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Sample records for solar corona ii

  1. Joint Soviet-French studies of the solar corona. II - Photometry of the solar corona on June 30, 1973

    Vsekhsvyatsky, S. K.; Dzyubenko, N. I.; Ivanchuk, V. I.; Popov, O. S.; Rubo, G. A.; Koutchmy, S.; Koutchmy, O.; Shtelmacher, G.

    1981-04-01

    Results are presented of a study of negatives obtained on June 30, 1973 during the total solar eclipse in Africa; the study was part of a joint Soviet-French experiment on white corona dynamics, carried out by expeditions of Kiev University (Atar, Mauritania) and the Paris Astrophysical Institute (Moussoro, Chad). The distribution of total corona brightness up to 4.5 solar radii and its K and F corona components for east and north directions were found on the basis of novel methods of photometry and colorimetry using star images up to 8.5m as the photometry standards. Neither the color effect nor flattening is found in the inner part (less than 2.5 solar radii) of the F corona. Integral corona brightness in the standard zone of 1.03-6.00 solar radii was found to be 0.64 x 10 to the -6th solar-E.

  2. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. Viking solar corona experiment

    Tyler, G.L.; Brenkle, J.P.; Komarek, T.A.; Zygielbaum, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    The 1976 Mars solar conjunction resulted in complete occulations of the Viking spacecraft by the sun at solar minimum. During the conjunction period, coherent 3.5- and 13-cm wavelength radio waves from the orbiters passed through the solar corona and were received with the 64-m antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network. Data were obtained within at least 0.3 and 0.8 R/sub s/ of the photosphere at the 3.5- and 13-cm wavelengths, respectively. The data can be used to determine the plasma density integrated along the radio path, the velocity of density irregularities in the coronal plasma, and the spectrum of the density fluctuations in the plasma. Observations of integrated plasma density near the south pole of the sun generally agree with a model of the corona which has an 8:1 decrease in plasma density from the equator to the pole. Power spectra of the 3.5- and 13-cm signals at a heliocentric radial distance of about 2 R/sub s/ have a 1/2-power width of several hundred hertz and vary sharply with proximate geometric miss distance. Spectral broadening indicates a marked progressive increase in plasma irregularities with decreasing ray altitude at scales between about 1 and 100 km

  4. ELECTRON ACCELERATION BY CASCADING RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. RESISTIVE ELECTRIC FIELD EFFECTS

    Zhou, X.; Gan, W.; Liu, S. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Büchner, J.; Bárta, M., E-mail: zhou@mps.mpg.de, E-mail: liusm@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: buechner@mps.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-08-20

    We investigate electron acceleration by electric fields induced by cascading reconnections in current sheets trailing coronal mass ejections via a test particle approach in the framework of the guiding-center approximation. Although the resistive electric field is much weaker than the inductive electric field, the electron acceleration is still dominated by the former. Anomalous resistivity η is switched on only in regions where the current carrier’s drift velocity is large enough. As a consequence, electron acceleration is very sensitive to the spatial distribution of the resistive electric fields, and electrons accelerated in different segments of the current sheet have different characteristics. Due to the geometry of the 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic fields and strong resistive electric field accelerations, accelerated high-energy electrons can be trapped in the corona, precipitating into the chromosphere or escaping into interplanetary space. The trapped and precipitating electrons can reach a few MeV within 1 s and have a very hard energy distribution. Spatial structure of the acceleration sites may also introduce breaks in the electron energy distribution. Most of the interplanetary electrons reach hundreds of keV with a softer distribution. To compare with observations of solar flares and electrons in solar energetic particle events, we derive hard X-ray spectra produced by the trapped and precipitating electrons, fluxes of the precipitating and interplanetary electrons, and electron spatial distributions.

  5. Skylab investigations of solar corona

    Krivsky, L.

    1976-01-01

    The findings are reported obtained by the observation of the Sun and its corona from Skylab. The most important findings include the discovery of explosive loop structures induced by eruptive phenomena below the corona, in the chromosphere. The front edge of the explosive loop structure was observed at a distance of 1,700,000 to 2,800,000 km from the Sun. The rate of prominence was around 500 km/s. The loop structure disturbed the original shape of the corona above the solar disk edge. A graph was plotted of the variation of the release of the expanding loop structure from the solar surface in millions of kilometers with time. The graph aided in refuting the erroneous assumption that the prominence was not associated with radio bursts similar to those induced by plasma shock waves. It was also shown that a prominent shock wave is present in the vicinity of the expanding structure front which, at lower levels, got released from the eruptive flare above the solar ''surface''. The knowledge obtained does not involve the Sun alone but is also valuable from the point of view of the prognosis of consequent magnetic anomalies in the interstellar space and geomagnetic disturbances on the Earth. (Z.S.)

  6. Magnetic neutral sheets in evolving fields. I - General theory. II - Formation of the solar corona

    Parker, E. N.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the hydrostatic equilibrium of a large-scale magnetic field embedded in a fluid with infinite electrical conductivity is considered. It is pointed out that a necessary condition for static equilibrium is the invariance of the small-scale pattern in the field along the large-scale direction. A varying topological pattern implies that no fluid pressure distribution exists for which the field is everywhere static. Magnetic neutral sheets form, and dynamical reconnection of the field takes place. It is shown here that the invariance is also a sufficient condition for the existence of a fluid pressure distribution producing static equilibrium. Even in the simplest cases, however, the requirements on the fluid pressure are extreme and, a priori, are unlikely. It is concluded that almost all twisted flux tubes packed together produce dynamical nonequilibrium and dissipation of their twisting. This is the basic effect underlying the long-standing conjecture that the shuffling of the footpoints of the bipolar magnetic fields in the sun is responsible for heating the active corona. Attention is then given to the consequences of this general dynamical dissipation in the magnetic fields that produce the active corona of the sun. The footpoints of the field are continually manipulated by the subphotospheric convection in such a way that the lines of force are continually wrapped and rotated about one another.

  7. High Performance Computing Application: Solar Dynamo Model Project II, Corona and Heliosphere Component Initialization, Integration and Validation

    2015-06-24

    distribution at this level replaced a constant temperature assumption, and density was calculated locally through a balance of radiation loss, thermal...G. References Altschuler, M. D., and G. Newkirk, Jr. (1969), Magnetic fields and the structure of the solar corona. I: Methods of calculating ...Weather, 11, 17-33, doi:10.1029/2012SW000853. Nakamizo, A., T. Tanaka, Y. Kubo , S. Kamei, H. Shimazu, and H. Shinagawa (2009), Development of the

  8. Solar corona electron density distribution

    Esposito, P.B.; Edenhofer, P.; Lueneburg, E.

    1980-01-01

    Three and one-half months of single-frequency (f= 0 2.2 x 10 9 Hz) time delay data (earth-to-spacecraft and return signal travel time) were acquired from the Helios 2 spacecraft around the time of its solar occupation (May 16, 1976). Following the determination of the spacecraft trajectory the excess time delay due to the integrated effect of free electrons along the signal's ray path could be separated and modeled. An average solar corona, equatorial, electron density profile, during solar minimum, was deduced from time delay measurements acquired within 5--60 solar radii (R/sub S/) of the sun. As a point of reference, at 10 R/sub S/ from the sun we find an average electron density of 4500 el cm -3 . However, there appears to be an asymmtry in the electron density as the ray path moved from the west (preoccultation) to east (post-occulation) solar limb. This may be related to the fact that during entry into occulation the heliographic latitude of the ray path (at closes approach to the sun) was about 6 0 , whereas during exit it became -7 0 . The Helios electron density model is compared with similar models deduced from a variety of different experimental techniques. Within 5--20 R/sub S/ of the sun the models separate according to solar minimum or maximum conditions; however, anomalies are evident

  9. A guide to the solar corona

    Billings, Donald E

    1966-01-01

    A Guide to the Solar Corona is specifically directed to the space scientist or engineer who is not a specialist in solar physics, but whose work requires a fairly detailed knowledge of the corona. It is hoped that the material may prove useful to most graduate students in astrophysics, while solar physicists may find some topics of interest and value to them. The book contains 12 chapters and begins with three descriptive chapters that provide the casual reader with a concept of the corona as it is evident through more or less direct observation. Topics covered include the development of coron

  10. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere II. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Corona

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The K-corona, a significant portion of the solar atmosphere, displays a continuous spectrum which closely parallels photospheric emission, though without the presence of overlying Fraunhofer lines. The E-corona exists in the same region and is characterized by weak emission lines from highly ionized atoms. For instance, the famous green emission line from coronium (FeXIV is part of the E-corona. The F-corona exists beyond the K/E-corona and, like the photospheric spectrum, is characterized by Fraunhofer lines. The F-corona represents photospheric light scattered by dust particles in the interplanetary medium. Within the gaseous models of the Sun, the K-corona is viewed as photospheric radiation which has been scattered by relativistic electrons. This scattering is thought to broaden the Fraunhofer lines of the solar spectrum such that they can no longer be detected in the K-corona. Thus, the gaseous models of the Sun account for the appearance of the K-corona by distorting photospheric light, since they are unable to have recourse to condensed matter to directly produce such radiation. Conversely, it is now advanced that the continuous emission of the K-corona and associated emission lines from the E-corona must be interpreted as manifestations of the same phenomenon: condensed matter exists in the corona. It is well-known that the Sun expels large amounts of material from its surface in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. Given a liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, it is logical to assume that such matter, which exists in the condensed state on the solar surface, continues to manifest its nature once expelled into the corona. Therefore, the continuous spectrum of the K-corona provides the twenty-seventh line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.

  11. The Faraday rotation experiment. [solar corona

    Volland, H.; Levy, G. S.; Bird, M. K.; Stelzried, C. T.; Seidel, B. L.

    1984-01-01

    The magnetized plasma of the solar corona was remotely sounded using the Faraday rotation effect. The solar magnetic field together with the electrons of the coronal plasma cause a measurable Faraday rotation effect, since the radio waves of Helios are linearly polarized. The measurement is performed at the ground stations. Alfven waves traveling from the Sun's surface through the corona into interplanetary space are observed. Helios 2 signals penetrating through a region where coronal mass is ejected show wavelike structures.

  12. Nanoflare heating model for collisionless solar corona

    Magnetic reconnection plays a significant role in heating the solar corona. When two oppositely directed magnetic fields come closer to form a current sheet, the current density of the plasma increases due to which magnetic reconnection and conversion of magnetic energy into thermal energy takes place. The present ...

  13. Characteristics of shocks in the solar corona, as inferred from radio, optical, and theoretical investigations

    Maxwell, A.; Dryer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Solar radio bursts of spectral type II provide one of the chief diagnostics for the propagation of shocks through the solar corona. Radio data on the shocks are compared with computer models for propagation of fast-mode MHD shocks through the solar corona. Data on coronal shocks and high-velocity ejecta from solar flares are then discussed in terms of a general model consisting of three main velocity regimes.

  14. MASC: Magnetic Activity of the Solar Corona

    Auchere, Frederic; Fineschi, Silvano; Gan, Weiqun; Peter, Hardi; Vial, Jean-Claude; Zhukov, Andrei; Parenti, Susanna; Li, Hui; Romoli, Marco

    We present MASC, an innovative payload designed to explore the magnetic activity of the solar corona. It is composed of three complementary instruments: a Hard-X-ray spectrometer, a UV / EUV imager, and a Visible Light / UV polarimetric coronagraph able to measure the coronal magnetic field. The solar corona is structured in magnetically closed and open structures from which slow and fast solar winds are respectively released. In spite of much progress brought by two decades of almost uninterrupted observations from several space missions, the sources and acceleration mechanisms of both types are still not understood. This continuous expansion of the solar atmosphere is disturbed by sporadic but frequent and violent events. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale massive eruptions of magnetic structures out of the corona, while solar flares trace the sudden heating of coronal plasma and the acceleration of electrons and ions to high, sometimes relativistic, energies. Both phenomena are most probably driven by instabilities of the magnetic field in the corona. The relations between flares and CMEs are still not understood in terms of initiation and energy partition between large-scale motions, small-scale heating and particle acceleration. The initiation is probably related to magnetic reconnection which itself results magnetic topological changes due to e.g. flux emergence, footpoints motions, etc. Acceleration and heating are also strongly coupled since the atmospheric heating is thought to result from the impact of accelerated particles. The measurement of both physical processes and their outputs is consequently of major importance. However, despite its fundamental importance as a driver for the physics of the Sun and of the heliosphere, the magnetic field of our star’s outer atmosphere remains poorly understood. This is due in large part to the fact that the magnetic field is a very difficult quantity to measure. Our knowledge of its strength and

  15. Geometry of solar corona expansion and solar wind parameters

    Krajnev, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The character of the parameter chanqe of solar wind plasma in the region of the Earth orbit is studied. The main regularities in the parametep behaviour of solar wind (plasma velocity and density) are qualitatively explained in the framework of a model according to which solar corona expansion stronqly differs from radial expansion, that is: the solar wind current lines are focused towards helioequator during the period of low solar activity with gradual transfer to radial expansion during the years of high solar activity. It is shown that the geometry of the solar wind current tubes and its change with the solar activity cycle can not serve an explanation of the observed change of the solar wind parameters

  16. Kinetic Physics of the Solar Corona and Solar Wind

    Marsch Eckart

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic plasma physics of the solar corona and solar wind are reviewed with emphasis on the theoretical understanding of the in situ measurements of solar wind particles and waves, as well as on the remote-sensing observations of the solar corona made by means of ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging. In order to explain coronal and interplanetary heating, the microphysics of the dissipation of various forms of mechanical, electric and magnetic energy at small scales (e.g., contained in plasma waves, turbulences or non-uniform flows must be addressed. We therefore scrutinise the basic assumptions underlying the classical transport theory and the related collisional heating rates, and also describe alternatives associated with wave-particle interactions. We elucidate the kinetic aspects of heating the solar corona and interplanetary plasma through Landau- and cyclotron-resonant damping of plasma waves, and analyse in detail wave absorption and micro instabilities. Important aspects (virtues and limitations of fluid models, either single- and multi-species or magnetohydrodynamic and multi-moment models, for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration are critically discussed. Also, kinetic model results which were recently obtained by numerically solving the Vlasov–Boltzmann equation in a coronal funnel and hole are presented. Promising areas and perspectives for future research are outlined finally.

  17. Off-limb EUV observations of the solar corona and transients with the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope-coronagraph

    V. Slemzin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The SPIRIT telescope aboard the CORONAS-F satellite (in orbit from 26 July 2001 to 5 December 2005, observed the off-limb solar corona in the 175 Å (Fe IX, X and XI lines and 304 Å (He II and Si XI lines bands. In the coronagraphic mode the mirror was tilted to image the corona at the distance of 1.1...5 Rsun from the solar center, the outer occulter blocked the disk radiation and the detector sensitivity was enhanced. This intermediate region between the fields of view of ordinary extreme-ultraviolet (EUV telescopes and most of the white-light (WL coronagraphs is responsible for forming the streamer belt, acceleration of ejected matter and emergence of slow and fast solar wind. We present here the results of continuous coronagraphic EUV observations of the solar corona carried out during two weeks in June and December 2002. The images showed a "diffuse" (unresolved component of the corona seen in both bands, and non-radial, ray-like structures seen only in the 175 Å band, which can be associated with a streamer base. The correlations between latitudinal distributions of the EUV brightness in the corona and at the limb were found to be high in 304 Å at all distances and in 175 Å only below 1.5 Rsun. The temporal correlation of the coronal brightness along the west radial line, with the brightness at the underlying limb region was significant in both bands, independent of the distance. On 2 February 2003 SPIRIT observed an expansion of a transient associated with a prominence eruption seen only in the 304 Å band. The SPIRIT data have been compared with the corresponding data of the SOHO LASCO, EIT and UVCS instruments.

  18. Double Arc Instability in the Solar Corona

    Ishiguro, N.; Kusano, K., E-mail: n-ishiguro@isee.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 Japan (Japan)

    2017-07-10

    The stability of the magnetic field in the solar corona is important for understanding the causes of solar eruptions. Although various scenarios have been suggested to date, the tether-cutting reconnection scenario proposed by Moore et al. is one of the widely accepted models to explain the onset process of solar eruptions. Although the tether-cutting reconnection scenario proposes that the sigmoidal field formed by internal reconnection is the magnetic field in the pre-eruptive state, the stability of the sigmoidal field has not yet been investigated quantitatively. In this paper, in order to elucidate the stability problem of the pre-eruptive state, we developed a simple numerical analysis in which the sigmoidal field is modeled by a double arc electric current loop and its stability is analyzed. As a result, we found that the double arc loop is more easily destabilized than the axisymmetric torus, and it becomes unstable even if the external field does not decay with altitude, which is in contrast to the axisymmetric torus instability. This suggests that tether-cutting reconnection may well work as the onset mechanism of solar eruptions, and if so, the critical condition for eruption under a certain geometry may be determined by a new type of instability rather than by the torus instability. Based on them, we propose a new type of instability called double arc instability (DAI). We discuss the critical conditions for DAI and derive a new parameter κ , defined as the product of the magnetic twist and the normalized flux of the tether-cutting reconnection.

  19. Electron beams by shock waves in the solar corona

    Mann, G.; Klassen, A.

    2005-07-01

    Beams of energetic electrons can be generated by shock waves in the solar corona. At the Sun shock waves are produced either by flares and/or by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). They can be observed as type II bursts in the solar radio radiation. Shock accelerated electron beams appear as rapidly drifting emission stripes (so-called ''herringbones'') in dynamic radio spectra of type II bursts. A large sample of type II bursts showing ''herringbones'' was statistically analysed with respect to their properties in dynamic radio spectra. The electron beams associated with the ''herringbones'' are considered to be generated by shock drift acceleration. Then, the accelerated electrons establish a shifted loss-cone distribution in the upstream region of the associated shock wave. Such a distribution causes plasma instabilities leading to the emission of radio waves observed as ''herringbones''. Consequences of a shifted loss-cone distribution of the shock accelerated electrons are discussed in comparison with the observations of ''herringbones'' within solar type II radio bursts. (orig.)

  20. TESIS experiment on study of solar corona in EUV spectral range (CORONAS-PHOTON project)

    Kuzin, S.V.; Zhitnik, I.A.; Ignat'ev, A.P.; Mitrofanov, A.V.; Pertsov, A.A.; Bugaenko, O.I.

    2005-01-01

    A new orbital station, namely: the CORONAS-PHOTON one (to be launched in 2006) equipped with systems to explore Sun at the intensification period of the solar activity 24-th cycle and at its peak is being designed within the framework of the CORONAS National Sun Space Exploration Program. The station equipment consists of systems to observe Sun within the spectral soft X-ray and vacuum ultraviolet bands. Paper lists and describes the TESIS experiment tools designed for the CORONAS-PHOTON Project to ensure the Sun atmospheric research within short-wave band [ru

  1. Compensating Faraday Depolarization by Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Corona

    Brandenburg, Axel; Ashurova, Mohira B. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Jabbari, Sarah, E-mail: brandenb@nordita.org [School of Mathematical Sciences and Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2017-08-20

    A turbulent dynamo in spherical geometry with an outer corona is simulated to study the sign of magnetic helicity in the outer parts. In agreement with earlier studies, the sign in the outer corona is found to be opposite to that inside the dynamo. Line-of-sight observations of polarized emission are synthesized to explore the feasibility of using the local reduction of Faraday depolarization to infer the sign of helicity of magnetic fields in the solar corona. This approach was previously identified as an observational diagnostic in the context of galactic magnetic fields. Based on our simulations, we show that this method can be successful in the solar context if sufficient statistics are gathered by using averages over ring segments in the corona separately for the regions north and south of the solar equator.

  2. Bright point study. [of solar corona

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona.

  3. Soviet-France cooperative study of the solar corona

    Vsekhvsyatskij, S.K.; Dzyubenko, N.I.; Ivanchuk, V.I.; Popov, O.S.; Rubo, G.A.; Kuchmij, S.; Kuchmij, O.; Shtel'makher, G.

    1981-01-01

    The study continues the investigations on the solar corona performed according to the program of the Soviet-France experiment ''The white corona dynamics'' during total solar eclipses on July 10 1972 and June 30, 1973 by the expeditions of Kiev University and Paris Astrophysical Institute. The results of the study of eclipse negatives obtained on June 30 1973 in Africa are given. On the basis of new methods of photometry and colorimetry using star images up to 8.5sup(m) as the photometry standards it has been found with high accuracy the distribution of the total corona brightness up to r approximately equal to 4.5 Rsub(S) and its K- and F-corona components for E and N directions. Neither color effect nor flattening is found in the dust component (r -6 Esub(S)

  4. Meteoric ions in the corona and solar wind

    Lemaire, J.

    1990-01-01

    The total mass of refractory material of interplanetary origin penetrating and evaporated in the meltosphere surrounding the sun has been inferred from observations of meteoroids and fireballs falling in earth's atmosphere. The amount of iron atoms deposited this way in the solar corona is of the order of 3000 t/s or larger. The measured flux of outflowing solar wind iron ions is equal to 2200 t/s. The close agreement of both fluxes is evidence that a significant fraction of iron ions observed in the solar wind and in the corona must be of meteoric origin. A similar accord is also obtained for silicon ions. The mean velocity of meteoroid ions formed in the solar corona is equal to the free-fall velocity: i.e., independent of their atomic mass as the thermal speed of heavy ion measured in low-density solar wind streams at 1 AU. Furthermore, the heavy ions of meteoric origin escape out of the corona with a larger bulk velocity than the protons which are mainly of solar origin. These differences of heavy ion and proton bulk velocities are also observed in the solar wind. 52 refs

  5. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF LOOPS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Brooks, David H.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Understanding how the solar corona is structured is of fundamental importance to determine how the Sun's upper atmosphere is heated to high temperatures. Recent spectroscopic studies have suggested that an instrument with a spatial resolution of 200 km or better is necessary to resolve coronal loops. The High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) achieved this performance on a rocket flight in 2012 July. We use Hi-C data to measure the Gaussian widths of 91 loops observed in the solar corona and find a distribution that peaks at about 270 km. We also use Atmospheric Imaging Assembly data for a subset of these loops and find temperature distributions that are generally very narrow. These observations provide further evidence that loops in the solar corona are often structured at a scale of several hundred kilometers, well above the spatial scale of many proposed physical mechanisms.

  6. New Views of the Solar Corona from STEREO and SDO

    Vourlidas, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, we have been treated to an unusual visual feast of solar observations of the corona in EUV wavelengths. The observations from the two vantage points of STEREO/SECCHI are now capturing the entire solar atmosphere simultaneously in four wavelengths. The SDO/AIA images provide us with arcsecond resolution images of the full visible disk in ten wavelengths. All these data are captured with cadences of a few seconds to a few minutes. In this talk, I review some intriguing results from our first attempts to deal with these observations which touch upon the problems of coronal mass ejection initiation and solar wind generation. I will also discuss data processing techniques that may help us recover even more information from the images. The talk will contain a generous portion of beautiful EUV images and movies of the solar corona.

  7. An MHD simulation model of time-dependent global solar corona with temporally varying solar-surface magnetic field maps

    Hayashi, K.

    2013-11-01

    We present a model of a time-dependent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the sub-Alfvenic solar corona and super-Alfvenic solar wind with temporally varying solar-surface boundary magnetic field data. To (i) accommodate observational data with a somewhat arbitrarily evolving solar photospheric magnetic field as the boundary value and (ii) keep the divergence-free condition, we developed a boundary model, here named Confined Differential Potential Field model, that calculates the horizontal components of the magnetic field, from changes in the vertical component, as a potential field confined in a thin shell. The projected normal characteristic method robustly simulates the solar corona and solar wind, in response to the temporal variation of the boundary Br. We conduct test MHD simulations for two periods, from Carrington Rotation number 2009 to 2010 and from Carrington Rotation 2074 to 2075 at solar maximum and minimum of Cycle 23, respectively. We obtained several coronal features that a fixed boundary condition cannot yield, such as twisted magnetic field lines at the lower corona and the transition from an open-field coronal hole to a closed-field streamer. We also obtained slight improvements of the interplanetary magnetic field, including the latitudinal component, at Earth.

  8. The heating of the solar corona. Pt. 2

    McWhirter, R.W.P.; Thonemann, P.C.; Wilson, R.

    1975-01-01

    The density and temperature distribution of the solar corona is calculated assuming an energy balance between thermal conduction and radiated power loss with the primary heating of the corona by the dissipation of sound-waves propagated upwards from below the sun's surface. A sharp transition region is found and the calculated results are compared with observations. A detailed model atmosphere for the transition region and corona is derived using the Harvard Smithsonian Reference Atmosphere (for the chromosphere) as starting point. Hydrostatic equilibrium is assumed in the calculations but it is also shown that a pressure arises because of the sound-waves which is of comparable magnitude to hydrostatic pressure. The inclusion of this pressure introduces difficulties that are discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Comparison of reconnection in magnetosphere and solar corona

    Imada, Shinsuke; Hirai, Mariko; Isobe, Hiroaki; Oka, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Kyoko; Minoshima, Takashi

    One of the most famous rapid energy conversion mechanisms in space is a magnetic reconnec-tion. The general concept of a magnetic reconnection is that the rapid energy conversion from magnetic field energy to thermal energy, kinetic energy or non-thermal particle energy. The understanding of rapid energy conversion rates from magnetic field energy to other energy is the fundamental and essential problem in the space physics. One of the important goals for studying magnetic reconnection is to answer what plasma condition/parameter controls the energy conversion rates. Earth's magnetotail has been paid much attention to discuss a mag-netic reconnection, because we can discuss magnetic reconnection characteristics in detail with direct in-situ observation. Recently, solar atmosphere has been focused as a space laboratory for magnetic reconnection because of its variety in plasma condition. So far considerable effort has been devoted toward understanding the energy conversion rates of magnetic reconnection, and various typical features associated with magnetic reconnection have been observed in the Earth's magnetotail and the solar corona. In this talk, we first introduce the variety of plasma condition/parameter in solar corona and Earth's magnetotail. Later, we discuss what plasma condition/parameter controls the energy conversion from magnetic field to especially non-thermal particle. To compare non-thermal electron and ion acceleration in magnetic reconnection, we used Hard X-ray (electron) /Neu-tron monitor (ion) for solar corona and Geotail in-situ measurement (electron and ion) for magnetoatil. We found both of electron and ion accelerations are roughly controlled by re-connection electric field (reconnection rate). However, some detail points are different in ion and electron acceleration. Further, we will discuss what is the major difference between solar corona and Earth's magnetotail for particle acceleration.

  10. Photometric intensity and polarization measurements of the solar corona.

    Mcdougal, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    Use of a satellite photometric observatory (SPO) to measure the solar corona from Miahuatlan, Mexico during the Mar. 7, 1970, total eclipse of the sun. The SPO is equipped with a 24-in. Cassegrainian telescope, a four-channel photoelectric photometer, a Wollaston prism, and a rotating half-wave plate. Simultaneous measurements were made of the two orthogonal components of coronal light in the B and R bands of the UBVRI system. A 1-minute arc aperture was scanned from the lunar disk center out to five solar radii in a series of spirals of gradually increasing radius. For the first time, simultaneous multicolor intensity, degree, and angle of polarization profiles are computed from photoelectric measurements. Comparison of the variations of the measurements for each spiral scan yield a detailed picture of the intensity and polarization features in the K corona.

  11. Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"

    Kotov, Yu.

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

  12. Magnetic tornadoes as energy channels into the solar corona.

    Wedemeyer-Böhm, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Steiner, Oskar; van der Voort, Luc Rouppe; de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; Fedun, Viktor; Erdélyi, Robert

    2012-06-27

    Heating the outer layers of the magnetically quiet solar atmosphere to more than one million kelvin and accelerating the solar wind requires an energy flux of approximately 100 to 300 watts per square metre, but how this energy is transferred and dissipated there is a puzzle and several alternative solutions have been proposed. Braiding and twisting of magnetic field structures, which is caused by the convective flows at the solar surface, was suggested as an efficient mechanism for atmospheric heating. Convectively driven vortex flows that harbour magnetic fields are observed to be abundant in the photosphere (the visible surface of the Sun). Recently, corresponding swirling motions have been discovered in the chromosphere, the atmospheric layer sandwiched between the photosphere and the corona. Here we report the imprints of these chromospheric swirls in the transition region and low corona, and identify them as observational signatures of rapidly rotating magnetic structures. These ubiquitous structures, which resemble super-tornadoes under solar conditions, reach from the convection zone into the upper solar atmosphere and provide an alternative mechanism for channelling energy from the lower into the upper solar atmosphere.

  13. Energy distribution of nanoflares in the quiet solar corona

    Ulyanov, Artyom

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of flare-like events in low layer of solar corona detected with TESIS instrument onboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite in 171 {Å} during high-cadence (5 sec) time-series. The estimated thermal energies of these small events amount to 10^{23} - 10^{26} erg. According to modern classification flare-like events with such energies are usually referred to as nanoflares. The big number of registered events (above 2000) allowed us to obtain precise distributions of geometric and physical parameters of nanoflares, the most intriguing being energy distribution. Following Aschwanden et al. (2000) and other authors we approximated the calculated energy distribution with a single power law slope: N(E)dE ˜ N^{-α}dE. The power law index was derived to be α = 2.4 ± 0.2, which is very close to the value reported by Krucker & Benz (1998): α ≈ 2.3 - 2.4. The total energy input from registered events constitute about 10^4 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}, which is well beyond net losses in quiet corona (3 \\cdot 10^5 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}). However, the value of α > 2 indicates that nanoflares with lower energies dominate over nanoflares with bigger energies and could contribute considerably to quiet corona heating.

  14. Catastrophic cooling and cessation of heating in the solar corona

    Peter, H.; Bingert, S.; Kamio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Condensations in the more than 106 K hot corona of the Sun are commonly observed in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). While their contribution to the total solar EUV radiation is still a matter of debate, these condensations certainly provide a valuable tool for studying the dynamic response of the corona to the heating processes. Aims: We investigate different distributions of energy input in time and space to investigate which process is most relevant for understanding these coronal condensations. Methods: For a comparison to observations we synthesize EUV emission from a time-dependent, one-dimensional model for coronal loops, where we employ two heating scenarios: simply shutting down the heating and a model where the heating is very concentrated at the loop footpoints, while keeping the total heat input constant. Results: The heating off/on model does not lead to significant EUV count rates that one observes with SDO/AIA. In contrast, the concentration of the heating near the footpoints leads to thermal non-equilibrium near the loop top resulting in the well-known catastrophic cooling. This process gives a good match to observations of coronal condensations. Conclusions: This shows that the corona needs a steady supply of energy to support the coronal plasma, even during coronal condensations. Otherwise the corona would drain very fast, too fast to even form a condensation. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Synoptic, Global Mhd Model For The Solar Corona

    Cohen, Ofer; Sokolov, I. V.; Roussev, I. I.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2007-05-01

    The common techniques for mimic the solar corona heating and the solar wind acceleration in global MHD models are as follow. 1) Additional terms in the momentum and energy equations derived from the WKB approximation for the Alfv’en wave turbulence; 2) some empirical heat source in the energy equation; 3) a non-uniform distribution of the polytropic index, γ, used in the energy equation. In our model, we choose the latter approach. However, in order to get a more realistic distribution of γ, we use the empirical Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model to constrain the MHD solution. The WSA model provides the distribution of the asymptotic solar wind speed from the potential field approximation; therefore it also provides the distribution of the kinetic energy. Assuming that far from the Sun the total energy is dominated by the energy of the bulk motion and assuming the conservation of the Bernoulli integral, we can trace the total energy along a magnetic field line to the solar surface. On the surface the gravity is known and the kinetic energy is negligible. Therefore, we can get the surface distribution of γ as a function of the final speed originating from this point. By interpolation γ to spherically uniform value on the source surface, we use this spatial distribution of γ in the energy equation to obtain a self-consistent, steady state MHD solution for the solar corona. We present the model result for different Carrington Rotations.

  16. The Mechanism for Energy Buildup in the Solar Corona

    Antiochos, Spiro; Knizhnik, Kalman; DeVore, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection and helicity conservation are two of the most important basic processes determining the structure and dynamics of laboratory and space plasmas. The most energetic dynamics in the solar system are the giant CMEs/flares that produce the most dangerous space weather at Earth, yet may also have been essential for the origin of life. The origin of these explosions is that the lowest-lying magnetic flux in the Sun's corona undergoes the continual buildup of stress and free energy that can be released only through explosive ejection. We perform MHD simulations of a coronal volume driven by quasi-random boundary flows designed to model the processes by which the solar interior drives the corona. Our simulations are uniquely accurate in preserving magnetic helicity. We show that even though small-scale stress is injected randomly throughout the corona, the net result of magnetic reconnection is a coherent stressing of the lowest-lying field lines. This highly counter-intuitive result - magnetic stress builds up locally rather than spreading out to a minimum energy state - is the fundamental mechanism responsible for the Sun's magnetic explosions. It is likely to be a mechanism that is ubiquitous throughout laboratory and space plasmas. This work was supported by the NASA LWS and SR Programs.

