected by the loop boundary conditions; (b) a global analysis, based upon variation of the total loop energy losses and gains, yields loop stability conditions for global modes dependent upon the coronal loop heating process, with magnetically coupled heating processes giving marginal stability. The connection between the present analysis and the minimum flux corona of Hearn is also discussed

  11. Temperature Structure of a Coronal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    we analyze the temperature structure of a coronal cavity observed in Aug. 2007. coronal cavities are long, low-density structures located over filament neutral lines and are often seen as dark elliptical features at the solar limb in white light, EUV and x-rays. when these structures erupt they form the cavity portions of CMEs. It is important to establish the temperature structure of cavities in order to understand the thermodynamics of cavities in relation to their three-dimensional magnetic structure. To analyze the temperature we compare temperature ratios of a series of iron lines observed by the Hinode/EUv Imaging spectrometer (EIS). We also use those lines to constrain a forward model of the emission from the cavity and streamer. The model assumes a coronal streamer with a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel lenth. Temperature and density can be varied as a function of altitude both in the cavity and streamer. The general cavity morphology and the cavity and streamer density have already been modeled using data from STEREO's SECCHI/EUVI and Hinode/EIS (Gibson et al 2010 and Schmit & Gibson 2011).

  12. Solar origins of coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    The large scale properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), such as morphology, leading edge speed, and angular width and position, have been cataloged for many events observed with coronagraphs on the Skylab, P-78, and SMM spacecraft. While considerable study has been devoted to the characteristics of the SMEs, their solar origins are still only poorly understood. Recent observational work has involved statistical associations of CMEs with flares and filament eruptions, and some evidence exists that the flare and eruptive-filament associated CMEs define two classes of events, with the former being generally more energetic. Nevertheless, it is found that eruptive-filament CMEs can at times be very energetic, giving rise to interplanetary shocks and energetic particle events. The size of the impulsive phase in a flare-associated CME seems to play no significant role in the size or speed of the CME, but the angular sizes of CMEs may correlate with the scale sizes of the 1-8 angstrom x-ray flares. At the present time, He 10830 angstrom observations should be useful in studying the late development of double-ribbon flares and transient coronal holes to yield insights into the CME aftermath. The recently available white-light synoptic maps may also prove fruitful in defining the coronal conditions giving rise to CMEs.

  13. OBSERVING THE FINE STRUCTURE OF LOOPS THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF CORONAL RAIN WITH THE CRISP INSTRUMENT AT THE SWEDISH SOLAR TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolin, P.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.

    2012-01-01

    Observed in cool chromospheric lines, such as Hα or Ca II H, coronal rain corresponds to cool and dense plasma falling from coronal heights. Considered as a peculiar sporadic phenomenon of active regions, it has not received much attention since its discovery more than 40 years ago. Yet, it has been shown recently that a close relationship exists between this phenomenon and the coronal heating mechanism. Indeed, numerical simulations have shown that this phenomenon is most likely due to a loss of thermal equilibrium ensuing from a heating mechanism acting mostly toward the footpoints of loops. We present here one of the first high-resolution spectroscopic observations of coronal rain, performed with the CRisp Imaging Spectro Polarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish Solar Telescope. This work constitutes the first attempt to assess the importance of coronal rain in the understanding of the coronal magnetic field in active regions. With the present resolution, coronal rain is observed to literally invade the entire field of view. A large statistical set is obtained in which dynamics (total velocities and accelerations), shapes (lengths and widths), trajectories (angles of fall of the blobs), and thermodynamic properties (temperatures) of the condensations are derived. Specifically, we find that coronal rain is composed of small and dense chromospheric cores with average widths and lengths of ∼310 km and ∼710 km, respectively, average temperatures below 7000 K, displaying a broad distribution of falling speeds with an average of ∼70 km s –1 , and accelerations largely below the effective gravity along loops. Through estimates of the ion-neutral coupling in the blobs we show that coronal rain acts as a tracer of the coronal magnetic field, thus supporting the multi-strand loop scenario, and acts as a probe of the local thermodynamic conditions in loops. We further elucidate its potential in coronal heating. We find that the cooling in neighboring strands

  14. Endogenous Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari-Targhi, M.; Coppi, B.; Basu, B.; Fletcher, A.; Golub, L.

    2017-12-01

    We propose that a magneto-thermal reconnection process occurring in coronal loops be the source of the heating of the Solar Corona [1]. In the adopted model, magnetic reconnection is associated with electron temperature gradients, anisotropic electron temperature fluctuations and plasma current density gradients [2]. The input parameters for our theoretical model are derived from the most recent observations of the Solar Corona. In addition, the relevant (endogenous) collective modes can produce high energy particle populations. An endogenous reconnection process is defined as being driven by factors internal to the region where reconnection takes place. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E. and the Kavli Foundation* [1] Beafume, P., Coppi, B. and Golub, L., (1992) Ap. J. 393, 396. [2] Coppi, B. and Basu, B. (2017) MIT-LNS Report HEP 17/01.

  15. Activity associated with the solar origin of coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. F.; Hundhausen, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed in 1980 with the HAO Coronagraph/Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite are compared with other forms of solar activity that might be physically related to the ejections. The solar phenomena checked and the method of association used were intentionally patterned after those of Munro et al.'s (1979) analysis of mass ejections observed with the Skylab coronagraph to facilitate comparison of the two epochs. Comparison of the results reveals that the types and degree of CME associations are similar near solar activity minimum and at maximum. For both epochs, most CMEs with associations had associated eruptive prominences, and the proportions of association of all types of activity were similar. A high percentage of association between SMM CMEs and X-ray long duration events is also found, in agreement with Skylab results. It is concluded that most CMEs are the result of the destabilization and eruption of a prominence and its overlying coronal structure, or of a magnetic structure capable of supporting a prominence.

  16. AN IMAGING STUDY OF A COMPLEX SOLAR CORONAL RADIO ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Song, H. Q.; Wang, B.; Kong, X. L., E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2016-08-10

    Solar coronal radio bursts are enhanced radio emission excited by energetic electrons accelerated during solar eruptions. Studying these bursts is important for investigating the origin and physical mechanism of energetic particles and further diagnosing coronal parameters. Earlier studies suffered from a lack of simultaneous high-quality imaging data of the radio burst and the eruptive structure in the inner corona. Here we present a study on a complex solar radio eruption consisting of a type II burst and three reversely drifting type III bursts, using simultaneous EUV and radio imaging data. It is found that the type II burst is closely associated with a propagating and evolving CME-driven EUV shock structure, originated initially at the northern shock flank and later transferred to the top part of the shock. This source transfer is coincident with the presence of shock decay and enhancing signatures observed at the corresponding side of the EUV front. The electron energy accelerated by the shock at the flank is estimated to be ∼0.3 c by examining the imaging data of the fast-drifting herringbone structure of the type II burst. The reverse-drifting type III sources are found to be within the ejecta and correlated with a likely reconnection event therein. The implications for further observational studies and relevant space weather forecasting techniques are discussed.

  17. The X-ray signature of solar coronal mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. A.; Waggett, P. W.; Bentley, R. D.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bruner, M.

    1985-01-01

    The coronal response to six solar X-ray flares has been investigated. At a time coincident with the projected onset of the white-light coronal mass ejection associated with each flare, there is a small, discrete soft X-ray enhancement. These enhancements (precursors) precede by typically about 20 m the impulsive phase of the solar flare which is dominant by the time the coronal mass ejection has reached an altitude above 0.5 solar radii. Motions of hot X-ray emitting plasma, during the precursors, which may well be a signature of the mass ejection onsets, are identified. Further investigations have also revealed a second class of X-ray coronal transient, during the main phase of the flare. These appear to be associated with magnetic reconnection above post-flare loop systems.

  18. THE CONTRIBUTION OF CORONAL JETS TO THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lionello, R.; Török, T.; Titov, V. S.; Mikić, Z.; Linker, J. A. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Leake, J. E.; Linton, M. G., E-mail: lionel@predsci.com [US Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Transient collimated plasma eruptions in the solar corona, commonly known as coronal (or X-ray) jets, are among the most interesting manifestations of solar activity. It has been suggested that these events contribute to the mass and energy content of the corona and solar wind, but the extent of these contributions remains uncertain. We have recently modeled the formation and evolution of coronal jets using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code with thermodynamics in a large spherical domain that includes the solar wind. Our model is coupled to 3D MHD flux-emergence simulations, i.e., we use boundary conditions provided by such simulations to drive a time-dependent coronal evolution. The model includes parametric coronal heating, radiative losses, and thermal conduction, which enables us to simulate the dynamics and plasma properties of coronal jets in a more realistic manner than done so far. Here, we employ these simulations to calculate the amount of mass and energy transported by coronal jets into the outer corona and inner heliosphere. Based on observed jet-occurrence rates, we then estimate the total contribution of coronal jets to the mass and energy content of the solar wind to (0.4–3.0)% and (0.3–1.0)%, respectively. Our results are largely consistent with the few previous rough estimates obtained from observations, supporting the conjecture that coronal jets provide only a small amount of mass and energy to the solar wind. We emphasize, however, that more advanced observations and simulations (including parametric studies) are needed to substantiate this conjecture.

  19. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS BY VECTOR TOMOGRAPHY OF THE CORONAL EMISSION LINE POLARIZATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramar, M.; Lin, H.; Tomczyk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first direct “observation” of the global-scale, 3D coronal magnetic fields of Carrington Rotation (CR) Cycle 2112 using vector tomographic inversion techniques. The vector tomographic inversion uses measurements of the Fe xiii 10747 Å Hanle effect polarization signals by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) and 3D coronal density and temperature derived from scalar tomographic inversion of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) coronal emission lines (CELs) intensity images as inputs to derive a coronal magnetic field model that best reproduces the observed polarization signals. While independent verifications of the vector tomography results cannot be performed, we compared the tomography inverted coronal magnetic fields with those constructed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations based on observed photospheric magnetic fields of CR 2112 and 2113. We found that the MHD model for CR 2112 is qualitatively consistent with the tomography inverted result for most of the reconstruction domain except for several regions. Particularly, for one of the most noticeable regions, we found that the MHD simulation for CR 2113 predicted a model that more closely resembles the vector tomography inverted magnetic fields. In another case, our tomographic reconstruction predicted an open magnetic field at a region where a coronal hole can be seen directly from a STEREO-B/EUVI image. We discuss the utilities and limitations of the tomographic inversion technique, and present ideas for future developments

  20. Coronal Polarization of Pseudostreamers and the Solar Polar Field Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Guennou, C.; Seaton, D. B.; Gibson, S. E.; Auchere, F.

    2016-01-01

    The reversal of the solar polar magnetic field is notoriously hard to pin down due to the extreme viewing angle of the pole. In Cycle 24, the southern polar field reversal can be pinpointed with high accuracy due to a large-scale pseudostreamer that formed over the pole and persisted for approximately a year. We tracked the size and shape of this structure with multiple observations and analysis techniques including PROBA2/SWAP EUV images, AIA EUV images, CoMP polarization data, and 3D tomographic reconstructions. We find that the heliospheric field reversed polarity in February 2014, whereas in the photosphere, the last vestiges of the previous polar field polarity remained until March 2015. We present here the evolution of the structure and describe its identification in the Fe XII 1074nm coronal emission line, sensitive to the Hanle effect in the corona.

  1. Reply to the paper 'Solar radio type III bursts and coronal density structures' by Y. Leblane and J. de la Noee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, C.

    1978-01-01

    Leblanc and de la Noee used the set of data published by Mercier and Rosenberg (1974) on the type III burst at 169 MHz. They conclude that type III bursts are associated with low density coronal structures and occur in low density regions. It is shown that their methods cannot lead to firm conclusions; some inconsistencies in their results are pointed out. (Auth.)

  2. Exploring the fine structure at the limb in coronal holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Magarita; Blundell, Solon F.; Habbal, Shadia Rifai

    1994-01-01

    The fine structure of the solar limb in coronal holes is explored at temperatures ranging from 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 6) K. An image enhancement algorithm orignally developed for solar eclipse observations is applied to a number of simultaneous multiwavelength observations made with the Harvard Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer experiment on Skylab. The enhanced images reveal the presence of filamentary structures above the limb with a characteristic separation of approximately 10 to 15 sec . Some of the structures extend from the solar limb into the corona to at least 4 min above the solar limb. The brightness of these structures changes as a function of height above the limb. The brightest emission is associated with spiculelike structures in the proximity of the limb. The emission characteristic of high-temperature plasma is not cospatial with the emission at lower temperatures, indicating the presence of different temperature plasmas in the field of view.

  3. COMPARING CORONAL AND HELIOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELDS OVER SEVERAL SOLAR CYCLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, J. S.; Virtanen, I. I.; Mursula, K., E-mail: jennimari.koskela@oulu.fi [University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2017-01-20

    Here we use the PFSS model and photospheric data from Wilcox Solar Observatory, SOHO /MDI, SDO/HMI, and SOLIS to compare the coronal field with heliospheric magnetic field measured at 1 au, compiled in the NASA/NSSDC OMNI 2 data set. We calculate their mutual polarity match and the power of the radial decay, p , of the radial field using different source surface distances and different number of harmonic multipoles. We find the average polarity match of 82% for the declining phase, 78%–79% for maxima, 76%–78% for the ascending phase, and 74%–76% for minima. On an average, the source surface of 3.25 R{sub S} gives the best polarity match. We also find strong evidence for solar cycle variation of the optimal source surface distance, with highest values (3.3 R{sub S}) during solar minima and lowest values (2.6 R{sub S}–2.7 R{sub S}) during the other three solar cycle phases. Raising the number of harmonic terms beyond 2 rarely improves the polarity match, showing that the structure of the HMF at 1 au is most of the time rather simple. All four data sets yield fairly similar polarity matches. Thus, polarity comparison is not affected by photospheric field scaling, unlike comparisons of the field intensity.

  4. Precipitation and Release of Solar Energetic Particles from the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Lulu, E-mail: mzhang@fit.edu [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2017-09-10

    Most solar energetic particles (SEPs) are produced in the corona. They propagate through complex coronal magnetic fields subject to scattering and diffusion across the averaged field lines by turbulence. We examine the behaviors of particle transport using a stochastic 3D focused transport simulation in a potential field source surface model of coronal magnetic field. The model is applied to an SEP event on 2010 February 7. We study three scenarios of particle injection at (i) the compact solar flare site, (ii) the coronal mass ejection (CME) shock, and (iii) the EUV wave near the surface. The majority of particles injected on open field lines are able to escape the corona. We found that none of our models can explain the observations of wide longitudinal SEP spread without perpendicular diffusion. If the perpendicular diffusion is about 10% of what is derived from the random walk of field lines at the rate of supergranular diffusion, particles injected at the compact solar flare site can spread to a wide range of longitude and latitude, very similar to the behavior of particles injected at a large CME shock. Stronger pitch-angle scattering results in a little more lateral spread by holding the particles in the corona for longer periods of time. Some injected particles eventually end up precipitating onto the solar surface. Even with a very small perpendicular diffusion, the pattern of the particle precipitation can be quite complicated depending on the detailed small-scale coronal magnetic field structures, which could be seen with future sensitive gamma-ray telescopes.

  5. Precipitation and Release of Solar Energetic Particles from the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    Most solar energetic particles (SEPs) are produced in the corona. They propagate through complex coronal magnetic fields subject to scattering and diffusion across the averaged field lines by turbulence. We examine the behaviors of particle transport using a stochastic 3D focused transport simulation in a potential field source surface model of coronal magnetic field. The model is applied to an SEP event on 2010 February 7. We study three scenarios of particle injection at (i) the compact solar flare site, (ii) the coronal mass ejection (CME) shock, and (iii) the EUV wave near the surface. The majority of particles injected on open field lines are able to escape the corona. We found that none of our models can explain the observations of wide longitudinal SEP spread without perpendicular diffusion. If the perpendicular diffusion is about 10% of what is derived from the random walk of field lines at the rate of supergranular diffusion, particles injected at the compact solar flare site can spread to a wide range of longitude and latitude, very similar to the behavior of particles injected at a large CME shock. Stronger pitch-angle scattering results in a little more lateral spread by holding the particles in the corona for longer periods of time. Some injected particles eventually end up precipitating onto the solar surface. Even with a very small perpendicular diffusion, the pattern of the particle precipitation can be quite complicated depending on the detailed small-scale coronal magnetic field structures, which could be seen with future sensitive gamma-ray telescopes.

  6. Precipitation and Release of Solar Energetic Particles from the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Lulu

    2017-09-01

    Most solar energetic particles (SEPs) are produced in the corona. They propagate through complex coronal magnetic fields subject to scattering and diffusion across the averaged field lines by turbulence. We examine the behaviors of particle transport using a stochastic 3D focused transport simulation in a potential field source surface model of coronal magnetic field. The model is applied to an SEP event on 2010 February 7. We study three scenarios of particle injection at (I) the compact solar flare site, (II) the coronal mass ejection (CME) shock, and (III) the EUV wave near the surface. The majority of particles injected on open field lines are able to escape the corona. We found that none of our models can explain the observations of wide longitudinal SEP spread without perpendicular diffusion. If the perpendicular diffusion is about 10% of what is derived from the random walk of field lines at the rate of supergranular diffusion, particles injected at the compact solar flare site can spread to a wide range of longitude and latitude, very similar to the behavior of particles injected at a large CME shock. Stronger pitch-angle scattering results in a little more lateral spread by holding the particles in the corona for longer periods of time. Some injected particles eventually end up precipitating onto the solar surface. Even with a very small perpendicular diffusion, the pattern of the particle precipitation can be quite complicated depending on the detailed small-scale coronal magnetic field structures, which could be seen with future sensitive gamma-ray telescopes.

  7. Critical Magnetic Field Strengths for Unipolar Solar Coronal Plumes In Quiet Regions and Coronal Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avallone, Ellis; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Winebarger, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Coronal plumes are bright magnetic funnels that are found in quiet regions and coronal holes that extend high into the solar corona whose lifetimes can last from hours to days. The heating processes that make plumes bright involve the magnetic field at the base of the plume, but their intricacies remain mysterious. Raouafi et al. (2014) infer from observation that plume heating is a consequence of magnetic reconnection at the base, whereas Wang et al. (2016) infer that plume heating is a result of convergence of the magnetic flux at the plume's base, or base flux. Both papers suggest that the base flux in their plumes is of mixed polarity, but do not quantitatively measure the base flux or consider whether a critical magnetic field strength is required for plume production. To investigate the magnetic origins of plume heating, we track plume luminosity in the 171 Å wavelength as well as the abundance and strength of the base flux over the lifetimes of six unipolar coronal plumes. Of these, three are in coronal holes and three are in quiet regions. For this sample, we find that plume heating is triggered when convergence of the base flux surpasses a field strength of approximately 300 - 500 Gauss, and that the luminosity of both quiet region and coronal hole plumes respond similarly to the strength of the magnetic field in the base.

  8. A model for radio emission from solar coronal shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J., E-mail: djwu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Solar coronal shocks are very common phenomena in the solar atmosphere and are believed to be the drivers of solar type II radio bursts. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open question. This paper proposes that electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission is responsible for the generation of radiation from the coronal shocks. In the present model, an energetic ion beam accelerated by the shock first excites the Alfvén wave (AW), then the excited AW leads to the formation of a density-depleted duct along the foreshock boundary of the shock. In this density-depleted duct, the energetic electron beam produced via the shock acceleration can effectively excite radio emission by ECM instability. Our results show that this model may potentially be applied to solar type II radio bursts.

  9. A model for radio emission from solar coronal shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Solar coronal shocks are very common phenomena in the solar atmosphere and are believed to be the drivers of solar type II radio bursts. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open question. This paper proposes that electron cyclotron maser (ECM) emission is responsible for the generation of radiation from the coronal shocks. In the present model, an energetic ion beam accelerated by the shock first excites the Alfvén wave (AW), then the excited AW leads to the formation of a density-depleted duct along the foreshock boundary of the shock. In this density-depleted duct, the energetic electron beam produced via the shock acceleration can effectively excite radio emission by ECM instability. Our results show that this model may potentially be applied to solar type II radio bursts.

  10. Solar radio bursts of spectral type II, coronal shocks, and optical coronal transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, A.; Dryer, M.

    1981-01-01

    An examination is presented of the association of solar radio bursts of spectral type II and coronal shocks with solar flare ejecta observed in H-alpha, the green coronal line, and white-light coronagraphs. It is suggested that fast-moving optical coronal transients should for the most part be identified with piston-type phenomena well behind the outward-traveling shock waves that generate type II radio bursts. A general model is presented which relates type II radio bursts and coronal shocks to optically observed ejecta and consists of three main velocity regimes: (1) a quasi-hemispherical shock wave moving outward from the flare at speeds of 1000-2000 km/sec and Alfven Mach number of about 1.5; (2) the velocity of the piston driving the shock, on the order of 0.8 that of the shock; and (3) the regime of the slower-moving H-alpha ejecta, with velocities of 300-500 km/sec.

  11. LONG-TERM TREND OF SOLAR CORONAL HOLE DISTRIBUTION FROM 1975 TO 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, K.; Tokumaru, M.; Hayashi, K.; Satonaka, D. [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (ISEE), Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Hakamada, K., E-mail: fujiki@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Natural Science and Mathematics, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan)

    2016-08-20

    We developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes using potential magnetic field extrapolation in the solar corona to construct a database of coronal holes appearing from 1975 February to 2015 July (Carrington rotations from 1625 to 2165). Coronal holes are labeled with the location, size, and average magnetic field of each coronal hole on the photosphere and source surface. As a result, we identified 3335 coronal holes and found that the long-term distribution of coronal holes shows a similar pattern known as the magnetic butterfly diagram, and polar/low-latitude coronal holes tend to decrease/increase in the last solar minimum relative to the previous two minima.

  12. Solar wind heavy ions from energetic coronal events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Ions heavier than those of He can be resolved in the solar wind with electrostatic E/q analyzers when the local thermal temperatures are low. Ordinarily this condition prevails in the low speed solar wind found between high speed streams, i.e. the interstream, IS, solar wind. Various ions of O, Si and Fe are resolved in IS heavy ion spectra. Relative ion peak intensities indicate that the O ionization state is established in the IS coronal source regions at approx. 2.1 x 10 6 K while the state of Fe is frozen in at approx. 1.5 x 10 6 K farther out. Occasionally, anomalous spectra are observed in which the usually third most prominent ion peak, O 8+ , is depressed as are the Fe peaks ranging from Fe 12+ to Fe 7+ . A prominent peak in the usual Si 8+ position of IS spectra is self-consistently shown to be Fe 16+ . These features demonstrate that the ionization states were frozen in at higher than usual coronal temperatures. The source regions of these hot heavy ion spectra are identified as energetic coronal events including flares and nonflare coronal mass ejections. 24 references

  13. Observations and Numerical Models of Solar Coronal Heating Associated with Spicules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontieu, B. De; Martinez-Sykora, J. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street, Org. A021S, Building 252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Moortel, I. De [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); McIntosh, S. W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Spicules have been proposed as significant contributors to the mass and energy balance of the corona. While previous observations have provided a glimpse of short-lived transient brightenings in the corona that are associated with spicules, these observations have been contested and are the subject of a vigorous debate both on the modeling and the observational side. Therefore, it remains unclear whether plasma is heated to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. We use high-resolution observations of the chromosphere and transition region (TR) with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and of the corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory to show evidence of the formation of coronal structures associated with spicular mass ejections and heating of plasma to TR and coronal temperatures. Our observations suggest that a significant fraction of the highly dynamic loop fan environment associated with plage regions may be the result of the formation of such new coronal strands, a process that previously had been interpreted as the propagation of transient propagating coronal disturbances. Our observations are supported by 2.5D radiative MHD simulations that show heating to coronal temperatures in association with spicules. Our results suggest that heating and strong flows play an important role in maintaining the substructure of loop fans, in addition to the waves that permeate this low coronal environment.

  14. Evaluation of the Minifilament-Eruption Scenario for Solar Coronal Jets in Polar Coronal Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikie, Tomi K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David; Moore, Ronald L.; Savage, Sabrina L.

    2016-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are suspected to result from magnetic reconnection low in the Sun's atmosphere. Sterling et al. (2015) looked as 20 jets in polar coronal holes, using X-ray images from the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and EUV images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). They suggested that each jet was driven by the eruption of twisted closed magnetic field carrying a small-scale filament, which they call a 'minifilament', and that the jet was produced by reconnection of the erupting field with surrounding open field. In this study, we carry out a more extensive examination of polar coronal jets. From 180 hours of XRT polar coronal hole observations spread over two years (2014-2016), we identified 130 clearly-identifiable X-ray jet events and thus determined an event rate of over 17 jets per day per in the Hinode/XRT field of view. From the broader set, we selected 25 of the largest and brightest events for further study in AIA 171, 193, 211, and 304 Angstrom images. We find that at least the majority of the jets follow the minifilament-eruption scenario, although for some cases the evolution of the minifilament in the onset of its eruption is more complex than presented in the simplified schematic of Sterling et al. (2015). For all cases in which we could make a clear determination, the spire of the X-ray jet drifted laterally away from the jet-base-edge bright point; this spire drift away from the bright point is consistent with expectations of the minifilament-eruption scenario for coronal-jet production. This work was supported with funding from the NASA/MSFC Hinode Project Office, and from the NASA HGI program.

  15. Polar coronal holes and solar cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between the geomagnetic activity of the three years preceding a sunspot minimum and the peak of the next sunspot maximum confirms the polar origin of the solar wind during one part of the solar cycle. Pointing out that the polar holes have a very small size or disappear at the time of the polar field reversal, a low latitude origin of the solar-wind at sunspot maximum is suggested and the cycle variation of solar wind and geomagnetic activity is described. In addition a close relationship is noted between the maximum level of the geomagnetic activity reached a few years before a solar minimum and its level at the next sunspot maximum. Studying separately the effects of both the low latitude holes and the solar activity, the possibility of predicting both the level of geomagnetic activity and the sunspot number at the next sunspot maximum is pointed out. As a conclusion the different categories of phenomena contributing to a solar cycle are specified. (Auth.)

  16. Do Solar Coronal Holes Affect the Properties of Solar Energetic Particle Events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Arge, C. N.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2013-01-01

    The intensities and timescales of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events at 1 AU may depend not only on the characteristics of shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), but also on large-scale coronal and interplanetary structures. It has long been suspected that the presence of coronal holes (CHs) near the CMEs or near the 1-AU magnetic footpoints may be an important factor in SEP events. We used a group of 41 E (is) approx. 20 MeV SEP events with origins near the solar central meridian to search for such effects. First we investigated whether the presence of a CH directly between the sources of the CME and of the magnetic connection at 1 AU is an important factor. Then we searched for variations of the SEP events among different solar wind (SW) stream types: slow, fast, and transient. Finally, we considered the separations between CME sources and CH footpoint connections from 1 AU determined from four-day forecast maps based on Mount Wilson Observatory and the National Solar Observatory synoptic magnetic-field maps and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model of SW propagation. The observed in-situ magnetic-field polarities and SW speeds at SEP event onsets tested the forecast accuracies employed to select the best SEP/CH connection events for that analysis. Within our limited sample and the three analytical treatments, we found no statistical evidence for an effect of CHs on SEP event peak intensities, onset times, or rise times. The only exception is a possible enhancement of SEP peak intensities in magnetic clouds.

  17. The solar eruption of 13 May 2005: EISCAT and MERLIN observations of a coronal radio burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Jones

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We report results from EISCAT and MERLIN observations of radio scintillation during a solar eruptive event in May 2005. Anomalous increases in signal strength detected at sites more than 2000 km apart are shown to arise from the detection of a strong coronal radio burst in the distant off-axis response of the MERLIN and EISCAT antennas. These observations show that EISCAT is capable of detecting the signatures of explosive events in the solar atmosphere with a high degree of time resolution. We further suggest that the highly time-structured variation in signal strength caused by distant off-axis detection of a powerful coronal radio signal could provide an explanation for previously unexplained anomalies in EISCAT IPS observations, as well as being a potential source of errors in active observations using radar codes with a completion time longer than the time-variation of the coronal signal.

  18. Solar coronal non-thermal processes (Solar Maximum Mission). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, H.S.

    1983-02-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission was used to study solar coronal phenomena in hard X-radiation, since its instrument complement included the first solar hard X-ray telescope. Phenomena related to those discovered from OSO-5 and OSO-7 observations were emphasized

  19. Radio Remote Sensing of Coronal Mass Ejections: Implications for Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. E.; Thomas, N. C.; Guy, M. B., III; Spangler, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are fast-moving magnetic field structures of enhanced plasma density that play an important role in space weather. The Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe will usher in a new era of in situ measurements, probing CMEs within distances of 60 and 10 solar radii, respectively. At the present, only remote-sensing techniques such as Faraday rotation can probe the plasma structure of CMEs at these distances. Faraday rotation is the change in polarization position angle of linearly polarized radiation as it propagates through a magnetized plasma (e.g. a CME) and is proportional to the path integral of the electron density and line-of-sight magnetic field. In conjunction with white-light coronagraph measurements, Faraday rotation observations have been used in recent years to determine the magnetic field strength of CMEs. We report recent results from simultaneous white-light and radio observations made of a CME in July 2015. We made radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 1 - 2 GHz frequencies of a set of radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged between 8 - 23 solar radii. These Faraday rotation observations provide a priori estimates for comparison with future in situ measurements made by the Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe. Similar Faraday rotation observations made simultaneously with observations by the Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe in the future could provide information about the global structure of CMEs sampled by these probes and, therefore, aid in understanding the in situ measurements.

  20. Coronal mass ejections and solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The properties of coronal mass ejection (CME) events and their radio signatures are discussed. These signatures are mostly in the form of type II and type IV burst emissions. Although type II bursts are temporally associated with CMEs, it is shown that there is no spatial relationship between them. Type II's associated with CMEs have in most cases a different origin, and they are not piston-driven by CMEs. Moving type IV and type II bursts can be associated with slow CMEs with speeds as low as 200 km/s, contrary to the earlier belief that only CMEs with speeds >400 km/s are associated with radio bursts. A specific event has been discussed in which the CME and type IV burst has nearly the same speed and direction, but the type II burst location was behind the CME and its motion was transverse. The speed and motion of the type II burst strongly suggest that the type II shock was decoupled from the CME and was probably due to a flare behind the limb. Therefore only the type IV source could be directly associated with the slow CME. The electrons responsble for the type IV emission could be produced in the flare or in the type II and then become trapped in a plasmoid associated with the CME. The reconnected loop could then move outwards as in the usual palsmoid model. Alternatively, the type IV emission could be interpreted as due to electrons produced by acceleration in wave turbulence driven by currents in the shock front driven by the CME. The lower-hybrid model Lampe and Papadopoulos (1982), which operates at both fast and slow mode shocks, could be applied to this situation. (author). 31 refs., 12 figs

  1. Solar Magnetic Carpet III: Coronal Modelling of Synthetic Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K. A.; Mackay, D. H.; van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Parnell, C. E.

    2013-09-01

    This article is the third in a series working towards the construction of a realistic, evolving, non-linear force-free coronal-field model for the solar magnetic carpet. Here, we present preliminary results of 3D time-dependent simulations of the small-scale coronal field of the magnetic carpet. Four simulations are considered, each with the same evolving photospheric boundary condition: a 48-hour time series of synthetic magnetograms produced from the model of Meyer et al. ( Solar Phys. 272, 29, 2011). Three simulations include a uniform, overlying coronal magnetic field of differing strength, the fourth simulation includes no overlying field. The build-up, storage, and dissipation of magnetic energy within the simulations is studied. In particular, we study their dependence upon the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field and the strength of the overlying coronal field. We also consider where energy is stored and dissipated within the coronal field. The free magnetic energy built up is found to be more than sufficient to power small-scale, transient phenomena such as nanoflares and X-ray bright points, with the bulk of the free energy found to be stored low down, between 0.5 - 0.8 Mm. The energy dissipated is currently found to be too small to account for the heating of the entire quiet-Sun corona. However, the form and location of energy-dissipation regions qualitatively agree with what is observed on small scales on the Sun. Future MHD modelling using the same synthetic magnetograms may lead to a higher energy release.

  2. The COronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) Large Aperture Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Steve; Gallagher, Dennis; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Haiying; Nelson, Pete; Burkepile, Joan; Kolinksi, Don; Sutherland, Lee

    2013-04-01

    The COSMO is a facility dedicated to observing coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields. It will be located on a mountaintop in the Hawaiian Islands and will replace the current Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO). COSMO will provide unique observations of the global coronal magnetic fields and its environment to enhance the value of data collected by other observatories on the ground (e.g. SOLIS, BBO NST, Gregor, ATST, EST, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, NLST, FASR) and in space (e.g. SDO, Hinode, SOHO, GOES, STEREO, Solar-C, Solar Probe+, Solar Orbiter). COSMO will employ a fleet of instruments to cover many aspects of measuring magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. The dynamics and energy flow in the corona are dominated by magnetic fields. To understand the formation of CMEs, their relation to other forms of solar activity, and their progression out into the solar wind requires measurements of coronal magnetic fields. The large aperture coronagraph, the Chromospheric and Prominence Magnetometer and the K-Coronagraph form the COSMO instrument suite to measure magnetic fields and the polarization brightness of the low corona used to infer electron density. The large aperture coronagraph will employ a 1.5 meter fuse silica singlet lens, birefringent filters, and a spectropolarimeter to cover fields of view of up to 1 degree. It will observe the corona over a wide range of emission lines from 530.3 nm through 1083.0 nm allowing for magnetic field measurements over a wide range of coronal temperatures (e.g. FeXIV at 530.3 nm, Fe X at 637.4 nm, Fe XIII at 1074.7 and 1079.8 nm. These lines are faint and require the very large aperture. NCAR and NSF have provided funding to bring the large aperture coronagraph to a preliminary design review state by the end of 2013. As with all data from Mauna Loa, the data products from COSMO will be available to the community via the Mauna Loa website: http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu

  3. Analysis of Solar Coronal Holes with Synoptic Magnetogram Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canner, A.; Kim, T. K.; Pogorelov, N.; Yalim, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal holes are regions in which the magnetic field of the Sun is open with high magnetic flux and low plasma density. Because of the low plasma beta in these regions, the open field lines transport plasma from the Sun throughout the heliosphere. Coronal hole area is closely related to the expansion factor of the magnetic flux tube, as demonstrated by Tokumaru et al. (2017). Following the approach of Tokumaru et al. (2017), we employ a potential field source surface model to identify the open field regions on the photosphere and estimate the area and expansion factor for each coronal hole. While Tokumaru et al. (2017) analyzed synoptic maps from Kitt Peak National Observatory for the period 1995-2011, we use different magnetograph observations with higher spatial resolution (e.g., SOHO-MDI) for the same time period. We compare the coronal hole area - expansion factor relationship with the original results of Tokumaru et al (2017). This work was supported by the NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates program "Solar and Heliospheric Physics at UAH and MSFC" run by the University of Alabama in Huntsville in partnership with the Marshall Space Flight Center through grant AGS-1460767.

  4. Features of solar wind streams on June 21-28, 2015 as a result of interactions between coronal mass ejections and recurrent streams from coronal holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugay, Yu. S.; Slemzin, V. A.; Rod'kin, D. G.

    2017-11-01

    Coronal sources and parameters of solar wind streams during a strong and prolonged geomagnetic disturbance in June 2015 have been considered. Correspondence between coronal sources and solar wind streams at 1 AU has been determined using an analysis of solar images, catalogs of flares and coronal mass ejections, solar wind parameters including the ionic composition. The sources of disturbances in the considered period were a sequence of five coronal mass ejections that propagated along the recurrent solar wind streams from coronal holes. The observed differences from typical in magnetic and kinetic parameters of solar wind streams have been associated with the interactions of different types of solar wind. The ionic composition has proved to be a good additional marker for highlighting components in a mixture of solar wind streams, which can be associated with different coronal sources.

  5. FAST DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURE INVERSION OF SOLAR CORONAL DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plowman, Joseph; Kankelborg, Charles; Martens, Petrus [Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We present a fast method for reconstructing differential emission measures (DEMs) using solar coronal data. The method consists of a fast, simple regularized inversion in conjunction with an iteration scheme for removal of residual negative emission measure. On average, it computes over 1000 DEMs s{sup -1} for a sample active region observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and achieves reduced chi-squared of order unity with no negative emission in all but a few test cases. The high performance of this method is especially relevant in the context of AIA, which images of order one million solar pixels per second. This paper describes the method, analyzes its fidelity, compares its performance and results with other DEM methods, and applies it to an active region and loop observed by AIA and by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode.

  6. Two-zone model of coronal hole structure in the high corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kundu, M.R.; Yoshimura, H.

    1988-01-01

    The two-zone coronal hole structure model presently proposed for the high corona at 1.5-1.7 solar radii emerges from a comparison of computation results for the potential magnetic fields of the corona and meter-decameter radio observations. The two zones of a coronal hole are defined by the configuration of magnetic field lines around a coronal hole: (1) the central hole of an open diverging magnetic field line system; and (2) the boundary zone between the central zone of the open field line system and the closed field line system or systems surrounding the open field line system. 19 references

  7. Magnetic Untwisting in Jets that Go into the Outer Solar Corona in Polar Coronal Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David

    2014-06-01

    We present results from a study of 14 jets that were observed in SDO/AIA EUV movies to erupt in the Sun’s polar coronal holes. These jets were similar to the many other jets that erupt in coronal holes, but reached higher than the vast majority, high enough to be observed in the outer corona beyond 2 solar radii from Sun center by the SOHO/LASCO/C2 coronagraph. We illustrate the characteristic structure and motion of these high-reaching jets by showing observations of two representative jets. We find that (1) the speed of the jet front from the base of the corona out to 2-3 solar radii is typically several times the sound speed in jets in coronal holes, (2) each high-reaching jet displays unusually large rotation about its axis (spin) as it erupts, and (3) in the outer corona, many jets display lateral swaying and bending of the jet axis with an amplitude of a few degrees and a period of order 1 hour. From these observations we infer that these jets are magnetically driven, propose that the driver is a magnetic-untwisting wave that is basically a large-amplitude (non-linear) torsional Alfven wave that is put into the open magnetic field in the jet by interchange reconnection as the jet erupts, and estimate that the magnetic-untwisting wave loses most of its energy before reaching the outer corona. These observations of high-reaching coronal jets suggest that the torsional magnetic waves observed in Type-II spicules can similarly dissipate in the corona and thereby power much of the coronal heating in coronal holes and quiet regions. This work is funded by the NASA/SMD Heliophysics Division’s Living With a Star Targeted Research & Technology Program.

  8. Unambiguous Evidence of Coronal Implosions during Solar Eruptions and Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juntao; Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.

    2018-05-01

    In the implosion conjecture, coronal loops contract as the result of magnetic energy release in solar eruptions and flares. However, after almost two decades, observations of this phenomenon are still rare and most previous reports are plagued by projection effects so that loop contraction could be either true implosion or just a change in loop inclination. In this paper, to demonstrate the reality of loop contractions in the global coronal dynamics, we present four events with the continuously contracting loops in an almost edge-on geometry from the perspective of SDO/AIA, which are free from the ambiguity caused by the projection effects, also supplemented by contemporary observations from STEREO for examination. In the wider context of observations, simulations and theories, we argue that the implosion conjecture is valid in interpreting these events. Furthermore, distinct properties of the events allow us to identify two physical categories of implosion. One type demonstrates a rapid contraction at the beginning of the flare impulsive phase, as magnetic free energy is removed rapidly by a filament eruption. The other type, which has no visible eruption, shows a continuous loop shrinkage during the entire flare impulsive phase, which we suggest shows the ongoing conversion of magnetic free energy in a coronal volume. Corresponding scenarios are described that can provide reasonable explanations for the observations. We also point out that implosions may be suppressed in cases when a heavily mass-loaded filament is involved, possibly serving as an alternative account for their observational rarity.

  9. Filament shape versus coronal potential magnetic field structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filament shape in projection on disc depends on the structure of the coronal magnetic field. We calculate the position of polarity inversion lines (PILs) of coronal potential magnetic field at different heights above the photosphere, which compose the magnetic neutral surface, and compare with them the distribution of the filament material in Hα chromospheric images. We found that the most of the filament material is enclosed between two PILs, one at a lower height close to the chromosphere and one at a higher level, which can be considered as a height of the filament spine. Observations of the same filament on the limb by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft confirm that the height of the spine is really very close to the value obtained from the PIL and filament border matching. Such matching can be used for filament height estimations in on-disc observations. Filament barbs are housed within protruding sections of the low-level PIL. On the base of simple model, we show that the similarity of the neutral surfaces in potential and non-potential fields with the same sub-photospheric sources is the reason for the found tendency for the filament material to gather near the potential-field neutral surface.

  10. ON THE NATURE OF THE SOLAR WIND FROM CORONAL PSEUDOSTREAMERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R. J.R.; Grappin, R.; Robbrecht, E.

    2012-01-01

    Coronal pseudostreamers, which separate like-polarity coronal holes, do not have current sheet extensions, unlike the familiar helmet streamers that separate opposite-polarity holes. Both types of streamers taper into narrow plasma sheets that are maintained by continual interchange reconnection with the adjacent open magnetic field lines. White-light observations show that pseudostreamers do not emit plasma blobs; this important difference from helmet streamers is due to the convergence of like-polarity field lines above the X-point, which prevents the underlying loops from expanding outward and pinching off. The main component of the pseudostreamer wind has the form of steady outflow along the open field lines rooted just inside the boundaries of the adjacent coronal holes. These flux tubes are characterized by very rapid expansion below the X-point, followed by reconvergence at greater heights. Analysis of an idealized pseudostreamer configuration shows that, as the separation between the underlying holes increases, the X-point rises and the expansion factor f ss at the source surface increases. In situ observations of pseudostreamer crossings indicate wind speeds v ranging from ∼350 to ∼550 km s –1 , with O 7+ /O 6+ ratios that are enhanced compared with those in high-speed streams but substantially lower than in the slow solar wind. Hydrodynamic energy-balance models show that the empirical v-f ss relation overestimates the wind speeds from nonmonotonically expanding flux tubes, particularly when the X-point is located at low heights and f ss is small. We conclude that pseudostreamers produce a 'hybrid' type of outflow that is intermediate between classical slow and fast solar wind.

  11. The application of coronal scattering measurements to solar radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The interpretation of ground based observations of solar 'plasma frequency' radio bursts has been hampered in the past by an insufficient knowledge of coronal scattering by density inhomogeneities close to the Sun. Calculations based on measuurements of the angular broadening of natural radio sources, and Woo's 1975 measurement of the angular broadening of the telemetry carrier by Helios I near occultation (Woo, 1978), indicate that plasma frequency solar bursts should undergo considerable scattering, at least near the maximum of the sunspot cycle. The calculated displacements of the apparent positions of the bursts are about equal to the observed displacements which have been attributed to the bursts occurring in dense streamers. In order to obtain more scattering data close to the Sun, interferometer measurements of the angular broadening of spacecraft signals are planned, and the important contribution which could be made with large dishes is discussed. (Auth.)

  12. ON THE OBSERVATION AND SIMULATION OF SOLAR CORONAL TWIN JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiajia; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Quanhao [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, NO. 96, Jinzhai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Fang, Fang [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); McIntosh, Scott W.; Fan, Yuhong [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We present the first observation, analysis, and modeling of solar coronal twin jets, which occurred after a preceding jet. Detailed analysis on the kinetics of the preceding jet reveals its blowout-jet nature, which resembles the one studied in Liu et al. However, the erupting process and kinetics of the twin jets appear to be different from the preceding one. Lacking detailed information on the magnetic fields in the twin jet region, we instead use a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional (3D) MHD model as described in Fang et al., and find that in the simulation a pair of twin jets form due to reconnection between the ambient open fields and a highly twisted sigmoidal magnetic flux, which is the outcome of the further evolution of the magnetic fields following the preceding blowout jet. Based on the similarity between the synthesized and observed emission, we propose this mechanism as a possible explanation for the observed twin jets. Combining our observation and simulation, we suggest that with continuous energy transport from the subsurface convection zone into the corona, solar coronal twin jets could be generated in the same fashion addressed above.

  13. On the Observation and Simulation of Solar Coronal Twin Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Fang, Fang; Wang, Yuming; McIntosh, Scott W.; Fan, Yuhong; Zhang, Quanhao

    2016-02-01

    We present the first observation, analysis, and modeling of solar coronal twin jets, which occurred after a preceding jet. Detailed analysis on the kinetics of the preceding jet reveals its blowout-jet nature, which resembles the one studied in Liu et al. However, the erupting process and kinetics of the twin jets appear to be different from the preceding one. Lacking detailed information on the magnetic fields in the twin jet region, we instead use a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional (3D) MHD model as described in Fang et al., and find that in the simulation a pair of twin jets form due to reconnection between the ambient open fields and a highly twisted sigmoidal magnetic flux, which is the outcome of the further evolution of the magnetic fields following the preceding blowout jet. Based on the similarity between the synthesized and observed emission, we propose this mechanism as a possible explanation for the observed twin jets. Combining our observation and simulation, we suggest that with continuous energy transport from the subsurface convection zone into the corona, solar coronal twin jets could be generated in the same fashion addressed above.

  14. INFLUENCE OF THE AMBIENT SOLAR WIND FLOW ON THE PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Odstrcil, Dusan [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in interplanetary (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R{sub Sun }, to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.

  15. INFLUENCE OF THE AMBIENT SOLAR WIND FLOW ON THE PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Vršnak, Bojan; Odstrčil, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in interplanetary (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R ☉ , to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.

  16. An Estimate of Solar Wind Velocity Profiles in a Coronal Hole and a Coronal Streamer Area (6-40 R(radius symbol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzold, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Bird, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Total electron content data obtained from the Ulysses Solar Corona Experiment (SCE) in 1991 were used to select two data sets, one associated with a coronal hole and the other with coronal streamer crossings. (This is largely equatorial data shortly after solar maximum.) The solar wind velocity profile is estimated for these areas.

  17. Self consistent MHD modeling of the solar wind from coronal holes with distinct geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G. A.; Bravo, S.

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing an iterative scheme, a self-consistent axisymmetric MHD model for the solar wind has been developed. We use this model to evaluate the properties of the solar wind issuing from the open polar coronal hole regions of the Sun, during solar minimum. We explore the variation of solar wind parameters across the extent of the hole and we investigate how these variations are affected by the geometry of the hole and the strength of the field at the coronal base.

  18. CORONAL SOURCES, ELEMENTAL FRACTIONATION, AND RELEASE MECHANISMS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weberg, Micah J. [PhD Candidate in Space Science, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2134A Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Lepri, Susan T. [Associate Professor, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2429 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Zurbuchen, Thomas H., E-mail: mjweberg@umich.edu, E-mail: slepri@umich.edu, E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu [Professor, Space Science and Aerospace Engineering, Associate Dean for Entrepreneurship Senior Counselor of Entrepreneurship Education, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2431 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States)

    2015-03-10

    The elemental abundances of heavy ions (masses larger than He) in the solar wind provide information about physical processes occurring in the corona. Additionally, the charge state distributions of these heavy ions are sensitive to the temperature profiles of their respective source regions in the corona. Heavy ion dropouts are a relatively new class of solar wind events identified by both elemental and ionic charge state distributions. We have shown that their origins lie in large, closed coronal loops where processes such as gravitational settling dominate and can cause a mass-dependent fractionation pattern. In this study we consider and attempt to answer three fundamental questions concerning heavy ion dropouts: (1) 'where are the source loops located in the large-scale corona?'; (2) 'how does the interplay between coronal processes influence the end elemental abundances?'; and (3) 'what are the most probable release mechanisms'? We begin by analyzing the temporal and spatial variability of heavy ion dropouts and their correlation with heliospheric plasma and magnetic structures. Next we investigate the ordering of the elements inside dropouts with respect to mass, ionic charge state, and first ionization potential. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of the prevailing solar wind theories and the processes they posit that may be responsible for the release of coronal plasma into interplanetary space.

  19. CORONAL SOURCES, ELEMENTAL FRACTIONATION, AND RELEASE MECHANISMS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weberg, Micah J.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    The elemental abundances of heavy ions (masses larger than He) in the solar wind provide information about physical processes occurring in the corona. Additionally, the charge state distributions of these heavy ions are sensitive to the temperature profiles of their respective source regions in the corona. Heavy ion dropouts are a relatively new class of solar wind events identified by both elemental and ionic charge state distributions. We have shown that their origins lie in large, closed coronal loops where processes such as gravitational settling dominate and can cause a mass-dependent fractionation pattern. In this study we consider and attempt to answer three fundamental questions concerning heavy ion dropouts: (1) 'where are the source loops located in the large-scale corona?'; (2) 'how does the interplay between coronal processes influence the end elemental abundances?'; and (3) 'what are the most probable release mechanisms'? We begin by analyzing the temporal and spatial variability of heavy ion dropouts and their correlation with heliospheric plasma and magnetic structures. Next we investigate the ordering of the elements inside dropouts with respect to mass, ionic charge state, and first ionization potential. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of the prevailing solar wind theories and the processes they posit that may be responsible for the release of coronal plasma into interplanetary space

  20. Transition region, coronal heating and the fast solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing

    2003-07-01

    It is assumed that magnetic flux tubes are strongly concentrated at the boundaries of supergranule convection cells. A power law spectrum of high frequency Alfvén waves with a spectral index -1 originating from the sun is assumed to supply all the energy needed to energize the plasma flowing in such magnetic flux tubes. At the high frequency end, the waves are eroded by ions due to ion cyclotron resonance. The magnetic flux concentration is essential since it allows a sufficiently strong energy flux to be carried by high frequency ion cyclotron waves and these waves can be readily released at the coronal base by cyclotron resonance. The main results are: 1. The waves are capable of creating a steep transition region, a hot corona and a fast solar wind if both the wave frequency is high enough and the magnetic flux concentration is sufficiently strong in the boundaries of the supergranule convection zone. 2. By primarily heating alpha particles only, it is possible to produce a steep transition region, a hot corona and a fast solar wind. Coulomb coupling plays a key role in transferring the thermal energy of alpha particles to protons and electrons at the corona base. The electron thermal conduction then does the remaining job to create a sharp transition region. 3. Plasma species (even ions) may already partially lose thermal equilibrium in the transition region, and minor ions may already be faster than protons at the very base of the corona. 4. The model predicts high temperature alpha particles (Talpha ~ 2 x 107 K) and low proton temperatures (Tp solar radii, suggesting that hydrogen Lyman lines observed by UVCS above coronal holes may be primarily broadened by Alfvén waves in this range.

  1. Electrons in the solar corona. Pt. 3. Coronal streamers analysis from balloon-borne coronagraph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dollfus, A; Mouradian, Z [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France)

    1981-03-01

    During a balloon flight in France on September 13, 1971, at altitude 32 000 m, the solar corona was cinematographed from 2 to 5 Rsub(sun) during 5 hr, with an externally occulted coronagraph. Motions in coronal features, when they occur, exhibit deformations of structures with velocities not exceeding a few 10 km s/sup -1/; several streamers were often involved simultaneously; these variations are compatible with magnetic changes or sudden reorganizations of lines of forces. Intensity and polarization measurements give the electron density with height in the quiet corona above the equator. Electron density gradient for one of the streamers gives a temperature of 1.6 x 10/sup 6/ K and comparisons with the on-board Apollo 16 coronal observation of 31 July, 1971 are compatible with the extension of this temperature up to 25 Rsub(sun). Three-dimensional structures and localizations of the streamers are deduced from combined photometry, polarimetry and ground-based K coronametry. Three of the four coronal streamers analysed have their axis bent with height towards the direction of the solar rotation, as if the upper corona has a rotation slightly faster than the chromosphere.

  2. Direct Observations of Magnetic Flux Rope Formation during a Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, X.

    2014-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most spectacular eruptive phenomena in the solar atmosphere. It is generally accepted that CMEs are results of eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs). However, a heated debate is on whether MFRs pre-exist before the eruptions or they are formed during the eruptions. Several coronal signatures, e.g., filaments, coronal cavities, sigmoid structures and hot channels (or hot blobs), are proposed as MFRs and observed before the eruption, which support the pre existing MFR scenario. There is almost no reported observation about MFR formation during the eruption. In this presentation, we present an intriguing observation of a solar eruptive event with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory, which shows a detailed formation process of the MFR during the eruption. The process started with the expansion of a low lying coronal arcade, possibly caused by the flare magnetic reconnection underneath. The newly-formed ascending loops from below further pushed the arcade upward, stretching the surrounding magnetic field. The arcade and stretched magnetic field lines then curved-in just below the arcade vertex, forming an X-point. The field lines near the X-point continued to approach each other and a second magnetic reconnection was induced. It is this high-lying magnetic reconnection that led to the formation and eruption of a hot blob (~ 10 MK), presumably a MFR, producing a CME. We suggest that two spatially-separated magnetic reconnections occurred in this event, responsible for producing the flare and the hot blob (CME), respectively.

  3. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE FORMATION DURING A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, X.

    2014-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most spectacular eruptive phenomena in the solar atmosphere. It is generally accepted that CMEs are the results of eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs). However, there is heated debate on whether MFRs exist prior to the eruptions or if they are formed during the eruptions. Several coronal signatures, e.g., filaments, coronal cavities, sigmoid structures, and hot channels (or hot blobs), are proposed as MFRs and observed before the eruption, which support the pre-existing MFR scenario. There is almost no reported observation of MFR formation during the eruption. In this Letter, we present an intriguing observation of a solar eruptive event that occurred on 2013 November 21 with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory, which shows the formation process of the MFR during the eruption in detail. The process began with the expansion of a low-lying coronal arcade, possibly caused by the flare magnetic reconnection underneath. The newly formed ascending loops from below further pushed the arcade upward, stretching the surrounding magnetic field. The arcade and stretched magnetic field lines then curved in just below the arcade vertex, forming an X-point. The field lines near the X-point continued to approach each other and a second magnetic reconnection was induced. It is this high-lying magnetic reconnection that led to the formation and eruption of a hot blob (∼10 MK), presumably an MFR, producing a CME. We suggest that two spatially separated magnetic reconnections occurred in this event, which were responsible for producing the flare and the hot blob (CME)

  4. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE FORMATION DURING A SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y. [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Zhang, J. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Cheng, X., E-mail: hqsong@sdu.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China)

    2014-09-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most spectacular eruptive phenomena in the solar atmosphere. It is generally accepted that CMEs are the results of eruptions of magnetic flux ropes (MFRs). However, there is heated debate on whether MFRs exist prior to the eruptions or if they are formed during the eruptions. Several coronal signatures, e.g., filaments, coronal cavities, sigmoid structures, and hot channels (or hot blobs), are proposed as MFRs and observed before the eruption, which support the pre-existing MFR scenario. There is almost no reported observation of MFR formation during the eruption. In this Letter, we present an intriguing observation of a solar eruptive event that occurred on 2013 November 21 with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory, which shows the formation process of the MFR during the eruption in detail. The process began with the expansion of a low-lying coronal arcade, possibly caused by the flare magnetic reconnection underneath. The newly formed ascending loops from below further pushed the arcade upward, stretching the surrounding magnetic field. The arcade and stretched magnetic field lines then curved in just below the arcade vertex, forming an X-point. The field lines near the X-point continued to approach each other and a second magnetic reconnection was induced. It is this high-lying magnetic reconnection that led to the formation and eruption of a hot blob (∼10 MK), presumably an MFR, producing a CME. We suggest that two spatially separated magnetic reconnections occurred in this event, which were responsible for producing the flare and the hot blob (CME)

  5. Solar Coronal UV Spectroscopy for Solar Wind and SEP Acceleration Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, John Daniel; Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Laming, John Martin; Strachan, Leonard; Tun Beltran, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Of all the new areas of solar physics opened by the landmark SOHO mission, the scientific discoveries of the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) are unique in both the importance of the new questions raised by these observations and the lack of subsequent investigations to resolve these questions. For example, the first direct evidence of wave-particle coupling as an acceleration mechanism for the solar wind was obtained from UVCS spectro-coronagraphic observations, yet the real limits on the ratio of the parallel to perpendicular ion temperatures (with respect to the magnetic field) in coronal holes and streamers is still unresolved. Another unresolved issue is the role of suprathermal seed particles in rapid diffusive shock acceleration of SEPs. Although the theory has been placed on firmer theoretical ground by recent in situ investigations, observations of these suprathermal particles in the corona was never conclusively obtained with UVCS.Any follow-on UV Spectro-coronagraph must possess two improvements over UVCS in order to address the questions raised during the SOHO mission: 1) increased effective aperture and 2) improved spectrographic contrast (i.e. reduced scattered light). Technological developments in optics, optical design, UV detectors, composite structures, cleanliness control and electronics make it possible to achieve the requisite improvements in a next-generation UV spectro-coronagraph within the constraints of an affordable mission. We discuss specific instrument and mission approaches developed over the last 5 years and the feasibility of implementing them within the next 5 years.

  6. Coronal Structures as Tracers of Sub-Surface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    dramatic differences in appearance and physical processes, all these structures share a common ... mena that indicate a close relationship between coronal and sub-photo- spheric processes. .... 8) maintaining the same chirality. Large scale ...

  7. Birth, life, and death of a solar coronal plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pucci, Stefano; Romoli, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Firenze, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Poletto, Giannina [INAF-Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Sterling, Alphonse C., E-mail: stpucci@arcetri.astro.it [Space Science Office, NASA/MSFC, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We analyze a solar polar-coronal-hole (CH) plume over its entire ≈40 hr lifetime, using high-resolution Solar Dynamic Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) data. We examine (1) the plume's relationship to a bright point (BP) that persists at its base, (2) plume outflows and their possible contribution to the solar wind mass supply, and (3) the physical properties of the plume. We find that the plume started ≈2 hr after the BP first appeared and became undetectable ≈1 hr after the BP disappeared. We detected radially moving radiance variations from both the plume and from interplume regions, corresponding to apparent outflow speeds ranging over ≈(30-300) km s{sup –1} with outflow velocities being higher in the 'cooler' AIA 171 Å channel than in the 'hotter' 193 Å and 211 Å channels, which is inconsistent with wave motions; therefore, we conclude that the observed radiance variations represent material outflows. If they persist into the heliosphere and plumes cover ≈10% of a typical CH area, these flows could account for ≈50% of the solar wind mass. From a differential emission measure analysis of the AIA images, we find that the average electron temperature of the plume remained approximately constant over its lifetime, at T {sub e} ≈ 8.5 × 10{sup 5} K. Its density, however, decreased with the age of the plume, being about a factor of three lower when the plume faded compared to when it was born. We conclude that the plume died due to a density reduction rather than to a temperature decrease.

  8. Why fast solar wind originates from slowly expanding coronal flux tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.M.; Sheeley, N.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Empirical studies indicate that the solar wind speed at earth is inversely correlated with the divergence rate of the coronal magnetic field. It is shown that this result is consistent with simple wind acceleration models involving Alfven waves, provided that the wave energy flux at the coronal base is taken to be roughly constant within open field regions. 9 refs

  9. Comparison of Two Coronal Magnetic Field Models to Reconstruct a Sigmoidal Solar Active Region with Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Aiying; Zhang, Huai [Key Laboratory of Computational Geodynamics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jiang, Chaowei [Institute of Space Science and Applied Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, 518055 (China); Hu, Qiang; Gary, G. Allen; Wu, S. T. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Cao, Jinbin, E-mail: duanaiying@ucas.ac.cn, E-mail: hzhang@ucas.ac.cn, E-mail: chaowei@hit.edu.cn [School of Space and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2017-06-20

    Magnetic field extrapolation is an important tool to study the three-dimensional (3D) solar coronal magnetic field, which is difficult to directly measure. Various analytic models and numerical codes exist, but their results often drastically differ. Thus, a critical comparison of the modeled magnetic field lines with the observed coronal loops is strongly required to establish the credibility of the model. Here we compare two different non-potential extrapolation codes, a nonlinear force-free field code (CESE–MHD–NLFFF) and a non-force-free field (NFFF) code, in modeling a solar active region (AR) that has a sigmoidal configuration just before a major flare erupted from the region. A 2D coronal-loop tracing and fitting method is employed to study the 3D misalignment angles between the extrapolated magnetic field lines and the EUV loops as imaged by SDO /AIA. It is found that the CESE–MHD–NLFFF code with preprocessed magnetogram performs the best, outputting a field that matches the coronal loops in the AR core imaged in AIA 94 Å with a misalignment angle of ∼10°. This suggests that the CESE–MHD–NLFFF code, even without using the information of the coronal loops in constraining the magnetic field, performs as good as some coronal-loop forward-fitting models. For the loops as imaged by AIA 171 Å in the outskirts of the AR, all the codes including the potential field give comparable results of the mean misalignment angle (∼30°). Thus, further improvement of the codes is needed for a better reconstruction of the long loops enveloping the core region.

  10. More than a solar cycle of synoptic solar and coronal data - a video presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeksema, J.T.; Scherrer, P.H.; Herant, M.; Title, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Color video movies of synoptic observations of the sun and corona can now be created. Individual analog frames on laser disks can be referenced digitally and played back at any speed. We have brought together photospheric magnetic field data from the Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford and the National Solar Observatory, model computations of the coronal magnetic field, and coronal data from the Sacramento Peak coronagraph and the Mauna Loa K-coronameter and made a series of movies presenting the data sets individually and in comparison with one another. This paper presents a description of each of the data sets and movies developed thus far and briefly outlines some of the more interesting and obvious features observed when viewing the movies

  11. New techniques for the characterisation of dynamical phenomena in solar coronal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbrecht, E.

    2007-02-01

    During a total solar eclipse, a narrow strip of the Earth's surface is shielded completely by the Moon from the disk of the Sun. In this strip, the corona appears crown-like around the shade of the Moon. It was uncertain until the middle of the 20th century whether the corona was a solar phenomenon or if it was related to the Moon or whether it represented an artifact produced by the Earth's atmosphere. The answer to this question was provided by Grotrian (1939) and Edlèn (1942). Based on studies of iron emission lines, they suggested that the surface of the Sun is surrounded by a hot tenuous gas having a temperature of million degrees Kelvin and thus in a state of high ionization. This discovery was a result from spectroscopy, a field of research which started in 1666 with Sir Isaac Newton's observations of sunlight, dispersed by a prism. It is now clear that the hot solar corona is made of a low density plasma, highly structured by the magnetic field on length scales ranging from the Sun's diameter to the limit of angular resolution (e.g. Démoulin and Klein 2000). The need to resolve and study the corona down to such scales has determined a vigorous scientific and technological impulse toward the development of solar Ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray telescopes with high spatial and temporal resolution. With the advent of the satellite SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, see chapter 1), the picture of a quiet corona was definitely sent to the past. EUV (Extreme UV) image sequences of the lower solar corona revealed a finely structured medium constantly agitated by a wide variety of transients (e.g. Harrison 1998). Active regions consisting of large magnetic loops with enhanced temperature and density are observed, as well as "quiet" areas, coronal holes and numerous structures of different scales such as plumes, jets, spicules, X-ray bright points, blinkers, all structured by magnetic fields. Launched in 1998, the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE

  12. The Relation between Coronal Holes and Coronal Mass Ejections during the Rise, Maximum, and Declining Phases of Solar Cycle 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Gopalswamy, N; Yashiro, S.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Jung, H.

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using a resultant force exerted by all the coronal holes present on the disk and is defined as the coronal hole influence parameter (CHIP). The CHIP magnitude for each CH depends on the CH area, the distance between the CH centroid and the eruption region, and the average magnetic field within the CH at the photospheric level. The CHIP direction for each CH points from the CH centroid to the eruption region. We focus on Solar Cycle 23 CMEs originating from the disk center of the Sun (central meridian distance =15deg) and resulting in magnetic clouds (MCs) and non-MCs in the solar wind. The CHIP is found to be the smallest during the rise phase for MCs and non-MCs. The maximum phase has the largest CHIP value (2.9 G) for non-MCs. The CHIP is the largest (5.8 G) for driverless (DL) shocks, which are shocks at 1 AU with no discernible MC or non-MC. These results suggest that the behavior of non-MCs is similar to that of the DL shocks and different from that of MCs. In other words, the CHs may deflect the CMEs away from the Sun-Earth line and force them to behave like limb CMEs with DL shocks. This finding supports the idea that all CMEs may be flux ropes if viewed from an appropriate vantage point.

  13. The 3-D solar radioastronomy and the structure of the corona and the solar wind. [solar probes of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, J. L.; Caroubalos, C.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism causing solar radio bursts (1 and 111) is examined. It is proposed that a nonthermal energy source is responsible for the bursts; nonthermal energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. The advantages are examined for an out-of-the-ecliptic solar probe mission, which is proposed as a means of stereoscopically viewing solar radio bursts, solar magnetic fields, coronal structure, and the solar wind.

  14. MAXIMUM CORONAL MASS EJECTION SPEED AS AN INDICATOR OF SOLAR AND GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Abramenko, V.; Goode, P. R.; Gopalswamy, N.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the monthly averaged maximal speeds of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), international sunspot number (ISSN), and the geomagnetic Dst and Ap indices covering the 1996-2008 time interval (solar cycle 23). Our new findings are as follows. (1) There is a noteworthy relationship between monthly averaged maximum CME speeds and sunspot numbers, Ap and Dst indices. Various peculiarities in the monthly Dst index are correlated better with the fine structures in the CME speed profile than that in the ISSN data. (2) Unlike the sunspot numbers, the CME speed index does not exhibit a double peak maximum. Instead, the CME speed profile peaks during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Similar to the Ap index, both CME speed and the Dst indices lag behind the sunspot numbers by several months. (3) The CME number shows a double peak similar to that seen in the sunspot numbers. The CME occurrence rate remained very high even near the minimum of the solar cycle 23, when both the sunspot number and the CME average maximum speed were reaching their minimum values. (4) A well-defined peak of the Ap index between 2002 May and 2004 August was co-temporal with the excess of the mid-latitude coronal holes during solar cycle 23. The above findings suggest that the CME speed index may be a useful indicator of both solar and geomagnetic activities. It may have advantages over the sunspot numbers, because it better reflects the intensity of Earth-directed solar eruptions.

  15. GLOBAL ENERGETICS OF SOLAR FLARES. IV. CORONAL MASS EJECTION ENERGETICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2016-01-01

    This study entails the fourth part of a global flare energetics project, in which the mass m cme , kinetic energy E kin , and the gravitational potential energy E grav of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is measured in 399 M and X-class flare events observed during the first 3.5 years of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission, using a new method based on the EUV dimming effect. EUV dimming is modeled in terms of a radial adiabatic expansion process, which is fitted to the observed evolution of the total emission measure of the CME source region. The model derives the evolution of the mean electron density, the emission measure, the bulk plasma expansion velocity, the mass, and the energy in the CME source region. The EUV dimming method is truly complementary to the Thomson scattering method in white light, which probes the CME evolution in the heliosphere at r ≳ 2 R ⊙ , while the EUV dimming method tracks the CME launch in the corona. We compare the CME parameters obtained in white light with the LASCO/C2 coronagraph with those obtained from EUV dimming with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the SDO for all identical events in both data sets. We investigate correlations between CME parameters, the relative timing with flare parameters, frequency occurrence distributions, and the energy partition between magnetic, thermal, nonthermal, and CME energies. CME energies are found to be systematically lower than the dissipated magnetic energies, which is consistent with a magnetic origin of CMEs.

  16. The influence of solar active region evolution on solar wind streams, coronal hole boundaries and geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.E.; Dodson-Prince, H.W.; Hedeman, E.R.; Roelof, E.C.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied solar and interplanetary data by identification of the heliographic longitudes of the coronal source regions of high speed solar wind streams and by mapping the velocities measured near earth back to the sun using the approximation of constant radial velocity. Interplay of active regions and solar wind were studied

  17. IMPLOSION OF CORONAL LOOPS DURING THE IMPULSIVE PHASE OF A SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.; Hudson, H. S.; Russell, A. J. B., E-mail: paulo.simoes@glasgow.ac.uk, E-mail: lyndsay.fletcher@glasgow.ac.uk, E-mail: arussell@maths.dundee.ac.uk, E-mail: hhudson@ssl.berkeley.edu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We study the relationship between implosive motions in a solar flare, and the energy redistribution in the form of oscillatory structures and particle acceleration. The flare SOL2012-03-09T03:53 (M6.4) shows clear evidence for an irreversible (stepwise) coronal implosion. Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images show at least four groups of coronal loops at different heights overlying the flaring core undergoing fast contraction during the impulsive phase of the flare. These contractions start around a minute after the flare onset, and the rate of contraction is closely associated with the intensity of the hard X-ray and microwave emissions. They also seem to have a close relationship with the dimming associated with the formation of the coronal mass ejection and a global EUV wave. Several studies now have detected contracting motions in the corona during solar flares that can be interpreted as the implosion necessary to release energy. Our results confirm this, and tighten the association with the flare impulsive phase. We add to the phenomenology by noting the presence of oscillatory variations revealed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite soft X-rays (SXR) and spatially integrated EUV emission at 94 and 335 Å. We identify pulsations of ≈60 s in SXR and EUV data, which we interpret as persistent, semi-regular compressions of the flaring core region which modulate the plasma temperature and emission measure. The loop oscillations, observed over a large region, also allow us to provide rough estimates of the energy temporarily stored in the eigenmodes of the active-region structure as it approaches its new equilibrium.

  18. Coronal mass ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters in relation with geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Singh, Puspraj; Singh, Preetam

    2014-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are the drastic solar events in which huge amount of solar plasma materials are ejected into the heliosphere from the sun and are mainly responsible to generate large disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters and geomagnetic storms in geomagnetic field. We have studied geomagnetic storms, (Dst ≤-75 nT) observed during the period of 1997-2007 with Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters (solar wind temperature, velocity, density and interplanetary magnetic field) .We have inferred that most of the geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).The association rate of halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 72.37 % and 27.63 % respectively. Further we have concluded that geomagnetic storms are closely associated with the disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters. We have determined positive co-relation between magnitudes of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, jump in solar wind plasma density, jump in solar wind plasma velocity and jump in average interplanetary magnetic field with co-relation co-efficient 0 .35 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, 0.19 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind density, 0.34 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma velocity, 0.66 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in average interplanetary magnetic field respectively. We have concluded that geomagnetic storms are mainly caused by Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters that they generate.

  19. Statistical properties of solar flares and coronal mass ejections through the solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telloni, Daniele; Antonucci, Ester; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Waiting Time Distributions (WTDs) of solar flares are investigated all through the solar cycle. The same approach applied to Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) in a previous work is considered here for flare occurrence. Our analysis reveals that flares and CMEs share some common statistical properties, which result dependent on the level of solar activity. Both flares and CMEs seem to independently occur during minimum solar activity phases, whilst their WTDs significantly deviate from a Poisson function at solar maximum, thus suggesting that these events are correlated. The characteristics of WTDs are constrained by the physical processes generating those eruptions associated with flares and CMEs. A scenario may be drawn in which different mechanisms are actively at work during different phases of the solar cycle. Stochastic processes, most likely related to random magnetic reconnections of the field lines, seem to play a key role during solar minimum periods. On the other hand, persistent processes, like sympathetic eruptions associated to the variability of the photospheric magnetism, are suggested to dominate during periods of high solar activity. Moreover, despite the similar statistical properties shown by flares and CMEs, as it was mentioned above, their WTDs appear different in some aspects. During solar minimum periods, the flare occurrence randomness seems to be more evident than for CMEs. Those persistent mechanisms generating interdependent events during maximum periods of solar activity can be suggested to play a more important role for CMEs than for flares, thus mitigating the competitive action of the random processes, which seem instead strong enough to weaken the correlations among flare event occurrence during solar minimum periods. However, it cannot be excluded that the physical processes at the basis of the origin of the temporal correlation between solar events are different for flares and CMEs, or that, more likely, more sophisticated effects are

  20. Understanding Solar Coronal Heating through Atomic and Plasma Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Arthanayaka, Thusitha; Bose, Sayak; Hahn, Michael; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Gekelman, Walter; Vincena, Steve

    2017-08-01

    Recent solar observations suggest that the Sun's corona is heated by Alfven waves that dissipate at unexpectedly low heights in the corona. These observations raise a number of questions. Among them are the problems of accurately quantifying the energy flux of the waves and that of describing the physical mechanism that leads to the wave damping. We are performing laboratory experiments to address both of these issues.The energy flux depends on the electron density, which can be measured spectroscopically. However, spectroscopic density diagnostics have large uncertainties, because they depend sensitively on atomic collisional excitation, de-excitation, and radiative transition rates for multiple atomic levels. Essentially all of these data come from theory and have not been experimentally validated. We are conducting laboratory experiments using the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that will provide accurate empirical calibrations for spectroscopic density diagnostics and which will also help to guide theoretical calculations.The observed rapid wave dissipation is likely due to inhomogeneities in the plasma that drive flows and currents at small length scales where energy can be more efficiently dissipated. This may take place through gradients in the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field, which causes wave reflection and generates turbulence. Alternatively, gradients in the Alfvén speed across the field can lead to dissipation through phase-mixing. Using the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California Los Angeles, we are studying both of these dissipation mechanisms in the laboratory in order to understand their potential roles in coronal heating.

  1. CORONAL JETS SIMULATED WITH THE GLOBAL ALFVÉN WAVE SOLAR MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szente, J.; Toth, G.; Manchester IV, W. B.; Holst, B. van der; Landi, E.; Gombosi, T. I. [Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K., E-mail: judithsz@umich.edu [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    This paper describes a numerical modeling study of coronal jets to understand their effects on the global corona and their contribution to the solar wind. We implement jets into a well-established three-dimensional, two-temperature magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solar corona model employing Alfvén-wave dissipation to produce a realistic solar-wind background. The jets are produced by positioning a compact magnetic dipole under the solar surface and rotating the boundary plasma around the dipole's magnetic axis. The moving plasma drags the magnetic field lines along with it, ultimately leading to a reconnection-driven jet similar to that described by Pariat et al. We compare line-of-sight synthetic images to multiple jet observations at EUV and X-ray bands, and find very close matches in terms of physical structure, dynamics, and emission. Key contributors to this agreement are the greatly enhanced plasma density and temperature in our jets compared to previous models. These enhancements arise from the comprehensive thermodynamic model that we use and, also, our inclusion of a dense chromosphere at the base of our jet-generating regions. We further find that the large-scale corona is affected significantly by the outwardly propagating torsional Alfvén waves generated by our polar jet, across 40° in latitude and out to 24 R {sub ⊙}. We estimate that polar jets contribute only a few percent to the steady-state solar-wind energy outflow.

  2. CORONAL DENSITY STRUCTURE AND ITS ROLE IN WAVE DAMPING IN LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cargill, P. J. [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); De Moortel, I.; Kiddie, G., E-mail: p.cargill@imperial.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-20

    It has long been established that gradients in the Alfvén speed, and in particular the plasma density, are an essential part of the damping of waves in the magnetically closed solar corona by mechanisms such as resonant absorption and phase mixing. While models of wave damping often assume a fixed density gradient, in this paper the self-consistency of such calculations is assessed by examining the temporal evolution of the coronal density. It is shown conceptually that for some coronal structures, density gradients can evolve in a way that the wave-damping processes are inhibited. For the case of phase mixing we argue that (a) wave heating cannot sustain the assumed density structure and (b) inclusion of feedback of the heating on the density gradient can lead to a highly structured density, although on long timescales. In addition, transport coefficients well in excess of classical are required to maintain the observed coronal density. Hence, the heating of closed coronal structures by global oscillations may face problems arising from the assumption of a fixed density gradient, and the rapid damping of oscillations may have to be accompanied by a separate (non-wave-based) heating mechanism to sustain the required density structuring.

  3. Recurring coronal holes and their rotation rates during the solar cycles 22-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, K.; Ravindra, B.; Hegde, Manjunath; Doddamani, Vijayakumar H.

    2018-05-01

    Coronal holes (CHs) play a significant role in making the Earth geo-magnetically active during the declining and minimum phases of the solar cycle. In this study, we analysed the evolutionary characteristics of the Recurring CHs from the year 1992 to 2016. The extended minimum of Solar Cycle 23 shows unusual characteristics in the number of persistent coronal holes in the mid- and low-latitude regions of the Sun. Carrington rotation maps of He 10830 Å and EUV 195 Å observations are used to identify the Coronal holes. The latitude distribution of the RCHs shows that most of them are appeared between ± 20° latitudes. In this period, more number of recurring coronal holes appeared in and around 100° and 200° Carrington longitudes. The large sized coronal holes lived for shorter period and they appeared close to the equator. From the area distribution over the latitude considered, it shows that more number of recurring coronal holes with area <10^{21} cm2 appeared in the southern latitude close to the equator. The rotation rates calculated from the RCHs appeared between ± 60° latitude shows rigid body characteristics. The derived rotational profiles of the coronal holes show that they have anchored to a depth well below the tachocline of the interior, and compares well with the helioseismology results.

  4. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Knölker, M., E-mail: chitta@mps.mpg.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  5. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van; Rodríguez, J. Blanco; Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco; Schmidt, W.; Pillet, V. Martínez; Knölker, M.

    2017-01-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  6. Double-coronal X-Ray and Microwave Sources Associated with a Magnetic Breakout Solar Eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yao; Wu, Zhao; Zhao, Di; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Liu, Wei [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Schwartz, Richard A., E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and American University, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Double-coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources are believed to be critical observational evidence of bi-directional energy release through magnetic reconnection in large-scale current sheets in solar flares. Here, we present a study on double-coronal sources observed in both HXR and microwave regimes, revealing new characteristics distinct from earlier reports. This event is associated with a footpoint-occulted X1.3-class flare (2014 April 25, starting at 00:17 UT) and a coronal mass ejection that were likely triggered by the magnetic breakout process, with the lower source extending upward from the top of the partially occulted flare loops and the upper source co-incident with rapidly squeezing-in side lobes (at a speed of ∼250 km s{sup −1} on both sides). The upper source can be identified at energies as high as 70–100 keV. The X-ray upper source is characterized by flux curves that differ from those of the lower source, a weak energy dependence of projected centroid altitude above 20 keV, a shorter duration, and an HXR photon spectrum slightly harder than those of the lower source. In addition, the microwave emission at 34 GHz also exhibits a similar double-source structure and the microwave spectra at both sources are in line with gyrosynchrotron emission given by non-thermal energetic electrons. These observations, especially the co-incidence of the very-fast squeezing-in motion of side lobes and the upper source, indicate that the upper source is associated with (and possibly caused by) this fast motion of arcades. This sheds new light on the origin of the corona double-source structure observed in both HXRs and microwaves.

  7. SCALING LAWS AND TEMPERATURE PROFILES FOR SOLAR AND STELLAR CORONAL LOOPS WITH NON-UNIFORM HEATING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, P. C. H.

    2010-01-01

    The bulk of solar coronal radiative loss consists of soft X-ray emission from quasi-static loops at the cores of active regions. In order to develop diagnostics for determining the heating mechanism of these loops from observations by coronal imaging instruments, I have developed analytical solutions for the temperature structure and scaling laws of loop strands for a set of temperature- and pressure-dependent heating functions that encompass heating concentrated at the footpoints, uniform heating, and heating concentrated at the loop apex. Key results are that the temperature profile depends only weakly on the heating distribution-not sufficiently to be of significant diagnostic value-and that the scaling laws survive for this wide range of heating distributions, but with the constant of proportionality in the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling law (P 0 L ∼ T 3 max ) depending on the specific heating function. Furthermore, quasi-static solutions do not exist for an excessive concentration of heating near the loop footpoints, a result in agreement with recent numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that a generalization of the results to a set of solutions for strands with a functionally prescribed variable diameter leads to only relatively small correction factors in the scaling laws and temperature profiles for constant diameter loop strands. A quintet of leading theoretical coronal heating mechanisms is shown to be captured by the formalism of this paper, and the differences in thermal structure between them may be verified through observations. Preliminary results from full numerical simulations demonstrate that, despite the simplifying assumptions, the analytical solutions from this paper are accurate and stable.

  8. A lower limit to the altitude of coronal particle storage regions deduced from solar proton energy spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimigis, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The spectrum of low energy protons observed at 1 AU following solar flares shows little or no evidence of energy degradation down to approximately 0.3 MeV. Such observations may be used to set a lower limit on the altitude of hypothetical coronal particle storage regions, ranging from 2 to 7 R sub s. It is pointed out that closed coronal magnetic loop structures are observed to extend to 2R sub s, so that long-term storage of low energy protons does not take place in the immediate vicinity of the sun. It is further suggested that in the few cases where the proton spectrum appears to be degraded at low energies, the energy loss may be due to adiabatic deceleration in the expanding solar wind. The alternative of continual acceleration is suggested as a plausible substitute for the particle storage hypothesis.

  9. High Resolution Studies of the Structure of the Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-04

    the variable emission from active regions", submitted to Solar Phys., August 1993. M. Karovska and F. Blundell, "The fine structure at the limb in a ...in a coronal hole", in preparation. 3.2 Conference Presentations M. Karovska , S. R. Habbal and F. Blundell, "Fine structure at the limb in a coronal...hole", 181st AAS Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, January 1993. M. Karovska , "Exploring the dynamical structure at the limb in a coronal hole, 24th Solar

  10. A Bayesian Approach to Period Searching in Solar Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherrer, Bryan; McKenzie, David [Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840 Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    We have applied a Bayesian generalized Lomb–Scargle period searching algorithm to movies of coronal loop images obtained with the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) to search for evidence of periodicities that would indicate resonant heating of the loops. The algorithm makes as its only assumption that there is a single sinusoidal signal within each light curve of the data. Both the amplitudes and noise are taken as free parameters. It is argued that this procedure should be used alongside Fourier and wavelet analyses to more accurately extract periodic intensity modulations in coronal loops. The data analyzed are from XRT Observation Program 129C: “MHD Wave Heating (Thin Filters),” which occurred during 2006 November 13 and focused on active region 10293, which included coronal loops. The first data set spans approximately 10 min with an average cadence of 2 s, 2″ per pixel resolution, and used the Al-mesh analysis filter. The second data set spans approximately 4 min with a 3 s average cadence, 1″ per pixel resolution, and used the Al-poly analysis filter. The final data set spans approximately 22 min at a 6 s average cadence, and used the Al-poly analysis filter. In total, 55 periods of sinusoidal coronal loop oscillations between 5.5 and 59.6 s are discussed, supporting proposals in the literature that resonant absorption of magnetic waves is a viable mechanism for depositing energy in the corona.

  11. ICARUS Mission, Next Step of Coronal Exploration after Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoselskikh, V.; Tsurutani, B.; Velli, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Balikhin, M. A.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Kretzschmar, M.

    2017-12-01

    The primary scientific goal of ICARUS, a mother-daughter satellite mission, will be to determine how the magnetic field and plasma dynamics in the outer solar atmosphere give rise to the corona, the solar wind and the heliosphere. Reaching this goal will be a Rosetta-stone step, with results broadly applicable in the fields of space plasma and astrophysics. Within ESA's Cosmic Vision roadmap, these goals address Theme 2: How does the solar system work ?" Investigating basic processes occurring from the Sun to the edge of the Solar System". ICARUS will not only advance our understanding of the plasma environment around the Sun, but also of the numerous magnetically active stars with hot plasma coronae. ICARUS I will perform the firstever direct in situ measurements of electromagnetic fields, particle acceleration, wave activity, energy distribution and flows directly in the regions where the solar wind emerges from the coronal plasma. ICARUS I will have a perihelion at 1 Solar radius from its surface, it will cross the region where the major energy deposition occurs. The polar orbit of ICARUS I will enable crossing the regions where both the fast and slow wind are generated. It will probe local characteristics of the plasma and provide unique information about the processes involved in the creation of the solar wind. ICARUS II will observe this region using remote-sensing instruments, providing simultaneous information about regions crossed by ICARUS I and the solar atmosphere below as observed by solar telescopes. It will provide bridges for understanding the magnetic links between heliosphere and solar atmosphere. Such information is crucial to understanding of the physics and electrodynamics of the solar atmosphere. ICARUS II will also play an important relay role, enabling the radio-link with ICARUS I. It will receive, collect and store information transmitted from ICARUS I during its closest approach to the Sun. It will perform preliminary data processing and

  12. ON THE NATURE OF RECONNECTION AT A SOLAR CORONAL NULL POINT ABOVE A SEPARATRIX DOME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontin, D. I.; Priest, E. R.; Galsgaard, K.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional magnetic null points are ubiquitous in the solar corona and in any generic mixed-polarity magnetic field. We consider magnetic reconnection at an isolated coronal null point whose fan field lines form a dome structure. Using analytical and computational models, we demonstrate several features of spine-fan reconnection at such a null, including the fact that substantial magnetic flux transfer from one region of field line connectivity to another can occur. The flux transfer occurs across the current sheet that forms around the null point during spine-fan reconnection, and there is no separator present. Also, flipping of magnetic field lines takes place in a manner similar to that observed in the quasi-separatrix layer or slip-running reconnection

  13. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a basal state (at 1.5 x 10(exp 6) K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.

  14. The Fate of Cool Material in the Hot Corona: Solar Prominences and Coronal Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Antolin, Patrick; Sun, Xudong; Vial, Jean-Claude; Berger, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    As an important chain of the chromosphere-corona mass cycle, some of the million-degree hot coronal mass undergoes a radiative cooling instability and condenses into material at chromospheric or transition-region temperatures in two distinct forms - prominences and coronal rain (some of which eventually falls back to the chromosphere). A quiescent prominence usually consists of numerous long-lasting, filamentary downflow threads, while coronal rain consists of transient mass blobs falling at comparably higher speeds along well-defined paths. It remains puzzling why such material of similar temperatures exhibit contrasting morphologies and behaviors. We report recent SDO/AIA and IRIS observations that suggest different magnetic environments being responsible for such distinctions. Specifically, in a hybrid prominence-coronal rain complex structure, we found that the prominence material is formed and resides near magnetic null points that favor the radiative cooling process and provide possibly a high plasma-beta environment suitable for the existence of meandering prominence threads. As the cool material descends, it turns into coronal rain tied onto low-lying coronal loops in a likely low-beta environment. Such structures resemble to certain extent the so-called coronal spiders or cloud prominences, but the observations reported here provide critical new insights. We will discuss the broad physical implications of these observations for fundamental questions, such as coronal heating and beyond (e.g., in astrophysical and/or laboratory plasma environments).

  15. Testing a solar coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the Titov–Démoulin magnetic flux rope model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Chao-Wei; Feng, Xue-Shang

    2016-01-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic flux rope is believed to be a fundamental structure that accounts for magnetic free energy storage and solar eruptions. Up to the present, the extrapolation of the magnetic field from boundary data has been the primary way to obtain fully three-dimensional magnetic information about the corona. As a result, the ability to reliably recover the coronal magnetic flux rope is important for coronal field extrapolation. In this paper, our coronal field extrapolation code is examined with an analytical magnetic flux rope model proposed by Titov and Démoulin, which consists of a bipolar magnetic configuration holding a semi-circular line-tied flux rope in force-free equilibrium. By only using the vector field at the bottom boundary as input, we test our code with the model in a representative range of parameter space and find that the model field can be reconstructed with high accuracy. In particular, the magnetic topological interfaces formed between the flux rope and the surrounding arcade, i.e., the “hyperbolic flux tube” and “bald patch separatrix surface,” are also reliably reproduced. By this test, we demonstrate that our CESE–MHD–NLFFF code can be applied to recovering the magnetic flux rope in the solar corona as long as the vector magnetogram satisfies the force-free constraints. (paper)

  16. SOLAR RADIO TYPE-I NOISE STORM MODULATED BY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, K.; Tsuchiya, F.; Morioka, A.; Misawa, H.; Miyoshi, Y.; Masuda, S.; Shimojo, M.; Shiota, D.; Inoue, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first coordinated observations of an active region using ground-based radio telescopes and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) satellites from different heliocentric longitudes were performed to study solar radio type-I noise storms. A type-I noise storm was observed between 100 and 300 MHz during a period from 2010 February 6 to 7. During this period the two STEREO satellites were located approximately 65° (ahead) and –70° (behind) from the Sun-Earth line, which is well suited to observe the earthward propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The radio flux of the type-I noise storm was enhanced after the preceding CME and began to decrease before the subsequent CME. This time variation of the type-I noise storm was directly related to the change of the particle acceleration processes around its source region. Potential-field source-surface extrapolation from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager (SOHO/MDI) magnetograms suggested that there was a multipolar magnetic system around the active region from which the CMEs occurred around the magnetic neutral line of the system. From our observational results, we suggest that the type-I noise storm was activated at a side-lobe reconnection region that was formed after eruption of the preceding CME. This magnetic structure was deformed by a loop expansion that led to the subsequent CME, which then suppressed the radio burst emission.

  17. Morphology and physical properties of solar coronal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozelot, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    By their peculiar characteristics, coronal holes induce on Earth climatic variations and cyclic effects, not well known nowadays. Because of low electronical density and very low temperature, study of these holes was neglected. The author presents the results of the observations from discovery in the fifteens. He gives some new results, a theoretical model and not well resolved questions which can conduct to new methods of searching [fr

  18. Interactions of Dust Grains with Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Cycle Variations of the F-Coronal Brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragot, B. R.; Kahler, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    The density of interplanetary dust increases sunward to reach its maximum in the F corona, where its scattered white-light emission dominates that of the electron K corona above about 3 Solar Radius. The dust will interact with both the particles and fields of antisunward propagating coronal mass ejections (CMEs). To understand the effects of the CME/dust interactions we consider the dominant forces, with and without CMEs. acting on the dust in the 3-5 Solar Radius region. Dust grain orbits are then computed to compare the drift rates from 5 to 3 Solar Radius. for periods of minimum and maximum solar activity, where a simple CME model is adopted to distinguish between the two periods. The ion-drag force, even in the quiet solar wind, reduces the drift time by a significant factor from its value estimated with the Poynting-Robertson drag force alone. The ion-drag effects of CMEs result in even shorter drift times of the large (greater than or approx. 3 microns) dust grains. hence faster depletion rates and lower dust-pain densities, at solar maxima. If dominated by thermal emission, the near-infrared brightness will thus display solar cycle variations close to the dust plane of symmetry. While trapping the smallest of the grains, the CME magnetic fields also scatter the grains of intermediate size (0.1-3 microns) in latitude. If light scattering by small grains close to the Sun dominates the optical brightness. the scattering by the CME magnetic fields will result in a solar cycle variation of the optical brightness distribution not exceeding 100% at high latitudes, with a higher isotropy reached at solar maxima. A good degree of latitudinal isotropy is already reached at low solar activity since the magnetic fields of the quiet solar wind so close to the Sun are able to scatter the small (less than or approx. 3 microns) grains up to the polar regions in only a few days or less, producing strong perturbations of their trajectories in less than half their orbital

  19. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, Andrzej; Hornsey, Christopher; Nakariakov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    We aim to develop a diagnostic method for the coronal heating mechanism in active region loops. Observational constraints on coronal heating models have been sought using measurements in the X-ray and EUV wavelengths. Statistical analysis, using EUV emission from many active regions, was done by Fludra and Ireland (2008) who studied power-law relationships between active region integrated magnetic flux and emission line intensities. A subsequent study by Fludra and Warren (2010) for the first time compared fully resolved images in an EUV spectral line of OV 63.0 nm with the photospheric magnetic field, leading to the identification of a dominant, ubiquitous variable component of the transition region EUV emission and a discovery of a steady basal heating, and deriving the dependence of the basal heating rate on the photospheric magnetic flux density. In this study, we compare models of single coronal loops with EUV observations. We assess to what degree observations of individual coronal loops made in the EUV range are capable of providing constraints on the heating mechanism. We model the coronal magnetic field in an active region using an NLFF extrapolation code applied to a photospheric vector magnetogram from SDO/HMI and select several loops that match an SDO/AIA 171 image of the same active region. We then model the plasma in these loops using a 1D hydrostatic code capable of applying an arbitrary heating rate as a function of magnetic field strength along the loop. From the plasma parameters derived from this model, we calculate the EUV emission along the loop in AIA 171 and 335 bands, and in pure spectral lines of Fe IX 17.1 nm and Fe XVI 33.5 nm. We use different spatial distributions of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints, and investigate their effect on the modelled EUV intensities. We find a diagnostics based on the dependence of the total loop intensity on the shape of the heating function

  20. EFFECTS OF ALFVEN WAVES ON ELECTRON CYCLOTRON MASER EMISSION IN CORONAL LOOPS AND SOLAR TYPE I RADIO STORMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Chen, L.; Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yan, Y. H., E-mail: djwu@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-06-10

    Solar type I radio storms are long-lived radio emissions from the solar atmosphere. It is believed that these type I storms are produced by energetic electrons trapped within a closed magnetic structure and are characterized by a high ordinary (O) mode polarization. However, the microphysical nature of these emissions is still an open problem. Recently, Wu et al. found that Alfven waves (AWs) can significantly influence the basic physics of wave-particle interactions by modifying the resonant condition. Taking the effects of AWs into account, this work investigates electron cyclotron maser emission driven by power-law energetic electrons with a low-energy cutoff distribution, which are trapped in coronal loops by closed solar magnetic fields. The results show that the emission is dominated by the O mode. It is proposed that this O mode emission may possibly be responsible for solar type I radio storms.

  1. Mid-term periodicities and heliospheric modulation of coronal index and solar flare index during solar cycles 22-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prithvi Raj; Saxena, A. K.; Tiwari, C. M.

    2018-04-01

    We applied fast Fourier transform techniques and Morlet wavelet transform on the time series data of coronal index, solar flare index, and galactic cosmic ray, for the period 1986-2008, in order to investigate the long- and mid-term periodicities including the Rieger ({˜ }130 to {˜ }190 days), quasi-period ({˜ }200 to {˜ }374 days), and quasi-biennial periodicities ({˜ }1.20 to {˜ }3.27 years) during the combined solar cycles 22-23. We emphasize the fact that a lesser number of periodicities are found in the range of low frequencies, while the higher frequencies show a greater number of periodicities. The rotation rates at the base of convection zone have periods for coronal index of {˜ }1.43 years and for solar flare index of {˜ }1.41 year, and galactic cosmic ray, {˜ }1.35 year, during combined solar cycles 22-23. In relation to these two solar parameters (coronal index and solar flare index), for the solar cycles 22-23, we found that galactic cosmic ray modulation at mid cut-off rigidity (Rc = 2.43GV) is anti-correlated with time-lag of few months.

  2. Mode Conversion of a Solar Extreme-ultraviolet Wave over a Coronal Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Weiguo [Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081 (China); Dai, Yu, E-mail: ydai@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-01-10

    We report on observations of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave event in the Sun on 2011 January 13 by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory in quadrature. Both the trailing edge and the leading edge of the EUV wave front in the north direction are reliably traced, revealing generally compatible propagation velocities in both perspectives and a velocity ratio of about 1/3. When the wave front encounters a coronal cavity near the northern polar coronal hole, the trailing edge of the front stops while its leading edge just shows a small gap and extends over the cavity, meanwhile getting significantly decelerated but intensified. We propose that the trailing edge and the leading edge of the northward propagating wave front correspond to a non-wave coronal mass ejection component and a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave component, respectively. The interaction of the fast-mode wave and the coronal cavity may involve a mode conversion process, through which part of the fast-mode wave is converted to a slow-mode wave that is trapped along the magnetic field lines. This scenario can reasonably account for the unusual behavior of the wave front over the coronal cavity.

  3. Image-based reconstruction of the Newtonian dynamics of solar coronal ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Thompson, Barbara J.

    2016-10-01

    We present a new methodology for analyzing rising and falling dynamics of unstable coronal material as represented by high-cadence SDO AIA images. The technique involves an adaptive spatiotemporal tracking of propagating intensity gradients and their characterization in terms of time-evolving areas swept out by the position vector originated from the Sun disk center. The measured values of the areal velocity and acceleration are used to obtain quantitative information on the angular momentum and acceleration along the paths of the rising and falling coronal plasma. In the absence of other forces, solar gravitation results in purely ballistic motions consistent with the Kepler's second law; non-central forces such as the Lorentz force introduce non-zero torques resulting in more complex motions. The developed algorithms enable direct evaluation of the line-of-sight component of the net torque applied to a unit mass of the ejected coronal material which is proportional to the image-plane projection of the observed areal acceleration. The current implementation of the method cannot reliably distinguish torque modulations caused by the coronal force field from those imposed by abrupt changes of plasma mass density and nontrivial projection effects. However, it can provide valid observational constraints on the evolution of large-scale unstable magnetic topologies driving major solar-coronal eruptions as demonstrated in the related talk by B. Thompson et al.

  4. Solar magnetic field - 1976 through 1985: an atlas of photospheric magnetic field observations and computed coronal magnetic fields from the John M. Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford, 1976-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeksema, J.T.; Scherrer, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    Daily magnetogram observations of the large-scale photospheric magnetic field have been made at the John M. Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford since May of 1976. These measurements provide a homogeneous record of the changing solar field through most of Solar Cycle 21. Using the photospheric data, the configuration of the coronal and heliospheric fields can be calculated using a Potential Field -- Source Surface model. This provides a 3-dimensional picture of the heliospheric field-evolution during the solar cycle. In this report the authors present the complete set of synoptic charts of the measured photospheric magnetic field, the computed field at the source surface, and the coefficients of the multipole expansion of the coronal field. The general underlying structure of the solar and heliospheric fields, which determine the environment for solar - terrestrial relations and provide the context within which solar-activity-related events occur, can be approximated from these data

  5. The influence of solar active region evolution on solar wind streams, coronal hole boundaries and geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, R. E.; Dodson-Prince, H. W.; Hedeman, E. R.; Roelof, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Solar and interplanetary data are examined, taking into account the identification of the heliographic longitudes of the coronal source regions of high speed solar wind (SW) streams by Nolte and Roelof (1973). Nolte and Roelof have 'mapped' the velocities measured near earth back to the sun using the approximation of constant radial velocity. The 'Carrington carpet' for rotations 1597-1616 is shown in a graph. Coronal sources of high speed streams appear in the form of solid black areas. The contours of the stream sources are laid on 'evolutionary charts' of solar active region histories for the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. Questions regarding the interplay of active regions and solar wind are investigated, giving attention to developments during the years 1973, 1974, and 1975.

  6. Paraboloidal X-ray telescope mirror for solar coronal spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Franks, A.; Stedman, M.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The telescope mirror for the X-ray Spectrograph Spectrometer Telescope System is a sixty degree sector of an extreme off-axis paraboloid of revolution. It was designed to focus a coronal region 1 by 10 arc seconds in size on the entrance slit of the spectrometer after reflection from the gold surface. This paper discusses the design, manufacture, and metrology of the mirror, the methods of precision mechanical metrology used to focus the system, and the mounting system which locates the mirror and has proven itself through vibration tests. In addition, the results of reflection efficiency measurements, alignment tolerances, and ray trace analysis of the effects of misalignment are considered.

  7. Combined Ulysses Solar Wind and SOHO Coronal Observations of Several West Limb Coronal Mass Ejections. Appendix 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, H. O.; Gosling, J. T.; Riley, P.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Forsyth, R. J.; Howard, R. A.; Schwenn, R.

    2001-01-01

    From October 1996 to January 1997, Ulysses was situated roughly above the west limb of the Sun as observed from Earth at a heliocentric distance of about 4.6 AU and a latitude of about 25 deg. This presents the first opportunity to compare Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) limb observations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) directly with their solar wind counterparts far from the Sun using the Ulysses data. During this interval, large eruptive events were observed above the west limb of the Sun by the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) on SOHO on October 5, November 28, and December 21-25, 1996. Using the combined plasma and magnetic field data from Ulysses, the October 5 event was clearly identified by several distinguishing signatures as a CME. The November 28 event was also identified as a CME that trailed fast ambient solar wind, although it was identified only by an extended interval of counterstreaming suprathermal electrons. The December 21 event was apparently characterized by a six-day interval of nearly radial field and a plasma rarefaction. For the numerous eruptive events observed by the LASCO coronagraph during December 23-25, Ulysses showed no distinct, CMEs, perhaps because of intermingling of two or more of the eruptive events. By mapping the Ulysses observations back in time to the Sun assuming a constant flow speed, we have identified intervals of plasma that were accelerated or decelerated between the LASCO and Ulysses observations.

  8. CORONAL AND CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF LARGE-SCALE DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH A MAJOR SOLAR ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Weiguo [Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081 (China); Dai, Yu, E-mail: ydai@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2015-08-20

    We present both coronal and chromospheric observations of large-scale disturbances associated with a major solar eruption on 2005 September 7. In the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites/Solar X-ray Imager (SXI), arclike coronal brightenings are recorded propagating in the southern hemisphere. The SXI front shows an initially constant speed of 730 km s{sup −1} and decelerates later on, and its center is near the central position angle of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) but away from the flare site. Chromospheric signatures of the disturbances are observed in both Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO)/Polarimeter for Inner Coronal Studies Hα and MLSO/Chromospheric Helium I Imaging Photometer He i λ10830 and can be divided into two parts. The southern signatures occur in regions where the SXI front sweeps over, with the Hα bright front coincident with the SXI front, while the He i dark front lags the SXI front but shows a similar kinematics. Ahead of the path of the southern signatures, oscillations of a filament are observed. The northern signatures occur near the equator, with the Hα and He i fronts coincident with each other. They first propagate westward and then deflect to the north at the boundary of an equatorial coronal hole. Based on these observational facts, we suggest that the global disturbances are associated with the CME lift-off and show a hybrid nature: a mainly non-wave CME flank nature for the SXI signatures and the corresponding southern chromospheric signatures, and a shocked fast-mode coronal MHD wave nature for the northern chromospheric signatures.

  9. RECONNECTION-DRIVEN CORONAL-HOLE JETS WITH GRAVITY AND SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States); Pariat, E. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2017-01-01

    Coronal-hole jets occur ubiquitously in the Sun's coronal holes, at EUV and X-ray bright points associated with intrusions of minority magnetic polarity. The embedded-bipole model for these jets posits that they are driven by explosive, fast reconnection between the stressed closed field of the embedded bipole and the open field of the surrounding coronal hole. Previous numerical studies in Cartesian geometry, assuming uniform ambient magnetic field and plasma while neglecting gravity and solar wind, demonstrated that the model is robust and can produce jet-like events in simple configurations. We have extended these investigations by including spherical geometry, gravity, and solar wind in a nonuniform, coronal hole-like ambient atmosphere. Our simulations confirm that the jet is initiated by the onset of a kink-like instability of the internal closed field, which induces a burst of reconnection between the closed and external open field, launching a helical jet. Our new results demonstrate that the jet propagation is sustained through the outer corona, in the form of a traveling nonlinear Alfvén wave front trailed by slower-moving plasma density enhancements that are compressed and accelerated by the wave. This finding agrees well with observations of white-light coronal-hole jets, and can explain microstreams and torsional Alfvén waves detected in situ in the solar wind. We also use our numerical results to deduce scaling relationships between properties of the coronal source region and the characteristics of the resulting jet, which can be tested against observations.

  10. CORONAL AND CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF LARGE-SCALE DISTURBANCES ASSOCIATED WITH A MAJOR SOLAR ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong, Weiguo; Dai, Yu

    2015-01-01

    We present both coronal and chromospheric observations of large-scale disturbances associated with a major solar eruption on 2005 September 7. In the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites/Solar X-ray Imager (SXI), arclike coronal brightenings are recorded propagating in the southern hemisphere. The SXI front shows an initially constant speed of 730 km s −1 and decelerates later on, and its center is near the central position angle of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME) but away from the flare site. Chromospheric signatures of the disturbances are observed in both Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO)/Polarimeter for Inner Coronal Studies Hα and MLSO/Chromospheric Helium I Imaging Photometer He i λ10830 and can be divided into two parts. The southern signatures occur in regions where the SXI front sweeps over, with the Hα bright front coincident with the SXI front, while the He i dark front lags the SXI front but shows a similar kinematics. Ahead of the path of the southern signatures, oscillations of a filament are observed. The northern signatures occur near the equator, with the Hα and He i fronts coincident with each other. They first propagate westward and then deflect to the north at the boundary of an equatorial coronal hole. Based on these observational facts, we suggest that the global disturbances are associated with the CME lift-off and show a hybrid nature: a mainly non-wave CME flank nature for the SXI signatures and the corresponding southern chromospheric signatures, and a shocked fast-mode coronal MHD wave nature for the northern chromospheric signatures

  11. Characterizing a Model of Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration Based on Wave Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, C.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Velli, M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the nature of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration is a key goal in solar and heliospheric research. While there have been many theoretical advances in both topics, including suggestions that they may be intimately related, the inherent scale coupling and complexity of these phenomena limits our ability to construct models that test them on a fundamental level for realistic solar conditions. At the same time, there is an ever increasing impetus to improve our spaceweather models, and incorporating treatments for these processes that capture their basic features while remaining tractable is an important goal. With this in mind, I will give an overview of our exploration of a wave-turbulence driven (WTD) model for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration based on low-frequency Alfvénic turbulence. Here we attempt to bridge the gap between theory and practical modeling by exploring this model in 1D HD and multi-dimensional MHD contexts. The key questions that we explore are: What properties must the model possess to be a viable model for coronal heating? What is the influence of the magnetic field topology (open, closed, rapidly expanding)? And can we simultaneously capture coronal heating and solar wind acceleration with such a quasi-steady formulation? Our initial results suggest that a WTD based formulation performs adequately for a variety of solar and heliospheric conditions, while significantly reducing the number of free parameters when compared to empirical heating and solar wind models. The challenges, applications, and future prospects of this type of approach will also be discussed.

  12. Polar and equatorial coronal hole winds at solar minima: From the heliosphere to the inner corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E., E-mail: lzh@umich.edu [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Fast solar wind can be accelerated from at least two different sources: polar coronal holes and equatorial coronal holes. Little is known about the relationship between the wind coming from these two different latitudes and whether these two subcategories of fast wind evolve in the same way during the solar cycle. Nineteen years of Ulysses observations, from 1990 to 2009, combined with ACE observations from 1998 to the present provide us with in situ measurements of solar wind properties that span two entire solar cycles. These missions provide an ideal data set to study the properties and evolution of the fast solar wind originating from equatorial and polar holes. In this work, we focus on these two types of fast solar wind during the minima between solar cycles 22 and 23 and 23 and 24. We use data from SWICS, SWOOPS, and VHM/FGM on board Ulysses and SWICS, SWEPAM, and MAG on board ACE to analyze the proton kinetic, thermal, and dynamic characteristics, heavy ion composition, and magnetic field properties of these two fast winds. The comparison shows that: (1) their kinetic, thermal, compositional, and magnetic properties are significantly different at any time during the two minima and (2) they respond differently to the changes in solar activity from cycle 23 to 24. These results indicate that equatorial and polar fast solar wind are two separate subcategories of fast wind. We discuss the implications of these results and relate them to remote-sensing measurements of the properties of polar and equatorial coronal holes carried out in the inner corona during these two solar minima.

  13. Polar and equatorial coronal hole winds at solar minima: From the heliosphere to the inner corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Fast solar wind can be accelerated from at least two different sources: polar coronal holes and equatorial coronal holes. Little is known about the relationship between the wind coming from these two different latitudes and whether these two subcategories of fast wind evolve in the same way during the solar cycle. Nineteen years of Ulysses observations, from 1990 to 2009, combined with ACE observations from 1998 to the present provide us with in situ measurements of solar wind properties that span two entire solar cycles. These missions provide an ideal data set to study the properties and evolution of the fast solar wind originating from equatorial and polar holes. In this work, we focus on these two types of fast solar wind during the minima between solar cycles 22 and 23 and 23 and 24. We use data from SWICS, SWOOPS, and VHM/FGM on board Ulysses and SWICS, SWEPAM, and MAG on board ACE to analyze the proton kinetic, thermal, and dynamic characteristics, heavy ion composition, and magnetic field properties of these two fast winds. The comparison shows that: (1) their kinetic, thermal, compositional, and magnetic properties are significantly different at any time during the two minima and (2) they respond differently to the changes in solar activity from cycle 23 to 24. These results indicate that equatorial and polar fast solar wind are two separate subcategories of fast wind. We discuss the implications of these results and relate them to remote-sensing measurements of the properties of polar and equatorial coronal holes carried out in the inner corona during these two solar minima.

  14. Global Energetics in Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2017-08-01

    We present a statistical study of the energetics of coronal mass ejections (CME) and compare it with the magnetic, thermal, and nonthermal energy dissipated in flares. The physical parameters of CME speeds, mass, and kinetic energies are determined with two different independent methods, i.e., the traditional white-light scattering method using LASCO/SOHO data, and the EUV dimming method using AIA/SDO data. We analyze all 860 GOES M- and X-class flare events observed during the first 7 years (2010-2016) of the SDO mission. The new ingredients of our CME modeling includes: (1) CME geometry in terms of a self-similar adiabatic expansion, (2) DEM analysis of CME mass over entire coronal temperature range, (3) deceleration of CME due to gravity force which controls the kinetic and potentail CME energy as a function of time, (4) the critical speed that controls eruptive and confined CMEs, (5) the relationship between the center-of-mass motion during EUV dimming and the leading edge motion observed in white-light coronagraphs. Novel results are: (1) Physical parameters obtained from both the EUV dimming and white-light method can be reconciled; (2) the equi-partition of CME kinetic and thermal flare energy; (3) the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling law. We find that the two methods in EUV and white-light wavelengths are highly complementary and yield more complete models than each method alone.

  15. Solar Cycle Variation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-08-25

    Aug 25, 2010 ... 3Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences ... ICME-associated CME latitudes during solar cycle 23 using Song et al.'s method. ..... latitudes during the three phases of cycle 23 separately for the northern (left panel) and southern. (right panel) ...

  16. Investigations of the sensitivity of a coronal mass ejection model (ENLIL) to solar input parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vršnak, B.; Taktakishvili, A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding space weather is not only important for satellite operations and human exploration of the solar system but also to phenomena here on Earth that may potentially disturb and disrupt electrical signals. Some of the most violent space weather effects are caused by coronal mass ejections...... (CMEs), but in order to predict the caused effects, we need to be able to model their propagation from their origin in the solar corona to the point of interest, e.g., Earth. Many such models exist, but to understand the models in detail we must understand the primary input parameters. Here we...... investigate the parameter space of the ENLILv2.5b model using the CME event of 25 July 2004. ENLIL is a time‐dependent 3‐D MHD model that can simulate the propagation of cone‐shaped interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) through the solar system. Excepting the cone parameters (radius, position...