  17. Radiative origins of the solar corona

    Koch, P.

    1978-01-01

    Within observational accuracy, the radiation pressure aT 4 /3 at the effective solar temperature is equal to the coronal gas pressure nkT. This suggests a radiative gas discontinuity between optically thick and optically thin regions. Ideal transitions of this nature are studied and the applicability of this model to the Sun is explored. Further empirical corroboration is obtained if the gas pressure anomalies of Gulyaev are resolved by postulating a corrective gradient of radiation pressure possibly caused by Lyman-α opacity. (Auth.)

  18. Intermittent heating of the solar corona by MHD turbulence

    É. Buchlin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available As the dissipation mechanisms considered for the heating of the solar corona would be sufficiently efficient only in the presence of small scales, turbulence is thought to be a key player in the coronal heating processes: it allows indeed to transfer energy from the large scales to these small scales. While Direct numerical simulations which have been performed to investigate the properties of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the corona have provided interesting results, they are limited to small Reynolds numbers. We present here a model of coronal loop turbulence involving shell-models and Alfvén waves propagation, allowing the much faster computation of spectra and turbulence statistics at higher Reynolds numbers. We also present first results of the forward-modelling of spectroscopic observables in the UV.

  19. The coronas-F space mission key results for solar terrestrial physics

    2014-01-01

    This volume is the updated and extended translation of the Russian original. It presents the results of observations of solar activity and its effects in the Earth space environment carried out from July 2001 to December 2005 on board the CORONAS-F space mission. The general characteristics of the CORONAS-F scientific payload are provided with a description of the principal experiments. The main results focus on the global oscillations of the Sun (p-modes), solar corona, solar flares, solar cosmic rays, Earth’s radiation belts, and upper atmosphere. The book will be welcomed by students, post-graduates, and scientists working in the field of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. This English edition is supplemented by sections presenting new results of the SPIRIT and TESIS experiments under the CORONAS solar program, as well as from the SONG experiment onboard the CORONAS-F satellite.

  20. Magnetic Untwisting in Jets that Go into the Outer Solar Corona in Polar Coronal Holes

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David

    2014-06-01

    We present results from a study of 14 jets that were observed in SDO/AIA EUV movies to erupt in the Sun’s polar coronal holes. These jets were similar to the many other jets that erupt in coronal holes, but reached higher than the vast majority, high enough to be observed in the outer corona beyond 2 solar radii from Sun center by the SOHO/LASCO/C2 coronagraph. We illustrate the characteristic structure and motion of these high-reaching jets by showing observations of two representative jets. We find that (1) the speed of the jet front from the base of the corona out to 2-3 solar radii is typically several times the sound speed in jets in coronal holes, (2) each high-reaching jet displays unusually large rotation about its axis (spin) as it erupts, and (3) in the outer corona, many jets display lateral swaying and bending of the jet axis with an amplitude of a few degrees and a period of order 1 hour. From these observations we infer that these jets are magnetically driven, propose that the driver is a magnetic-untwisting wave that is basically a large-amplitude (non-linear) torsional Alfven wave that is put into the open magnetic field in the jet by interchange reconnection as the jet erupts, and estimate that the magnetic-untwisting wave loses most of its energy before reaching the outer corona. These observations of high-reaching coronal jets suggest that the torsional magnetic waves observed in Type-II spicules can similarly dissipate in the corona and thereby power much of the coronal heating in coronal holes and quiet regions. This work is funded by the NASA/SMD Heliophysics Division’s Living With a Star Targeted Research & Technology Program.

  1. Mass ejections from the solar corona into interplanetary space

    Hildner, E.

    1977-01-01

    Mass ejections from the corona are common occurrances, as observations with the High Altitude Observatory's white light coronagraph aboard Skylab showed. During 227 days of operation in 1973 and 1974 at least 77 mass ejections were observed and as many more probably occurred unobserved. It is suggested that the frequency of ejections varies with the solar cycle and that ejections may contribute 10 percent or more of the total solar mass efflux to the interplanetary medium at solar maximum. Since ejections are confined to relatively low latitudes, their fractional mass flux contribution is greater near the ecliptic than far from it. From the behavior of ejecta, we can estimate the magnitude of the force driving them through the corona. It is also suggested that loop-shaped ejection - the largest fraction of ejections - are driven, primarily, by magnetic forces. By comparison, gas pressure forces are negligible, and forces due to wave pressure are completely inadequate. That magnetic forces are important is consistent with observation that ejections seem to come, primarily, from regions where the magnetic field is more intense and more complex than elsewhere. Indeed, ejections are associated with phenomena (flares and eruptive prominences) which occur over lines separating regions of opposite polarities. (Auth.)

  2. Neutral Hydrogen and Its Emission Lines in the Solar Corona

    Vial, Jean-Claude; Chane-Yook, Martine

    2016-12-01

    Since the Lyman-α rocket observations of Gabriel ( Solar Phys. 21, 392, 1971), it has been realized that the hydrogen (H) lines could be observed in the corona and that they offer an interesting diagnostic for the temperature, density, and radial velocity of the coronal plasma. Moreover, various space missions have been proposed to measure the coronal magnetic and velocity fields through polarimetry in H lines. A necessary condition for such measurements is to benefit from a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. The aim of this article is to evaluate the emission in three representative lines of H for three different coronal structures. The computations have been performed with a full non-local thermodynamic-equilibrium (non-LTE) code and its simplified version without radiative transfer. Since all collisional and radiative quantities (including incident ionizing and exciting radiation) are taken into account, the ionization is treated exactly. Profiles are presented at two heights (1.05 and 1.9 solar radii, from Sun center) in the corona, and the integrated intensities are computed at heights up to five solar radii. We compare our results with previous computations and observations ( e.g. Lα from Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer) and find a rough (model-dependent) agreement. Since the Hα line is a possible candidate for ground-based polarimetry, we show that in order to detect its emission in various coronal structures, it is necessary to use a very narrow (less than 2 Å wide) bandpass filter.

  3. Structure of the solar transition region and inner corona

    Mariska, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Emission gradient curves for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) resonance lines of lithium-like ions were constructed from spectroheliograms of quiet limb regions and a north polar coronal hole observed with the Harvard experiment on Skylab. The observations are interpreted with simple coronal models. Comparison of the theoretical and observed emission gradients for quiet regions indicates that for these areas the temperature rises throughout the inner corona (1.03 less than or equal to r less than or equal to 1.20 R/sub mass/). In the coronal hole the temperature rises in a manner consistent with a constant conductive flux to an isothermal corona at a temperature of 1.1 x 10 6 K at 1.08/sub mass/. The geometry of the coronal hole boundary is also determined. The boundary geometry and density distribution are combined with typical solar wind parameters at the north to determine an outflow velocity of 15 km s -1 at 1.08 R/sub mass/. The energy balance implications of the models are examined. It was found that in the transition region both conduction and radiation are important in determining the energy balance in network regions in both quiet areas and coronal holes. Additional energy sources are required in the network in coronal holes. In the corona it is found that, to within the errors of the determination, the energy losses, and hence the requirements for mechanical heating, are the same in quiet regions and coronal holes

  4. Stellar winds and coronae of low-mass Population II/III stars

    Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2018-06-01

    We investigated stellar winds from zero-/low-metallicity low-mass stars by magnetohydrodynamical simulations for stellar winds driven by Alfvén waves from stars with mass M = (0.6-0.8) M⊙ and metallicity Z = (0-1) Z⊙, where M⊙ and Z⊙ are the solar mass and metallicity, respectively. Alfvénic waves, which are excited by the surface convection, travel upward from the photosphere and heat up the corona by their dissipation. For lower Z, denser gas can be heated up to the coronal temperature because of the inefficient radiation cooling. The coronal density of Population II/III stars with Z ≤ 0.01 Z⊙ is one to two orders of magnitude larger than that of a solar-metallicity star with the same mass, and as a result, the mass loss rate, \\dot{M}, is 4.5-20 times larger. This indicates that metal accretion on low-mass Pop. III stars is negligible. The soft X-ray flux of the Pop. II/III stars is also expected to be ˜1-30 times larger than that of a solar-metallicity counterpart owing to the larger coronal density, even though the radiation cooling efficiency is smaller. A larger fraction of the input Alfvénic wave energy is transmitted to the corona in low-Z stars because they avoid severe reflection owing to the smaller density difference between the photosphere and the corona. Therefore, a larger fraction is converted to the thermal energy of the corona and the kinetic energy of the stellar wind. From this energetics argument, we finally derived a scaling of \\dot{M} as \\dot{M}∝ L R_{\\star }^{11/9} M_{\\star }^{-10/9} T_eff^{11/2}[\\max (Z/Z_{⊙},0.01)]^{-1/5}, where L, R⋆, and Teff are the stellar luminosity, radius, and effective temperature, respectively.

  5. Stellar winds and coronae of low-mass Population II/III stars

    Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2018-04-01

    We investigated stellar winds from zero-/low-metallicity low-mass stars by magnetohydrodynamical simulations for stellar winds driven by Alfvén waves from stars with mass M = (0.6-0.8) M⊙ and metallicity Z = (0-1) Z⊙, where M⊙ and Z⊙ are the solar mass and metallicity, respectively. Alfvénic waves, which are excited by the surface convection, travel upward from the photosphere and heat up the corona by their dissipation. For lower Z, denser gas can be heated up to the coronal temperature because of the inefficient radiation cooling. The coronal density of Population II/III stars with Z ≤ 0.01 Z⊙ is one to two orders of magnitude larger than that of a solar-metallicity star with the same mass, and as a result, the mass loss rate, \\dot{M}, is 4.5-20 times larger. This indicates that metal accretion on low-mass Pop. III stars is negligible. The soft X-ray flux of the Pop. II/III stars is also expected to be ˜1-30 times larger than that of a solar-metallicity counterpart owing to the larger coronal density, even though the radiation cooling efficiency is smaller. A larger fraction of the input Alfvénic wave energy is transmitted to the corona in low-Z stars because they avoid severe reflection owing to the smaller density difference between the photosphere and the corona. Therefore, a larger fraction is converted to the thermal energy of the corona and the kinetic energy of the stellar wind. From this energetics argument, we finally derived a scaling of \\dot{M} as \\dot{M}∝ L R_{\\star }^{11/9} M_{\\star }^{-10/9} T_eff^{11/2}[\\max (Z/Z_{⊙},0.01)]^{-1/5}, where L, R⋆, and Teff are the stellar luminosity, radius, and effective temperature, respectively.

  6. Synchronized observations of bright points from the solar photosphere to the corona

    Tavabi, Ehsan

    2018-05-01

    One of the most important features in the solar atmosphere is the magnetic network and its relationship to the transition region (TR) and coronal brightness. It is important to understand how energy is transported into the corona and how it travels along the magnetic field lines between the deep photosphere and chromosphere through the TR and corona. An excellent proxy for transportation is the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) raster scans and imaging observations in near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) emission channels, which have high time, spectral and spatial resolutions. In this study, we focus on the quiet Sun as observed with IRIS. The data with a high signal-to-noise ratio in the Si IV, C II and Mg II k lines and with strong emission intensities show a high correlation with TR bright network points. The results of the IRIS intensity maps and dopplergrams are compared with those of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instruments onboard the Solar Dynamical Observatory (SDO). The average network intensity profiles show a strong correlation with AIA coronal channels. Furthermore, we applied simultaneous observations of the magnetic network from HMI and found a strong relationship between the network bright points in all levels of the solar atmosphere. These features in the network elements exhibited regions of high Doppler velocity and strong magnetic signatures. Plenty of corona bright points emission, accompanied by the magnetic origins in the photosphere, suggest that magnetic field concentrations in the network rosettes could help to couple the inner and outer solar atmosphere.

  7. Anomalous energy transport in hot plasmas: solar corona and Tokamak

    Beaufume, P.

    1992-04-01

    Anomalous energy transport is studied in two hot plasmas and appears to be associated with a heating of the solar corona and with a plasma deconfining process in tokamaks. The magnetic structure is shown to play a fundamental role in this phenomenon through small scale instabilities which are modelized by means of a nonlinear dynamical system: the Beasts' Model. Four behavior classes are found for this system, which are automatically classified in the parameter space thanks to a neural network. We use a compilation of experimental results relative to the solar corona to discuss current-based heating processes. We find that a simple Joule effect cannot provide the required heating rates, and therefore propose a dimensional model involving a resistive reconnective instability which leads to an efficient and discontinuous heating mechanism. Results are in good agreement with the observations. We give an analytical expression for a diffusion coefficient in tokamaks when magnetic turbulence is perturbing the topology, which we validate thanks to the standard mapping. A realistic version of the Beasts' Model allows to test a candidate to anomalous transport: the thermal filamentation instability

  8. Magnetic Untwisting in Solar Jets that Go into the Outer Corona in Polar Coronal Holes

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from 14 exceptionally high-reaching large solar jets observed in the polar coronal holes. EUV movies from SDO/AIA show that each jet is similar to many other similar-size and smaller jets that erupt in coronal holes, but each is exceptional in that it goes higher than most other jets, so high that it is observed in the outer corona beyond 2.2 R(sub Sun) in images from the SOHO/LASCO/C2 coronagraph. For these high-reaching jets, we find: (1) the front of the jet transits the corona below 2.2 R(sub Sun) at a speed typically several times the sound speed; (2) each jet displays an exceptionally large amount of spin as it erupts; (3) in the outer corona, most jets display oscillatory swaying having an amplitude of a few degrees and a period of order 1 hour. We conclude that these jets are magnetically driven, propose that the driver is a magnetic-untwisting wave that is grossly a large-amplitude (i.e., nonlinear) torsional Alfven wave that is put into the reconnected open magnetic field in the jet by interchange reconnection as the jet erupts, and estimate from the measured spinning and swaying that the magnetic-untwisting wave loses most of its energy in the inner corona below 2.2 R(sub Sun). From these results for these big jets, we reason that the torsional magnetic waves observed in Type-II spicules should dissipate in the corona in the same way and could thereby power much of the coronal heating in coronal holes.

  9. Line formation in the solar chromosphere. II - An optically thick region of the chromosphere-corona transition region observed with OSO 8

    Lites, B. W.; Hansen, E. R.; Shine, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The University of Colorado ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the Orbiting Solar Observatory 8(OSO 8) has measured self-reversed profiles of the resonance line of C IV lamda 1548.2 at the limb passage of an active region. The degree of the self-reversal together with the absolute intensity of the line profile determine the electron density in the active region at 10 to the 10th/cu cm at temperatures where the C IV line is formed. The nonthermal component of the broadening velocity is no more than 14km/s, and the physical thickness of an equivalent plane-parallel slab in hydrostatic equilibrium that would give rise to the observed line profiles is about 430 km.

  10. Clementine Observes the Moon, Solar Corona, and Venus

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, during its flight, the Clementine spacecraft returned images of the Moon. In addition to the geologic mapping cameras, the Clementine spacecraft also carried two Star Tracker cameras for navigation. These lightweight (0.3 kg) cameras kept the spacecraft on track by constantly observing the positions of stars, reminiscent of the age-old seafaring tradition of sextant/star navigation. These navigation cameras were also to take some spectacular wide angle images of the Moon.In this picture the Moon is seen illuminated solely by light reflected from the Earth--Earthshine! The bright glow on the lunar horizon is caused by light from the solar corona; the sun is just behind the lunar limb. Caught in this image is the planet Venus at the top of the frame.

  11. Simultaneous Observation of High Temperature Plasma of Solar Corona By TESIS CORONAS-PHOTON and XRT Hinode.

    Reva, A.; Kuzin, S.; Bogachev, S.; Shestov, S.

    2012-05-01

    The Mg XII spectroheliograph is a part of instrumentation complex TESIS (satellite CORONAS-PHOTON). This instrument builds monochromatic images of hot plasma of the solar corona (λ = 8.42 Å, T>5 MK). The Mg XII spectroheliograph observed hot plasma in the non-flaring active-region NOAA 11019 during nine days. We reconstructed DEM of this active region with the help of genetic algorithm (we used data of the Mg XII spectroheliograph, XRT and EIT). Emission measure of the hot component amounts 1 % of the emission measure of the cool component.

  12. Ubiquitous and Continuous Propagating Disturbances in the Solar Corona

    Morgan, Huw; Hutton, Joseph

    2018-02-01

    A new processing method applied to Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamic Observatory observations reveals continuous propagating faint motions throughout the corona. The amplitudes are small, typically 2% of the background intensity. An hour’s data are processed from four AIA channels for a region near disk center, and the motions are characterized using an optical flow method. The motions trace the underlying large-scale magnetic field. The motion vector field describes large-scale coherent regions that tend to converge at narrow corridors. Large-scale vortices can also be seen. The hotter channels have larger-scale regions of coherent motion compared to the cooler channels, interpreted as the typical length of magnetic loops at different heights. Regions of low mean and high time variance in velocity are where the dominant motion component is along the line of sight as a result of a largely vertical magnetic field. The mean apparent magnitude of the optical velocities are a few tens of km s‑1, with different distributions in different channels. Over time, the velocities vary smoothly between a few km s‑1 to 100 km s‑1 or higher, varying on timescales of minutes. A clear bias of a few km s‑1 toward positive x-velocities is due to solar rotation and may be used as calibration in future work. All regions of the low corona thus experience a continuous stream of propagating disturbances at the limit of both spatial resolution and signal level. The method provides a powerful new diagnostic tool for tracing the magnetic field, and to probe motions at sub-pixel scales, with important implications for models of heating and of the magnetic field.

  13. Global Fluxon Modeling of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere

    Lamb, D. A.; DeForest, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The fluxon approach to MHD modeling enables simulations of low-beta plasmas in the absence of undesirable numerical effects such as diffusion and magnetic reconnection. The magnetic field can be modeled as a collection of discrete field lines ("fluxons") containing a set amount of magnetic flux in a prescribed field topology. Due to the fluxon model's pseudo-Lagrangian grid, simulations can be completed in a fraction of the time of traditional grid-based simulations, enabling near-real-time simulations of the global magnetic field structure and its influence on solar wind properties. Using SDO/HMI synoptic magnetograms as lower magnetic boundary conditions, and a separate one-dimensional fluid flow model attached to each fluxon, we compare the resulting fluxon relaxations with other commonly-used global models (such as PFSS), and with white-light images of the corona (including the August 2017 total solar eclipse). Finally, we show the computed magnetic field expansion ratio, and the modeled solar wind speed near the coronal-heliospheric transition. Development of the fluxon MHD model FLUX (the Field Line Universal relaXer), has been funded by NASA's Living with a Star program and by Southwest Research Institute.

  14. Signature of open magnetic field lines in the extended solar corona and of solar wind acceleration

    Antonucci, E.; Giordano, S.; Benna, C.; Kohl, J. L.; Noci, G.; Michels, J.; Fineschi, S.

    1997-01-01

    The observations carried out with the ultraviolet coronagraph spectrometer onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) are discussed. The purpose of the observations was to determine the line of sight and radial velocity fields in coronal regions with different magnetic topology. The results showed that the regions where the high speed solar wind flows along open field lines are characterized by O VI 1032 and HI Lyman alpha 1216 lines. The global coronal maps of the line of sight velocity were reconstructed. The corona height, where the solar wind reaches 100 km/s, was determined.

  15. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere V. On the Nature of the Corona

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The E-corona is the site of numerous emission lines associated with high ionization states (i.e. FeXIV-FeXXV. Modern gaseous models of the Sun require that these states are produced by atomic irradiation, requiring the sequential removal of electrons to infinity, without an associated electron acceptor. This can lead to computed temperatures in the corona which are unrealistic (i.e. ∼30–100 MK contrasted to solar core values of ∼16 MK. In order to understand the emission lines of the E-corona, it is vital to recognize that they are superimposed upon the K-corona, which produces a continuous spectrum, devoid of Fraunhofer lines, arising from this same region of the Sun. It has been advanced that the K-corona harbors self-luminous condensed matter (Robitaille P.M. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere II. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Corona. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L8–L10; Robitaille P.M. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere III. Importance of Continuous Emission Spectra from Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections, Prominences, and Other Coronal Structures. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L11–L14. Condensed matter can possess elevated electron affinities which may strip nearby atoms of their electrons. Such a scenario accounts for the high ionization states observed in the corona: condensed matter acts to harness electrons, ensuring the electrical neutrality of the Sun, despite the flow of electrons and ions in the solar winds. Elevated ionization states reflect the presence of materials with high electron affinities in the corona, which is likely to be a form of metallic hydrogen, and does not translate into elevated temperatures in this region of the solar atmosphere. As a result, the many mechanisms advanced to account for coronal heating in the gaseous models of the Sun

  16. Diagnostics of the solar corona from comparison between Faraday rotation measurements and magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Le Chat, G.; Cohen, O.; Kasper, J. C.; Spangler, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized natural radio sources passing behind the Sun experience Faraday rotation as a consequence of the electron density and magnetic field strength in coronal plasma. Since Faraday rotation is proportional to the product of the density and the component of the magnetic field along the line of sight of the observer, a model is required to interpret the observations and infer coronal structures. Faraday rotation observations have been compared with relatively ad hoc models of the corona. Here for the first time we compare these observations with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the solar corona driven by measurements of the photospheric magnetic field. We use observations made with the NRAO Very Large Array of 34 polarized radio sources occulted by the solar corona between 5 and 14 solar radii. The measurements were made during 1997 May, and 2005 March and April. We compare the observed Faraday rotation values with values extracted from MHD steady-state simulations of the solar corona. We find that (1) using a synoptic map of the solar magnetic field just one Carrington rotation off produces poorer agreements, meaning that the outer corona changes in the course of one month, even in solar minimum; (2) global MHD models of the solar corona driven by photospheric magnetic field measurements are generally able to reproduce Faraday rotation observations; and (3) some sources show significant disagreement between the model and the observations, which appears to be a function of the proximity of the line of sight to the large-scale heliospheric current sheet.

  17. Destruction of Sun-Grazing Comet C-2011 N3 (SOHO) Within the Low Solar Corona

    Schrijver, C. J.; Brown, J. C.; Battams, K.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Liu, W.; Hudson, H.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of comets in Sun-grazing orbits that survive solar insolation long enough to penetrate into the Suns inner corona provide information on the solar atmosphere and magnetic field as well as on the makeup of the comet. On 6 July 2011, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed the demise of comet C2011 N3 (SOHO) within the low solar corona in five wavelength bands in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The comet penetrated to within 0.146 solarradius (100,000 kilometers) of the solar surface before its EUV signal disappeared.

  18. Co-existence of two plasma phases in solar and AGN coronas

    Kubičela A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we have juxtaposed two distant cosmic locations of the Sun and AGN where neutral hydrogen appears in a close connection with hot coronas. Besides the solar photosphere, chromosphere and prominences where the presence of neutral hydrogen is well established, its emission quite high in hot solar corona is still puzzling. Some of earlier observations where Hα emission in solar corona was detected in eclipse and in daily coronagraphic observations are reviewed. A proper theoretical explanation of this cold chromospheric-type emission in the hot corona does not exist yet. On the other side, a similar emission of hydrogen lines is present in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs. Much research work is currently being done in this field. We outline some of the concepts of the AGN structure prevailing in the astrophysics today.

  19. A cone-like enhancement of polar solar corona plasma and its influence on heliospheric particles

    Grzedzielski, Stan; Sokół, Justyna M.

    2017-04-01

    We will present results of the study of the properties of the solar wind plasma due to rotation of the polar solar corona. We focus in our study on the solar minimum conditions, when the polar coronal holes are well formed and the magnetic field in the solar polar corona exhibit almost regular "ray-like" structure. The solar rotation twists the magnetic field lines of the expanding fast polar solar wind and the resulting toroidal component of the field induces a force directed towards the rotation axis. This phenomenon is tantamount to a (weak) zeta pinch, known also in other astrophysical contexts (e.g. like in AGN jets). The pinch compresses the polar solar corona plasma and forms a cone-like enhancement of the solar wind density aligned with the rotation axis in the spherically symmetric case. The effect is likely very dynamic due to fast changing conditions in the solar corona, however in the study presented here, we assume a time independent description to get an order-of-magnitude estimate. The weak pinch is treated as a first-order perturbation to the zeroth-order radial flow. Following the assumptions based on the available knowledge about the plasma properties in the polar solar corona we estimated the most typical density enhancements. The cone like structure may extend as far from the Sun as tens of AU and thus will influence the heliospheric particles inside the heliosphere. An increase of the solar wind density in the polar region may be related with a decrease of the solar wind speed. Such changes of the solar wind plasma at high latitudes may modify the charge-exchange and electron impact ionization rates of heliospheric particles in interplanetary space. We will present their influence on the interstellar neutral gas and energetic neutral atoms observed by IBEX.

  20. Electron cyclotron maser instability in the solar corona: The role of superthermal tails

    Vlahos, L.; Sharma, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of a superthermal component of electrons on the loss-cone--driven electron cyclotron maser instability is analyzed. We found that for a supertheral tail with temperature approx.10 keV (i) the first harmonic (X- and O-mode) is suppressed for n/sub t//n/sub r/roughly-equal1 (n/sub t/ and n/sub r/ are the densities of superthermal tail and loss-cone electrons) and (ii) the second harmonic (X- and O-modes) is suppressed for n/sub t//n/sub r/ -1 . We present a qualitative discussion on the formation of superthermal taisl and suggest that superthermal tails play an important role on the observed or available power, at microwave frequencies, from the electron cyclotron maser instability in the solar corona

  1. Resonators for magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar corona: The effect of modulation of radio emission

    Zaitsev, V.V.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the existence of a minimum of the Alfven speed in the corona at a height of approx.1R/sub sun/ follows from the characteristics of type II radio bursts. The region of a reduced Alfven speed is a resonator for a fast magnetosonic (FMS) waves. The eigenmodes of the resonator are determined. The period of the fundamental mode has the order of several minutes. In the resonator FMS waves can be excited at the Cherenkov resonance by streams of energetic ions. Modulations of metal solar radio emission with a period of several minutes is explained by the effect of the propagation of radio waves through an oscillating magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) resonator

  2. On ion-cyclotron-resonance heating of the corona and solar wind

    E. Marsch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concisely summarizes and critically reviews recent work by the authors on models of the heating of the solar corona by resonance of ions with high-frequency waves (up to the proton cyclotron frequency. The quasi-linear theory of pitch angle diffusion is presented in connection with relevant solar wind proton observations. Hybrid fluid-kinetic model equations, which include wave-particle interactions and collisions, are derived. Numerical solutions are discussed, representative of the inner corona and near-Sun solar wind. A semi-kinetic model for reduced velocity distributions is presented, yielding kinetic results for heavy ions in the solar corona. It is concluded that a self-consistent treatment of particle distributions and wave spectra is required, in order to adequately describe coronal physics and to obtain agreement with observations.

  3. Tomographic Validation of the AWSoM Model of the Inner Corona During Solar Minima

    Manchester, W.; Vásquez, A. M.; Lloveras, D. G.; Mac Cormack, C.; Nuevo, F.; Lopez-Fuentes, M.; Frazin, R. A.; van der Holst, B.; Landi, E.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous improvement of MHD three-dimensional (3D) models of the global solar corona, such as the Alfven Wave Solar Model (AWSoM) of the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), requires testing their ability to reproduce observational constraints at a global scale. To that end, solar rotational tomography based on EUV image time-series can be used to reconstruct the 3D distribution of the electron density and temperature in the inner solar corona (r used to validate steady-state 3D MHD simulations of the inner corona using the latest version of the AWSoM model. We perform the study for selected rotations representative of solar minimum conditions, when the global structure of the corona is more axisymmetric. We analyse in particular the ability of the MHD simulation to match the tomographic results across the boundary region between the equatorial streamer belt and the surrounding coronal holes. The region is of particular interest as the plasma flow from that zone is thought to be related to the origin of the slow component of the solar wind.

  4. Results of Spectral Corona Observations in Solar Activity Cycles 17-24

    Aliev, A. Kh.; Guseva, S. A.; Tlatov, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    The results of the work of the global observation network are considered, and a comparative analysis of the data of various coronal observatories is performed. The coronal activity index has been reconstructed for the period 1939-2016 based on the data of various observatories in Kislovodsk system. For this purpose, the corona daily intensity maps from the Sacramento Peak and Lomnický Štít observatories according to the Solar-Geophysical Data journal have been digitized; they supplement the data of other observatories. The homogeneity and continuity of the corona observations at the Kislovodsk station, including activity cycle 24, is confirmed. Unfortunately, the only observatory at present that continues observation of the spectral corona in Fe XIV 5303 Å and Fe XIV 6374 Å lines is the Kislovodsk astronomical station Mountain Astronomical Station (MAS) of the Central Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences (Pulkovo). The data on the combined corona in 5303 Å line are analyzed. It is shown that there is a high correlation of the intensity index of green corona with solar radiation measurements in the vacuum UV region. Data on the beginning of the new 25th activity cycle in the corona at high latitudes are presented.

  5. Empirical models of the Solar Wind : Extrapolations from the Helios & Ulysses observations back to the corona

    Maksimovic, M.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2017-12-01

    We will present extrapolation of the HELIOS & Ulysses proton density, temperature & bulk velocities back to the corona. Using simple mass flux conservations we show a very good agreement between these extrapolations and the current state knowledge of these parameters in the corona, based on SOHO mesurements. These simple extrapolations could potentially be very useful for the science planning of both the Parker Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter missions. Finally will also present some modelling considerations, based on simple energy balance equations which arise from these empirical observationnal models.

  6. Configuration of and Motions in the Solar Corona at the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Rusin, Vojtech; Vanur, Roman; Economou, Thanasis; Voulgaris, Aristeidis; Seiradakis, John H.; Seaton, Daniel; Dantowitz, Ronald; Lockwood, Christian A.; Nagle-McNaughton, Timothy; Perez, Cielo; Meadors, Erin N.; Marti, Connor J.; Yu, Ross; Rosseau, Brendan; Ide, Charles A.; Daly, Declan M.; Davis, Allen Bradford; Lu, Muzhou; Steele, Amy; Lee, Duane; Freeman, Marcus J.; Sliski, David; Rousseva, Ana; Greek Salem (Oregon) Team; Voulgaris, Aristeidis; Seiradakis, John Hugh; Koukioglou, Stavros; Kyriakou, Nikos; Vasileiadou, Anna; Greek Carbondale (Illinois) Team; Economou, Thanasis; Kanouras, Spyros; Irakleous, Christina; Golemis, Adrianos; Tsioumpanika, Nikoleta; Plexidas, Nikos; Tzimkas, Nikos; Kokkinidou, Ourania

    2018-06-01

    We report on high-contrast data reduction of white-light images from the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. We show the configuration of the solar corona at this declining phase of the solar-activity cycle, with the projection onto the plane of the sky of the three-dimensional coronal streamers plus extensive polar plumes. We discuss the relation of the white-light coronal loops visible in our observations with extreme-ultraviolet observations from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and NOAA’s GOES-16 Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI). We show differences and motions over a 65-minute interval between observations from our main site at Willamette University in Salem, Oregon, and a subsidiary site in Carbondale, Illinois. We discuss, in particular, a giant demarcation about 1 solar radius outward in the southwest that crosses the radial streamers.Our observations of the eclipse were sponsored in large part by the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society and by the Solar Terrestrial Program of the National Geographic Society. Additional support was received from the NASA Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Sigma Xi honorary scientific society, the University of Pennsylvania (for DS), the Slovak Academy of Sciences VEGA project 2/0003/16, and the Freeman Foote Expeditionary and Brandi funds at Williams College. We thank Stephen Thorsett, Rick Watkins, and Honey Wilson of Willamette University for their hospitality. See http://totalsolareclipse.org or http://sites.williams.edu/eclipse/2017-usa/.

  7. Threaded-Field-Line Model for the Transition Region and Solar Corona

    Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2014-12-01

    In numerical simulations of the solar corona, both for the ambient state and especially for dynamical processes the most computational resources are spent for maintaining the numerical solution in the Low Solar Corona and in the transition region, where the temperature gradients are very sharp and the magnetic field has a complicated topology. The degraded computational efficiency is caused by the need in a highest resolution as well as the use of the fully three-dimensional implicit solver for electron heat conduction. On the other hand, the physical nature of the processes involved is rather simple (which still does not facilitate the numerical methods) as long as the heat fluxes as well as slow plasma motional velocities are aligned with the magnetic field. The Alfven wave turbulence, which is often believed to be the main driver of the solar wind and the main source of the coronal heating, is characterized by the Poynting flux of the waves, which is also aligned with the magnetic field. Therefore, the plasma state in any point of the three-dimensional grid in the Low Solar Corona can be found by solving a set of one-dimensional equations for the magnetic field line ("thread"), which passes through this point and connects it to the chromosphere and to the global Solar Corona. In the present paper we describe an innovative computational technology based upon the use of the magnetic-field-line-threads to forlmulate the boundary condition for the global solar corona model which traces the connection of each boundary point to the cromosphere along the threads.