  17. Self consistent MHD modeling of the solar wind from polar coronal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G. A.; Bravo, S.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a 2D self consistent MHD model for solar wind flow from antisymmetric magnetic geometries. We present results in the case of a photospheric magnetic field which has a dipolar configuration, in order to investigate some of the general characteristics of the wind at solar minimum. As in previous studies, we find that the magnetic configuration is that of a closed field region (a coronal helmet belt) around the solar equator, extending up to about 1.6 R · , and two large open field regions centred over the poles (polar coronal holes), whose magnetic and plasma fluxes expand to fill both hemispheres in interplanetary space. In addition, we find that the different geometries of the magnetic field lines across each hole (from the almost radial central polar lines to the highly curved border equatorial lines) cause the solar wind to have greatly different properties depending on which region it flows from. We find that, even though our simplified model cannot produce realistic wind values, we can obtain a polar wind that is faster, less dense and hotter than equatorial wind, and found that, close to the Sun, there exists a sharp transition between the two wind types. As these characteristics coincide with observations we conclude that both fast and slow solar wind can originate from coronal holes, fast wind from the centre, slow wind from the border

  18. Solar flares, coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particle event characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Sandberg, Ingmar; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Kostas; Tsiropoula, Georgia; Jiggens, Piers; Hilgers, Alain

    2016-12-01

    A new catalogue of 314 solar energetic particle (SEP) events extending over a large time span from 1984 to 2013 has been compiled. The properties as well as the associations of these SEP events with their parent solar sources have been thoroughly examined. The properties of the events include the proton peak integral flux and the fluence for energies above 10, 30, 60 and 100 MeV. The associated solar events were parametrized by solar flare (SF) and coronal mass ejection (CME) characteristics, as well as related radio emissions. In particular, for SFs: the soft X-ray (SXR) peak flux, the SXR fluence, the heliographic location, the rise time and the duration were exploited; for CMEs the plane-of-sky velocity as well as the angular width were utilized. For radio emissions, type III, II and IV radio bursts were identified. Furthermore, we utilized element abundances of Fe and O. We found evidence that most of the SEP events in our catalogue do not conform to a simple two-class paradigm, with the 73% of them exhibiting both type III and type II radio bursts, and that a continuum of event properties is present. Although, the so-called hybrid or mixed events are found to be present in our catalogue, it was not possible to attribute each SEP event to a mixed/hybrid sub-category. Moreover, it appears that the start of the type III burst most often precedes the maximum of the SF and thus falls within the impulsive phase of the associated SF. At the same time, type III bursts take place within ≈5.22 min, on average, in advance from the time of maximum of the derivative of the SXR flux (Neupert effect). We further performed a statistical analysis and a mapping of the logarithm of the proton peak flux at E > 10 MeV, on different pairs of the parent solar source characteristics. This revealed correlations in 3-D space and demonstrated that the gradual SEP events that stem from the central part of the visible solar disk constitute a significant radiation risk. The velocity of

  19. Study of coronal and interplanetary propagation of solar particles following the E450 solar flare on July 29, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombosi, T.; Somogyi, A.J.; Kolesov, G.Ya.; Kurt, V.G.; Kuzhevskii, B.M.; Logachev, Yu.I.; Savenko, I.A.; Shestopalov, I.P.

    1977-01-01

    Intensity profiles of protons and electrons of various energies measured onboard the high-apogee Prognos-3 satellite are analysed as well as the energy balance between the various flare produced phenomena. The general behaviour of the solar particle event following the 3B flare at E45 0 can be well described in terms of a simple model which takes into account coronal diffusion with a leakage time and a Krimigis' type interplanetary diffusion. The results suggest an inverse dependence of coronal diffusion coefficient on rigidity. (author)

  20. Magnetic Flux Rope Identification and Characterization from Observationally Driven Solar Coronal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Chris; Yeates, Anthony

    2017-09-01

    Formed through magnetic field shearing and reconnection in the solar corona, magnetic flux ropes are structures of twisted magnetic field, threaded along an axis. Their evolution and potential eruption are of great importance for space weather. Here we describe a new methodology for the automated detection of flux ropes in simulated magnetic fields, utilizing field-line helicity. Our Flux Rope Detection and Organization (FRoDO) code, which measures the magnetic flux and helicity content of pre-erupting flux ropes over time, as well as detecting eruptions, is publicly available. As a first demonstration, the code is applied to the output from a time-dependent magnetofrictional model, spanning 1996 June 15-2014 February 10. Over this period, 1561 erupting and 2099 non-erupting magnetic flux ropes are detected, tracked, and characterized. For this particular model data, erupting flux ropes have a mean net helicity magnitude of 2.66× {10}43 Mx2, while non-erupting flux ropes have a significantly lower mean of 4.04× {10}42 Mx2, although there is overlap between the two distributions. Similarly, the mean unsigned magnetic flux for erupting flux ropes is 4.04× {10}21 Mx, significantly higher than the mean value of 7.05× {10}20 Mx for non-erupting ropes. These values for erupting flux ropes are within the broad range expected from observational and theoretical estimates, although the eruption rate in this particular model is lower than that of observed coronal mass ejections. In the future, the FRoDO code will prove to be a valuable tool for assessing the performance of different non-potential coronal simulations and comparing them with observations.

  1. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a basal state (at 1.5 x 10(exp 6) K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas <10 G) weakened to below 35 G, while the electron density continued to decrease with the weakening field. These physical properties are all positively correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.

  2. Chasing the Great American 2017 Total Solar Eclipse: Coronal Results from NASA's WB-57F High-Altitude Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A.; Tsang, C.; DeForest, C. E.; Seaton, D. B.; Bryans, P.; Burkepile, J.; Casey, T. A.; Collier, J.; Darrow, D.; DeLuca, E.; Durda, D. D.; Gallagher, P.; Golub, L.; Judge, P. G.; Laurent, G. T.; Lewis, J.; Mallini, C.; Parent, T.; Propp, T.; Steffl, A.; Tomczyk, S.; Warner, J.; West, M. J.; Wiseman, J.; Zhukov, A.

    2017-12-01

    Total solar eclipses present rare opportunities to study the complex solar corona, down to altitudes of just a few percent of a solar radius above the surface, using ground-based and airborne observatories that would otherwise be dominated by the intense solar disk and high sky brightness. Studying the corona is critical to gaining a better understanding of physical processes that occur on other stars and astrophysical objects, as well as understanding the dominant driver of space weather that affects human assets at Earth and elsewhere. For example, it is still poorly understood how the corona is heated to temperatures of 1-2 MK globally and up to 5-10 MK above active regions, while the underlying chromosphere is 100 times cooler; numerous theories abound, but are difficult to constrain due to the limited sensitivities and cadences of prior measurements. The origins and stability of coronal fans, and the extent of their reach to the middle and outer corona, are also not well known, limited in large part by sensitivities and fields of view of existing observations. Airborne observations during the eclipse provide unique advantages; by flying in the stratosphere at altitudes of 50 kft or higher, they avoid all weather, the seeing quality is enormously improved, and additional wavelengths such as near- IR also become available due to significantly reduced water absorption. For an eclipse, an airborne observatory can also follow the shadow, increasing the total observing time by 50% or more. We present results of solar coronal measurements from airborne observations of the 2017 Great American Total Solar Eclipse using two of NASA's WB-57 high-altitude research aircraft, each equipped with two 8.7" telescopes feeding high-sensitivity visible (green-line) and medium-wave IR (3-5 μm) cameras operating at high cadence (30 Hz) with 3 arcsec/pixel platescale and ±3 R_sun fields of view. The aircraft flew along the eclipse path, separated by 110 km, to observe a summed 7

  3. ASSOCIATION OF {sup 3}He-RICH SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES WITH LARGE-SCALE CORONAL WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bučík, Radoslav [Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, D-37077, Göttingen (Germany); Innes, Davina E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077, Göttingen (Germany); Mason, Glenn M. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Wiedenbeck, Mark E., E-mail: bucik@mps.mpg.de [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    Small, {sup 3}He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been commonly associated with extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) jets and narrow coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that are believed to be the signatures of magnetic reconnection, involving field lines open to interplanetary space. The elemental and isotopic fractionation in these events are thought to be caused by processes confined to the flare sites. In this study, we identify 32 {sup 3}He-rich SEP events observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer , near the Earth, during the solar minimum period 2007–2010, and we examine their solar sources with the high resolution Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO ) EUV images. Leading the Earth, STEREO -A has provided, for the first time, a direct view on {sup 3}He-rich flares, which are generally located on the Sun’s western hemisphere. Surprisingly, we find that about half of the {sup 3}He-rich SEP events in this survey are associated with large-scale EUV coronal waves. An examination of the wave front propagation, the source-flare distribution, and the coronal magnetic field connections suggests that the EUV waves may affect the injection of {sup 3}He-rich SEPs into interplanetary space.

  4. A DATA-DRIVEN ANALYTIC MODEL FOR PROTON ACCELERATION BY LARGE-SCALE SOLAR CORONAL SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozarev, Kamen A. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (United States); Schwadron, Nathan A. [Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We have recently studied the development of an eruptive filament-driven, large-scale off-limb coronal bright front (OCBF) in the low solar corona, using remote observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ’s Advanced Imaging Assembly EUV telescopes. In that study, we obtained high-temporal resolution estimates of the OCBF parameters regulating the efficiency of charged particle acceleration within the theoretical framework of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). These parameters include the time-dependent front size, speed, and strength, as well as the upstream coronal magnetic field orientations with respect to the front’s surface normal direction. Here we present an analytical particle acceleration model, specifically developed to incorporate the coronal shock/compressive front properties described above, derived from remote observations. We verify the model’s performance through a grid of idealized case runs using input parameters typical for large-scale coronal shocks, and demonstrate that the results approach the expected DSA steady-state behavior. We then apply the model to the event of 2011 May 11 using the OCBF time-dependent parameters derived by Kozarev et al. We find that the compressive front likely produced energetic particles as low as 1.3 solar radii in the corona. Comparing the modeled and observed fluences near Earth, we also find that the bulk of the acceleration during this event must have occurred above 1.5 solar radii. With this study we have taken a first step in using direct observations of shocks and compressions in the innermost corona to predict the onsets and intensities of solar energetic particle events.

  5. MULTIFRACTAL SOLAR EUV INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadavid, A. C.; Lawrence, J. K.; Christian, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Rivera, Y. J. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Jennings, P. J. [5174 S. Slauson Avenue, Culver City, CA 90230 (United States); Rappazzo, A. F., E-mail: ana.cadavid@csun.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    We investigate the scaling properties of the long-range temporal evolution and intermittency of Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/ Solar Dynamics Observatory intensity observations in four solar environments: an active region core, a weak emission region, and two core loops. We use two approaches: the probability distribution function (PDF) of time series increments and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). Noise taints the results, so we focus on the 171 Å waveband, which has the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The lags between pairs of wavebands distinguish between coronal versus transition region (TR) emission. In all physical regions studied, scaling in the range of 15–45 minutes is multifractal, and the time series are anti-persistent on average. The degree of anti-correlation in the TR time series is greater than that for coronal emission. The multifractality stems from long-term correlations in the data rather than the wide distribution of intensities. Observations in the 335 Å waveband can be described in terms of a multifractal with added noise. The multiscaling of the extreme-ultraviolet data agrees qualitatively with the radiance from a phenomenological model of impulsive bursts plus noise, and also from ohmic dissipation in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model for coronal loop heating. The parameter space must be further explored to seek quantitative agreement. Thus, the observational “signatures” obtained by the combined tests of the PDF of increments and the MF-DFA offer strong constraints that can systematically discriminate among models for coronal heating.

  6. EUV FLICKERING OF SOLAR CORONAL LOOPS: A NEW DIAGNOSTIC OF CORONAL HEATING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajfirouze, E.; Reale, F.; Peres, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 (Italy); Testa, P., E-mail: reale@astropa.unipa.it [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    A previous work of ours found the best agreement between EUV light curves observed in an active region core (with evidence of super-hot plasma) and those predicted from a model with a random combination of many pulse-heated strands with a power-law energy distribution. We extend that work by including spatially resolved strand modeling and by studying the evolution of emission along the loops in the EUV 94 Å and 335 Å channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Using the best parameters of the previous work as the input of the present one, we find that the amplitude of the random fluctuations driven by the random heat pulses increases from the bottom to the top of the loop in the 94 Å channel and from the top to the bottom in the 335 Å channel. This prediction is confirmed by the observation of a set of aligned neighboring pixels along a bright arc of an active region core. Maps of pixel fluctuations may therefore provide easy diagnostics of nanoflaring regions.

  7. Coronal Mass Ejections of Solar Cycle 23 Nat Gopalswamy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hanssen 1995)), slow-drifting radio bursts (Payne-Scott et al. 1947), and moving type. IV radio bursts (Boischot 1957). There were also other indications ..... ASA, 2, 57. Hirshberg, J., Bame, S. J., Robbins, D. E. 1972, Solar Phys., 23, 467. Howard, R. A., Michels, D. J., Sheeley, N. R. Jr., Koomen, M. J. 1982, ApJ, 263, L101.

  8. PLASMA SLOSHING IN PULSE-HEATED SOLAR AND STELLAR CORONAL LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reale, F., E-mail: fabio.reale@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and Chimica, Università di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    There is evidence that coronal heating is highly intermittent, and flares are the high energy extreme. The properties of the heat pulses are difficult to constrain. Here, hydrodynamic loop modeling shows that several large amplitude oscillations (∼20% in density) are triggered in flare light curves if the duration of the heat pulse is shorter than the sound crossing time of the flaring loop. The reason for this is that the plasma does not have enough time to reach pressure equilibrium during heating, and traveling pressure fronts develop. The period is a few minutes for typical solar coronal loops, dictated by the sound crossing time in the decay phase. The long period and large amplitude make these oscillations different from typical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. This diagnostic can be applied both to observations of solar and stellar flares and to future observations of non-flaring loops at high resolution.

  9. Latitude dependence of the solar wind speed: Influence of the coronal magnetic field geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pneuman, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    The dependence of solar wind speed on latitude as influenced by the magnetic field configuration of the inner corona is studied. It is found that in general, a dipolelike field geometry characteristic of a minimum-type corona tends to produce a solar wind speed distribution which increases with heliographic latitude, in accordance with observations. At very high coronal base densities and temperatures, however, this effect is minimal or even inverted. Physically, the field affects the wind speed through its area divergence, a larger divergence resulting in correspondingly lower speeds. During solar minimum, eclipse photographs suggest that the field divergence increases from pole to equator, a characteristic not apparent during solar maximum. Hence we expect the latitudinal increase in speed to be most pronounced at the minimum phase of solar activity

  10. The effects of coronal holes on the propagation of solar energetic protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunches, Joseph M.; Zwickl, Ronald D.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate prediction of the start of a Solar Energetic Particle Event (SEP) is a high priority for space weather forecasters. The Space Environment Center (SEC) has recorded parameters related to SEPs since 1976, and that list includes a total of 134 events for the period 1976-1997. The onset times of individual events are variable, especially SEPs originating from the solar eastern hemisphere. An examination of the data shows the full set can be divided into two families -- those that begin at the geosynchronous satellite at a time consistent with what would be expected for activity from a given heliolongitude, and those whose onset is later than what accepted forecast techniques would predict. There are 21 'long onset' events in this historical record. Seeking to understand what factors distinguished the slow-to-arrive events, Helium I 1083.0 nm observations were examined for the presence of coronal holes at the times of the SEPs. It was found that all SEPs with long onset times had a coronal hole situated between the flare site and the footpoint of the interplanetary magnetic field line connecting to Earth ( Solar-Terrestrial Predictions-V, Hiraiso Solar-Terrestrial Research Center, Ibaraki, Japan). This coronal hole configuration is important for accurate predictions, although the hole may serve as merely a proxy for the plasma conditions that actually affect the propagation and acceleration of the protons. Since coronal holes are easily identifiable using Helium I and other wavelengths, operational forecasters can employ this technique to improve their predictions of SEPs

  11. Activity associated with coronal mass ejections at solar minimum - SMM observations from 1984-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Webb, D. F.

    1991-01-01

    Seventy-three coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by the coronagraph aboard SMM between 1984 and 1986 were examined in order to determine the distribution of various forms of solar activity that were spatially and temporally associated with mass ejections during solar minimum phase. For each coronal mass ejection a speed was measured, and the departure time of the transient from the lower corona estimated. Other forms of solar activity that appeared within 45 deg longitude and 30 deg latitude of the mass ejection and within +/-90 min of its extrapolated departure time were explored. The statistical results of the analysis of these 73 CMEs are presented, and it is found that slightly less than half of them were infrequently associated with other forms of solar activity. It is suggested that the distribution of the various forms of activity related to CMEs does not change at different phases of the solar cycle. For those CMEs with associations, it is found that eruptive prominences and soft X-rays were the most likely forms of activity to accompany the appearance of mass ejections.

  12. CORONAL DYNAMIC ACTIVITIES IN THE DECLINING PHASE OF A SOLAR CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Minhwan; Choe, G. S. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Woods, T. N. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Hong, Sunhak, E-mail: gchoe@khu.ac.kr [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-10

    It has been known that some solar activity indicators show a double-peak feature in their evolution through a solar cycle, which is not conspicuous in sunspot number. In this Letter, we investigate the high solar dynamic activity in the declining phase of the sunspot cycle by examining the evolution of polar and low-latitude coronal hole (CH) areas, splitting and merging events of CHs, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) detected by SOHO /LASCO C3 in solar cycle 23. Although the total CH area is at its maximum near the sunspot minimum, in which polar CHs prevail, it shows a comparable second maximum in the declining phase of the cycle, in which low-latitude CHs are dominant. The events of CH splitting or merging, which are attributed to surface motions of magnetic fluxes, are also mostly populated in the declining phase of the cycle. The far-reaching C3 CMEs are also overpopulated in the declining phase of the cycle. From these results we suggest that solar dynamic activities due to the horizontal surface motions of magnetic fluxes extend far in the declining phase of the sunspot cycle.

  13. CORONAL DYNAMIC ACTIVITIES IN THE DECLINING PHASE OF A SOLAR CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Minhwan; Choe, G. S.; Woods, T. N.; Hong, Sunhak

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that some solar activity indicators show a double-peak feature in their evolution through a solar cycle, which is not conspicuous in sunspot number. In this Letter, we investigate the high solar dynamic activity in the declining phase of the sunspot cycle by examining the evolution of polar and low-latitude coronal hole (CH) areas, splitting and merging events of CHs, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) detected by SOHO /LASCO C3 in solar cycle 23. Although the total CH area is at its maximum near the sunspot minimum, in which polar CHs prevail, it shows a comparable second maximum in the declining phase of the cycle, in which low-latitude CHs are dominant. The events of CH splitting or merging, which are attributed to surface motions of magnetic fluxes, are also mostly populated in the declining phase of the cycle. The far-reaching C3 CMEs are also overpopulated in the declining phase of the cycle. From these results we suggest that solar dynamic activities due to the horizontal surface motions of magnetic fluxes extend far in the declining phase of the sunspot cycle.

  14. Center-to-Limb Variability of Hot Coronal EUV Emissions During Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, E. M. B.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Eparvier, F. G.; Epp, L.

    2018-02-01

    It is generally accepted that densities of quiet-Sun and active region plasma are sufficiently low to justify the optically thin approximation, and this is commonly used in the analysis of line emissions from plasma in the solar corona. However, the densities of solar flare loops are substantially higher, compromising the optically thin approximation. This study begins with a radiative transfer model that uses typical solar flare densities and geometries to show that hot coronal emission lines are not generally optically thin. Furthermore, the model demonstrates that the observed line intensity should exhibit center-to-limb variability (CTLV), with flares observed near the limb being dimmer than those occurring near disk center. The model predictions are validated with an analysis of over 200 flares observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which uses six lines, with peak formation temperatures between 8.9 and 15.8 MK, to show that limb flares are systematically dimmer than disk-center flares. The data are then used to show that the electron column density along the line of sight typically increases by 1.76 × 10^{19} cm^{-2} for limb flares over the disk-center flare value. It is shown that the CTLV of hot coronal emissions reduces the amount of ionizing radiation propagating into the solar system, and it changes the relative intensities of lines and bands commonly used for spectral analysis.

  15. Characteristics of coronal shock waves and solar type 2 radio bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G.; Classen, H.-T.

    1995-01-01

    In the solar corona shock waves generated by flares and/or coronal mass ejections can be observed by radio astronomical methods in terms of solar type 2 radio bursts. In dynamic radio spectra they appear as emission stripes slowly drifting from high to low frequencies. A sample of 25 solar type 2 radio bursts observed in the range of 40 - 170 MHz with a time resolution of 0.1 s by the new radiospectrograph of the Astrophvsikalisches Institut Potsdam in Tremsdorf is statistically investigated concerning their spectral features, i.e, drift rate, instantaneous bandwidth, and fundamental harmonic ratio. In-situ plasma wave measurements at interplanetary shocks provide the assumption that type 2 radio radiation is emitted in the vicinity of the transition region of shock waves. Thus, the instantaneous bandwidth of a solar type 2 radio burst would reflect the density jump across the associated shock wave. Comparing the inspection of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations of shock waves under coronal circumstances with those obtained from the observational study, solar type 2 radio bursts should be regarded to be generated by weak supercritical, quasi-parallel, fast magnetosonic shock waves in the corona.

  16. ON THE CONNECTION BETWEEN PROPAGATING SOLAR CORONAL DISTURBANCES AND CHROMOSPHERIC FOOTPOINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryans, P.; McIntosh, S. W.; Moortel, I. De [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Pontieu, B. De [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, Org. A021S, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) provides an unparalleled opportunity to explore the (thermal) interface between the chromosphere, transition region, and the coronal plasma observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO ). The SDO /AIA observations of coronal loop footpoints show strong recurring upward propagating signals—“propagating coronal disturbances” (PCDs) with apparent speeds of the order of 100–120 km s{sup −1}. That signal has a clear signature in the slit-jaw images of IRIS in addition to identifiable spectral signatures and diagnostics in the Mg iih (2803 Å) line. In analyzing the Mg iih line, we are able to observe the presence of magnetoacoustic shock waves that are also present in the vicinity of the coronal loop footpoints. We see there is enough of a correspondence between the shock propagation in Mg iih, the evolution of the Si iv line profiles, and the PCD evolution to indicate that these waves are an important ingredient for PCDs. In addition, the strong flows in the jet-like features in the IRIS Si iv slit-jaw images are also associated with PCDs, such that waves and flows both appear to be contributing to the signals observed at the footpoints of PCDs.

  17. TETHER-CUTTING RECONNECTION BETWEEN TWO SOLAR FILAMENTS TRIGGERING OUTFLOWS AND A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Li, Leping [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ma, Suli, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2016-02-20

    Triggering mechanisms of solar eruptions have long been a challenge. A few previous case studies have indicated that preceding gentle filament merging via magnetic reconnection may launch following intense eruption, according to the tether-cutting (TC) model. However, the detailed process of TC reconnection between filaments has not been exhibited yet. In this work, we report the high-resolution observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) of TC reconnection between two sheared filaments in NOAA active region 12146. The TC reconnection commenced on ∼15:35 UT on 2014 August 29 and triggered an eruptive GOES C4.3-class flare ∼8 minutes later. An associated coronal mass ejection appeared in the field of view of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/LASCO C2 about 40 minutes later. Thanks to the high spatial resolution of IRIS data, bright plasma outflows generated by the TC reconnection are clearly observed, which moved along the subarcsecond fine-scale flux tube structures in the erupting filament. Based on the imaging and spectral observations, the mean plane-of-sky and line-of-sight velocities of the TC reconnection outflows are separately measured to be ∼79 and 86 km s{sup −1}, which derives an average real speed of ∼120 km s{sup −1}. In addition, it is found that spectral features, such as peak intensities, Doppler shifts, and line widths in the TC reconnection region are evidently enhanced compared to those in the nearby region just before the flare.

  18. THE POSSIBLE IMPACT OF L5 MAGNETOGRAMS ON NON-POTENTIAL SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinzierl, Marion; Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Pevtsov, Alexei A., E-mail: marion.weinzierl@durham.ac.uk [National Solar Observatory 3010 Coronal Loop, sunspot NM 88349 (United States)

    2016-09-10

    The proposed Carrington-L5 mission would bring instruments to the L5 Lagrange point to provide us with crucial data for space weather prediction. To assess the importance of including a magnetograph, we consider the possible differences in non-potential solar coronal magnetic field simulations when magnetograph observations are available from the L5 point, compared with an L1-based field of view (FOV). A timeseries of synoptic radial magnetic field maps is constructed to capture the emergence of two active regions from the L5 FOV. These regions are initially absent in the L1 magnetic field maps, but are included once they rotate into the L1 FOV. Non-potential simulations for these two sets of input data are compared in detail. Within the bipolar active regions themselves, differences in the magnetic field structure can exist between the two simulations once the active regions are included in both. These differences tend to reduce within 5 days of the active region being included in L1. The delayed emergence in L1 can, however, lead to significant persistent differences in long-range connectivity between the active regions and the surrounding fields, and also in the global magnetic energy. In particular, the open magnetic flux and the location of open magnetic footpoints, are sensitive to capturing the real-time of emergence. These results suggest that a magnetograph at L5 could significantly improve predictions of the non-potential corona, the interplanetary magnetic field, and of solar wind source regions on the Sun.

  19. A Complex Solar Coronal Jet with Two Phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie; Su, Jiangtao; Deng, Yuanyong [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Priest, E. R., E-mail: chenjie@bao.ac.cn [Mathematical Institute, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    Jets often occur repeatedly from almost the same location. In this paper, a complex solar jet was observed with two phases to the west of NOAA AR 11513 on 2012 July 2. If it had been observed at only moderate resolution, the two phases and their points of origin would have been regarded as identical. However, at high resolution we find that the two phases merge into one another and the accompanying footpoint brightenings occur at different locations. The phases originate from different magnetic patches rather than being one phase originating from the same patch. Photospheric line of sight (LOS) magnetograms show that the bases of the two phases lie in two different patches of magnetic flux that decrease in size during the occurrence of the two phases. Based on these observations, we suggest that the driving mechanism of the two successive phases is magnetic cancellation of two separate magnetic fragments with an opposite-polarity fragment between them.

  20. The correlation of fractal structures in the photospheric and the coronal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Georgoulis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Anastasiadis, A.; Strintzi, D.; Moussas, X.

    2009-10-01

    Context: This work examines the relation between the fractal properties of the photospheric magnetic patterns and those of the coronal magnetic fields in solar active regions. Aims: We investigate whether there is any correlation between the fractal dimensions of the photospheric structures and the magnetic discontinuities formed in the corona. Methods: To investigate the connection between the photospheric and coronal complexity, we used a nonlinear force-free extrapolation method that reconstructs the 3d magnetic fields using 2d observed vector magnetograms as boundary conditions. We then located the magnetic discontinuities, which are considered as spatial proxies of reconnection-related instabilities. These discontinuities form well-defined volumes, called here unstable volumes. We calculated the fractal dimensions of these unstable volumes and compared them to the fractal dimensions of the boundary vector magnetograms. Results: Our results show no correlation between the fractal dimensions of the observed 2d photospheric structures and the extrapolated unstable volumes in the corona, when nonlinear force-free extrapolation is used. This result is independent of efforts to (1) bring the photospheric magnetic fields closer to a nonlinear force-free equilibrium and (2) omit the lower part of the modeled magnetic field volume that is almost completely filled by unstable volumes. A significant correlation between the fractal dimensions of the photospheric and coronal magnetic features is only observed at the zero level (lower limit) of approximation of a current-free (potential) magnetic field extrapolation. Conclusions: We conclude that the complicated transition from photospheric non-force-free fields to coronal force-free ones hampers any direct correlation between the fractal dimensions of the 2d photospheric patterns and their 3d counterparts in the corona at the nonlinear force-free limit, which can be considered as a second level of approximation in this

  1. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  2. Line-of-sight velocity as a tracer of coronal cavity magnetic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula eBak-Steslicka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of 66 days of observations of quiescent (non-erupting coronal cavities and associated velocity and thermal structures. We find that nested rings of LOS-oriented velocity are common in occurrence and spatially well correlated with cavities observed in emission. We find that the majority of cavities possess multiple rings, and a range in velocity on the order of several $km/sec$. We find that the tops of prominences lie systematically below the cavity center and location of largest Doppler velocity. Finally, we use DEM analysis to consider the temperature structure of two cavities in relation to cavity, prominence, and flows. These observations yield new constraints on the magnetic structure of cavities, and on the conditions leading up to solar eruptions.

  3. Line-of-Sight Velocity As a Tracer of Coronal Cavity Magnetic Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bąk-Stȩślicka, Urszula; Gibson, Sarah E.; Chmielewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of 66 days of observations of quiescent (non-erupting) coronal cavities and associated velocity and thermal structures. We find that nested rings of LOS-oriented velocity are common in occurrence and spatially well correlated with cavities observed in emission. We find that the majority of cavities possess multiple rings, and a range in velocity on the order of several km∕sec. We find that the tops of prominences lie systematically below the cavity center and location of largest Doppler velocity. Finally, we use DEM analysis to consider the temperature structure of two cavities in relation to cavity, prominence, and flows. These observations yield new constraints on the magnetic structure of cavities, and on the conditions leading up to solar eruptions.

  4. Association of 3He-rich solar energetic particles with large-scale coronal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucik, Radoslav; Innes, Davina; Guo, Lijia; Mason, Glenn M.; Wiedenbeck, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Impulsive or 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been typically associated with jets or small EUV brightenings. We identify 30 impulsive SEP events from ACE at L1 during the solar minimum period 2007-2010 and examine their solar sources with high resolution STEREO-A EUV images. At beginning of 2007, STEREO-A was near the Earth while at the end of the investigated period, when there were more events, STEREO-A was leading the Earth by 90°. Thus STEREO-A provided a better (more direct) view on 3He-rich flares generally located on the western Sun's hemisphere. Surprisingly, we find that about half of the events are associated with large-scale EUV coronal waves. This finding provides new insights on acceleration and transport of 3He-rich SEPs in solar corona. It is believed that elemental and isotopic fractionation in impulsive SEP events is caused by more localized processes operating in the flare sites. The EUV waves have been reported in gradual SEP events in association with fast coronal mass ejections. To examine their role on 3He-rich SEPs production the energy spectra and relative abundances are discussed. R. Bucik is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft under grant BU 3115/2-1.

  5. MAGNETIC FLUX CANCELATION AS THE TRIGGER OF SOLAR QUIET-REGION CORONAL JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L. [Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office, ZP13, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Chakrapani, Prithi, E-mail: navdeep.k.panesar@nasa.gov [Hunter College High School, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We report observations of 10 random on-disk solar quiet-region coronal jets found in high-resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and having good coverage in magnetograms from the SDO /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Recent studies show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of a small-scale filament (called a minifilament ). However, the trigger of these eruptions is still unknown. In the present study, we address the question: what leads to the jet-driving minifilament eruptions? The EUV observations show that there is a cool-transition-region-plasma minifilament present prior to each jet event and the minifilament eruption drives the jet. By examining pre-jet evolutionary changes in the line of sight photospheric magnetic field, we observe that each pre-jet minifilament resides over the neutral line between majority-polarity and minority-polarity patches of magnetic flux. In each of the 10 cases, the opposite-polarity patches approach and merge with each other (flux reduction between 21% and 57%). After several hours, continuous flux cancelation at the neutral line apparently destabilizes the field holding the cool-plasma minifilament to erupt and undergo internal reconnection, and external reconnection with the surrounding coronal field. The external reconnection opens the minifilament field allowing the minifilament material to escape outward, forming part of the jet spire. Thus, we found that each of the 10 jets resulted from eruption of a minifilament following flux cancelation at the neutral line under the minifilament. These observations establish that magnetic flux cancelation is usually the trigger of quiet-region coronal jet eruptions.

  6. Small Coronal Holes Near Active Regions as Sources of Slow Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.-M., E-mail: yi.wang@nrl.navy.mil [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We discuss the nature of the small areas of rapidly diverging, open magnetic flux that form in the strong unipolar fields at the peripheries of active regions (ARs), according to coronal extrapolations of photospheric field measurements. Because such regions usually have dark counterparts in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, we refer to them as coronal holes, even when they appear as narrow lanes or contain sunspots. Revisiting previously identified “AR sources” of slow solar wind from 1998 and 1999, we find that they are all associated with EUV coronal holes; the absence of well-defined He i 1083.0 nm counterparts to some of these holes is attributed to the large flux of photoionizing radiation from neighboring AR loops. Examining a number of AR-associated EUV holes during the 2014 activity maximum, we confirm that they are characterized by wind speeds of ∼300–450 km s{sup −1}, O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratios of ∼0.05–0.4, and footpoint field strengths typically of order 30 G. The close spacing between ARs at sunspot maximum limits the widths of unipolar regions and their embedded holes, while the continual emergence of new flux leads to rapid changes in the hole boundaries. Because of the highly nonradial nature of AR fields, the smaller EUV holes are often masked by the overlying canopy of loops, and may be more visible toward one solar limb than at central meridian. As sunspot activity declines, the AR remnants merge to form much larger, weaker, and longer-lived unipolar regions, which harbor the “classical” coronal holes that produce recurrent high-speed streams.

  7. Multi-thermal dynamics and energetics of a coronal mass ejection in the low solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, I. G.; Kontar, E. P.

    2013-05-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to determine the multi-thermal characteristics and plasma energetics of an eruptive plasmoid and occulted flare observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). Methods: We study a 2010 Nov. 3 event (peaking at 12:20 UT in GOES soft X-rays) of a coronal mass ejection and occulted flare that demonstrates the morphology of a classic erupting flux rope. The high spatial and time resolution and six coronal channels of the SDO/AIA images allows the dynamics of the multi-thermal emission during the initial phases of eruption to be studied in detail. The differential emission measure is calculated, using an optimized version of a regularized inversion method, for each pixel across the six channels at different times, resulting in emission measure maps and movies in a variety of temperature ranges. Results: We find that the core of the erupting plasmoid is hot (8-11, 11-14 MK) with a similarly hot filamentary "stem" structure connecting it to the lower atmosphere, which could be interpreted as the current sheet in the flux rope model, though is wider than these models suggest. The velocity of the leading edge of the eruption is 597-664 km s-1 in the temperature range ≥3-4 MK and between 1029-1246 km s-1 for ≤2-3 MK. We estimate the density (in 11-14 MK) of the erupting core and stem during the impulsive phase to be about 3 × 109 cm-3, 6 × 109 cm-3, 9 × 108 cm-3 in the plasmoid core, stem, and surrounding envelope of material. This gives thermal energy estimates of 5 × 1029 erg, 1 × 1029 erg, and 2 × 1030 erg. The kinetic energy for the core and envelope is slightly lower. The thermal energy of the core and current sheet grows during the eruption, suggesting continuous influx of energy presumably via reconnection. Conclusions: The combination of the optimized regularized inversion method and SDO/AIA data allows the multi-thermal characteristics (i.e. velocity, density, and thermal energies) of the

  8. Coronal heating driven by a magnetic gradient pumping mechanism in solar plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Baolin, E-mail: bltan@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-11-10

    The heating of the solar corona is a longstanding mystery in astrophysics. Considering that the solar magnetic field is spatially inhomogeneous with a considerable magnetic gradient from the solar surface to the corona, this work proposes a magnetic gradient pumping (MGP) mechanism to try to explain the formation of hot plasma upflows, such as hot type II spicules and hot plasma ejections. In the MGP mechanism, the magnetic gradient may drive the energetic particles to move upward from the underlying solar atmosphere and form hot upflows. These upflow energetic particles are deposited in the corona, causing it to become very hot. Rough estimations indicate that the solar corona can be heated to above 1 million degrees, and the upflow velocity is about 40 km s{sup –1} in the chromosphere and about 130 km s{sup –1} in the corona. The solar magnetic flux tubes act as pumpers to extract energetic particles from the underlying thermal photosphere, convey them, and deposit them in the corona. The deposit of these energetic particles causes the corona to become hot, and the escape of such particles from the photosphere leaves it a bit cold. This mechanism can present a natural explanation to the mystery of solar coronal heating.

  9. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E ∼ 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20° of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  10. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S. W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Akiyama, S. [Institute for Astrophyics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: AFRL.RVB.PA@kirtland.af.mil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E {approx} 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 Degree-Sign of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  11. Deflections of Fast Coronal Mass Ejections and the Properties of Associated Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E approx 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 deg. of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events

  12. Expanding and Contracting Coronal Loops as Evidence of Vortex Flows Induced by Solar Eruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudík, J. [Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Zuccarello, F. P.; Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B.; Démoulin, P., E-mail: jaroslav.dudik@asu.cas.cz [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Psl Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universits, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2017-07-20

    Eruptive solar flares were predicted to generate large-scale vortex flows at both sides of the erupting magnetic flux rope. This process is analogous to a well-known hydrodynamic process creating vortex rings. The vortices lead to advection of closed coronal loops located at the peripheries of the flaring active region. Outward flows are expected in the upper part and returning flows in the lower part of the vortex. Here, we examine two eruptive solar flares, the X1.1-class flare SOL2012-03-05T03:20 and the C3.5-class SOL2013-06-19T07:29. In both flares, we find that the coronal loops observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in its 171 Å, 193 Å, or 211 Å passbands show coexistence of expanding and contracting motions, in accordance with the model prediction. In the X-class flare, multiple expanding and contracting loops coexist for more than 35 minutes, while in the C-class flare, an expanding loop in 193 Å appears to be close by and cotemporal with an apparently imploding loop arcade seen in 171 Å. Later, the 193 Å loop also switches to contraction. These observations are naturally explained by vortex flows present in a model of eruptive solar flares.

  13. Spectral characteristics of aurorae connected with high-velocity flows of the solar wind from coronal holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khviyuzova, T.A.; Leont'ev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Bright electron aurorae almost always followed by red lower edge occur when the Earth is being passed by high-velocity flows from coronal holes within the auroral range at the night meridian. In contrast to other types of the solar wind the high-velocity flows from coronal holes do not cause the occurrence of A type red polar aurorae, that is, the spectrum of electrons pouring into the Earth atmosphere in these cases is shifted towards higher energies

  14. HOMOLOGOUS JET-DRIVEN CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM SOLAR ACTIVE REGION 12192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L., E-mail: navdeep.k.panesar@nasa.gov [Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office, ZP13, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    We report observations of homologous coronal jets and their coronal mass ejections (CMEs) observed by instruments onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. The homologous jets originated from a location with emerging and canceling magnetic field at the southeastern edge of the giant active region (AR) of 2014 October, NOAA 12192. This AR produced in its interior many non-jet major flare eruptions (X- and M- class) that made no CME. During October 20 to 27, in contrast to the major flare eruptions in the interior, six of the homologous jets from the edge resulted in CMEs. Each jet-driven CME (∼200–300 km s{sup −1}) was slower-moving than most CMEs, with angular widths (20°–50°) comparable to that of the base of a coronal streamer straddling the AR and were of the “streamer-puff” variety, whereby the preexisting streamer was transiently inflated but not destroyed by the passage of the CME. Much of the transition-region-temperature plasma in the CME-producing jets escaped from the Sun, whereas relatively more of the transition-region plasma in non-CME-producing jets fell back to the solar surface. Also, the CME-producing jets tended to be faster and longer-lasting than the non-CME-producing jets. Our observations imply that each jet and CME resulted from reconnection opening of twisted field that erupted from the jet base and that the erupting field did not become a plasmoid as previously envisioned for streamer-puff CMEs, but instead the jet-guiding streamer-base loop was blown out by the loop’s twist from the reconnection.

  15. An analysis of interplanetary solar radio emissions associated with a coronal mass ejection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupař, Vratislav; Eastwood, J. P.; Krupařová, Oksana; Santolík, Ondřej; Souček, Jan; Magdalenic, J.; Vourlidas, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Bonnin, X.; Bothmer, V.; Mrotzek, N.; Pluta, A.; Barnes, D.; Davies, J. A.; Oliveros, J.C.M.; Bale, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 823, č. 1 (2016) ISSN 2041-8205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-16050Y; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar -terrestrial relations * coronal mass ejections (CMEs) * radio radiation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8205/823/1/L5/meta

  16. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR THE PHOTOSPHERIC DRIVING OF NON-POTENTIAL SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinzierl, Marion; Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Mackay, Duncan H. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick, E-mail: marion.weinzierl@durham.ac.uk [Air Force Research Lab/Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue SE, Kirtland AFB, NM (United States)

    2016-05-20

    In this paper, we develop a new technique for driving global non-potential simulations of the Sun’s coronal magnetic field solely from sequences of radial magnetic maps of the solar photosphere. A primary challenge to driving such global simulations is that the required horizontal electric field cannot be uniquely determined from such maps. We show that an “inductive” electric field solution similar to that used by previous authors successfully reproduces specific features of the coronal field evolution in both single and multiple bipole simulations. For these cases, the true solution is known because the electric field was generated from a surface flux-transport model. The match for these cases is further improved by including the non-inductive electric field contribution from surface differential rotation. Then, using this reconstruction method for the electric field, we show that a coronal non-potential simulation can be successfully driven from a sequence of ADAPT maps of the photospheric radial field, without including additional physical observations which are not routinely available.

  17. Magnetic Untwisting in Solar Jets that Go into the Outer Corona in Polar Coronal Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from 14 exceptionally high-reaching large solar jets observed in the polar coronal holes. EUV movies from SDO/AIA show that each jet is similar to many other similar-size and smaller jets that erupt in coronal holes, but each is exceptional in that it goes higher than most other jets, so high that it is observed in the outer corona beyond 2.2 R(sub Sun) in images from the SOHO/LASCO/C2 coronagraph. For these high-reaching jets, we find: (1) the front of the jet transits the corona below 2.2 R(sub Sun) at a speed typically several times the sound speed; (2) each jet displays an exceptionally large amount of spin as it erupts; (3) in the outer corona, most jets display oscillatory swaying having an amplitude of a few degrees and a period of order 1 hour. We conclude that these jets are magnetically driven, propose that the driver is a magnetic-untwisting wave that is grossly a large-amplitude (i.e., nonlinear) torsional Alfven wave that is put into the reconnected open magnetic field in the jet by interchange reconnection as the jet erupts, and estimate from the measured spinning and swaying that the magnetic-untwisting wave loses most of its energy in the inner corona below 2.2 R(sub Sun). From these results for these big jets, we reason that the torsional magnetic waves observed in Type-II spicules should dissipate in the corona in the same way and could thereby power much of the coronal heating in coronal holes.

  18. Coronal Fine Structure in Dynamic Events Observed by Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy; Schuler, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July 11 and captured roughly 345 s of high spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 Angstrom channel. We have analyzed the fluctuations in intensity of Active Region 11520. We selected events based on a lifetime greater than 11 s (two Hi-C frames) and intensities greater than a threshold determined from the photon and readout noise. We compare the Hi-C events with those determined from AIA. We find that HI-C detects shorter and smaller events than AIA. We also find that the intensity increase in the Hi-C events is approx. 3 times greater than the intensity increase in the AIA events we conclude the events are related to linear sub-structure that is unresolved by AIA

  19. “Dandelion” Filament Eruption and Coronal Waves Associated with a Solar Flare on 2011 February 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabezas, Denis P.; Ishitsuka, Mutsumi; Ishitsuka, José K.; Martínez, Lurdes M.; Buleje, Yovanny J.; Morita, Satoshi; Asai, Ayumi; UeNo, Satoru; Ishii, Takako T.; Kitai, Reizaburo; Takasao, Shinsuke; Yoshinaga, Yusuke; Otsuji, Kenichi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    Coronal disturbances associated with solar flares, such as H α Moreton waves, X-ray waves, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal waves, are discussed herein in relation to magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves or shocks in the corona. To understand the mechanism of coronal disturbances, full-disk solar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution over multiple wavelengths are of crucial importance. We observed a filament eruption, whose shape is like a “dandelion,” associated with the M1.6 flare that occurred on 2011 February 16 in H α images taken by the Flare Monitoring Telescope at Ica University, Peru. We derive the three-dimensional velocity field of the erupting filament. We also identify winking filaments that are located far from the flare site in the H α images, whereas no Moreton wave is observed. By comparing the temporal evolution of the winking filaments with those of the coronal wave seen in the EUV images data taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead , we confirm that the winking filaments were activated by the EUV coronal wave.

  20. “Dandelion” Filament Eruption and Coronal Waves Associated with a Solar Flare on 2011 February 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas, Denis P.; Ishitsuka, Mutsumi; Ishitsuka, José K. [Geophysical Institute of Peru, Calle Badajoz 169, Mayorazgo IV Etapa, Ate Vitarte, Lima (Peru); Martínez, Lurdes M.; Buleje, Yovanny J. [Centro de Investigación del Estudio de la Actividad Solar y sus Efectos Sobre la Tierra, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica, Av. Los Maestros S/N, Ica (Peru); Morita, Satoshi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); UeNo, Satoru; Ishii, Takako T.; Kitai, Reizaburo; Takasao, Shinsuke; Yoshinaga, Yusuke; Otsuji, Kenichi; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: denis@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan)

    2017-02-10

    Coronal disturbances associated with solar flares, such as H α Moreton waves, X-ray waves, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) coronal waves, are discussed herein in relation to magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves or shocks in the corona. To understand the mechanism of coronal disturbances, full-disk solar observations with high spatial and temporal resolution over multiple wavelengths are of crucial importance. We observed a filament eruption, whose shape is like a “dandelion,” associated with the M1.6 flare that occurred on 2011 February 16 in H α images taken by the Flare Monitoring Telescope at Ica University, Peru. We derive the three-dimensional velocity field of the erupting filament. We also identify winking filaments that are located far from the flare site in the H α images, whereas no Moreton wave is observed. By comparing the temporal evolution of the winking filaments with those of the coronal wave seen in the EUV images data taken by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-Ahead , we confirm that the winking filaments were activated by the EUV coronal wave.

  1. Coronal magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jie; Bastian, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This volume is a collection of research articles on the subject of the solar corona, and particularly, coronal magnetism. The book was motivated by the Workshop on Coronal Magnetism: Connecting Models to Data and the Corona to the Earth, which was held 21 - 23 May 2012 in Boulder, Colorado, USA. This workshop was attended by approximately 60 researchers. Articles from this meeting are contained in this topical issue, but the topical issue also contains contributions from researchers not present at the workshop. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students active in solar physics. Originally published in Solar Physics, Vol. 288, Issue 2, 2013 and Vol. 289, Issue 8, 2014.

  2. The size of coronal hard X-ray sources in solar flares: How big are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, F.; Krucker, S.; Rubio da Costa, F.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal hard X-ray sources are considered to be one of the key signatures of non-thermal particle acceleration and heating during the energy release in solar flares. In some cases, X-ray observations reveal multiple components spatially located near and above the loop top and even further up in the corona. Here, we combine a detailed RHESSI imaging analysis of near-limb solar flares with occulted footpoints and a multi-wavelength study of the flare loop evolution in SDO/AIA. We connect our findings to different current sheet formation and magnetic break-out scenarios and relate it to particle acceleration theory. We find that the upper and usually fainter emission regions can be underestimated in their size due to the majority of flux originating from the lower loops.

  3. Turbulence-driven coronal heating and improvements to empirical forecasting of the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolsey, Lauren N.; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Forecasting models of the solar wind often rely on simple parameterizations of the magnetic field that ignore the effects of the full magnetic field geometry. In this paper, we present the results of two solar wind prediction models that consider the full magnetic field profile and include the effects of Alfvén waves on coronal heating and wind acceleration. The one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic code ZEPHYR self-consistently finds solar wind solutions without the need for empirical heating functions. Another one-dimensional code, introduced in this paper (The Efficient Modified-Parker-Equation-Solving Tool, TEMPEST), can act as a smaller, stand-alone code for use in forecasting pipelines. TEMPEST is written in Python and will become a publicly available library of functions that is easy to adapt and expand. We discuss important relations between the magnetic field profile and properties of the solar wind that can be used to independently validate prediction models. ZEPHYR provides the foundation and calibration for TEMPEST, and ultimately we will use these models to predict observations and explain space weather created by the bulk solar wind. We are able to reproduce with both models the general anticorrelation seen in comparisons of observed wind speed at 1 AU and the flux tube expansion factor. There is significantly less spread than comparing the results of the two models than between ZEPHYR and a traditional flux tube expansion relation. We suggest that the new code, TEMPEST, will become a valuable tool in the forecasting of space weather.

  4. Turbulence-driven coronal heating and improvements to empirical forecasting of the solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolsey, Lauren N.; Cranmer, Steven R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Forecasting models of the solar wind often rely on simple parameterizations of the magnetic field that ignore the effects of the full magnetic field geometry. In this paper, we present the results of two solar wind prediction models that consider the full magnetic field profile and include the effects of Alfvén waves on coronal heating and wind acceleration. The one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic code ZEPHYR self-consistently finds solar wind solutions without the need for empirical heating functions. Another one-dimensional code, introduced in this paper (The Efficient Modified-Parker-Equation-Solving Tool, TEMPEST), can act as a smaller, stand-alone code for use in forecasting pipelines. TEMPEST is written in Python and will become a publicly available library of functions that is easy to adapt and expand. We discuss important relations between the magnetic field profile and properties of the solar wind that can be used to independently validate prediction models. ZEPHYR provides the foundation and calibration for TEMPEST, and ultimately we will use these models to predict observations and explain space weather created by the bulk solar wind. We are able to reproduce with both models the general anticorrelation seen in comparisons of observed wind speed at 1 AU and the flux tube expansion factor. There is significantly less spread than comparing the results of the two models than between ZEPHYR and a traditional flux tube expansion relation. We suggest that the new code, TEMPEST, will become a valuable tool in the forecasting of space weather.

  5. Coronal Radio Sounding Experiments with Mars Express: Scintillation Spectra during Low Solar Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, A. I.; Lukanina, L. A.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Rudash, V. K.; Chashei, I. V.; Bird, M. K.; Paetzold, M.; Tellmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Coronal radio sounding observations were carried out with the radio science experiment MaRS on the ESA spacecraft Mars Express during the period from 25 August to 22 October 2004. Differential frequency and log-amplitude fluctuations of the dual-frequency signals were recorded during a period of low solar activity. The data are applicable to low heliographic latitudes, i.e. to slow solar wind. The mean frequency fluctuation and power law index of the frequency fluctuation temporal spectra are determined as a function of heliocentric distance. The radial dependence of the frequency fluctuation spectral index α reflects the previously documented flattening of the scintillation power spectra in the solar wind acceleration region. Temporal spectra of S-band and X-band normalized log-amplitude fluctuations were investigated over the range of fluctuation frequencies 0.01 Hz<ν<0.5 Hz, where the spectral density is approximately constant. The radial variation of the spectral density is analyzed and compared with Ulysses 1991 data, a period of high solar activity. Ranging measurements are presented and compared with frequency and log-amplitude scintillation data. Evidence for a weak increase in the fractional electron density turbulence level is obtained in the range 10-40 solar radii.

  6. INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN THE 2013 MAY 22 LARGE SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Liu-Guan; Xu, Fei; Gu, Bin; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Li, Gang; Jiang, Yong; Le, Gui-Ming; Shen, Cheng-Long; Wang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yao

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the eruption and interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) during the large 2013 May 22 solar energetic particle event using multiple spacecraft observations. Two CMEs, having similar propagation directions, were found to erupt from two nearby active regions (ARs), AR11748 and AR11745, at ∼08:48 UT and ∼13:25 UT, respectively. The second CME was faster than the first CME. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, we reconstructed the propagation of these two CMEs and found that the leading edge of the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME at a height of ∼6 solar radii. After about two hours, the leading edges of the two CMEs merged at a height of ∼20 solar radii. Type II solar radio bursts showed strong enhancement during this two hour period. Using the velocity dispersion method, we obtained the solar particle release (SPR) time and the path length for energetic electrons. Further assuming that energetic protons propagated along the same interplanetary magnetic field, we also obtained the SPR time for energetic protons, which were close to that of electrons. These release times agreed with the time when the second CME caught up with the trailing edge of the first CME, indicating that the CME-CME interaction (and shock-CME interaction) plays an important role in the process of particle acceleration in this event

  7. Determination of plasma parameters from soft X-ray images for coronal holes /open magnetic field configurations/ and coronal large-scale structures /extended closed-field configurations/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, C. W.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    In connection with high-quality solar soft X-ray images the 'quiet' features of the inner corona have been separated into two sharply different components, including the strongly reduced emission areas or coronal holes (CH) and the extended regions of looplike emission features or large-scale structures (LSS). Particular central meridian passage observations of the prominent CH1 on August 21, 1973, are selected for a quantitative study. Histogram photographic density distributions for full-disk images at other central meridian passages of CH 1 are also presented, and the techniques of converting low photographic density data to deposited energy are discussed, with particular emphasis on the problems associated with the CH data.

  8. EVOLUTION OF FAST MAGNETOACOUSTIC PULSES IN RANDOMLY STRUCTURED CORONAL PLASMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, D.; Li, B.; Pascoe, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Keppens, R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of fast magnetoacoustic pulses in randomly structured plasmas, in the context of large-scale propagating waves in the solar atmosphere. We perform one-dimensional numerical simulations of fast wave pulses propagating perpendicular to a constant magnetic field in a low-β plasma with a random density profile across the field. Both linear and nonlinear regimes are considered. We study how the evolution of the pulse amplitude and width depends on their initial values and the parameters of the random structuring. Acting as a dispersive medium, a randomly structured plasma causes amplitude attenuation and width broadening of the fast wave pulses. After the passage of the main pulse, secondary propagating and standing fast waves appear. Width evolution of both linear and nonlinear pulses can be well approximated by linear functions; however, narrow pulses may have zero or negative broadening. This arises because narrow pulses are prone to splitting, while broad pulses usually deviate less from their initial Gaussian shape and form ripple structures on top of the main pulse. Linear pulses decay at an almost constant rate, while nonlinear pulses decay exponentially. A pulse interacts most efficiently with a random medium with a correlation length of about half of the initial pulse width. This detailed model of fast wave pulses propagating in highly structured media substantiates the interpretation of EIT waves as fast magnetoacoustic waves. Evolution of a fast pulse provides us with a novel method to diagnose the sub-resolution filamentation of the solar atmosphere

  9. ROLE OF THE CORONAL ALFVÉN SPEED IN MODULATING THE SOLAR-WIND HELIUM ABUNDANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.-M., E-mail: yi.wang@nrl.navy.mil [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The helium abundance He/H in the solar wind is relatively constant at ∼0.04 in high-speed streams, but varies in phase with the sunspot number in slow wind, from ∼0.01 at solar minimum to ∼0.04 at maximum. Suggested mechanisms for helium fractionation have included frictional coupling to protons and resonant interactions with high-frequency Alfvénic fluctuations. We compare He/H measurements during 1995–2015 with coronal parameters derived from source-surface extrapolations of photospheric field maps. We find that the near-Earth helium abundance is an increasing function of the magnetic field strength and Alfvén speed v {sub A} in the outer corona, while being only weakly correlated with the proton flux density. Throughout the solar cycle, fast wind is associated with short-term increases in v {sub A} near the source surface; resonance with Alfvén waves, with v {sub A} and the relative speed of α -particles and protons decreasing with increasing heliocentric distance, may then lead to enhanced He/H at 1 au. The modulation of helium in slow wind reflects the tendency for the associated coronal Alfvén speeds to rise steeply from sunspot minimum, when this wind is concentrated around the source-surface neutral line, to sunspot maximum, when the source-surface field attains its peak strengths. The helium abundance near the source surface may represent a balance between collisional decoupling from protons and Alfvén wave acceleration.

  10. History and Development of Coronal Mass Ejections as a Key Player in Solar Terrestrial Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are relatively a recently discovered phenomenon in 1971, some 15 years into the Space Era. It took another two decades to realize that CMEs are the most important players in solar terrestrial relationship as the root cause of severe weather in Earths space environment. CMEs are now counted among the major natural hazards because they cause large solar energetic particle (SEP) events and major geomagnetic storms, both of which pose danger to humans and their technology in space and ground. Geomagnetic storms discovered in the 1700s, solar flares discovered in the 1800s, and SEP events discovered in the 1900s are all now found to be closely related to CMEs via various physical processes occurring at various locations in and around CMEs, when they interact with the ambient medium. This article identifies a number of key developments that preceded the discovery of white-light CMEs suggesting that CMEs were waiting to be discovered. The last two decades witnessed an explosion of CME research following the launch of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory mission in 1995, resulting in the establishment of a full picture of CMEs.

  11. CONSTRAINING THE SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH USING SPLIT-BAND TYPE II RADIO BURST OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore, P.; Ramesh, R.; Hariharan, K.; Kathiravan, C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore—560034 (India); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: kishore@iiap.res.in [Code 671, Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We report on low-frequency radio (85–35 MHz) spectral observations of four different type II radio bursts, which exhibited fundamental-harmonic emission and split-band structure. Each of the bursts was found to be closely associated with a whitelight coronal mass ejection (CME) close to the Sun. We estimated the coronal magnetic field strength from the split-band characteristics of the bursts, by assuming a model for the coronal electron density distribution. The choice of the model was constrained, based on the following criteria: (1) when the radio burst is observed simultaneously in the upper and lower bands of the fundamental component, the location of the plasma level corresponding to the frequency of the burst in the lower band should be consistent with the deprojected location of the leading edge (LE) of the associated CME; (2) the drift speed of the type II bursts derived from such a model should agree closely with the deprojected speed of the LE of the corresponding CMEs. With the above conditions, we find that: (1) the estimated field strengths are unique to each type II burst, and (2) the radial variation of the field strength in the different events indicate a pattern. It is steepest for the case where the heliocentric distance range over which the associated burst is observed is closest to the Sun, and vice versa.

  12. Solar wind plasma structure near a 'HELIOS-Perihelion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, H.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a couple of preliminary but important results obtained from HELIOS observation concerning solar wind plasma structure near a ''HELIOS-Perihelion'' among the data analyses in progress, partly in relation to laboratory plasma. Idealized profiles of the bulk velocity, density and temperature of solar wind near 0.3 AU as deduced from HELIOS A data and correlated K-coronal contours were obtained. During 1974 - 1976, the sun was in the period of declining cycle, and the coronal holes expanded to lower latitudes from northern and southern holes. There is general tendency that the northern coronal hole is somewhat larger than the southern coronal hole. In regards to solar wind velocity, there are two fast stream regions with velocity as high as 800 Km/sec. An electron spectrum measured near a HELIOS-Perihelion (0.3 AU) approximately in the solar direction is shown. Three regions can be distinguished in velocity distribution. The density contours of solar wind electrons in velocity space exhibit a narrow beam of electrons in the magnetic field direction close to the plane of observation. (Kato, T.)

  13. CHROMOSPHERIC AND CORONAL OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR FLARES WITH THE HELIOSEISMIC AND MAGNETIC IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Bain, Hazel [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lindsey, Charles [North West Research Associates, CORA Division, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Bogart, Rick; Couvidat, Sebastien; Scherrer, Phil [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Schou, Jesper [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    We report observations of white-light ejecta in the low corona, for two X-class flares on 2013 May 13, using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory. At least two distinct kinds of sources appeared (chromospheric and coronal), in the early and later phases of flare development, in addition to the white-light footpoint sources commonly observed in the lower atmosphere. The gradual emissions have a clear identification with the classical loop-prominence system, but are brighter than expected and possibly seen here in the continuum rather than line emission. We find the HMI flux exceeds the radio/X-ray interpolation of the bremsstrahlung produced in the flare soft X-ray sources by at least one order of magnitude. This implies the participation of cooler sources that can produce free-bound continua and possibly line emission detectable by HMI. One of the early sources dynamically resembles {sup c}oronal rain{sup ,} appearing at a maximum apparent height and moving toward the photosphere at an apparent constant projected speed of 134 ± 8 km s{sup –1}. Not much literature exists on the detection of optical continuum sources above the limb of the Sun by non-coronagraphic instruments and these observations have potential implications for our basic understanding of flare development, since visible observations can in principle provide high spatial and temporal resolution.

  14. SEISMOLOGY OF A LARGE SOLAR CORONAL LOOP FROM EUVI/STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF ITS TRANSVERSE OSCILLATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwichte, E.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Foullon, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    The first analysis of a transverse loop oscillation observed by both Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatories (STEREO) spacecraft is presented, for an event on the 2007 June 27 as seen by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI). The three-dimensional loop geometry is determined using a three-dimensional reconstruction with a semicircular loop model, which allows for an accurate measurement of the loop length. The plane of wave polarization is found from comparison with a simulated loop model and shows that the oscillation is a fundamental horizontally polarized fast magnetoacoustic kink mode. The oscillation is characterized using an automated method and the results from both spacecraft are found to match closely. The oscillation period is 630 ± 30 s and the damping time is 1000 ± 300 s. Also, clear intensity variations associated with the transverse loop oscillations are reported for the first time. They are shown to be caused by the effect of line-of-sight integration. The Alfven speed and coronal magnetic field derived using coronal seismology are discussed. This study shows that EUVI/STEREO observations achieve an adequate accuracy for studying long-period, large-amplitude transverse loop oscillations.

  15. Heating of an Erupting Prominence Associated with a Solar Coronal Mass Ejection on 2012 January 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Kim, Kap-Sung [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Raymond, John C.; Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    We investigate the heating of an erupting prominence and loops associated with a coronal mass ejection and X-class flare. The prominence is seen as absorption in EUV at the beginning of its eruption. Later, the prominence changes to emission, which indicates heating of the erupting plasma. We find the densities of the erupting prominence using the absorption properties of hydrogen and helium in different passbands. We estimate the temperatures and densities of the erupting prominence and loops seen as emission features using the differential emission measure method, which uses both EUV and X-ray observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the X-ray Telescope on board Hinode . We consider synthetic spectra using both photospheric and coronal abundances in these calculations. We verify the methods for the estimation of temperatures and densities for the erupting plasmas. Then, we estimate the thermal, kinetic, radiative loss, thermal conduction, and heating energies of the erupting prominence and loops. We find that the heating of the erupting prominence and loop occurs strongly at early times in the eruption. This event shows a writhing motion of the erupting prominence, which may indicate a hot flux rope heated by thermal energy release during magnetic reconnection.

  16. Characteristics of coronal mass ejections associated with solar frontside and backside metric type II bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S.W.; Cliver, E.W.; Sheeley, N.R. Jr.; Howard, R.A.; Koomen, M.J.; Michels, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    We compare fast (v> or =500 km s -1 ) coronal mass ejections (CME's) with reported metric type II bursts to study the properties of CME's associated with coronal shocks. We confirm an earlier report of fast frontside CME's with no associated metric type II bursts and calculate that 33 +- 15% of all fast frontside CME's are not associated with such bursts. Faster CME's are more likely to be associated with type II bursts, as expected from the hypothesis of piston-driven shocks. However, CME brightness and associated peak 3-cm burst intensity are also important factors, as might be inferred from the Wagner and MacQueen (1983) view of type II shocks decoupled from associated CME's. We use the equal visibility of solar frontside and backside CME's to deduce the observability of backside type II bursts. We calculate that 23 +- 7% of all backside type II bursts associated with fast CME's can be observed at the earth and that 13 +- 4% of all type II bursts originate in backside flares. CME speed again is the most important factor in the observability of backside type II bursts

  17. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  18. AN IMPROVEMENT ON MASS CALCULATIONS OF SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS VIA POLARIMETRIC RECONSTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xinghua; Wang, Huaning; Huang, Xin; Du, Zhanle; He, Han

    2015-01-01

    The mass of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is calculated from the measured brightness and assumed geometry of Thomson scattering. The simplest geometry for mass calculations is to assume that all of the electrons are in the plane of the sky (POS). With additional information like source region or multiviewpoint observations, the mass can be calculated more precisely under the assumption that the entire CME is in a plane defined by its trajectory. Polarization measurements provide information on the average angle of the CME electrons along the line of sight of each CCD pixel from the POS, and this can further improve the mass calculations as discussed here. A CME event initiating on 2012 July 23 at 2:20 UT observed by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory is employed to validate our method

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of Solar Coronal Dynamics with an Initial Non-force-free Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, A.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Kumar, Sanjay [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313001 (India)

    2017-05-01

    The magnetic fields in the solar corona are generally neither force-free nor axisymmetric and have complex dynamics that are difficult to characterize. Here we simulate the topological evolution of solar coronal magnetic field lines (MFLs) using a magnetohydrodynamic model. The simulation is initialized with a non-axisymmetric non-force-free magnetic field that best correlates with the observed vector magnetograms of solar active regions (ARs). To focus on these ideas, simulations are performed for the flaring AR 11283 noted for its complexity and well-documented dynamics. The simulated dynamics develops as the initial Lorentz force pushes the plasma and facilitates successive magnetic reconnections at the two X-type null lines present in the initial field. Importantly, the simulation allows for the spontaneous development of mass flow, unique among contemporary works, that preferentially reconnects field lines at one of the X-type null lines. Consequently, a flux rope consisting of low-lying twisted MFLs, which approximately traces the major polarity inversion line, undergoes an asymmetric monotonic rise. The rise is attributed to a reduction in the magnetic tension force at the region overlying the rope, resulting from the reconnection. A monotonic rise of the rope is in conformity with the standard scenario of flares. Importantly, the simulated dynamics leads to bifurcations of the flux rope, which, being akin to the observed filament bifurcation in AR 11283, establishes the appropriateness of the initial field in describing ARs.

  20. Influence of coronal mass ejections on parameters of high-speed solar wind: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugay, Yulia; Slemzin, Vladimir; Rodkin, Denis; Yermolaev, Yuri; Veselovsky, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the case of disagreement between predicted and observed in-situ parameters of the recurrent high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) existing for Carrington rotation (CR) 2118 (December 2011) in comparison with CRs 2117 and 2119. The HSSs originated at the Sun from a recurrent polar coronal hole (CH) expanding to mid-latitudes, and its area in the central part of the solar disk increased with the rotation number. This part of the CH was responsible for the equatorial flank of the HSS directed to the Earth. The time and speed of arrival for this part of the HSS to the Earth were predicted by the hierarchical empirical model based on EUV-imaging and the Wang-Sheeley-Arge ENLIL semi-empirical replace model and compared with the parameters measured in-situ by model. The predicted parameters were compared with those measured in-situ. It was found, that for CR 2117 and CR 2119, the predicted HSS speed values agreed with the measured ones within the typical accuracy of ±100 km s-1. During CR 2118, the measured speed was on 217 km s-1 less than the value predicted in accordance with the increased area of the CH. We suppose that at CR 2118, the HSS overtook and interacted with complex ejecta formed from three merged coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with a mean speed about 400 km s-1. According to simulations of the Drag-based model, this complex ejecta might be created by several CMEs starting from the Sun in the period between 25 and 27 December 2011 and arriving to the Earth simultaneously with the HSS. Due to its higher density and magnetic field strength, the complex ejecta became an obstacle for the equatorial flank of the HSS and slowed it down. During CR 2117 and CR 2119, the CMEs appeared before the arrival of the HSSs, so the CMEs did not influence on the HSSs kinematics.

  1. Structure and dynamics of solar atmosphere: the reign of SOHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchialini, Karine

    2004-01-01

    In this report for Accreditation to Supervise Research (HDR), the author proposes an overview of his research works which particularly addressed the study of the solar atmosphere, notably based on observations made by the SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) satellite. After a recall of his curriculum, he presents and comments results obtained in various areas: Corona heating and origin of solar wind, heating by waves, heating by quasi-steady mechanisms, regions which are sources of fast solar wind, sources of Coronal matter ejections. He also presents the different adopted approaches and methods (multi-wavelength analysis, oscillation measurement, statistical analysis) and the various observed structures (chromospheric network, shiny points, Coronal holes, and protuberances)

  2. Interwoven Patterns of Chirality Among Solar Structures: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2009-05-01

    Chirality is the handedness of solar magnetic structures as recognized in two dimensional solar images or in other solar data revealing distinct magnetic patterns. This review covers the historical succession of discoveries of the chirality of solar magnetic structures, beginning with left and right-handed helical magnetic clouds detected in many interplanetary coronal mass ejections. This led to the recognition of corresponding chiralities in coronal loop systems. Separately, chiral patterns in filaments, filament channels, sunspots, sigmoidal structures, and flare loop systems were established, interrelated, and linked to the chirality of coronal loop systems. The result was the finding that all solar chiral patterns fall into two and only two larger chiral systems with one system more prevalent in the northern hemisphere and the other in the southern hemisphere. From chiral characteristics, along with knowledge or assumptions about the magnetic field topology, we have the ability to better deduce the helicities characteristic of many solar structures. Traditionally, helicity is a property of magnetic fields with strict mathematical definitions in two well-known forms: twist and writhe. Application of the principle of the conservation of helicity to chiral systems now leads to more mature interpretations of the helicity of whole solar magnetic field systems as well as their components, which together must contain equivalent amounts of both left and right-handed helicity. From this broadened perspective, comes a better understanding of why right-handed coronal loops necessarily exist above filaments with left-handed barbs that always overly left-handed filament channels and vice versa. Along with this greater understanding, we are collectively at the point of learning to better recognize and predict the senses of roll, twist, and writhe in the axial fields of erupting prominences. These, in turn, confirm the signs of helicity in associated CMEs and magnetic clouds

  3. THERMAL PROPERTIES OF A SOLAR CORONAL CAVITY OBSERVED WITH THE X-RAY TELESCOPE ON HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, Katharine K. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gibson, Sarah E. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kucera, Therese A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratories, University of California, Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kano, Ryouhei, E-mail: kreeves@cfa.harvard.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-02-20

    Coronal cavities are voids in coronal emission often observed above high latitude filament channels. Sometimes, these cavities have areas of bright X-ray emission in their centers. In this study, we use data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Hinode satellite to examine the thermal emission properties of a cavity observed during 2008 July that contains bright X-ray emission in its center. Using ratios of XRT filters, we find evidence for elevated temperatures in the cavity center. The area of elevated temperature evolves from a ring-shaped structure at the beginning of the observation, to an elongated structure two days later, finally appearing as a compact round source four days after the initial observation. We use a morphological model to fit the cavity emission, and find that a uniform structure running through the cavity does not fit the observations well. Instead, the observations are reproduced by modeling several short cylindrical cavity 'cores' with different parameters on different days. These changing core parameters may be due to some observed activity heating different parts of the cavity core at different times. We find that core temperatures of 1.75 MK, 1.7 MK, and 2.0 MK (for July 19, July 21, and July 23, respectively) in the model lead to structures that are consistent with the data, and that line-of-sight effects serve to lower the effective temperature derived from the filter ratio.

  4. Impulsively Generated Wave Trains in Coronal Structures. II. Effects of Transverse Structuring on Sausage Waves in Pressurelesss Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Guo, Ming-Zhe; Yu, Hui; Chen, Shao-Xia

    2018-03-01

    Impulsively generated sausage wave trains in coronal structures are important for interpreting a substantial number of observations of quasi-periodic signals with quasi-periods of order seconds. We have previously shown that the Morlet spectra of these wave trains in coronal tubes depend crucially on the dispersive properties of trapped sausage waves, the existence of cutoff axial wavenumbers, and the monotonicity of the dependence of the axial group speed on the axial wavenumber in particular. This study examines the difference a slab geometry may introduce, for which purpose we conduct a comprehensive eigenmode analysis, both analytically and numerically, on trapped sausage modes in coronal slabs with a considerable number of density profiles. For the profile descriptions examined, coronal slabs can trap sausage waves with longer axial wavelengths, and the group speed approaches the internal Alfvén speed more rapidly at large wavenumbers in the cylindrical case. However, common to both geometries, cutoff wavenumbers exist only when the density profile falls sufficiently rapidly at distances far from coronal structures. Likewise, the monotonicity of the group speed curves depends critically on the profile steepness right at the structure axis. Furthermore, the Morlet spectra of the wave trains are shaped by the group speed curves for coronal slabs and tubes alike. Consequently, we conclude that these spectra have the potential for inferring the subresolution density structuring inside coronal structures, although their detection requires an instrumental cadence of better than ∼1 s.

  5. Direct evidence of an eruptive, filament-hosting magnetic flux rope leading to a fast solar coronal mass ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin; Gary, D. E. [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Bastian, T. S., E-mail: bin.chen@cfa.harvard.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are believed to be at the heart of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A well-known example is the prominence cavity in the low corona that sometimes makes up a three-part white-light (WL) CME upon its eruption. Such a system, which is usually observed in quiet-Sun regions, has long been suggested to be the manifestation of an MFR with relatively cool filament material collecting near its bottom. However, observational evidence of eruptive, filament-hosting MFR systems has been elusive for those originating in active regions. By utilizing multi-passband extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, we present direct evidence of an eruptive MFR in the low corona that exhibits a hot envelope and a cooler core; the latter is likely the upper part of a filament that undergoes a partial eruption, which is later observed in the upper corona as the coiled kernel of a fast, WL CME. This MFR-like structure exists more than 1 hr prior to its eruption, and displays successive stages of dynamical evolution, in which both ideal and non-ideal physical processes may be involved. The timing of the MFR kinematics is found to be well correlated with the energy release of the associated long-duration C1.9 flare. We suggest that the long-duration flare is the result of prolonged energy release associated with the vertical current sheet induced by the erupting MFR.

  6. Direct Evidence of an Eruptive, Filament-hosting Magnetic Flux Rope Leading to a Fast Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Bastian, T. S.; Gary, D. E.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are believed to be at the heart of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A well-known example is the prominence cavity in the low corona that sometimes makes up a three-part white-light (WL) CME upon its eruption. Such a system, which is usually observed in quiet-Sun regions, has long been suggested to be the manifestation of an MFR with relatively cool filament material collecting near its bottom. However, observational evidence of eruptive, filament-hosting MFR systems has been elusive for those originating in active regions. By utilizing multi-passband extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, we present direct evidence of an eruptive MFR in the low corona that exhibits a hot envelope and a cooler core; the latter is likely the upper part of a filament that undergoes a partial eruption, which is later observed in the upper corona as the coiled kernel of a fast, WL CME. This MFR-like structure exists more than 1 hr prior to its eruption, and displays successive stages of dynamical evolution, in which both ideal and non-ideal physical processes may be involved. The timing of the MFR kinematics is found to be well correlated with the energy release of the associated long-duration C1.9 flare. We suggest that the long-duration flare is the result of prolonged energy release associated with the vertical current sheet induced by the erupting MFR.

  7. Direct evidence of an eruptive, filament-hosting magnetic flux rope leading to a fast solar coronal mass ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Gary, D. E.; Bastian, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are believed to be at the heart of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A well-known example is the prominence cavity in the low corona that sometimes makes up a three-part white-light (WL) CME upon its eruption. Such a system, which is usually observed in quiet-Sun regions, has long been suggested to be the manifestation of an MFR with relatively cool filament material collecting near its bottom. However, observational evidence of eruptive, filament-hosting MFR systems has been elusive for those originating in active regions. By utilizing multi-passband extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, we present direct evidence of an eruptive MFR in the low corona that exhibits a hot envelope and a cooler core; the latter is likely the upper part of a filament that undergoes a partial eruption, which is later observed in the upper corona as the coiled kernel of a fast, WL CME. This MFR-like structure exists more than 1 hr prior to its eruption, and displays successive stages of dynamical evolution, in which both ideal and non-ideal physical processes may be involved. The timing of the MFR kinematics is found to be well correlated with the energy release of the associated long-duration C1.9 flare. We suggest that the long-duration flare is the result of prolonged energy release associated with the vertical current sheet induced by the erupting MFR.

  8. A New Approach to Observing Coronal Dynamics: MUSE, the Multi-Slit Solar Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Multi-Slit Solar Explorer is a Small Explorer mission recently selected for a Phase A study, which could lead to a launch in 2022. It will provide unprecendented observations of the dynamics of the corona and transition region using both conventional and novel spectral imaging techniques. The physical processes that heat the multi-million degree solar corona, accelerate the solar wind and drive solar activity (CMEs and flares) remain poorly known. A breakthrough in these areas can only come from radically innovative instrumentation and state-of-the-art numerical modeling and will lead to better understanding of space weather origins. MUSE's multi-slit coronal spectroscopy will exploit a 100x improvement in spectral raster cadence to fill a crucial gap in our knowledge of Sun-Earth connections; it will reveal temperatures, velocities and non-thermal processes over a wide temperature range to diagnose physical processes that remain invisible to current or planned instruments. MUSE will contain two instruments: an EUV spectrograph (SG) and EUV context imager (CI). Both have similar spatial resolution and leverage extensive heritage from previous high-resolution instruments such as IRIS and the HiC rocket payload. The MUSE investigation will build on the success of IRIS by combining numerical modeling with a uniquely capable observatory: MUSE will obtain EUV spectra and images with the highest resolution in space (1/3 arcsec) and time (1-4 s) ever achieved for the transition region and corona, along 35 slits and a large context FOV simultaneously. The MUSE consortium includes LMSAL, SAO, Stanford, ARC, HAO, GSFC, MSFC, MSU, ITA Oslo and other institutions.

  9. Global Energetics of Solar Flares. VI. Refined Energetics of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we refine the coronal mass ejection (CME) model that was presented in an earlier study of the global energetics of solar flares and associated CMEs and apply it to all (860) GOES M- and X-class flare events observed during the first seven years (2010-2016) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. The model refinements include (1) the CME geometry in terms of a 3D volume undergoing self-similar adiabatic expansion, (2) the solar gravitational deceleration during the propagation of the CME, which discriminates between eruptive and confined CMEs, (3) a self-consistent relationship between the CME center-of-mass motion detected during EUV dimming and the leading-edge motion observed in white-light coronagraphs, (4) the equipartition of the CME’s kinetic and thermal energies, and (5) the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana scaling law. The refined CME model is entirely based on EUV-dimming observations (using Atmospheric Imager Assembly (AIA)/SDO data) and complements the traditional white-light scattering model (using Large-Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO)/Solar and Heliospheric Observatory data), and both models are independently capable of determining fundamental CME parameters. Comparing the two methods, we find that (1) LASCO is less sensitive than AIA in detecting CMEs (in 24% of the cases), (2) CME masses below {m}{cme}≲ {10}14 g are underestimated by LASCO, (3) AIA and LASCO masses, speeds, and energies agree closely in the statistical mean after the elimination of outliers, and (4) the CME parameters speed v, emission measure-weighted flare peak temperature T e , and length scale L are consistent with the following scaling laws: v\\propto {T}e1/2, v\\propto {({m}{cme})}1/4, and {m}{cme}\\propto {L}2.

  10. Theoretical scaling law of coronal magnetic field and electron power-law index in solar microwave burst sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Song, Q. W.; Tan, B. L.

    2018-04-01

    It is first proposed a theoretical scaling law respectively for the coronal magnetic field strength B and electron power-law index δ versus frequency and coronal height in solar microwave burst sources. Based on the non-thermal gyro-synchrotron radiation model (Ramaty in Astrophys. J. 158:753, 1969), B and δ are uniquely solved by the observable optically-thin spectral index and turnover (peak) frequency, the other parameters (plasma density, temperature, view angle, low and high energy cutoffs, etc.) are relatively insensitive to the calculations, thus taken as some typical values. Both of B and δ increase with increasing of radio frequency but with decreasing of coronal height above photosphere, and well satisfy a square or cubic logarithmic fitting.

  11. OBSERVATIONS OF LINEAR POLARIZATION IN A SOLAR CORONAL LOOP PROMINENCE SYSTEM OBSERVED NEAR 6173 Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Krucker, Säm; Bain, Hazel [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schou, Jesper [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Couvidat, Sébastien, E-mail: shilaire@ssl.berkeley.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    White-light observations by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of a loop-prominence system occurring in the aftermath of an X-class flare on 2013 May 13 near the eastern solar limb show a linearly polarized component, reaching up to ∼20% at an altitude of ∼33 Mm, about the maximum amount expected if the emission were due solely to Thomson scattering of photospheric light by the coronal material. The mass associated with the polarized component was 8.2 × 10{sup 14} g. At 15 Mm altitude, the brightest part of the loop was 3(±0.5)% linearly polarized, only about 20% of that expected from pure Thomson scattering, indicating the presence of an additional unpolarized component at wavelengths near Fe I (617.33 nm). We estimate the free electron density of the white-light loop system to possibly be as high as 1.8 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3}.

  12. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATION OF SOLAR OSCILLATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH CORONAL LOOPS FROM THE PHOTOSPHERE TO THE CORONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, J. T.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Zhao, H.; Xu, H. Q.; Xie, W. B. [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Y. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2013-01-01

    The solar oscillations along one coronal loop in AR 11504 are observed simultaneously in white light emission and Doppler velocity by SDO/HMI, and in UV and EUV emissions by SDO/AIA. The technique of the time-distance diagram is used to detect the propagating oscillations of the emission intensities along the loop. We find that although all the oscillation signals were intercorrelated, the low chromospheric oscillation correlated more closely to the oscillations of the transition region and corona than to those of the photosphere. Situated above the sunspot, the oscillation periods were {approx}3 minutes in the UV/EUV emissions; however, moving away from the sunspot and into the quiet Sun, the periods became longer, e.g., up to {approx}5 minutes or more. In addition, along another loop we observe both the high-speed outflows and oscillations, which roughly had a one-to-one corresponding relationship. This indicates that the solar periodic oscillations may modulate the magnetic reconnections between the loops of the high and low altitudes that drive the high-speed outflows along the loop.

  13. MINIFILAMENT ERUPTIONS THAT DRIVE CORONAL JETS IN A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of eruptive events in an active region adjacent to an on-disk coronal hole on 2012 June 30, primarily using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), SDO /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), and STEREO - B . One eruption is of a large-scale (∼100″) filament that is typical of other eruptions, showing slow-rise onset followed by a faster-rise motion starting as flare emissions begin. It also shows an “EUV crinkle” emission pattern, resulting from magnetic reconnections between the exploding filament-carrying field and surrounding field. Many EUV jets, some of which are surges, sprays and/or X-ray jets, also occur in localized areas of the active region. We examine in detail two relatively energetic ones, accompanied by GOES M1 and C1 flares, and a weaker one without a GOES signature. All three jets resulted from small-scale (∼20″) filament eruptions consistent with a slow rise followed by a fast rise occurring with flare-like jet-bright-point brightenings. The two more-energetic jets showed crinkle patters, but the third jet did not, perhaps due to its weakness. Thus all three jets were consistent with formation via erupting minifilaments, analogous to large-scale filament eruptions and to X-ray jets in polar coronal holes. Several other energetic jets occurred in a nearby portion of the active region; while their behavior was also consistent with their source being minifilament eruptions, we could not confirm this because their onsets were hidden from our view. Magnetic flux cancelation and emergence are candidates for having triggered the minifilament eruptions.

  14. Characteristics of Low-latitude Coronal Holes near the Maximum of Solar Cycle 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela [University of Graz, Institute of Physics, IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Graz (Austria); Vennerstrom, Susanne [National Space Institute, DTU Space (Denmark); Vršnak, Bojan [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, Zagreb (Croatia); Heber, Bernd, E-mail: stefan.hofmeister@uni-graz.at [Universität Kiel, Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Kiel (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the statistics of 288 low-latitude coronal holes extracted from SDO /AIA-193 filtergrams over the time range of 2011 January 01–2013 December 31. We analyze the distribution of characteristic coronal hole properties, such as the areas, mean AIA-193 intensities, and mean magnetic field densities, the local distribution of the SDO /AIA-193 intensity and the magnetic field within the coronal holes, and the distribution of magnetic flux tubes in coronal holes. We find that the mean magnetic field density of all coronal holes under study is 3.0 ± 1.6 G, and the percentaged unbalanced magnetic flux is 49 ± 16%. The mean magnetic field density, the mean unsigned magnetic field density, and the percentaged unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes depend strongly pairwise on each other, with correlation coefficients cc > 0.92. Furthermore, we find that the unbalanced magnetic flux of the coronal holes is predominantly concentrated in magnetic flux tubes: 38% (81%) of the unbalanced magnetic flux of coronal holes arises from only 1% (10%) of the coronal hole area, clustered in magnetic flux tubes with field strengths >50 G (10 G). The average magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux derived from the magnetic flux tubes correlate with the mean magnetic field density and the unbalanced magnetic flux of the overall coronal hole (cc>0.93). These findings give evidence that the overall magnetic characteristics of coronal holes are governed by the characteristics of the magnetic flux tubes.

  15. The Dependence of the Peak Velocity of High-Speed Solar Wind Streams as Measured in the Ecliptic by ACE and the STEREO satellites on the Area and Co-latitude of Their Solar Source Coronal Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Vennerstrom, Susanne; Heber, Bernd; Vršnak, Bojan

    2018-03-01

    We study the properties of 115 coronal holes in the time range from August 2010 to March 2017, the peak velocities of the corresponding high-speed streams as measured in the ecliptic at 1 AU, and the corresponding changes of the Kp index as marker of their geoeffectiveness. We find that the peak velocities of high-speed streams depend strongly on both the areas and the co-latitudes of their solar source coronal holes with regard to the heliospheric latitude of the satellites. Therefore, the co-latitude of their source coronal hole is an important parameter for the prediction of the high-speed stream properties near the Earth. We derive the largest solar wind peak velocities normalized to the coronal hole areas for coronal holes located near the solar equator and that they linearly decrease with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. For coronal holes located at latitudes ≳ 60°, they turn statistically to zero, indicating that the associated high-speed streams have a high chance to miss the Earth. Similarly, the Kp index per coronal hole area is highest for the coronal holes located near the solar equator and strongly decreases with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. We interpret these results as an effect of the three-dimensional propagation of high-speed streams in the heliosphere; that is, high-speed streams arising from coronal holes near the solar equator propagate in direction toward and directly hit the Earth, whereas solar wind streams arising from coronal holes at higher solar latitudes only graze or even miss the Earth.

  16. Two-Step Forecast of Geomagnetic Storm Using Coronal Mass Ejection and Solar Wind Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, R.-S.; Moon, Y.-J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Park, Y.-D.; Kim, Y.-H.

    2014-01-01

    To forecast geomagnetic storms, we had examined initially observed parameters of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and introduced an empirical storm forecast model in a previous study. Now we suggest a two-step forecast considering not only CME parameters observed in the solar vicinity but also solar wind conditions near Earth to improve the forecast capability. We consider the empirical solar wind criteria derived in this study (Bz = -5 nT or Ey = 3 mV/m for t = 2 h for moderate storms with minimum Dst less than -50 nT) (i.e. Magnetic Field Magnitude, B (sub z) less than or equal to -5 nanoTeslas or duskward Electrical Field, E (sub y) greater than or equal to 3 millivolts per meter for time greater than or equal to 2 hours for moderate storms with Minimum Disturbance Storm Time, Dst less than -50 nanoTeslas) and a Dst model developed by Temerin and Li (2002, 2006) (TL [i.e. Temerin Li] model). Using 55 CME-Dst pairs during 1997 to 2003, our solar wind criteria produce slightly better forecasts for 31 storm events (90 percent) than the forecasts based on the TL model (87 percent). However, the latter produces better forecasts for 24 nonstorm events (88 percent), while the former correctly forecasts only 71 percent of them. We then performed the two-step forecast. The results are as follows: (i) for 15 events that are incorrectly forecasted using CME parameters, 12 cases (80 percent) can be properly predicted based on solar wind conditions; (ii) if we forecast a storm when both CME and solar wind conditions are satisfied (n, i.e. cap operator - the intersection set that is comprised of all the elements that are common to both), the critical success index becomes higher than that from the forecast using CME parameters alone, however, only 25 storm events (81 percent) are correctly forecasted; and (iii) if we forecast a storm when either set of these conditions is satisfied (?, i.e. cup operator - the union set that is comprised of all the elements of either or both

  17. Solar structure without computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    We derive succinctly the equations of solar structure. We first present models of objects in hydrostatic equilibrium that fail as models of the sun in order to illustrate important physical requirements. Then by arguing physically that the pressure gradient can be matched to the simple function dP/dr = -kre/sup( -r//a) 2 , we derive a complete analytic representation of the solar interior in terms of a one-parameter family of models. Two different conditions are then used to select the appropriate value of the parameter specifying the best model within the family: (1) the solar luminosity is equated to the thermonuclear power generated near the center and/or (2) the solar luminosity is equated to the radiative diffusion of energy from a central region. The two methods of selecting the parameter agree to within a few percent. The central conditions of the sun are well calculated by these analytic formulas, all without aid of a computer. This is an original treatment, yielding much the best description of the solar center to be found by methods of differential and integral calculus, rendering it an excellent laboratory for applied calculus

  18. Structure and sources of solar wind in the growing phase of 24th solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Goryaev, Farid; Shugay, Julia; Rodkin, Denis; Veselovsky, Igor

    2015-04-01

    We present analysis of the solar wind (SW) structure and its association with coronal sources during the minimum and rising phase of 24th solar cycle (2009-2011). The coronal sources prominent in this period - coronal holes, small areas of open magnetic fields near active regions and transient sources associated with small-scale solar activity have been investigated using EUV solar images and soft X-ray fluxes obtained by the CORONAS-Photon/TESIS/Sphinx, PROBA2/SWAP, Hinode/EIS and AIA/SDO instruments as well as the magnetograms obtained by HMI/SDO. It was found that at solar minimum (2009) velocity and magnetic field strength of high speed wind (HSW) and transient SW from small-scale flares did not differ significantly from those of the background slow speed wind (SSW). The major difference between parameters of different SW components was seen in the ion composition represented by the C6/C5, O7/O6, Fe/O ratios and the mean charge of Fe ions. With growing solar activity, the speed of HSW increased due to transformation of its sources - small-size low-latitude coronal holes into equatorial extensions of large polar holes. At that period, the ion composition of transient SW changed from low-temperature to high-temperature values, which was caused by variation of the source conditions and change of the recombination/ionization rates during passage of the plasma flow through the low corona. However, we conclude that criteria of separation of the SW components based on the ion ratios established earlier by Zhao&Fisk (2009) for higher solar activity are not applicable to the extremely weak beginning of 24th cycle. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement eHeroes (project n° 284461, www.eheroes.eu).

  19. Solar Flares, Type III Radio Bursts, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, Hilary V.; Erickson, W. C.; Prestage, N. P.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this correlative study between greater than 20 MeV solar proton events, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and radio bursts it is found that essentially all of the proton events are preceded by groups of type III bursts and all are preceded by CMEs. These type III bursts (that are a flare phenomenon) usually are long-lasting, intense bursts seen in the low-frequency observations made from space. They are caused by streams of electrons traveling from close to the solar surface out to 1 AU. In most events the type III emissions extend into, or originate at, the time when type II and type IV bursts are reported (some 5 to 10 minutes after the start of the associated soft X-ray flare) and have starting frequencies in the 500 to approximately 100 MHz range that often get lower as a function of time. These later type III emissions are often not reported by ground-based observers, probably because of undue attention to type II bursts. It is suggested to call them type III-1. Type III-1 bursts have previously been called shock accelerated (SA) events, but an examination of radio dynamic spectra over an extended frequency range shows that the type III-1 bursts usually start at frequencies above any type II burst that may be present. The bursts sometimes continue beyond the time when type II emission is seen and, furthermore, sometimes occur in the absence of any type II emission. Thus the causative electrons are unlikely to be shock accelerated and probably originate in the reconnection regions below fast CMEs. A search did not find any type III-1 bursts that were not associated with CMEs. The existence of low-frequency type III bursts proves that open field lines extend from within 0.5 radius of the Sun into the interplanetary medium (the bursts start above 100 MHz, and such emission originates within 0.5 solar radius of the solar surface). Thus it is not valid to assume that only closed field lines exist in the flaring regions associated with CMEs and some

  20. Comparison of Damping Mechanisms for Transverse Waves in Solar Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes-Solís, María; Arregui, Iñigo, E-mail: mmsolis@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2017-09-10

    We present a method to assess the plausibility of alternative mechanisms to explain the damping of magnetohydrodynamic transverse waves in solar coronal loops. The considered mechanisms are resonant absorption of kink waves in the Alfvén continuum, phase mixing of Alfvén waves, and wave leakage. Our methods make use of Bayesian inference and model comparison techniques. We first infer the values for the physical parameters that control the wave damping, under the assumption of a particular mechanism, for typically observed damping timescales. Then, the computation of marginal likelihoods and Bayes factors enable us to quantify the relative plausibility between the alternative mechanisms. We find that, in general, the evidence is not large enough to support a single particular damping mechanism as the most plausible one. Resonant absorption and wave leakage offer the most probable explanations in strong damping regimes, while phase mixing is the best candidate for weak/moderate damping. When applied to a selection of 89 observed transverse loop oscillations, with their corresponding measurements of damping timescales and taking into account data uncertainties, we find that positive evidence for a given damping mechanism is only available in a few cases.

  1. Comparison of Damping Mechanisms for Transverse Waves in Solar Coronal Loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes-Solís, María; Arregui, Iñigo

    2017-01-01

    We present a method to assess the plausibility of alternative mechanisms to explain the damping of magnetohydrodynamic transverse waves in solar coronal loops. The considered mechanisms are resonant absorption of kink waves in the Alfvén continuum, phase mixing of Alfvén waves, and wave leakage. Our methods make use of Bayesian inference and model comparison techniques. We first infer the values for the physical parameters that control the wave damping, under the assumption of a particular mechanism, for typically observed damping timescales. Then, the computation of marginal likelihoods and Bayes factors enable us to quantify the relative plausibility between the alternative mechanisms. We find that, in general, the evidence is not large enough to support a single particular damping mechanism as the most plausible one. Resonant absorption and wave leakage offer the most probable explanations in strong damping regimes, while phase mixing is the best candidate for weak/moderate damping. When applied to a selection of 89 observed transverse loop oscillations, with their corresponding measurements of damping timescales and taking into account data uncertainties, we find that positive evidence for a given damping mechanism is only available in a few cases.

  2. Simulation study of solar plasma eruptions caused by interactions between emerging flux and coronal arcade fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Takafumi; Yokoyama, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the triggering mechanisms of plasma eruptions in the solar atmosphere due to interactions between emerging flux and coronal arcade fields by using two-dimensional MHD simulations. We perform parameter surveys with respect to arcade field height, magnetic field strength, and emerging flux location. Our results show that two possible mechanisms exist, and which mechanism is dominant depends mostly on emerging flux location. One mechanism appears when the location of emerging flux is close to the polarity inversion line (PIL) of an arcade field. This mechanism requires reconnection between the emerging flux and the arcade field, as pointed out by previous studies. The other mechanism appears when the location of emerging flux is around the edge of an arcade field. This mechanism does not require reconnection between the emerging flux and the arcade field but does demand reconnection in the arcade field above the PIL. Furthermore, we found that the eruptive condition for this mechanism can be represented by a simple formula.

  3. Empirical Reconstruction and Numerical Modeling of the First Geoeffective Coronal Mass Ejection of Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. E.; Wu, C.-C.; Howard, R. A.; Socker, D. G.; Rouillard, A. P.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the kinematics and morphology of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from 2010 April 3, which was responsible for the first significant geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24. The analysis utilizes coronagraphic and heliospheric images from the two STEREO spacecraft, and coronagraphic images from SOHO/LASCO. Using an empirical three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique, we demonstrate that the CME can be reproduced reasonably well at all times with a 3D flux rope shape, but the case for a flux rope being the correct interpretation is not as strong as some events studied with STEREO in the past, given that we are unable to infer a unique orientation for the flux rope. A model with an orientation angle of -80° from the ecliptic plane (i.e., nearly N-S) works best close to the Sun, but a model at 10° (i.e., nearly E-W) works better far from the Sun. Both interpretations require the cross section of the flux rope to be significantly elliptical rather than circular. In addition to our empirical modeling, we also present a fully 3D numerical MHD model of the CME. This physical model appears to effectively reproduce aspects of the shape and kinematics of the CME's leading edge. It is particularly encouraging that the model reproduces the amount of interplanetary deceleration observed for the CME during its journey from the Sun to 1 AU.

  4. EMPIRICAL RECONSTRUCTION AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE FIRST GEOEFFECTIVE CORONAL MASS EJECTION OF SOLAR CYCLE 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, B. E.; Wu, C.-C.; Howard, R. A.; Socker, D. G.; Rouillard, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the kinematics and morphology of a coronal mass ejection (CME) from 2010 April 3, which was responsible for the first significant geomagnetic storm of solar cycle 24. The analysis utilizes coronagraphic and heliospheric images from the two STEREO spacecraft, and coronagraphic images from SOHO/LASCO. Using an empirical three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique, we demonstrate that the CME can be reproduced reasonably well at all times with a 3D flux rope shape, but the case for a flux rope being the correct interpretation is not as strong as some events studied with STEREO in the past, given that we are unable to infer a unique orientation for the flux rope. A model with an orientation angle of -80 deg. from the ecliptic plane (i.e., nearly N-S) works best close to the Sun, but a model at 10 deg. (i.e., nearly E-W) works better far from the Sun. Both interpretations require the cross section of the flux rope to be significantly elliptical rather than circular. In addition to our empirical modeling, we also present a fully 3D numerical MHD model of the CME. This physical model appears to effectively reproduce aspects of the shape and kinematics of the CME's leading edge. It is particularly encouraging that the model reproduces the amount of interplanetary deceleration observed for the CME during its journey from the Sun to 1 AU.

  5. Acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles at a Fast Traveling Shock in Non-uniform Coronal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. A.; Arthur, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    Time-dependent solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration is investigated at a fast, nearly parallel spherical traveling shock in the strongly non-uniform corona by solving the standard focused transport equation for SEPs and transport equations for parallel propagating Alfvén waves that form a set of coupled equations. This enables the modeling of self-excitation of Alfvén waves in the inertial range by SEPs ahead of the shock and its role in enhancing the efficiency of the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of SEPs in a self-regulatory fashion. Preliminary results suggest that, because of the highly non-uniform coronal conditions that the shock encounters, both DSA and wave excitation are highly time-dependent processes. Thus, DSA spectra of SEPs strongly deviate from the simple power-law prediction of standard steady-state DSA theory and initially strong wave excitation weakens rapidly. Consequently, the ability of DSA to produce high energy SEPs in the corona of ∼1 GeV, as observed in the strongest gradual SEP events, appears to be strongly curtailed at a fast nearly parallel shock, but further research is needed before final conclusions can be drawn.

  6. Coronal Magnetism and Forward Solarsoft Idl Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The FORWARD suite of Solar Soft IDL codes is a community resource for model-data comparison, with a particular emphasis on analyzing coronal magnetic fields. FORWARD may be used both to synthesize a broad range of coronal observables, and to access and compare to existing data. FORWARD works with numerical model datacubes, interfaces with the web-served Predictive Science Inc MAS simulation datacubes and the Solar Soft IDL Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) package, and also includes several analytic models (more can be added). It connects to the Virtual Solar Observatory and other web-served observations to download data in a format directly comparable to model predictions. It utilizes the CHIANTI database in modeling UV/EUV lines, and links to the CLE polarimetry synthesis code for forbidden coronal lines. FORWARD enables "forward-fitting" of specific observations, and helps to build intuition into how the physical properties of coronal magnetic structures translate to observable properties.

  7. A comparison of solar energetic particle event timescales with properties of associated coronal mass ejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    The dependence of solar energetic proton (SEP) event peak intensities Ip on properties of associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been extensively examined, but the dependence of SEP event timescales is not well known. We define three timescales of 20 MeV SEP events and ask how they are related to speeds v CME or widths W of their associated CMEs observed by LASCO/SOHO. The timescales of the EPACT/Wind 20 MeV events are TO, the onset time from CME launch to SEP onset; TR, the rise time from onset to half the peak intensity (0.5Ip); and TD, the duration of the SEP intensity above 0.5Ip. This is a statistical study based on 217 SEP-CME events observed during 1996-2008. The large number of SEP events allows us to examine the SEP-CME relationship in five solar-source longitude ranges. In general, we statistically find that TO declines slightly with v CME , and TR and TD increase with both v CME and W. TO is inversely correlated with log Ip, as expected from a particle background effect. We discuss the implications of this result and find that a background-independent parameter TO+TR also increases with v CME and W. The correlations generally fall below the 98% significance level, but there is a significant correlation between v CME and W which renders interpretation of the timescale results uncertain. We suggest that faster (and wider) CMEs drive shocks and accelerate SEPs over longer times to produce the longer TR and TD SEP timescales.

  8. Do interacting coronal mass ejections play a role in solar energetic particle events?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Vourlidas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gradual solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events are produced in shocks driven by fast and wide coronal mass ejections (CMEs). With a set of western hemisphere 20 MeV SEP events, we test the possibility that SEP peak intensities, Ip, are enhanced by interactions of their associated CMEs with preceding CMEs (preCMEs) launched during the previous 12 hr. Among SEP events with no, 1, or 2 or more (2+) preCMEs, we find enhanced Ip for the groups with preCMEs, but no differences in TO+TR, the time from CME launch to SEP onset and the time from onset to SEP half-peak Ip. Neither the timings of the preCMEs relative to their associated CMEs nor the preCME widths W pre , speeds V pre , or numbers correlate with the SEP Ip values. The 20 MeV Ip of all the preCME groups correlate with the 2 MeV proton background intensities, consistent with a general correlation with possible seed particle populations. Furthermore, the fraction of CMEs with preCMEs also increases with the 2 MeV proton background intensities. This implies that the higher SEP Ip values with preCMEs may not be due primarily to CME interactions, such as the 'twin-CME' scenario, but are explained by a general increase of both background seed particles and more frequent CMEs during times of higher solar activity. This explanation is not supported by our analysis of 2 MeV proton backgrounds in two earlier preCME studies of SEP events, so the relevance of CME interactions for larger SEP event intensities remains unclear.

  9. Modeling observations of solar coronal mass ejections with heliospheric imagers verified with the Heliophysics System Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, C; Isavnin, A; Boakes, P D; Kilpua, E K J; Davies, J A; Harrison, R A; Barnes, D; Krupar, V; Eastwood, J P; Good, S W; Forsyth, R J; Bothmer, V; Reiss, M A; Amerstorfer, T; Winslow, R M; Anderson, B J; Philpott, L C; Rodriguez, L; Rouillard, A P; Gallagher, P; Nieves-Chinchilla, T; Zhang, T L

    2017-07-01

    We present an advance toward accurately predicting the arrivals of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the terrestrial planets, including Earth. For the first time, we are able to assess a CME prediction model using data over two thirds of a solar cycle of observations with the Heliophysics System Observatory. We validate modeling results of 1337 CMEs observed with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) heliospheric imagers (HI) (science data) from 8 years of observations by five in situ observing spacecraft. We use the self-similar expansion model for CME fronts assuming 60° longitudinal width, constant speed, and constant propagation direction. With these assumptions we find that 23%-35% of all CMEs that were predicted to hit a certain spacecraft lead to clear in situ signatures, so that for one correct prediction, two to three false alarms would have been issued. In addition, we find that the prediction accuracy does not degrade with the HI longitudinal separation from Earth. Predicted arrival times are on average within 2.6 ± 16.6 h difference of the in situ arrival time, similar to analytical and numerical modeling, and a true skill statistic of 0.21. We also discuss various factors that may improve the accuracy of space weather forecasting using wide-angle heliospheric imager observations. These results form a first-order approximated baseline of the prediction accuracy that is possible with HI and other methods used for data by an operational space weather mission at the Sun-Earth L5 point.

  10. Coronal mass ejections, type II radio bursts, and solar energetic particle events in the SOHO era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gopalswamy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the extensive and uniform data on coronal mass ejections (CMEs, solar energetic particle (SEP events, and type II radio bursts during the SOHO era, we discuss how the CME properties such as speed, width and solar-source longitude decide whether CMEs are associated with type II radio bursts and SEP events. We discuss why some radio-quiet CMEs are associated with small SEP events while some radio-loud CMEs are not associated with SEP events. We conclude that either some fast and wide CMEs do not drive shocks or they drive weak shocks that do not produce significant levels of particle acceleration. We also infer that the Alfvén speed in the corona and near-Sun interplanetary medium ranges from <200 km/s to ~1600 km/s. Radio-quiet fast and wide CMEs are also poor SEP producers and the association rate of type II bursts and SEP events steadily increases with CME speed and width (i.e. energy. If we consider western hemispheric CMEs, the SEP association rate increases linearly from ~30% for 800 km/s CMEs to 100% for ≥1800 km/s. Essentially all type II bursts in the decametre-hectometric (DH wavelength range are associated with SEP events once the source location on the Sun is taken into account. This is a significant result for space weather applications, because if a CME originating from the western hemisphere is accompanied by a DH type II burst, there is a high probability that it will produce an SEP event.

  11. Onset of a Large Ejective Solar Eruption from a Typical Coronal-jet-base Field Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Magara, Tetsuya; Moon, Yong-Jae [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L., E-mail: navin@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: njoshi98@gmail.com [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Utilizing multiwavelength observations and magnetic field data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), SDO /Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite ( GOES ), and RHESSI , we investigate a large-scale ejective solar eruption of 2014 December 18 from active region NOAA 12241. This event produced a distinctive “three-ribbon” flare, having two parallel ribbons corresponding to the ribbons of a standard two-ribbon flare, and a larger-scale third quasi-circular ribbon offset from the other two. There are two components to this eruptive event. First, a flux rope forms above a strong-field polarity inversion line and erupts and grows as the parallel ribbons turn on, grow, and spread apart from that polarity inversion line; this evolution is consistent with the mechanism of tether-cutting reconnection for eruptions. Second, the eruption of the arcade that has the erupting flux rope in its core undergoes magnetic reconnection at the null point of a fan dome that envelops the erupting arcade, resulting in formation of the quasi-circular ribbon; this is consistent with the breakout reconnection mechanism for eruptions. We find that the parallel ribbons begin well before (∼12 minutes) the onset of the circular ribbon, indicating that tether-cutting reconnection (or a non-ideal MHD instability) initiated this event, rather than breakout reconnection. The overall setup for this large-scale eruption (diameter of the circular ribbon ∼10{sup 5} km) is analogous to that of coronal jets (base size ∼10{sup 4} km), many of which, according to recent findings, result from eruptions of small-scale “minifilaments.” Thus these findings confirm that eruptions of sheared-core magnetic arcades seated in fan–spine null-point magnetic topology happen on a wide range of size scales on the Sun.

  12. Characteristics of Low-latitude Coronal Holes near the Maximum of Solar Cycle 24

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Reiss, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the statistics of 288 low-latitude coronal holes extracted from SDO/AIA-193 filtergrams over the time range of 2011 January 01–2013 December 31. We analyze the distribution of characteristic coronal hole properties, such as the areas, mean AIA-193 intensities, and mean magnetic fie...

  13. mxCSM: A 100-slit, 6-wavelength wide-field coronal spectropolarimeter for the study of the dynamics and the magnetic fields of the solar corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haosheng eLin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available remendous progress has been made in the field of observational coronal magnetometry in the first decade of the 21st century. With the successful construction of the Coronal Multichannel Magnetometer (CoMP instrument, observations of the linear polarization of the coronal emission lines (CELs, which carry information about the azimuthal direction of the coronal magnetic fields, are now routinely available. However, reliable and regular measurements of the circular polarization signals of the CELs remain illusive. The CEL circular polarization signals allow us to infer the magnetic field strength in the corona, and is critically important {bf of} our understanding of the solar corona. Current telescopes and instrument can only measure the coronal magnetic field strength over a small field of view. Furthermore, the observations require very long integration time that preclude the study of dynamic events even when only a small field of view is required. This paper describes a new instrument concept that employees large-scale multiplexing technology to enhance the efficiency of current coronal spectropolarimeter by more than two orders of magnitude. This will allow for the instrument to increase of the integration time at each spatial location by the same factor, while also achieving a large field of view coverage. We will present the conceptual design of a 100-slit coronal spectropolarimeter that can observe six coronal emission lines simultaneously. Instruments based on this concept will allow us to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field even with coronagraphs with modest aperture.

  14. An observational search for large-scale organization of five-minute oscillations on the sun. [coronal holes or sector structure relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, P. H.; Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The large-scale solar velocity field has been measured over an aperture of radius 0.8 solar radii on 121 days between April and September, 1976. Measurements are made in the line Fe I 5123.730 A, employing a velocity subtraction technique similar to that of Severny et al. (1976). Comparisons of the amplitude and frequency of the five-minute resonant oscillation with the geomagnetic C9 index and magnetic sector boundaries show no evidence of any relationship between the oscillations and coronal holes or sector structure.

  15. THE TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS. II. THE RECLOSING OF AN OPENED FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, B. C.; Janse, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a study of the spontaneous formation of current sheets responding to the closing of an opened magnetic field by resistive reconnection in an electrically, highly conducting atmosphere outside a unit sphere. Pairs of initial-final equilibrium states are calculated explicitly, taking the field to be composed of three systems of untwisted flux in both states. In the initial state, two of the three flux systems are closed potential fields whereas the third system contains an equilibrium current sheet that keeps the potential fields on its two sides globally open. The final state is an everywhere potential field, with all three flux systems closed, produced by the resistive dissipation of the current sheet in the initial state. The unit sphere is taken to be a rigid, perfectly conducting wall during reconnection, so that the normal flux distribution is unchanged on the unit sphere. Field solutions subject to this unchanging boundary condition are obtained with and without the assumption of axisymmetry. The mathematical model has been designed to show that the topological changes produced by the current-sheet dissipation are simple under axisymmetry but radically different in the absence of axisymmetry, a fundamental point established in the first paper of this series. In the general case, the topological changes imply that other current sheets must have formed. Some of these current sheets form on the separatrix flux surfaces of the multipolar field. Others form throughout the closed-flux systems induced by volumetric changes. The opening and reclosing of magnetic fields during a solar coronal mass ejection may produce a multitude of current sheets not previously anticipated in the current understanding of this phenomenon. Basic to this study is a general topological property of magnetic flux tubes treated separately in the Appendix.

  16. High Resolutions Studies of the Structure of the Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-30

    Regions", manuscript in preparation. M. Karovska , F. Blundell and S. R. Habbal, "Fine Scale Structure of the Solar Limb in a Coronal Hole", manuscript in...Astrophysical Observatory RIPORr MUMUR Smithsonian Institution AFOSR-TR- 2 0 9 1 MS 15 - 60 Garden Street Cambridge, 1; A 02138 SD. U sC,, i~ro AGENCY NAMI(S...visited the Solar and Stellar Physics Division for three months, and with Dr. Ruth Esser who has recently joined the Division as a physicist. 92

  17. The Dependence of the Peak Velocity of High-Speed Solar Wind Streams as Measured in the Ecliptic by ACE and the STEREO satellites on the Area and Co-Latitude of their Solar Source Coronal Holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela

    2018-01-01

    We study the properties of 115 coronal holes in the time‐range from 2010/08 to 2017/03, the peak velocities of the corresponding high‐speed streams as measured in the ecliptic at 1AU, and the corresponding changes of the Kp index as marker of their geo‐effectiveness. We find that the peak...... statistically to zero, indicating that the associated high‐speed streams have a high chance to miss the Earth. Similar, the Kp index per coronal hole area is highest for the coronal holes located near the solar equator and strongly decreases with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. We interpret...