  8. Signatures of Slow Solar Wind Streams from Active Regions in the Inner Corona

    Slemzin, V.; Harra, L.; Urnov, A.; Kuzin, S.; Goryaev, F.; Berghmans, D.

    2013-08-01

    The identification of solar-wind sources is an important question in solar physics. The existing solar-wind models ( e.g., the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model) provide the approximate locations of the solar wind sources based on magnetic field extrapolations. It has been suggested recently that plasma outflows observed at the edges of active regions may be a source of the slow solar wind. To explore this we analyze an isolated active region (AR) adjacent to small coronal hole (CH) in July/August 2009. On 1 August, Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer observations showed two compact outflow regions in the corona. Coronal rays were observed above the active-region coronal hole (ARCH) region on the eastern limb on 31 July by STEREO-A/EUVI and at the western limb on 7 August by CORONAS- Photon/TESIS telescopes. In both cases the coronal rays were co-aligned with open magnetic-field lines given by the potential field source surface model, which expanded into the streamer. The solar-wind parameters measured by STEREO-B, ACE, Wind, and STEREO-A confirmed the identification of the ARCH as a source region of the slow solar wind. The results of the study support the suggestion that coronal rays can represent signatures of outflows from ARs propagating in the inner corona along open field lines into the heliosphere.

  9. Joint Soviet--French investigations of the solar corona. 2. Photometry of solar corona of June 30, 1973

    Vsekhsvyatskii, S.; Dzyubenko, N.; Ivanchuk, V.; Popov, O.; Rubo, G.; Koutchmy, S.; Koutchmy, O.; Stellmacher, G.

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented on a study of eclipse negative obtained on June 30, 1973, in Africa in the program of the Soviet--French experiment ''Dynamics of the White Corona'' by expeditions of Kiev University (Atar, Mauritania) and the Paris Astropysical Institute (Moussoro, Chad). The distributions of the total brightness of the corona out to rapprox. =4.5 R/sub sun/ and of its K and F components for the E and N directions are found with high accuracy on the basis of a new method of photometry and colorimetry using the images of stars down to 8.5/sup m/ as photometric standards. Neither reddening nor flattening of the dusty F component were detected at r -6 E/sub sun/

  10. Absolute photometry of the corona of July 10, 1972 total solar eclipse

    Khetsuriani, Ts.S.; Tetruashvili, Eh.I.

    1985-01-01

    The observations were carried out by the Abastumani astrophysical observatory expedition at July 10.1972 total solar eclipse from a site of the Chukotka Peninsula. The photometry of the corona images is performed by the equidensity method having expressed the intensities in absolute units. The F and K components of the corona are separated on the basis of photometric and polarisation data. The variations of the electron concentration with the distance from the centre of the Sun and tempeatures at various distances are calculated.

  11. EIT: Solar corona synoptic observations from SOHO with an Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    Delaboudiniere, J. P.; Gabriel, A. H.; Artzner, G. E.; Michels, D. J.; Dere, K. P.; Howard, R. A.; Catura, R.; Stern, R.; Lemen, J.; Neupert, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) of SOHO (solar and heliospheric observatory) will provide full disk images in emission lines formed at temperatures that map solar structures ranging from the chromospheric network to the hot magnetically confined plasma in the corona. Images in four narrow bandpasses will be obtained using normal incidence multilayered optics deposited on quadrants of a Ritchey-Chretien telescope. The EIT is capable of providing a uniform one arc second resolution over its entire 50 by 50 arc min field of view. Data from the EIT will be extremely valuable for identifying and interpreting the spatial and temperature fine structures of the solar atmosphere. Temporal analysis will provide information on the stability of these structures and identify dynamical processes. EIT images, issued daily, will provide the global corona context for aid in unifying the investigations and in forming the observing plans for SOHO coronal instruments.

  12. Global solar magetic field organization in the extended corona: influence on the solar wind speed and density over the cycle.

    Réville, V.; Velli, M.; Brun, S.

    2017-12-01

    The dynamics of the solar wind depends intrinsically on the structure of the global solar magnetic field, which undergoes fundamental changes over the 11yr solar cycle. For instance, the wind terminal velocity is thought to be anti-correlated with the expansion factor, a measure of how the magnetic field varies with height in the solar corona, usually computed at a fixed height (≈ 2.5 Rȯ, the source surface radius which approximates the distance at which all magnetic field lines become open). However, the magnetic field expansion affects the solar wind in a more detailed way, its influence on the solar wind properties remaining significant well beyond the source surface: we demonstrate this using 3D global MHD simulations of the solar corona, constrained by surface magnetograms over half a solar cycle (1989-2001). For models to comply with the constraints provided by observed characteristics of the solar wind, namely, that the radial magnetic field intensity becomes latitude independent at some distance from the Sun (Ulysses observations beyond 1 AU), and that the terminal wind speed is anti-correlated with the mass flux, they must accurately describe expansion beyond the solar wind critical point (even up to 10Rȯ and higher in our model). We also show that near activity minimum, expansion in the higher corona beyond 2.5 Rȯ is actually the dominant process affecting the wind speed. We discuss the consequences of this result on the necessary acceleration profile of the solar wind, the location of the sonic point and of the energy deposition by Alfvén waves.

  13. Spatiotemporal Organization of Energy Release Events in the Quiet Solar Corona

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvenic interactions.

  14. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  15. The Substructure of the Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore calculate how the intensity scales from a low-resolution (AIA) pixels to high-resolution (Hi-C) pixels for both the dynamic events and "background" emission (meaning, the steady emission over the 5 minutes of data acquisition time). We find there is no evidence of substructure in the background corona; the intensity scales smoothly from low-resolution to high-resolution Hi-C pixels. In transient events, however, the intensity observed with Hi-C is, on average, 2.6 times larger than observed with AIA. This increase in intensity suggests that AIA is not resolving these events. This result suggests a finely structured dynamic corona embedded in a smoothly varying background.

  16. Periodicities in the X-ray Emission from the Solar Corona: SphinX and SOXS Observations

    Steślicki, M.; Awasthi, A. K.; Gryciuk, M.; Jain, R.

    The structure and evolution of the solar magnetic field is driven by a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo operating in the solar interior, which induces various solar activities that exhibit periodic variations on different timescales. Therefore, probing the periodic nature of emission originating from the solar corona may provide insights of the convection-zone-photosphere-corona coupling processes. We present the study of the mid-range periodicities, between rotation period (˜27 days) and the Schwabe cycle period (˜11 yr), in the solar soft X-ray emission, based on the data obtained by two instruments: SphinX and SOXS in various energy bands.

  17. The nonuniform magnetohydrodynamic nature of the solar corona. III. Cylindrical geometry

    De ville, A.; Priest, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    The method developed by Priest in 1988 for modeling steady MHD disturbances in the solar corona is extended to a cylindrical geometry, which is more realistic for three-dimensional structures, such as plumes and coronal holes, which are observed in the corona. Both axial symmetric and nonaxial magnetic fields are treated. The basic characteristics of the axisymmetric solutions are found to be similar to the previous Cartesian case. Quantitatively, the interactions are stronger in the central region and weaker at the outer boundary. Pressure gradients are also found to be smaller. Solutions dependent on all three spatial variables exhibit an asymmetry because of the angular dependence. They depend upon the azimuthal magnetic field imposed at the coronal base. The solutions found in this paper may be useful in interpreting the physics of MHD interactions observed in numerical experiments and also in the solar atmosphere

  18. Skylab and solar exploration. [chromosphere-corona structure, energy production and heat transport processes

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the findings concerning solar structure, energy production, and heat transport obtained with the aid of the manned Skylab space station observatory launched on May 14, 1973. Among the topics discussed are the observation of thermonuclear fusion processes which cannot be simulated on earth, the observation of short-wave solar radiation not visible to observers on earth, and the investigation of energy-transport processes occurring in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona. An apparent paradox is noted in that the cooler chromosphere is heating the hotter corona, seemingly in defiance of the second law of thermodynamics, thus suggesting that a nonthermal mechanism underlies the energy transport. Understanding of this nonthermal mechanism is regarded as an indispensable prerequisite for future development of plasma systems for terrestrial applications.

  19. Magnetic Reconnection and Particle Acceleration in the Solar Corona

    Neukirch, Thomas

    Reconnection plays a major role for the magnetic activity of the solar atmosphere, for example solar flares. An interesting open problem is how magnetic reconnection acts to redistribute the stored magnetic energy released during an eruption into other energy forms, e.g. gener-ating bulk flows, plasma heating and non-thermal energetic particles. In particular, finding a theoretical explanation for the observed acceleration of a large number of charged particles to high energies during solar flares is presently one of the most challenging problems in solar physics. One difficulty is the vast difference between the microscopic (kinetic) and the macro-scopic (MHD) scales involved. Whereas the phenomena observed to occur on large scales are reasonably well explained by the so-called standard model, this does not seem to be the case for the small-scale (kinetic) aspects of flares. Over the past years, observations, in particular by RHESSI, have provided evidence that a naive interpretation of the data in terms of the standard solar flare/thick target model is problematic. As a consequence, the role played by magnetic reconnection in the particle acceleration process during solar flares may have to be reconsidered.

  20. Laboratory Experiments to Simulate and Investigate the Physics Underlying the Dynamics of Merging Solar Corona Structures

    2016-06-05

    efficiently by using current density rather than electric field as the fundamental wave quantity. 3. Moser & Bellan (2012) showed that the effective gravity...there is effectively a magnetic bubble. This is relevant to interplanetary magnetic clouds spawned by the eruptions of solar corona structures. 10...release. Haw, Magnus , & Bellan, Paul. 2015. 1D fast coded aperture camera. Review of Scientific Instruments, 86(4). 043506. Moser, Auna L., & Bellan

  1. Solar activity and its evolution across the corona: recent advances

    Rodriguez Luciano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar magnetism is responsible for the several active phenomena that occur in the solar atmosphere. The consequences of these phenomena on the solar-terrestrial environment and on Space Weather are nowadays clearly recognized, even if not yet fully understood. In order to shed light on the mechanisms that are at the basis of the Space Weather, it is necessary to investigate the sequence of phenomena starting in the solar atmosphere and developing across the outer layers of the Sun and along the path from the Sun to the Earth. This goal can be reached by a combined multi-disciplinary, multi-instrument, multi-wavelength study of these phenomena, starting with the very first manifestation of solar active region formation and evolution, followed by explosive phenomena (i.e., flares, erupting prominences, coronal mass ejections, and ending with the interaction of plasma magnetized clouds expelled from the Sun with the interplanetary magnetic field and medium. This wide field of research constitutes one of the main aims of COST Action ES0803: Developing Space Weather products and services in Europe. In particular, one of the tasks of this COST Action was to investigate the Progress in Scientific Understanding of Space Weather. In this paper we review the state of the art of our comprehension of some phenomena that, in the scenario outlined above, might have a role on Space Weather, focusing on the researches, thematic reviews, and main results obtained during the COST Action ES0803.

  2. Annual Properties of Transverse Waves in the Corona over most of Solar Cycle 24

    Weberg, M. J.; Morton, R. J.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Waves are an omnipresent feature in heliophysical plasmas. In particular, transverse (or "Alfvénic") waves have been observed at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales within the corona and solar wind. These waves play a key role in transporting energy through the solar atmosphere and are also thought to contribute to the heating and acceleration of the solar wind. Previous studies of low-frequency (automated detection and measurement of low-frequency transverse waves with over 7 years of SDO / AIA data to provide a detailed picture of coronal transverse waves in polar plumes and, for the first time, begin to examine their long-term behaviour. We measure waves at three different heights in each of eight, four-hour periods spanning May 2010 - May 2017. We find that the bulk wave parameters within these 24 regions are largely consistent over most of a solar cycle. However, there is some evidence for smaller-scale variations both with height and over time periods of a few years. We also discuss total energy flux estimations based on the full wave power spectra, which yields a more nuanced picture than previous values based on summary statistics. Overall, this work expands our view of wave processes in the corona and is relevant to both theoretical and modelling considerations of energy transport within the solar atmosphere. Crucially, these initial results suggest that the energy flux provided by the low-frequency transverse waves varies little over the solar cycle, potentially indicating that the waves provide a consistent source of energy to the corona and beyond.

  3. Analysis of non-thermal velocities in the solar corona

    L. Contesse

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe new ground-based spectroscopic observations made using a 40-cm aperture coronagraph over a whole range of radial distances (up to heights of 12' above the limb and along four different heliocentric directions N, E, S and W. The analysis is limited to the study of the brightest forbidden emission line of Fe XIV at 530.3nm, in order to reach the best possible signal-to-noise ratio. To make the results statistically more significant, the extracted parameters are averaged over the whole length of the slit, and measurements are repeated fives times at each position; the corresponding dispersions in the results obtained along the slit are given. Central line profile intensities and full line widths (FWHM are plotted and compared to measurements published by other authors closer to the limb. We found widths and turbulent (non-thermal velocities of significantly higher values above the polar regions, especially when a coronal hole is present along the line of sight. We do not see a definitely decreasing behaviour of widths and turbulent velocities in equatorial directions for larger radial distances, as reported in the literature, although lower values are measured compared to the values in polar regions. The variation in the high corona is rather flat and a correlation diagram indicates that it is different for different regions and different radial distances. This seems to be the first analysis of the profiles of this coronal line, up to large heights above the limb for both equatorial and polar regions.

  4. The colour of the solar corona and dust grains in it

    Ajmanov, A.K.; Nikolsky, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    The photometry of coronal negatives is carried out. The films were obtained at the March 7, 1970 and July 10, 1972 eclipses. A distribution of the coronal brightness in the red (635 mm), green (545 nm), and blue (455 nm) wavelength intervals up to distances of (6-7)Rsub(sun) is deduced (Figure 1). Colour indexes of the corona (the emission ratio red/blue-Csub(rb) and green/blue-Csub(gb)) have been obtained. We assume Csub(rb) = Csub(gb) = 1 in the inner corona ( = 1 μm. RED brightness is evaluated to be 4 x 10 -10 anti Bsub(sun). There is 1 grain of dust in the elementary volume with cross section of 1 cm 2 along the line of sight. The intensity of dust emission in wavelength interval 10 μm deduced by the authors is approximately 1 μ W cm -2 sm -1 . That is in agreement with Mankin et al. (1974) and Lena et al. (1974) observations. The whole dust mass of RED is -11 cm -3 . Determination of the colour of the solar corona have been made by a number of scientists (Tikhov, 1940, 1957; Allen, 1946; Blackwell, 1952; Michard, 1956; Sharonov, 1958; Nay et al. 1961). The corona colour was found to be somewhat redder than the Sun's. However this question is not finally settled to date. (orig.)

  5. MAXIMIZING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Wolfson, Richard; Drake, Christina; Kennedy, Max

    2012-01-01

    The energy that drives solar eruptive events such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) almost certainly originates in coronal magnetic fields. Such energy may build up gradually on timescales of days or longer before its sudden release in an eruptive event, and the presence of free magnetic energy capable of rapid release requires nonpotential magnetic fields and associated electric currents. For magnetic energy to power a CME, that energy must be sufficient to open the magnetic field to interplanetary space, to lift the ejecta against solar gravity, and to accelerate the material to speeds of typically several hundred km s –1 . Although CMEs are large-scale structures, many originate from relatively compact active regions on the solar surface—suggesting that magnetic energy storage may be enhanced when it takes place in smaller magnetic structures. This paper builds on our earlier work exploring energy storage in large-scale dipolar and related bipolar magnetic fields. Here we consider two additional cases: quadrupolar fields and concentrated magnetic bipoles intended to simulate active regions. Our models yield stored energies whose excess over that of the corresponding open field state can be greater than 100% of the associated potential field energy; this contrasts with maximum excess energies of only about 20% for dipolar and symmetric bipolar configurations. As in our previous work, energy storage is enhanced when we surround a nonpotential field with a strong overlying potential field that acts to 'hold down' the nonpotential flux as its magnetic energy increases.

  6. Electrons in the solar corona. Pt. 3. Coronal streamers analysis from balloon-borne coronagraph

    Dollfus, A; Mouradian, Z [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France)

    1981-03-01

    During a balloon flight in France on September 13, 1971, at altitude 32 000 m, the solar corona was cinematographed from 2 to 5 Rsub(sun) during 5 hr, with an externally occulted coronagraph. Motions in coronal features, when they occur, exhibit deformations of structures with velocities not exceeding a few 10 km s/sup -1/; several streamers were often involved simultaneously; these variations are compatible with magnetic changes or sudden reorganizations of lines of forces. Intensity and polarization measurements give the electron density with height in the quiet corona above the equator. Electron density gradient for one of the streamers gives a temperature of 1.6 x 10/sup 6/ K and comparisons with the on-board Apollo 16 coronal observation of 31 July, 1971 are compatible with the extension of this temperature up to 25 Rsub(sun). Three-dimensional structures and localizations of the streamers are deduced from combined photometry, polarimetry and ground-based K coronametry. Three of the four coronal streamers analysed have their axis bent with height towards the direction of the solar rotation, as if the upper corona has a rotation slightly faster than the chromosphere.

  7. Common observations of solar X-rays from SPHINX/CORONAS-PHOTON and XRS/MESSENGER

    Kepa, Anna; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Siarkowski, Marek; Mrozek, Tomasz; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Phillips, Kenneth

    SphinX was a soft X-ray spectrophotometer constructed in the Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences. The instrument was launched on 30 January 2009 aboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite as a part of TESIS instrument package. SphinX measured total solar X-ray flux in the energy range from 1 to 15 keV during the period of very low solar activity from 20 February to 29 November 2009. For these times the solar detector (X-ray Spectrometer - XRS) onboard MESSENGER also observed the solar X-rays from a different vantage point. XRS measured the radiation in similar energy range. We present results of the comparison of observations from both instruments and show the preliminary results of physical analysis of spectra for selected flares.

  8. Resonators for magnetohydrodynamic waves in the solar corona: radioemission modulation effect

    Zajtsev, V.V.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Data on type 2 solar radio bursts are analyzed in the framework of a model of radio emission production by shock waves. Type 2 solar radio bursts data are shown to suggest the existence of Alfven velocity minimum at a height of the one solar radius in the corona. The domain of a low Alfven velocity is a resonator for the fast magnetosonic waves. The eigenmodes of the resonator are determined. The main mode period is about a few minutes. Fast modes in the resonator can be amplified by energetic ion beams at the Cherenkov resonance. The modulation of meter solar radio emission with a period of about a few minutes can be explained by radiowave propagation through the MHD-resonator

  9. Shock–Cloud Interaction in the Solar Corona

    Takahashi, Takuya, E-mail: takahashi@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-02-20

    Flare-associated coronal shock waves sometimes interact with solar prominences, leading to large-amplitude prominence oscillations (LAPOs). Such prominence activation gives us a unique opportunity to track the time evolution of shock–cloud interaction in cosmic plasmas. Although the dynamics of interstellar shock–cloud interaction has been extensively studied, coronal shock–solar prominence interaction is rarely studied in the context of shock–cloud interaction. Associated with the X5.4 class solar flare that occurred on 2012 March 7, a globally propagated coronal shock wave interacted with a polar prominence, leading to LAPO. In this paper, we studied bulk acceleration and excitation of the internal flow of the shocked prominence using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. We studied eight MHD simulation runs, each with different mass density structure of the prominence, and one hydrodynamic simulation run, and we compared the result. In order to compare the observed motion of activated prominence with the corresponding simulation, we also studied prominence activation by injection of a triangular-shaped coronal shock. We found that the prominence is first accelerated mainly by magnetic tension force as well as direct transmission of the shock, and later decelerated mainly by magnetic tension force. The internal flow, on the other hand, is excited during the shock front sweeps through the prominence and damps almost exponentially. We construct a phenomenological model of bulk momentum transfer from the shock to the prominence, which agreed quantitatively with all the simulation results. Based on the phenomenological prominence activation model, we diagnosed physical parameters of the coronal shock wave. The estimated energy of the coronal shock is several percent of the total energy released during the X5.4 flare.

  10. Comparative study of the loss cone-driven instabilities in the low solar corona

    Sharma, R.R.; Vlahos, L.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of the loss cone--driven instabilities in the low solar corona is undertaken. The instailities considered are the electron maser, the whistler, and the electrostatic upper hybrid. We show that the first-harmonic extraordinary mode of the electron cyclotron maser instability is the fastest growing mode for strongly magnetized plasma (ω/sub e//Ω/sub e/ 1.0, no direct electromagnetic radiation is expected since other instabilities, which do not escape directly, saturate the electron cyclotron maser (the whistler or the electrostatic upper hybrid waves). We also show that the second-harmonic electron cyclotron maser emission never grows to an appreciable level. Thus, we suggest that the electron cyclotron maser instability can be the explanation for intense radio bursts only when the first harmonic escapes from the low corona. We propose a possible explanation for the escape of the first harmonic from a flaring loop

  11. Energetics of small electron acceleration episodes in the solar corona from radio noise storm observations

    James, Tomin; Subramanian, Prasad

    2018-05-01

    Observations of radio noise storms can act as sensitive probes of nonthermal electrons produced in small acceleration events in the solar corona. We use data from noise storm episodes observed jointly by the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and the Nancay Radioheliograph (NRH) to study characteristics of the nonthermal electrons involved in the emission. We find that the electrons carry 1021 to 1024 erg/s, and that the energy contained in the electrons producing a representative noise storm burst ranges from 1020 to 1023 ergs. These results are a direct probe of the energetics involved in ubiquitous, small-scale electron acceleration episodes in the corona, and could be relevant to a nanoflare-like scenario for coronal heating.

  12. Propagation of energetic electrons in the solar corona observed with LOFAR

    Breitling, F.

    2017-06-01

    This work reports about new high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations of solar type III radio bursts at low radio frequencies in the range from 30 to 80 MHz. Solar type III radio bursts are understood as result of the beam-plasma interaction of electron beams in the corona. The Sun provides a unique opportunity to study these plasma processes of an active star. Its activity appears in eruptive events like flares, coronal mass ejections and radio bursts which are all accompanied by enhanced radio emission. Therefore solar radio emission carries important information about plasma processes associated with the Sun's activity. Moreover, the Sun's atmosphere is a unique plasma laboratory with plasma processes under conditions not found in terrestrial laboratories. Because of the Sun's proximity to Earth, it can be studied in greater detail than any other star but new knowledge about the Sun can be transfer to them. This "solar stellar connection" is important for the understanding of processes on other stars. The novel radio interferometer LOFAR provides imaging and spectroscopic capabilities to study these processes at low frequencies. Here it was used for solar observations. LOFAR, the characteristics of its solar data and the processing and analysis of the latter with the Solar Imaging Pipeline and Solar Data Center are described. The Solar Imaging Pipeline is the central software that allows using LOFAR for solar observations. So its development was necessary for the analysis of solar LOFAR data and realized here. Moreover a new density model with heat conduction and Alfvén waves was developed that provides the distance of radio bursts to the Sun from dynamic radio spectra. Its application to the dynamic spectrum of a type III burst observed on March 16, 2016 by LOFAR shows a nonuniform radial propagation velocity of the radio emission. The analysis of an imaging observation of type III bursts on June 23, 2012 resolves a burst as bright, compact region

  13. Waves and Turbulence in the Solar Corona: A Surplus of Sources and Sinks

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2018-06-01

    The Sun's corona is a hot, dynamic, and highly stochastic plasma environment, and we still do not yet understand how it is heated. Both the loop-filled coronal base and the extended acceleration region of the solar wind appear to be filled with waves and turbulent eddies. Models that invoke the dissipation of these magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations have had some success in explaining the heating. In this presentation I will review some new insights about the different ways these waves are thought to be created and destroyed. For example: (1) Intergranular bright points in the photosphere are believed to extend upwards as coronal flux tubes, and their transverse oscillations are driven by the underlying convection. New high-resolution MHD simulations predict the kinetic energy spectra of the resulting coronal waves and serve as predictions for upcoming DKIST observations. (2) Magnetic reconnection in the supergranular network of the low corona can also generate MHD waves, and new Monte Carlo models of the resulting power spectra will be presented. The total integrated power in these waves is typically small in comparison to that of photosphere-driven waves, but they dominate the total spectrum at periods longer than about 30 minutes. (3) Because each magnetic field line in the corona is tied to at least one specific chromospheric footpoint (each with its own base pressure), the corona also plays host to field-aligned "density striations." These fluctuations vary with the supergranular network on timescales of roughly a day, but they also act as a spatially varying background through which the higher-frequency waves propagate. These multiple sources of space/time variability must be taken into account to properly understand off-limb measurements from CoMP and EIS/Hinode, as well as in-situ measurements from Parker Solar Probe.

  14. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schuler, Timothy, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [State University of New York College at Buffalo, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14222 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  15. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward; Schuler, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent

  16. Observations of Fe XIV Line Intensity Variations in the Solar Corona During the 21 August 2017 Solar Eclipse

    Johnson, Payton; Ladd, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    We present time- and spatially-resolved observations of the inner solar corona in the 5303 Å line of Fe XIV, taken during the 21 August 2017 solar eclipse from a field observing site in Crossville, TN. These observations are used to characterize the intensity variations in this coronal emission line, and to compare with oscillation predictions from models for heating the corona by magnetic wave dissipation.The observations were taken with two Explore Scientific ED 102CF 102 mm aperture triplet apochromatic refractors. One system used a DayStar custom-built 5 Å FWHM filter centered on the Fe XIV coronal spectral line and an Atik Titan camera for image collection. The setup produced images with a pixel size of 2.15 arcseconds (~1.5 Mm at the distance to the Sun), and a field of view of 1420 x 1060 arcseconds, covering approximately 20% of the entire solar limb centered near the emerging sunspot complex AR 2672. We obtained images with an exposure time of 0.22 seconds and a frame rate of 2.36 Hz, for a total of 361 images during totality.An identical, co-aligned telescope/camera system observed the same portion of the solar corona, but with a 100 Å FWHM Baader Planetarium solar continuum filter centered on a wavelength of 5400 Å. Images with an exposure time of 0.01 seconds were obtained with a frame rate of 4.05 Hz. These simultaneous observations are used as a control to monitor brightness variations not related to coronal line oscillations.

  17. A Comparison between Physics-based and Polytropic MHD Models for Stellar Coronae and Stellar Winds of Solar Analogs

    Cohen, O. [Lowell Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The development of the Zeeman–Doppler Imaging (ZDI) technique has provided synoptic observations of surface magnetic fields of low-mass stars. This led the stellar astrophysics community to adopt modeling techniques that have been used in solar physics using solar magnetograms. However, many of these techniques have been neglected by the solar community due to their failure to reproduce solar observations. Nevertheless, some of these techniques are still used to simulate the coronae and winds of solar analogs. Here we present a comparative study between two MHD models for the solar corona and solar wind. The first type of model is a polytropic wind model, and the second is the physics-based AWSOM model. We show that while the AWSOM model consistently reproduces many solar observations, the polytropic model fails to reproduce many of them, and in the cases where it does, its solutions are unphysical. Our recommendation is that polytropic models, which are used to estimate mass-loss rates and other parameters of solar analogs, must first be calibrated with solar observations. Alternatively, these models can be calibrated with models that capture more detailed physics of the solar corona (such as the AWSOM model) and that can reproduce solar observations in a consistent manner. Without such a calibration, the results of the polytropic models cannot be validated, but they can be wrongly used by others.

  18. The Funnel Geometry of Open Flux Tubes in the Low Solar Corona Constrained by O VI and Ne VIII Outflow

    Byhring, Hanne S.; Esser, Ruth; Lie-Svendsen, Oystein

    2008-01-01

    Model calculations show that observed outflow velocities of order 7-10 km/s of C IV and O VI ions, and 15-20 km/s of Ne VIII ions, are not only consistent with models of the solar wind from coronas holes, but also place unique constraints on the degree of flow tube expansion as well as the location of the expansion in the transition region/lower corona.

  19. Scaling analysis and model estimation of solar corona index

    Ray, Samujjwal; Ray, Rajdeep; Khondekar, Mofazzal Hossain; Ghosh, Koushik

    2018-04-01

    A monthly average solar green coronal index time series for the period from January 1939 to December 2008 collected from NOAA (The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has been analysed in this paper in perspective of scaling analysis and modelling. Smoothed and de-noising have been done using suitable mother wavelet as a pre-requisite. The Finite Variance Scaling Method (FVSM), Higuchi method, rescaled range (R/S) and a generalized method have been applied to calculate the scaling exponents and fractal dimensions of the time series. Autocorrelation function (ACF) is used to find autoregressive (AR) process and Partial autocorrelation function (PACF) has been used to get the order of AR model. Finally a best fit model has been proposed using Yule-Walker Method with supporting results of goodness of fit and wavelet spectrum. The results reveal an anti-persistent, Short Range Dependent (SRD), self-similar property with signatures of non-causality, non-stationarity and nonlinearity in the data series. The model shows the best fit to the data under observation.

  20. Flare-induced MHD disturbances in the corona--Moreton waves and type II shocks

    Uchida, Y.

    1972-01-01

    The propagation in the corona of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) disturbance possibly emitted at the explosive stage in the initial phase of a flare is considered. The behavior of the MHD fast-mode wavefront, whose source is located at the flare, is calculated by using eiconal-characteristic method in the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) realistic models of coronal magnetic field and density for the days of some particular flare events. It is shown as the result that the peculiar behavior of Moreton' s surface wave and the peculiar appearance in the shape and position of the type II burst sources can be consistently understood by considering the refraction, focussing, and fermation of shocks of MHD fast-mode disturbance in the actual distribution of Alfven velocity in the corona. Based on some comparison of the positions of low-Alfven-velocity regions in the corona with observed positions of type II burst sources, it is proposed that the type II burst sources may be identified with such low-Alfven-velocity regions ''illuminated'' by thus enhanced shocks. (U.S.)

  1. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow

    2015-01-01

    advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D...... structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant...

  2. SUPRATHERMAL ELECTRONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA: CAN NONLOCAL TRANSPORT EXPLAIN HELIOSPHERIC CHARGE STATES?

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    There have been several ideas proposed to explain how the Sun's corona is heated and how the solar wind is accelerated. Some models assume that open magnetic field lines are heated by Alfvén waves driven by photospheric motions and dissipated after undergoing a turbulent cascade. Other models posit that much of the solar wind's mass and energy is injected via magnetic reconnection from closed coronal loops. The latter idea is motivated by observations of reconnecting jets and also by similarities of ion composition between closed loops and the slow wind. Wave/turbulence models have also succeeded in reproducing observed trends in ion composition signatures versus wind speed. However, the absolute values of the charge-state ratios predicted by those models tended to be too low in comparison with observations. This Letter refines these predictions by taking better account of weak Coulomb collisions for coronal electrons, whose thermodynamic properties determine the ion charge states in the low corona. A perturbative description of nonlocal electron transport is applied to an existing set of wave/turbulence models. The resulting electron velocity distributions in the low corona exhibit mild suprathermal tails characterized by ''kappa'' exponents between 10 and 25. These suprathermal electrons are found to be sufficiently energetic to enhance the charge states of oxygen ions, while maintaining the same relative trend with wind speed that was found when the distribution was assumed to be Maxwellian. The updated wave/turbulence models are in excellent agreement with solar wind ion composition measurements

  3. Strong non-radial propagation of energetic electrons in solar corona

    Klassen, A.; Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Veronig, A.

    2018-06-01

    Analyzing the sequence of solar energetic electron events measured at both STEREO-A (STA) and STEREO-B (STB) spacecraft during 17-21 July 2014, when their orbital separation was 34°, we found evidence of a strong non-radial electron propagation in the solar corona below the solar wind source surface. The impulsive electron events were associated with recurrent flare and jet (hereafter flare/jet) activity at the border of an isolated coronal hole situated close to the solar equator. We have focused our study on the solar energetic particle (SEP) event on 17 July 2014, during which both spacecraft detected a similar impulsive and anisotropic energetic electron event suggesting optimal connection of both spacecraft to the parent particle source, despite the large angular separation between the parent flare and the nominal magnetic footpoints on the source surface of STA and STB of 68° and 90°, respectively. Combining the remote-sensing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations, in-situ plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particle data we investigated and discuss here the origin and the propagation trajectory of energetic electrons in the solar corona. We find that the energetic electrons in the energy range of 55-195 keV together with the associated EUV jet were injected from the flare site toward the spacecraft's magnetic footpoints and propagate along a strongly non-radial and inclined magnetic field below the source surface. From stereoscopic (EUV) observations we estimated the inclination angle of the jet trajectory and the respective magnetic field of 63° ± 11° relative to the radial direction. We show how the flare accelerated electrons reach very distant longitudes in the heliosphere, when the spacecraft are nominally not connected to the particle source. This example illustrates how ballistic backmapping can occasionally fail to characterize the magnetic connectivity during SEP events. This finding also provides an additional mechanism (one among others

  4. Tracking Filament Evolution in the Low Solar Corona Using Remote Sensing and In Situ Observations

    Kocher, Manan; Landi, Enrico; Lepri, Susan. T.

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, we analyze a filament eruption associated with an interplanetary coronal mass ejection that arrived at L1 on 2011 August 5. In multiwavelength Solar Dynamic Observatory/Advanced Imaging Assembly (AIA) images, three plasma parcels within the filament were tracked at high cadence along the solar corona. A novel absorption diagnostic technique was applied to the filament material traveling along the three chosen trajectories to compute the column density and temperature evolution in time. Kinematics of the filamentary material were estimated using STEREO/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager and STEREO/COR1 observations. The Michigan Ionization Code used inputs of these density, temperature, and speed profiles for the computation of ionization profiles of the filament plasma. Based on these measurements, we conclude that the core plasma was in near ionization equilibrium, and the ionization states were still evolving at the altitudes where they were visible in absorption in AIA images. Additionally, we report that the filament plasma was heterogeneous, and the filamentary material was continuously heated as it expanded in the low solar corona.

  5. Multi-Spacecraft 3D differential emission measure tomography of the solar corona: STEREO results.

    Vásquez, A. M.; Frazin, R. A.

    We have recently developed a novel technique (called DEMT) for the em- pirical determination of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the so- lar corona differential emission measure through multi-spacecraft solar ro- tational tomography of extreme-ultaviolet (EUV) image time series (like those provided by EIT/SOHO and EUVI/STEREO). The technique allows, for the first time, to develop global 3D empirical maps of the coronal elec- tron temperature and density, in the height range 1.0 to 1.25 RS . DEMT constitutes a simple and powerful 3D analysis tool that obviates the need for structure specific modeling.

  6. SWAP OBSERVATIONS OF THE LONG-TERM, LARGE-SCALE EVOLUTION OF THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SOLAR CORONA

    Seaton, Daniel B.; De Groof, Anik; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan [Royal Observatory of Belgium-SIDC, Avenue Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Shearer, Paul [Department of Mathematics, 2074 East Hall, University of Michigan, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) EUV solar telescope on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy 2 spacecraft has been regularly observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since 2010 February. With a field of view of 54 × 54 arcmin, SWAP provides the widest-field images of the EUV corona available from the perspective of the Earth. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images, it is possible to produce low-noise composites that reveal the structure of the EUV corona to relatively large heights. A particularly important step in this processing was to remove instrumental stray light from the images by determining and deconvolving SWAP's point-spread function from the observations. In this paper, we use the resulting images to conduct the first-ever study of the evolution of the large-scale structure of the corona observed in the EUV over a three year period that includes the complete rise phase of solar cycle 24. Of particular note is the persistence over many solar rotations of bright, diffuse features composed of open magnetic fields that overlie polar crown filaments and extend to large heights above the solar surface. These features appear to be related to coronal fans, which have previously been observed in white-light coronagraph images and, at low heights, in the EUV. We also discuss the evolution of the corona at different heights above the solar surface and the evolution of the corona over the course of the solar cycle by hemisphere.

  7. Are coronae of late type stars made of solar-like structures? The Fx-HR diagram and the pressure-temperature correlation

    Peres, G.; Orlando, S.; Reale, F.

    2004-01-01

    We show that stellar coronae can be composed of X-ray emitting structures like those in the solar corona, using a large set of ROSAT/PSPC observations of late-type-stars, and a large set of solar X-ray data collected with Yohkoh/SXT. We have considered data on the solar corona at various phases of the cycle and various kinds of X-ray coronal structures, from flares to the background corona. The surface flux (F_x) vs. spectral hardness ratio (HR) diagram is a fundamental tool for our study. We...

  8. STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES IN THE EXTENDED SOLAR CORONA ASSOCIATED WITH EIT/EUV WAVES

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Ofman, Leon; Kramar, Maxim; Olmedo, Oscar; Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2013-01-01

    We report white-light observations of a fast magnetosonic wave associated with a coronal mass ejection observed by STEREO/SECCHI/COR1 inner coronagraphs on 2011 August 4. The wave front is observed in the form of density compression passing through various coronal regions such as quiet/active corona, coronal holes, and streamers. Together with measured electron densities determined with STEREO COR1 and Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI) data, we use our kinematic measurements of the wave front to calculate coronal magnetic fields and find that the measured speeds are consistent with characteristic fast magnetosonic speeds in the corona. In addition, the wave front turns out to be the upper coronal counterpart of the EIT wave observed by STEREO EUVI traveling against the solar coronal disk; moreover, stationary fronts of the EIT wave are found to be located at the footpoints of deflected streamers and boundaries of coronal holes, after the wave front in the upper solar corona passes through open magnetic field lines in the streamers. Our findings suggest that the observed EIT wave should be in fact a fast magnetosonic shock/wave traveling in the inhomogeneous solar corona, as part of the fast magnetosonic wave propagating in the extended solar corona.

  9. Polar and equatorial coronal hole winds at solar minima: From the heliosphere to the inner corona

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E., E-mail: lzh@umich.edu [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Fast solar wind can be accelerated from at least two different sources: polar coronal holes and equatorial coronal holes. Little is known about the relationship between the wind coming from these two different latitudes and whether these two subcategories of fast wind evolve in the same way during the solar cycle. Nineteen years of Ulysses observations, from 1990 to 2009, combined with ACE observations from 1998 to the present provide us with in situ measurements of solar wind properties that span two entire solar cycles. These missions provide an ideal data set to study the properties and evolution of the fast solar wind originating from equatorial and polar holes. In this work, we focus on these two types of fast solar wind during the minima between solar cycles 22 and 23 and 23 and 24. We use data from SWICS, SWOOPS, and VHM/FGM on board Ulysses and SWICS, SWEPAM, and MAG on board ACE to analyze the proton kinetic, thermal, and dynamic characteristics, heavy ion composition, and magnetic field properties of these two fast winds. The comparison shows that: (1) their kinetic, thermal, compositional, and magnetic properties are significantly different at any time during the two minima and (2) they respond differently to the changes in solar activity from cycle 23 to 24. These results indicate that equatorial and polar fast solar wind are two separate subcategories of fast wind. We discuss the implications of these results and relate them to remote-sensing measurements of the properties of polar and equatorial coronal holes carried out in the inner corona during these two solar minima.

  10. Polar and equatorial coronal hole winds at solar minima: From the heliosphere to the inner corona

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.

    2014-01-01

    Fast solar wind can be accelerated from at least two different sources: polar coronal holes and equatorial coronal holes. Little is known about the relationship between the wind coming from these two different latitudes and whether these two subcategories of fast wind evolve in the same way during the solar cycle. Nineteen years of Ulysses observations, from 1990 to 2009, combined with ACE observations from 1998 to the present provide us with in situ measurements of solar wind properties that span two entire solar cycles. These missions provide an ideal data set to study the properties and evolution of the fast solar wind originating from equatorial and polar holes. In this work, we focus on these two types of fast solar wind during the minima between solar cycles 22 and 23 and 23 and 24. We use data from SWICS, SWOOPS, and VHM/FGM on board Ulysses and SWICS, SWEPAM, and MAG on board ACE to analyze the proton kinetic, thermal, and dynamic characteristics, heavy ion composition, and magnetic field properties of these two fast winds. The comparison shows that: (1) their kinetic, thermal, compositional, and magnetic properties are significantly different at any time during the two minima and (2) they respond differently to the changes in solar activity from cycle 23 to 24. These results indicate that equatorial and polar fast solar wind are two separate subcategories of fast wind. We discuss the implications of these results and relate them to remote-sensing measurements of the properties of polar and equatorial coronal holes carried out in the inner corona during these two solar minima.

  11. SYNTHETIC HYDROGEN SPECTRA OF OSCILLATING PROMINENCE SLABS IMMERSED IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Zapiór, M.; Heinzel, P.; Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the behavior of H α and H β spectral lines and their spectral indicators in an oscillating solar prominence slab surrounded by the solar corona, using an MHD model combined with a 1D radiative transfer code taken in the line of sight perpendicular to the slab. We calculate the time variation of the Doppler shift, half-width, and maximum intensity of the H α and H β spectral lines for different modes of oscillation. We find a non-sinusoidal time dependence of some spectral parameters with time. Because H α and H β spectral indicators have different behavior for different modes, caused by differing optical depths of formation and different plasma parameter variations in time and along the slab, they may be used for prominence seismology, especially to derive the internal velocity field in prominences.

  12. SYNTHETIC HYDROGEN SPECTRA OF OSCILLATING PROMINENCE SLABS IMMERSED IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Zapiór, M.; Heinzel, P. [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L. [Universitat de les Illes Balears. Cra. de Valldemossa, km 7.5. Palma (Illes Balears), E-07122 (Spain)

    2016-08-20

    We study the behavior of H α and H β spectral lines and their spectral indicators in an oscillating solar prominence slab surrounded by the solar corona, using an MHD model combined with a 1D radiative transfer code taken in the line of sight perpendicular to the slab. We calculate the time variation of the Doppler shift, half-width, and maximum intensity of the H α and H β spectral lines for different modes of oscillation. We find a non-sinusoidal time dependence of some spectral parameters with time. Because H α and H β spectral indicators have different behavior for different modes, caused by differing optical depths of formation and different plasma parameter variations in time and along the slab, they may be used for prominence seismology, especially to derive the internal velocity field in prominences.

  13. Sparse Bayesian Inference and the Temperature Structure of the Solar Corona

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Byers, Jeff M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Crump, Nicholas A. [Naval Center for Space Technology, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Measuring the temperature structure of the solar atmosphere is critical to understanding how it is heated to high temperatures. Unfortunately, the temperature of the upper atmosphere cannot be observed directly, but must be inferred from spectrally resolved observations of individual emission lines that span a wide range of temperatures. Such observations are “inverted” to determine the distribution of plasma temperatures along the line of sight. This inversion is ill posed and, in the absence of regularization, tends to produce wildly oscillatory solutions. We introduce the application of sparse Bayesian inference to the problem of inferring the temperature structure of the solar corona. Within a Bayesian framework a preference for solutions that utilize a minimum number of basis functions can be encoded into the prior and many ad hoc assumptions can be avoided. We demonstrate the efficacy of the Bayesian approach by considering a test library of 40 assumed temperature distributions.

  14. The 3-D solar radioastronomy and the structure of the corona and the solar wind. [solar probes of solar activity

    Steinberg, J. L.; Caroubalos, C.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism causing solar radio bursts (1 and 111) is examined. It is proposed that a nonthermal energy source is responsible for the bursts; nonthermal energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. The advantages are examined for an out-of-the-ecliptic solar probe mission, which is proposed as a means of stereoscopically viewing solar radio bursts, solar magnetic fields, coronal structure, and the solar wind.

  15. The Time-Dependent Chemistry of Cometary Debris in the Solar Corona

    Pesnell, W. D.; Bryans, P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent improvements in solar observations have greatly progressed the study of sungrazing comets. They can now be imaged along the entirety of their perihelion passage through the solar atmosphere, revealing details of their composition and structure not measurable through previous observations in the less volatile region of the orbit further from the solar surface. Such comets are also unique probes of the solar atmosphere. The debris deposited by sungrazers is rapidly ionized and subsequently influenced by the ambient magnetic field. Measuring the spectral signature of the deposited material highlights the topology of the magnetic field and can reveal plasma parameters such as the electron temperature and density. Recovering these variables from the observable data requires a model of the interaction of the cometary species with the atmosphere through which they pass. The present paper offers such a model by considering the time-dependent chemistry of sublimated cometary species as they interact with the solar radiation field and coronal plasma. We expand on a previous simplified model by considering the fully time-dependent solutions of the emitting species' densities. To compare with observations, we consider a spherically symmetric expansion of the sublimated material into the corona and convert the time-dependent ion densities to radial profiles. Using emissivities from the CHIANTI database and plasma parameters derived from a magnetohydrodynamic simulation leads to a spatially dependent emission spectrum that can be directly compared with observations. We find our simulated spectra to be consistent with observation.

  16. Faraday rotation fluctuations of MESSENGER radio signals through the equatorial lower corona near solar minimum

    Wexler, D. B.; Jensen, E. A.; Hollweg, J. V.; Heiles, C.; Efimov, A. I.; Vierinen, J.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Faraday rotation (FR) of transcoronal radio transmissions from spacecraft near superior conjunction enables study of the temporal variations in coronal plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field. The MESSENGER spacecraft 8.4 GHz radio, transmitting through the corona with closest line-of-sight approach 1.63-1.89 solar radii and near-equatorial heliolatitudes, was recorded soon after the deep solar minimum of solar cycle 23. During egress from superior conjunction, FR gradually decreased, and an overlay of wave-like FR fluctuations (FRFs) with periods of hundreds to thousands of seconds was found. The FRF power spectrum was characterized by a power law relation, with the baseline spectral index being -2.64. A transient power increase showed relative flattening of the spectrum and bands of enhanced spectral power at 3.3 mHz and 6.1 mHz. Our results confirm the presence of coronal FRF similar to those described previously at greater solar offset. Interpreted as Alfvén waves crossing the line of sight radially near the proximate point, low-frequency FRF convey an energy flux density higher than that of the background solar wind kinetic energy, but only a fraction of that required to accelerate the solar wind. Even so, this fraction is quite variable and potentially escalates to energetically significant values with relatively modest changes in estimated magnetic field strength and electron concentration. Given the uncertainties in these key parameters, as well as in solar wind properties close to the Sun at low heliolatitudes, we cannot yet confidently assign the quantitative role for Alfvén wave energy from this region in driving the slow solar wind.

  17. EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING THE MINIMUM BETWEEN SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24

    Nuevo, Federico A.; Vasquez, Alberto M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and FCEN (UBA), CC 67-Suc 28, Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Jin Meng [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    The combination of differential emission measure tomography with extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field allows determination of the electron density and electron temperature along individual magnetic field lines. This is especially useful in quiet-Sun (QS) plasmas where individual loops cannot otherwise be identified. In Paper I, this approach was applied to study QS plasmas during Carrington rotation (CR) 2077 at the minimum between solar cycles (SCs) 23 and 24. In that work, two types of QS coronal loops were identified: ''up'' loops in which the temperature increases with height, and ''down'' loops in which the temperature decreases with height. While the first ones were expected, the latter ones were a surprise and, furthermore, were found to be ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. In the present work, we extend the analysis to 11 CRs around the last solar minimum. We found that the ''down'' population, always located at low latitudes, was maximum at the time when the sunspot number was minimum, and the number of down loops systematically increased during the declining phase of SC-23 and diminished during the rising phase of SC-24. ''Down'' loops are found to have systematically larger values of {beta} than do ''up'' loops. These discoveries are interpreted in terms of excitation of Alfven waves in the photosphere, and mode conversion and damping in the low corona.

  18. EVOLUTION OF THE GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE SOLAR CORONA DURING THE MINIMUM BETWEEN SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24

    Nuevo, Federico A.; Vásquez, Alberto M.; Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard; Manchester, Ward B. IV; Jin Meng

    2013-01-01

    The combination of differential emission measure tomography with extrapolation of the photospheric magnetic field allows determination of the electron density and electron temperature along individual magnetic field lines. This is especially useful in quiet-Sun (QS) plasmas where individual loops cannot otherwise be identified. In Paper I, this approach was applied to study QS plasmas during Carrington rotation (CR) 2077 at the minimum between solar cycles (SCs) 23 and 24. In that work, two types of QS coronal loops were identified: ''up'' loops in which the temperature increases with height, and ''down'' loops in which the temperature decreases with height. While the first ones were expected, the latter ones were a surprise and, furthermore, were found to be ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. In the present work, we extend the analysis to 11 CRs around the last solar minimum. We found that the ''down'' population, always located at low latitudes, was maximum at the time when the sunspot number was minimum, and the number of down loops systematically increased during the declining phase of SC-23 and diminished during the rising phase of SC-24. ''Down'' loops are found to have systematically larger values of β than do ''up'' loops. These discoveries are interpreted in terms of excitation of Alfvén waves in the photosphere, and mode conversion and damping in the low corona

  19. TIME-DEPENDENT TURBULENT HEATING OF OPEN FLUX TUBES IN THE CHROMOSPHERE, CORONA, AND SOLAR WIND

    Woolsey, L. N.; Cranmer, S. R., E-mail: lwoolsey@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We investigate several key questions of plasma heating in open-field regions of the corona that connect to the solar wind. We present results for a model of Alfvén-wave-driven turbulence for three typical open magnetic field structures: a polar coronal hole, an open flux tube neighboring an equatorial streamer, and an open flux tube near a strong-field active region. We compare time-steady, one-dimensional turbulent heating models against fully time-dependent three-dimensional reduced-magnetohydrodynamic modeling of BRAID. We find that the time-steady results agree well with time-averaged results from BRAID. The time dependence allows us to investigate the variability of the magnetic fluctuations and of the heating in the corona. The high-frequency tail of the power spectrum of fluctuations forms a power law whose exponent varies with height, and we discuss the possible physical explanation for this behavior. The variability in the heating rate is bursty and nanoflare-like in nature, and we analyze the amount of energy lost via dissipative heating in transient events throughout the simulation. The average energy in these events is 10{sup 21.91} erg, within the “picoflare” range, and many events reach classical “nanoflare” energies. We also estimated the multithermal distribution of temperatures that would result from the heating-rate variability, and found good agreement with observed widths of coronal differential emission measure distributions. The results of the modeling presented in this paper provide compelling evidence that turbulent heating in the solar atmosphere by Alfvén waves accelerates the solar wind in open flux tubes.

  20. FORMATION AND RECONNECTION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CURRENT SHEETS IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Edmondson, J. K.; Antiochos, S. K.; DeVore, C. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2010-01-01

    Current-sheet formation and magnetic reconnection are believed to be the basic physical processes responsible for much of the activity observed in astrophysical plasmas, such as the Sun's corona. We investigate these processes for a magnetic configuration consisting of a uniform background field and an embedded line dipole, a topology that is expected to be ubiquitous in the corona. This magnetic system is driven by a uniform horizontal flow applied at the line-tied photosphere. Although both the initial field and the driver are translationally symmetric, the resulting evolution is calculated using a fully three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic simulation with adaptive mesh refinement that resolves the current sheet and reconnection dynamics in detail. The advantage of our approach is that it allows us to directly apply the vast body of knowledge gained from the many studies of two-dimensional (2D) reconnection to the fully 3D case. We find that a current sheet forms in close analogy to the classic Syrovatskii 2D mechanism, but the resulting evolution is different than expected. The current sheet is globally stable, showing no evidence for a disruption or a secondary instability even for aspect ratios as high as 80:1. The global evolution generally follows the standard Sweet-Parker 2D reconnection model except for an accelerated reconnection rate at a very thin current sheet, due to the tearing instability and the formation of magnetic islands. An interesting conclusion is that despite the formation of fully 3D structures at small scales, the system remains close to 2D at global scales. We discuss the implications of our results for observations of the solar corona.

  1. Global Solar Magnetic Field Organization in the Outer Corona: Influence on the Solar Wind Speed and Mass Flux Over the Cycle

    Réville, Victor; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of the solar wind depends intrinsically on the structure of the global solar magnetic field, which undergoes fundamental changes over the 11-year solar cycle. For instance, the wind terminal velocity is thought to be anti-correlated with the expansion factor, a measure of how the magnetic field varies with height in the solar corona, usually computed at a fixed height (≈ 2.5 {R}⊙ , the source surface radius that approximates the distance at which all magnetic field lines become open). However, the magnetic field expansion affects the solar wind in a more detailed way, its influence on the solar wind properties remaining significant well beyond the source surface. We demonstrate this using 3D global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar corona, constrained by surface magnetograms over half a solar cycle (1989-2001). A self-consistent expansion beyond the solar wind critical point (even up to 10 {R}⊙ ) makes our model comply with observed characteristics of the solar wind, namely, that the radial magnetic field intensity becomes latitude independent at some distance from the Sun, and that the mass flux is mostly independent of the terminal wind speed. We also show that near activity minimum, the expansion in the higher corona has more influence on the wind speed than the expansion below 2.5 {R}⊙ .

  2. CAN A NANOFLARE MODEL OF EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIANCES DESCRIBE THE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CORONA?

    Tajfirouze, E.; Safari, H. [Department of Physics, University of Zanjan, P.O. Box 45195-313, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-10

    Nanoflares, the basic units of impulsive energy release, may produce much of the solar background emission. Extrapolation of the energy frequency distribution of observed microflares, which follows a power law to lower energies, can give an estimation of the importance of nanoflares for heating the solar corona. If the power-law index is greater than 2, then the nanoflare contribution is dominant. We model a time series of extreme-ultraviolet emission radiance as random flares with a power-law exponent of the flare event distribution. The model is based on three key parameters: the flare rate, the flare duration, and the power-law exponent of the flare intensity frequency distribution. We use this model to simulate emission line radiance detected in 171 A, observed by Solar Terrestrial Relation Observatory/Extreme-Ultraviolet Imager and Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. The observed light curves are matched with simulated light curves using an Artificial Neural Network, and the parameter values are determined across the active region, quiet Sun, and coronal hole. The damping rate of nanoflares is compared with the radiative losses cooling time. The effect of background emission, data cadence, and network sensitivity on the key parameters of the model is studied. Most of the observed light curves have a power-law exponent, {alpha}, greater than the critical value 2. At these sites, nanoflare heating could be significant.

  3. Electron cyclotron maser instability in the solar corona - The role of superthermal tails

    Vlahos, L.; Sharma, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of a superthermal component of electrons on the loss-cone-driven electron cyclotron maser instability is analyzed. It is found that for a superthermal tail with temperature about 10 KeV, the first harmonic (X- and O-mode) is suppressed for n(t)/n(r) of about 1 (n/t/ and n/r/ are the densities of superthermal tail and loss-cone electrons) and the second harmonic (X- and O-modes) is suppressed for n(t)/n(r) less than about 0.1. A qualitative discussion on the formation of superthermal tails is presented and it is suggested that superthermal tails play an important role on the observed or available power, at microwave frequencies, from the electron cyclotron maser instability in the solar corona.

  4. ON THE ROLE OF REPETITIVE MAGNETIC RECONNECTIONS IN EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES IN SOLAR CORONA

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Joshi, Bhuwan [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313001 (India); Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading RG2 9AX (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-20

    Parker's magnetostatic theorem, extended to astrophysical magnetofluids with large magnetic Reynolds number, supports ceaseless regeneration of current sheets and, hence, spontaneous magnetic reconnections recurring in time. Consequently, a scenario is possible where the repeated reconnections provide an autonomous mechanism governing emergence of coherent structures in astrophysical magnetofluids. In this work, such a scenario is explored by performing numerical computations commensurate with the magnetostatic theorem. In particular, the computations explore the evolution of a flux rope governed by repeated reconnections in a magnetic geometry resembling bipolar loops of solar corona. The revealed morphology of the evolution process—including onset and ascent of the rope, reconnection locations, and the associated topology of the magnetic field lines—agrees with observations, and thus substantiates physical realizability of the advocated mechanism.

  5. X-ray spectrometer spectrograph telescope system. [for solar corona study

    Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.; Salat, S. W.; Franks, A.; Schmidtke, G.; Schweizer, W.; Speer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A new sounding rocket payload that has been developed for X-ray spectroscopic studies of the solar corona is described. The instrument incorporates a grazing incidence Rowland mounted grating spectrograph and an extreme off-axis paraboloic sector feed system to isolate regions of the sun of order 1 x 10 arc seconds in size. The focal surface of the spectrograph is shared by photographic and photoelectric detection systems, with the latter serving as a part of the rocket pointing system control loop. Fabrication and alignment of the optical system is based on high precision machining and mechanical metrology techniques. The spectrograph has a resolution of 16 milliangstroms and modifications planned for future flights will improve the resolution to 5 milliangstroms, permitting line widths to be measured.

  6. Pre-eruptive Magnetic Reconnection within a Multi-flux-rope System in the Solar Corona

    Awasthi, Arun Kumar; Liu, Rui; Wang, Haimin; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong

    2018-04-01

    The solar corona is frequently disrupted by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), whose core structure is believed to be a flux rope made of helical magnetic field. This has become a “standard” picture; though, it remains elusive how the flux rope forms and evolves toward eruption. While one-third of the ejecta passing through spacecraft demonstrate a flux-rope structure, the rest have complex magnetic fields. Are they originating from a coherent flux rope, too? Here we investigate the source region of a complex ejecta, focusing on a flare precursor with definitive signatures of magnetic reconnection, i.e., nonthermal electrons, flaring plasma, and bidirectional outflowing blobs. Aided by nonlinear force-free field modeling, we conclude that the reconnection occurs within a system of multiple braided flux ropes with different degrees of coherency. The observation signifies the importance of internal structure and dynamics in understanding CMEs and in predicting their impacts on Earth.

  7. Synthetic spectral analysis of a kinetic model for slow-magnetosonic waves in solar corona

    Ruan, Wenzhi; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China, E-mail: jshept@gmail.com (China); Zhang, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Vocks, Christian [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 14482, Potsdam (Germany); Marsch, Eckart [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Peter, Hardi [Max Plank Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-03-25

    We propose a kinetic model of slow-magnetosonic waves to explain various observational features associated with the propagating intensity disturbances (PIDs) occurring in the solar corona. The characteristics of slow mode waves, e.g, inphase oscillations of density, velocity, and thermal speed, are reproduced in this kinetic model. Moreover, the red-blue (R-B) asymmetry of the velocity distribution as self-consistently generated in the model is found to be contributed from the beam component, as a result of the competition between Landau resonance and Coulomb collisions. Furthermore, we synthesize the spectral lines and make the spectral analysis, based on the kinetic simulation data of the flux tube plasmas and the hypothesis of the surrounding background plasmas. It is found that the fluctuations of parameters of the synthetic spectral lines are basically consistent with the observations: (1) the line intensity, Doppler shift, and line width are fluctuating in phase; (2) the R-B asymmetry usually oscillate out of phase with the former three parameters; (3) the blueward asymmetry is more evident than the redward asymmetry in the R-B fluctuations. The oscillations of line parameters become weakened for the case with denser surrounding background plasmas. Similar to the observations, there is no doubled-frequency oscillation of the line width for the case with flux-tube plasmas flowing bulkly upward among the static background plasmas. Therefore, we suggest that the “wave + beam flow” kinetic model may be a viable interpretation for the PIDs observed in the solar corona.

  8. Detection of nanoflare-heated plasma in the solar corona by the FOXSI-2 sounding rocket

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Säm; Christe, Steven; Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Narukage, Noriyuki; Vievering, Juliana

    2017-11-01

    The processes that heat the solar and stellar coronae to several million kelvins, compared with the much cooler photosphere (5,800 K for the Sun), are still not well known1. One proposed mechanism is heating via a large number of small, unresolved, impulsive heating events called nanoflares2. Each event would heat and cool quickly, and the average effect would be a broad range of temperatures including a small amount of extremely hot plasma. However, detecting these faint, hot traces in the presence of brighter, cooler emission is observationally challenging. Here we present hard X-ray data from the second flight of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI-2), which detected emission above 7 keV from an active region of the Sun with no obvious individual X-ray flare emission. Through differential emission measure computations, we ascribe this emission to plasma heated above 10 MK, providing evidence for the existence of solar nanoflares. The quantitative evaluation of the hot plasma strongly constrains the coronal heating models.

  9. Investigation on a TEA-CO II laser with surface corona pre-ionization

    Behjat, A.; Aram, M.; Soltanmoradi, F.; Shabanzadeh, M.

    2006-05-01

    The construction of a surface corona UV pre-ionized TEA CO II laser is described and dependence of its average output energy of the laser to gas mixture, discharge voltage and repetition rate is investigated. The electric circuit diagram and geometry of the pre-ionization system are presented. Configuration of circuit has been designed to produce only impulsive voltage difference between the laser electrodes. Also, the triggering configuration of trigatron is prepared for fast operation to minimize the arc occurrence as much as possible. Some data of current, voltage, laser pulses and average output energy versus gas mixture and applied voltages are given. IR spectrometer is used for measurements of central output wavelength of the laser. Operation of the laser on two adjacent vibrational-rotational transitions of CO II molecule has been observed that shows the ability of this laser for working on multi-line in a same time for special applications.

  10. Validation of the Earth atmosphere models using the EUV solar occultation data from the CORONAS and PROBA 2 instruments

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Kuzin, Sergey; Berghmans, David; Pertsov, Andrey; Dominique, Marie; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin

    Absorption in the atmosphere below 500 km results in attenuation of the solar EUV flux, variation of its spectra and distortion of solar images acquired by solar EUV instruments operating on LEO satellites even on solar synchronous orbits. Occultation measurements are important for planning of solar observations from these satellites, and can be used for monitoring the upper atmosphere as well as for studying its response to the solar activity. We present the results of the occultation measurements of the solar EUV radiation obtained by the CORONAS-F/SPIRIT telescope at high solar activity (2002), by the CORONAS-Photon/TESIS telescope at low activity (2009), and by the SWAP telescope and LYRA radiometer onboard the PROBA 2 satellite at moderate activity (2010). The measured attenuation profiles and the retrieved linear extinction coefficients at the heights 200-500 km are compared with simulations by the NRLMSIS-00 and DTM2013 atmospheric models. It was shown that the results of simulations by the DTM2013 model are well agreed with the data of measurements at all stages of solar activity and in presence of the geomagnetic storm, whereas the results of the NRLMSISE-00 model significantly diverge from the measurements, in particular, at high and low activity. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration under Grant Agreement “eHeroes” (project No.284461, www.eheroes.eu).

  11. New Techniques Used in Modeling the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse: Energizing and Heating the Large-Scale Corona

    Downs, Cooper; Mikic, Zoran; Linker, Jon A.; Caplan, Ronald M.; Lionello, Roberto; Torok, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav; Riley, Pete; Mackay, Duncan; Upton, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    Over the past two decades, our group has used a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the corona to predict the appearance of total solar eclipses. In this presentation we detail recent innovations and new techniques applied to our prediction model for the August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse. First, we have developed a method for capturing the large-scale energized fields typical of the corona, namely the sheared/twisted fields built up through long-term processes of differential rotation and flux-emergence/cancellation. Using inferences of the location and chirality of filament channels (deduced from a magnetofrictional model driven by the evolving photospheric field produced by the Advective Flux Transport model), we tailor a customized boundary electric field profile that will emerge shear along the desired portions of polarity inversion lines (PILs) and cancel flux to create long twisted flux systems low in the corona. This method has the potential to improve the morphological shape of streamers in the low solar corona. Second, we apply, for the first time in our eclipse prediction simulations, a new wave-turbulence-dissipation (WTD) based model for coronal heating. This model has substantially fewer free parameters than previous empirical heating models, but is inherently sensitive to the 3D geometry and connectivity of the coronal field---a key property for modeling/predicting the thermal-magnetic structure of the solar corona. Overall, we will examine the effect of these considerations on white-light and EUV observables from the simulations, and present them in the context of our final 2017 eclipse prediction model.Research supported by NASA's Heliophysics Supporting Research and Living With a Star Programs.

  12. LAD Dissertation Prize: Laboratory Identification of Magnetohydrodynamic Eruption Criteria in the Solar Corona

    Myers, Clayton E.; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao

    2018-06-01

    Ideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities such as the kink and torus instabilities are believed to play an important role in driving storage-and-release eruptions in the solar corona. These instabilities act on long-lived, arched magnetic flux ropes that are line-tied to the solar surface. In spite of numerous observational and computational studies, the conditions under which these instabilities produce an eruption remain a subject of intense debate. In this paper, we use a line-tied, arched flux rope experiment to systematically study storage-and-release eruption mechanisms in the laboratory [1]. Thin in situ magnetic probes facilitate the study of both the equilibrium and the stability of these laboratory flux ropes. In particular, they permit the direct measurement of magnetic (J×B) forces, both in equilibrium [2] and during dynamic events [3, 4]. Regarding stability and eruptions, two major results are reported: First, a new stability regime is identified where torus-unstable flux ropes fail to erupt. In this ‘failed torus’ regime, the flux rope is torus-unstable but kink-stable. Under these conditions, a dynamic toroidal field tension force surges in magnitude and prevents the flux rope from erupting [3, 4]. This dynamic tension force, which is missing from existing eruption models, is generated by magnetic self-organization events within the line-tied flux rope. Second, a clear torus instability threshold is observed in the kink-unstable regime. This latter result, which is consistent with existing theoretical [5] and numerical [6] results, verifies the key role of the torus instability in driving flux rope eruptions in the solar corona.[1] C. E. Myers, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University (2015)[2] C. E. Myers et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 112102 (2016)[3] C. E. Myers et al., Nature 528, 526 (2015)[4] C. E. Myers et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 59, 014048 (2017)[5] O. Olmedo & J. Zhang, Astrophys. J. 718, 433 (2010)[6] T. Török & B. Kliem, Astrophys. J

  13. Electric Current Filamentation Induced by 3D Plasma Flows in the Solar Corona

    Nickeler, Dieter H.; Karlický, Marian; Kraus, Michaela [Astronomický ústav, Akademie věd České Republiky, v.v.i., Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Wiegelmann, Thomas, E-mail: dieter.nickeler@asu.cas.cz [Max-Planck Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-03-10

    Many magnetic structures in the solar atmosphere evolve rather slowly, so they can be assumed as (quasi-)static or (quasi-)stationary and represented via magnetohydrostatic (MHS) or stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, respectively. While exact 3D solutions would be desired, they are extremely difficult to find in stationary MHD. We construct solutions with magnetic and flow vector fields that have three components depending on all three coordinates. We show that the noncanonical transformation method produces quasi-3D solutions of stationary MHD by mapping 2D or 2.5D MHS equilibria to corresponding stationary MHD states, that is, states that display the same field-line structure as the original MHS equilibria. These stationary MHD states exist on magnetic flux surfaces of the original 2D MHS states. Although the flux surfaces and therefore also the equilibria have a 2D character, these stationary MHD states depend on all three coordinates and display highly complex currents. The existence of geometrically complex 3D currents within symmetric field-line structures provides the basis for efficient dissipation of the magnetic energy in the solar corona by ohmic heating. We also discuss the possibility of maintaining an important subset of nonlinear MHS states, namely force-free fields, by stationary flows. We find that force-free fields with nonlinear flows only arise under severe restrictions of the field-line geometry and of the magnetic flux density distribution.