  18. mxCSM: A 100-slit, 6-Wavelength Wide-Field Coronal Spectropolarimeter for the Study of the Dynamics and the Magnetic Fields of the Solar Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Haosheng, E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Pukalani, HI (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Tremendous progress has been made in the field of observational coronal magnetometry in the first decade of the Twenty-First century. With the successful construction of the Coronal Multichannel Magnetometer (CoMP) instrument, observations of the linear polarization of the coronal emission lines (CELs), which carry information about the azimuthal direction of the coronal magnetic fields, are now routinely available. However, reliable and regular measurements of the circular polarization signals of the CELs remain illusive. The CEL circular polarization signals allow us to infer the magnetic field strength in the corona, and is critically important for our understanding of the solar corona. Current telescopes and instrument can only measure the coronal magnetic field strength over a small field of view. Furthermore, the observations require very long integration time that preclude the study of dynamic events even when only a small field of view is required. This paper describes a new instrument concept that employs large-scale multiplexing technology to enhance the efficiency of current coronal spectropolarimeter by more than two orders of magnitude. This will allow for the instrument to increase the integration time at each spatial location by the same factor, while also achieving a large field of view coverage. We will present the conceptual design of a 100-slit coronal spectropolarimeter that can observe six CELs simultaneously. Instruments based on this concept will allow us to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field even with coronagraphs with modest aperture.

  19. Solar and interplanetary activities of isolated and non-isolated coronal mass ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendict Lawrance, M.; Shanmugaraju, A.; Moon, Y.-J.; Umapathy, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report our results on comparison of two halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) associated with X-class flares of similar strength (X1.4) but quite different in CME speed and acceleration, similar geo-effectiveness but quite different in Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) intensity. CME1 (non-isolated) was associated with a double event in X-ray flare and it was preceded by another fast halo CME of speed = 2684 km/s (pre-CME) associated with X-ray flare class X5.4 by 1 h from the same location. Since this pre-CME was more eastern, interaction with CME1 and hitting the earth were not possible. This event (CME1) has not suffered the cannibalism since pre-CME has faster speed than post-CME. Pre-CME plays a very important role in increasing the intensity of SEP and Forbush Decrease (FD) by providing energetic seed particles. So, the seed population is the major difference between these two selected events. CME2 (isolated) was a single event. We would like to address on the kinds of physical conditions related to such CMEs and their associated activities. Their associated activities such as, type II bursts, SEP, geomagnetic storm and FD are compared. The following results are obtained from the analysis. (1) The CME leading edge height at the start of metric/DH type II bursts are 2 R⊙/ 4 R⊙ for CME1, but 2 R⊙/ 2.75 R⊙ for CME2. (2) Peak intensity of SEP event associated with the two CMEs are quite different: 6530 pfu for CME1, but 96 pfu for CME2. (3) The Forbush decrease occurred with a minimum decrease of 9.98% in magnitude for CME1, but 6.90% for CME2. (4) These two events produced similar intense geomagnetic storms of intensity of Dst index -130 nT. (5) The maximum southward magnetic fields corresponding to Interplanetary CME (ICME) of these two events are nearly the same, but there is difference in Sheath Bz maximum (-14.2, -6.9 nT). (6) The time-line chart of the associated activities of two CMEs show some difference in the time delay between the onsets of

  20. Energy dissipation of Alfven wave packets deformed by irregular magnetic fields in solar-coronal arches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similon, Philippe L.; Sudan, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of field line geometry for shear Alfven wave dissipation in coronal arches is demonstrated. An eikonal formulation makes it possible to account for the complicated magnetic geometry typical in coronal loops. An interpretation of Alfven wave resonance is given in terms of gradient steepening, and dissipation efficiencies are studied for two configurations: the well-known slab model with a straight magnetic field, and a new model with stochastic field lines. It is shown that a large fraction of the Alfven wave energy flux can be effectively dissipated in the corona.

  1. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao; Qu, Zhongquan [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China); Landi Degl’Innocenti, Egidio, E-mail: sayahoro@ynao.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2017-03-20

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  2. Open and disconnected magnetic field lines within coronal mass ejections in the solar wind: Evidence for 3-dimensional reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, J. T.; Birn, J.; McComas, D. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Hesse, M.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of suprathermal electron fluxes in the solar wind at energies greater than approximatley 80 eV indicate that magnetic field lines within coronal mass ejections. CMEs, near and beyond 1 AU are normally connected to the Sun at both ends. However, a preliminary reexamination of events previously identified as CMEs in the ISEE 3 data reveals that about 1/4 of all such events contain limited regions where field lines appear to be either connected to the Sun at only one end or connected to the outer heliosphere at both ends. Similar intervals of open and disconnected field lines within CMEs have been identified in the Ulysses observations. We believe that these anomalous field topologies within CMEs are most naturally interpreted in terms of 3-dimensional reconnection behind CMEs close to the Sun. Such reconnection also provides a natural explanation both for the flux rope topology of many CMEs as well as the coronal loops formed during long-duration solar soft X ray events. Although detailed numerical simulations of 3-dimensional reconnection behind CMEs are not yet available, such simulations have been done for the qualitatively similar geometry that prevails within the geomagnetic tail. Those simulations of plasmoid formation in the geomagnetic tail do produce the mixture of field topologies within plasmoids discussed here for CMEs.

  3. A HIGH-FREQUENCY TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURST ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2011 FEBRUARY 13 CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, K.-S.; Kim, R.-S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Whaamdong, Yooseong-ku, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Gopalswamy, N.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Yashiro, S., E-mail: kscho@kasi.re.kr [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We examine the relationship between the high-frequency (425 MHz) type II radio burst and the associated white-light coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2011 February 13. The radio burst had a drift rate of 2.5 MHz s{sup -1}, indicating a relatively high shock speed. From SDO/AIA observations we find that a loop-like erupting front sweeps across high-density coronal loops near the start time of the burst (17:34:17 UT). The deduced distance of shock formation (0.06 Rs) from the flare center and speed of the shock (1100 km s{sup -1}) using the measured density from SDO/AIA observations are comparable to the height (0.05 Rs, from the solar surface) and speed (700 km s{sup -1}) of the CME leading edge observed by STEREO/EUVI. We conclude that the type II burst originates even in the low corona (<59 Mm or 0.08 Rs, above the solar surface) due to the fast CME shock passing through high-density loops.

  4. Solar Coronal Events with Extended Hard X-ray and Gamma-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    A characteristic pattern of solar hard X-ray emission, first identified in SOL1969-03-31 by Frost & Dennis (1971) now has been linked to prolonged high-energy gamma-ray emission detected by the Fermi/LAT experiment, for example in SOL2014-09-01. The distinctive features of these events include flat hard X-ray spectra extending well above 100 keV, a characteristic pattern of time development, low-frequency gyrosynchrotron peaks, CME association, and gamma-rays identifiable with pion decay originating in GeV ions. The identification of these events with otherwise known solar structures nevertheless remains elusive, in spite of the wealth of imagery available from AIA. The quandary is that these events have a clear association with CMEs in the high corona, and yet the gamma-ray production implicates the photosphere itself. The vanishingly small loss cone in the nominal acceleration region makes this extremely difficult. I propose direct inward advection of a part of the SEP particle population, as created on closed field structures, as a possible resolution of this puzzle, and note that this requires retracting magnetic structures on long time scales following the flare itself.

  5. Studying the Kinematic Behavior of Coronal Mass Ejections and Other Solar Phenomena using the Time-Convolution Mapping Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess Webber, Shea A.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Kwon, Ryun Young; Ireland, Jack

    2018-01-01

    An improved understanding of the kinematic properties of CMEs and CME-associated phenomena has several impacts: 1) a less ambiguous method of mapping propagating structures into their inner coronal manifestations, 2) a clearer view of the relationship between the “main” CME and CME-associated brightenings, and 3) an improved identification of the heliospheric sources of shocks, Type II bursts, and SEPs. We present the results of a mapping technique that facilitates the separation of CMEs and CME-associated brightenings (such as shocks) from background corona. The Time Convolution Mapping Method (TCMM) segments coronagraph data to identify the time history of coronal evolution, the advantage being that the spatiotemporal evolution profiles allow users to separate features with different propagation characteristics. For example, separating “main” CME mass from CME-associated brightenings or shocks is a well-known obstacle, which the TCMM aids in differentiating. A TCMM CME map is made by first recording the maximum value each individual pixel in the image reaches during the traversal of the CME. Then the maximum value is convolved with an index to indicate the time that the pixel reached that value. The TCMM user is then able to identify continuous “kinematic profiles,” indicating related kinematic behavior, and also identify breaks in the profiles that indicate a discontinuity in kinematic history (i.e. different structures or different propagation characteristics). The maps obtained from multiple spacecraft viewpoints (i.e., STEREO and SOHO) can then be fit with advanced structural models to obtain the 3D properties of the evolving phenomena. We will also comment on the TCMM's further applicability toward the tracking of prominences, coronal hole boundaries and coronal cavities.

  6. Role of the Coronal Alfvén Speed in Modulating the Solar-wind Helium Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.-M.

    2016-12-01

    The helium abundance He/H in the solar wind is relatively constant at ˜0.04 in high-speed streams, but varies in phase with the sunspot number in slow wind, from ˜0.01 at solar minimum to ˜0.04 at maximum. Suggested mechanisms for helium fractionation have included frictional coupling to protons and resonant interactions with high-frequency Alfvénic fluctuations. We compare He/H measurements during 1995-2015 with coronal parameters derived from source-surface extrapolations of photospheric field maps. We find that the near-Earth helium abundance is an increasing function of the magnetic field strength and Alfvén speed v A in the outer corona, while being only weakly correlated with the proton flux density. Throughout the solar cycle, fast wind is associated with short-term increases in v A near the source surface; resonance with Alfvén waves, with v A and the relative speed of α-particles and protons decreasing with increasing heliocentric distance, may then lead to enhanced He/H at 1 au. The modulation of helium in slow wind reflects the tendency for the associated coronal Alfvén speeds to rise steeply from sunspot minimum, when this wind is concentrated around the source-surface neutral line, to sunspot maximum, when the source-surface field attains its peak strengths. The helium abundance near the source surface may represent a balance between collisional decoupling from protons and Alfvén wave acceleration.

  7. MULTISCALE DYNAMICS OF SOLAR MAGNETIC STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiscale topological complexity of the solar magnetic field is among the primary factors controlling energy release in the corona, including associated processes in the photospheric and chromospheric boundaries. We present a new approach for analyzing multiscale behavior of the photospheric magnetic flux underlying these dynamics as depicted by a sequence of high-resolution solar magnetograms. The approach involves two basic processing steps: (1) identification of timing and location of magnetic flux origin and demise events (as defined by DeForest et al.) by tracking spatiotemporal evolution of unipolar and bipolar photospheric regions, and (2) analysis of collective behavior of the detected magnetic events using a generalized version of the Grassberger-Procaccia correlation integral algorithm. The scale-free nature of the developed algorithms makes it possible to characterize the dynamics of the photospheric network across a wide range of distances and relaxation times. Three types of photospheric conditions are considered to test the method: a quiet photosphere, a solar active region (NOAA 10365) in a quiescent non-flaring state, and the same active region during a period of M-class flares. The results obtained show (1) the presence of a topologically complex asymmetrically fragmented magnetic network in the quiet photosphere driven by meso- and supergranulation, (2) the formation of non-potential magnetic structures with complex polarity separation lines inside the active region, and (3) statistical signatures of canceling bipolar magnetic structures coinciding with flaring activity in the active region. Each of these effects can represent an unstable magnetic configuration acting as an energy source for coronal dissipation and heating.

  8. Modeling observations of solar coronal mass ejections with heliospheric imagers verified with the eliophysics System Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Möstl, C.; Isavnin, A.; Boakes, P. D.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Barnes, D.; Krupař, Vratislav; Eastwood, J.; Good, S. W.; Forsyth, R. J.; Bothmer, V.; Reiss, M. A.; Amerstorfer, T.; Winslow, R. M.; Anderson, B.J.; Philpott, L. C.; Rodriguez, L.; Rouillard, A. P.; Gallagher, P.; Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Zhang, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2017), s. 955-970 ISSN 1539-4956 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06818Y Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : space weather * coronal mass ejections * STEREO * heliospheric imagers * Heliophysics System Observatory * heliophysics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017SW001614/full

  9. Successive Homologous Coronal Mass Ejections Driven by Shearing and Converging Motions in Solar Active Region NOAA 12371

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vemareddy, P.

    2017-01-01

    We study the magnetic field evolution in AR 12371, related to its successive eruptive nature. During the disk transit of seven days, the active region (AR) launched four sequential fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are associated with long duration M-class flares. Morphological study delineates a pre-eruptive coronal sigmoid structure above the polarity inversion line (PIL) similar to Moore et al.’s study. The velocity field derived from tracked magnetograms indicates persistent shear and converging motions of polarity regions about the PIL. While these shear motions continue, the crossed arms of two sigmoid elbows are being brought to interaction by converging motions at the middle of the PIL, initiating the tether-cutting reconnection of field lines and the onset of the CME explosion. The successive CMEs are explained by a cyclic process of magnetic energy storage and release referred to as “sigmoid-to-arcade-to-sigmoid” transformation driven by photospheric flux motions. Furthermore, the continued shear motions inject helicity flux with a dominant negative sign, which contributes to core field twist and its energy by building a twisted flux rope (FR). After a limiting value, the excess coronal helicity is expelled by bodily ejection of the FR, which is initiated by some instability as realized by intermittent CMEs. This AR is in contrast with the confined AR 12192 with a predominant negative sign and larger helicity flux, but much weaker (−0.02 turns) normalized coronal helicity content. While predominant signed helicity flux is a requirement for CME eruption, our study suggests that the magnetic flux normalized helicity flux is a necessary condition accommodating the role of background flux and appeals to a further study of a large sample of ARs.

  10. Successive Homologous Coronal Mass Ejections Driven by Shearing and Converging Motions in Solar Active Region NOAA 12371

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vemareddy, P., E-mail: vemareddy@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block, Koramangala, Bengalure-560034 (India)

    2017-08-10

    We study the magnetic field evolution in AR 12371, related to its successive eruptive nature. During the disk transit of seven days, the active region (AR) launched four sequential fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are associated with long duration M-class flares. Morphological study delineates a pre-eruptive coronal sigmoid structure above the polarity inversion line (PIL) similar to Moore et al.’s study. The velocity field derived from tracked magnetograms indicates persistent shear and converging motions of polarity regions about the PIL. While these shear motions continue, the crossed arms of two sigmoid elbows are being brought to interaction by converging motions at the middle of the PIL, initiating the tether-cutting reconnection of field lines and the onset of the CME explosion. The successive CMEs are explained by a cyclic process of magnetic energy storage and release referred to as “sigmoid-to-arcade-to-sigmoid” transformation driven by photospheric flux motions. Furthermore, the continued shear motions inject helicity flux with a dominant negative sign, which contributes to core field twist and its energy by building a twisted flux rope (FR). After a limiting value, the excess coronal helicity is expelled by bodily ejection of the FR, which is initiated by some instability as realized by intermittent CMEs. This AR is in contrast with the confined AR 12192 with a predominant negative sign and larger helicity flux, but much weaker (−0.02 turns) normalized coronal helicity content. While predominant signed helicity flux is a requirement for CME eruption, our study suggests that the magnetic flux normalized helicity flux is a necessary condition accommodating the role of background flux and appeals to a further study of a large sample of ARs.

  11. Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Coronal holes and interplanetary disturbances are important aspects of the physics of the Sun and heliosphere. Interplanetary disturbances are identified as an increase in the density turbulence compared with the ambient solar wind. Erupting stream disturbances are transient large-scale structures of ...

  12. Coronal structures and particle acceleration studies from radioelectric and optical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axisa, Francois.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of acceleration outside of and during eruptions is studied from the association of type III radioelectric jumps with the chromosphere activity observed in absorption and emission of the Hα line. In addition the mean corona structure is investigated from observation of the slowly variable metric wave component in connection with coronal filaments and jets, and by type III emission in relation to the eruptive sites of complex active regions. Most of the experimental material comes from observations made with the Nancay East-West radioheliograph, which works on 169 MHz and optical observations carried out at the Meudon Observatory on the chromosphere and on photosphere magnetic fields [fr

  13. Table of solar activity associated with coronal mass ejections observed by the SMM coronagraph/polarimeter in 1980. Technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.F.

    1987-10-01

    This report is the description and presentation of a table of solar activity considered to be associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as observed during 1980 with the High Altitude Observatory's Coronagraph/Polarimeter (C/P) on the SMM spacecraft. The list has formed the basic data set for several studies, most prominently a study of CME associations published by Webb and Hundhausen (1987). An attendant source of CME data is the unpublished C/P Event List for 1980, which co-evolved with the association list under the guidance of Art Hundhausen. Discussions of the details of the selection and verification of the list of SMM CMEs are contained in the above paper as well as in this papers of Hundhausen et al. (1984) and Hundhausen (1987)

  14. Solar Cycle Variation of Microwave Polar Brightening and EUV Coronal Hole Observed by Nobeyama Radioheliograph and SDO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Park, Jong-Yeop; Kim, Yeon-Han

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the solar cycle variation of microwave and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) intensity in latitude to compare microwave polar brightening (MPB) with the EUV polar coronal hole (CH). For this study, we used the full-sun images observed in 17 GHz of the Nobeyama Radioheliograph from 1992 July to 2016 November and in two EUV channels of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 193 Å and 171 Å on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) from 2011 January to 2016 November. As a result, we found that the polar intensity in EUV is anti-correlated with the polar intensity in microwave. Since the depression of EUV intensity in the pole is mostly owing to the CH appearance and continuation there, the anti-correlation in the intensity implies the intimate association between the polar CH and the MPB. Considering the report of tet{gopal99} that the enhanced microwave brightness in the CH is seen above the enhanced photospheric magnetic field, we suggest that the pole area during the solar minimum has a stronger magnetic field than the quiet sun level and such a strong field in the pole results in the formation of the polar CH. The emission mechanism of the MPB and the physical link with the polar CH are not still fully understood. It is necessary to investigate the MPB using high resolution microwave imaging data, which can be obtained by the high performance large-array radio observatories such as the ALMA project.

  15. Mass-loss Rates from Coronal Mass Ejections: A Predictive Theoretical Model for Solar-type Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranmer, Steven R. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are eruptive events that cause a solar-type star to shed mass and magnetic flux. CMEs tend to occur together with flares, radio storms, and bursts of energetic particles. On the Sun, CME-related mass loss is roughly an order of magnitude less intense than that of the background solar wind. However, on other types of stars, CMEs have been proposed to carry away much more mass and energy than the time-steady wind. Earlier papers have used observed correlations between solar CMEs and flare energies, in combination with stellar flare observations, to estimate stellar CME rates. This paper sidesteps flares and attempts to calibrate a more fundamental correlation between surface-averaged magnetic fluxes and CME properties. For the Sun, there exists a power-law relationship between the magnetic filling factor and the CME kinetic energy flux, and it is generalized for use on other stars. An example prediction of the time evolution of wind/CME mass-loss rates for a solar-mass star is given. A key result is that for ages younger than about 1 Gyr (i.e., activity levels only slightly higher than the present-day Sun), the CME mass loss exceeds that of the time-steady wind. At younger ages, CMEs carry 10–100 times more mass than the wind, and such high rates may be powerful enough to dispel circumstellar disks and affect the habitability of nearby planets. The cumulative CME mass lost by the young Sun may have been as much as 1% of a solar mass.

  16. The statistical analysis of energy release in small-scale coronal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Artyom; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey

    We present the results of statistical analysis of impulsive flare-like brightenings, which numerously occur in the quiet regions of solar corona. For our study, we utilized high-cadence observations performed with two EUV-telescopes - TESIS/Coronas-Photon and AIA/SDO. In total, we processed 6 sequences of images, registered throughout the period between 2009 and 2013, covering the rising phase of the 24th solar cycle. Based on high-speed DEM estimation method, we developed a new technique to evaluate the main parameters of detected events (geometrical sizes, duration, temperature and thermal energy). We then obtained the statistical distributions of these parameters and examined their variations depending on the level of solar activity. The results imply that near the minimum of the solar cycle the energy release in quiet corona is mainly provided by small-scale events (nanoflares), whereas larger events (microflares) prevail on the peak of activity. Furthermore, we investigated the coronal conditions that had specified the formation and triggering of registered flares. By means of photospheric magnetograms obtained with MDI/SoHO and HMI/SDO instruments, we examined the topology of local magnetic fields at different stages: the pre-flare phase, the peak of intensity and the ending phase. To do so, we introduced a number of topological parameters including the total magnetic flux, the distance between magnetic sources and their mutual arrangement. The found correlation between the change of these parameters and the formation of flares may offer an important tool for application of flare forecasting.

  17. The transition region and coronal explorer (TRACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, Alan; Bruner, M.; Jurcevich, B.; Lemen, J.; Strong, K.; Tarbell, Ted; Wolfson, C. Jacob; Golub, L.; Bookbinder, J.; Fisher, R.

    1995-01-01

    The transition region and coronal explorer (TRACE) NASA small explorer mission and instrument are presented. The TRACE scientific investigation explores the relationships between fine-scale magnetic fields and the associated solar plasma structures. The instrument collects images of solar plasmas at temperatures from 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 7) K with one arcsec spatial resolution. The design specifications of the trace instrument are presented.

  18. Coronal mass ejection kinematics deduced from white light (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) and radio (Wind/WAVES) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.; Jackson, B. V.; Webb, D. F.; Mizuno, D. R.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2005-09-01

    White-light and radio observations are combined to deduce the coronal and interplanetary kinematics of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that was ejected from the Sun at about 1700 UT on 2 November 2003. The CME, which was associated with an X8.3 solar flare from W56°, was observed by the Mauna Loa and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) coronagraphs to 14 R⊙. The measured plane-of-sky speed of the LASCO CME was 2600 km s-1. To deduce the kinematics of this CME, we use the plane-of-sky white light observations from both the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) all-sky camera on board the Coriolis spacecraft and the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, as well as the frequency drift rate of the low-frequency radio data and the results of the radio direction-finding analysis from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft. In agreement with the in situ observations for this event, we find that both the white light and radio observations indicate that the CME must have decelerated significantly beginning near the Sun and continuing well into the interplanetary medium. More specifically, by requiring self-consistency of all the available remote and in situ data, together with a simple, but not unreasonable, assumption about the general characteristic of the CME deceleration, we were able to deduce the radial speed and distance time profiles for this CME as it propagated from the Sun to 1 AU. The technique presented here, which is applicable to mutual SMEI/WAVES CME events, is expected to provide a more complete description and better quantitative understanding of how CMEs propagate through interplanetary space, as well as how the radio emissions, generated by propagating CME/shocks, relate to the shock and CME. This understanding can potentially lead to more accurate predictions for the onset times of space weather events, such as those that were observed during this unique period of intense solar activity.

  19. The Heating of Solar Coronal Loops by Alfvén Wave Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A. [5001 Riverwood Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34231 (United States); Asgari-Targhi, M.; Voss, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we further develop a model for the heating of coronal loops by Alfvén wave turbulence (AWT). The Alfvén waves are assumed to be launched from a collection of kilogauss flux tubes in the photosphere at the two ends of the loop. Using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic model for an active-region loop, we investigate how the waves from neighboring flux tubes interact in the chromosphere and corona. For a particular combination of model parameters we find that AWT can produce enough heat to maintain a peak temperature of about 2.5 MK, somewhat lower than the temperatures of 3–4 MK observed in the cores of active regions. The heating rates vary strongly in space and time, but the simulated heating events have durations less than 1 minute and are unlikely to reproduce the observed broad differential emission measure distributions of active regions. The simulated spectral line nonthermal widths are predicted to be about 27 km s{sup −1}, which is high compared to the observed values. Therefore, the present AWT model does not satisfy the observational constraints. An alternative “magnetic braiding” model is considered in which the coronal field lines are subject to slow random footpoint motions, but we find that such long-period motions produce much less heating than the shorter-period waves launched within the flux tubes. We discuss several possibilities for resolving the problem of producing sufficiently hot loops in active regions.

  20. Blowout Surge due to Interaction between a Solar Filament and Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haidong; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Yang, Bo; Xu, Zhe; Bi, Yi; Hong, Junchao; Chen, Hechao [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 396 Yangfangwang, Guandu District, Kunming, 650216 (China); Qu, Zhining, E-mail: lhd@ynao.ac.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)

    2017-06-20

    We present an observation of the interaction between a filament and the outer spine-like loops that produces a blowout surge within one footpoint of large-scale coronal loops on 2015 February 6. Based the observation of the AIA 304 and 94 Å, the activated filament is initially embedded below a dome of a fan-spine configuration. Due to the ascending motion, the erupting filament reconnects with the outer spine-like field. We note that the material in the filament blows out along the outer spine-like field to form the surge with a wider spire, and a two-ribbon flare appears at the site of the filament eruption. In this process, small bright blobs appear at the interaction region and stream up along the outer spine-like field and down along the eastern fan-like field. As a result, a leg of the filament becomes radial and the material in it erupts, while another leg forms the new closed loops. Our results confirm that the successive reconnection occurring between the erupting filament and the coronal loops may lead to a strong thermal/magnetic pressure imbalance, resulting in a blowout surge.

  1. The magnetic connectivity of coronal shocks from behind-the-limb flares to the visible solar surface during γ-ray events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, I.; Rouillard, A. P.; Share, G. H.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The observation of >100 MeV γ-rays in the minutes to hours following solar flares suggests that high-energy particles interacting in the solar atmosphere can be stored and/or accelerated for long time periods. The occasions when γ-rays are detected even when the solar eruptions occurred beyond the solar limb as viewed from Earth provide favorable viewing conditions for studying the role of coronal shocks driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the acceleration of these particles. Aims: In this paper, we investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the coronal shocks inferred from stereoscopic observations of behind-the-limb flares to determine if they could be the source of the particles producing the γ-rays. Methods: We analyzed the CMEs and early formation of coronal shocks associated with γ-ray events measured by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) from three eruptions behind the solar limb as viewed from Earth on 2013 Oct. 11, 2014 Jan. 06 and Sep. 01. We used a 3D triangulation technique, based on remote-sensing observations to model the expansion of the CME shocks from above the solar surface to the upper corona. Coupling the expansion model to various models of the coronal magnetic field allowed us to derive the time-dependent distribution of shock Mach numbers and the magnetic connection of particles produced by the shock to the solar surface visible from Earth. Results: The reconstructed shock fronts for the three events became magnetically connected to the visible solar surface after the start of the flare and just before the onset of the >100 MeV γ-ray emission. The shock surface at these connections also exhibited supercritical Mach numbers required for significant particle energization. The strongest γ-ray emissions occurred when the flanks of the shocks were connected in a quasi-perpendicular geometry to the field lines reaching the visible surface. Multipoint, in situ, measurements of solar energetic particles (SEPs) were

  2. PRE-FLARE CORONAL JET AND EVOLUTIONARY PHASES OF A SOLAR ERUPTIVE PROMINENCE ASSOCIATED WITH THE M1.8 FLARE: SDO AND RHESSI OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Bhuwan; Kushwaha, Upendra [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Udaipur 313001 (India); Veronig, Astrid M. [Kanzelhöhe Observatory/Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Cho, K.-S., E-mail: bhuwan@prl.res.in [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the triggering, activation, and ejection of a solar eruptive prominence that occurred in a multi-polar flux system of active region NOAA 11548 on 2012 August 18 by analyzing data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory , the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager , and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager/Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation on board the Solar Terrestrial Relation Observatory . Prior to the prominence activation, we observed striking coronal activities in the form of a blowout jet, which is associated with the rapid eruption of a cool flux rope. Furthermore, the jet-associated flux rope eruption underwent splitting and rotation during its outward expansion. These coronal activities are followed by the prominence activation during which it slowly rises with a speed of ∼12 km s{sup −1} while the region below the prominence emits gradually varying EUV and thermal X-ray emissions. From these observations, we propose that the prominence eruption is a complex, multi-step phenomenon in which a combination of internal (tether-cutting reconnection) and external (i.e., pre-eruption coronal activities) processes are involved. The prominence underwent catastrophic loss of equilibrium with the onset of the impulsive phase of an M1.8 flare, suggesting large-scale energy release by coronal magnetic reconnection. We obtained signatures of particle acceleration in the form of power-law spectra with hard electron spectral index ( δ  ∼ 3) and strong HXR footpoint sources. During the impulsive phase, a hot EUV plasmoid was observed below the apex of the erupting prominence that ejected in the direction of the prominence with a speed of ∼177 km s{sup −1}. The temporal, spatial, and kinematic correlations between the erupting prominence and the plasmoid imply that the magnetic reconnection supported the fast ejection of prominence in the lower corona.

  3. Coronal hole evolution from multi-viewpoint data as input for a STEREO solar wind speed persistence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmer, Manuela; Hinterreiter, Jürgen; Reiss, Martin A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a concept study of a solar wind forecasting method for Earth, based on persistence modeling from STEREO in situ measurements combined with multi-viewpoint EUV observational data. By comparing the fractional areas of coronal holes (CHs) extracted from EUV data of STEREO and SoHO/SDO, we perform an uncertainty assessment derived from changes in the CHs and apply those changes to the predicted solar wind speed profile at 1 AU. We evaluate the method for the time period 2008-2012, and compare the results to a persistence model based on ACE in situ measurements and to the STEREO persistence model without implementing the information on CH evolution. Compared to an ACE based persistence model, the performance of the STEREO persistence model which takes into account the evolution of CHs, is able to increase the number of correctly predicted high-speed streams by about 12%, and to decrease the number of missed streams by about 23%, and the number of false alarms by about 19%. However, the added information on CH evolution is not able to deliver more accurate speed values for the forecast than using the STEREO persistence model without CH information which performs better than an ACE based persistence model. Investigating the CH evolution between STEREO and Earth view for varying separation angles over ˜25-140° East of Earth, we derive some relation between expanding CHs and increasing solar wind speed, but a less clear relation for decaying CHs and decreasing solar wind speed. This fact most likely prevents the method from making more precise forecasts. The obtained results support a future L5 mission and show the importance and valuable contribution using multi-viewpoint data.

  4. Coronal hole evolution from multi-viewpoint data as input for a STEREO solar wind speed persistence model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmer Manuela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a concept study of a solar wind forecasting method for Earth, based on persistence modeling from STEREO in situ measurements combined with multi-viewpoint EUV observational data. By comparing the fractional areas of coronal holes (CHs extracted from EUV data of STEREO and SoHO/SDO, we perform an uncertainty assessment derived from changes in the CHs and apply those changes to the predicted solar wind speed profile at 1 AU. We evaluate the method for the time period 2008–2012, and compare the results to a persistence model based on ACE in situ measurements and to the STEREO persistence model without implementing the information on CH evolution. Compared to an ACE based persistence model, the performance of the STEREO persistence model which takes into account the evolution of CHs, is able to increase the number of correctly predicted high-speed streams by about 12%, and to decrease the number of missed streams by about 23%, and the number of false alarms by about 19%. However, the added information on CH evolution is not able to deliver more accurate speed values for the forecast than using the STEREO persistence model without CH information which performs better than an ACE based persistence model. Investigating the CH evolution between STEREO and Earth view for varying separation angles over ∼25–140° East of Earth, we derive some relation between expanding CHs and increasing solar wind speed, but a less clear relation for decaying CHs and decreasing solar wind speed. This fact most likely prevents the method from making more precise forecasts. The obtained results support a future L5 mission and show the importance and valuable contribution using multi-viewpoint data.

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF INTERPLANETARY SOLAR RADIO EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupar, V.; Eastwood, J. P. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Kruparova, O.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J., E-mail: v.krupar@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: jonathan.eastwood@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: ok@ufa.cas.cz, E-mail: os@ufa.cas.cz, E-mail: soucek@ufa.cas.cz [Institute of Atmospheric Physics CAS, Prague (Czech Republic); and others

    2016-05-20

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale eruptions of magnetized plasma that may cause severe geomagnetic storms if Earth directed. Here, we report a rare instance with comprehensive in situ and remote sensing observations of a CME combining white-light, radio, and plasma measurements from four different vantage points. For the first time, we have successfully applied a radio direction-finding technique to an interplanetary type II burst detected by two identical widely separated radio receivers. The derived locations of the type II and type III bursts are in general agreement with the white-light CME reconstruction. We find that the radio emission arises from the flanks of the CME and are most likely associated with the CME-driven shock. Our work demonstrates the complementarity between radio triangulation and 3D reconstruction techniques for space weather applications.

  6. CORONAL HEATING BY SURFACE ALFVEN WAVE DAMPING: IMPLEMENTATION IN A GLOBAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS MODEL OF THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R. M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Space Weather Lab, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Opher, M. [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Oran, R.; Van der Holst, B.; Sokolov, I. V.; Frazin, R.; Gombosi, T. I. [Center for Space Environment Modeling, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Vasquez, A., E-mail: Rebekah.e.frolov@nasa.gov [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and FCEN (UBA), CC 67, Suc 28, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-09-10

    The heating and acceleration of the solar wind is an active area of research. Alfven waves, because of their ability to accelerate and heat the plasma, are a likely candidate in both processes. Many models have explored wave dissipation mechanisms which act either in closed or open magnetic field regions. In this work, we emphasize the boundary between these regions, drawing on observations which indicate unique heating is present there. We utilize a new solar corona component of the Space Weather Modeling Framework, in which Alfven wave energy transport is self-consistently coupled to the magnetohydrodynamic equations. In this solar wind model, the wave pressure gradient accelerates and wave dissipation heats the plasma. Kolmogorov-like wave dissipation as expressed by Hollweg along open magnetic field lines was presented in van der Holst et al. Here, we introduce an additional dissipation mechanism: surface Alfven wave (SAW) damping, which occurs in regions with transverse (with respect to the magnetic field) gradients in the local Alfven speed. For solar minimum conditions, we find that SAW dissipation is weak in the polar regions (where Hollweg dissipation is strong), and strong in subpolar latitudes and the boundaries of open and closed magnetic fields (where Hollweg dissipation is weak). We show that SAW damping reproduces regions of enhanced temperature at the boundaries of open and closed magnetic fields seen in tomographic reconstructions in the low corona. Also, we argue that Ulysses data in the heliosphere show enhanced temperatures at the boundaries of fast and slow solar wind, which is reproduced by SAW dissipation. Therefore, the model's temperature distribution shows best agreement with these observations when both dissipation mechanisms are considered. Lastly, we use observational constraints of shock formation in the low corona to assess the Alfven speed profile in the model. We find that, compared to a polytropic solar wind model, the wave

  7. Association of solar flares with coronal mass ejections accompanied by Deca-Hectometric type II radio burst for two solar cycles 23 and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharayat, Hema; Prasad, Lalan; Pant, Sumit

    2018-05-01

    The aim of present study is to find the association of solar flares with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) accompanied by Deca-Hectometric (DH) type II radio burst for the period 1997-2014 (solar cycle 23 and ascending phase of solar cycle 24). We have used a statistical analysis and found that 10-20∘ latitudinal belt of northern region and 80-90∘ longitudinal belts of western region of the sun are more effective for flare-CME accompanied by DH type II radio burst events. M-class flares (52%) are in good association with the CMEs accompanied by DH type II radio burst. Further, we have calculated the flare position and found that most frequent flare site is at the center of the CME span. However, the occurrence probability of all flares is maximum outside the CME span. X-class flare associated CMEs have maximum speed than that of M, C, and B-class flare associated CMEs. We have also found a good correlation between flare position and central position angle of CMEs accompanied by DH type II radio burst.

  8. Connecting Coronal Mass Ejections to Their Solar Active Region Sources: Combining Results from the HELCATS and FLARECAST Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sophie A.; Guerra, Jordan A.; Zucca, Pietro; Park, Sung-Hong; Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Vilmer, Nicole; Bothmer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and other solar eruptive phenomena can be physically linked by combining data from a multitude of ground-based and space-based instruments alongside models; however, this can be challenging for automated operational systems. The EU Framework Package 7 HELCATS project provides catalogues of CME observations and properties from the Heliospheric Imagers on board the two NASA/STEREO spacecraft in order to track the evolution of CMEs in the inner heliosphere. From the main HICAT catalogue of over 2,000 CME detections, an automated algorithm has been developed to connect the CMEs observed by STEREO to any corresponding solar flares and active-region (AR) sources on the solar surface. CME kinematic properties, such as speed and angular width, are compared with AR magnetic field properties, such as magnetic flux, area, and neutral line characteristics. The resulting LOWCAT catalogue is also compared to the extensive AR property database created by the EU Horizon 2020 FLARECAST project, which provides more complex magnetic field parameters derived from vector magnetograms. Initial statistical analysis has been undertaken on the new data to provide insight into the link between flare and CME events, and characteristics of eruptive ARs. Warning thresholds determined from analysis of the evolution of these parameters is shown to be a useful output for operational space weather purposes. Parameters of particular interest for further analysis include total unsigned flux, vertical current, and current helicity. The automated method developed to create the LOWCAT catalogue may also be useful for future efforts to develop operational CME forecasting.

  9. The solar and interplanetary causes of the recent minimum in geomagnetic activity (MGA23: a combination of midlatitude small coronal holes, low IMF BZ variances, low solar wind speeds and low solar magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Minima in geomagnetic activity (MGA at Earth at the ends of SC23 and SC22 have been identified. The two MGAs (called MGA23 and MGA22, respectively were present in 2009 and 1997, delayed from the sunspot number minima in 2008 and 1996 by ~1/2–1 years. Part of the solar and interplanetary causes of the MGAs were exceptionally low solar (and thus low interplanetary magnetic fields. Another important factor in MGA23 was the disappearance of equatorial and low latitude coronal holes and the appearance of midlatitude coronal holes. The location of the holes relative to the ecliptic plane led to low solar wind speeds and low IMF (Bz variances (σBz2 and normalized variances (σBz2/B02 at Earth, with concomitant reduced solar wind-magnetospheric energy coupling. One result was the lowest ap indices in the history of ap recording. The results presented here are used to comment on the possible solar and interplanetary causes of the low geomagnetic activity that occurred during the Maunder Minimum.

  10. Plasma properties of hot coronal loops utilizing coordinated SMM and solar research rocket observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Three improvements in photographic x-ray imaging techniques for solar astronomy are presented. The testing and calibration of a new film processor was conducted; the resulting product will allow photometric development of sounding rocket flight film immediately upon recovery at the missile range. Two fine grained photographic films were calibrated and flight tested to provide alternative detector choices when the need for high resolution is greater than the need for high sensitivity. An analysis technique used to obtain the characteristic curve directly from photographs of UV solar spectra were applied to the analysis of soft x-ray photographic images. The resulting procedure provides a more complete and straightforward determination of the parameters describing the x-ray characteristic curve than previous techniques. These improvements fall into the category of refinements instead of revolutions, indicating the fundamental suitability of the photographic process for x-ray imaging in solar astronomy.

  11. The Peculiar Behavior of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections in Solar Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Makela, P.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the remarkable finding that the halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in cycle 24 are more abundant than in cycle 23, although the sunspot number in cycle 24 has dropped by approx. 40%. We also find that the distribution of halo-CME source locations is different in cycle 24: the longitude distribution of halos is much flatter with the number of halos originating at a central meridian distance greater than or equal to 60deg twice as large as that in cycle 23. On the other hand, the average speed and associated soft X-ray flare size are the same in both cycles, suggesting that the ambient medium into which the CMEs are ejected is significantly different. We suggest that both the higher abundance and larger central meridian longitudes of halo CMEs can be explained as a consequence of the diminished total pressure in the heliosphere in cycle 24. The reduced total pressure allows CMEs to expand more than usual making them appear as halos.

  12. DYNAMICS OF CORONAL RAIN AND DESCENDING PLASMA BLOBS IN SOLAR PROMINENCES. II. PARTIALLY IONIZED CASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Zaqarashvili, T. V., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [Institute of Physics, IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010, Graz (Austria)

    2016-02-20

    Coronal rain clumps and prominence knots are dense condensations with chromospheric to transition region temperatures that fall down in the much hotter corona. Their typical speeds are in the range 30–150 km s{sup −1} and of the order of 10–30 km s{sup −1}, respectively, i.e., they are considerably smaller than free-fall velocities. These cold blobs contain a mixture of ionized and neutral material that must be dynamically coupled in order to fall together, as observed. We investigate this coupling by means of hydrodynamic simulations in which the coupling arises from the friction between ions and neutrals. The numerical simulations presented here are an extension of those of Oliver et al. to the partially ionized case. We find that, although the relative drift speed between the two species is smaller than 1 m s{sup −1} at the blob center, it is sufficient to produce the forces required to strongly couple charged particles and neutrals. The ionization degree has no discernible effect on the main results of our previous work for a fully ionized plasma: the condensation has an initial acceleration phase followed by a period with roughly constant velocity, and, in addition, the maximum descending speed is clearly correlated with the ratio of initial blob to environment density.

  13. ON THE ANTI-CORRELATION BETWEEN SPECTRAL LINE BROADENING AND INTENSITY IN CORONAL STRUCTURES OBSERVED WITH EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J. T.; Martens, P. C. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advance in spectral resolution of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EIS) spectrometer on board Hinode has allowed for more detailed analysis of coronal spectral lines. Large line broadening and blueshifted velocities have been found in the periphery of active region (AR) cores and near the footpoints of coronal loops. This line broadening is yet to be understood. We study the correlation of intensity and line width for entire ARs and sub-regions selected to include coronal features. The results show that although a slight positive correlation can be found when considering whole images, many sub-regions have a negative correlation between intensity and line width. Sections of a coronal loop display some of the largest anti-correlations found for this study with the increased line broadening occurring directly adjacent to the footpoint section of the loop structure, not at the footpoint itself. The broadened lines may be due to a second Doppler-shifted component that is separate from the main emitting feature such as a coronal loop, but related in their excitation. The small size of these features forces the considerations of investigator and instrumental effects. Preliminary analyses are shown that indicate the possibility of a point-spread function that is not azimuthally symmetric and may affect velocity and line profile measurements.

  14. Coronal and heliospheric magnetic flux circulation and its relation to open solar flux evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Mike; Owens, Mathew J.; Imber, Suzanne M.; James, Matthew K.; Bunce, Emma J.; Yeoman, Timothy K.

    2017-06-01

    Solar cycle 24 is notable for three features that can be found in previous cycles but which have been unusually prominent: (1) sunspot activity was considerably greater in the northern/southern hemisphere during the rising/declining phase; (2) accumulation of open solar flux (OSF) during the rising phase was modest, but rapid in the early declining phase; (3) the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) tilt showed large fluctuations. We show that these features had a major influence on the progression of the cycle. All flux emergence causes a rise then a fall in OSF, but only OSF with foot points in opposing hemispheres progresses the solar cycle via the evolution of the polar fields. Emergence in one hemisphere, or symmetric emergence without some form of foot point exchange across the heliographic equator, causes poleward migrating fields of both polarities in one or both (respectively) hemispheres which temporarily enhance OSF but do not advance the polar field cycle. The heliospheric field observed near Mercury and Earth reflects the asymmetries in emergence. Using magnetograms, we find evidence that the poleward magnetic flux transport (of both polarities) is modulated by the HCS tilt, revealing an effect on OSF loss rate. The declining phase rise in OSF was caused by strong emergence in the southern hemisphere with an anomalously low HCS tilt. This implies the recent fall in the southern polar field will be sustained and that the peak OSF has limited implications for the polar field at the next sunspot minimum and hence for the amplitude of cycle 25.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryThere is growing interest in being able to predict the evolution in solar conditions on a better basis than past experience, which is necessarily limited. Two of the key features of the solar magnetic cycle are that the polar fields reverse just after the peak of each sunspot cycle and that the polar field that has accumulated by the time of each sunspot minimum is a good

  15. Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, Johannes Mattheus

    2002-01-01

    The thesis "Structure and dynamics of the solar chromosphere" of J.M. Krijger is a study on the behavior of the solar chromosphere, the thin layer just above the solar surface (photosphere) visible in purple red light during a total solar eclipse. The most important result of this thesis is that the

  16. Coronal Streamers Revealed during Solar Eclipses: Seeing is not Believing, and Pictures Can Lie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Woo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For those fortunate enough to have personally witnessed and photographed the visible corona surrounding the Sun during a solar eclipse, pictures are usually a let down for not living up to the visual view. After 150 years of investigating the corona, we understand it more fully and now know this difference to be real. The difference stems from our inability to either see or image the true distribution of simultaneous brightness because of its large dynamic range (eg, Rodriguez, Woods, 2008 Digital Image Processing, Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall. Brightness in the corona is unprecedented, as it falls by three orders of magnitude over a distance of only one solar radius from the Sun.

  17. The Solar Cycle Variation of Coronal Temperature and Density During Cycle 21-22

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-15

    We notice that a dramatic change in the intensity ratio implies a small change in temperature and therefore the precise calibration of each...The higher temperature material of these zones tends to lie over regions where magnetograph observations indicate a change in polarity of weak large...SPIE, 331,442, 1982. 7. Altrock, LC., Clmate Impact of Solar Variability Greenbelt, MD, NASA Conf. Publ. 3086, p. 287, 1990. 8. Fisher, LRL., McCabe, M

  18. `Fingerprint' Fine Structure in the Solar Decametric Radio Spectrum Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, E. Y.; Zaitsev, V. V.; Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Dorovskyy, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    We study a unique fine structure in the dynamic spectrum of the solar radio emission discovered by the UTR-2 radio telescope (Kharkiv, Ukraine) in the frequency band of 20 - 30 MHz. The structure was observed against the background of a broadband type IV radio burst and consisted of parallel drifting narrow bands of enhanced emission and absorption on the background emission. The observed structure differs from the widely known zebra pattern at meter and decimeter wavelengths by the opposite directions of the frequency drift within a single stripe at a given time. We show that the observed properties can be understood in the framework of the radiation mechanism by virtue of the double plasma resonance effect in a nonuniform coronal magnetic trap. We propose a source model providing the observed frequency drift of the stripes.

  19. Development of solar flares and features of the fine structure of solar radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, G. P.; Fomichev, V. V.; Yan, Y.; Tan, B.; Tan, Ch.; Fu, Q.

    2017-11-01

    The reason for the occurrence of different elements of the fine structure of solar radio bursts in the decimeter and centimeter wavelength ranges has been determined based on all available data from terrestrial and satellite observations. In some phenomena, fast pulsations, a zebra structre, fiber bursts, and spikes have been observed almost simultaneously. Two phenomena have been selected to show that the pulsations of radio emission are caused by particles accelerated in the magnetic reconnection region and that the zebra structure is excited in a source, such as a magnetic trap for fast particles. The complex combination of unusual fiber bursts, zebra structure, and spikes in the phenomenon on December 1, 2004, is associated with a single source, a magnetic island formed after a coronal mass ejection.

  20. Alfvénic turbulence in solar wind originating near coronal hole boundaries: heavy-ion effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The mid-latitude phases of the Ulysses mission offer an excellent opportunity to investigate the solar wind originating near the coronal hole boundaries. Here we report on Alfvénic turbulence features, revealing a relevant presence of in-situ generated fluctuations, observed during the wind rarefaction phase that charaterizes the transition from fast to slow wind. Heavy-ion composition and magnetic field measurements indicate a strict time correspondence of the locally generated fluctuations with 1 the crossing of the interface between fast and slow wind and 2 the presence of strongly underwound magnetic field lines (with respect to the Parker spiral. Recent studies suggest that such underwound magnetic configurations correspond to fast wind magnetic lines that, due to footpoint motions at the Sun, have their inner leg transferred to slow wind and are stretched out by the velocity gradient. If this is a valid scenario, the existence of a magnetic connection across the fast-slow wind interface is a condition that, given the different state of the two kinds of wind, may favour the development of processes acting as local sources of turbulence. We suggest that heavy-ion effects could be responsible of the observed turbulence features.

  1. COMBINED MULTIPOINT REMOTE AND IN SITU OBSERVATIONS OF THE ASYMMETRIC EVOLUTION OF A FAST SOLAR CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollett, T.; Möstl, C.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Amerstorfer, U. V. [IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Frahm, R. A. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Vršnak, B.; Žic, T. [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, 1000 Zagreb (Croatia); Farrugia, C. J. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Zhang, T. L., E-mail: tanja.rollett@gmx.at [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2014-07-20

    We present an analysis of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012  March 7, which was imaged by both STEREO spacecraft and observed in situ by MESSENGER, Venus Express, Wind, and Mars Express. Based on detected arrivals at four different positions in interplanetary space, it was possible to strongly constrain the kinematics and the shape of the ejection. Using the white-light heliospheric imagery from STEREO-A and B, we derived two different kinematical profiles for the CME by applying the novel constrained self-similar expansion method. In addition, we used a drag-based model to investigate the influence of the ambient solar wind on the CME's propagation. We found that two preceding CMEs heading in different directions disturbed the overall shape of the CME and influenced its propagation behavior. While the Venus-directed segment underwent a gradual deceleration (from ∼2700 km s{sup –1} at 15 R {sub ☉} to ∼1500 km s{sup –1} at 154 R {sub ☉}), the Earth-directed part showed an abrupt retardation below 35 R {sub ☉} (from ∼1700 to ∼900 km s{sup –1}). After that, it was propagating with a quasi-constant speed in the wake of a preceding event. Our results highlight the importance of studies concerning the unequal evolution of CMEs. Forecasting can only be improved if conditions in the solar wind are properly taken into account and if attention is also paid to large events preceding the one being studied.

  2. Statistical properties of correlated solar flares and coronal mass ejections in cycles 23 and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnio, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    Outstanding problems in understanding early stellar systems include mass loss, angular momentum evolution, and the effects of energetic events on the surrounding environs. The latter of these drives much research into our own system's space weather and the development of predictive algorithms for geomagnetic storms. So dually motivated, we have leveraged a big-data approach to combine two decades of GOES and LASCO data to identify a large sample of spatially and temporally correlated solar flares and CMEs. In this presentation, we revisit the analysis of Aarnio et al. (2011), adding 10 years of data and further exploring the relationships between correlated flare and CME properties. We compare the updated data set results to those previously obtained, and discuss the effects of selecting smaller time windows within solar cycles 23 and 24 on the empirically defined relationships between correlated flare and CME properties. Finally, we discuss a newly identified large sample of potentially interesting correlated flares and CMEs perhaps erroneously excluded from previous searches.

  3. H and K (Ca II) emissions as observed in coronal spectrum in the July 20, 1963 solar eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallini, F.; Righini, A.

    1975-01-01

    From a detailed analysis of a coronal spectrum taken from a DC-8 jet airplane during the Eclipse of 20 July, 1963 a rough model of a coronal cold region (T approximately 10 5 K) has been obtained. The model explains the presence of the abnormal H and K (Ca II) emissions and the large amount of F corona present in the spectrum. (Auth.)

  4. Automated Temperature and Emission Measure Analysis of Coronal Loops and Active Regions Observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Malanushenko, Anna

    2013-03-01

    We developed numerical codes designed for automated analysis of SDO/AIA image datasets in the six coronal filters, including: i) coalignment test between different wavelengths with measurements of the altitude of the EUV-absorbing chromosphere, ii) self-calibration by empirical correction of instrumental response functions, iii) automated generation of differential emission measure [DEM] distributions with peak-temperature maps [ T p( x, y)] and emission measure maps [ EM p( x, y)] of the full Sun or active region areas, iv) composite DEM distributions [d EM( T)/d T] of active regions or subareas, v) automated detection of coronal loops, and vi) automated background subtraction and thermal analysis of coronal loops, which yields statistics of loop temperatures [ T e], temperature widths [ σ T], emission measures [ EM], electron densities [ n e], and loop widths [ w]. The combination of these numerical codes allows for automated and objective processing of numerous coronal loops. As an example, we present the results of an application to the active region NOAA 11158, observed on 15 February 2011, shortly before it produced the largest (X2.2) flare during the current solar cycle. We detect 570 loop segments at temperatures in the entire range of log( T e)=5.7 - 7.0 K and corroborate previous TRACE and AIA results on their near-isothermality and the validity of the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) law at soft X-ray temperatures ( T≳2 MK) and its failure at lower EUV temperatures.

  5. First analysis of solar structures in 1.21 mm full-disc ALMA image of the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajša, R.; Sudar, D.; Benz, A. O.; Skokić, I.; Bárta, M.; Pontieu, B. De; Kim, S.; Kobelski, A.; Kuhar, M.; Shimojo, M.; Wedemeyer, S.; White, S.; Yagoubov, P.; Yan, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Various solar features can be seen in emission or absorption on maps of the Sun in the millimetre and submillimetre wavelength range. The recently installed Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) is capable of observing the Sun in that wavelength range with an unprecedented spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. To interpret solar observations with ALMA, the first important step is to compare solar ALMA maps with simultaneous images of the Sun recorded in other spectral ranges. Aims: The first aim of the present work is to identify different structures in the solar atmosphere seen in the optical, infrared, and EUV parts of the spectrum (quiet Sun, active regions, prominences on the disc, magnetic inversion lines, coronal holes and coronal bright points) in a full-disc solar ALMA image. The second aim is to measure the intensities (brightness temperatures) of those structures and to compare them with the corresponding quiet Sun level. Methods: A full-disc solar image at 1.21 mm obtained on December 18, 2015, during a CSV-EOC campaign with ALMA is calibrated and compared with full-disc solar images from the same day in Hα line, in He I 1083 nm line core, and with various SDO images (AIA at 170 nm, 30.4 nm, 21.1 nm, 19.3 nm, and 17.1 nm and HMI magnetogram). The brightness temperatures of various structures are determined by averaging over corresponding regions of interest in the calibrated ALMA image. Results: Positions of the quiet Sun, active regions, prominences on the disc, magnetic inversion lines, coronal holes and coronal bright points are identified in the ALMA image. At the wavelength of 1.21 mm, active regions appear as bright areas (but sunspots are dark), while prominences on the disc and coronal holes are not discernible from the quiet Sun background, despite having slightly less intensity than surrounding quiet Sun regions. Magnetic inversion lines appear as large, elongated dark structures and coronal bright points correspond

  6. Origin and structures of solar eruptions II: Magnetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Cheng, Xin; Ding, MingDe

    2017-07-01

    The topology and dynamics of the three-dimensional magnetic field in the solar atmosphere govern various solar eruptive phenomena and activities, such as flares, coronal mass ejections, and filaments/prominences. We have to observe and model the vector magnetic field to understand the structures and physical mechanisms of these solar activities. Vector magnetic fields on the photosphere are routinely observed via the polarized light, and inferred with the inversion of Stokes profiles. To analyze these vector magnetic fields, we need first to remove the 180° ambiguity of the transverse components and correct the projection effect. Then, the vector magnetic field can be served as the boundary conditions for a force-free field modeling after a proper preprocessing. The photospheric velocity field can also be derived from a time sequence of vector magnetic fields. Three-dimensional magnetic field could be derived and studied with theoretical force-free field models, numerical nonlinear force-free field models, magnetohydrostatic models, and magnetohydrodynamic models. Magnetic energy can be computed with three-dimensional magnetic field models or a time series of vector magnetic field. The magnetic topology is analyzed by pinpointing the positions of magnetic null points, bald patches, and quasi-separatrix layers. As a well conserved physical quantity, magnetic helicity can be computed with various methods, such as the finite volume method, discrete flux tube method, and helicity flux integration method. This quantity serves as a promising parameter characterizing the activity level of solar active regions.

  7. EVIDENCE OF THERMAL CONDUCTION SUPPRESSION IN A SOLAR FLARING LOOP BY CORONAL SEISMOLOGY OF SLOW-MODE WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Provornikova, Elena; Sun, Xudong; Davila, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of a longitudinal wave event observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory is presented. A time sequence of 131 Å images reveals that a C-class flare occurred at one footpoint of a large loop and triggered an intensity disturbance (enhancement) propagating along it. The spatial features and temporal evolution suggest that a fundamental standing slow-mode wave could be set up quickly after meeting of two initial disturbances from the opposite footpoints. The oscillations have a period of ∼12 minutes and a decay time of ∼9 minutes. The measured phase speed of 500 ± 50 km s −1 matches the sound speed in the heated loop of ∼10 MK, confirming that the observed waves are of slow mode. We derive the time-dependent temperature and electron density wave signals from six AIA extreme-ultraviolet channels, and find that they are nearly in phase. The measured polytropic index from the temperature and density perturbations is 1.64 ± 0.08 close to the adiabatic index of 5/3 for an ideal monatomic gas. The interpretation based on a 1D linear MHD model suggests that the thermal conductivity is suppressed by at least a factor of 3 in the hot flare loop at 9 MK and above. The viscosity coefficient is determined by coronal seismology from the observed wave when only considering the compressive viscosity dissipation. We find that to interpret the rapid wave damping, the classical compressive viscosity coefficient needs to be enhanced by a factor of 15 as the upper limit

  8. Correlation Analyses Between the Characteristic Times of Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events and the Properties of Associated Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wang, Yuming; Xue, X. H.

    2011-06-01

    It is generally believed that gradual solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated by shocks associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Using an ice-cream cone model, the radial speed and angular width of 95 CMEs associated with SEP events during 1998 - 2002 are calculated from SOHO/LASCO observations. Then, we investigate the relationships between the kinematic properties of these CMEs and the characteristic times of the intensity-time profile of their accompanied SEP events observed at 1 AU. These characteristic times of SEP are i) the onset time from the accompanying CME eruption at the Sun to the SEP arrival at 1 AU, ii) the rise time from the SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is one-half of peak intensity, and iii) the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of two of the peak intensity. It is found that the onset time has neither significant correlation with the radial speed nor with the angular width of the accompanying CME. For events that are poorly connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have no significant correlation with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. However, for events that are magnetically well connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have significantly positive correlations with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. This indicates that a CME event with wider angular width and higher speed may more easily drive a strong and wide shock near to the Earth-connected interplanetary magnetic field lines, may trap and accelerate particles for a longer time, and may lead to longer rise time and duration of the ensuing SEP event.

  9. Chromospheric counterparts of solar transition region unresolved fine structure loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tiago M. D.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Hansteen, Viggo H.; De Pontieu, Bart

    2018-04-01

    Low-lying loops have been discovered at the solar limb in transition region temperatures by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). They do not appear to reach coronal temperatures, and it has been suggested that they are the long-predicted unresolved fine structures (UFS). These loops are dynamic and believed to be visible during both heating and cooling phases. Making use of coordinated observations between IRIS and the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, we study how these loops impact the solar chromosphere. We show for the first time that there is indeed a chromospheric signal of these loops, seen mostly in the form of strong Doppler shifts and a conspicuous lack of chromospheric heating. In addition, we find that several instances have a inverse Y-shaped jet just above the loop, suggesting that magnetic reconnection is driving these events. Our observations add several puzzling details to the current knowledge of these newly discovered structures; this new information must be considered in theoretical models. Two movies associated to Fig. 1 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  10. Structure of the solar transition region and inner corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariska, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Emission gradient curves for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resonance lines of lithium-like ions were constructed from spectroheliograms of quiet limb regions and a north polar coronal hole observed with the Harvard experiment on Skylab. The observations are interpreted with simple coronal models. Comparison of the theoretical and observed emission gradients for quiet regions indicates that for these areas the temperature rises throughout the inner corona (1.03 less than or equal to r less than or equal to 1.20 R/sub mass/). In the coronal hole the temperature rises in a manner consistent with a constant conductive flux to an isothermal corona at a temperature of 1.1 x 10 6 K at 1.08/sub mass/. The geometry of the coronal hole boundary is also determined. The boundary geometry and density distribution are combined with typical solar wind parameters at the north to determine an outflow velocity of 15 km s -1 at 1.08 R/sub mass/. The energy balance implications of the models are examined. It was found that in the transition region both conduction and radiation are important in determining the energy balance in network regions in both quiet areas and coronal holes. Additional energy sources are required in the network in coronal holes. In the corona it is found that, to within the errors of the determination, the energy losses, and hence the requirements for mechanical heating, are the same in quiet regions and coronal holes

  11. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections detected by HAWC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Alejandro

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is being constructed at the volcano Sierra Negra (4100 m a.s.l.) in Mexico. HAWC’s primary purpose is the study of both: galactic and extra-galactic sources of high energy gamma rays. HAWC will consist of 300 large water Cherenkov detectors (WCD), instrumented with 1200 photo-multipliers. The Data taking has already started while construction continues, with the completion projected for late 2014. The HAWC counting rate will be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above the geomagnetic cutoff of the site (˜ 8 GV). In particular, HAWC will detect solar energetic particles known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs), and the effects of Coronal Mass Ejections on the galactic cosmic ray flux, known as Forbush Decreases. In this paper, we present a description of the instrument and its response to interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and other solar wind large scale structures, observed during the August-December 2013 period.

  12. M-number dependence of rotation period of the solar magnetic field and its effect on coronal hole and solar flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takao; Oki, Tosio

    1989-01-01

    The photospheric magnetic field is revealed to rotate with different solar rotation periods depending on its m-number, or its longitudinal range. The m-dependent rotation reveals the unexplained solar cycle variation of the 28-day period of the IMF 2-sector structure in inclining/minimum years and of the 27-day period in the declining/minimum years. The m-dependent rotation reveals also the unexplained 155-day periodicity in the occurrence of solar flare clusters, suggesting a motion of the sunspot field relative to the large-scale field. The IMF sector structure is closely related to recurrent geomagnetic storms, while the flare occurrence is related to sporadic SC storms. Hence, the m-dependent rotation is quite important in the study of the STE forecast. (author)

  13. Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim D. Sass; Pe; Leed

    2013-01-01

    The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops. Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The structural desig...

  14. Helium abundance and speed difference between helium ions and protons in the solar wind from coronal holes, active regions, and quiet Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui; Madjarska, M. S.; Li, Bo; Xia, LiDong; Huang, ZhengHua

    2018-05-01

    Two main models have been developed to explain the mechanisms of release, heating and acceleration of the nascent solar wind, the wave-turbulence-driven (WTD) models and reconnection-loop-opening (RLO) models, in which the plasma release processes are fundamentally different. Given that the statistical observational properties of helium ions produced in magnetically diverse solar regions could provide valuable information for the solar wind modelling, we examine the statistical properties of the helium abundance (AHe) and the speed difference between helium ions and protons (vαp) for coronal holes (CHs), active regions (ARs) and the quiet Sun (QS). We find bimodal distributions in the space of AHeand vαp/vA(where vA is the local Alfvén speed) for the solar wind as a whole. The CH wind measurements are concentrated at higher AHeand vαp/vAvalues with a smaller AHedistribution range, while the AR and QS wind is associated with lower AHeand vαp/vA, and a larger AHedistribution range. The magnetic diversity of the source regions and the physical processes related to it are possibly responsible for the different properties of AHeand vαp/vA. The statistical results suggest that the two solar wind generation mechanisms, WTD and RLO, work in parallel in all solar wind source regions. In CH regions WTD plays a major role, whereas the RLO mechanism is more important in AR and QS.

  15. Evolution of coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous studies have provided the detailed information necessary for a substantive synthesis of the empirical relation between the magnetic field of the sun and the structure of the interplanetary field. The author points out the latest techniques and studies of the global solar magnetic field and its relation to the interplanetary field. The potential to overcome most of the limitations of present methods of analysis exists in techniques of modelling the coronal magnetic field using observed solar data. Such empirical models are, in principle, capable of establishing the connection between a given heliospheric point and its magnetically-connected photospheric point, as well as the physical basis for the connection. (Auth.)

  16. Exploring Coronal Structures with SOHO Μ. Karovska1*, Β. Wood1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Astr. (2000) 21, 403–406. Exploring Coronal ... et al. 1995). The wavelengths and the dominant emission lines in these bandpasses ... (2) the profile of the poloidal flux injection (Chen et al. 1997 ... Delaboudiniere, J. P., et al, 1995, Sol. Phys.

  17. Using a New Infrared Si X Coronal Emission Line for Discriminating between Magnetohydrodynamic Models of the Solar Corona During the 2006 Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Gabriel I.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Mickey, Don; Downs, Cooper

    2018-01-01

    During the 2006 March 29 total solar eclipse, coronal spectropolarimetric measurements were obtained over a 6 × 6 R ⊙ field of view with a 1–2 μm spectral range. The data yielded linearly polarized measurements of the Fe XIII 1.075 μm, He I 1.083 μm, and for the first time, of the Si X 1.430 μm emission lines. To interpret the measurements, we used forward-integrated synthetic emission from two magnetohydrodynamic models for the same Carrington rotation with different heating functions and magnetic boundary conditions. Observations of the Fe XIII 1.075/Si X 1.430 line ratio allowed us to discriminate between two models of the corona, with the observations strongly favoring the warmer model. The observed polarized amplitudes for the Si X 1.430 μm line are around 7%, which is three times higher than the predicted values from available atomic models for the line. This discrepancy indicates a need for a closer look at some of the model assumptions for the collisional coefficients, as well as new polarized observations of the line to rule out any unknown systematic effect in the present data. All but two near-limb fibers show correlated bright He I 1.083 μm and H I 1.282 μm emission, which likely indicates cool prominence emission that is non-localized by the strongly defocused optics. One of the distant fibers located at 1.5 R ⊙ detected a weak He I 1.083 μm intensity signal consistent with previous eclipse measurements around 3 × 10‑7 {B}ȯ . However, given the limitations of these observations, it is not possible to completely remove contamination that is due to emission from prominence material that is not obscured by the lunar limb.

  18. An Extreme-ultraviolet Wave Generating Upward Secondary Waves in a Streamer-like Solar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Song, Hongqiang

    2018-05-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) waves, spectacular horizontally propagating disturbances in the low solar corona, always trigger horizontal secondary waves (SWs) when they encounter the ambient coronal structure. We present the first example of upward SWs in a streamer-like structure after the passing of an EUV wave. This event occurred on 2017 June 1. The EUV wave happened during a typical solar eruption including a filament eruption, a coronal mass ejection (CME), and a C6.6 flare. The EUV wave was associated with quasi-periodic fast propagating (QFP) wave trains and a type II radio burst that represented the existence of a coronal shock. The EUV wave had a fast initial velocity of ∼1000 km s‑1, comparable to high speeds of the shock and the QFP wave trains. Intriguingly, upward SWs rose slowly (∼80 km s‑1) in the streamer-like structure after the sweeping of the EUV wave. The upward SWs seemed to originate from limb brightenings that were caused by the EUV wave. All of the results show that the EUV wave is a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock wave, likely triggered by the flare impulses. We suggest that part of the EUV wave was probably trapped in the closed magnetic fields of the streamer-like structure, and upward SWs possibly resulted from the release of slow-mode trapped waves. It is believed that the interplay of the strong compression of the coronal shock and the configuration of the streamer-like structure is crucial for the formation of upward SWs.

  19. Solar Stereoscopy and Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Aschwanden

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We review stereoscopic and tomographic methods used in the solar corona, including ground-based and space-based measurements, using solar rotation or multiple spacecraft vantage points, in particular from the STEREO mission during 2007--2010. Stereoscopic and tomographic observations in the solar corona include large-scale structures, streamers, active regions, coronal loops, loop oscillations, acoustic waves in loops, erupting filaments and prominences, bright points, jets, plumes, flares, CME source regions, and CME-triggered global coronal waves. Applications in the solar interior (helioseismic tomography and reconstruction and tracking of CMEs from the outer corona and into the heliosphere (interplanetary CMEs are not included.

  20. Forward Modeling of a Coronal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, T. A.; Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We apply a forward model of emission from a coronal cavity in an effort to determine the temperature and density distribution in the cavity. Coronal cavities are long, low-density structures located over filament neutral lines and are often seen as dark elliptical features at the solar limb in white light, EUV and X-rays. When these structures erupt they form the cavity portions of CMEs The model consists of a coronal streamer model with a tunnel-like cavity with elliptical cross-section and a Gaussian variation of height along the tunnel length. Temperature and density can be varied as a function of altitude both in the cavity and streamer. We apply this model to a cavity observed in Aug. 2007 by a wide array of instruments including Hinode/EIS, STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/EIT. Studies such as these will ultimately help us understand the the original structures which erupt to become CMEs and ICMES, one of the prime Solar Orbiter objectives.

  1. MHD aspects of coronal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzer, U.

    1979-10-01

    If one defines coronal transients as events which occur in the solar corona on rapid time scales (< approx. several hours) then one would have to include a large variety of solar phenomena: flares, sprays, erupting prominences, X-ray transients, white light transients, etc. Here we shall focus our attention on the latter two phenomena. (orig.) 891 WL/orig. 892 RDG

  2. Fibre structure of decametric type II radio bursts as a manifestation of emission propagation effects in a disturbed near-solar plasma

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Afanasiev

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the fine structure of solar decametric type II radio bursts in the form of drifting narrowband fibres on the dynamic spectrum. Observations show that this structure appears in those events where there is a coronal mass ejection (CME) traveling in the near-solar space ahead of the shock wave responsible for the radio burst. The diversity in observed morphology of fibres and values of their parameters implies that the fibres may be caused by different formation mechanisms. ...

  3. Determination of Coronal Magnetic Fields from Vector Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1997-01-01

    During the course of the present contract we developed an 'evolutionary technique' for the determination of force-free coronal magnetic fields from vector magnetograph observations. The method can successfully generate nonlinear force- free fields (with non-constant-a) that match vector magnetograms. We demonstrated that it is possible to determine coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, and we applied it to vector magnetograms of active regions. We have also studied theoretical models of coronal fields that lead to disruptions. Specifically, we have demonstrated that the determination of force-free fields from exact boundary data is a well-posed mathematical problem, by verifying that the computed coronal field agrees with an analytic force-free field when boundary data for the analytic field are used; demonstrated that it is possible to determine active-region coronal magnetic fields from photospheric measurements, by computing the coronal field above active region 5747 on 20 October 1989, AR6919 on 15 November 1991, and AR7260 on 18 August 1992, from data taken with the Stokes Polarimeter at Mees Solar Observatory, University of Hawaii; started to analyze active region 7201 on 19 June 1992 using measurements made with the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter at NSO/Sac Peak; investigated the effects of imperfections in the photospheric data on the computed coronal magnetic field; documented the coronal field structure of AR5747 and compared it to the morphology of footpoint emission in a flare, showing that the 'high- pressure' H-alpha footpoints are connected by coronal field lines; shown that the variation of magnetic field strength along current-carrying field lines is significantly different from the variation in a potential field, and that the resulting near-constant area of elementary flux tubes is consistent with observations; begun to develop realistic models of coronal fields which can be used to study flare trigger mechanisms; demonstrated that

  4. Validation for global solar wind prediction using Ulysses comparison: Multiple coronal and heliospheric models installed at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L. K.; MacNeice, P. J.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Odstrcil, D.; Jackson, B.; Yu, H.-S.; Riley, P.; Sokolov, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    The prediction of the background global solar wind is a necessary part of space weather forecasting. Several coronal and heliospheric models have been installed and/or recently upgraded at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), including the Wang-Sheely-Arge (WSA)-Enlil model, MHD-Around-a-Sphere (MAS)-Enlil model, Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), and heliospheric tomography using interplanetary scintillation data. Ulysses recorded the last fast latitudinal scan from southern to northern poles in 2007. By comparing the modeling results with Ulysses observations over seven Carrington rotations, we have extended our third-party validation from the previous near-Earth solar wind to middle to high latitudes, in the same late declining phase of solar cycle 23. Besides visual comparison, we have quantitatively assessed the models' capabilities in reproducing the time series, statistics, and latitudinal variations of solar wind parameters for a specific range of model parameter settings, inputs, and grid configurations available at CCMC. The WSA-Enlil model results vary with three different magnetogram inputs. The MAS-Enlil model captures the solar wind parameters well, despite its underestimation of the speed at middle to high latitudes. The new version of SWMF misses many solar wind variations probably because it uses lower grid resolution than other models. The interplanetary scintillation-tomography cannot capture the latitudinal variations of solar wind well yet. Because the model performance varies with parameter settings which are optimized for different epochs or flow states, the performance metric study provided here can serve as a template that researchers can use to validate the models for the time periods and conditions of interest to them.

  5. Validation for Global Solar Wind Prediction Using Ulysses Comparison: Multiple Coronal and Heliospheric Models Installed at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L. K.; MacNeice, P. J.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Odstrcil, D.; Jackson, B.; Yu, H.-S.; Riley, P.; Sokolov, I. V.

    2016-01-01

    The prediction of the background global solar wind is a necessary part of space weather forecasting. Several coronal and heliospheric models have been installed and/or recently upgraded at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), including the Wang-Sheely-Arge (WSA)-Enlil model, MHD-Around-a-Sphere (MAS)-Enlil model, Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), and Heliospheric tomography using interplanetary scintillation data. Ulysses recorded the last fast latitudinal scan from southern to northern poles in 2007. By comparing the modeling results with Ulysses observations over seven Carrington rotations, we have extended our third-party validation from the previous near-Earth solar wind to middle to high latitudes, in the same late declining phase of solar cycle 23. Besides visual comparison, wehave quantitatively assessed the models capabilities in reproducing the time series, statistics, and latitudinal variations of solar wind parameters for a specific range of model parameter settings, inputs, and grid configurations available at CCMC. The WSA-Enlil model results vary with three different magnetogram inputs.The MAS-Enlil model captures the solar wind parameters well, despite its underestimation of the speed at middle to high latitudes. The new version of SWMF misses many solar wind variations probably because it uses lower grid resolution than other models. The interplanetary scintillation-tomography cannot capture the latitudinal variations of solar wind well yet. Because the model performance varies with parameter settings which are optimized for different epochs or flow states, the performance metric study provided here can serve as a template that researchers can use to validate the models for the time periods and conditions of interest to them.

  6. Multi-spacecraft Observations of the Coronal and Interplanetary Evolution of a Solar Eruption Associated with Two Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Huidong; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhu, Bei; Yang, Zhongwei, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-05-10

    We investigate the coronal and interplanetary evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) launched on 2010 September 4 from a source region linking two active regions (ARs), 11101 and 11103, using extreme ultraviolet imaging, magnetogram, white-light, and in situ observations from SDO , STEREO , SOHO , VEX , and Wind . A potential-field source-surface model is employed to examine the configuration of the coronal magnetic field surrounding the source region. The graduated cylindrical shell model and a triangulation method are applied to determine the kinematics of the CME in the corona and interplanetary space. From the remote sensing and in situ observations, we obtain some key results: (1) the CME was deflected in both the eastward and southward directions in the low corona by the magnetic pressure from the two ARs, and possibly interacted with another ejection, which caused that the CME arrived at VEX that was longitudinally distant from the source region; (2) although VEX was closer to the Sun, the observed and derived CME arrival times at VEX are not earlier than those at Wind , which suggests the importance of determining both the frontal shape and propagation direction of the CME in interplanetary space; and (3) the ICME was compressed in the radial direction while the longitudinal transverse size was extended.

  7. Recovering the fine structures in solar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita; Habbal, S. R.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-01-01

    Several examples of the capability of the blind iterative deconvolution (BID) technique to recover the real point spread function, when limited a priori information is available about its characteristics. To demonstrate the potential of image post-processing for probing the fine scale and temporal variability of the solar atmosphere, the BID technique is applied to different samples of solar observations from space. The BID technique was originally proposed for correction of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on optical images. The processed images provide a detailed view of the spatial structure of the solar atmosphere at different heights in regions with different large-scale magnetic field structures.

  8. Coronal seismology waves and oscillations in stellar coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanov, Alexander; Nakariakov, Valery M

    2012-01-01

    This concise and systematic account of the current state of this new branch of astrophysics presents the theoretical foundations of plasma astrophysics, magneto-hydrodynamics and coronal magnetic structures, taking into account the full range of available observation techniques -- from radio to gamma. The book discusses stellar loops during flare energy releases, MHD waves and oscillations, plasma instabilities and heating and charged particle acceleration. Current trends and developments in MHD seismology of solar and stellar coronal plasma systems are also covered, while recent p

  9. The Solar Wind from Pseudostreamers and their Environs: Opportunities for Observations with Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenco, O.; Velli, M.; Panasenco, A.; Lionello, R.

    2017-12-01

    The solar dynamo and photospheric convection lead to three main types of structures extending from the solar surface into the corona - active regions, solar filaments (prominences when observed at the limb) and coronal holes. These structures exist over a wide range of scales, and are interlinked with each other in evolution and dynamics. Active regions can form clusters of magnetic activity and the strongest overlie sunspots. In the decay of active regions, the boundaries separating opposite magnetic polarities (neutral lines) develop specific structures called filament channels above which filaments form. In the presence of flux imbalance decaying active regions can also give birth to lower latitude coronal holes. The accumulation of magnetic flux at coronal hole boundaries also creates conditions for filament formation: polar crown filaments are permanently present at the boundaries of the polar coronal holes. Mid-latitude and equatorial coronal holes - the result of active region evolution - can create pseudostreamers if other coronal holes of the same polarity are present. While helmet streamers form between open fields of opposite polarities, the pseudostreamer, characterized by a smaller coronal imprint, typically shows a more prominent straight ray or stalk extending from the corona. The pseudostreamer base at photospheric heights is multipolar; often one observes tripolar magnetic configurations with two neutral lines - where filaments can form - separating the coronal holes. Here we discuss the specific role of filament channels on pseudostreamer topology and on solar wind properties. 1D numerical analysis of pseudostreamers shows that the properties of the solar wind from around PSs depend on the presence/absence of filament channels, number of channels and chirality at thepseudostreamer base low in the corona. We review and model possible coronal magnetic configurations and solar wind plasma properties at different distances from the solar surface that

  10. Relation of large-scale coronal X-ray structure and cosmic rays. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelof, E.C.; Gold, R.E.; Krieger, A.S.; Nolte, J.T.; Venkatesan, D.

    1975-01-01

    We have studied the amplitude of the diurnal variations in the Sulphur Mountain superneutron monitor as a function of the high-coronal connection longitudine of the interplanetary field lines passing over Earth. We find that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is based toward below average values ( 0.4%) over bright regions. The results are consistent with the theoretical argument (Roelof 1975) that the diurnal variation is influenced by the ability of the corona to sustain a meridional cosmic ray gradient set up by the motional EMF in interplanetary space. (orig./WBU) [de

  11. Nonlinear Force-free Coronal Magnetic Stereoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chifu, Iulia; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Inhester, Bernd, E-mail: chifu@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Insights into the 3D structure of the solar coronal magnetic field have been obtained in the past by two completely different approaches. The first approach are nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolations, which use photospheric vector magnetograms as boundary condition. The second approach uses stereoscopy of coronal magnetic loops observed in EUV coronal images from different vantage points. Both approaches have their strengths and weaknesses. Extrapolation methods are sensitive to noise and inconsistencies in the boundary data, and the accuracy of stereoscopy is affected by the ability of identifying the same structure in different images and by the separation angle between the view directions. As a consequence, for the same observational data, the 3D coronal magnetic fields computed with the two methods do not necessarily coincide. In an earlier work (Paper I) we extended our NLFFF optimization code by including stereoscopic constrains. The method was successfully tested with synthetic data, and within this work, we apply the newly developed code to a combined data set from SDO /HMI, SDO /AIA, and the two STEREO spacecraft. The extended method (called S-NLFFF) contains an additional term that monitors and minimizes the angle between the local magnetic field direction and the orientation of the 3D coronal loops reconstructed by stereoscopy. We find that when we prescribe the shape of the 3D stereoscopically reconstructed loops, the S-NLFFF method leads to a much better agreement between the modeled field and the stereoscopically reconstructed loops. We also find an appreciable decrease by a factor of two in the angle between the current and the magnetic field. This indicates the improved quality of the force-free solution obtained by S-NLFFF.

  12. Nonlinear Force-free Field Extrapolation of a Coronal Magnetic Flux Rope Supporting a Large-scale Solar Filament from a Photospheric Vector Magnetogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Feng, Xueshang; Hu, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Solar filaments are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, in those of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, based on the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is a first, in the sense that current NLFFF extrapolations including the presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion lines (PILs) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of an FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength barbs very well, which strongly supports the FR-dip model for filaments. The filament is stably sustained because the FR is weakly twisted and strongly confined by the overlying closed arcades.

  13. A Tool for Empirical Forecasting of Major Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections, and Solar Particle Events from a Proxy of Active-Region Free Magnetic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Falconer, D. A.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a new forecasting tool developed for and is currently being tested by NASA s Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) at JSC, which is responsible for the monitoring and forecasting of radiation exposure levels of astronauts. The new software tool is designed for the empirical forecasting of M and X-class flares, coronal mass ejections, as well as solar energetic particle events. Its algorithm is based on an empirical relationship between the various types of events rates and a proxy of the active region s free magnetic energy, determined from a data set of approx.40,000 active-region magnetograms from approx.1,300 active regions observed by SOHO/MDI that have known histories of flare, coronal mass ejection, and solar energetic particle event production. The new tool automatically extracts each strong-field magnetic areas from an MDI full-disk magnetogram, identifies each as an NOAA active region, and measures a proxy of the active region s free magnetic energy from the extracted magnetogram. For each active region, the empirical relationship is then used to convert the free magnetic energy proxy into an expected event rate. The expected event rate in turn can be readily converted into the probability that the active region will produce such an event in a given forward time window. Descriptions of the datasets, algorithm, and software in addition to sample applications and a validation test are presented. Further development and transition of the new tool in anticipation of SDO/HMI is briefly discussed.

  14. Combined Multipoint Remote and In Situ Observations of the Asymmetric Evolution of a Fast Solar Coronal Mass Ejection

    OpenAIRE

    Rollett, T.; Moestl, C.; Temmer, M.; Frahm, R. A.; Davies, J. A.; Veronig, A. M.; Vrsnak, B.; Amerstorfer, U. V.; Farrugia, C. J.; Zic, T.; Zhang, T. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the fast coronal mass ejection (CME) of 2012 March 7, which was imaged by both STEREO spacecraft and observed in situ by MESSENGER, Venus Express, Wind and Mars Express. Based on detected arrivals at four different positions in interplanetary space, it was possible to strongly constrain the kinematics and the shape of the ejection. Using the white-light heliospheric imagery from STEREO-A and B, we derived two different kinematical profiles for the CME by applying the...

  15. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R.; Shtein, Max

    2015-01-01

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26348820

  16. Cyclical Variation of the Quiet Corona and Coronal Holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Key words. Coronagraphs—solar activity cycle—solar corona—total ... can be divided into the quiet sun (including coronal holes) and active regions. The ... regions has attracted attention and is termed as 'the extended solar cycle'. Here the.

  17. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  18. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  19. FLARE-GENERATED SHOCK WAVE PROPAGATION THROUGH SOLAR CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS AND AN ASSOCIATED TYPE II RADIO BURST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Innes, D. E., E-mail: pankaj@kasi.re.kr [Max-Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents multiwavelength observations of a flare-generated type II radio burst. The kinematics of the shock derived from the type II burst closely match a fast extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave seen propagating through coronal arcade loops. The EUV wave was closely associated with an impulsive M1.0 flare without a related coronal mass ejection, and was triggered at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops in active region NOAA 12035. It was initially observed in the 335 Å images from the Atmospheric Image Assembly with a speed of ∼800 km s{sup −1} and it accelerated to ∼1490 km s{sup −1} after passing through the arcade loops. A fan–spine magnetic topology was revealed at the flare site. A small, confined filament eruption (∼340 km s{sup −1}) was also observed moving in the opposite direction to the EUV wave. We suggest that breakout reconnection in the fan–spine topology triggered the flare and associated EUV wave that propagated as a fast shock through the arcade loops.

  20. FLARE-GENERATED SHOCK WAVE PROPAGATION THROUGH SOLAR CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS AND AN ASSOCIATED TYPE II RADIO BURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk; Innes, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents multiwavelength observations of a flare-generated type II radio burst. The kinematics of the shock derived from the type II burst closely match a fast extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wave seen propagating through coronal arcade loops. The EUV wave was closely associated with an impulsive M1.0 flare without a related coronal mass ejection, and was triggered at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops in active region NOAA 12035. It was initially observed in the 335 Å images from the Atmospheric Image Assembly with a speed of ∼800 km s −1 and it accelerated to ∼1490 km s −1 after passing through the arcade loops. A fan–spine magnetic topology was revealed at the flare site. A small, confined filament eruption (∼340 km s −1 ) was also observed moving in the opposite direction to the EUV wave. We suggest that breakout reconnection in the fan–spine topology triggered the flare and associated EUV wave that propagated as a fast shock through the arcade loops.

  1. Coronal Loop Evolution Observed with AIA and Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu-Moore, Fana; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Korreck, K.; Golub, L.; Kuzin. S.; Walsh, R.; DeForest, C.; DePontieu, B.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Despite much progress toward understanding the dynamics of the solar corona, the physical properties of coronal loops are not yet fully understood. Recent investigations and observations from different instruments have yielded contradictory results about the true physical properties of coronal loops. In the past, the evolution of loops has been used to infer the loop substructure. With the recent launch of High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), this inference can be validated. In this poster we discuss the first results of loop analysis comparing AIA and Hi-C data. We find signatures of cooling in a pixel selected along a loop structure in the AIA multi-filter observations. However, unlike previous studies, we find that the cooling time is much longer than the draining time. This is inconsistent with previous cooling models.

  2. THE VERY UNUSUAL INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTION OF 2012 JULY 23: A BLAST WAVE MEDIATED BY SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C. T. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Leske, R. A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Luhmann, J. G. [University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mason, G. M. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Von Rosenvinge, T. T. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gomez-Herrero, R. [University of Alcala, E-28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Klassen, A. [Kiel University, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Galvin, A. B.; Simunac, K. D. C., E-mail: ctrussell@igpp.ucla.edu [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The giant, superfast, interplanetary coronal mass ejection, detected by STEREO A on 2012 July 23, well away from Earth, appears to have reached 1 AU with an unusual set of leading bow waves resembling in some ways a subsonic interaction, possibly due to the high pressures present in the very energetic particles produced in this event. Eventually, a front of record high-speed flow reached STEREO. The unusual behavior of this event is illustrated using the magnetic field, plasma, and energetic ion observations obtained by STEREO. Had the Earth been at the location of STEREO, the large southward-oriented magnetic field component in the event, combined with its high speed, would have produced a record storm.

  3. Evidence for the Magnetic Breakout Model in an Equatorial Coronal-hole Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Karpen, Judith T.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Wyper, Peter F.; DeVore, C. Richard; DeForest, Craig E.

    2018-02-01

    Small, impulsive jets commonly occur throughout the solar corona, but are especially visible in coronal holes. Evidence is mounting that jets are part of a continuum of eruptions that extends to much larger coronal mass ejections and eruptive flares. Because coronal-hole jets originate in relatively simple magnetic structures, they offer an ideal testbed for theories of energy buildup and release in the full range of solar eruptions. We analyzed an equatorial coronal-hole jet observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA on 2014 January 9 in which the magnetic-field structure was consistent with the embedded-bipole topology that we identified and modeled previously as an origin of coronal jets. In addition, this event contained a mini-filament, which led to important insights into the energy storage and release mechanisms. SDO/HMI magnetograms revealed footpoint motions in the primary minority-polarity region at the eruption site, but show negligible flux emergence or cancellation for at least 16 hr before the eruption. Therefore, the free energy powering this jet probably came from magnetic shear concentrated at the polarity inversion line within the embedded bipole. We find that the observed activity sequence and its interpretation closely match the predictions of the breakout jet model, strongly supporting the hypothesis that the breakout model can explain solar eruptions on a wide range of scales.

  4. Coronal Heating Observed with Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The recent launch of the High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) as a sounding rocket has offered a new, different view of the Sun. With approx 0.3" resolution and 5 second cadence, Hi-C reveals dynamic, small-scale structure within a complicated active region, including coronal braiding, reconnection regions, Alfven waves, and flows along active region fans. By combining the Hi-C data with other available data, we have compiled a rich data set that can be used to address many outstanding questions in solar physics. Though the Hi-C rocket flight was short (only 5 minutes), the added insight of the small-scale structure gained from the Hi-C data allows us to look at this active region and other active regions with new understanding. In this talk, I will review the first results from the Hi-C sounding rocket and discuss the impact of these results on the coronal heating problem.

  5. THE EFFECT OF TURBULENCE INTERMITTENCE ON THE EMISSION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES BY CORONAL AND INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharov, Leon; Laitinen, Timo; Vainio, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Major solar energetic particle events are associated with shock waves in solar corona and solar wind. Fast scattering of charged particles by plasma turbulence near the shock wave increases the efficiency of the particle acceleration in the shock, but prevents particles from escaping ahead of the shock. However, the turbulence energy levels in neighboring magnetic tubes of solar wind may differ from each other by more than one order of magnitude. We present the first theoretical study of accelerated particle emission from an oblique shock wave propagating through an intermittent turbulence background that consists of both highly turbulent magnetic tubes, where particles are accelerated, and quiet tubes, via which the accelerated particles can escape to the non-shocked solar wind. The modeling results imply that the presence of the fast transport channels penetrating the shock and cross-field transport of accelerated particles to those channels may play a key role in high-energy particle emission from distant shocks and can explain the prompt onset of major solar energetic particle events observed near the Earth's orbit

  6. THE EFFECT OF TURBULENCE INTERMITTENCE ON THE EMISSION OF SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES BY CORONAL AND INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharov, Leon [Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (Oulu Unit), P.O. Box 3000, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Laitinen, Timo [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Vainio, Rami [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-11-20

    Major solar energetic particle events are associated with shock waves in solar corona and solar wind. Fast scattering of charged particles by plasma turbulence near the shock wave increases the efficiency of the particle acceleration in the shock, but prevents particles from escaping ahead of the shock. However, the turbulence energy levels in neighboring magnetic tubes of solar wind may differ from each other by more than one order of magnitude. We present the first theoretical study of accelerated particle emission from an oblique shock wave propagating through an intermittent turbulence background that consists of both highly turbulent magnetic tubes, where particles are accelerated, and quiet tubes, via which the accelerated particles can escape to the non-shocked solar wind. The modeling results imply that the presence of the fast transport channels penetrating the shock and cross-field transport of accelerated particles to those channels may play a key role in high-energy particle emission from distant shocks and can explain the prompt onset of major solar energetic particle events observed near the Earth's orbit.

  7. Are coronae of late type stars made of solar-like structures? The Fx-HR diagram and the pressure-temperature correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, G.; Orlando, S.; Reale, F.

    2004-01-01

    We show that stellar coronae can be composed of X-ray emitting structures like those in the solar corona, using a large set of ROSAT/PSPC observations of late-type-stars, and a large set of solar X-ray data collected with Yohkoh/SXT. We have considered data on the solar corona at various phases of the cycle and various kinds of X-ray coronal structures, from flares to the background corona. The surface flux (F_x) vs. spectral hardness ratio (HR) diagram is a fundamental tool for our study. We...

  8. Periodic Density Structures and the Origin of the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viall-Kepko, Nicholeen M.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The source of the slow solar wind has challenged scientists for years. Periodic density structures (PDSs), observed regularly in the solar wind at 1 AU (Astronomical Unit), can be used to address this challenge. These structures have length scales of hundreds to several thousands of megameters and frequencies of tens to hundreds of minutes. Two lines of evidence indicate that PDSs are formed in the solar corona as part of the slow solar wind release and/or acceleration processes. The first is corresponding changes in compositional data in situ, and the second is PDSs observed in the inner Heliospheric Imaging data on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO)/Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) suite. The periodic nature of these density structures is both a useful identifier as well as an important physical constraint on their origin. In this paper, we present the results of tracking periodic structures identified in the inner Heliospheric Imager in SECCHI back in time through the corresponding outer coronagraph (COR2) images. We demonstrate that the PDSs are formed around or below 2.5 solar radii-the inner edge of the COR2 field of view. We compute the occurrence rates of PDSs in 10 days of COR2 images both as a function of their periodicity and location in the solar corona, and we find that this set of PDSs occurs preferentially with a periodicity of approximately 90 minutes and occurs near streamers. Lastly, we show that their acceleration and expansion through COR2 is self-similar, thus their frequency is constant at distances beyond 2.5 solar radii.

  9. Role of Magnetic Carpet in Coronal Heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... One of the fundamental questions in solar physics is how the solar corona maintains its high temperature of several million Kelvin above photosphere with a temperature of 6000 K. Observations show that solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different ...

  10. Mechanisms of Coronal Heating S. R. Verma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Sun is a mysterious star. The high temperature of the chromosphere and corona present one of the most puzzling problems of solar physics. Observations show that the solar coronal heating problem is highly complex with many different facts. It is likely that different heating mechanisms are at work in solar ...

  11. The Faraday rotation experiment. [solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, H.; Levy, G. S.; Bird, M. K.; Stelzried, C. T.; Seidel, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetized plasma of the solar corona was remotely sounded using the Faraday rotation effect. The solar magnetic field together with the electrons of the coronal plasma cause a measurable Faraday rotation effect, since the radio waves of Helios are linearly polarized. The measurement is performed at the ground stations. Alfven waves traveling from the Sun's surface through the corona into interplanetary space are observed. Helios 2 signals penetrating through a region where coronal mass is ejected show wavelike structures.

  12. PONDEROMOTIVE ACCELERATION IN CORONAL LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Obenschain, K. [LCP and FD, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Laming, J. M. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Taylor, B. D. [AFRL Eglin AFB, Pensacola, FL 32542 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Ponderomotive acceleration has been asserted to be a cause of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, the well-known enhancement in abundance by a factor of 3–4 over photospheric values of elements in the solar corona with FIP less than about 10 eV. It is shown here by means of numerical simulations that ponderomotive acceleration occurs in solar coronal loops, with the appropriate magnitude and direction, as a “by-product” of coronal heating. The numerical simulations are performed with the HYPERION code, which solves the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations including nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. Numerical simulations of coronal loops with an axial magnetic field from 0.005 to 0.02 T and lengths from 25,000 to 75,000 km are presented. In the simulations the footpoints of the axial loop magnetic field are convected by random, large-scale motions. There is a continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets, which act to heat the loop. As a consequence of coronal magnetic reconnection, small-scale, high-speed jets form. The familiar vortex quadrupoles form at reconnection sites. Between the magnetic footpoints and the corona the reconnection flow merges with the boundary flow. It is in this region that the ponderomotive acceleration occurs. Mirroring the character of the coronal reconnection, the ponderomotive acceleration is also found to be intermittent.

  13. PONDEROMOTIVE ACCELERATION IN CORONAL LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Obenschain, K.; Laming, J. M.; Taylor, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderomotive acceleration has been asserted to be a cause of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, the well-known enhancement in abundance by a factor of 3–4 over photospheric values of elements in the solar corona with FIP less than about 10 eV. It is shown here by means of numerical simulations that ponderomotive acceleration occurs in solar coronal loops, with the appropriate magnitude and direction, as a “by-product” of coronal heating. The numerical simulations are performed with the HYPERION code, which solves the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations including nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. Numerical simulations of coronal loops with an axial magnetic field from 0.005 to 0.02 T and lengths from 25,000 to 75,000 km are presented. In the simulations the footpoints of the axial loop magnetic field are convected by random, large-scale motions. There is a continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets, which act to heat the loop. As a consequence of coronal magnetic reconnection, small-scale, high-speed jets form. The familiar vortex quadrupoles form at reconnection sites. Between the magnetic footpoints and the corona the reconnection flow merges with the boundary flow. It is in this region that the ponderomotive acceleration occurs. Mirroring the character of the coronal reconnection, the ponderomotive acceleration is also found to be intermittent.

  14. Interpretation of coronal synoptic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, R.H.; Fisher, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction techniques used to determine coronal density distributions from synoptic data are complicated and time consuming to employ. Current techniques also assume time invariant structures and thus mix both temporal and spatial variations present in the coronal data. The observed distribution of polarized brightness, pB, and brightness, B, of coronal features observed either at eclipses or with coronagraphs depends upon both the three-dimensional distribution of electron density within the structure and the location of the feature with respect to the plane-of-the-sky. By theoretically studying the signature of various coronal structures as they would appear during a limb transit, it is possible to recognize these patterns in real synoptic data as well as estimate temporal evolutionary effects

  15. 24% efficient PERL structure silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Wang, A.; Green, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the performance of silicon solar cells have been significantly improved using an improved PERL (passivated emitter, rear locally-diffused) cell structure. This structure overcomes deficiencies in an earlier PERC (passivated emitter and rear cell) cell structure by locally diffusing boron into contact areas at the rear of the cells. Terrestrial energy conversion efficiencies up to 24% are reported for silicon cells for the first time. Air Mass O efficiencies approach 21%. The first batches of concentrator cells using the new structure have demonstrated significant improvement with 29% efficient concentrator silicon cells expected in the near future

  16. Can high-energy proton events in solar wind be predicted via classification of precursory structures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallerberg, Sarah [Chemnitz University of Technology (Germany); Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Feynman, Joan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Shock waves in the solar wind associated with solar coronal mass ejections produce fluxes of high-energy protons and ions with energies larger than 10 MeV. These fluxes present a danger to humans and electronic equipment in space, and also endanger passengers of over-pole air flights. The approaches that have been exploited for the prediction of high-energy particle events so far consist in training artificial neural networks on catalogues of events. Our approach towards this task is based on the identification of precursory structures in the fluxes of particles. In contrast to artificial neural networks that function as a ''black box'' transforming data into predictions, this classification approach can additionally provide information on relevant precursory events and thus might help to improve the understanding of underlying mechanisms of particle acceleration.

  17. Dynamics of Coronal Hole Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, A. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wyper, P. F. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Remote and in situ observations strongly imply that the slow solar wind consists of plasma from the hot, closed-field corona that is released onto open magnetic field lines. The Separatrix Web theory for the slow wind proposes that photospheric motions at the scale of supergranules are responsible for generating dynamics at coronal-hole boundaries, which result in the closed plasma release. We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to determine the effect of photospheric flows on the open and closed magnetic flux of a model corona with a dipole magnetic field and an isothermal solar wind. A rotational surface motion is used to approximate photospheric supergranular driving and is applied at the boundary between the coronal hole and helmet streamer. The resulting dynamics consist primarily of prolific and efficient interchange reconnection between open and closed flux. The magnetic flux near the coronal-hole boundary experiences multiple interchange events, with some flux interchanging over 50 times in one day. Additionally, we find that the interchange reconnection occurs all along the coronal-hole boundary and even produces a lasting change in magnetic-field connectivity in regions that were not driven by the applied motions. Our results show that these dynamics should be ubiquitous in the Sun and heliosphere. We discuss the implications of our simulations for understanding the observed properties of the slow solar wind, with particular focus on the global-scale consequences of interchange reconnection.

  18. PROPERTIES AND MODELING OF UNRESOLVED FINE STRUCTURE LOOPS OBSERVED IN THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION BY IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, David H. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Reep, Jeffrey W.; Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Recent observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) have discovered a new class of numerous low-lying dynamic loop structures, and it has been argued that they are the long-postulated unresolved fine structures (UFSs) that dominate the emission of the solar transition region. In this letter, we combine IRIS measurements of the properties of a sample of 108 UFSs (intensities, lengths, widths, lifetimes) with one-dimensional non-equilibrium ionization simulations, using the HYDRAD hydrodynamic model to examine whether the UFSs are now truly spatially resolved in the sense of being individual structures rather than being composed of multiple magnetic threads. We find that a simulation of an impulsively heated single strand can reproduce most of the observed properties, suggesting that the UFSs may be resolved, and the distribution of UFS widths implies that they are structured on a spatial scale of 133 km on average. Spatial scales of a few hundred kilometers appear to be typical for a range of chromospheric and coronal structures, and we conjecture that this could be an important clue for understanding the coronal heating process.

  19. Multipoint observations of coronal mass ejection and solar energetic particle events on Mars and Earth during November 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Brain, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data to study ICMEs and SEPs at Earth, we present a detailed study of three CMEs and flares in late November 2001. In this period, Mars trailed Earth by 56 degrees solar longitude so that the two planets occupied interplanetary magnetic field lines...... not only ICME events but also SEP events at Mars, with good results providing a consistent picture of the events when combined with near-Earth data....

  20. NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELD EXTRAPOLATION OF A CORONAL MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE SUPPORTING A LARGE-SCALE SOLAR FILAMENT FROM A PHOTOSPHERIC VECTOR MAGNETOGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Feng, Xueshang, E-mail: cwjiang@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: wus@uah.edu, E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu, E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-05-10

    Solar filaments are commonly thought to be supported in magnetic dips, in particular, in those of magnetic flux ropes (FRs). In this Letter, based on the observed photospheric vector magnetogram, we implement a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation of a coronal magnetic FR that supports a large-scale intermediate filament between an active region and a weak polarity region. This result is a first, in the sense that current NLFFF extrapolations including the presence of FRs are limited to relatively small-scale filaments that are close to sunspots and along main polarity inversion lines (PILs) with strong transverse field and magnetic shear, and the existence of an FR is usually predictable. In contrast, the present filament lies along the weak-field region (photospheric field strength ≲ 100 G), where the PIL is very fragmented due to small parasitic polarities on both sides of the PIL and the transverse field has a low signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, extrapolating a large-scale FR in such a case represents a far more difficult challenge. We demonstrate that our CESE-MHD-NLFFF code is sufficient for the challenge. The numerically reproduced magnetic dips of the extrapolated FR match observations of the filament and its barbs very well, which strongly supports the FR-dip model for filaments. The filament is stably sustained because the FR is weakly twisted and strongly confined by the overlying closed arcades.

  1. A model for the north coronal hole observed at the 1973 eclipse, between 1.3 and 3.2 solar radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crifo, F.; Picat, J.-P.

    1980-01-01

    At the 1973 eclipse, several pictures of the white-light corona were obtained using polarizers and a radially-compensated filter. These pictures provide a very good opportunity for studying the large coronal hole at the north polar cap; this hole has been extensively studied during the Skylab period. On the plates reliable intensities between 1.3 and 3.2 solar radii could be recorded. The absolute calibration was made using the stars observed in the field at the same time. This method allows a direct comparison of well-exposed objects on a same plate and must therefore be highly reliable. The northern hole was very dark and from the synoptic maps and the X-ray pictures, one can conclude that probably no high-latitude streamers were projected over the hole in the plane of the sky. Intensities in the radial and tangential directions of polarization were recorded in the darkest part of the hole between the visible plumes. (Auth.)

  2. Mid-term periodicities and heliospheric modulation of coronal index ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRITHVI RAJ SINGH

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... long-term periodicity of ∼11 years, with different solar activities. The physical processes that occur inside the. Sun are reflected by a periodic character in terms of coronal index of coronal emission (Fe XIV 530.3 nm) during solar activity cycles. Recently, a link between the strength of photospheric magnetic ...

  3. Open magnetic fields and the solar cycle. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Models of open magnetic structures on the Sun are presented for periods near solar minimum (CR 1626-1634) and near solar maximum (CR 1668-1678). Together with previous models of open magnetic structures during the declining phase (CR 1601-1611) these calculations provide clues to the relations between open structures, coronal holes, and active regions at different times of the solar cycle. Near solar minimum the close relation between active regions and open structures does not exist. It is suggested that near solar minimum the systematic emergence of new flux with the proper polarity imbalance to maintain open magnetic structures may occur primarily at very small spatial scales. Near solar maximum the role of active regions in maintaining open structures and coronal holes is strong, with large active regions emerging in the proper location and orientation to maintain open structures longer than typical active region lifetimes. Although the use of He I 10830 A spectroheliograms as a coronal hole indicator is shown to be subject to significant ambiguity, the agreement between calculated open structures and coronal holes determined from He I 10830 A spectroheliograms is very good. The rotation properties of calculated open structures near solar maximum strongly suggest two classes of features: one that rotates differentially similar to sunspots and active regions and a separate class that rotates more rigidly, as was the case for single large coronal holes during Skylab. (orig.)

  4. Assessment of residual coronal tooth structure postendodontic cavity preparation using digital dental impressions and micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Nassr; Patel, Shanon; Foschi, Federico; Mannocci, Francesco; Austin, Rupert S

    To evaluate the in vitro accuracy of digital impressions for three-dimensional (3D) volumetric measurement of residual coronal tooth structure postendodontic cavity preparation, with reference to micro-computed tomography (μCT). Quantification of the accuracy and precision of the intraoral digital scanner (3M True Definition Scanner - IOS) was performed using a metrology gauge block and a profilometric calibration model. Thirty-four human extracted molars with endodontic access cavities were scanned using both intraoral scanning (test scanner) in high-resolution mode, and µCT (reference scanner: GE Locus SP μCT scanner) in high- (HiResCT) and low- (LoResCT) resolution modes. Comparisons of volumetric accuracy and 3D profilometric deviations were performed using surface metrology software. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), in combination with the Bonferroni post hoc test, was implemented to compare the differences in volume measurements between scanning methods. Digital scanning revealed smaller volume measurements by 1.36% and 0.68% compared to HiResCT and LoResCT, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the volumetric measurements obtained from the IOS scanner and both HiResCT and LoResCT scans (P digital scanner was able to reliably measure the extra- and intracoronal aspect of the endodontically accessed tooth.

  5. THE BIMODAL STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CYCLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Z. L., E-mail: zldu@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Some properties of the 11 yr solar cycle can be explained by the current solar dynamo models. However, some other features remain not well understood such as the asymmetry of the cycle, the double-peaked structure, and the “Waldmeier effect” that a stronger cycle tends to have less rise time and a shorter cycle length. We speculate that the solar cycle is governed by a bi-dynamo model forming two stochastic processes depicted by a bimodal Gaussian function with a time gap of about 2 yr, from which the above features can be reasonably explained. The first one describes the main properties of the cycle dominated by the current solar dynamo models, and the second one occurs either in the rising phase as a short weak explosive perturbation or in the declining phase as a long stochastic perturbation. The above function is the best one selected from several in terms of the Akaike information criterion. Through analyzing different distributions, one might speculate about the dominant physical process inside the convection zone. The secondary (main) process is found to be closely associated with complicated (simple) active ranges. In effect, the bi-dynamo model is a reduced form of a multi-dynamo model, which could occur from the base of the convection zone through its envelope and from low to high heliographic latitude, reflecting the active belts in the convection zone. These results are insensitive to the hemispheric asymmetry, smoothing filters, and distribution functions selected and are expected to be helpful in understanding the formation of solar and stellar cycles.

  6. Higher-speed coronal mass ejections and their geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Bhargawa, Asheesh; Tonk, Apeksha

    2018-06-01

    We have attempted to examine the ability of coronal mass ejections to cause geoeffectiveness. To that end, we have investigated total 571 cases of higher-speed (> 1000 km/s) coronal mass ejection events observed during the years 1996-2012. On the basis of angular width (W) of observance, events of coronal mass ejection were further classified as front-side or halo coronal mass ejections (W = 360°); back-side halo coronal mass ejections (W = 360°); partial halo (120°mass ejections were much faster and more geoeffective in comparison of partial halo and non-halo coronal mass ejections. We also inferred that the front-sided halo coronal mass ejections were 67.1% geoeffective while geoeffectiveness of partial halo coronal mass ejections and non-halo coronal mass ejections were found to be 44.2% and 56.6% respectively. During the same period of observation, 43% of back-sided CMEs showed geoeffectiveness. We have also investigated some events of coronal mass ejections having speed > 2500 km/s as a case study. We have concluded that mere speed of coronal mass ejection and their association with solar flares or solar activity were not mere criterion for producing geoeffectiveness but angular width of coronal mass ejections and their originating position also played a key role.

  7. THE POSSIBLE ROLE OF CORONAL STREAMERS AS MAGNETICALLY CLOSED STRUCTURES IN SHOCK-INDUCED ENERGETIC ELECTRONS AND METRIC TYPE II RADIO BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Guo, Fan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    Two solar type II radio bursts, separated by ∼24 hr in time, are examined together. Both events are associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupting from the same active region (NOAA 11176) beneath a well-observed helmet streamer. We find that the type II emissions in both events ended once the CME/shock fronts passed the white-light streamer tip, which is presumably the magnetic cusp of the streamer. This leads us to conjecture that the closed magnetic arcades of the streamer may play a role in electron acceleration and type II excitation at coronal shocks. To examine such a conjecture, we conduct a test-particle simulation for electron dynamics within a large-scale partially closed streamer magnetic configuration swept by a coronal shock. We find that the closed field lines play the role of an electron trap via which the electrons are sent back to the shock front multiple times and therefore accelerated to high energies by the shock. Electrons with an initial energy of 300 eV can be accelerated to tens of keV concentrating at the loop apex close to the shock front with a counter-streaming distribution at most locations. These electrons are energetic enough to excite Langmuir waves and radio bursts. Considering the fact that most solar eruptions originate from closed field regions, we suggest that the scenario may be important for the generation of more metric type IIs. This study also provides an explanation of the general ending frequencies of metric type IIs at or above 20-30 MHz and the disconnection issue between metric and interplanetary type IIs.

  8. Halo-coronal mass ejections near the 23rd solar minimum: lift-off, inner heliosphere, and in situ (1 AU signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Berdichevsky

    Full Text Available The extreme ultraviolet (EUV signatures of a solar lift-off, decametric and kilometric radio burst emissions and energetic particle (EP inner heliospheric signatures of an interplanetary shock, and in situ identification of its driver through solar wind observations are discussed for 12 isolated halo coronal mass ejections (H-CMEs occurring between December 1996 and 1997. For the aforementioned twelve and the one event added in the discussion, it is found that ten passed several necessary conditions for being a "Sun-Earth connection". It is found that low corona EUV and Ha chromospheric signatures indicate filament eruption as the cause of H-CME. These signatures indicate that the 12 events can be divided into two major subsets, 7 related to active regions (ARs and 5 unrelated or related to decayed AR. In the case of events related to AR, there is indication of a faster lift-off, while a more gradual lift-off appears to characterize the second set. Inner heliospheric signatures – the presence of long lasting enhanced energetic particle flux and/or kilometric type II radio bursts – of a driven shock were identified in half of the 12 events. The in situ (1 AU analyses using five different solar wind ejecta signatures and comparisons with the bidirectional flow of suprathermal particles and Forbush decreases result in indications of a strong solar wind ejecta signatures for 11 out of 12 cases. From the discussion of these results, combined with work by other authors for overlapping events, we conclude that good Sun-Earth connection candidates originate most likely from solar filament eruptions with at least one of its extremities located closer to the central meridian than ~ 30° E or ~ 35° W with a larger extension in latitudinal location possible. In seven of the twelve cases it appears that the encountered ejecta was driving a shock at 1 AU. Support for this interpretation is found on the approximately equal

  9. Halo-coronal mass ejections near the 23rd solar minimum: lift-off, inner heliosphere, and in situ (1 AU signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Berdichevsky

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The extreme ultraviolet (EUV signatures of a solar lift-off, decametric and kilometric radio burst emissions and energetic particle (EP inner heliospheric signatures of an interplanetary shock, and in situ identification of its driver through solar wind observations are discussed for 12 isolated halo coronal mass ejections (H-CMEs occurring between December 1996 and 1997. For the aforementioned twelve and the one event added in the discussion, it is found that ten passed several necessary conditions for being a "Sun-Earth connection". It is found that low corona EUV and Ha chromospheric signatures indicate filament eruption as the cause of H-CME. These signatures indicate that the 12 events can be divided into two major subsets, 7 related to active regions (ARs and 5 unrelated or related to decayed AR. In the case of events related to AR, there is indication of a faster lift-off, while a more gradual lift-off appears to characterize the second set. Inner heliospheric signatures – the presence of long lasting enhanced energetic particle flux and/or kilometric type II radio bursts – of a driven shock were identified in half of the 12 events. The in situ (1 AU analyses using five different solar wind ejecta signatures and comparisons with the bidirectional flow of suprathermal particles and Forbush decreases result in indications of a strong solar wind ejecta signatures for 11 out of 12 cases. From the discussion of these results, combined with work by other authors for overlapping events, we conclude that good Sun-Earth connection candidates originate most likely from solar filament eruptions with at least one of its extremities located closer to the central meridian than ~ 30° E or ~ 35° W with a larger extension in latitudinal location possible. In seven of the twelve cases it appears that the encountered ejecta was driving a shock at 1 AU. Support for this interpretation is found on the approximately equal velocity of the shock and the

  10. New Packing Structure of Concentration Solar Receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Shang-Yu; Lee, Yueh-Mu; Shih, Zun-Hao; Hong, Hwen-Fen; Shin, Hwa-Yuh; Kuo, Cherng-Tsong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the temperature issue in High Concentration Photovoltaic (HCPV) module device by using different thermal conductive material and packing structure. In general, the open-circuited voltage of a device reduces with the increase of temperature and therefore degrades its efficiency. The thermal conductive material we use in this paper, silicon, has a high thermal conductive coefficient (149 W/m·K) and steady semiconductor properties which are suitable for the application of solar receiver in HCPV module. Solar cell was soldered on a metal-plated Si substrate with a thicker SiO 2 film which acts as an insulating layer. Then it was mounted on an Al-based plate to obtain a better heat dissipating result.