  14. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATION OF SOLAR OSCILLATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH CORONAL LOOPS FROM THE PHOTOSPHERE TO THE CORONA

    Su, J. T.; Liu, S.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Zhao, H.; Xu, H. Q.; Xie, W. B. [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Y. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2013-01-01

    The solar oscillations along one coronal loop in AR 11504 are observed simultaneously in white light emission and Doppler velocity by SDO/HMI, and in UV and EUV emissions by SDO/AIA. The technique of the time-distance diagram is used to detect the propagating oscillations of the emission intensities along the loop. We find that although all the oscillation signals were intercorrelated, the low chromospheric oscillation correlated more closely to the oscillations of the transition region and corona than to those of the photosphere. Situated above the sunspot, the oscillation periods were {approx}3 minutes in the UV/EUV emissions; however, moving away from the sunspot and into the quiet Sun, the periods became longer, e.g., up to {approx}5 minutes or more. In addition, along another loop we observe both the high-speed outflows and oscillations, which roughly had a one-to-one corresponding relationship. This indicates that the solar periodic oscillations may modulate the magnetic reconnections between the loops of the high and low altitudes that drive the high-speed outflows along the loop.

  15. Intensity of emission lines of the quiescent solar corona: comparison between calculated and observed values

    Krissinel, Boris

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports the results of calculations of the center-to-limb intensity of optically thin line emission in EUV and FUV wavelength ranges. The calculations employ a multicomponent model for the quiescent solar corona. The model includes a collection of loops of various sizes, spicules, and free (inter-loop) matter. Theoretical intensity values are found from probabilities of encountering parts of loops in the line of sight with respect to the probability of absence of other coronal components. The model uses 12 loops with sizes from 3200 to 210000 km with different values of rarefaction index and pressure at the loop base and apex. The temperature at loop apices is 1 400 000 K. The calculations utilize the CHIANTI database. The comparison between theoretical and observed emission intensity values for coronal and transition region lines obtained by the SUMER, CDS, and EIS telescopes shows quite satisfactory agreement between them, particularly for the solar disk center. For the data acquired above the limb, the enhanced discrepancies after the analysis refer to errors in EIS measurements.

  16. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-α line profile observations

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-α (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya

  17. Mode Conversion of Langmuir to Electromagnetic Waves with Parallel Inhomogeneity in the Solar Wind and the Corona

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2008-06-09

    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves to radiation near the plasma frequency at density gradients is potentially relevant to multiple solar radio emissions, ionospheric radar experiments, laboratory plasma devices, and pulsars. Here we study mode conversion in warm magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code with the density gradient parallel to the ambient magnetic field B0 for a range of incident Langmuir wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Both o- and x-mode waves are produced for Ω ∝ (ωL)1/3(ωc/ω) somewhat less than 1, contrary to previous ideas. Only o mode is produced for Ω and somewhat greater than 1.5. Here ωc is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ω the angular wave frequency, and L the length scale of the (linear) density gradient. (2) In the unmagnetized limit, equal amounts of o- and x-mode radiation are produced. (3) The mode conversion window narrows as Ω increases. (4) As Ω increases the total electromagnetic field changes from linear to circular polarization, with the o- and x- mode signals remaining circularly polarized. (5) The conversion efficiency to the x mode decreases monotonically as Ω increases while the o-mode conversion efficiency oscillates due to an interference phenomenon between incoming and reflected Langmuir/z modes. (6) The total conversion efficiency for wave energy from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation is typically less than 10%, but the corresponding power efficiencies differ by the ratio of the group speeds for each mode and are of order 50 – 70%. (7) The interference effect and the disappearance of the x mode at Ω somewhat greater than 1 can be accounted for semiquantitatively using a WKB-like analysis. (8) Constraints on density turbulence are developed for the x mode to be generated and be able to propagate from the source. (9) Standard parameters for the corona and the solar wind near 1 AU suggest that linear mode conversion should produce both o- and x- mode radiation for

  18. Mode Conversion of Langmuir to Electromagnetic Waves with Parallel Inhomogeneity in the Solar Wind and the Corona

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves to radiation near the plasma frequency at density gradients is potentially relevant to multiple solar radio emissions, ionospheric radar experiments, laboratory plasma devices, and pulsars. Here we study mode conversion in warm magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code with the density gradient parallel to the ambient magnetic field B0 for a range of incident Langmuir wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Both o- and x-mode waves are produced for (Omega) ∝ (ωL) 1/3 (ω c /ω) ∼ 1.5. Here ω c is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ω the angular wave frequency, and L the length scale of the (linear) density gradient. (2) In the unmagnetized limit, equal amounts of o- and x-mode radiation are produced. (3) The mode conversion window narrows as (Omega) increases. (4) As (Omega) increases the total electromagnetic field changes from linear to circular polarization, with the o- and x- mode signals remaining circularly polarized. (5) The conversion efficiency to the x mode decreases monotonically as (Omega) increases while the o-mode conversion efficiency oscillates due to an interference phenomenon between incoming and reflected Langmuir/z modes. (6) The total conversion efficiency for wave energy from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation is typically less than 10%, but the corresponding power efficiencies differ by the ratio of the group speeds for each mode and are of order 50-70%. (7) The interference effect and the disappearance of the x mode at (Omega) ∼> 1 can be accounted for semiquantitatively using a WKB-like analysis. (8) Constraints on density turbulence are developed for the x mode to be generated and be able to propagate from the source. (9) Standard parameters for the corona and the solar wind near 1 AU suggest that linear mode conversion should produce both o- and x- mode radiation for solar and interplanetary radio bursts. It is therefore possible that linear mode conversion

  19. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  20. Comparative study of the loss cone-driven instabilities in the low solar corona

    Sharma, R. R.; Vlahos, L.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of the loss cone-driven instabilities in the low solar corona is undertaken. The instabilities considered are the electron cyclotron maser, the whistler, and the electrostatic upper hybrid. It is shown that the first-harmonic extraordinary mode of the electron cyclotron maser instability is the fastest growing mode for strong magnetized plasma (the ratio of plasma frequency to cyclotron frequency being less than 0.35). For values of the ratio between 0.35 and 1.0, the first-harmonic ordinary mode of the electron cyclotron maser instability dominates the emission. For ratio values greater than 1.0, no direct electromagnetic radiation is expected since other instabilities, which do not escape directly, saturate the electron cyclotron maser (the whistler or the electrostatic upper hybrid waves). It is also shown that the second-harmonic electron cyclotron maser emission never grows to an appreciable level. Thus, it is suggested that the electron cyclotron maser instability can be the explanation for the escape of the first harmonic from a flaring loop.

  1. R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS ARE VIABLE FACTORIES OF PRE-SOLAR GRAINS

    Karakas, Amanda I.; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Hampel, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    We present a new theoretical estimate for the birthrate of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars that is in agreement with recent observational data. We find the current Galactic birthrate of RCB stars to be ≈25% of the Galactic rate of Type Ia supernovae, assuming that RCB stars are formed through the merger of carbon–oxygen and helium-rich white dwarfs. Our new RCB birthrate (1.8 × 10 −3 yr −1 ) is a factor of 10 lower than previous theoretical estimates. This results in roughly 180–540 RCB stars in the Galaxy, depending on the RCB lifetime. From the theoretical and observational estimates, we calculate the total dust production from RCB stars and compare this rate to dust production from novae and born-again asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We find that the amount of dust produced by RCB stars is comparable to the amounts produced by novae or born-again post-AGB stars, indicating that these merger objects are a viable source of carbonaceous pre-solar grains in the Galaxy. There are graphite grains with carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios consistent with the observed composition of RCB stars, adding weight to the suggestion that these rare objects are a source of stardust grains

  2. ON THE ANISOTROPY IN EXPANSION OF MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Malanushenko, A. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Schrijver, C. J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Most one-dimensional hydrodynamic models of plasma confined to magnetic flux tubes assume circular tube cross sections. We use potential field models to show that flux tubes in circumstances relevant to the solar corona do not, in general, maintain the same cross-sectional shape through their length and therefore the assumption of a circular cross section is rarely true. We support our hypothesis with mathematical reasoning and numerical experiments. We demonstrate that lifting this assumption in favor of realistic, non-circular loops makes the apparent expansion of magnetic flux tubes consistent with that of observed coronal loops. We propose that in a bundle of ribbon-like loops, those that are viewed along the wide direction would stand out against those that are viewed across the wide direction due to the difference in their column depths. That result would impose a bias toward selecting loops that appear not to be expanding, seen projected in the plane of sky. An implication of this selection bias is that the preferentially selected non-circular loops would appear to have increased pressure scale heights even if they are resolved by current instruments.

  3. Probing the Quiet Solar Atmosphere from the Photosphere to the Corona

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis; Gontikakis, Costis; Tsiropoula, Georgia; Tziotziou, Kostas

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the morphology and temporal variability of a quiet-Sun network region in different solar layers. The emission in several extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral lines through both raster and slot time-series, recorded by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode spacecraft is studied along with Hα observations and high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of the photospheric magnetic field. The photospheric magnetic field is extrapolated up to the corona, showing a multitude of large- and small-scale structures. We show for the first time that the smallest magnetic structures at both the network and internetwork contribute significantly to the emission in EUV lines, with temperatures ranging from 8× 104 K to 6× 105 K. Two components of transition region emission are present, one associated with small-scale loops that do not reach coronal temperatures, and another component that acts as an interface between coronal and chromospheric plasma. Both components are associated with persistent chromospheric structures. The temporal variability of the EUV intensity at the network region is also associated with chromospheric motions, pointing to a connection between transition region and chromospheric features. Intensity enhancements in the EUV transition region lines are preferentially produced by Hα upflows. Examination of two individual chromospheric jets shows that their evolution is associated with intensity variations in transition region and coronal temperatures.

  4. MHD Wave Propagation at the Interface Between Solar Chromosphere and Corona

    Huang, Y.; Song, P.; Vasyliunas, V. M.

    2017-12-01

    We study the electromagnetic and momentum constraints at the solar transition region which is a sharp layer interfacing between the solar chromosphere and corona. When mass transfer between the two domains is neglected, the transition region can be treated as a contact discontinuity across which the magnetic flux is conserved and the total forces are balanced. We consider an Alfvénic perturbation that propagates along the magnetic field incident onto the interface from one side. In order to satisfy the boundary conditions at the transition region, only part of the incident energy flux is transmitted through and the rest is reflected. Taking into account the highly anisotropic propagation of waves in magnetized plasmas, we generalize the law of reflection and specify Snell's law for each of the three wave MHD modes: incompressible Alfvén mode and compressible fast and slow modes. Unlike conventional optical systems, the interface between two magnetized plasmas is not rigid but can be deformed by the waves, allowing momentum and energy to be transferred by compression. With compressible modes included, the Fresnel conditions need substantial modification. We derive Fresnel conditions, reflectivities and transmittances, and mode conversion for incident waves propagating along the background magnetic field. The results are well organized when the incident perturbation is decomposed into components in and normal to the incident plane (containing the background magnetic field and the normal direction of the interface). For a perturbation normal to the incident plane, both transmitted and reflected perturbations are incompressible Alfvén mode waves. For a perturbation in the incident plane, they can be compressible slow and fast mode waves which may produce ripples on the transition region.

  5. EXPLAINING INVERTED-TEMPERATURE LOOPS IN THE QUIET SOLAR CORONA WITH MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVE-MODE CONVERSION

    Schiff, Avery J.; Cranmer, Steven R. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Coronal loops trace out bipolar, arch-like magnetic fields above the Sun’s surface. Recent measurements that combine rotational tomography, extreme-ultraviolet imaging, and potential-field extrapolation have shown the existence of large loops with inverted-temperature profiles, i.e., loops for which the apex temperature is a local minimum, not a maximum. These “down loops” appear to exist primarily in equatorial quiet regions near solar minimum. We simulate both these and the more prevalent large-scale “up loops” by modeling coronal heating as a time-steady superposition of (1) dissipation of incompressible Alfvén wave turbulence and (2) dissipation of compressive waves formed by mode conversion from the initial population of Alfvén waves. We found that when a large percentage (>99%) of the Alfvén waves undergo this conversion, heating is greatly concentrated at the footpoints and stable “down loops” are created. In some cases we found loops with three maxima that are also gravitationally stable. Models that agree with the tomographic temperature data exhibit higher gas pressures for “down loops” than for “up loops,” which is consistent with observations. These models also show a narrow range of Alfvén wave amplitudes: 3 to 6 km s{sup -1} at the coronal base. This is low in comparison to typical observed amplitudes of 20–30 km s{sup -1} in bright X-ray loops. However, the large-scale loops we model are believed to compose a weaker diffuse background that fills much of the volume of the corona. By constraining the physics of loops that underlie quiescent streamers, we hope to better understand the formation of the slow solar wind.

  6. The Nature of Variations in Anomalies of the Chemical Composition of the Solar Corona with the 11-Year Cycle

    Pipin, V. V.; Tomozov, V. M.

    2018-04-01

    Evidence that the distribution of the abundances of admixtures with low first-ionization potentials (FIP 10 eV) in active regions and closed magnetic configurations in the lower corona. Observations with the ULYSSES spacecraft and at the Stanford Solar Observatory have revealed strong correlations between the manifestation of the FIP effect in the solar wind, the strength of the open magnetic flux (without regard to sign), and the ratio of the large-scale toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields at the solar surface. Analyses of observations of the Sun as a star show that the enhancement of the abundances of admixtures with low FIPs in the corona compared to their abundances in the photosphere (the FIP effect) is closely related to the solar-activity cycle and also with variations in the topology of the large-scale magnetic field. A possible mechanism for the relationship between the FIP effect and the spectral type of a star is discussed in the framework of solar-stellar analogies.

  7. Thermodynamics of the Solar Corona and Evolution of the Solar Magnetic Field as Inferred from the Total Solar Eclipse Observations of 11 July 2010

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Druckmueller, Miloslav; Morgan, Huw; Ding, Adalbert; Johnson, Judd; Druckmuellerova, Hana; Daw, Adrian; Arndt, Martina B.; Dietzel, Martin; Saken, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We report on multi-wavelength observations of the corona taken simultaneously in broadband white light, and in seven spectral lines, H-alpha 656.3 nm, Fe IX 435.9 nm, Fe X 637.4 nm, Fe XI 789.2 nm, Fe XIII 1074.7 nm, Fe XIV 530.3 nm and Ni XV 670.2 nm. The observations were made during the total solar eclipse of 11 July 2010 from the atoll of Tatakoto in French Polynesia. Simultaneous imaging with narrow bandpass filters in each of these spectral lines and in their corresponding underlying continua maximized the observing time during less than ideal observing conditions and yielded outstanding quality data. The application of two complementary image processing techniques revealed the finest details of coronal structures at 1" resolution in white light, and 6.5" in each of the spectral lines. This comprehensive wavelength coverage confirmed earlier eclipse findings that the solar corona has a clear two-temperature structure: The open field lines, expanding outwards from the solar surface, are characterized by electron temperatures near 1 X 10(exp 6) K, while the hottest plasma around 2X 10(exp 6) K resides in loop-like structures forming the bulges of streamers. The first images of the corona in the forbidden lines of Fe IX and Ni XV, showed that there was very little coronal plasma at temperatures below 5 X 10(exp 5) K and above 2.5X 10(exp 6) K. The data also enabled temperature differentiations as low as 0:2 X 10(exp 6) K in different density structures. These observations showed how the passage of CMEs through the corona, prior to totality, produced large scale ripples and very sharp streaks, which could be identified with distinct temperatures for the first time. The ripples were most prominent in emission from spectral lines associated with temperatures around 10(exp 6) K. The most prominent streak was associated with a conical-shaped void in the emission from the coolest line of Fe IX and from the hottest line of Ni XV. A prominence, which erupted prior to

  8. Field-Lines-Threaded Model for: (1) the Low Solar Corona; (2) Electrons in the Transition Region; and (3) Solar Energetic Particle Acceleration and Transport

    Sokolov, I.; van der Holst, B.; Jin, M.; Gombosi, T. I.; Taktakishvili, A.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    In numerical simulations of the solar corona, both for the ambient state and especially for dynamical processes the most computational resources are spent for maintaining the numerical solution in the Low Solar Corona and in the transition region, where the temperature gradients are very sharp and the magnetic field has a complicated topology. The degraded computational efficiency is caused by the need in a highest resolution as well as the use of the fully three-dimensional implicit solver for electron heat conduction. On the other hand, the physical nature of the processes involved is rather simple (which still does not facilitate the numerical methods) as long as the heat fluxes as well as slow plasma motional velocities are aligned with the magnetic field. The Alfven wave turbulence, which is often believed to be the main driver of the solar wind and the main source of the coronal heating, is characterized by the Poynting flux of the waves, which is also aligned with the magnetic field. Therefore, the plasma state in any point of the three-dimensional grid in the Low Solar Corona can be found by solving a set of one-dimensional equations for the magnetic field line ('thread'), which passes through this point and connects it to the chromosphere and to the global Solar Corona. In the present paper we describe an innovative computational technology based upon the use of the magnetic-field-line-threads to find the local solution. We present the development of the AWSoM code of the University of Michigan with the field-lines-threaded Low Solar Corona. In the transition region, where the essentially kinetic description of the electron energy fluxes is required, we solve the Fokker-Plank equation on the system of threads, to achieve the physically consistent description of chromosphere evaporation. The third application for the field-lines-treaded model is the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) acceleration and transport. Being the natural extension of the Field

  9. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere VII. Further Insights into the Chromosphere and Corona

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, the chromosphere is responsible for the capture of atomic hydrogen in the solar atmosphere and its eventual re-entry onto the photospheric surface (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Prog. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L15–L21. As for the corona, it represents a diffuse region containing both gaseous plasma and condensed matter with elevated electron affinity (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere V. On the Nature of the Corona. Prog. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L22–L25. Metallic hydrogen in the corona is thought to enable the continual harvest of electrons from the outer reaches of the Sun, thereby preserving the neutrality of the solar body. The rigid rotation of the corona is offered as the thirty-third line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter. Within the context of the gaseous models of the Sun, a 100 km thick transition zone has been hypothesized to exist wherein temperatures increase dramatically from 104–106 K. Such extreme transitional temperatures are not reasonable given the trivial physical scale of the proposed transition zone, a region adopted to account for the ultra-violet emission lines of ions such as C IV, O IV, and Si IV. In this work, it will be argued that the transition zone does not exist. Rather, the intermediate ionization states observed in the solar atmosphere should be viewed as the result of the simultaneous transfer of protons and electrons onto condensed hydrogen structures, CHS. Line emissions from ions such as C IV, O IV, and Si IV are likely to be the result of condensation reactions, manifesting the involvement of species such as CH4, SiH4, H3O+ in the synthesis of CHS in the chromosphere. In addition, given the presence of a true solar surface at the level of the photosphere in the liquid metallic hydrogen model

  10. Polarized Light from the Sun: Unification of the Corona and Analysis of the Second Solar Spectrum — Further Implications of a Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to account for the slight polarization of the continuum towards the limb, propo- nents of the Standard Solar Model (SSM must have recourse to electron or hydrogen- based scattering of light, as no other mechanism is possible in a gaseous Sun. Con- versely, acceptance that the solar body is comprised of condensed matter opens up new avenues in the analysis of this problem, even if the photospheric surface itself is viewed as incapable of emitting polarized light. Thus, the increased disk polarization, from the center to the limb, can be explained by invoking the scattering of light by the at- mosphere above the photosphere. The former is reminiscent of mechanisms which are known to account for the polarization of sunlight in the atmosphere of the Earth. Within the context of the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model (LMHSM, molecules and small particles, not electrons or hydrogen atoms as required by the SSM, would primarily act as scattering agents in regions also partially comprised of condensed hy- drogen structures (CHS. In addition, the well-known polarization which characterizes the K-corona would become a sign of emission polarization from an anisotropic source, without the need for scattering. In the LMHSM, the K, F, and T- coronas can be viewed as emissive and reflective manifestations of a single corona l entity adopting a radially anisotropic structure, while slowly cooling with altitude above the photosphere. The presence of “dust particles”, advanced by proponents of the SSM, would no longer be required to explain the F and T-corona, as a single cooling structure would account for the properties of the K, F, and T coronas. At the same time, the polarized “Second Solar Spectrum”, characterized by the dominance of certain elemental or ionic spectral lines and an abundance of molecular lines, could be explained in the LMHSM, by first invoking interface polarization and coordination of these species with condensed matter

  11. Time delay occultation data of the Helios spacecraft for probing the electron density distribution in the solar corona

    Edenhofer, P.; Lueneburg, E.; Esposito, P. B.; Martin, W. L.; Zygielbaum, A. I.; Hansen, R. T.; Hansen, S. F.

    1978-01-01

    S-band time delay measurements were collected from the spacecraft Helios A and B during three solar occultations in 1975/76 within heliocentric distances of about 3 and 215 earth radius in terms of range, Doppler frequency shift, and electron content. Characteristic features of measurement and data processing are described. Typical data sets are discussed to probe the electron density distribution near the sun (west and east limb as well) including the outer and extended corona. Steady-state and dynamical aspects of the solar corona are presented and compared with earth-bound-K-coronagraph measurements. Using a weighted least squares estimation, parameters of an average coronal electron density profile are derived in a preliminary analysis to yield electron densities at r = 3, 65, 215 earth radius. Transient phenomena are discussed and a velocity of propagation v is nearly equal to 900 km/s is determined for plasma ejecta from a solar flare observed during an extraordinary set of Helios B electron content measurements.

  12. Calculated Resonance Line Profiles of [Mg II], [C II], and [Si IV] in the Solar Atmosphere

    Avrett, E.; Landi, E.; McKillop, S.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph space mission, launched 2013 June 27, is intended to study the structure of the solar chromosphere and the transition region between the chromosphere and corona. The spectral lines to be observed include the Mg II k line at 2796.5 Å, the C II 1334.5 Å line, and the Si IV line at 1393.8 Å, which are formed in the middle chromosphere, the upper chromosphere, and the lower transition region, respectively. Here we calculate the profiles of these lines from four models of the solar atmosphere, intended to represent the faint and mean internetwork, a network lane, and bright network. We show how the profiles change from the center of the solar disk toward the limb of the Sun and in response to outflows and inflows. These results are intended to cover the range of expected quiet-Sun observations and assist in their interpretation. We expect that the observations will lead to improvements in the models, which can then be used to estimate the required non-radiative heating in the different regions.

  13. Calculated resonance line profiles of [Mg II], [C II], and [Si IV] in the solar atmosphere

    Avrett, E.; McKillop, S.; Landi, E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph space mission, launched 2013 June 27, is intended to study the structure of the solar chromosphere and the transition region between the chromosphere and corona. The spectral lines to be observed include the Mg II k line at 2796.5 Å, the C II 1334.5 Å line, and the Si IV line at 1393.8 Å, which are formed in the middle chromosphere, the upper chromosphere, and the lower transition region, respectively. Here we calculate the profiles of these lines from four models of the solar atmosphere, intended to represent the faint and mean internetwork, a network lane, and bright network. We show how the profiles change from the center of the solar disk toward the limb of the Sun and in response to outflows and inflows. These results are intended to cover the range of expected quiet-Sun observations and assist in their interpretation. We expect that the observations will lead to improvements in the models, which can then be used to estimate the required non-radiative heating in the different regions.

  14. RADIO DIAGNOSTICS OF ELECTRON ACCELERATION SITES DURING THE ERUPTION OF A FLUX ROPE IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T. [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Vilmer, Nicole, E-mail: eoin.carley@obspm.fr [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2016-12-10

    Electron acceleration in the solar corona is often associated with flares and the eruption of twisted magnetic structures known as flux ropes. However, the locations and mechanisms of such particle acceleration during the flare and eruption are still subject to much investigation. Observing the exact sites of particle acceleration can help confirm how the flare and eruption are initiated and how they evolve. Here we use the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to analyze a flare and erupting flux rope on 2014 April 18, while observations from the Nançay Radio Astronomy Facility allow us to diagnose the sites of electron acceleration during the eruption. Our analysis shows evidence of a pre-formed flux rope that slowly rises and becomes destabilized at the time of a C-class flare, plasma jet, and the escape of ≳75 keV electrons from the rope center into the corona. As the eruption proceeds, continued acceleration of electrons with energies of ∼5 keV occurs above the flux rope for a period over 5 minutes. At the flare peak, one site of electron acceleration is located close to the flare site, while another is driven by the erupting flux rope into the corona at speeds of up to 400 km s{sup −1}. Energetic electrons then fill the erupting volume, eventually allowing the flux rope legs to be clearly imaged from radio sources at 150–445 MHz. Following the analysis of Joshi et al. (2015), we conclude that the sites of energetic electrons are consistent with flux rope eruption via a tether cutting or flux cancellation scenario inside a magnetic fan-spine structure. In total, our radio observations allow us to better understand the evolution of a flux rope eruption and its associated electron acceleration sites, from eruption initiation to propagation into the corona.

  15. Radio evidence for shock acceleration of electrons in the solar corona

    Cane, H. V.; Stone, R. G.; Fainberg, J.; Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.; Stewart, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the new class of kilometer-wavelength solar radio bursts observed with the ISEE-3 Radio Astronomy Experiment occurs at the reported times of type II events, which are indicative of a shock wave. An examination of records from the Culgoora Radio Observatory reveals that the associated type II bursts have fast drift elements emanating from them; that is, a herringbone structure is formed. It is proposed that this new class of bursts is a long-wavelength continuation of the herringbone structure, and it is thought probable that the electrons producing the radio emission are accelerated by shocks. These new events are referred to as shock-accelerated events, and their characteristics are discussed.

  16. Mass and energy flows between the Solar chromosphere, transition region, and corona

    Hansteen, V. H.

    2017-12-01

    A number of increasingly sophisticated numerical simulations spanning the convection zone to corona have shed considerable insight into the role of the magnetic field in the structure and energetics of the Sun's outer atmosphere. This development is strengthened by the wealth of observational data now coming on-line from both ground based and space borne observatories. We discuss what numerical models can tell us about the mass and energy flows in the region of the upper chromosphere and lower corona, using a variety of tools, including the direct comparison with data and the use of passive tracer particles (so-called 'corks') inserted into the simulated flows.

  17. Fragmentation of electric currents in the solar corona by plasma flows

    Nickeler, Dieter Horst; Karlický, Marian; Wiegelmann, T.; Kraus, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 556, August (2013), A61/1-A61/12 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103; GA ČR GA13-24782S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetohydrodynamics * Sun flares * Sun corona Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  18. Soviet Union-France cooperative study of the solar corona. 1. The structure singularities and photometry of the corona on July 10, 1972

    Vsekhsvyatskij, S.K.; Dzyubenko, N.I.; Nesmyanovich, A.T.; Popov, O.S.; Kuchmij, S.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75 - Paris

    1975-01-01

    The results of the study of the eclipse negatives obtained by the expedition of the astronomy division of the Kiev University on 10 July 1972 in accordance with the program of the Soviet-France experiment ''Thynamics of white corona'' are given. New formations - ''voids'' and sharp boundary are obtained side by side with the usual coronal structure details: -polar ray systems, large coronal beams; arch systems. A great number of extended thin streamers in the south-west square and a helical beam over bright condensation are registered. Photometry of one of the negatives exibited a considerable heterogeneity of the corona. Mean values of the K-corona brightness are in agreement with the brightness of a maximum corona according to Van de Hulst model within the range of p < 2R. The coronal gifts are registered near the N-pole and in the south-west region are registered

  19. Tar removal from biomass derived fuel gas by pulsed corona discharges: chemical kinetic study II

    Nair, S.A.; Yan, K.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    Tar (heavy hydrocarbon or poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)) removal from biomass derived fuel gas is one of the biggest obstacles in its utilization for power generation. We have investigated pulsed corona as a method for tar removal. Our previous experimental results indicate the energy consumption

  20. White Light Solar Corona: An Atlas of 1988 K-Coronameter Synoptic Charts, December 1987-January 1989. Technical note

    Sime, D.G.; Garcia, C.; Yasukawa, E.; Lundin, E.

    1990-03-01

    The synoptic observing project of the High Altitude Observatory's Coronal Dynamics Program began on 30 July 1980. The data obtained for it are gathered by the Mark-III K-coronameter located at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, Hawaii, and are published yearly in volumes of The White Light Solar Corona: An Atlas of K-Coronameter Synoptic Charts (Table 1). The data, in the form of synoptic charts, are extended at both the beginning and the end of each year to provide some overlap with the preceding and succeeding volumes. This is also necessary to provide a complete set of the data organized into Carrington rotations covering a specific time period, since the rotations do not coincide with the yearly calendar. Further observations are made at the limb, and west limb passage occurs 14 days after east limb passage. Thus, an entire rotation's data requires more than 28 days to collect. Together with the synoptic maps and polar synoptic maps, two additional sections designed to aid the user are included in the volume. As in previous Atlases, the Activity Report Summary for the year is given and the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory Calendar for 1988 (Table III) is also included. This is a list of days on which no coronal observations were achieved. These synoptic data should be regarded as a preliminary presentation in which corrections have not fully been made for the day-to-day variations and scattering of polarized light by the earth's atmosphere. Data from the east and west limbs are presented separately in the synoptic charts, as transient and evolutionary changes in the white light corona can substantially modify the distribution of coronal material over the 14 days between sequential limb passages

  1. Flares on A-Type Stars: Evidence for Heating of Solar Corona by Nanoflares?

    Švanda, Michal; Karlický, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 831, č. 1 (2016), 9/1-9/7 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02112S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : stars * activity * coronae Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  2. Electric Current Filamentation Induced by 3D Plasma Flows in the Solar Corona

    Nickeler, Dieter Horst; Wiegelmann, T.; Karlický, Marian; Kraus, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 837, č. 2 (2017), 104/1-104/11 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05011S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13277S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetohydrodynamics * Sun * corona Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  3. Constraints on Nonlinear and Stochastic Growth Theories for Type 3 Solar Radio Bursts from the Corona to 1 AU

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1998-01-01

    Existing, competing theories for coronal and interplanetary type III solar radio bursts appeal to one or more of modulational instability, electrostatic (ES) decay processes, or stochastic growth physics to preserve the electron beam, limit the levels of Langmuir-like waves driven by the beam, and produce wave spectra capable of coupling nonlinearly to generate the observed radio emission. Theoretical constraints exist on the wavenumbers and relative sizes of the wave bandwidth and nonlinear growth rate for which Langmuir waves are subject to modulational instability and the parametric and random phase versions of ES decay. A constraint also exists on whether stochastic growth theory (SGT) is appropriate. These constraints are evaluated here using the beam, plasma, and wave properties (1) observed in specific interplanetary type III sources, (2) predicted nominally for the corona, and (3) predicted at heliocentric distances greater than a few solar radii by power-law models based on interplanetary observations. It is found that the Langmuir waves driven directly by the beam have wavenumbers that are almost always too large for modulational instability but are appropriate to ES decay. Even for waves scattered to lower wavenumbers (by ES decay, for instance), the wave bandwidths are predicted to be too large and the nonlinear growth rates too small for modulational instability to occur for the specific interplanetary events studied or the great majority of Langmuir wave packets in type III sources at arbitrary heliocentric distances. Possible exceptions are for very rare, unusually intense, narrowband wave packets, predominantly close to the Sun, and for the front portion of very fast beams traveling through unusually dilute, cold solar wind plasmas. Similar arguments demonstrate that the ES decay should proceed almost always as a random phase process rather than a parametric process, with similar exceptions. These results imply that it is extremely rare for

  4. Comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy) between 2 and 10 Solar Radii: Physical Parameters of the Comet and the Corona

    Raymond, J. C.; Downs, Cooper; Knight, Matthew M.; Battams, Karl; Giordano, Silvio; Rosati, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Comet C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy) is the first sungrazing comet in many years to survive perihelion passage. We report ultraviolet observations with the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) spectrometer aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory satellite at five heights as the comet approached the Sun. The brightest line, Lyα, shows dramatic variations in intensity, velocity centroid, and width during the observation at each height. We derive the outgassing rates and the abundances of N, O, and Si relative to H, and we estimate the effective diameter of the nucleus to be several hundred meters. We consider the effects of the large outgassing rate on the interaction between the cometary gas and the solar corona and find good qualitative agreement with the picture of a bow shock resulting from mass loading by cometary neutrals. We obtain estimates of the solar wind density, temperature, and speed, and compare them with predictions of a global magnetohydrodynamic simulation, finding qualitative agreement within our uncertainties. We also determine the sublimation rate of silicate dust in the comet’s tail by comparing the visible brightness from the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraphs with the Si III intensity from UVCS. The sublimation rates lie between the predicted rates for olivines and pyroxenes, suggesting that the grains are composed of a mixture of those minerals.

  5. Radial distributions of magnetic field strength in the solar corona as derived from data on fast halo CMEs

    Fainshtein, Victor; Egorov, Yaroslav

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, information about the distance between the body of rapid coronal mass ejection (CME) and the associated shock wave has been used to measure the magnetic field in the solar corona. In all cases, this technique allows us to find coronal magnetic field radial profiles B(R) applied to the directions almost perpendicular to the line of sight. We have determined radial distributions of magnetic field strength along the directions close to the Sun-Earth axis. For this purpose, using the "ice-cream cone" model and SOHO/LASCO data, we found 3D characteristics for fast halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) and for HCME-related shocks. With these data, we managed to obtain the B(R) distributions as far as ≈43 solar radii from the Sun's center, which is approximately twice as far as those in other studies based on LASCO data. We have concluded that to improve the accuracy of this method for finding the coronal magnetic field we should develop a technique for detecting CME sites moving in the slow and fast solar wind. We propose a technique for selecting CMEs whose central (paraxial) part actually moves in the slow wind.

  6. Radial distributions of magnetic field strength in the solar corona as derived from data on fast halo CMEs

    Fainshtein V.G.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, information about the distance between the body of rapid coronal mass ejection (CME and the associated shock wave has been used to measure the magnetic field in the solar corona. In all cases, this technique allows us to find coronal magnetic field radial profiles B(R applied to the directions almost perpendicular to the line of sight. We have determined radial distributions of magnetic field strength along the directions close to the Sun–Earth axis. For this purpose, using the “ice-cream cone” model and SOHO/LASCO data, we found 3D characteristics for fast halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs and for HCME-related shocks. With these data we managed to obtain the B(R distributions as far as ≈43 solar radii from the Sun's center, which is approximately twice as far as those in other studies based on LASCO data. We have concluded that to improve the accuracy of this method for finding the coronal magnetic field we should develop a technique for detecting CME parts moving in the slow and fast solar wind. We propose a technique for selecting CMEs whose central (paraxial part actually moves in the slow wind.

  7. Electron acceleration in the Solar corona - 3D PiC code simulations of guide field reconnection

    Alejandro Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    The efficient electron acceleration in the solar corona detected by means of hard X-ray emission is still not well understood. Magnetic reconnection through current sheets is one of the proposed production mechanisms of non-thermal electrons in solar flares. Previous works in this direction were based mostly on test particle calculations or 2D fully-kinetic PiC simulations. We have now studied the consequences of self-generated current-aligned instabilities on the electron acceleration mechanisms by 3D magnetic reconnection. For this sake, we carried out 3D Particle-in-Cell (PiC) code numerical simulations of force free reconnecting current sheets, appropriate for the description of the solar coronal plasmas. We find an efficient electron energization, evidenced by the formation of a non-thermal power-law tail with a hard spectral index smaller than -2 in the electron energy distribution function. We discuss and compare the influence of the parallel electric field versus the curvature and gradient drifts in the guiding-center approximation on the overall acceleration, and their dependence on different plasma parameters.

  8. Heating of the quiet solar corona from measurements of the FET/TESIS instrument on-board the KORONAS-FOTON satellite

    Rybák, J.; Gömöry, P.; Benz, A.; Bogachev, P.; Brajša, R.

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the first results of the observations of time evolution of the quiet solar corona brightenings obtained due to very rapid photography of the corona with full-disk EUV telescopes of the FET/TESIS instrument onboard the KORONA FOTON satellite. The measurements were performed simultaneously in the emission of the Fe IX / X 17.1 and Fe VIII 13.1 spectral lines with 10 second temporal cadence and spatial scale of 1.7 arc seconds within one hour. This test observation, carried out on 15 July 2009, was analyzed in order to determine whether this type of observation can be used to identify individual microevents in the solar corona heating that are above the tresholds of spatial and temporal resolutions of the observations of non-active regions in the solar atmosphere. For this purpose, a simple method was used involving cross-correlation of the plasma emission time evolution at different temperatures, each time from observations of identical elements. The results obtained are confronted with the expected observable manifestations of the corona heating via nanoflares. TESIS is a set of instruments for the Sun photography developed in the Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences that was launched into orbit in January 2009.

  9. Validation of Spherically Symmetric Inversion by Use of a Tomographically Reconstructed Three-Dimensional Electron Density of the Solar Corona

    Wang, Tongjiang; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Determining the coronal electron density by the inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) measurements by coronagraphs is a classic problem in solar physics. An inversion technique based on the spherically symmetric geometry (spherically symmetric inversion, SSI) was developed in the 1950s and has been widely applied to interpret various observations. However, to date there is no study of the uncertainty estimation of this method. We here present the detailed assessment of this method using a three-dimensional (3D) electron density in the corona from 1.5 to 4 solar radius as a model, which is reconstructed by a tomography method from STEREO/COR1 observations during the solar minimum in February 2008 (Carrington Rotation, CR 2066).We first show in theory and observation that the spherically symmetric polynomial approximation (SSPA) method and the Van de Hulst inversion technique are equivalent. Then we assess the SSPA method using synthesized pB images from the 3D density model, and find that the SSPA density values are close to the model inputs for the streamer core near the plane of the sky (POS) with differences generally smaller than about a factor of two; the former has the lower peak but extends more in both longitudinal and latitudinal directions than the latter. We estimate that the SSPA method may resolve the coronal density structure near the POS with angular resolution in longitude of about 50 deg. Our results confirm the suggestion that the SSI method is applicable to the solar minimum streamer (belt), as stated in some previous studies. In addition, we demonstrate that the SSPA method can be used to reconstruct the 3D coronal density, roughly in agreement with the reconstruction by tomography for a period of low solar activity (CR 2066). We suggest that the SSI method is complementary to the 3D tomographic technique in some cases, given that the development of the latter is still an ongoing research effort.

  10. DYNAMICS OF A PROMINENCE-HORN STRUCTURE DURING ITS EVAPORATION IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Yao; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Li, Xing [Department of Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Liu, Wei, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    The physical connections among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues regarding the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ∼150 minutes and an amplitude of ∼30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (∼3 Mm) and a shorter period (∼10–15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separating the cool and dense prominence from the hot and tenuous corona, is formed due to the heating and diluting process of the central prominence mass; most previous studies suggested that it is the opposite process, i.e., the cooling and condensation of coronal plasmas, that formed the horn. This study also demonstrates how the prominence transports magnetic flux to the upper corona, a process essential for the gradual build-up of pre-eruption magnetic energy.

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition Re Ective Coatings For Future Astronomical Space Telescopes And The Solar Corona Viewed Through The Minxss (Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer) Cubesats

    Moore, Christopher Samuel

    2017-11-01

    Advances in technology and instrumentation open new windows for observing astrophysical objects. The first half of my dissertation involves the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings to create high reflectivity UV mirrors for future satellite astronomical telescopes. Aluminum (Al) has intrinsic reflectance greater than 80% from 90 – 2,000 nm, but develops a native aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layer upon exposure to air that readily absorbs light below 250 nm. Thus, Al based UV mirrors must be protected by a transmissive overcoat. Traditionally, metal-fluoride overcoats such as MgF2 and LiF are used to mitigate oxidation but with caveats. We utilize a new metal fluoride (AlF3) to protect Al mirrors deposited by ALD. ALD allows for precise thickness control, conformal and near stoichiometric thin films. We prove that depositing ultra-thin ( 3 nm) ALD ALF3 to protect Al mirrors after removing the native oxide layer via atomic layer etching (ALE) enhances the reflectance near 90 nm from 5% to 30%.X-ray detector technology with high readout rates are necessary for the relatively bright Sun, particularly during large flares. The hot plasma in the solar corona generates X-rays, which yield information on the physical conditions of the plasma. The second half of my dissertation includes detector testing, characterization and solar science with the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats. The MinXSS CubeSats employ Silicon Drift Diode (SDD) detectors called X123, which generate full sun spectrally resolved ( 0.15 FWHM at 5.9 keV) measurements of the sparsely measured, 0.5 – 12 keV range. The absolute radiometric calibration of the MinXSS instrument suite was performed at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) and spectral resolution determined from radioactive sources. I used MinXSS along with data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Reuven Ramaty

  12. Magnetic Nulls and Super-radial Expansion in the Solar Corona

    Gibson, Sarah E.; Dalmasse, Kevin; Tomczyk, Steven; Toma, Giuliana de; Burkepile, Joan; Galloy, Michael [National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Rachmeler, Laurel A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35811 (United States); Rosa, Marc L. De, E-mail: sgibson@ucar.edu [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, 3251 Hanover Street B/252, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Magnetic fields in the Sun’s outer atmosphere—the corona—control both solar-wind acceleration and the dynamics of solar eruptions. We present the first clear observational evidence of coronal magnetic nulls in off-limb linearly polarized observations of pseudostreamers, taken by the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) telescope. These nulls represent regions where magnetic reconnection is likely to act as a catalyst for solar activity. CoMP linear-polarization observations also provide an independent, coronal proxy for magnetic expansion into the solar wind, a quantity often used to parameterize and predict the solar wind speed at Earth. We introduce a new method for explicitly calculating expansion factors from CoMP coronal linear-polarization observations, which does not require photospheric extrapolations. We conclude that linearly polarized light is a powerful new diagnostic of critical coronal magnetic topologies and the expanding magnetic flux tubes that channel the solar wind.

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE-MINUTE SOLAR OSCILLATIONS IN THE CORONA USING THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROPHOTOMETER (ESP) ON BOARD THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY EXPERIMENT (SDO/EVE)

    Didkovsky, L.; Judge, D.; Wieman, S.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Woods, T.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the detection of oscillations in the corona in the frequency range corresponding to five-minute acoustic modes of the Sun. The oscillations have been observed using soft X-ray measurements from the Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP) of the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The ESP zeroth-order channel observes the Sun as a star without spatial resolution in the wavelength range of 0.1-7.0 nm (the energy range is 0.18-12.4 keV). The amplitude spectrum of the oscillations calculated from six-day time series shows a significant increase in the frequency range of 2-4 mHz. We interpret this increase as a response of the corona to solar acoustic (p) modes and attempt to identify p-mode frequencies among the strongest peaks. Due to strong variability of the amplitudes and frequencies of the five-minute oscillations in the corona, we study how the spectrum from two adjacent six-day time series combined together affects the number of peaks associated with the p-mode frequencies and their amplitudes. This study shows that five-minute oscillations of the Sun can be observed in the corona in variations of the soft X-ray emission. Further investigations of these oscillations may improve our understanding of the interaction of the oscillation modes with the solar atmosphere, and the interior-corona coupling, in general.

  14. Effect of ballooning modes on thermal transport and magnetic field diffusion in the solar corona

    Strauss, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    Presently favored mechanisms of coronal heating: current sheet dissipation and Alfven wave resonant heating: deposit heat in thin layers. Classical thermal conduction cannot explain how heat is transported across the magnetic field. If heating occurs in thin layers, large pressure gradients can be created, which can give rise to ballooning modes. These instabilities are caused by the pressure gradient and the curvature of the magnetic field, and are stabilized by magnetic tension. The modes are broad band in wavelength and should produce turbulence. A mixing length expression for the turbulent heat transport shows that it is more than adequate to rapidly convect heat into much broader layers. Furthermore, the turbulent resistivity implies that heating occurs over most of the width of these broadened layers. The broadening also implies that much shorter time scales are required for heating. The β values in the corona suggest that 1--10 turbulent layers are formed in typical loop or arch structures. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  15. Spectroscopic Evidence of Alfvén Wave Damping in the Off-limb Solar Corona

    Gupta, G. R., E-mail: girjesh@iucaa.in [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag-4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2017-02-10

    We investigate the off-limb active-region and quiet-Sun corona using spectroscopic data. The active region is clearly visible in several spectral lines formed in the temperature range of 1.1–2.8 MK. We derive the electron number density using the line ratio method, and the nonthermal velocity in the off-limb region up to the distance of 140 Mm. We compare density scale heights derived from several spectral line pairs with expected scale heights per the hydrostatic equilibrium model. Using several isolated and unblended spectral line profiles, we estimate nonthermal velocities in the active region and quiet Sun. Nonthermal velocities obtained from warm lines in the active region first show an increase and then later either a decrease or remain almost constant with height in the far off-limb region, whereas nonthermal velocities obtained from hot lines show consistent decrease. However, in the quiet-Sun region, nonthermal velocities obtained from various spectral lines show either a gradual decrease or remain almost constant with height. Using these obtained parameters, we further calculate Alfvén wave energy flux in both active and quiet-Sun regions. We find a significant decrease in wave energy fluxes with height, and hence provide evidence of Alfvén wave damping. Furthermore, we derive damping lengths of Alfvén waves in the both regions and find them to be in the range of 25–170 Mm. Different damping lengths obtained at different temperatures may be explained as either possible temperature-dependent damping or by measurements obtained in different coronal structures formed at different temperatures along the line of sight. Temperature-dependent damping may suggest some role of thermal conduction in the damping of Alfvén waves in the lower corona.

  16. Validation of Earth atmosphere models using solar EUV observations from the CORONAS and PROBA2 satellites in occultation mode

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Ulyanov, Artyom; Gaikovich, Konstantin; Kuzin, Sergey; Pertsov, Andrey; Berghmans, David; Dominique, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Aims: Knowledge of properties of the Earth's upper atmosphere is important for predicting the lifetime of low-orbit spacecraft as well as for planning operation of space instruments whose data may be distorted by atmospheric effects. The accuracy of the models commonly used for simulating the structure of the atmosphere is limited by the scarcity of the observations they are based on, so improvement of these models requires validation under different atmospheric conditions. Measurements of the absorption of the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in the upper atmosphere below 500 km by instruments operating on low-Earth orbits (LEO) satellites provide efficient means for such validation as well as for continuous monitoring of the upper atmosphere and for studying its response to the solar and geomagnetic activity. Method: This paper presents results of measurements of the solar EUV radiation in the 17 nm wavelength band made with the SPIRIT and TESIS telescopes on board the CORONAS satellites and the SWAP telescope on board the PROBA2 satellite in the occulted parts of the satellite orbits. The transmittance profiles of the atmosphere at altitudes between 150 and 500 km were derived from different phases of solar activity during solar cycles 23 and 24 in the quiet state of the magnetosphere and during the development of a geomagnetic storm. We developed a mathematical procedure based on the Tikhonov regularization method for solution of ill-posed problems in order to retrieve extinction coefficients from the transmittance profiles. The transmittance profiles derived from the data and the retrieved extinction coefficients are compared with simulations carried out with the NRLMSISE-00 atmosphere model maintained by Naval Research Laboratory (USA) and the DTM-2013 model developed at CNES in the framework of the FP7 project ATMOP. Results: Under quiet and slightly disturbed magnetospheric conditions during high and low solar activity the extinction coefficients

  17. Diffusion effects on the line intensities of He I and He II in the solar transition region

    Shine, R.; Gerola, H.; Linsky, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A heuristic treatment of diffusion in the solar chromosphere-corona transition region is developed. Diffusion becomes increasingly important with steeper temperature gradients, in active and quiet regions relative to coronal holes, and with increasing excitation potential. Numerical calculations are made for the resonance lines of He i and He ii and show that diffusion can enhance these lines. Thus the helium lines may appear relatively weak in coronal holes due to a weakening of the enhancement mechanism. Most transition region lines will be less affected by diffusion than He i or He ii

  18. On the Shape of Force-Free Field Lines in the Solar Corona

    Prior, C.

    2012-02-02

    This paper studies the shape parameters of looped field lines in a linear force-free magnetic field. Loop structures with a sufficient amount of kinking are generally seen to form S or inverse S (Z) shapes in the corona (as viewed in projection). For a single field line, we can ask how much the field line is kinked (as measured by the writhe), and how much neighbouring flux twists about the line (as measured by the twist number). The magnetic helicity of a flux element surrounding the field line can be decomposed into these two quantities. We find that the twist helicity contribution dominates the writhe helicity contribution, for field lines of significant aspect ratio, even when their structure is highly kinked. These calculations shed light on some popular assumptions of the field. First, we show that the writhe of field lines of significant aspect ratio (the apex height divided by the footpoint width) can sometimes be of opposite sign to the helicity. Secondly, we demonstrate the possibility of field line structures which could be interpreted as Z-shaped, but which have a helicity value sign expected of an S-shaped structure. These results suggest that caution should be exercised in using two-dimensional images to draw conclusions on the helicity value of field lines and flux tubes. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. The Fate of Cool Material in the Hot Corona: Solar Prominences and Coronal Rain

    Liu, Wei; Antolin, Patrick; Sun, Xudong; Vial, Jean-Claude; Berger, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    As an important chain of the chromosphere-corona mass cycle, some of the million-degree hot coronal mass undergoes a radiative cooling instability and condenses into material at chromospheric or transition-region temperatures in two distinct forms - prominences and coronal rain (some of which eventually falls back to the chromosphere). A quiescent prominence usually consists of numerous long-lasting, filamentary downflow threads, while coronal rain consists of transient mass blobs falling at comparably higher speeds along well-defined paths. It remains puzzling why such material of similar temperatures exhibit contrasting morphologies and behaviors. We report recent SDO/AIA and IRIS observations that suggest different magnetic environments being responsible for such distinctions. Specifically, in a hybrid prominence-coronal rain complex structure, we found that the prominence material is formed and resides near magnetic null points that favor the radiative cooling process and provide possibly a high plasma-beta environment suitable for the existence of meandering prominence threads. As the cool material descends, it turns into coronal rain tied onto low-lying coronal loops in a likely low-beta environment. Such structures resemble to certain extent the so-called coronal spiders or cloud prominences, but the observations reported here provide critical new insights. We will discuss the broad physical implications of these observations for fundamental questions, such as coronal heating and beyond (e.g., in astrophysical and/or laboratory plasma environments).

  20. Wave disturbances in the solar corona: radio observations at 24.5-25.5 MHz

    Kobrin, M.M.; Snegriev, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    We present an analysis of observations of fluctuations in the integrated flux of radio emission from the ''quiet'' sun. The observations were made on the UTR-2 radiotelescope, simultaneously at 11 frequencies in the range 24.5-25.5 MHz. Control observations of Taurus were made in order to allow for the effects of the earth's ionosphere. We measured the phase dependences between oscillations in the radio emission intensity which looked like wave trains. From these measurements we found that for periods of about 10 min we always observed disturbances propagating from the lower levels of the corona to the upper levels. The frequency drift in the trains is observed to be about 10 -3 MHz/sec, corresponding to a disturbance velocity of about 100 km/sec. This may be associated with the propagation of magnetosonic waves. Our estimates show that the observed effects cannot be explained by a bremsstrahlung mechanism: We need to rely on plasma mechanisms in order to explain how the radio emission is generated

  1. Observational Evidence for the Associated Formation of Blobs and Raining Inflows in the Solar Corona

    Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Rouillard, A. P.; Lavraud, B.; Pinto, R. F.; Plotnikov, I.; Genot, V.; Davies, J. A.; Sheeley, N. R.; Kilpua, E.

    2017-01-01

    The origin of the slow solar wind is still a topic of much debate. The continual emergence of small transient structures from helmet streamers is thought to constitute one of the main sources of the slow wind. Determining the height at which these transients are released is an important factor in determining the conditions under which the slow solar wind forms. To this end, we have carried out a multipoint analysis of small transient structures released from a north–south tilted helmet streamer into the slow solar wind over a broad range of position angles during Carrington Rotation 2137. Combining the remote-sensing observations taken by the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory ( STEREO ) mission with coronagraphic observations from the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) spacecraft, we show that the release of such small transient structures (often called blobs), which subsequently move away from the Sun, is associated with the concomitant formation of transient structures collapsing back toward the Sun; the latter have been referred to by previous authors as “raining inflows.” This is the first direct association between outflowing blobs and raining inflows, which locates the formation of blobs above the helmet streamers and gives strong support that the blobs are released by magnetic reconnection.

  2. Observational Evidence for the Associated Formation of Blobs and Raining Inflows in the Solar Corona

    Sanchez-Diaz, E.; Rouillard, A. P.; Lavraud, B.; Pinto, R. F.; Plotnikov, I.; Genot, V. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, 9 avenue Colonel Roche, BP 44346-31028, Toulouse Cedex 4A (France); Davies, J. A. [RAL Space, STFC-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Science and Technology Facilities Council Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sheeley, N. R. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7600, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kilpua, E., E-mail: eduardo.sanchez-diaz@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: alexis.rouillard@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: benoit.lavraud@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: rui.pinto@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: illya.plotnikov@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: vincent.genot@irap.omp.eu, E-mail: jackie.davies@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: neil.sheeley@nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: emilia.kilpua@helsinki.fi [Space Physics Department, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64 FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-01-20

    The origin of the slow solar wind is still a topic of much debate. The continual emergence of small transient structures from helmet streamers is thought to constitute one of the main sources of the slow wind. Determining the height at which these transients are released is an important factor in determining the conditions under which the slow solar wind forms. To this end, we have carried out a multipoint analysis of small transient structures released from a north–south tilted helmet streamer into the slow solar wind over a broad range of position angles during Carrington Rotation 2137. Combining the remote-sensing observations taken by the Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory ( STEREO ) mission with coronagraphic observations from the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory ( SOHO ) spacecraft, we show that the release of such small transient structures (often called blobs), which subsequently move away from the Sun, is associated with the concomitant formation of transient structures collapsing back toward the Sun; the latter have been referred to by previous authors as “raining inflows.” This is the first direct association between outflowing blobs and raining inflows, which locates the formation of blobs above the helmet streamers and gives strong support that the blobs are released by magnetic reconnection.

  3. Study of the Effect of Active Regions on the Scattering Polarization in the Solar Corona

    Derouich, M.; Badruddin

    2018-03-01

    The solar photospheric/chromospheric light exciting atoms/ions is not homogeneous because of the presence of active regions (ARs). The effect of ARs on the scattering polarization at the coronal level is an important ingredient for a realistic determination of the magnetic field. This effect is usually disregarded or mixed with other effects in the sense that the degree of its importance is not well known. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of atmospheric inhomogeneities on the coronal scattering polarization. We determined quantitatively the importance of the atmospheric inhomogeneities by using given geometries of solar ARs (plages and sunspots).

  4. Spectroscopic Studies of Solar Corona VI: Trend in Line-width ...

    cm coronagraph at the Norikura Solar Observatory on several days during the years 1997–2004. The Coude type .... Top-most panel shows the variation of FWHM of the 6374 Е and 5303 Е emission lines with height above the limb when all ...

  5. STELLAR CORONAE, SOLAR FLARES: A DETAILED COMPARISON OF {sigma} GEM, HR 1099, AND THE SUN IN HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAYS

    Huenemoerder, David P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar St., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Phillips, Kenneth J. H. [Visiting Scientist, Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland); Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara, E-mail: dph@space.mit.edu, E-mail: kennethjhphillips@yahoo.com, E-mail: js@cbk.pan.wroc.pl, E-mail: bs@cbk.pan.wroc.pl [Space Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 51-622, Kopernika 11, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-05-10

    The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG) spectra of the coronally active binary stars {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 are among the highest fluence observations for such systems taken at high spectral resolution in X-rays with this instrument. This allows us to compare their properties in detail to solar flare spectra obtained with the Russian CORONAS-F spacecraft's RESIK instrument at similar resolution in an overlapping bandpass. Here we emphasize the detailed comparisons of the 3.3-6.1 A region (including emission from highly ionized S, Si, Ar, and K) from solar flare spectra to the corresponding {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 spectra. We also model the larger wavelength range of the HETG, from 1.7 to 25 A - having emission lines from Fe, Ca, Ar, Si, Al, Mg, Ne, O, and N-to determine coronal temperatures and abundances. {sigma} Gem is a single-lined coronally active long-period binary which has a very hot corona. HR 1099 is a similar, but shorter period, double-lined system. With very deep HETG exposures we can even study emission from some of the weaker species, such as K, Na, and Al, which are important since they have the lowest first ionization potentials, a parameter well known to be correlated with elemental fractionation in the solar corona. The solar flare temperatures reach Almost-Equal-To 20 MK, comparable to the {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 coronae. During the Chandra exposures, {sigma} Gem was slowly decaying from a flare and its spectrum is well characterized by a collisional ionization equilibrium plasma with a broad temperature distribution ranging from 2 to 60 MK, peaking near 25 MK, but with substantial emission from 50 MK plasma. We have detected K XVIII and Na XI emission which allow us to set limits on their abundances. HR 1099 was also quite variable in X-rays, also in a flare state, but had no detectable K XVIII. These measurements provide new comparisons of solar and stellar coronal abundances, especially at the lowest first

  6. On the Reconstruction of the Convection Pattern Below an Active Region of Solar Corona

    Pirot, Dorian; Gaudet, Jonathan; Vincent, Alain

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand magneto-convective patterns and flux emergence, we use the Nudging Back and Forth, a data assimilation method with an anelastic convection model to reconstruct the convection zone below a solar active region from observed solar surface magnetograms. To mimic photosphere, vector magnetograms are computed using force free hypothesis. We find that the observed arcade system of AR9077-20000714 ( t he slinky ) of magnetic lines is actually formed by Ω and U loops generated in the convection zone. We generate temperature maps at top of the convective zone and find that high magnetic fields on either sides of the neutral line produce a local cooling by impeding the overturning motions.

  7. Particle Acceleration in a Statistically Modeled Solar Active-Region Corona

    Toutounzi, A.; Vlahos, L.; Isliker, H.; Dimitropoulou, M.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgoulis, M.

    2013-09-01

    Elaborating a statistical approach to describe the spatiotemporally intermittent electric field structures formed inside a flaring solar active region, we investigate the efficiency of such structures in accelerating charged particles (electrons). The large-scale magnetic configuration in the solar atmosphere responds to the strong turbulent flows that convey perturbations across the active region by initiating avalanche-type processes. The resulting unstable structures correspond to small-scale dissipation regions hosting strong electric fields. Previous research on particle acceleration in strongly turbulent plasmas provides a general framework for addressing such a problem. This framework combines various electromagnetic field configurations obtained by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) or cellular automata (CA) simulations, or by employing a statistical description of the field's strength and configuration with test particle simulations. Our objective is to complement previous work done on the subject. As in previous efforts, a set of three probability distribution functions describes our ad-hoc electromagnetic field configurations. In addition, we work on data-driven 3D magnetic field extrapolations. A collisional relativistic test-particle simulation traces each particle's guiding center within these configurations. We also find that an interplay between different electron populations (thermal/non-thermal, ambient/injected) in our simulations may also address, via a re-acceleration mechanism, the so called `number problem'. Using the simulated particle-energy distributions at different heights of the cylinder we test our results against observations, in the framework of the collisional thick target model (CTTM) of solar hard X-ray (HXR) emission. The above work is supported by the Hellenic National Space Weather Research Network (HNSWRN) via the THALIS Programme.

  8. Using the ionospheric response to the solar eclipse on 20 March 2015 to detect spatial structure in the solar corona

    Bradford, J.; Bell, S. A.; Wilkinson, J.; Smith, D.; Tudor, S.

    2016-01-01

    The total solar eclipse that occurred over the Arctic region on 20 March 2015 was seen as a partial eclipse over much of Europe. Observations of this eclipse were used to investigate the high time resolution (1 min) decay and recovery of the Earth’s ionospheric E-region above the ionospheric monitoring station in Chilton, UK. At the altitude of this region (100 km), the maximum phase of the eclipse was 88.88% obscuration of the photosphere occurring at 9:29:41.5 UT. In comparison, the ionospheric response revealed a maximum obscuration of 66% (leaving a fraction, Φ, of uneclipsed radiation of 34±4%) occurring at 9:29 UT. The eclipse was re-created using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory to estimate the fraction of radiation incident on the Earth’s atmosphere throughout the eclipse from nine different emission wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray spectrum. These emissions, having varying spatial distributions, were each obscured differently during the eclipse. Those wavelengths associated with coronal emissions (94, 211 and 335 Å) most closely reproduced the time varying fraction of unobscured radiation observed in the ionosphere. These results could enable historic ionospheric eclipse measurements to be interpreted in terms of the distribution of EUV and X-ray emissions on the solar disc. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550766

  9. Radio wave propagation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field of the solar corona

    Zheleznyakov, V.V.; Zlotnik, E.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    Various types of linear coupling between ordinary and extra-ordinary waves in the coronal plasma with the inhomogeneous magnetic field and the effect of this phenomenon upon the polarization characteristics of solar radio emission are considered. A qualitative analysis of the wave equation indicates that in a rarefied plasma the coupling effects can be displayed in a sufficiently weak magnetic field or at the angles between the magnetic field and the direction of wave propagation close enough to zero or π/2. The wave coupling parameter are found for these three cases. The radio wave propagation through the region with a quasi-transverse magnetic field and through the neutral current sheet is discussed more in detail. A qualitative picture of coupling in such a layer is supported by a numerical solution of the ''quasi-isotropic approximation'' equations. The role of the coupling effects in formation of polarization characteristics of different components of solar radio emission has been investigated. For cm wave range, the polarization is essentially dependent on the conditions in the region of the transverse magnetic field

  10. Intermittent heating of the corona as an alternative to generate fast solar wind flows

    Grappin, R.; Mangeney, A.; Schwartz, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss a new alternative to the generation of fast streams which does not require momentum addition beyond the critical point. We consider the consequences on the solar wind of temporally intermittent heat depositions at the base of the wind. With the help of 1d hydrodynamic simulations we show that the instantaneous wind velocity profile fluctuates around an average profile well above the one corresponding to the Parker solution with a coronal temperature equal to the average coronal temperature imposed at the bottom of the numerical domain. The origin of this result lies in a previously overlooked phenomenon, the overexpansion of hot plasma regions in the subsonic wind. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  11. Soft X-ray images of the solar corona using normal incidence optics

    Bruner, M. E.; Haisch, B. M.; Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.; Underwood, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    A solar coronal loop system has been photographed in soft X-rays using a normal incidence telescope based on multilayer mirror technology. The telescope consisted of a spherical objective mirror of 4 cm aperture and 1 m focal length, a film cassette, and a focal plane shutter. A metallized thin plastic film filter was used to exclude visible light. The objective mirror was covered with a multilayer coating consisting of alternating layers of tungsten and carbon whose combined thicknesses satisfied the Bragg diffraction condition for 44 A radiation. The image was recorded during a rocket flight on October 25, 1985 and was dominated by emission lines arising from the Si XII spectrum. The rocket also carried a high resolution soft X-ray spectrograph that confirmed the presence of Si XII line radiation in the source. This image represents the first successful use of multilayer technology for astrophysical observations.

  12. Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region. [X-Ray spectrometer/spectrograph telescope

    Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Brown, W. A.; Nobles, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the paraboloidal telescope of the XSST. The transition region camera provided full disc images in selected spectral intervals originating in lower temperature zones than the emitting regions accessible to the XSST. A H-alpha camera system allowed referencing the measurements to the chromospheric temperatures and altitudes. Payload flight and recovery information is provided along with X-ray photoelectric and UV flight data, transition camera results and a summary of the anomalies encountered. Instrument mechanical stability and spectrometer pointing direction are also examined.