  11. The structure of the coronal soft X-ray source associated with the dark filament disappearance of 1991 September 28 using the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallister, Alan; Uchida, Yutaka; Tsuneta, Saku; Strong, Keith T.; Acton, Loren W.; Hiei, Eijiro; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Watanabe, Takashi; Shibata, Kazunari

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the coronal soft X-ray source associated with the dark filament disappearance on September 28, 1991, observed with the Soft X-ray Telescope, is examined as a possible example of the 'eruption-reconnection' model of filament disappearance. The results suggest, however, that this model may not fit. There is a strong possibility that much of the dark filament mass remains in the heated unwinding axial field.

  12. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and very large array observations of solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The research deals mainly with Very Large Array and Solar Maximum Mission observations of the ubiquitous coronal loops that dominate the structure of the low corona. As illustrated, the observations of thermal cyclotron lines at microwave wavelengths provide a powerful new method of accurately specifying the coronal magnetic field strength. Processes are delineated that trigger solar eruptions from coronal loops, including preburst heating and the magnetic interaction of coronal loops. Evidence for coherent burst mechanisms is provided for both the Sun and nearby stars, while other observations suggest the presence of currents that may amplify the coronal magnetic field to unexpectedly high levels. The existence is reported of a new class of compact, variable moving sources in regions of apparently weak photospheric field.

  13. 3D Coronal Structures and Magnetic Field During the Total Solar Eclipse of 29 March 2006

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrož, Pavel; Druckmüller, M.; Galal, A.A.; Hamid, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 258, č. 2 (2009), s. 243-265 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030506; GA AV ČR IAA300030808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Sun * eclipse observations * corona Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.628, year: 2009

  14. On the Link between the Release of Solar Energetic Particles Measured at Widespread Heliolongitudes and the Properties of the Associated Coronal Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Raouafi, N. E. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Riley, P., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: Nour.Eddine.Raouafi@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: ryunyoung.kwon@gmail.com, E-mail: pete@predsci.com [Predictive Science, 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170 San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Under the paradigm that the main agents in the acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are shocks initially driven by coronal mass ejections, we analyze whether the properties of the shocks in the corona inferred from combining extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light (WL) observations from multiple vantage points together with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the corona can be used to determine the release of SEPs into different regions of the heliosphere and hence determine the longitudinal extent of the SEP events. We analyze the SEP events observed on 2011 November 3, 2013 April 11, and 2014 February 25 over a wide range of heliolongitudes. MHD simulations provide the characteristics of the background medium where shocks propagate, in particular the Alfvén and sound speed profiles that allow us to determine both the extent of the EUV waves in the low corona and the fast magnetosonic Mach number ( M {sub FM}) of the shocks. The extent of the EUV waves in the low corona is controlled by this background medium and does not coincide with the extent of the SEP events in the heliosphere. Within the uncertainties of (i) the extent and speed of the shock inferred from EUV and WL images and (ii) the assumptions made in the MHD models, we follow the evolution of M {sub FM} at the region of the shock magnetically connected to each spacecraft. The estimated release times of the first SEPs measured by each spacecraft does not coincide with the time when the M {sub FM} at this region exceeds a given threshold.

  15. On the Link between the Release of Solar Energetic Particles Measured at Widespread Heliolongitudes and the Properties of the Associated Coronal Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, D.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Riley, P.; Raouafi, N. E.

    2017-10-01

    Under the paradigm that the main agents in the acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) are shocks initially driven by coronal mass ejections, we analyze whether the properties of the shocks in the corona inferred from combining extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and white-light (WL) observations from multiple vantage points together with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the corona can be used to determine the release of SEPs into different regions of the heliosphere and hence determine the longitudinal extent of the SEP events. We analyze the SEP events observed on 2011 November 3, 2013 April 11, and 2014 February 25 over a wide range of heliolongitudes. MHD simulations provide the characteristics of the background medium where shocks propagate, in particular the Alfvén and sound speed profiles that allow us to determine both the extent of the EUV waves in the low corona and the fast magnetosonic Mach number (M FM) of the shocks. The extent of the EUV waves in the low corona is controlled by this background medium and does not coincide with the extent of the SEP events in the heliosphere. Within the uncertainties of (I) the extent and speed of the shock inferred from EUV and WL images and (II) the assumptions made in the MHD models, we follow the evolution of M FM at the region of the shock magnetically connected to each spacecraft. The estimated release times of the first SEPs measured by each spacecraft does not coincide with the time when the M FM at this region exceeds a given threshold.

  16. Coronal heating via nanoflares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletto, G.; Kopp, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that the coronae of single late-type main sequence stars represent the radiative output from a large number of tiny energy release events, the so-called nanoflares. Although this suggestion is attractive and order of magnitude estimates of the physical parameters involved in the process are consistent with available data, nanoflares have not yet been observed and theoretical descriptions of these phenomena are still very crude. In this paper we examine the temporal behavior of a magnetic flux tube subject to the repeated occurrence of energy release events, randomly distributed in time, and we show that an originally empty cool loop may, in fact, reach typical coronal density and temperature values via nanoflare heating. By choosing physical parameters appropriate to solar conditions we also explore the possibilities for observationally detecting nanoflares. Although the Sun is the only star where nanoflares might be observed, present instrumentation appears to be inadequate for this purpose

  17. Solar wind structure out of the ecliptic plane over solar cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, J. M.; Bzowski, M.; Tokumaru, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sun constantly emits a stream of plasma known as solar wind. Ground-based observations of the solar wind speed through the interplanetary scintillations (IPS) of radio flux from distant point sources and in-situ measurements by Ulysses mission revealed that the solar wind flow has different characteristics depending on the latitude. This latitudinal structure evolves with the cycle of solar activity. The knowledge on the evolution of solar wind structure is important for understanding the interaction between the interstellar medium surrounding the Sun and the solar wind, which is responsible for creation of the heliosphere. The solar wind structure must be taken into account in interpretation of most of the observations of heliospheric energetic neutral atoms, interstellar neutral atoms, pickup ions, and heliospheric backscatter glow. The information on the solar wind structure is not any longer available from direct measurements after the termination of Ulysses mission and the only source of the solar wind out of the ecliptic plane is the IPS observations. However, the solar wind structure obtained from this method contains inevitable gaps in the time- and heliolatitude coverage. Sokół et al 2015 used the solar wind speed data out of the ecliptic plane retrieved from the IPS observations performed by Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (Nagoya University, Japan) and developed a methodology to construct a model of evolution of solar wind speed and density from 1985 to 2013 that fills the data gaps. In this paper we will present a refined model of the solar wind speed and density structure as a function of heliographic latitude updated by the most recent data from IPS observations. And we will discuss methods of extrapolation of the solar wind structure out of the ecliptic plane for the past solar cycles, when the data were not available, as well as forecasting for few years upward.

  18. More Macrospicule Jets in On-Disk Coronal Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the magnetic structure and dynamics of multiple jets found in coronal holes close to or on disk center. All data are from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We report on observations of about ten jets in an equatorial coronal hole spanning 2011 February 27 and 28. We show the evolution of these jets in AIA 193 A, examine the magnetic field configuration and flux changes in the jet area, and discuss the probable trigger mechanism of these events. We reported on another jet in this same coronal hole on 2011 February 27, (is) approximately 13:04 UT (Adams et al 2014, ApJ, 783: 11). That jet is a previously-unrecognized variety of blowout jet, in which the base-edge bright point is a miniature filament-eruption flare arcade made by internal reconnection of the legs of the erupting field. In contrast, in the presently-accepted 'standard' picture for blowout jets, the base-edge bright point is made by interchange reconnection of initially-closed erupting jet-base field with ambient open field. This poster presents further evidence of the production of the base-edge bright point in blowout jets by internal reconnection. Our observations suggest that most of the bigger and brighter EUV jets in coronal holes are blowout jets of the new-found variety.

  19. Evaluation of fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated posts and composites with varying quantities of remaining coronal tooth structure Avaliação da resistência à fratura de dentes tratados endodonticamente restaurados com pinos pré-fabricados e resinas compostas variando o remanescente dentário coronal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Pereira de Melo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of remaining coronal tooth structure on endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated posts and two different composites for core build-up: dual-cured resin (Enforce Core and light-cured resin (Z-250. METHODS: Fourty freshly extracted canines were endodontically treated and divided into four groups: Group I - teeth with 3mm remaining coronal structure, restored with Enforce Core; Group II - teeth with 3mm remaining coronal structure, restored with Z-250; Group III - teeth with no remaining coronal structure, restored with Enforce; Group IV - teeth with no remaining coronal structure, restored with Z-250. After restoration, the teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and the fracture resistance was measured on a universal testing machine at 45 degrees to the long axis of the tooth until failure. RESULTS: Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, which showed significant differences between groups (p=0.00. The Tukey test did not show significant differences between specimens with and without remaining coronal structure. Conversely, significant difference was observed between groups with different core build-up. The highest values of fracture resistance were found in the group restored with light-cured resin. SIGNIFICANCE: The remaining coronal tooth structure did not influence the resistance of endodontically treated teeth; however, the change of core build-up was able to modify this resistence.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a influência do remanescente dentário coronal de dentes tratados endodonticamente, restaurados com pinos pré-fabricados e duas resinas como núcleos de preenchimento, uma de presa dual (Enforce Core e outra fotopolimerizável (Z-250. Foram utilizados 40 caninos superiores humanos extraídos, divididos em quatro grupos de 10 espécimes: Grupo l - com remanescente dentário coronal de 3mm e restaurados com Enforce Core; Grupo ll - com

  20. Coronal Seismology: The Search for Propagating Waves in Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Thomas A.; Seeley, D.; Keil, S. L.; Tomczyk, S.

    2007-05-01

    We report on Doppler observations of the solar corona obtained in the Fe XeXIII 1074.7nm coronal emission line with the HAO Coronal Multi-Channel Polarimeter (CoMP) mounted on the NSO Coronal One Shot coronagraph located in the Hilltop Facility of NSO/Sacramento Peak. The COMP is a tunable filtergraph instrument that records the entire corona from the edge of the occulting disk at approximately 1.03 Rsun out to 1.4 Rsun with a spatial resolution of about 4” x 4”. COMP can be rapidly scanned through the spectral line while recording orthogonal states of linear and circular polarization. The two dimensional spatial resolution allows us to correlate temporal fluctuations observed in one part of the corona with those seen at other locations, in particular along coronal loops. Using cross spectral analysis we find that the observations reveal upward propagating waves that are characterized by Doppler shifts with rms velocities of 0.3 km/s, peak wave power in the 3-5 mHz frequency range, and phase speeds 1-3 Mm/s. The wave trajectories are consistent with the direction of the magnetic field inferred from the linear polarization measurements. We discuss the phase and coherence of these waves as a function of height in the corona and relate our findings to previous observations. The observed waves appear to be Alfvenic in character. "Thomas Schad was supported through the National Solar Observatory Research Experiences for Undergraduate (REU) site program, which is co-funded by the Department of Defense in partnership with the National Science Foundation REU Program." Daniel Seeley was supported through the National Solar Observatory Research Experience for Teachers (RET) site program, which is funded by the National Science Foundation RET program.

  1. New Low Cost Structure for Dual Axis Mount Solar Tracking System Using Adaptive Solar Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    A solar tracking system is designed to optimize the operation of solar energy receivers. The objective of this paper is proposing a new tracking system structure with two axis. The success strategy of this new project focuses on the economical analysis of solar energy. Therefore it is important...... to determine the most cost effective design, to consider the costs of production and maintenance, and operating. The proposed tracking system uses a new solar sensor position with an adaptive feature....

  2. THREE-DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY OF A CURRENT SHEET IN THE HIGH SOLAR CORONA: EVIDENCE FOR RECONNECTION IN THE LATE STAGE OF THE CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Vourlidas, Angelos [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Webb, David, E-mail: rkwon@gmu.edu [ISR, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Motivated by the standard flare model, ray-like structures in the wake of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been often interpreted as proxies of the reconnecting current sheet connecting the CME with the postflare arcade. We present the three-dimensional properties of a post-CME ray derived from white light images taken from three different viewing perspectives on 2013 September 21. By using a forward modeling method, the direction, cross section, and electron density are determined within the heliocentric distance range of 5–9 R {sub ⊙}. The width and depth of the ray are 0.42 ± 0.08 R {sub ⊙} and 1.24 ± 0.35 R {sub ⊙}, respectively, and the electron density is (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}, which seems to be constant with height. Successive blobs moving outward along the ray are observed around 13 hr after the parent CME onset. We model the three-dimensional geometry of the parent CME with the Gradual Cylindrical Shell model and find that the CME and ray are coaxial. We suggest that coaxial post-CME rays, seen in coronagraph images, with successive formation of blobs could be associated with current sheets undergoing magnetic reconnection in the late stage of CMEs.

  3. Morphology of Pseudostreamers and Solar Wind Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasenco, Olga; Velli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The solar dynamo and photospheric convection lead to three main types of structures extending from the solar surface into the corona - active regions, solar filaments (prominences when observed at the limb) and coronal holes. These structures exist over a wide range of scales, and are interlinked with each other in evolution and dynamics. Active regions can form clusters of magnetic activity and the strongest overlie sunspots. In the decay of active regions, the boundaries separating opposite magnetic polarities (neutral lines) develop the specific structures called filament channels above which filaments form. In the presence of flux imbalance decaying active regions can also give birth to lower latitude coronal holes. The accumulation of magnetic flux at coronal hole boundaries also creates the conditions for filament formation: polar crown filaments are permanently present at the boundaries of the polar coronal holes. Middle-latitude and equatorial coronal holes - the result of active region evolution - can create pseudostreamers (PSs) if other coronal holes of the same polarity are present. While helmet streamers form between open fields of opposite polarities, the pseudostreamer, characterized by a smaller coronal imprint, typically shows a more prominent straight ray or stalk extending from the corona. The pseudostreamer base at photospheric heights is multipolar; often one observes tripolar magnetic configurations with two neutral lines - where filaments can form - separating the coronal holes. Here we discuss the specific role of filament channels on pseudostreamer topology and on solar wind properties. 1D numerical analysis of PSs shows that the properties of the solar wind from around PSs depend on the presence/absence of filament channels, number of channels and chirality at the PS base low in the corona.

  4. Solar and interplanetary disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Alurkar, S K

    1997-01-01

    Over the last three decades, a spate of solar wind observations have been made with sophisticated ground-based and space-borne instruments. Two highly successful space missions of the Skylab and the twin spacecraft Helios 1 and 2 have amassed an invaluable wealth of information on the large scale structure of the inner heliosphere, the solar and interplanetary magnetic field, coronal holes, interplanetary dust, solar windflows, etc.Solar and interplanetary propagating phenomena have been extensively studied during the last two decades. Very recently, a new simple model based on results from a

  5. Applications of Fluorogens with Rotor Structures in Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kok-Haw; Liu, Bin

    2017-05-29

    Solar cells are devices that convert light energy into electricity. To drive greater adoption of solar cell technologies, higher cell efficiencies and reductions in manufacturing cost are necessary. Fluorogens containing rotor structures may be helpful in addressing some of these challenges due to their unique twisted structures and photophysics. In this review, we discuss the applications of rotor-containing molecules as dyes for luminescent down-shifting layers and luminescent solar concentrators, where their aggregation-induced emission properties and large Stokes shifts are highly desirable. We also discuss the applications of molecules containing rotors in third-generation solar cell technologies, namely dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics, where the twisted 3-dimensional rotor structures are used primarily for aggregation control. Finally, we discuss perspectives on the future role of molecules containing rotor structures in solar cell technologies.

  6. On the Structure of the Solar Photosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secchi A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mary Posani (Department of French and Italian, The Ohio State University, Colum- bus, Ohio, 43221 and Eileen Reeves (Department of Comparative Literature, Prince- ton University, Princeton, New Jersey, 08544 provide a translation of Father Pietro Angelo Secchi’s classic work “ Sulla Struttura della Fotosfera Solare ” as it appeared in Bullettino Meteorologico dell’ Osservatorio del Collegio Romano , 30 November 1864, v.3(11, 1–3. Secchi’s paper was immediately translated into French by l’Abb ́ e Franc ̧ois Moigno appearing on December 22nd, 1864 ( Sur la structure de la photosph`ere du soleil. Les Mondes , 1864, v.6, 703–707. Moigno’s translation prompted significant interest in the nature of the Sun throughout Europe, with rapid claims of simultaneous discovery by Harv ́ e Faye (Faye H. Sur la constitution physique du soleil — premiere parti . Les Mondes, v.7, 293–306 and others. In this article, Secchi reiterated that the photosphere was composed of solid corpuscles floating on the transparent atmosphere of the Sun. Secchi concluded that the body of the Sun was gaseous based on his vi- sualization of solar granules or “ willow leaves ” described by Nasmyth (Nasmyth J. On the Structure of the Luminous Envelope of the Sun — In a letter to Joseph Sidebotham . Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester , 1862, 3rd Series, v.I, 407–411. Secchi also referred to Magnus’ work on solid particles in the gaseous flame (Magnus G. Notiz ̈uber die Bescha enheit der Sonne. Poggendorff’s Annalen der Physik und Chemie , 1864, v.121, 510–512; also in French Notice sur la constitution du soleil . Archives des science physique et naturelles (Gen`eve , 1864, v.20, 171–175. The works by Sechhi, Nasmyth, Magnus, and Faye would dominate astrophysical thought for the next 50 years.

  7. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic process in solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamics is one of the major disciplines in solar physics. Vigorous magnetohydrodynamic process is taking place in the solar convection zone and atmosphere. It controls the generating and structuring of the solar magnetic fields, causes the accumulation of magnetic non-potential energy in the solar atmosphere and triggers the explosive magnetic energy release, manifested as violent solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Nowadays detailed observations in solar astrophysics from space and on the ground urge a great need for the studies of magnetohydrodynamics and plasma physics to achieve better understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of solar activity. On the other hand, the spectacular solar activity always serves as a great laboratory of magnetohydrodynamics. In this article, we reviewed a few key unresolved problems in solar activity studies and discussed the relevant issues in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

  9. Single ICMEs and Complex Transient Structures in the Solar Wind in 2010 - 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, D.; Slemzin, V.; Zhukov, A. N.; Goryaev, F.; Shugay, Y.; Veselovsky, I.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the statistics, solar sources, and properties of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) in the solar wind. The total number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) registered in the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops catalog (CDAW) during the first eight years of Cycle 24 was 61% larger than in the same period of Cycle 23, but the number of X-ray flares registered by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) was 20 % smaller because the solar activity was lower. The total number of ICMEs in the given period of Cycle 24 in the Richardson and Cane list was 29% smaller than in Cycle 23, which may be explained by a noticeable number of non-classified ICME-like events in the beginning of Cycle 24. For the period January 2010 - August 2011, we identify solar sources of the ICMEs that are included in the Richardson and Cane list. The solar sources of ICME were determined from coronagraph observations of the Earth-directed CMEs, supplemented by modeling of their propagation in the heliosphere using kinematic models (a ballistic and drag-based model). A detailed analysis of the ICME solar sources in the period under study showed that in 11 cases out of 23 (48%), the observed ICME could be associated with two or more sources. For multiple-source events, the resulting solar wind disturbances can be described as complex (merged) structures that are caused by stream interactions, with properties depending on the type of the participating streams. As a reliable marker to identify interacting streams and their sources, we used the plasma ion composition because it freezes in the low corona and remains unchanged in the heliosphere. According to the ion composition signatures, we classify these cases into three types: complex ejecta originating from weak and strong CME-CME interactions, as well as merged interaction regions (MIRs) originating from the CME high-speed stream (HSS) interactions. We describe temporal profiles of the ion composition for

  10. MINI-FILAMENT ERUPTION AS THE INITIATION OF A JET ALONG CORONAL LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Yang, Bo; Xu, Zhe; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Minifilament eruptions (MFEs) and coronal jets are different types of solar small-scale explosive events. We report an MFE observed at the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST). As seen in the NVST H α images, during the rising phase, the minifilament erupts outward orthogonally to its length, accompanied with a flare-like brightening at the bottom. Afterward, dark materials are found to possibly extend along the axis of the expanded filament body. The MFE is analogous to large filament eruptions. However, a simultaneous observation of the Solar Dynamics Observatory shows that a jet is initiated and flows out along nearby coronal loops during the rising phase of the MFE. Meanwhile, small hot loops, which connect the original eruptive site of the minifilament to the footpoints of the coronal loops, are formed successively. A differential emission measure analysis demonstrates that, on the top of the new small loops, a hot cusp structure exists. We conjecture that the magnetic fields of the MFE interact with magnetic fields of the coronal loops. This interaction is interpreted as magnetic reconnection that produces the jet and the small hot loops.

  11. MINI-FILAMENT ERUPTION AS THE INITIATION OF A JET ALONG CORONAL LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Yang, Bo; Xu, Zhe; Xiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: hjcsolar@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-10-20

    Minifilament eruptions (MFEs) and coronal jets are different types of solar small-scale explosive events. We report an MFE observed at the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST). As seen in the NVST H α images, during the rising phase, the minifilament erupts outward orthogonally to its length, accompanied with a flare-like brightening at the bottom. Afterward, dark materials are found to possibly extend along the axis of the expanded filament body. The MFE is analogous to large filament eruptions. However, a simultaneous observation of the Solar Dynamics Observatory shows that a jet is initiated and flows out along nearby coronal loops during the rising phase of the MFE. Meanwhile, small hot loops, which connect the original eruptive site of the minifilament to the footpoints of the coronal loops, are formed successively. A differential emission measure analysis demonstrates that, on the top of the new small loops, a hot cusp structure exists. We conjecture that the magnetic fields of the MFE interact with magnetic fields of the coronal loops. This interaction is interpreted as magnetic reconnection that produces the jet and the small hot loops.

  12. Future space missions and ground observatory for measurements of coronal magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Gibson, Sarah; Bemporad, Alessandro; Zhukov, Andrei; Damé, Luc; Susino, Roberto; Larruquert, Juan

    2016-07-01

    structure' in space. The paired satellites will together form a 150-m long solar coronagraph (ASPIICS) to study the Sun's faint corona closer to the solar limb than has ever before been achieved. High-resolution imaging in polarized visible-light of shock waves generated by Coronal Mass Ejections would provide a diagnostics of the magnetic field in the pre-shock ambient corona.

  13. An Airborne Infrared Spectrometer for Solar Eclipse Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Jenna; DeLuca, Edward E.; Golub, Leon; Cheimets, Peter; Philip, Judge

    2016-05-01

    The airborne infrared spectrometer (AIR-Spec) is an innovative solar spectrometer that will observe the 2017 solar eclipse from the NSF/NCAR High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER). AIR-Spec will image five infrared coronal emission lines to determine whether they may be useful probes of coronal magnetism.The solar magnetic field provides the free energy that controls coronal heating, structure, and dynamics. Energy stored in coronal magnetic fields is released in flares and coronal mass ejections and ultimately drives space weather. Therefore, direct coronal field measurements have significant potential to enhance understanding of coronal dynamics and improve solar forecasting models. Of particular interest are observations of field lines in the transitional region between closed and open flux systems, providing important information on the origin of the slow solar wind.While current instruments routinely observe only the photospheric and chromospheric magnetic fields, AIR-Spec will take a step toward the direct observation of coronal fields by measuring plasma emission in the infrared at high spatial and spectral resolution. During the total solar eclipse of 2017, AIR-Spec will observe five magnetically sensitive coronal emission lines between 1.4 and 4 µm from the HIAPER Gulfstream V at an altitude above 14.9 km. The instrument will measure emission line intensity, width, and Doppler shift, map the spatial distribution of infrared emitting plasma, and search for waves in the emission line velocities.AIR-Spec consists of an optical system (feed telescope, grating spectrometer, and infrared detector) and an image stabilization system, which uses a fast steering mirror to correct the line-of-sight for platform perturbations. To ensure that the instrument meets its research goals, both systems are undergoing extensive performance modeling and testing. These results are shown with reference to the science requirements.

  14. Flexible PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells with integrated grating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Hansen, Roana Melina de; Liu, Yinghui; Madsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    We report on development of flexible PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells with integrated diffraction gratings on the bottom electrodes. The presented results address PCPDTBT:PCBM solar cells in an inverted geometry, which contains implemented grating structures whose pitch is tuned to match the absorption...... spectra of the active layer. This optimized solar cell structure leads to an enhanced absorption in the active layer and thus improved short-circuit currents and power conversion efficiencies in the fabricated devices. Fabrication of the solar cells on thin polyimide substrates which are compatible...

  15. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenge, N.; Kiss, T. S.; Erdélyi, R.; Singh, T.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  16. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyenge, N.; Kiss, T. S.; Erdélyi, R. [Solar Physics and Space Plasmas Research Centre (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield Hounsfield Road, Hicks Building, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Singh, T.; Srivastava, A. K., E-mail: n.g.gyenge@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi (India)

    2017-03-20

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  17. Active Longitude and Coronal Mass Ejection Occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Singh, T.; Kiss, T. S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Erdélyi, R.

    2017-03-01

    The spatial inhomogeneity of the distribution of coronal mass ejection (CME) occurrences in the solar atmosphere could provide a tool to estimate the longitudinal position of the most probable CME-capable active regions in the Sun. The anomaly in the longitudinal distribution of active regions themselves is often referred to as active longitude (AL). In order to reveal the connection between the AL and CME spatial occurrences, here we investigate the morphological properties of active regions. The first morphological property studied is the separateness parameter, which is able to characterize the probability of the occurrence of an energetic event, such as a solar flare or CME. The second morphological property is the sunspot tilt angle. The tilt angle of sunspot groups allows us to estimate the helicity of active regions. The increased helicity leads to a more complex buildup of the magnetic structure and also can cause CME eruption. We found that the most complex active regions appear near the AL and that the AL itself is associated with the most tilted active regions. Therefore, the number of CME occurrences is higher within the AL. The origin of the fast CMEs is also found to be associated with this region. We concluded that the source of the most probably CME-capable active regions is at the AL. By applying this method, we can potentially forecast a flare and/or CME source several Carrington rotations in advance. This finding also provides new information for solar dynamo modeling.

  18. Guided flows in coronal magnetic flux tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Testa, P.

    2018-01-01

    Context. There is evidence that coronal plasma flows break down into fragments and become laminar. Aims: We investigate this effect by modelling flows confined along magnetic channels. Methods: We consider a full magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of a solar atmosphere box with a dipole magnetic field. We compare the propagation of a cylindrical flow perfectly aligned with the field to that of another flow with a slight misalignment. We assume a flow speed of 200 km s-1 and an ambient magnetic field of 30 G. Results: We find that although the aligned flow maintains its cylindrical symmetry while it travels along the magnetic tube, the misaligned one is rapidly squashed on one side, becoming laminar and eventually fragmented because of the interaction and back-reaction of the magnetic field. This model could explain an observation made by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory of erupted fragments that fall back onto the solar surface as thin and elongated strands and end up in a hedge-like configuration. Conclusions: The initial alignment of plasma flow plays an important role in determining the possible laminar structure and fragmentation of flows while they travel along magnetic channels. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Evaluating Uncertainties in Coronal Electron Temperature and Radial Speed Measurements Using a Simulation of the Bastille Day Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald, Nelson; St. Cyr, Orville; Davila, Joseph; Rastaetter, Lutz; Török, Tibor

    2018-05-01

    Obtaining reliable measurements of plasma parameters in the Sun's corona remains an important challenge for solar physics. We previously presented a method for producing maps of electron temperature and speed of the solar corona using K-corona brightness measurements made through four color filters in visible light, which were tested for their accuracies using models of a structured, yet steady corona. In this article we test the same technique using a coronal model of the Bastille Day (14 July 2000) coronal mass ejection, which also contains quiet areas and streamers. We use the coronal electron density, temperature, and flow speed contained in the model to determine two K-coronal brightness ratios at (410.3, 390.0 nm) and (423.3, 398.7 nm) along more than 4000 lines of sight. Now assuming that for real observations, the only information we have for each line of sight are these two K-coronal brightness ratios, we use a spherically symmetric model of the corona that contains no structures to interpret these two ratios for electron temperature and speed. We then compare the interpreted (or measured) values for each line of sight with the true values from the model at the plane of the sky for that same line of sight to determine the magnitude of the errors. We show that the measured values closely match the true values in quiet areas. However, in locations of coronal structures, the measured values are predictably underestimated or overestimated compared to the true values, but can nevertheless be used to determine the positions of the structures with respect to the plane of the sky, in front or behind. Based on our results, we propose that future white-light coronagraphs be equipped to image the corona using four color filters in order to routinely create coronal maps of electron density, temperature, and flow speed.

  20. A contemporary view of coronal heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Clare E; De Moortel, Ineke

    2012-07-13

    Determining the heating mechanism (or mechanisms) that causes the outer atmosphere of the Sun, and many other stars, to reach temperatures orders of magnitude higher than their surface temperatures has long been a key problem. For decades, the problem has been known as the coronal heating problem, but it is now clear that 'coronal heating' cannot be treated or explained in isolation and that the heating of the whole solar atmosphere must be studied as a highly coupled system. The magnetic field of the star is known to play a key role, but, despite significant advancements in solar telescopes, computing power and much greater understanding of theoretical mechanisms, the question of which mechanism or mechanisms are the dominant supplier of energy to the chromosphere and corona is still open. Following substantial recent progress, we consider the most likely contenders and discuss the key factors that have made, and still make, determining the actual (coronal) heating mechanism (or mechanisms) so difficult.

  1. PROMINENCE ACTIVATION BY CORONAL FAST MODE SHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Asai, Ayumi [Unit of Synergetic Studies for Space, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: takahashi@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    An X5.4 class flare occurred in active region NOAA11429 on 2012 March 7. The flare was associated with a very fast coronal mass ejection (CME) with a velocity of over 2500 km s{sup −1}. In the images taken with the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-B/COR1, a dome-like disturbance was seen to detach from an expanding CME bubble and propagated further. A Type-II radio burst was also observed at the same time. On the other hand, in extreme ultraviolet images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), the expanding dome-like structure and its footprint propagating to the north were observed. The footprint propagated with an average speed of about 670 km s{sup −1} and hit a prominence located at the north pole and activated it. During the activation, the prominence was strongly brightened. On the basis of some observational evidence, we concluded that the footprint in AIA images and the ones in COR1 images are the same, that is, the MHD fast mode shock front. With the help of a linear theory, the fast mode Mach number of the coronal shock is estimated to be between 1.11 and 1.29 using the initial velocity of the activated prominence. Also, the plasma compression ratio of the shock is enhanced to be between 1.18 and 2.11 in the prominence material, which we consider to be the reason for the strong brightening of the activated prominence. The applicability of linear theory to the shock problem is tested with a nonlinear MHD simulation.

  2. Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronal Magnetic Field Lines and Electrons Associated with Type III–V Radio Bursts in a Solar Flare ... velocities of the electron streams associated with the above two types of bursts indicate ... Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News ...

  3. Frequency agile solar radiotelescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Tim S.

    2003-02-01

    The Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) is a solar-dedicated, ground based, interferometric array optimized to perform broadband imaging spectroscopy from ~ 0.1-30+ GHz. It will do so with the angular, spectral, and temporal resolution required to exploit radio emission from the Sun as a diagnostic of the wide variety of astrophysical processes that occur there. FASR represents a major advance over existing radioheliographs, and is expected to remain the world's premier solar radio instrument for two decades or more after completion. FASR will be a versatile and powerful instrument, providing unique data to a broad users community. Solar, solar-terrestrial, and space physicists will exploit FASR to attack a broad science program, including problems of fundamental interest: coronal magnetography, solar flares and particle acceleration, drivers of space weather, and the thermal structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere. A design study and implementation planning are underway. Recent progress is reviewed here.

  4. Structural considerations for solar installers : an approach for small, simplified solar installations or retrofits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Elizabeth H.; Schindel, Kay (City of Madison, WI); Bosiljevac, Tom; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Lindau, William (Lindau Companies, Inc., Hudson, WI); Harper, Alan (City of Madison, WI)

    2011-12-01

    Structural Considerations for Solar Installers provides a comprehensive outline of structural considerations associated with simplified solar installations and recommends a set of best practices installers can follow when assessing such considerations. Information in the manual comes from engineering and solar experts as well as case studies. The objectives of the manual are to ensure safety and structural durability for rooftop solar installations and to potentially accelerate the permitting process by identifying and remedying structural issues prior to installation. The purpose of this document is to provide tools and guidelines for installers to help ensure that residential photovoltaic (PV) power systems are properly specified and installed with respect to the continuing structural integrity of the building.

  5. Recent Progress in Heliogyro Solar Sail Structural Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, William K.; Warren, Jerry E.; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Gibbs, Samuel C.; Dowell, E.; Guerrant, Daniel; Lawrence Dale

    2014-01-01

    Results from recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research on the structural dynamics and control characteristics of heliogyro solar sails are summarized. Specific areas under investigation include coupled nonlinear finite element analysis of heliogyro membrane blade with solar radiation pressure effects, system identification of spinning membrane structures, solarelastic stability analysis of heliogyro solar sails, including stability during blade deployment, and results from small-scale in vacuo dynamics experiments with spinning high-aspect ratio membranes. A low-cost, rideshare payload heliogyro technology demonstration mission concept, used as a mission context for these heliogyro structural dynamics and solarelasticity investigations, is also described.

  6. An Investigation of Interplanetary Structures for Solar Cycles 23 and 24 and their Space Weather Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, M. S.; Jules, A.; Marchese, P.; Damas, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    It is crucial to study space weather because severe interplanetary conditions can cause geomagnetic storms that may damage both space- and ground-based technological systems such as satellites, communication systems, and power grids. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are the primary drivers of geomagnetic storms. As they travel through interplanetary space and reach geospace, their spatial structures change which can result in various geomagnetic effects. Therefore, studying these drivers and their structures is essential in order to better understand and mitigate their impact on technological systems, as well as to forecast geomagnetic storms. In this study, over 150 storms were cross-checked for both solar cycles (SC) 23 and 24. This data has revealed the most common interplanetary structures, i.e., sheath (Sh); magnetic cloud following a shock front (sMC); sheath region and magnetic cloud (Sh/MC); and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). Furthermore, plasma parameters as well as variation in the intensity and duration of storms resulting from different interplanetary structures are studied for their effect on geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), as well as for their effect on power grids. Although preliminary results for SC 23 indicate that storm intensity may play a dominant role for GICs, duration might also be a factor, albeit smaller. Results from both SC 23 and 24 are analyzed and compared, and should lead to an enhanced understanding of space weather consequences of interplanetary structures and their possible forecasting.

  7. Solarelastic Stability of Solar Sail Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to avoid an unintended failure in proposed Solar Sail spacecraft due to solarelastic interactions it is important to develop an analytical framework for...

  8. SIMULATION OF HOMOLOGOUS AND CANNIBALISTIC CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS PRODUCED BY THE EMERGENCE OF A TWISTED FLUX ROPE INTO THE SOLAR CORONA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Fan, Yuhong

    2013-01-01

    We report the first results of a magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the development of a homologous sequence of three coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and demonstrate their so-called cannibalistic behavior. These CMEs originate from the repeated formations and partial eruptions of kink unstable flux ropes as a result of continued emergence of a twisted flux rope across the lower boundary into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. The simulation shows that a CME erupting into the open magnetic field created by a preceding CME has a higher speed. The second of the three successive CMEs is cannibalistic, catching up and merging with the first into a single fast CME before exiting the domain. All the CMEs including the leading merged CME, attained speeds of about 1000 km s –1 as they exit the domain. The reformation of a twisted flux rope after each CME eruption during the sustained flux emergence can naturally explain the X-ray observations of repeated reformations of sigmoids and ''sigmoid-under-cusp'' configurations at a low-coronal source of homologous CMEs

  9. COMPOSITION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurbuchen, T. H.; Weberg, M.; Lepri, S. T. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Von Steiger, R. [International Space Science Institute, Bern (Switzerland); Mewaldt, R. A. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Antiochos, S. K. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We analyze the physical origin of plasmas that are ejected from the solar corona. To address this issue, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the elemental composition of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) using recently released elemental composition data for Fe, Mg, Si, S, C, N, Ne, and He as compared to O and H. We find that ICMEs exhibit a systematic abundance increase of elements with first ionization potential (FIP) < 10 eV, as well as a significant increase of Ne as compared to quasi-stationary solar wind. ICME plasmas have a stronger FIP effect than slow wind, which indicates either that an FIP process is active during the ICME ejection or that a different type of solar plasma is injected into ICMEs. The observed FIP fractionation is largest during times when the Fe ionic charge states are elevated above Q {sub Fe} > 12.0. For ICMEs with elevated charge states, the FIP effect is enhanced by 70% over that of the slow wind. We argue that the compositionally hot parts of ICMEs are active region loops that do not normally have access to the heliosphere through the processes that give rise to solar wind. We also discuss the implications of this result for solar energetic particles accelerated during solar eruptions and for the origin of the slow wind itself.

  10. The structure of the inner heliosphere from Pioneer Venus and IMP observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.; Barnes, A.; Mihalov, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The IMP 8 and Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) spacecraft explore the region of heliographic latitudes between 8 deg N and 8 deg S. Solar wind observations from these spacecraft are used to construct synoptic maps of solar wind parameters in this region. These maps provide an explicit picture of the structure of high speed streams near 1 AU and how that structure varies with time. From 1982 until early 1985, solar wind parameters varied little with latitude. During the last solar minimum, the solar wind developed strong latitudinal structure; high speed streams were excluded from the vicinity of the solar equator. Synoptic maps of solar wind speed are compared with maps of the coronal source surface magnetic field. This comparison reveals the expected correlation between solar wind speed near 1 AU, the strength of the coronal magnetic field, and distance from the coronal neutral line.

  11. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  12. Macrospicule Jets in On-Disk Coronal Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. L.; Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the magnetic structure and dynamics of multiple jets found in coronal holes close to or on disk center. All data are from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We report on observations of six jets in an equatorial coronal hole spanning 2011 February 27 and 28. We show the evolution of these jets in AIA 193 A, examine the magnetic field configuration, and postulate the probable trigger mechanism of these events. We recently reported on another jet in the same coronal hole on 2011 February 27, approximately 13:04 Universal Time (Adams et al 2014, Astrophysical Journal, 783: 11); this jet is a previously-unrecognized variety of blowout jet. In this variety, the reconnection bright point is not made by interchange reconnection of initially-closed erupting field in the base of the jet with ambient open field. Instead, there is a miniature filament-eruption flare arcade made by internal reconnection of the legs of the erupting field.

  13. Observable Signatures of Energy Release in Braided Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontin, D. I. [University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Janvier, M. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 121, F-91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Tiwari, S. K.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J. W. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Galsgaard, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, Geological Museum Østervoldgade 5-7, DK-1350, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2017-03-10

    We examine the turbulent relaxation of solar coronal loops containing non-trivial field line braiding. Such field line tangling in the corona has long been postulated in the context of coronal heating models. We focus on the observational signatures of energy release in such braided magnetic structures using MHD simulations and forward modeling tools. The aim is to answer the following question: if energy release occurs in a coronal loop containing braided magnetic flux, should we expect a clearly observable signature in emissions? We demonstrate that the presence of braided magnetic field lines does not guarantee a braided appearance to the observed intensities. Observed intensities may—but need not necessarily—reveal the underlying braided nature of the magnetic field, depending on the degree and pattern of the field line tangling within the loop. However, in all cases considered, the evolution of the braided loop is accompanied by localized heating regions as the loop relaxes. Factors that may influence the observational signatures are discussed. Recent high-resolution observations from Hi-C have claimed the first direct evidence of braided magnetic fields in the corona. Here we show that both the Hi-C data and some of our simulations give the appearance of braiding at a range of scales.

  14. Ancient Chinese observations of physical phenomena attending solar eclipses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.K.; Siscoe, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The realization that solar activity probably undergoes changes in qualitative character on time scales greater than the 11 or 22 year cycle but short compared to the duration of recorded history gives renewed importance to historical documents describing the state of solar activity. Modern eclipse observation reveal the presence of solar acitivity through the appearance of coronal structures and prominences. It has been widely remarked that eclipse records prior to the 18th century are uniformly silent on these conspicuous solar eclipse features, raising the possibility, however unlikely, that a change in solar activity has occurred which rendered them only recently noticeable. We present here material from ancient Chinese sources, primarily astrological, that describe phenomena attending solar eclipses that are almost certainly coronal structures and prominences. Thus, these aspects of the present character of solar activity have apparently occurred at other times in history, if not continuously. (orig.)

  15. Formation of coronal cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, C.H.; Suess, S.T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Steinolfson, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study of the formation of a coronal cavity and its relation to a quiescent prominence is presented. It is argued that the formation of a cavity is initiated by the condensation of plasma which is trapped by the coronal magnetic field in a closed streamer and which then flows down to the chromosphere along the field lines due to lack of stable magnetic support against gravity. The existence of a coronal cavity depends on the coronal magnetic field strength; with low strength, the plasma density is not high enough for condensation to occur. Furthermore, we suggest that prominence and cavity material is supplied from the chromospheric level. Whether a coronal cavity and a prominence coexist depends on the magnetic field configuration; a prominence requires stable magnetic support

  16. Structures of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes and comparison with their solar sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang [Department of Space Science/CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Qiu, Jiong [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Dasgupta, B.; Khare, A.; Webb, G. M., E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu, E-mail: qiu@physics.montana.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    Whether a magnetic flux rope is pre-existing or formed in situ in the Sun's atmosphere, there is little doubt that magnetic reconnection is essential to release the flux rope during its ejection. During this process, the question remains: how does magnetic reconnection change the flux-rope structure? In this work, we continue with the original study of Qiu et al. by using a larger sample of flare-coronal mass ejection (CME)-interplanetary CME (ICME) events to compare properties of ICME/magnetic cloud (MC) flux ropes measured at 1 AU and properties of associated solar progenitors including flares, filaments, and CMEs. In particular, the magnetic field-line twist distribution within interplanetary magnetic flux ropes is systematically derived and examined. Our analysis shows that, similar to what was found before, for most of these events, the amount of twisted flux per AU in MCs is comparable with the total reconnection flux on the Sun, and the sign of the MC helicity is consistent with the sign of the helicity of the solar source region judged from the geometry of post-flare loops. Remarkably, we find that about half of the 18 magnetic flux ropes, most of them associated with erupting filaments, have a nearly uniform and relatively low twist distribution from the axis to the edge, and the majority of the other flux ropes exhibit very high twist near the axis, up to ≳ 5 turns per AU, which decreases toward the edge. The flux ropes are therefore not linearly force-free. We also conduct detailed case studies showing the contrast of two events with distinct twist distribution in MCs as well as different flare and dimming characteristics in solar source regions, and discuss how reconnection geometry reflected in flare morphology may be related to the structure of the flux rope formed on the Sun.

  17. Modeling 3-D solar wind structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Odstrčil, Dušan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2003), s. 497-506 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003003; GA AV ČR IBS1003006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : solar wind * modeling Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2003

  18. Can coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Doyle, J. G.

    2011-08-01

    Aims: The present study aims to provide observational evidence of whether coronal hole spicules reach coronal temperatures. Methods: We combine multi-instrument co-observations obtained with the SUMER/SoHO and with the EIS/SOT/XRT/Hinode. Results: The analysed three large spicules were found to be comprised of numerous thin spicules that rise, rotate, and descend simultaneously forming a bush-like feature. Their rotation resembles the untwisting of a large flux rope. They show velocities ranging from 50 to 250 kms-1. We clearly associated the red- and blue-shifted emissions in transition region lines not only with rotating but also with rising and descending plasmas. Our main result is that these spicules although very large and dynamic, are not present in the spectral lines formed at temperatures above 300 000 K. Conclusions: In this paper we present the analysis of three Ca ii H large spicules that are composed of numerous dynamic thin spicules but appear as macrospicules in lower resolution EUV images. We found no coronal counterpart of these and smaller spicules. We believe that the identification of phenomena that have very different origins as macrospicules is due to the interpretation of the transition region emission, and especially the He ii emission, wherein both chromospheric large spicules and coronal X-ray jets are present. We suggest that the recent observation of spicules in the coronal AIA/SDO 171 Å and 211 Å channels probably comes from the existence of transition region emission there. Movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Coronal Mass Ejections: Models and Their Observational Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronal mass ejections (CMEs are the largest-scale eruptive phenomenon in the solar system, expanding from active region-sized nonpotential magnetic structure to a much larger size. The bulk of plasma with a mass of ∼10^11 – 10^13 kg is hauled up all the way out to the interplanetary space with a typical velocity of several hundred or even more than 1000 km s^-1, with a chance to impact our Earth, resulting in hazardous space weather conditions. They involve many other much smaller-sized solar eruptive phenomena, such as X-ray sigmoids, filament/prominence eruptions, solar flares, plasma heating and radiation, particle acceleration, EIT waves, EUV dimmings, Moreton waves, solar radio bursts, and so on. It is believed that, by shedding the accumulating magnetic energy and helicity, they complete the last link in the chain of the cycling of the solar magnetic field. In this review, I try to explicate our understanding on each stage of the fantastic phenomenon, including their pre-eruption structure, their triggering mechanisms and the precursors indicating the initiation process, their acceleration and propagation. Particular attention is paid to clarify some hot debates, e.g., whether magnetic reconnection is necessary for the eruption, whether there are two types of CMEs, how the CME frontal loop is formed, and whether halo CMEs are special.

  20. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  1. PROJECTION EFFECTS IN CORONAL DIMMINGS AND ASSOCIATED EUV WAVE EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissauer, K.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Vanninathan, K. [IGAM/Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Magdalenić, J., E-mail: karin.dissauer@uni-graz.at [Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence-SIDC, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Av. Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-10-20

    We investigate the high-speed ( v > 1000 km s{sup −1}) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave associated with an X1.2 flare and coronal mass ejection (CME) from NOAA active region 11283 on 2011 September 6 (SOL2011-09-06T22:12). This EUV wave features peculiar on-disk signatures; in particular, we observe an intermittent “disappearance” of the front for 120 s in Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/AIA 171, 193, 211 Å data, whereas the 335 Å filter, sensitive to hotter plasmas ( T ∼ 2.5 MK), shows a continuous evolution of the wave front. The eruption was also accompanied by localized coronal dimming regions. We exploit the multi-point quadrature position of SDO and STEREO-A , to make a thorough analysis of the EUV wave evolution, with respect to its kinematics and amplitude evolution and reconstruct the SDO line-of-sight (LOS) direction of the identified coronal dimming regions in STEREO-A . We show that the observed intensities of the dimming regions in SDO /AIA depend on the structures that are lying along their LOS and are the combination of their individual intensities, e.g., the expanding CME body, the enhanced EUV wave, and the CME front. In this context, we conclude that the intermittent disappearance of the EUV wave in the AIA 171, 193, and 211 Å filters, which are channels sensitive to plasma with temperatures below ∼2 MK is also caused by such LOS integration effects. These observations clearly demonstrate that single-view image data provide us with limited insight to correctly interpret coronal features.

  2. Comparative modeling of InP solar cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, R. K.; Weinberg, I.; Flood, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The comparative modeling of p(+)n and n(+)p indium phosphide solar cell structures is studied using a numerical program PC-1D. The optimal design study has predicted that the p(+)n structure offers improved cell efficiencies as compared to n(+)p structure, due to higher open-circuit voltage. The various cell material and process parameters to achieve the maximum cell efficiencies are reported. The effect of some of the cell parameters on InP cell I-V characteristics was studied. The available radiation resistance data on n(+)p and p(+)p InP solar cells are also critically discussed.

  3. The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, N.

    2014-01-01

    The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system, which since Pythagoras of Samos (ca. 570-495 BC) is known as the music of the spheres, is briefly reviewed from the Renaissance up to contemporary research. Copernicus' heliocentric model from 1543 suggested that the planets of our solar system form a kind of mutually ordered and quasi-synchronized system. From 1596 to 1619 Kepler formulated preliminary mathematical relations of approximate commensurabilities among the planets, which were later reformulated in the Titius-Bode rule (1766-1772), which successfully predicted the orbital position of Ceres and Uranus. Following the discovery of the ~ 11 yr sunspot cycle, in 1859 Wolf suggested that the observed solar variability could be approximately synchronized with the orbital movements of Venus, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. Modern research has further confirmed that (1) the planetary orbital periods can be approximately deduced from a simple system of resonant frequencies; (2) the solar system oscillates with a specific set of gravitational frequencies, and many of them (e.g., within the range between 3 yr and 100 yr) can be approximately constructed as harmonics of a base period of ~ 178.38 yr; and (3) solar and climate records are also characterized by planetary harmonics from the monthly to the millennial timescales. This short review concludes with an emphasis on the contribution of the author's research on the empirical evidences and physical modeling of both solar and climate variability based on astronomical harmonics. The general conclusion is that the solar system works as a resonator characterized by a specific harmonic planetary structure that also synchronizes the Sun's activity and the Earth's climate. The special issue Pattern in solar variability, their planetary origin and terrestrial impacts (Mörner et al., 2013) further develops the ideas about the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction with the personal contribution of 10

  4. CME Interaction with Coronal Holes and Their Interplanetary Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.

    2008-01-01

    A significant number of interplanetary (IP) shocks (-17%) during cycle 23 were not followed by drivers. The number of such "driverless" shocks steadily increased with the solar cycle with 15%, 33%, and 52% occurring in the rise, maximum, and declining phase of the solar cycle. The solar sources of 15% of the driverless shocks were very close the central meridian of the Sun (within approx.15deg), which is quite unexpected. More interestingly, all the driverless shocks with their solar sources near the solar disk center occurred during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. When we investigated the coronal environment of the source regions of driverless shocks, we found that in each case there was at least one coronal hole nearby suggesting that the coronal holes might have deflected the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) away from the Sun-Earth line. The presence of abundant low-latitude coronal holes during the declining phase further explains why CMEs originating close to the disk center mimic the limb CMEs, which normally lead to driverless shocks due to purely geometrical reasons. We also examined the solar source regions of shocks with drivers. For these, the coronal holes were located such that they either had no influence on the CME trajectories. or they deflected the CMEs towards the Sun-Earth line. We also obtained the open magnetic field distribution on the Sun by performing a potential field source surface extrapolation to the corona. It was found that the CMEs generally move away from the open magnetic field regions. The CME-coronal hole interaction must be widespread in the declining phase, and may have a significant impact on the geoeffectiveness of CMEs.

  5. Detection of Propagating Fast Sausage Waves through Detailed Analysis of a Zebra-pattern Fine Structure in a Solar Radio Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, K.; Misawa, H.; Iwai, K.; Masuda, S.; Tsuchiya, F.; Katoh, Y.; Obara, T.

    2018-03-01

    Various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves have recently been detected in the solar corona and investigated intensively in the context of coronal heating and coronal seismology. In this Letter, we report the first detection of short-period propagating fast sausage mode waves in a metric radio spectral fine structure observed with the Assembly of Metric-band Aperture Telescope and Real-time Analysis System. Analysis of Zebra patterns (ZPs) in a type-IV burst revealed a quasi-periodic modulation in the frequency separation between the adjacent stripes of the ZPs (Δf ). The observed quasi-periodic modulation had a period of 1–2 s and exhibited a characteristic negative frequency drift with a rate of 3–8 MHz s‑1. Based on the double plasma resonance model, the most accepted generation model of ZPs, the observed quasi-periodic modulation of the ZP can be interpreted in terms of fast sausage mode waves propagating upward at phase speeds of 3000–8000 km s‑1. These results provide us with new insights for probing the fine structure of coronal loops.

  6. The structure and origin of magnetic clouds in the solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bothmer

    a south to north (SN rotation of the magnetic field vector relative to the ecliptic. In contrast, an investigation of solar wind data obtained near Earth's orbit during 1984–1991 showed a preference for NS-clouds. A direct correlation was found between MCs and large quiescent filament disappearances (disparition brusques, DBs. The magnetic configurations of the filaments, as inferred from the orientation of the prominence axis, the polarity of the overlying field lines and the hemispheric helicity pattern observed for filaments, agreed well with the in situ observed magnetic structure of the associated MCs. The results support the model of MCs as large-scale expanding quasi-cylindrical magnetic flux tubes in the solar wind, most likely caused by SMEs associated with eruptions of large quiescent filaments. We suggest that the hemispheric dependence of the magnetic helicity structure observed for solar filaments can explain the preferred orientation of MCs in interplanetary space as well as their solar cycle behavior. However, the white-light features of SMEs and the measured volumes of their interplanetary counterparts suggest that MCs may not simply be just Hα-prominences, but that SMEs likely convect large-scale coronal loops overlying the prominence axis out of the solar atmosphere.

  7. Evidence linking coronal mass ejections with interplanetary magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Hildner, E.

    1983-12-01

    Using proxy data for the occurrence of those mass ejections from the solar corona which are directed earthward, we investigate the association between the post-1970 interplanetary magnetic clouds of Klein and Burlaga and coronal mass ejections. The evidence linking magnetic clouds following shocks with coronal mass ejections is striking. Six of nine clouds observed at Earth were preceded an appropriate time earlier by meter-wave type II radio bursts indicative of coronal shock waves and coronal mass ejections occurring near central meridian. During the selected periods when no clouds were detected near Earth, the only type II bursts reported were associated with solar activity near the limbs. Where the proxy solar data to be sought are not so clearly suggested, that is, for clouds preceding interaction regions and clouds within cold magnetic enhancements, the evidence linking the clouds and coronal mass ejections is not as clear proxy data usually suggest many candidate mass-ejection events for each cloud. Overall, the data are consistent with and support the hypothesis suggested by Klein and Burlaga that magnetic clouds observed with spacecraft at 1 AU are manifestations of solar coronal mass ejection transients

  8. The Dependence of the Peak Velocity of High-Speed Solar Wind Streams as Measured in the Ecliptic by ACE and the STEREO satellites on the Area and Co-Latitude of their Solar Source Coronal Holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela

    2018-01-01

    We study the properties of 115 coronal holes in the time‐range from 2010/08 to 2017/03, the peak velocities of the corresponding high‐speed streams as measured in the ecliptic at 1AU, and the corresponding changes of the Kp index as marker of their geo‐effectiveness. We find that the peak velocit...