  13. Long-period intensity pulsations in the solar corona during activity cycle 23

    Auchère, F.; Bocchialini, K.; Solomon, J.; Tison, E.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the detection (10σ) of 917 events of long-period (3 to 16 h) intensity pulsations in the 19.5 nm passband of the SOHO Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope. The data set spans from January 1997 to July 2010, i.e. the entire solar cycle 23 and the beginning of cycle 24. The events can last for up to six days and have relative amplitudes up to 100%. About half of the events (54%) are found to happen in active regions, and 50% of these have been visually associated with coronal loops. The remaining 46% are localized in the quiet Sun. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the possible instrumental artefacts and we conclude that the observed signal is of solar origin. We discuss several scenarios that could explain the main characteristics of the active region events. The long periods and the amplitudes observed rule out any explanation in terms of magnetohydrodynamic waves. Thermal non-equilibrium could produce the right periods, but it fails to explain all the observed properties of coronal loops and the spatial coherence of the events. We propose that moderate temporal variations of the heating term in the energy equation, so as to avoid a thermal non-equilibrium state, could be sufficient to explain those long-period intensity pulsations. The large number of detections suggests that these pulsations are common in active regions. This would imply that the measurement of their properties could provide new constraints on the heating mechanisms of coronal loops. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Long term changes in EUV and X-ray emissions from the solar corona and chromosphere as measured by the response of the Earth’s ionosphere during total solar eclipses from 1932 to 1999

    C. J. Davis

    Full Text Available Measurements of the ionospheric E region during total solar eclipses in the period 1932–1999 have been used to investigate the fraction of Extreme Ultra Violet and soft X-ray radiation, 8, that is emitted from the limb corona and chromosphere. The relative apparent sizes of the Moon and the Sun are different for each eclipse, and techniques are presented which correct the measurements and, therefore, allow direct comparisons between different eclipses. The results show that the fraction of ionising radiation emitted by the limb corona has a clear solar cycle variation and that the underlying trend shows this fraction has been increasing since 1932. Data from the SOHO spacecraft are used to study the effects of short-term variability and it is shown that the observed long-term rise in 8 has a negligible probability of being a chance occurrence.

    Key words. Ionosphere (solar radiation and cosmic ray effects – Solar physics, astrophysics, and astronomy (corona and transition region

  15. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively

  16. The Duration of Energy Deposition on Unresolved Flaring Loops in the Solar Corona

    Reep, Jeffrey W.; Polito, Vanessa; Warren, Harry P.; Crump, Nicholas A.

    2018-04-01

    Solar flares form and release energy across a large number of magnetic loops. The global parameters of flares, such as the total energy released, duration, physical size, etc., are routinely measured, and the hydrodynamics of a coronal loop subjected to intense heating have been extensively studied. It is not clear, however, how many loops comprise a flare, nor how the total energy is partitioned between them. In this work, we employ a hydrodynamic model to better understand the energy partition by synthesizing Si IV and Fe XXI line emission and comparing to observations of these lines with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We find that the observed temporal evolution of the Doppler shifts holds important information on the heating duration. To demonstrate this, we first examine a single loop model, and find that the properties of chromospheric evaporation seen in Fe XXI can be reproduced by loops heated for long durations, while persistent redshifts seen in Si IV cannot be reproduced by any single loop model. We then examine a multithreaded model, assuming both a fixed heating duration on all loops and a distribution of heating durations. For a fixed heating duration, we find that durations of 100–200 s do a fair job of reproducing both the red- and blueshifts, while a distribution of durations, with a median of about 50–100 s, does a better job. Finally, we compare our simulations directly to observations of an M-class flare seen by IRIS, and find good agreement between the modeled and observed values given these constraints.

  17. Formation of fast shocks by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona

    Hsieh, M. H.; Tsai, C. L.; Ma, Z. W.; Lee, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    Reconnections of magnetic fields over the solar surface are expected to generate abundant magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) discontinuities and shocks, including slow shocks and rotational discontinuities. However, the generation of fast shocks by magnetic reconnection process is relatively not well studied. In this paper, magnetic reconnection in a current sheet is studied based on two-dimensional resistive MHD numerical simulations. Magnetic reconnections in the current sheet lead to the formation of plasma jets and plasma bulges. It is further found that the plasma bulges, the leading part of plasma jets, in turn lead to the generation of fast shocks on flanks of the bulges. The simulation results show that during the magnetic reconnection process, the plasma forms a series of structures: plasma jets, plasma bulges, and fast shocks. As time increases, the bulges spread out along the current sheet (±z direction) and the fast shocks move just ahead of the bulges. The effects of initial parameters ρ s /ρ m , β ∞ , and t rec on the fast shock generation are also examined, where ρ s /ρ m is the ratio of plasma densities on two sides of the initial current sheet, β ∞ =P ∞ /(B ∞ 2 /2μ 0 ), P ∞ is the plasma pressure and B ∞ is the magnetic field magnitude far from the current sheet, and t rec is the reconnection duration. In the asymmetric case with ρ s /ρ m =2, β ∞ =0.01 and t rec =1000, the maximum Alfven Mach number of fast shocks (M A1max ) is M A1max congruent with 1.1, where M A1 =V n1 /V A1 , and V n1 and V A1 are, respectively, the normal upstream fluid velocity and the upstream Alfven speed in the fast shocks frame. As the density ratio ρ s /ρ m (=1-8) and plasma beta β ∞ (=0.0001-1) increase, M A1max varies slightly. For the case with a large plasma beta β ∞ (=5), the fast shock is very weak. As the reconnection duration t rec increases, the bulges lead to generation of fast shocks with a higher M A1max . The present results can be

  18. Mid-Term Quasi-Periodicities and Solar Cycle Variation of the White-Light Corona from 18.5 Years (1996.0 - 2014.5) of LASCO Observations

    Barlyaeva, T.; Lamy, P.; Llebaria, A.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the analysis of the temporal evolution of the solar corona based on 18.5 years (1996.0 - 2014.5) of white-light observations with the SOHO/LASCO-C2 coronagraph. This evolution is quantified by generating spatially integrated values of the K-corona radiance, first globally, then in latitudinal sectors. The analysis considers time series of monthly values and 13-month running means of the radiance as well as several indices and proxies of solar activity. We study correlation, wavelet time-frequency spectra, and cross-coherence and phase spectra between these quantities. Our results give a detailed insight on how the corona responds to solar activity over timescales ranging from mid-term quasi-periodicities (also known as quasi-biennial oscillations or QBOs) to the long-term 11 year solar cycle. The amplitude of the variation between successive solar maxima and minima (modulation factor) very much depends upon the strength of the cycle and upon the heliographic latitude. An asymmetry is observed during the ascending phase of Solar Cycle 24, prominently in the royal and polar sectors, with north leading. Most prominent QBOs are a quasi-annual period during the maximum phase of Solar Cycle 23 and a shorter period, seven to eight months, in the ascending and maximum phases of Solar Cycle 24. They share the same properties as the solar QBOs: variable periodicity, intermittency, asymmetric development in the northern and southern solar hemispheres, and largest amplitudes during the maximum phase of solar cycles. The strongest correlation of the temporal variations of the coronal radiance - and consequently the coronal electron density - is found with the total magnetic flux. Considering that the morphology of the solar corona is also directly controlled by the topology of the magnetic field, this correlation reinforces the view that they are intimately connected, including their variability at all timescales.

  19. Acceleration and propagation of energetic particles in the solar corona: from RHESSI data analysing to the preparation of the STIX tool operations on Solar Orbiter

    Musset, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Sun is an active star and one manifestation of its activity is the production of solar flares. It is currently admitted that solar flares are caused by the release of magnetic energy during the process of magnetic reconnection in the solar upper atmosphere, the solar corona. During these flares, a large fraction of the magnetic energy is transferred to the acceleration of particles (electrons and ions). However, the details of particle acceleration during flares are still not completely understood. Several scenarios and models have been developed to explain particle acceleration. In some of them, electric fields, produced at the location of current sheets, which can be fragmented or collapsing, and which are preferentially located on quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs), are accelerating particles. To investigate a possible link between energetic particles and direct electric fields produced at current sheet locations, we looked for a correlation between X-ray emission from energetic electrons and electric currents which can be measured at the photospheric level. We used the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectrometric Imager (RHESSI) data to produce spectra and images of the X-ray emissions during GOES X-class flares, and spectro polarimetric data from the Helio seismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to calculate the vertical current densities from the reconstructed 3D vector magnetic field. A correlation between the coronal X-ray emissions (tracing the energetic electrons near the acceleration site) and the strong current ribbons at the photospheric level (tracing the coronal current sheet) was found in the five studied X-class flares. Moreover, thanks to the 12-minute time cadence of SDO/HMI, we could study for the first time the time evolution of electric currents : in several flares, a change in the current intensity, occurring during the flare peak, was found to be spatially correlated with X-ray emission sites. These

  20. Using a New Infrared Si X Coronal Emission Line for Discriminating between Magnetohydrodynamic Models of the Solar Corona During the 2006 Solar Eclipse

    Dima, Gabriel I.; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Mickey, Don; Downs, Cooper

    2018-01-01

    During the 2006 March 29 total solar eclipse, coronal spectropolarimetric measurements were obtained over a 6 × 6 R ⊙ field of view with a 1–2 μm spectral range. The data yielded linearly polarized measurements of the Fe XIII 1.075 μm, He I 1.083 μm, and for the first time, of the Si X 1.430 μm emission lines. To interpret the measurements, we used forward-integrated synthetic emission from two magnetohydrodynamic models for the same Carrington rotation with different heating functions and magnetic boundary conditions. Observations of the Fe XIII 1.075/Si X 1.430 line ratio allowed us to discriminate between two models of the corona, with the observations strongly favoring the warmer model. The observed polarized amplitudes for the Si X 1.430 μm line are around 7%, which is three times higher than the predicted values from available atomic models for the line. This discrepancy indicates a need for a closer look at some of the model assumptions for the collisional coefficients, as well as new polarized observations of the line to rule out any unknown systematic effect in the present data. All but two near-limb fibers show correlated bright He I 1.083 μm and H I 1.282 μm emission, which likely indicates cool prominence emission that is non-localized by the strongly defocused optics. One of the distant fibers located at 1.5 R ⊙ detected a weak He I 1.083 μm intensity signal consistent with previous eclipse measurements around 3 × 10‑7 {B}ȯ . However, given the limitations of these observations, it is not possible to completely remove contamination that is due to emission from prominence material that is not obscured by the lunar limb.

  1. Asymmetries of the solar Ca II lines

    Heasley, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of propagating acoustic pulses in the solar chromosphere upon the line profiles of the Ca II resonance and infrared triplet lines has been made. The major objective has been to explain the observed asymmetries seen in the cores of the H and K lines and to predict the temporal behavior of the infrared lines caused by passing acoustic or shock pulses. The velocities in the pulses, calculated from weak shock theory, have been included consistently in the non-LTE calculations. The results of the calculations show that these lines are very sensitive to perturbations in the background atmosphere caused by the pulses. Only minor changes in the line shapes result from including the velocities consistently in the line source function calculations. The qualitative changes in the line profiles vary markedly with the strength of the shock pulses. The observed differences in the K line profiles seen on the quiet Sun can be explained in terms of a spectrum of pulses with different wavelengths and initial amplitudes in the photosphere. (Auth.)

  2. Coronal mass ejections, type II radio bursts, and solar energetic particle events in the SOHO era

    N. Gopalswamy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the extensive and uniform data on coronal mass ejections (CMEs, solar energetic particle (SEP events, and type II radio bursts during the SOHO era, we discuss how the CME properties such as speed, width and solar-source longitude decide whether CMEs are associated with type II radio bursts and SEP events. We discuss why some radio-quiet CMEs are associated with small SEP events while some radio-loud CMEs are not associated with SEP events. We conclude that either some fast and wide CMEs do not drive shocks or they drive weak shocks that do not produce significant levels of particle acceleration. We also infer that the Alfvén speed in the corona and near-Sun interplanetary medium ranges from <200 km/s to ~1600 km/s. Radio-quiet fast and wide CMEs are also poor SEP producers and the association rate of type II bursts and SEP events steadily increases with CME speed and width (i.e. energy. If we consider western hemispheric CMEs, the SEP association rate increases linearly from ~30% for 800 km/s CMEs to 100% for ≥1800 km/s. Essentially all type II bursts in the decametre-hectometric (DH wavelength range are associated with SEP events once the source location on the Sun is taken into account. This is a significant result for space weather applications, because if a CME originating from the western hemisphere is accompanied by a DH type II burst, there is a high probability that it will produce an SEP event.

  3. mxCSM: A 100-slit, 6-Wavelength Wide-Field Coronal Spectropolarimeter for the Study of the Dynamics and the Magnetic Fields of the Solar Corona

    Lin, Haosheng, E-mail: lin@ifa.hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Pukalani, HI (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Tremendous progress has been made in the field of observational coronal magnetometry in the first decade of the Twenty-First century. With the successful construction of the Coronal Multichannel Magnetometer (CoMP) instrument, observations of the linear polarization of the coronal emission lines (CELs), which carry information about the azimuthal direction of the coronal magnetic fields, are now routinely available. However, reliable and regular measurements of the circular polarization signals of the CELs remain illusive. The CEL circular polarization signals allow us to infer the magnetic field strength in the corona, and is critically important for our understanding of the solar corona. Current telescopes and instrument can only measure the coronal magnetic field strength over a small field of view. Furthermore, the observations require very long integration time that preclude the study of dynamic events even when only a small field of view is required. This paper describes a new instrument concept that employs large-scale multiplexing technology to enhance the efficiency of current coronal spectropolarimeter by more than two orders of magnitude. This will allow for the instrument to increase the integration time at each spatial location by the same factor, while also achieving a large field of view coverage. We will present the conceptual design of a 100-slit coronal spectropolarimeter that can observe six CELs simultaneously. Instruments based on this concept will allow us to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field even with coronagraphs with modest aperture.

  4. mxCSM: A 100-slit, 6-wavelength wide-field coronal spectropolarimeter for the study of the dynamics and the magnetic fields of the solar corona

    Haosheng eLin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available remendous progress has been made in the field of observational coronal magnetometry in the first decade of the 21st century. With the successful construction of the Coronal Multichannel Magnetometer (CoMP instrument, observations of the linear polarization of the coronal emission lines (CELs, which carry information about the azimuthal direction of the coronal magnetic fields, are now routinely available. However, reliable and regular measurements of the circular polarization signals of the CELs remain illusive. The CEL circular polarization signals allow us to infer the magnetic field strength in the corona, and is critically important {bf of} our understanding of the solar corona. Current telescopes and instrument can only measure the coronal magnetic field strength over a small field of view. Furthermore, the observations require very long integration time that preclude the study of dynamic events even when only a small field of view is required. This paper describes a new instrument concept that employees large-scale multiplexing technology to enhance the efficiency of current coronal spectropolarimeter by more than two orders of magnitude. This will allow for the instrument to increase of the integration time at each spatial location by the same factor, while also achieving a large field of view coverage. We will present the conceptual design of a 100-slit coronal spectropolarimeter that can observe six coronal emission lines simultaneously. Instruments based on this concept will allow us to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field even with coronagraphs with modest aperture.

  5. Thin Flexible IMM Solar Array, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin, flexible, and highly efficient solar arrays are needed that package compactly for launch and deploy into large, structurally stable high power generators....

  6. Corona Borealis

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Northern Crown; abbrev. CrB, gen. Coronae Borealis; area 179 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Boötes and Hercules, and culminates at midnight in mid-May. It represents the crown that in Greek mythology was made by Hephaestus, god of fire, and worn by Princess Ariadne of Crete. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  7. Electron Acceleration by Cascading Reconnection in the Solar Corona. II. Resistive Electric Field Effects

    Zhou, X.; Büchner, J.; Bárta, Miroslav; Gan, W.; Liu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 827, č. 2 (2016), 94/1-94/14 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : acceleration of particles * magnetic reconnection * magnetohydrodynamics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  8. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  9. Solar photocatalytic removal of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II): Speciation modeling of metal-citric acid complexes

    Kabra, Kavita; Chaudhary, Rubina; Sawhney, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study is targeted on solar photocatalytic removal of metal ions from wastewater. Photoreductive deposition and dark adsorption of metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), using solar energy irradiated TiO 2 , has been investigated. Citric acid has been used as a hole scavenger. Modeling of metal species has been performed and speciation is used as a tool for discussing the photodeposition trends. Ninety-seven percent reductive deposition was obtained for copper. The deposition values of other metals were significantly low [nickel (36.4%), zinc (22.2%) and lead (41.4%)], indicating that the photocatalytic treatment process, using solar energy, was more suitable for wastewater containing Cu(II) ions. In absence of citric acid, the decreasing order deposition was Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Pb(II) > Zn(II), which proves the theoretical thermodynamic predictions about the metals

  10. Intensity of the Fe XV emission line corona, the level of geomagnetic activity and the velocity of the solar wind

    Bell, B.; Noci, G.

    1976-01-01

    The average solar wind velocity and the level of geomagnetic activity (Kp) following central meridian passage of coronal weak and bright features identified from Oso 7 isophotograms of Fe XV (284 A) are determined by the method of superposed epochs. Results are consistent with the concept that bright regions possess magnetic field of closed configurations, thereby reducing particle escape, while coronal holes possess open magnetic field lines favorable to particle escape or enhanced outflow of the solar wind. Coronal holes are identified with Bartels' M regions not only statistically but by linking specific long-lived holes with individual sequences of geomagnetic storms. In the study of bright region a subdivision by brightness temperature (T/sub b/) of associated 9.1-cm radiation was found to be significant, with the region s of higher T/sub b/ having a stronger inhibiting power on the outflow of the solar wind when they were located in the solar hemisphere on the same side of the solar equator as the earth. Regions of highest T/sub b/ most strongly depress the outflow of solar wind but are also the most likely to produce flare-associated great storms

  11. A quasi-one-dimensional velocity regime of super-thermal electron stream propagation through the solar corona

    Levin, B.N.

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of an inhomogeneous stream of fast electrons through the corona - the type III radio burst source - is considered. It is shown, that the angular spectrum width of plasma waves excited by the stream is defined both by Landau damping by particles of the diffuse component and by damping (in the region of large phase velocities) by particles of the stream itself having large pitch angles. The regime of quasi-one-dimensional diffusion in the velocity space is realized only in the presence of a sufficiently dense diffuse component of super-thermal particles and only for a sufficiently large inhomogeneity scale of the stream. A large scale of the stream space profile is formed, evidently, close to the region of injection of super-thermal particles. It is the result of 'stripping' of part of the electrons from the stream front to its slower part due to essential non-one-dimensionality of the particle diffusion in velocity space. Results obtained may explain, in particular, the evolution of a stream particle angular spectrum in the generation region of type III radio bursts observed by spacecrafts (Lin et al., 1981). For the relatively low energetic part of the stream, the oblique plasma wave stabilization by a diffuse component results in a quasi-one-dimensional regime of diffusion. The latter conserves the beam-like structure of this part of the stream. (orig.)

  12. A new method of presentation the large-scale magnetic field structure on the Sun and solar corona

    Ponyavin, D. I.

    1995-01-01

    The large-scale photospheric magnetic field, measured at Stanford, has been analyzed in terms of surface harmonics. Changes of the photospheric field which occur within whole solar rotation period can be resolved by this analysis. For this reason we used daily magnetograms of the line-of-sight magnetic field component observed from Earth over solar disc. We have estimated the period during which day-to-day full disc magnetograms must be collected. An original algorithm was applied to resolve time variations of spherical harmonics that reflect time evolution of large-scale magnetic field within solar rotation period. This method of magnetic field presentation can be useful enough in lack of direct magnetograph observations due to sometimes bad weather conditions. We have used the calculated surface harmonics to reconstruct the large-scale magnetic field structure on the source surface near the sun - the origin of heliospheric current sheet and solar wind streams. The obtained results have been compared with spacecraft in situ observations and geomagnetic activity. We tried to show that proposed technique can trace shon-time variations of heliospheric current sheet and short-lived solar wind streams. We have compared also our results with those obtained traditionally from potential field approximation and extrapolation using synoptic charts as initial boundary conditions.

  13. Coronal heating driven by a magnetic gradient pumping mechanism in solar plasmas

    Tan, Baolin, E-mail: bltan@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-11-10

    The heating of the solar corona is a longstanding mystery in astrophysics. Considering that the solar magnetic field is spatially inhomogeneous with a considerable magnetic gradient from the solar surface to the corona, this work proposes a magnetic gradient pumping (MGP) mechanism to try to explain the formation of hot plasma upflows, such as hot type II spicules and hot plasma ejections. In the MGP mechanism, the magnetic gradient may drive the energetic particles to move upward from the underlying solar atmosphere and form hot upflows. These upflow energetic particles are deposited in the corona, causing it to become very hot. Rough estimations indicate that the solar corona can be heated to above 1 million degrees, and the upflow velocity is about 40 km s{sup –1} in the chromosphere and about 130 km s{sup –1} in the corona. The solar magnetic flux tubes act as pumpers to extract energetic particles from the underlying thermal photosphere, convey them, and deposit them in the corona. The deposit of these energetic particles causes the corona to become hot, and the escape of such particles from the photosphere leaves it a bit cold. This mechanism can present a natural explanation to the mystery of solar coronal heating.

  14. A HIGH-FREQUENCY TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURST ASSOCIATED WITH THE 2011 FEBRUARY 13 CORONAL MASS EJECTION

    Cho, K.-S.; Kim, R.-S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Whaamdong, Yooseong-ku, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Gopalswamy, N.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Yashiro, S., E-mail: kscho@kasi.re.kr [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We examine the relationship between the high-frequency (425 MHz) type II radio burst and the associated white-light coronal mass ejection (CME) that occurred on 2011 February 13. The radio burst had a drift rate of 2.5 MHz s{sup -1}, indicating a relatively high shock speed. From SDO/AIA observations we find that a loop-like erupting front sweeps across high-density coronal loops near the start time of the burst (17:34:17 UT). The deduced distance of shock formation (0.06 Rs) from the flare center and speed of the shock (1100 km s{sup -1}) using the measured density from SDO/AIA observations are comparable to the height (0.05 Rs, from the solar surface) and speed (700 km s{sup -1}) of the CME leading edge observed by STEREO/EUVI. We conclude that the type II burst originates even in the low corona (<59 Mm or 0.08 Rs, above the solar surface) due to the fast CME shock passing through high-density loops.

  15. MODELING MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION CORONA USING NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE FIELDS IN SPHERICAL GEOMETRY

    Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Liu, Y.; Sun, X. D.; DeRosa, M. L.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    We test a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) optimization code in spherical geometry using an analytical solution from Low and Lou. Several tests are run, ranging from idealized cases where exact vector field data are provided on all boundaries, to cases where noisy vector data are provided on only the lower boundary (approximating the solar problem). Analytical tests also show that the NLFFF code in the spherical geometry performs better than that in the Cartesian one when the field of view of the bottom boundary is large, say, 20° × 20°. Additionally, we apply the NLFFF model to an active region observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) both before and after an M8.7 flare. For each observation time, we initialize the models using potential field source surface (PFSS) extrapolations based on either a synoptic chart or a flux-dispersal model, and compare the resulting NLFFF models. The results show that NLFFF extrapolations using the flux-dispersal model as the boundary condition have slightly lower, therefore better, force-free, and divergence-free metrics, and contain larger free magnetic energy. By comparing the extrapolated magnetic field lines with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we find that the NLFFF performs better than the PFSS not only for the core field of the flare productive region, but also for large EUV loops higher than 50 Mm.

  16. On the Reflection in the Solar Radio Emission of Processes in the Chromosphere and the lower Corona preceded CMEs Registration

    Durasova, M. S.; Tikhomirov, Yu. V.; Fridman, V. M.; Sheiner, O. A.

    The phenomena preceding the Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and observed in the radio-frequency band represent a lot of sporadic components of the emission, that cover the wide frequency range. The study of these phenomena composes the new, prevailing for the last ten years direction. This is caused by the fact that solar radioastronomy possesses the developed network of observant tools, by the sensitive methods of observations. It makes possible in a number of cases to obtain information from the layers of solar atmosphere, inaccessible for the studies by other methods of observations. The purpose of this work is analysis of information about the CMEs preceding radio-events and their dynamics in the centimeter and decimeter radio emission in 1998. We use the data of the worldwide network of solar observatories in the radio-frequency band, the data about the CMEs phenomena and the characteristics are taken from Internet: http://sdaw.gsfc.nasa.gov./CME_list}. From great number of the CMEs we select only such, before which there were no more recorded events in the time interval of 8 hours, and before which sporadic radio emission was observed on 2-hours interval. The selection of this interval was caused by available study about the mean lifetime of precursors before CMEs and powerful flares, as a rule, accompanying CMEs, in the optical, X-ray and radio emissions. It constitutes, on the average, about 30 min. The total volume of data composed 68 analyzed events of CMEs in 1998. The analysis of the spectral- temporary characteristics of sporadic radio emission in the dependence on the CMEs parameters is carried out. The nature of processes at the stage of formation and initial propagation of CMEs, such as floating up of new magnetic fluxes, the development of instabilities, the characteristic scales of phenomena, that have an effect upon the observed radio emission is analyzed. The work is carried out with the support of Russian Fund of Basic Research (grant 03

  17. OSO-8 observations of the impulsive phase of solar flares in the transition-zone and corona

    Lites, B. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Wolfson, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Several solar flares were observed from their onset in C IV 1548.2 A and 1-8 A X-rays using instruments on OSO-8. It is found that impulsive brightening in C IV is often accompanied by redshifts, interpreted as downflows, of the order of 80 km/s. The maximum soft X-ray intensity usually arrives several minutes after the maximum C IV intensity. The most energetic C IV event observed shows a small blueshift just before reaching maximum intensity; estimates of the mass flux associated with this upflow through the transition zone are consistent with the increase of mass in the coronal loops as observed in soft X-rays. Finally, it is suggested that the frequent occurrence of violent dynamical processes at the onset of the flare is associated with the initial energy release mechanism.

  18. Status of Knowledge after Ulysses and SOHO: Session 2: Investigate the Links between the Solar Surface, Corona, and Inner Heliosphere.

    Suess, Steven

    2006-01-01

    As spacecraft observations of the heliosphere have moved from exploration into studies of physical processes, we are learning about the linkages that exist between different parts of the system. The past fifteen years have led to new ideas for how the heliospheric magnetic field connects back to the Sun and to how that connection plays a role in the origin of the solar wind. A growing understanding these connections, in turn, has led to the ability to use composition, ionization state, the microscopic state of the in situ plasma, and energetic particles as tools to further analyze the linkages and the underlying physical processes. Many missions have contributed to these investigations of the heliosphere as an integrated system. Two of the most important are Ulysses and SOHO, because of the types of measurements they make, their specific orbits, and how they have worked to complement each other. I will review and summarize the status of knowledge about these linkages, with emphasis on results from the Ulysses and SOHO missions. Some of the topics will be the global heliosphere at sunspot maximum and minimum, the physics and morphology of coronal holes, the origin(s) of slow wind, SOHO-Ulysses quadrature observations, mysteries in the propagation of energetic particles, and the physics of eruptive events and their associated current sheets. These specific topics are selected because they point towards the investigations that will be carried out with Solar Orbiter (SO) and the opportunity will be used to illustrate how SO will uniquely contribute to our knowledge of the underlying physical processes.

  19. OSO-8 observations of the impulsive phase of solar flares in the transition-zone and corona

    Lites, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    Several solar flares have been observed from their onset in C IV lambda 1548.2 and 1-8 Angstroem X-rays using instruments aboard OSO-8. In addition, microwave and Hα flare patrol data have been obtained for this study. The impulsive brightening in C IV is frequently accompanied by redshifts, interpreted as downflows, of the order of 80 km s -1 . The maximum soft X-ray intensity usually arrives several minutes after the maximum C IV intensity. The most energetic C IV event studied shows a small blueshift just before reaching maximum intensity, and estimates of the mass flux associated with this upflow through the transition-zone are consistent with the increase of mass in the coronal loops as observed in soft X-rays. This event had no observable microwave burst, suggesting that electron beams did not play a major role in the chromospheric and transition-zone excitation. Lastly, our observations suggest that the frequent occurrence of violent dynamical processes at the onset of the flare are associated with the initial energy release mechanism. (orig.)

  20. Development of RaRaII solar car. Solar car RaRaII no kaihatsu

    Ohashi, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1991-05-31

    A solar car was developed to be able to travel, by utilizing solar energy, as a guiding car for the marathon race in the public road. That car is 210kg in weight, 1 in number of riding persons and 4.8m in smallest rotating radius. Its traveling performance is 44km h in highest speed, 10{degree} in hill-climbing ability and 0.6m s{sup 2} in acceleration. Those principal particulars satisfied the required condition of guiding car for the marathon race. That car was equipped with a polycrystalline silicon type solar cell, 6m{sup 2} in area to generate 870Wp power. A silver oxide-zinc battery, used as a secondary battery to secure traveling in case of rain, is of a performance to travel twice the marathon race road through. To satisfy the public road traveling in safety standard, that car was equipped with head lamps, wiper, direction winkers, rear-view mirrors, etc. As material of the body, aramid fiber and carbon fiber were adopted for securing the rigidity to cover the lightening in weight. That car, as used at an opportunity of intercollegiate marathon relay race, traveled a distance of about 30km which was its entire public road portion of course. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The TESIS experiment on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Reva, A. A.; Slemzin, V. A.; Sukhodrev, N. K.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Goncharov, L. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Popov, S. G.; Shergina, T. A.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Oparin, S. N.; Zykov, A. M.

    2011-04-01

    On February 26, 2009, the first data was obtained in the TESIS experiment on the research of the solar corona using imaging spectroscopy. The TESIS is a part of the scientific equipment of the CORONAS-PHO-TON spacecraft and is designed for imaging the solar corona in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet regions of the spectrum with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions at altitudes from the transition region to three solar radii. The article describes the main characteristics of the instrumentation, management features, and operation modes.

  2. Simulating the Mg II NUV Spectra & C II Resonance Lines During Solar Flares

    Kerr, Graham Stewart; Allred, Joel C.; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Butler, Elizabeth; Kowalski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    The solar chromosphere is the origin of the bulk of the enhanced radiative output during solar flares, and so comprehensive understanding of this region is important if we wish to understand energy transport in solar flares. It is only relatively recently, however, with the launch of IRIS that we have routine spectroscopic flarea observations of the chromsphere and transition region. Since several of the spectral lines observed by IRIS are optically thick, it is necessary to use forward modelling to extract the useful information that these lines carry about the flaring chromosphere and transition region. We present the results of modelling the formation properties Mg II resonance lines & subordinate lines, and the C II resonance lines during solar flares. We focus on understanding their relation to the physical strucutre of the flaring atmosphere, exploiting formation height differences to determine if we can extract information about gradients in the atmosphere. We show the effect of degrading the profiles to the resolution of the IRIS, and that the usual observational techniques used to identify the line centroid do a poor job in the early stages of the flare (partly due to multiple optically thick line components). Finally, we will tentatively comment on the effects that 3D radiation transfer may have on these lines.

  3. ON THE REMOTE DETECTION OF SUPRATHERMAL IONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA AND THEIR ROLE AS SEEDS FOR SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PRODUCTION

    Laming, J. Martin; Moses, J. Daniel; Ko, Yuan-Kuen [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7684, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ng, Chee K. [College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Rakowski, Cara E.; Tylka, Allan J. [NASA/GSFC Code 672, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Forecasting large solar energetic particle (SEP) events associated with shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) poses a major difficulty in the field of space weather. Besides issues associated with CME initiation, the SEP intensities are difficult to predict, spanning three orders of magnitude at any given CME speed. Many lines of indirect evidence point to the pre-existence of suprathermal seed particles for injection into the acceleration process as a key ingredient limiting the SEP intensity of a given event. This paper outlines the observational and theoretical basis for the inference that a suprathermal particle population is present prior to large SEP events, explores various scenarios for generating seed particles and their observational signatures, and explains how such suprathermals could be detected through measuring the wings of the H I Ly{alpha} line.

  4. ON THE REMOTE DETECTION OF SUPRATHERMAL IONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA AND THEIR ROLE AS SEEDS FOR SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE PRODUCTION

    Laming, J. Martin; Moses, J. Daniel; Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Ng, Chee K.; Rakowski, Cara E.; Tylka, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting large solar energetic particle (SEP) events associated with shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) poses a major difficulty in the field of space weather. Besides issues associated with CME initiation, the SEP intensities are difficult to predict, spanning three orders of magnitude at any given CME speed. Many lines of indirect evidence point to the pre-existence of suprathermal seed particles for injection into the acceleration process as a key ingredient limiting the SEP intensity of a given event. This paper outlines the observational and theoretical basis for the inference that a suprathermal particle population is present prior to large SEP events, explores various scenarios for generating seed particles and their observational signatures, and explains how such suprathermals could be detected through measuring the wings of the H I Lyα line.

  5. Corona helps curb losses

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  6. The energy and pressure balance in the corona

    McWhirter, R.W.P.; Wilson, R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews theoretical models for the solar corona based on energy and pressure calculations. Processes included in these calculations are: (a) heating of the outer corona by mechanical waves; (b) convective out-flow of gas giving rise to the solar wind; (c) thermal conductions; (d) radiated power loss. Possible observations to help answer some of the outstanding questions about the energy balance are suggested. (author)

  7. The CORONAS-Photon/TESIS experiment on EUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun

    Kuzin, S.; Zhitnik, I.; Bogachev, S.; Bugaenko, O.; Ignat'ev, A.; Mitrofanov, A.; Perzov, A.; Shestov, S.; Slemzin, V.; Suhodrev, N.