  9. Magnetic Topology of Coronal Hole Linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    In recent work, Antiochos and coworkers argued that the boundary between the open and closed field regions on the Sun can be extremely complex with narrow corridors of open ux connecting seemingly disconnected coronal holes from the main polar holes, and that these corridors may be the sources of the slow solar wind. We examine, in detail, the topology of such magnetic configurations using an analytical source surface model that allows for analysis of the eld with arbitrary resolution. Our analysis reveals three important new results: First, a coronal hole boundary can join stably to the separatrix boundary of a parasitic polarity region. Second, a single parasitic polarity region can produce multiple null points in the corona and, more important, separator lines connecting these points. Such topologies are extremely favorable for magnetic reconnection, because it can now occur over the entire length of the separators rather than being con ned to a small region around the nulls. Finally, the coronal holes are not connected by an open- eld corridor of finite width, but instead are linked by a singular line that coincides with the separatrix footprint of the parasitic polarity. We investigate how the topological features described above evolve in response to motion of the parasitic polarity region. The implications of our results for the sources of the slow solar wind and for coronal and heliospheric observations are discussed.

  10. Solar radiophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)

  11. Frontier of solar observation. Solar activity observed by 'HINODE' mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    After launched in September 2006, solar observation satellite 'HINODE' has been a solar observatory on orbit with the scientific instruments well operated and its continuous observation was conducted steadily on almost all solar atmospheres from photosphere to corona. 'HINODE' was equipped with the solar optical telescope, extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer and x-ray telescope and aimed at clarifying the mystery of solar physics related with coronal heating and magnetic reconnection. Present state of 'HINODE' was described from observations made in initial observation results, which have made several discoveries, such as Alfven waves in the corona, unexpected dynamics in the chromosphere and photosphere, continuous outflowing plasma as a possible source of solar wind, and fine structures of magnetic field in sunspots and solar surface. (T. Tanaka)

  12. OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES OF CORONAL LOOP HEATING AND COOLING DRIVEN BY FOOTPOINT SHUFFLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Taylor, B. D. [LCP and FD, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Einaudi, G. [Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Ugarte-Urra, I. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Rappazzo, A. F. [Advanced Heliophysics, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Velli, M., E-mail: rdahlbur@lcp.nrl.navy.mil [EPSS, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The evolution of a coronal loop is studied by means of numerical simulations of the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations using the HYPERION code. The footpoints of the loop magnetic field are advected by random motions. As a consequence, the magnetic field in the loop is energized and develops turbulent nonlinear dynamics characterized by the continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets: energy is deposited at small scales where heating occurs. Dissipation is nonuniformly distributed so that only a fraction of the coronal mass and volume gets heated at any time. Temperature and density are highly structured at scales that, in the solar corona, remain observationally unresolved: the plasma of our simulated loop is multithermal, where highly dynamical hotter and cooler plasma strands are scattered throughout the loop at sub-observational scales. Numerical simulations of coronal loops of 50,000 km length and axial magnetic field intensities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 T are presented. To connect these simulations to observations, we use the computed number densities and temperatures to synthesize the intensities expected in emission lines typically observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode. These intensities are used to compute differential emission measure distributions using the Monte Carlo Markov Chain code, which are very similar to those derived from observations of solar active regions. We conclude that coronal heating is found to be strongly intermittent in space and time, with only small portions of the coronal loop being heated: in fact, at any given time, most of the corona is cooling down.

  13. Planar-Structure Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency beyond 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qi; Chu, Zema; Wang, Pengyang; Yang, Xiaolei; Liu, Heng; Wang, Ye; Yin, Zhigang; Wu, Jinliang; Zhang, Xingwang; You, Jingbi

    2017-12-01

    Low temperature solution processed planar-structure perovskite solar cells gain great attention recently, while their power conversions are still lower than that of high temperature mesoporous counterpart. Previous reports are mainly focused on perovskite morphology control and interface engineering to improve performance. Here, this study systematically investigates the effect of precise stoichiometry, especially the PbI 2 contents on device performance including efficiency, hysteresis and stability. This study finds that a moderate residual of PbI 2 can deliver stable and high efficiency of solar cells without hysteresis, while too much residual PbI 2 will lead to serious hysteresis and poor transit stability. Solar cells with the efficiencies of 21.6% in small size (0.0737 cm 2 ) and 20.1% in large size (1 cm 2 ) with moderate residual PbI 2 in perovskite layer are obtained. The certificated efficiency for small size shows the efficiency of 20.9%, which is the highest efficiency ever recorded in planar-structure perovskite solar cells, showing the planar-structure perovskite solar cells are very promising. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Measuring Coronal Magnetic Fields with Remote Sensing Observations of Shock Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemporad, Alessandro; Susino, Roberto; Frassati, Federica; Fineschi, Silvano, E-mail: bemporad@oato.inaf.it [INAF, Turin Astrophysical Observatory, Pino Torinese (Italy)

    2016-05-27

    Our limited knowledge of the magnetic fields structuring in the solar corona represents today the main hurdle in our understanding of its structure and dynamic. Over the last decades significant efforts have been dedicated to measure these fields, by approaching the problem on many different sides and in particular: (i) by improving our theoretical understanding of the modification (via Zeeman and Hanle effects) induced by these fields on the polarization of coronal emission lines, (ii) by developing new instrumentation to measure directly with spectro-polarimeters these modifications, (iii) by improving the reliability of the extrapolated coronal fields starting from photospheric measurements, (iv) by developing new techniques to analyse existing remote sensing data and infer properties of these fields, or by combining all these different approaches (e.g., Chifu et al.,).

  15. A SURVEY OF CORONAL CAVITY DENSITY PROFILES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    Coronal cavities are common features of the solar corona that appear as darkened regions at the base of coronal helmet streamers in coronagraph images. Their darkened appearance indicates that they are regions of lowered density embedded within the comparatively higher density helmet streamer. Despite interfering projection effects of the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the cavity rim), Fuller et al. have shown that under certain conditions it is possible to use a Van de Hulst inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) data to calculate the electron density of both the cavity and cavity rim plasma. In this article, we apply minor modifications to the methods of Fuller et al. in order to improve the accuracy and versatility of the inversion process, and use the new methods to calculate density profiles for both the cavity and cavity rim in 24 cavity systems. We also examine trends in cavity morphology and how departures from the model geometry affect our density calculations. The density calculations reveal that in all 24 cases the cavity plasma has a flatter density profile than the plasma of the cavity rim, meaning that the cavity has a larger density depletion at low altitudes than it does at high altitudes. We find that the mean cavity density is over four times greater than that of a coronal hole at an altitude of 1.2 R sun and that every cavity in the sample is over twice as dense as a coronal hole at this altitude. Furthermore, we find that different cavity systems near solar maximum span a greater range in density at 1.2 R sun than do cavity systems near solar minimum, with a slight trend toward higher densities for systems nearer to solar maximum. Finally, we found no significant correlation of cavity density properties with cavity height-indeed, cavities show remarkably similar density depletions-except for the two smallest cavities that show significantly greater depletion.

  16. Hybrid solar cells composed of perovskite and polymer photovoltaic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaometvarithorn, Apatsanan; Chuangchote, Surawut; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2018-06-01

    Organic/inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells have recently attracted much attention in photovoltaic research, due to the devices show promising ways to achieve high efficiencies. The perovskite devices with high efficiencies, however, are typically fabricated in tandem solar cell which is complicated. In this research work, we introduce a solar cell device with the combination of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite and bulk heterojunction PCDTBT:PC70BM polymer without any tandem structure. The new integrated perovskite/polymer hybrid structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PCDTBT:PC70BM/PC70BM/TiOx/Al provides higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices compared with conventional perovskite cell structure. With the optimized PCDTBT:PC70BM thickness of ∼70 nm, the highest PCE of 11.67% is achieved. Variation of conducting donor polymers in this new structure is also preliminary demonstrated. This study provides an attractively innovative structure and a promising design for further development of the new-generation solar cells.

  17. Thermally-Induced Structural Disturbances of Rigid Panel Solar Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John D.; Thornton, Earl A.

    1997-01-01

    The performance of a significant number of spacecraft has been impacted negatively by attitude disturbances resulting from thermally-induced motions of flexible structures. Recent examples of spacecraft affected by these disturbances include the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Thermally-induced structural disturbances occur as the result of rapid changes in thermal loading typically initiated as a satellite exits or enters the Earth's shadow. Temperature differences in flexible appendages give rise to structural deformations, which in turn result in disturbance torques reacting back on the spacecraft. Structures which have proven susceptible to these disturbances include deployable booms and solar arrays. This paper investigates disturbances resulting from thermally-induced deformations of rigid panel solar arrays. An analytical model for the thermal-structural response of the solar array and the corresponding disturbance torque are presented. The effect of these disturbances on the attitude dynamics of a simple spacecraft is then investigated using a coupled system of governing equations which includes the effects of thermally-induced deformations. Numerical results demonstrate the effect of varying solar array geometry on the dynamic response of the system.

  18. Solar winds along curved magnetic field lines

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Chen, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Both remote-sensing measurements using the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) technique and in situ measurements by the Ulysses spacecraft show a bimodal structure for the solar wind at solar minimum conditions. At present what makes the fast wind fast and the slow wind slow still remains to be answered. While a robust empirical correlation exists between the coronal expansion rate $f_c$ of the flow tubes and the speeds $v$ measured in situ, further data analysis suggests that $v$ depends on ...

  19. Characteristics of polar coronal hole jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, K.; Bemporad, A.; Banerjee, D.; Gupta, G. R.; Teriaca, L.

    2014-01-01

    Context. High spatial- and temporal-resolution images of coronal hole regions show a dynamical environment where mass flows and jets are frequently observed. These jets are believed to be important for the coronal heating and the acceleration of the fast solar wind. Aims: We studied the dynamics of two jets seen in a polar coronal hole with a combination of imaging from EIS and XRT onboard Hinode. We observed drift motions related to the evolution and formation of these small-scale jets, which we tried to model as well. Methods: Stack plots were used to find the drift and flow speeds of the jets. A toymodel was developed by assuming that the observed jet is generated by a sequence of single reconnection events where single unresolved blobs of plasma are ejected along open field lines, then expand and fall back along the same path, following a simple ballistic motion. Results: We found observational evidence that supports the idea that polar jets are very likely produced by multiple small-scale reconnections occurring at different times in different locations. These eject plasma blobs that flow up and down with a motion very similar to a simple ballistic motion. The associated drift speed of the first jet is estimated to be ≈27 km s-1. The average outward speed of the first jet is ≈171 km s-1, well below the escape speed, hence if simple ballistic motion is considered, the plasma will not escape the Sun. The second jet was observed in the south polar coronal hole with three XRT filters, namely, C-poly, Al-poly, and Al-mesh filters. Many small-scale (≈3″-5″) fast (≈200-300 km s-1) ejections of plasma were observed on the same day; they propagated outwards. We observed that the stronger jet drifted at all altitudes along the jet with the same drift speed of ≃7 km s-1. We also observed that the bright point associated with the first jet is a part of sigmoid structure. The time of appearance of the sigmoid and that of the ejection of plasma from the bright

  20. Low-cost solar array structure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1981-06-01

    Early studies of flat-plate arrays have projected costs on the order of $50/square meter for installed array support structures. This report describes an optimized low-cost frame-truss structure that is estimated to cost below $25/square meter, including all markups, shipping an installation. The structure utilizes a planar frame made of members formed from light-gauge galvanized steel sheet and is supposed in the field by treated-wood trusses that are partially buried in trenches. The buried trusses use the overburden soil to carry uplift wind loads and thus to obviate reinforced-concrete foundations. Details of the concept, including design rationale, fabrication and assembly experience, structural testing and fabrication drawings are included.

  1. Single crystalline silicon solar cells with rib structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Yoshiba

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To improve the conversion efficiency of Si solar cells, we have developed a thin Si wafer-based solar cell that uses a rib structure. The open-circuit voltage of a solar cell is known to increase with deceasing wafer thickness if the cell is adequately passivated. However, it is not easy to handle very thin wafers because they are brittle and are subject to warpage. We fabricated a lattice-shaped rib structure on the rear side of a thin Si wafer to improve the wafer’s strength. A silicon nitride film was deposited on the Si wafer surface and patterned to form a mask to fabricate the lattice-shaped rib, and the wafer was then etched using KOH to reduce the thickness of the active area, except for the rib region. Using this structure in a Si heterojunction cell, we demonstrated that a high open-circuit voltage (VOC could be obtained by thinning the wafer without sacrificing its strength. A wafer with thickness of 30 μm was prepared easily using this structure. We then fabricated Si heterojunction solar cells using these rib wafers, and measured their implied VOC as a function of wafer thickness. The measured values were compared with device simulation results, and we found that the measured VOC agrees well with the simulated results. To optimize the rib and cell design, we also performed device simulations using various wafer thicknesses and rib dimensions.

  2. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schuler, Timothy, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [State University of New York College at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  3. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward; Schuler, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent

  4. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpua, Emilia; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.

    2017-11-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  5. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Kilpua

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  6. Forward Modeling of Coronal Mass Ejection Flux Ropes in the Inner Heliosphere with 3DCORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Palmerio, E.; Isavnin, A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Lowder, C.; Winslow, R. M.; Donnerer, J. M.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Boakes, P. D.

    2018-03-01

    Forecasting the geomagnetic effects of solar storms, known as coronal mass ejections (CMEs), is currently severely limited by our inability to predict the magnetic field configuration in the CME magnetic core and by observational effects of a single spacecraft trajectory through its 3-D structure. CME magnetic flux ropes can lead to continuous forcing of the energy input to the Earth's magnetosphere by strong and steady southward-pointing magnetic fields. Here we demonstrate in a proof-of-concept way a new approach to predict the southward field Bz in a CME flux rope. It combines a novel semiempirical model of CME flux rope magnetic fields (Three-Dimensional Coronal ROpe Ejection) with solar observations and in situ magnetic field data from along the Sun-Earth line. These are provided here by the MESSENGER spacecraft for a CME event on 9-13 July 2013. Three-Dimensional Coronal ROpe Ejection is the first such model that contains the interplanetary propagation and evolution of a 3-D flux rope magnetic field, the observation by a synthetic spacecraft, and the prediction of an index of geomagnetic activity. A counterclockwise rotation of the left-handed erupting CME flux rope in the corona of 30° and a deflection angle of 20° is evident from comparison of solar and coronal observations. The calculated Dst matches reasonably the observed Dst minimum and its time evolution, but the results are highly sensitive to the CME axis orientation. We discuss assumptions and limitations of the method prototype and its potential for real time space weather forecasting and heliospheric data interpretation.

  7. RECONSTRUCTING THE SUBSURFACE THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETIC STRUCTURE OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION USING SDO/HMI OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios; Zhang Jie

    2013-01-01

    A solar active region (AR) is a three-dimensional (3D) magnetic structure formed in the convection zone, whose property is fundamentally important for determining the coronal structure and solar activity when emerged. However, our knowledge of the detailed 3D structure prior to its emergence is rather poor, largely limited by the low cadence and sensitivity of previous instruments. Here, using the 45 s high-cadence observations from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we are able for the first time to reconstruct a 3D data cube and infer the detailed subsurface magnetic structure of NOAA AR 11158, and to characterize its magnetic connectivity and topology. This task is accomplished with the aid of the image-stacking method and advanced 3D visualization. We find that the AR consists of two major bipoles or four major polarities. Each polarity in 3D shows interesting tree-like structure, i.e., while the root of the polarity appears as a single tree-trunk-like tube, the top of the polarity has multiple branches consisting of smaller and thinner flux tubes which connect to the branches of the opposite polarity that is similarly fragmented. The roots of the four polarities align well along a straight line, while the top branches are slightly non-coplanar. Our observations suggest that an active region, even appearing highly complicated on the surface, may originate from a simple straight flux tube that undergoes both horizontal and vertical bifurcation processes during its rise through the convection zone.

  8. Measurements of EUV coronal holes and open magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowder, C.; Qiu, J.; Leamon, R.; Liu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coronal holes are regions on the Sun's surface that map the footprints of open magnetic field lines. We have developed an automated routine to detect and track boundaries of long-lived coronal holes using full-disk extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images obtained by SOHO/EIT, SDO/AIA, and STEREO/EUVI. We measure coronal hole areas and magnetic flux in these holes, and compare the measurements with calculations by the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. It is shown that, from 1996 through 2010, the total area of coronal holes measured with EIT images varies between 5% and 17% of the total solar surface area, and the total unsigned open flux varies between (2-5)× 10 22 Mx. The solar cycle dependence of these measurements is similar to the PFSS results, but the model yields larger hole areas and greater open flux than observed by EIT. The AIA/EUVI measurements from 2010-2013 show coronal hole area coverage of 5%-10% of the total surface area, with significant contribution from low latitudes, which is under-represented by EIT. AIA/EUVI have measured much enhanced open magnetic flux in the range of (2-4)× 10 22 Mx, which is about twice the flux measured by EIT, and matches with the PFSS calculated open flux, with discrepancies in the location and strength of coronal holes. A detailed comparison between the three measurements (by EIT, AIA-EUVI, and PFSS) indicates that coronal holes in low latitudes contribute significantly to the total open magnetic flux. These low-latitude coronal holes are not well measured with either the He I 10830 line in previous studies, or EIT EUV images; neither are they well captured by the static PFSS model. The enhanced observations from AIA/EUVI allow a more accurate measure of these low-latitude coronal holes and their contribution to open magnetic flux.

  9. Measurements of EUV coronal holes and open magnetic flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, C.; Qiu, J.; Leamon, R. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Liu, Y., E-mail: clowder@solar.physics.montana.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Coronal holes are regions on the Sun's surface that map the footprints of open magnetic field lines. We have developed an automated routine to detect and track boundaries of long-lived coronal holes using full-disk extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images obtained by SOHO/EIT, SDO/AIA, and STEREO/EUVI. We measure coronal hole areas and magnetic flux in these holes, and compare the measurements with calculations by the potential field source surface (PFSS) model. It is shown that, from 1996 through 2010, the total area of coronal holes measured with EIT images varies between 5% and 17% of the total solar surface area, and the total unsigned open flux varies between (2-5)× 10{sup 22} Mx. The solar cycle dependence of these measurements is similar to the PFSS results, but the model yields larger hole areas and greater open flux than observed by EIT. The AIA/EUVI measurements from 2010-2013 show coronal hole area coverage of 5%-10% of the total surface area, with significant contribution from low latitudes, which is under-represented by EIT. AIA/EUVI have measured much enhanced open magnetic flux in the range of (2-4)× 10{sup 22} Mx, which is about twice the flux measured by EIT, and matches with the PFSS calculated open flux, with discrepancies in the location and strength of coronal holes. A detailed comparison between the three measurements (by EIT, AIA-EUVI, and PFSS) indicates that coronal holes in low latitudes contribute significantly to the total open magnetic flux. These low-latitude coronal holes are not well measured with either the He I 10830 line in previous studies, or EIT EUV images; neither are they well captured by the static PFSS model. The enhanced observations from AIA/EUVI allow a more accurate measure of these low-latitude coronal holes and their contribution to open magnetic flux.

  10. Solar quiescent prominences. Filamentary structure and energetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr; Anzer, U.; Gunár, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 2 (2010), s. 654-661 ISSN 0037-8720. [Chromospheric structure and dynamics: From old wisdom to new insights. Sunspot,, 31.08.2009-4.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1705; GA ČR GP205/09/P554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : line formation * line profiles * radiative transfer Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. Using the ionospheric response to the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 to detect spatial structure in the solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J.; Bell, S. A.; Wilkinson, J.; Smith, D.; Tudor, S.

    2016-01-01

    The total solar eclipse that occurred over the Arctic region on 20 March 2015 was seen as a partial eclipse over much of Europe. Observations of this eclipse were used to investigate the high time resolution (1 min) decay and recovery of the Earth’s ionospheric E-region above the ionospheric monitoring station in Chilton, UK. At the altitude of this region (100 km), the maximum phase of the eclipse was 88.88% obscuration of the photosphere occurring at 9:29:41.5 UT. In comparison, the ionospheric response revealed a maximum obscuration of 66% (leaving a fraction, Φ, of uneclipsed radiation of 34±4%) occurring at 9:29 UT. The eclipse was re-created using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory to estimate the fraction of radiation incident on the Earth’s atmosphere throughout the eclipse from nine different emission wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray spectrum. These emissions, having varying spatial distributions, were each obscured differently during the eclipse. Those wavelengths associated with coronal emissions (94, 211 and 335 Å) most closely reproduced the time varying fraction of unobscured radiation observed in the ionosphere. These results could enable historic ionospheric eclipse measurements to be interpreted in terms of the distribution of EUV and X-ray emissions on the solar disc. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550766

  12. Structure and evolution of magnetic fields associated with solar eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies of solar photospheric magnetic field evolution in active regions and its relationship to solar flares. It is divided into two topics, the magnetic structure and evolution leading to solar eruptions and rapid changes in the photospheric magnetic field associated with eruptions. For the first topic, we describe the magnetic complexity, new flux emergence, flux cancelation, shear motions, sunspot rotation and magnetic helicity injection, which may all contribute to the storage and buildup of energy that trigger solar eruptions. For the second topic, we concentrate on the observations of rapid and irreversible changes of the photospheric magnetic field associated with flares, and the implication on the restructuring of the three-dimensional magnetic field. In particular, we emphasize the recent advances in observations of the photospheric magnetic field, as state-of-the-art observing facilities (such as Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory) have become available. The linkages between observations, theories and future prospectives in this research area are also discussed. (invited reviews)

  13. Raman scattering characterization of space solar cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintairov, Alexander M.; Khvostikov, V. P.; Paleeva, E. V.; Sorokina, S. V.

    1995-01-01

    A contactless method for the determination of the free-carrier density and the composition distribution across the thickness of 3-5 multi-layer solar cell structures, using the Raman scattering method, is developed. The method includes a step analysis of Raman spectra from optical phonons and phonon-plasmon modes of different layers. The method provides simultaneous measurements of the element composition and the thickness of the structure's layers together with the free-carrier density. The results of measurements of the free-carrier density composition distributions of the liquid phase epitaxy grown AlGaAs/GaAs and GaSb solar cell structures are presented and discussed.

  14. Conductive solar wind models in rapidly diverging flow geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, T.E.; Leer, E.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed parameter study of conductive models of the solar wind has been carried out, extending the previous similar studies of Durney (1972) and Durney and Hundhausen (1974) by considering collisionless inhibition of thermal conduction, rapidly diverging flow geometries, and the structure of solutions for the entire n 0 -T 0 plane (n 0 and T 0 are the coronal base density and temperature). Primary emphasis is placed on understanding the complex effects of the physical processes operative in conductive solar wind models. There are five points of particular interest that have arisen from the study: (1) neither collisionless inhibition of thermal conduction nor rapidly diverging flow geometries can significantly increase the solar wind speed at 1 AU; (2) there exists a firm upper limit on the coronal base temperature consistent with observed values of the coronal base pressure and solar wind mass flux density; (3) the principal effect of rapidly diverging flow geometries is a decrease in the solar wind mass flux density at 1 AU and an increase in the mass flux density at the coronal base; (4) collisionless inhibition of thermal conduction can lead to a solar wind flow speed that either increases or decreases with increasing coronal base density (n 0 ) and temperature (T 0 , depending on the region of the n 0 -T 0 plane considered; (5) there is a region of the n 0 -T/sub o/ plane at high coronal base densities where low-speed, high-mass-flux, transonic solar wind flows exist: a region not previously considered

  15. Thermal behavior of spatial structures under solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbo; Liao, Xiangwei; Chen, Zhihua; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The temperature, particularly the non-uniform temperature under solar irradiation, is the main load for large-span steel structures. Due the shortage of in-site temperature test in previous studies, an in-site test was conducted on the large-span steel structures under solar irradiation, which was covered by glass roof and light roof, to gain insight into the temperature distribution of steel members under glass roof or light roof. A numerical method also was presented and verified to forecast the temperature of steel member under glass roof or light roof. Based on the on-site measurement and numerical analyses conducted, the following conclusions were obtained: 1) a remarkable temperature difference exists between the steel member under glass roof and that under light roof, 2) solar irradiation has a significant effect on the temperature distribution and thermal behavior of large-span spatial structures, 3) negative thermal load is the controlling factor for member stress, and the positive thermal load is the controlling factor for nodal displacement. - Highlights: • Temperature was measured for a steel structures under glass roof and light roof. • Temperature simulation method was presented and verified. • The thermal behavior of steel structures under glass or light roof was presented

  16. Coronal mass ejections and large geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosling, J.T.; Bame, S.J.; McComas, D.J.; Phillips, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Previous work indicates that coronal mass ejection (CME) events in the solar wind at 1 AU can be identified by the presence of a flux of counterstreaming solar wind halo electrons (above about 80 eV). Using this technique to identify CMEs in 1 AU plasma data, the authors find that most large geomagnetic storms during the interval surrounding the last solar maximum (Aug. 1978-Oct. 1982) were associated with Earth-passage of interplanetary disturbances in which the Earth encountered both a shock and the CME driving the shock. However, only about one CME in six encountered by Earth was effective in causing a large geomagnetic storm. Slow CMEs which did not interact strongly with the ambient solar wind ahead were particularly ineffective in a geomagnetic sense

  17. Method of making quasi-grain boundary-free polycrystalline solar cell structure and solar cell structure obtained thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Franklin N.; Neugroschel, Arnost

    1984-02-14

    A new solar cell structure is provided which will increase the efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells by suppressing or completely eliminating the recombination losses due to the presence of grain boundaries. This is achieved by avoiding the formation of the p-n junction (or other types of junctions) in the grain boundaries and by eliminating the grain boundaries from the active area of the cell. This basic concept can be applied to any polycrystalline material; however, it will be most beneficial for cost-effective materials having small grains, including thin film materials.

  18. The cause of spatial structure in solar He I 1083 nm multiplet images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaarts, Jorrit; Golding, Thomas; Carlsson, Mats; Libbrecht, Tine; Joshi, Jayant

    2016-10-01

    Context. The He I 1083 nm is a powerful diagnostic for inferring properties of the upper solar chromosphere, in particular for the magnetic field. The basic formation of the line in one-dimensional models is well understood, but the influence of the complex three-dimensional structure of the chromosphere and corona has however never been investigated. This structure must play an essential role because images taken in He I 1083 nm show structures with widths down to 100 km. Aims: We aim to understand the effect of the three-dimensional temperature and density structure in the solar atmosphere on the formation of the He I 1083 nm line. Methods: We solved the non-LTE radiative transfer problem assuming statistical equilibrium for a simple nine-level helium atom that nevertheless captures all essential physics. As a model atmosphere we used a snapshot from a 3D radiation-MHD simulation computed with the Bifrost code. Ionising radiation from the corona was self-consistently taken into account. Results: The emergent intensity in the He I 1083 nm is set by the source function and the opacity in the upper chromosphere. The former is dominated by scattering of photospheric radiation and does not vary much with spatial location. The latter is determined by the photonionisation rate in the He I ground state continuum, as well as the electron density in the chromosphere. The spatial variation of the flux of ionising radiation is caused by the spatially-structured emissivity of the ionising photons from material at T ≈ 100 kK in the transition region. The hotter coronal material produces more ionising photons, but the resulting radiation field is smooth and does not lead to small-scale variation of the UV flux. The corrugation of the transition region further increases the spatial variation of the amount of UV radiation in the chromosphere. Finally we find that variations in the chromospheric electron density also cause strong variation in He I 1083 nm opacity. We compare our

  19. Automated Identification of Coronal Holes from Synoptic EUV Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Amr; Asikainen, Timo; Virtanen, Ilpo; Mursula, Kalevi

    2018-04-01

    Coronal holes (CHs) are regions of open magnetic field lines in the solar corona and the source of the fast solar wind. Understanding the evolution of coronal holes is critical for solar magnetism as well as for accurate space weather forecasts. We study the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) synoptic maps at three wavelengths (195 Å/193 Å, 171 Å and 304 Å) measured by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SOHO/EIT) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) instruments. The two datasets are first homogenized by scaling the SDO/AIA data to the SOHO/EIT level by means of histogram equalization. We then develop a novel automated method to identify CHs from these homogenized maps by determining the intensity threshold of CH regions separately for each synoptic map. This is done by identifying the best location and size of an image segment, which optimally contains portions of coronal holes and the surrounding quiet Sun allowing us to detect the momentary intensity threshold. Our method is thus able to adjust itself to the changing scale size of coronal holes and to temporally varying intensities. To make full use of the information in the three wavelengths we construct a composite CH distribution, which is more robust than distributions based on one wavelength. Using the composite CH dataset we discuss the temporal evolution of CHs during the Solar Cycles 23 and 24.

  20. Geomagnetic response of interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruddin; Mustajab, F.; Derouich, M.

    2018-05-01

    A coronal mass ejections (CME) is the huge mass of plasma with embedded magnetic field ejected abruptly from the Sun. These CMEs propagate into interplanetary space with different speed. Some of them hit the Earth's magnetosphere and create many types of disturbances; one of them is the disturbance in the geomagnetic field. Individual geomagnetic disturbances differ not only in their magnitudes, but the nature of disturbance is also different. It is, therefore, desirable to understand these differences not only to understand the physics of geomagnetic disturbances but also to understand the properties of solar/interplanetary structures producing these disturbances of different magnitude and nature. In this work, we use the spacecraft measurements of CMEs with distinct magnetic properties propagating in the interplanetary space and generating disturbances of different levels and nature. We utilize their distinct plasma and field properties to search for the interplanetary parameter(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic response of different coronal mass ejections.

  1. UNRAVELLING THE COMPONENTS OF A MULTI-THERMAL CORONAL LOOP USING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SEISMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D. B. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Klimchuk, J. A. [Heliophysics Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Banerjee, D., E-mail: krishna.prasad@qub.ac.uk [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block Koramangala, Bengaluru 560034 (India)

    2017-01-10

    Coronal loops, constituting the basic building blocks of the active Sun, serve as primary targets to help understand the mechanisms responsible for maintaining multi-million Kelvin temperatures in the solar and stellar coronae. Despite significant advances in observations and theory, our knowledge on the fundamental properties of these structures is limited. Here, we present unprecedented observations of accelerating slow magnetoacoustic waves along a coronal loop that show differential propagation speeds in two distinct temperature channels, revealing the multi-stranded and multithermal nature of the loop. Utilizing the observed speeds and employing nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolations, we derive the actual temperature variation along the loop in both channels, and thus are able to resolve two individual components of the multithermal loop for the first time. The obtained positive temperature gradients indicate uniform heating along the loop, rather than isolated footpoint heating.

  2. Analysis of an Anemone-Type Eruption in an On-Disk Coronal Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi; Tennant, Allyn; Alexander, Caroline; Sterling, Alphonse; Moore, Ronald; Woolley, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We report on an eruption seen in a very small coronal hole (about 120 arcseconds across), beginning at approximately 19:00 Universal Time on March 3, 2016. The event was initially observed by an amateur astronomer (RW) in an H-alpha movie from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG); the eruption attracted the attention of the observer because there was no nearby active region. To examine the region in detail, we use data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) in wavelengths 193 angstroms, 304 angstroms, and 94 angstroms, and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Data analysis and calibration activities such as scaling, rotation so that north is up, and removal of solar rotation are accomplished with SunPy. The eruption in low-cadence HMI data begins with the appearance of a bipole in the location of the coronal hole, followed by (apparent) expansion outwards when the intensity of the AIA wavelengths brighten; as the event proceeds, the coronal hole disappears. From high-cadence data, we will present results on the magnetic evolution of this structure, how it is related to intensity brightenings seen in the various SDO/AIA wavelengths, and how this event compares with the standard-anemone picture.

  3. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejection accompanied with DH type II radio burst in relation with interplanetary magnetic field, geomagnetic storms and cosmic ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Harish; Bhatt, Beena

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have selected 114 flare-CME events accompanied with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II radio burst chosen from 1996 to 2008 (i.e., solar cycle 23). Statistical analyses are performed to examine the relationship of flare-CME events accompanied with DH type II radio burst with Interplanetary Magnetic field (IMF), Geomagnetic storms (GSs) and Cosmic Ray Intensity (CRI). The collected sample events are divided into two groups. In the first group, we considered 43 events which lie under the CME span and the second group consists of 71 events which are outside the CME span. Our analysis indicates that flare-CME accompanied with DH type II radio burst is inconsistent with CSHKP flare-CME model. We apply the Chree analysis by the superposed epoch method to both set of data to find the geo-effectiveness. We observed different fluctuations in IMF for arising and decay phase of solar cycle in both the cases. Maximum decrease in Dst during arising and decay phase of solar cycle is different for both the cases. It is noted that when flare lie outside the CME span CRI shows comparatively more variation than the flare lie under the CME span. Furthermore, we found that flare lying under the CME span is more geo effective than the flare outside of CME span. We noticed that the time leg between IMF Peak value and GSs, IMF and CRI is on average one day for both the cases. Also, the time leg between CRI and GSs is on average 0 to 1 day for both the cases. In case flare lie under the CME span we observed high correlation (0.64) between CRI and Dst whereas when flare lie outside the CME span a weak correlation (0.47) exists. Thus, flare position with respect to CME span play a key role for geo-effectiveness of CME.

  4. EIT Observations of Coronal Mass Ejections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, J. B.; Fisher, Richard B. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Before the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), we had only the sketchiest of clues as to the nature and topology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) below 1.1 - 1.2 solar radii. Occasionally, dimmings (or 'transient coronal holes') were observed in time series of soft X-ray images, but they were far less frequent than CME's. Simply by imaging the Sun frequently and continually at temperatures of 0.9 - 2.5 MK we have stumbled upon a zoo of CME phenomena in this previously obscured volume of the corona: (1) waves, (2) dimmings, and (3) a great variety of ejecta. In the three and a half years since our first observations of coronal waves associated with CME's, combined Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) and extreme ultra-violet imaging telescope (EIT) synoptic observations have become a standard prediction tool for space weather forecasters, but our progress in actually understanding the CME phenomenon in the low corona has been somewhat slower. I will summarize the observations of waves, hot (> 0.9 MK) and cool ejecta, and some of the interpretations advanced to date. I will try to identify those phenomena, analysis of which could most benefit from the spectroscopic information available from ultraviolet coronograph spectrometer (UVCS) observations.

  5. New Evidence that Magnetoconvection Drives Solar–Stellar Coronal Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Mail Code ST 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Thalmann, Julia K., E-mail: sanjivtiwari80@gmail.com [Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universittsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2017-07-10

    How magnetic energy is injected and released in the solar corona, keeping it heated to several million degrees, remains elusive. Coronal heating generally increases with increasing magnetic field strength. From a comparison of a nonlinear force-free model of the three-dimensional active region coronal field to observed extreme-ultraviolet loops, we find that (1) umbra-to-umbra coronal loops, despite being rooted in the strongest magnetic flux, are invisible, and (2) the brightest loops have one foot in an umbra or penumbra and the other foot in another sunspot’s penumbra or in unipolar or mixed-polarity plage. The invisibility of umbra-to-umbra loops is new evidence that magnetoconvection drives solar-stellar coronal heating: evidently, the strong umbral field at both ends quenches the magnetoconvection and hence the heating. Broadly, our results indicate that depending on the field strength in both feet, the photospheric feet of a coronal loop on any convective star can either engender or quench coronal heating in the loop’s body.

  6. Determining coronal electron temperatures from observations with UVCS/SOHO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, S.; Esser, R.; Habbal, S. R.; Karovska, M.; Romoli, M.; Strachan, L.; Kohl, J. L.; Huber, M. C. E.

    1995-01-01

    The electron temperature is a fundamental physical parameter of the coronal plasma. Currently, there are no direct measurements of this quantity in the extended corona. Observations with the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) aboard the upcoming Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission can provide the most direct determination of the electron kinetic temperature (or, more precisely, the electron velocity distribution along the line of sight). This measurement is based on the observation of the Thomson-scattered Lyman alpha (Ly-alpha) profile. This observation is made particularly challenging by the fact that the integrated intensity of the electron-scattered Ly-alpha line is about 10(exp 3) times fainter than that of the resonantly-scattered Ly-alpha component. In addition, the former is distributed across 50 A (FWHM), unlike the latter that is concentrated in 1 A. These facts impose stringent requirements on the stray-light rejection properties of the coronagraph/spectrometer, and in particular on the requirements for the grating. We make use of laboratory measurements of the UVCS Ly-alpha grating stray-light, and of simulated electron-scattered Ly-alpha profiles to estimate the expected confidence levels of electron temperature determination. Models of different structures typical of the corona (e.g., streamers, coronal holes) are used for this parameter study.

  7. Extreme ultraviolet observations of coronal holes. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, J.D.; Sheeley, N.R. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Extreme-ultraviolet Skylab and ground-based solar magnetic field data have been combined to study the origin and evolution of coronal holes. It is shown that holes exist only within the large-scale unipolar magnetic cells into which the solar surface is divided at any given time. A well-defined boundary zone usually exists between the edge of a hole and the neutral line which marks the edge of its magnetic cell. This boundary zone is the region across which a cell is connected by magnetic arcades with adjacent cells of opposite polarity. Three pieces of observational evidence are offered to support the hypothesis that the magnetic lines of force from a hole are open. Kitt Peak magnetograms are used to show that, at least on a relative scale, the average field strengths within holes are quite variable, but indistinguishable from the field strengths in other quiet parts of the Sun's surface. Finally it is shown that the large, equatorial holes characteristic of the declining phase of the last solar cycle during Skylab (1973-74) were all formed as a result of the mergence of bipolar magnetic regions (BMR's), confirming an earlier hypothesis by Timothy et al. (1975). Systematic application of this model to the different aspects of the solar cycle correctly predicts the occurrence of both large, equatorial coronal holes (the 'M-regions' which cause recurrent geomagnetic storms) and the polar cap holes. (Auth.)

  8. Energy released by the interaction of coronal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeley, N.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Comparisons between coronal spectroheliograms and photospheric magnetograms are presented to support the idea that as coronal magnetic fields interact, a process of field line reconnection usually takes place as a natural way of preventing magnetic stresses from building up in the lower corona. This suggests that the energy which would have been stored in stressed fields in continuously released as kinetic energy of material being driven aside to make way for the reconnecting fields. However, this kinetic energy is negligible compared to the thermal energy of the coronal plasma. Therefore, it appears that these slow adjustments of coronal magnetic fields cannot account for even the normal heating of the corona, much less the energetic events associated with solar flares. (Auth.)

  9. Origin of coronal mass ejection and magnetic cloud: Thermal or magnetic driven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gong-Liang; Wang, Chi; He, Shuang-Hua

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental problem in Solar-Terrestrial Physics is the origin of the solar transient plasma output, which includes the coronal mass ejection and its interplanetary manifestation, e.g. the magnetic cloud. The traditional blast wave model resulted from solar thermal pressure impulse has faced with challenge during recent years. In the MHD numerical simulation study of CME, the authors find that the basic feature of the asymmetrical event on 18 August 1980 can be reproduced neither by a thermal pressure nor by a speed increment. Also, the thermal pressure model fails in simulating the interplanetary structure with low thermal pressure and strong magnetic field strength, representative of a typical magnetic cloud. Instead, the numerical simulation results are in favor of the magnetic field expansion as the likely mechanism for both the asymmetrical CME event and magnetic cloud.

  10. Neutral Hydrogen and Its Emission Lines in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Jean-Claude; Chane-Yook, Martine

    2016-12-01

    Since the Lyman-α rocket observations of Gabriel ( Solar Phys. 21, 392, 1971), it has been realized that the hydrogen (H) lines could be observed in the corona and that they offer an interesting diagnostic for the temperature, density, and radial velocity of the coronal plasma. Moreover, various space missions have been proposed to measure the coronal magnetic and velocity fields through polarimetry in H lines. A necessary condition for such measurements is to benefit from a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. The aim of this article is to evaluate the emission in three representative lines of H for three different coronal structures. The computations have been performed with a full non-local thermodynamic-equilibrium (non-LTE) code and its simplified version without radiative transfer. Since all collisional and radiative quantities (including incident ionizing and exciting radiation) are taken into account, the ionization is treated exactly. Profiles are presented at two heights (1.05 and 1.9 solar radii, from Sun center) in the corona, and the integrated intensities are computed at heights up to five solar radii. We compare our results with previous computations and observations ( e.g. Lα from Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer) and find a rough (model-dependent) agreement. Since the Hα line is a possible candidate for ground-based polarimetry, we show that in order to detect its emission in various coronal structures, it is necessary to use a very narrow (less than 2 Å wide) bandpass filter.

  11. Waves and Magnetism in the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Moses, John D. [Heliophysics Division, Science Mission Directorate, NASA, Washington, DC (United States); Laming, John M.; Strachan, Leonard; Tun Beltran, Samuel [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Tomczyk, Steven; Gibson, Sarah E. [High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, CO (United States); Auchère, Frédéric [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS Université Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Casini, Roberto [High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, CO (United States); Fineschi, Silvano [INAF - National Institute for Astrophysics, Astrophysical Observatory of Torino, Pino Torinese (Italy); Knoelker, Michael [High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, CO (United States); Korendyke, Clarence [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, CO (United States); Romoli, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Rybak, Jan [Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Tatranska Lomnica (Slovakia); Socker, Dennis G. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Vourlidas, Angelos [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Laurel, MD (United States); Wu, Qian, E-mail: yuan-kuen.ko@nrl.navy.mil [High Altitude Observatory, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Comprehensive measurements of magnetic fields in the solar corona have a long history as an important scientific goal. Besides being crucial to understanding coronal structures and the Sun's generation of space weather, direct measurements of their strength and direction are also crucial steps in understanding observed wave motions. In this regard, the remote sensing instrumentation used to make coronal magnetic field measurements is well suited to measuring the Doppler signature of waves in the solar structures. In this paper, we describe the design and scientific values of the Waves and Magnetism in the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS) investigation. WAMIS, taking advantage of greatly improved infrared filters and detectors, forward models, advanced diagnostic tools and inversion codes, is a long-duration high-altitude balloon payload designed to obtain a breakthrough in the measurement of coronal magnetic fields and in advancing the understanding of the interaction of these fields with space plasmas. It consists of a 20 cm aperture coronagraph with a visible-IR spectro-polarimeter focal plane assembly. The balloon altitude would provide minimum sky background and atmospheric scattering at the wavelengths in which these observations are made. It would also enable continuous measurements of the strength and direction of coronal magnetic fields without interruptions from the day–night cycle and weather. These measurements will be made over a large field-of-view allowing one to distinguish the magnetic signatures of different coronal structures, and at the spatial and temporal resolutions required to address outstanding problems in coronal physics. Additionally, WAMIS could obtain near simultaneous observations of the electron scattered K-corona for context and to obtain the electron density. These comprehensive observations are not provided by any current single ground-based or space observatory. The fundamental advancements achieved by the near-space observations

  12. Waves and Magnetism in the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Kuen eKo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive measurements of magnetic fields in the solar corona have a long history as an important scientific goal. Besides being crucial to understanding coronal structures and the Sun’s generation of space weather, direct measurements of their strength and direction are also crucial steps in understanding observed wave motions. In this regard, the remote sensing instrumentation used to make coronal magnetic field measurements is well suited to measuring the Doppler signature of waves in the solar structures. In this paper, we describe the design and scientific values of the Waves and Magnetism in the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS investigation. WAMIS, taking advantage of greatly improved infrared filters and detectors, forward models, advanced diagnostic tools and inversion codes, is a long-duration high-altitude balloon payload designed to obtain a breakthrough in the measurement of coronal magnetic fields and in advancing the understanding of the interaction of these fields with space plasmas. It consists of a 20 cm aperture coronagraph with a visible-IR spectro-polarimeter focal plane assembly. The balloon altitude would provide minimum sky background and atmospheric scattering at the wavelengths in which these observations are made. It would also enable continuous measurements of the strength and direction of coronal magnetic fields without interruptions from the day-night cycle and weather. These measurements will be made over a large field-of-view allowing one to distinguish the magnetic signatures of different coronal structures, and at the spatial and temporal resolutions required to address outstanding problems in coronal physics. Additionally, WAMIS could obtain near simultaneous observations of the electron scattered K-corona for context and to obtain the electron density. These comprehensive observations are not provided by any current single ground-based or space observatory. The fundamental advancements achieved by the near

  13. Waves and Magnetism in the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Moses, John D.; Laming, John M.; Strachan, Leonard; Tun Beltran, Samuel; Tomczyk, Steven; Gibson, Sarah E.; Auchère, Frédéric; Casini, Roberto; Fineschi, Silvano; Knoelker, Michael; Korendyke, Clarence; McIntosh, Scott W.; Romoli, Marco; Rybak, Jan; Socker, Dennis G.; Vourlidas, Angelos; Wu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive measurements of magnetic fields in the solar corona have a long history as an important scientific goal. Besides being crucial to understanding coronal structures and the Sun's generation of space weather, direct measurements of their strength and direction are also crucial steps in understanding observed wave motions. In this regard, the remote sensing instrumentation used to make coronal magnetic field measurements is well suited to measuring the Doppler signature of waves in the solar structures. In this paper, we describe the design and scientific values of the Waves and Magnetism in the Solar Atmosphere (WAMIS) investigation. WAMIS, taking advantage of greatly improved infrared filters and detectors, forward models, advanced diagnostic tools and inversion codes, is a long-duration high-altitude balloon payload designed to obtain a breakthrough in the measurement of coronal magnetic fields and in advancing the understanding of the interaction of these fields with space plasmas. It consists of a 20 cm aperture coronagraph with a visible-IR spectro-polarimeter focal plane assembly. The balloon altitude would provide minimum sky background and atmospheric scattering at the wavelengths in which these observations are made. It would also enable continuous measurements of the strength and direction of coronal magnetic fields without interruptions from the day–night cycle and weather. These measurements will be made over a large field-of-view allowing one to distinguish the magnetic signatures of different coronal structures, and at the spatial and temporal resolutions required to address outstanding problems in coronal physics. Additionally, WAMIS could obtain near simultaneous observations of the electron scattered K-corona for context and to obtain the electron density. These comprehensive observations are not provided by any current single ground-based or space observatory. The fundamental advancements achieved by the near-space observations

  14. CHALLENGING SOME CONTEMPORARY VIEWS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. THE CASE FOR BLAST WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, T. A. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Pizzo, V. J., E-mail: howard@boulder.swri.edu [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Since the closure of the “solar flare myth” debate in the mid-1990s, a specific narrative of the nature of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been widely accepted by the solar physics community. This narrative describes structured magnetic flux ropes at the CME core that drive the surrounding field plasma away from the Sun. This narrative replaced the “traditional” view that CMEs were blast waves driven by solar flares. While the flux rope CME narrative is supported by a vast quantity of measurements made over five decades, it does not adequately describe every observation of what have been termed CME-related phenomena. In this paper we present evidence that some large-scale coronal eruptions, particularly those associated with EIT waves, exhibit characteristics that are more consistent with a blast wave originating from a localized region (such as a flare site) rather than a large-scale structure driven by an intrinsic flux rope. We present detailed examples of CMEs that are suspected blast waves and flux ropes, and show that of our small sample of 22 EIT-wave-related CMEs, 91% involve a blast wave as at least part of the eruption, and 50% are probably blast waves exclusively. We conclude with a description of possible signatures to look for in determining the difference between the two types of CMEs and with a discussion on modeling efforts to explore this possibility.

  15. Investigating the Wave Nature of the Outer Envelope of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ryun-Young [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Vourlidas, Angelos, E-mail: rkwon@gmu.edu [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    We investigate the nature of the outer envelope of halo coronal mass ejections (H-CMEs) using multi-viewpoint observations from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory-A , -B , and SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory coronagraphs. The 3D structure and kinematics of the halo envelopes and the driving CMEs are derived separately using a forward modeling method. We analyze three H-CMEs with peak speeds from 1355 to 2157 km s{sup −1}; sufficiently fast to drive shocks in the corona. We find that the angular widths of the halos range from 192° to 252°, while those of the flux ropes range between only 58° and 91°, indicating that the halos are waves propagating away from the CMEs. The halo widths are in agreement with widths of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves in the low corona further demonstrating the common origin of these structures. To further investigate the wave nature of the halos, we model their 3D kinematic properties with a linear fast magnetosonic wave model. The model is able to reproduce the position of the halo flanks with realistic coronal medium assumptions but fails closer to the CME nose. The CME halo envelope seems to arise from a driven wave (or shock) close to the CME nose, but it is gradually becoming a freely propagating fast magnetosonic wave at the flanks. This interpretation provides a simple unifying picture for CME halos, EUV waves, and the large longitudinal spread of solar energetic particles.

  16. CHALLENGING SOME CONTEMPORARY VIEWS OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. THE CASE FOR BLAST WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, T. A.; Pizzo, V. J.

    2016-01-01

    Since the closure of the “solar flare myth” debate in the mid-1990s, a specific narrative of the nature of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) has been widely accepted by the solar physics community. This narrative describes structured magnetic flux ropes at the CME core that drive the surrounding field plasma away from the Sun. This narrative replaced the “traditional” view that CMEs were blast waves driven by solar flares. While the flux rope CME narrative is supported by a vast quantity of measurements made over five decades, it does not adequately describe every observation of what have been termed CME-related phenomena. In this paper we present evidence that some large-scale coronal eruptions, particularly those associated with EIT waves, exhibit characteristics that are more consistent with a blast wave originating from a localized region (such as a flare site) rather than a large-scale structure driven by an intrinsic flux rope. We present detailed examples of CMEs that are suspected blast waves and flux ropes, and show that of our small sample of 22 EIT-wave-related CMEs, 91% involve a blast wave as at least part of the eruption, and 50% are probably blast waves exclusively. We conclude with a description of possible signatures to look for in determining the difference between the two types of CMEs and with a discussion on modeling efforts to explore this possibility.

  17. Coronal magnetic fields inferred from IR wavelength and comparison with EUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectropolarimetry using IR wavelength of 1075 nm has been proved to be a powerful tool for directly mapping solar coronal magnetic fields including transverse component directions and line-of-sight component intensities. Solar tomography, or stereoscopy based on EUV observations, can supply 3-D information for some magnetic field lines in bright EUV loops. In a previous paper \\citep{liu08} the locations of the IR emission sources in the 3-D coordinate system were inferred from the comparison between the polarization data and the potential-field-source-surface (PFSS model, for one of five west limb regions in the corona (Lin et al., 2004. The paper shows that the region with the loop system in the active region over the photospheric area with strong magnetic field intensity is the region with a dominant contribution to the observed Stokes signals. So, the inversion of the measured Stokes parameters could be done assuming that most of the signals come from a relatively thin layer over the area with a large photospheric magnetic field strength. Here, the five limb coronal regions are studied together in order to study the spatial correlation between the bright EUV loop features and the inferred IR emission sources. It is found that, for the coronal regions above the stronger photospheric magnetic fields, the locations of the IR emission sources are closer to or more consistent with the bright EUV loop locations than those above weaker photospheric fields. This result suggests that the structures of the coronal magnetic fields observed at IR and EUV wavelengths may be different when weak magnetic fields present there.

  18. Colloidal quantum dot solar cells exploiting hierarchical structuring

    KAUST Repository

    Labelle, André J.

    2015-02-11

    Extremely thin-absorber solar cells offer low materials utilization and simplified manufacture but require improved means to enhance photon absorption in the active layer. Here, we report enhanced-absorption colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells that feature transfer-stamped solution-processed pyramid-shaped electrodes employed in a hierarchically structured device. The pyramids increase, by up to a factor of 2, the external quantum efficiency of the device at absorption-limited wavelengths near the absorber band edge. We show that absorption enhancement can be optimized with increased pyramid angle with an appreciable net improvement in power conversion efficiency, that is, with the gain in current associated with improved absorption and extraction overcoming the smaller fractional decrease in open-circuit voltage associated with increased junction area. We show that the hierarchical combination of micron-scale structured electrodes with nanoscale films provides for an optimized enhancement at absorption-limited wavelengths. We fabricate 54.7° pyramid-patterned electrodes, conformally apply the quantum dot films, and report pyramid CQD solar cells that exhibit a 24% improvement in overall short-circuit current density with champion devices providing a power conversion efficiency of 9.2%.

  19. Shock-related radio emission during coronal mass ejection lift-off?

    OpenAIRE

    Pohjolainen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We identify the source of fast-drifting decimetric-metric radio emission that is sometimes observed prior to the so-called flare continuum emission. Fast-drift structures and continuum bursts are also observed in association with coronal mass ejections (CMEs), not only flares. Methods: We analyse radio spectral features and images acquired at radio, H-alpha, EUV, and soft X-ray wavelengths, during an event close to the solar limb on 2 June 2003. Results: The fast-drifting decimetric-met...

  20. Fibre structure of decametric type II radio bursts as a manifestation of emission propagation effects in a disturbed near-solar plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Afanasiev

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the fine structure of solar decametric type II radio bursts in the form of drifting narrowband fibres on the dynamic spectrum. Observations show that this structure appears in those events where there is a coronal mass ejection (CME traveling in the near-solar space ahead of the shock wave responsible for the radio burst. The diversity in observed morphology of fibres and values of their parameters implies that the fibres may be caused by different formation mechanisms. The burst emission propagates through extremely inhomogeneous plasma of the CME, so one possible mechanism can be related to radio propagation effects. I suggest that the fibres in some events represent traces of radio emission caustics, which are formed due to regular refraction of radio waves on the large-scale inhomogeneous structure of the CME front. To support this hypothesis, I have modeled the propagation of radio waves through inhomogeneous plasma of the CME, taking into consideration the presence of electron density fluctuations in it. The calculations, which are based on the Monte Carlo technique, indicate that, in particular, the emission of the fibres should be harmonic. Moreover, the mechanism under consideration suggests that in solar observations from two different points in space, the observed sets of fibres can be shifted in frequency with respect to one another or can have a different structure. This potentially can be used for identifying fibres caused by the propagation effects.

  1. MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Randall

    2014-07-03

    The initial goal of the MUNI Ways and Structures Building Integrated Solar Membrane Installation Project was for the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to gain experience using the integrated higher efficiency solar photovoltaic (PV) single-ply membrane product, as it differs from the conventional, low efficiency, thin-film PV products, to determine the feasibility of success of larger deployment. As several of CCSF’s municipal rooftops are constrained with respect to weight restrictions, staff of the Energy Generation Group of the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) proposed to install a solar PV system using single-ply membrane The installation of the 100 kW (DC-STC) lightweight photo voltaic (PV) system at the MUNI Ways and Structures Center (700 Pennsylvania Ave., San Francisco) is a continuation of the commitment of the City and County of San Francisco (CCSF) to increase the pace of municipal solar development, and serve its municipal facilities with clean renewable energy. The fourteen (14) solar photovoltaic systems that have already been installed at CCSF municipal facilities are assisting in the reduction of fossil-fuel use, and reduction of greenhouse gases from fossil combustion. The MUNI Ways & Structures Center roof has a relatively low weight-bearing capacity (3.25 pounds per square foot) and use of traditional crystalline panels was therefore rejected. Consequently it was decided to use the best available highest efficiency Building-Integrated PV (BIPV) technology, with consideration for reliability and experience of the manufacturer which can meet the low weight-bearing capacity criteria. The original goal of the project was to provide an opportunity to monitor the results of the BIPV technology and compare these results to other City and County of San Francisco installed PV systems. The MUNI Ways and Structures Center was acquired from the