    The new experiment TESIS is developent for russian CORONAS-Photon mission launch is planned on the end of 2007 The experiment is aimed on the study of activity of the Sun in the phases of minimum rise and maximum of 24 th cycle of Solar activity by the method of XUV imaging spectroscopy The method is based on the registration full-Sun monochromatic images with high spatial and temporal resolution The scientific tasks of the experiment are i Investigation dynamic processes in corona flares CME etc with high spatial up to 1 and temporal up to 1 second resolution ii determination of the main plasma parameters like plasma electron and ion density and temperature differential emission measure etc iii study of the processes of appearance and development large scale long-life magnetic structures in the solar corona study of the fluency of this structures on the global activity of the corona iv study of the mechanisms of energy accumulation and release in the solar flares and mechanisms of transformation of this energy into the heating of the plasma and kinematics energy To get the information for this studies the TESIS will register full-Sun images in narrow spectral intervals and the monochromatic lines of HeII SiXI FeXXI-FeXXIII MgXII ions The instrument includes 5 independent channels 2 telescopes for 304 and 132 A wide-field 2 5 degrees coronograph 280-330A and 8 42 A spectroheliographs The detailed description of the TESIS experiment and the instrument is presented

  8. Tracking Solar Type II Bursts with Space Based Radio Interferometers

    Hegedus, Alexander M.; Kasper, Justin C.; Manchester, Ward B.

    2018-06-01

    The Earth’s Ionosphere limits radio measurements on its surface, blocking out any radiation below 10 MHz. Valuable insight into many astrophysical processes could be gained by having a radio interferometer in space to image the low frequency window for the first time. One application is observing type II bursts tracking solar energetic particle acceleration in Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). In this work we create a simulated data processing pipeline for several space based radio interferometer (SBRI) concepts and evaluate their performance in the task of localizing these type II bursts.Traditional radio astronomy software is hard coded to assume an Earth based array. To circumvent this, we manually calculate the antenna separations and insert them along with the simulated visibilities into a CASA MS file for analysis. To create the realest possible virtual input data, we take a 2-temperature MHD simulation of a CME event, superimpose realistic radio emission models from the CME-driven shock front, and propagate the signal through simulated SBRIs. We consider both probabilistic emission models derived from plasma parameters correlated with type II bursts, and analytical emission models using plasma emission wave interaction theory.One proposed SBRI is the pathfinder mission SunRISE, a 6 CubeSat interferometer to circle the Earth in a GEO graveyard orbit. We test simulated trajectories of SunRISE and image what the array recovers, comparing it to the virtual input. An interferometer on the lunar surface would be a stable alternative that avoids noise sources that affect orbiting arrays, namely the phase noise from positional uncertainty and atmospheric 10s-100s kHz noise. Using Digital Elevation Models from laser altimeter data, we test different sets of locations on the lunar surface to find near optimal configurations for tracking type II bursts far from the sun. Custom software is used to model the response of different array configurations over the lunar year

  9. Extension of the ACE solar panels is tested in SAEF-II

    1997-01-01

    Extension of the solar panels is tested on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II (SAEF-II). Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  10. Characteristics of a corona discharge with a hot corona electrode

    Kulumbaev, E. B.; Lelevkin, V. M.; Niyazaliev, I. A.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the temperature of the corona electrode on the electrical characteristics of a corona discharge was studied experimentally. A modified Townsend formula for the current-voltage characteristic of a one-dimensional corona is proposed. Gasdynamic and thermal characteristics of a positive corona discharge in a coaxial electrode system are calculated. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data.

  11. H and K (Ca II) emissions as observed in coronal spectrum in the July 20, 1963 solar eclipse

    Cavallini, F.; Righini, A.

    1975-01-01

    From a detailed analysis of a coronal spectrum taken from a DC-8 jet airplane during the Eclipse of 20 July, 1963 a rough model of a coronal cold region (T approximately 10 5 K) has been obtained. The model explains the presence of the abnormal H and K (Ca II) emissions and the large amount of F corona present in the spectrum. (Auth.)

  12. Disease specific protein corona

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  13. Corona SDK hotshot

    Flanagan, Nevin

    2013-01-01

    Using a project based approach you will learn the coolest aspects of Corona SDK development. Each project contains step bystep explanations, diagrams, screenshots, and downloadable materials.This book is for users who already have completed at least one simple app using Corona and are familiar with mobile development using another platform and have done Lua programming in another context. Knowledge of the basic functions of Corona routines, as well as an understanding of the Lua programming language's syntax and common libraries, is assumed throughout.

  14. Multi-crystalline II-VI based multijunction solar cells and modules

    Hardin, Brian E.; Connor, Stephen T.; Groves, James R.; Peters, Craig H.

    2015-06-30

    Multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells and methods for fabrication of same are disclosed herein. A multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cell includes a first photovoltaic sub-cell comprising silicon, a tunnel junction, and a multi-crystalline second photovoltaic sub-cell. A plurality of the multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells can be interconnected to form low cost, high throughput flat panel, low light concentration, and/or medium light concentration photovoltaic modules or devices.

  15. Lower solar chromosphere-corona transition region. II - Wave pressure effects for a specific form of the heating function

    Woods, D. Tod; Holzer, Thomas E.; Macgregor, Keith B.

    1990-01-01

    Lower transition region models with a balance between mechanical heating and radiative losses are expanded to include wave pressure effects. The models are used to study the simple damping length form of the heating function. The results are compared to the results obtained by Woods et al. (1990) for solutions in the lower transition region. The results suggest that a mixture of fast-mode and slow-mode waves may provide the appropriate heating mechanism in the lower transition region, with the decline in effective vertical wave speed caused by the refraction and eventual total reflection of the fast-mode wave resulting from the decreasing atmospheric density.

  16. Decomposition Characteristics of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene in an Atmospheric Pressure DC Corona Discharge II. Characteristics of Deposited By-products and Decomposition Process

    SAKAI, Seiji; TAKAHASHI, Kazuhiro; SATOH, Kohki; ITOH, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Gaseous by-products and deposited material obtained from the decomposition of benzene, toluene and xylene in an atmospheric pressure DC corona discharge were minutely investigated by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry and infrared absorption spectroscopy, and the decomposition processes of benzene, toluene and xylene were estimated. It was found that carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH) and formic anhydride ((CHO)2) were the major gaseous by-products from benzene, ...

  17. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  18. Transient behavior of flare-associated solar wind. II - Gas dynamics in a nonradial open field region

    Nagai, F.

    1984-01-01

    Transient behavior of flare-associated solar wind in the nonradial open field region is numerically investigated, taking into account the thermal and dynamical coupling between the chromosphere and the corona. A realistic steady solar wind is constructed which passes through the inner X-type critical point in the rapidly diverging region. The wind speed shows a local maximum at the middle, O-type, critical point. The wind's density and pressure distributions decrease abruptly in the rapidly diverging region of the flow tube. The transient behavior of the wind following flare energy deposition includes ascending and descending conduction fronts. Thermal instability occurs in the lower corona, and ascending material flows out through the throat after the flare energy input ceases. A local density distribution peak is generated at the shock front due to the pressure deficit just behind the shock front.

  19. Measuring solar reflectance - Part II: Review of practical methods

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul [Heat Island Group, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    A companion article explored how solar reflectance varies with surface orientation and solar position, and found that clear sky air mass 1 global horizontal (AM1GH) solar reflectance is a preferred quantity for estimating solar heat gain. In this study we show that AM1GH solar reflectance R{sub g,0} can be accurately measured with a pyranometer, a solar spectrophotometer, or an updated edition of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer (version 6). Of primary concern are errors that result from variations in the spectral and angular distributions of incident sunlight. Neglecting shadow, background and instrument errors, the conventional pyranometer technique can measure R{sub g,0} to within 0.01 for surface slopes up to 5:12 [23 ], and to within 0.02 for surface slopes up to 12:12 [45 ]. An alternative pyranometer method minimizes shadow errors and can be used to measure R{sub g,0} of a surface as small as 1 m in diameter. The accuracy with which it can measure R{sub g,0} is otherwise comparable to that of the conventional pyranometer technique. A solar spectrophotometer can be used to determine R{sub g,0}{sup *}, a solar reflectance computed by averaging solar spectral reflectance weighted with AM1GH solar spectral irradiance. Neglecting instrument errors, R{sub g,0}{sup *} matches R{sub g,0} to within 0.006. The air mass 1.5 solar reflectance measured with version 5 of the Solar Spectrum Reflectometer can differ from R{sub g,0}{sup *} by as much as 0.08, but the AM1GH output of version 6 of this instrument matches R{sub g,0}{sup *} to within about 0.01. (author)

  20. Preface to the SPECIAL ISSUE: Excitonic Solar Cells(II)

    Jianjun Tian; Meicheng Li; Kaibo Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Among all the excitonic solar cells(ESCs)including dyesensitized solar cells(DSSCs),quantum solar cells(QDSCs),perovskites solar cells(PSCs),and organic photovoltaics(OPVs),PSCs attracted enormous research attention in the past 7 years and attained the highest power conversion efficiency(PCE)of over 20%with the biggest progress,from 3.8%to over 22.1%in 7 years.However,one can easily realize the fact that such a rapid progress achieved in PSCs was made possible is largely based on the fundamental knowledge,experimental skills,and characterization facilities obtained and accumulated through the multi-decade long endeavor in the study of other excitonic solar cells.Even though PSCs have attractedmuch research human resource and funding,the study on other excitonic solar cells has never stopped,and such persistent efforts

  1. Solar Radio

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientists monitor the structure of the solar corona, the outer most regions of the Sun's atmosphere, using radio waves (100?s of MHz to 10?s of GHz). Variations in...

  2. CORONA project -contribution to VVER nuclear education and training

    Ilieva, M.; Miteva, R.; Takov, T.

    2016-01-01

    CORONA Project is established to stimulate the transnational mobility and lifelong learning amongst VVER end users. The project aims to provide a special purpose structure for training of specialists and to maintain the nuclear expertise by gathering the existing and generating new knowledge in the VVER area. CORONA Project consists of two parts: CORONA I (2011-2014) ''Establishment of a regional center of competence for VVER technology and Nuclear Applications'', co-financed by the Framework Program 7 of the European Union (EU) and CORONA II (2015-2018) ''Enhancement of training capabilities in VVER technology through establishment of VVER training academy'', co-financed by HORIZON 2020, EURATOM 2014-2015. The selected form of the CORONA Academy, together with the online availability of the training opportunities will allow trainees from different locations to access the needed knowledge on demand. The project will target also new-comers in VVER community like Vietnam, Turkey, Belarus, etc. (authors)

  3. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips - Part II: CIGS Solar Cells

    Lu, J.; Liu, Wei; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Sun, Yun; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance,

  4. Dynamics of the Solar Chromosphere. II. Ca II H2V and K2V Grains versus Internetwork Fields

    Lites, B.W.; Rutten, R.J.; Berger, T.E.

    1998-01-01

    We use the Advanced Stokes Polarimeter at the NSO/Sacramento Peak Vacuum Tower Telescope to search for spatio- temporal correlations between enhanced magnetic fields in the quiet solar internetwork photosphere and the occurrence of Ca II H2v grains in the overlying chromosphere.We address the

  5. Radio wave scattering observations of the solar corona: First-order measurements of expansion velocity and turbulence spectrum using Viking and Mariner 10 spacecraft

    Tyler, G.L.; Vesecky, J.F.; Plume, M.A.; Howard, H.T.; Barnes, A.

    1981-01-01

    Solar conjunction of Mars on 1976 November 25 occurred very near the beginning of solar cycle 21, about 4 months after the first Viking spacecraft arrived at the planet. Radio wave scattering data were collected at 3.6 and 13 cm wavelengths, using the radio link between the Viking orbiters and the Earth. These data allow measurements of solar wind properties over a range of heliocentric radial distance from approx.6 to 44 R/sub sun/ with solar latitudes ranging from -17 0 to +7 0 . Observations with Mariner 10 during a period of moderate solar activity in 1974 cover from 6 to 24 R/sub sun/ and from approx.20 0 to near 90 0 . We have found that the temporal frequency variance spectrum of amplitude fluctuations is useful for characterizing the bulk motion of the plasma. This spectrum has an approximately constant low frequency plateau and a power-law high frequency asymptote; the plateau-asymptote intersection frequency provides a measure of the solar wind velocity V. We also obtain the spectral index p of electron density turbulence, Phi/sub N/approx.kappa/sup -p/, where kappa is spatial wavenumber. These results apply to a cylindrical region oriented with its axis along the radio ray path and its center at the point of closest approach to the Sun. The measurements of V and p cover some 78/sup d/ for Viking and 49 2 for Mariner 10 and show the combined effects of changing heliocentric distance rho, solar latitude theta, and solar longitude Psi, as well as solar activity. The Viking results can be regarded as a function primary of rho and Psi since the observations are concentrated in the equatorial regions when solar activity was near minimum. For Mariner 10, rho, theta, and Psi variations were important. The Viking results show an abrupt change in V(rho) and the turbulence spectral index at approx.15 R/sub sun/

  6. Properties of minimum-flux coronae in dwarfs and giants

    Mullan, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Using a method due to Hearn, we examine the properties of minimum-flux coronae in dwarfs and giants. If the fraction phi of the total stellar luminosity which is used to heat the corona is equal to the solar value phi/sub s/, then red dwarfs must have coronae that are cooler than the solar corona: in UV Ceti, for example, the coronal temperature is a factor 3 less than in the Sun. This is consistent with an independent estimate of coronal temperature in a flare star. If phi=phi/sub s/, main-sequence stars hotter than the Sun have coronae which are hotter than the solar corona. Soft X-rays from Sirius suggest that the coronal temperature in Sirius is indeed hotter than the Sun by a factor of about 40 percent. Giants show an even more marked decrease in coronal temperature at later spectral type than do the dwarfs. We suggest that the reason for the presence of O V emission in β Gem and O VI emission in α Aur, and the absence of O V emission in α Boo and α Tau, is that the coronae in the latter two stars are cooler (rather than hotter, as McClintock et al. have suggested) than in the former two. Our results explain why it is more likely that mass loss has been detected in α Aur and α Boo, but not in α Tau or β Gem. Using a simple flare model, we show that flares in both a dwarf star (UV Ceti) and a giant (α Aur) were initiated not in the corona, but in the transition region

  7. Magnesium Hall Thruster for Solar System Exploration, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation being developed in this program is a Mg Hall Effect Thruster system that would open the door for In-Situ Resource Utilization based solar system...

  8. Multijunction Ultralight Solar Cells and Arrays, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a continuing need within NASA for solar cells and arrays with very high specific power densities (1000-5000 kW/kg) for generating power in a new generation...

  9. InN-Based Quantum Dot Solar Cells, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this STTR program is to employ nanostructured materials in an advanced device design to enhance the tolerance of solar cells to extreme environments...

  10. Modular Distributed Concentrator for Solar Furnace, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to develop the technology needed to implement a solar-fired regolith processing system at a lunar outpost that achieves low mass, high...

  11. The velocities of type II solar radio bursts

    Tlamicha, A.; Karlicky, M.

    1976-01-01

    A list is presented of type II radio bursts identified at Ondrejov between January 1973 and December 1974 in the frequency range of the dynamic spectrum 70 to 810 MHz. The velocities of shock waves in the individual cases of type II bursts are given using the fourfold Newkirk model. Some problems associated with type II radio bursts and with the propagation of the shock wave into the interplanetary space and into the region of the Earth are also discussed. (author)

  12. Equilibrium plasma corona surfaces

    Ensley, D.L.

    1979-07-01

    The distribution of charge of one sign when the opposite charge density is given is determined. Poisson's equation is solved in plane geometry for a simple specified ion density. This automatically gives the inverse solution for a given electron density, by reversing the sign of the potential. Some solutions can approximate a microwave confined corona, for very over dense cases

  13. Are All Flare Ribbons Simply Connected to the Corona?

    Judge, Philip G. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Paraschiv, Alin; Lacatus, Daniela; Donea, Alina [Monash Center for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Lindsey, Charlie, E-mail: judge@ucar.edu, E-mail: alina.donea@monash.edu, E-mail: alin.paraschiv@monash.edu, E-mail: daniela.lacatus@monash.edu, E-mail: indsey@cora.nwra.com [Northwest Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We consider the observational basis for the belief that flare ribbons in the chromosphere result from energy transport from the overlying corona. We study ribbons of small flares using magnetic and intensity data from the Hinode , Solar Dynamics Observatory , and IRIS missions. While most ribbons appear connected to the corona and overlie regions of significant vertical magnetic field, we examine one ribbon with no clear evidence for such connections. Evolving horizontal magnetic fields seen with Hinode suggest that reconnection with preexisting fields below the corona can explain the data. The identification of just one, albeit small, ribbon, with no apparent connection to the corona, leads us to conclude that at least two mechanisms are responsible for the heating that leads to flare ribbon emission.

  14. Secondary Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities in the Reconnection Exhaust Jet: A Mechanism for Supra-Arcade Downflows in the Solar Corona

    Guo, L.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y. M.; Innes, D.

    2014-12-01

    Supra-arcade downflows (hereafter referred to as SADs) are low-emission, elongated, finger-like features usually observed in active-region coronae above post-eruption flare arcades. Observations exhibit downward moving SADs intertwined with bright, upward moving spikes. Whereas SADs are dark voids, spikes are brighter, denser structures. Although SADs have been observed for decades, the mechanism for formation of SADs remains an open issue. Using high-Lundquist-number three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations, we demonstrate that secondary Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities develop in the downstream region of a reconnecting current sheet. The instability results in the formation of low-density coherent structures that resemble SADs, intertwined with high-density structures that appear to be spike-like. Using SDO/AIA images, we highlight features that have been previously unexplained, such as the splitting of SADs at their heads, but are a natural consequence of instabilities above the arcade. Comparison with siumlations suggest that secondary Rayleigh-Taylor type instabilities in the exhaust of reconnecting current sheets provide a plausible mechanism for observed SADs and spikes. Although the plasma conditions are vastly different, analogous phenomena also occur in the Earth's magnetotail during reconnection.

  15. Origin and structures of solar eruptions II: Magnetic modeling

    Guo, Yang; Cheng, Xin; Ding, MingDe

    2017-07-01

    The topology and dynamics of the three-dimensional magnetic field in the solar atmosphere govern various solar eruptive phenomena and activities, such as flares, coronal mass ejections, and filaments/prominences. We have to observe and model the vector magnetic field to understand the structures and physical mechanisms of these solar activities. Vector magnetic fields on the photosphere are routinely observed via the polarized light, and inferred with the inversion of Stokes profiles. To analyze these vector magnetic fields, we need first to remove the 180° ambiguity of the transverse components and correct the projection effect. Then, the vector magnetic field can be served as the boundary conditions for a force-free field modeling after a proper preprocessing. The photospheric velocity field can also be derived from a time sequence of vector magnetic fields. Three-dimensional magnetic field could be derived and studied with theoretical force-free field models, numerical nonlinear force-free field models, magnetohydrostatic models, and magnetohydrodynamic models. Magnetic energy can be computed with three-dimensional magnetic field models or a time series of vector magnetic field. The magnetic topology is analyzed by pinpointing the positions of magnetic null points, bald patches, and quasi-separatrix layers. As a well conserved physical quantity, magnetic helicity can be computed with various methods, such as the finite volume method, discrete flux tube method, and helicity flux integration method. This quantity serves as a promising parameter characterizing the activity level of solar active regions.

  16. Solar heating and cooling of mobile homes, Phase II. Final report

    Jacobsen, A.A.

    1976-12-01

    The specific objectives of the Phase II program were: (1) through system testing, confirm the feasibility of a solar heated and cooled mobile home; (2) update system performance analysis and provide solar heating and cooling computer model verification; (3) evaluate the performance of both an absorption and a Rankine air conditioning system; (4) perform a consumer demand analysis through field survey to ascertain the acceptance of solar energy into the mobile home market; and (5) while at field locations to conduct the consumer demand analysis, gather test data from various U.S. climatic zones. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  17. Comments on the 'minimum flux corona' concept

    Antiochos, S.K.; Underwood, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Hearn's (1975) models of the energy balance and mass loss of stellar coronae, based on a 'minimum flux corona' concept, are critically examined. First, it is shown that the neglect of the relevant length scales for coronal temperature variation leads to an inconsistent computation of the total energy flux F. The stability arguments upon which the minimum flux concept is based are shown to be fallacious. Errors in the computation of the stellar wind contribution to the energy budget are identified. Finally we criticize Hearn's (1977) suggestion that the model, with a value of the thermal conductivity modified by the magnetic field, can explain the difference between solar coronal holes and quiet coronal regions. (orig.) 891 WL [de

  18. Dynamics of the transition corona

    Masson, Sophie; McCauley, Patrick; Golub, Leon; Reeves, Katharine K.; DeLuca, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection between the open and closed magnetic fields in the corona is believed to play a crucial role in the corona/heliosphere coupling. At large scale, the exchange of open/closed connectivity is expected to occur in pseudo-streamer (PS) structures. However, there is neither clear observational evidence of how such coupling occurs in PSs, nor evidence for how the magnetic reconnection evolves. Using a newly developed technique, we enhance the off-limb magnetic fine structures observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and identify a PS-like feature located close to the northern coronal hole. We first identify that the magnetic topology associated with the observation is a PS, null-point (NP) related topology bounded by the open field. By comparing the magnetic field configuration with the EUV emission regions, we determined that most of the magnetic flux associated with plasma emission are small loops below the PS basic NP and open field bounding the PS topology. In order to interpret the evolution of the PS, we referred to a three-dimensional MHD interchange reconnection modeling the exchange of connectivity between small closed loops and the open field. The observed PS fine structures follow the dynamics of the magnetic field before and after reconnecting at the NP obtained by the interchange model. Moreover, the pattern of the EUV plasma emission is the same as the shape of the expected plasma emission location derived from the simulation. These morphological and dynamical similarities between the PS observations and the results from the simulation strongly suggest that the evolution of the PS, and in particular the opening/closing of the field, occurs via interchange/slipping reconnection at the basic NP of the PS. Besides identifying the mechanism at work in the large-scale coupling between the open and closed fields, our results highlight that interchange reconnection in PSs is a gradual physical process that differs from the impulsive

  19. High Radiation Resistance Inverted Metamorphic Solar Cell, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this SBIR Phase II project is the development of a unique triple junction inverted metamorphic technology (IMM), which will enable the...

  20. UltraSail Solar Sail Flight Experiment, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A team of CU Aerospace, the University of Illinois, and ManTech SRS Technologies proposes Phase II development of a 3 kg CubeSat spacecraft for initial flight test...

  1. MgII Observations Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the scientific goals of our sounding rocket program, the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI). This paper will present a brief description of the optics that were developed to meet SUMI's scientific goals, discuss the spectral, spatial and polarization characteristics of SUMI s optics, describe SUMI's flight which was launched 7/30/2010, and discuss what we have learned from that flight.

  2. Corona SDK application design

    Williams, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A step by step tutorial that focuses on everything from setup to deployment of basic apps.Have you ever wanted to create your own app? Then this book is for you. You will learn how to create apps using Corona SDK and how to publish your app so others can get a glimpse of your creation. This book is aimed at both Android and iOS app developers. The reader must have basic knowledge of app development.

  3. 78 FR 28836 - Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1430-000] Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request..., of Arlington Valley Solar Energy II, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. (II) complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    dimethyl-3-propyl-1 H-imidazol-3-ium iodide (DMPII),. 4-tert-butyl-pyridine (TBP) and ... cymene) ruthenium(II) dimer was synthesized according to the reported ... saturated ammonium chloride (200 ml) solution was added to decompose the ...

  5. Solar Stereoscopy and Tomography

    Markus J. Aschwanden

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We review stereoscopic and tomographic methods used in the solar corona, including ground-based and space-based measurements, using solar rotation or multiple spacecraft vantage points, in particular from the STEREO mission during 2007--2010. Stereoscopic and tomographic observations in the solar corona include large-scale structures, streamers, active regions, coronal loops, loop oscillations, acoustic waves in loops, erupting filaments and prominences, bright points, jets, plumes, flares, CME source regions, and CME-triggered global coronal waves. Applications in the solar interior (helioseismic tomography and reconstruction and tracking of CMEs from the outer corona and into the heliosphere (interplanetary CMEs are not included.

  6. Slender Ca ii H Fibrils Mapping Magnetic Fields in the Low Solar Chromosphere

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Rutten, R. J.; Szydlarski, M. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Solanki, S. K.; Wiegelmann, T.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Knölker, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Schmidt, W., E-mail: shahin.jafarzadeh@astro.uio.no [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    A dense forest of slender bright fibrils near a small solar active region is seen in high-quality narrowband Ca ii H images from the SuFI instrument onboard the Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory. The orientation of these slender Ca ii H fibrils (SCF) overlaps with the magnetic field configuration in the low solar chromosphere derived by magnetostatic extrapolation of the photospheric field observed with Sunrise/IMaX and SDO/HMI. In addition, many observed SCFs are qualitatively aligned with small-scale loops computed from a novel inversion approach based on best-fit numerical MHD simulation. Such loops are organized in canopy-like arches over quiet areas that differ in height depending on the field strength near their roots.

  7. Interstellar communication. II. Application to the solar gravitational lens

    Hippke, Michael

    2018-01-01

    We have shown in paper I of this series [1] that interstellar communication to nearby (pc) stars is possible at data rates of bits per second per Watt between a 1 m sized probe and a large receiving telescope (E-ELT, 39 m), when optimizing all parameters such as frequency at 300-400 nm. We now apply our framework of interstellar extinction and quantum state calculations for photon encoding to the solar gravitational lens (SGL), which enlarges the aperture (and thus the photon flux) of the receiving telescope by a factor of >109 . For the first time, we show that the use of the SGL for communication purposes is possible. This was previously unclear because the Einstein ring is placed inside the solar coronal noise, and contributing factors are difficult to determine. We calculate point-spread functions, aperture sizes, heliocentric distance, and optimum communication frequency. The best wavelength for nearby (meter-sized telescopes, an improvement of 107 compared to using the same receiving telescope without the SGL. A 1 m telescope in the SGL can receive data at rates comparable to a km-class "normal" telescope.

  8. The EUV-observatory TESIS on board Coronas-Photon: scientific goals and initial plan of observations

    Bogachev, Sergey

    The TESIS a EUV-observatory for solar research from space will be launched in 2008 September on board the satellite Coronas-Photon from cosmodrome Plesetsk. TESIS is a project of Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science with contribution from Space Research Center of Polish Academy of Science (the spectrometer SphinX). The experiment will focus on quasi-monochromatic imaging of the Sun and XUV spectroscopy of solar plasma. The scientific payload of TESIS contains five instruments: (1) Bragg crystal spectroheliometer for Sun monochromatic imaging in the line MgXII 8.42 A, (2) the normal-incidence Herschelian EUV telescopes with a resolution of 1.7 arc sec operated in lines FeXXII 133 A, FeIX 171 A and HeII 304 A, (3) the EUV imaging spectrometer, (4) the wide-field Ritchey-Chretien coronograph and (5) the X-ray spectrometer SphinX. The TESIS will focus on coordinated study of solar activity from the transition region to the outer corona up to 4 solar radii in wide temperature range from 5*104 to 2*107 K. We describe the scientific goals of the TESIS and its initial plan of observations.

  9. XUV-Exposed, Non-Hydrostatic Hydrogen-Rich Upper Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets. Part II: Hydrogen Coronae and Ion Escape

    Lammer, Helmut; Holmström, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V.; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Kulikov, Yuri N.; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the hydrogen-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a “super-Earth” with a radius of 2 REarth and a mass of 10 MEarth, located within the habitable zone at ∼0.24 AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic hydrogen coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup ions on the evolution of hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-energy neutral hydrogen clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary hydrogen atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold ions of planetary origin. We found that the ion production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ∼1.0×1025 s−1 to ∼5.3×1030 s−1, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary ions are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal ion pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized hydrogen atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ∼0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of hydrogen (EOH) to stars—Early atmospheres—Earth-like exoplanets—Energetic neutral atoms—Ion escape—Habitability. Astrobiology 13, 1030–1048. PMID:24283926

  10. XUV-exposed, non-hydrostatic hydrogen-rich upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets. Part II: hydrogen coronae and ion escape.

    Kislyakova, Kristina G; Lammer, Helmut; Holmström, Mats; Panchenko, Mykhaylo; Odert, Petra; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Leitzinger, Martin; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Kulikov, Yuri N; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2013-11-01

    We studied the interactions between the stellar wind plasma flow of a typical M star, such as GJ 436, and the hydrogen-rich upper atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and a "super-Earth" with a radius of 2 R(Earth) and a mass of 10 M(Earth), located within the habitable zone at ∼0.24 AU. We investigated the formation of extended atomic hydrogen coronae under the influences of the stellar XUV flux (soft X-rays and EUV), stellar wind density and velocity, shape of a planetary obstacle (e.g., magnetosphere, ionopause), and the loss of planetary pickup ions on the evolution of hydrogen-dominated upper atmospheres. Stellar XUV fluxes that are 1, 10, 50, and 100 times higher compared to that of the present-day Sun were considered, and the formation of high-energy neutral hydrogen clouds around the planets due to the charge-exchange reaction under various stellar conditions was modeled. Charge-exchange between stellar wind protons with planetary hydrogen atoms, and photoionization, lead to the production of initially cold ions of planetary origin. We found that the ion production rates for the studied planets can vary over a wide range, from ∼1.0×10²⁵ s⁻¹ to ∼5.3×10³⁰ s⁻¹, depending on the stellar wind conditions and the assumed XUV exposure of the upper atmosphere. Our findings indicate that most likely the majority of these planetary ions are picked up by the stellar wind and lost from the planet. Finally, we estimated the long-time nonthermal ion pickup escape for the studied planets and compared them with the thermal escape. According to our estimates, nonthermal escape of picked-up ionized hydrogen atoms over a planet's lifetime within the habitable zone of an M dwarf varies between ∼0.4 Earth ocean equivalent amounts of hydrogen (EO(H)) to <3 EO(H) and usually is several times smaller in comparison to the thermal atmospheric escape rates.

  11. Galactic absorption line coronae

    Bregman, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    We have investigated whether gaseous coronae around galaxies rise to the absorption systems seen in quasar spectra. In our model, gas originally located in the disk is heated to the million degree range and rises to surround the galaxy; the gas remains bound to the galaxy. Optically thin radiative cooling drives a thermal instability in the hot gas which causes cool clouds (T 4 K) to condense out of the corona. These clouds, which follow ballistic trajectories back to the disk, are the absorption sites. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic code with radiative cooling was used to study the dynamics and thermodynamics of the corona as well as the position rate at which clouds form. Coupled to the code is a galaxy with two mass components, a disk (approx.10 11 M/sub sun/) and a dark halo (approx.10 12 M/sub sun/). In a model where the temperature at the base of the corona (in the disk) is 3 x 10 6 K, absorbing gas of column density NL> or approx. =10 18 cm 2 extends radially to 100 kpc (face-on orientation) and vertically to 60 Kpc (edge-on orientation). The total mass of gas required here (coronal plus cloud gas) is 1.4 x 10 10 M/sub sun/, while the minimum supernova heating rate is one supernova per 27 years. In two other models (base coronal temperatures of 0.50 x 10 6 K and 1 x 10 6 K), coronal gas rises from an extended gaseous disk (in the previous model, the gas comes from a typical gaseous disk approximately 15 kpc in extent). Here, column densities of 10 19 cm -2 out to a radius of 70 kpc (face-on orientation) are achieved with a total gas mass of 1.7 x 10 9 M/sub direct-product/ and 2.0 x 10 9 M/sub sun/ and minimum heating rates of approximately one supernova per 170 years and one supernova per 60 years

  12. High-cadence observations of CME initiation and plasma dynamics in the corona with TESIS on board CORONAS-Photon

    Bogachev, Sergey; Kuzin, Sergey; Zhitnik, I. A.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Goncharov, A. L.; Ignatyev, A. P.; Krutov, V. V.; Lomkova, V. M.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Nasonkina, T. P.; Oparin, S. N.; Petzov, A. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Slemzin, V. A.; Soloviev, V. A.; Suhodrev, N. K.; Shergina, T. A.

    The TESIS is an ensemble of space instruments designed in Lebedev Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences for spectroscopic and imaging investigation of the Sun in EUV and soft X-ray spectral range with high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. From 2009 January, when TESIS was launched onboard the Coronas-Photon satellite, it provided about 200 000 new images and spectra of the Sun, obtained during one of the deepest solar minimum in last century. Because of the wide field of view (4 solar radii) and high sensitivity, TESIS provided high-quality data on the origin and dynamics of eruptive prominences and CMEs in the low and intermediate solar corona. TESIS is also the first EUV instrument which provided high-cadence observations of coronal bright points and solar spicules with temporal resolution of a few seconds. We present first results of TESIS observations and discuss them from a scientific point of view.

  13. Model of comet comae. II. Effects of solar photodissociative ionization

    Huebner, W.F.; Giguere, P.T.

    1980-01-01

    Improvements to our computer model of coma plotochemistry are described. These include an expansion of the chemical reactions network and new rate constants that have been measured only recently. Photolytic reactions of additional molecules are incorporated, and photolytic branching ratios are treated in far greater detail than in our previous work. A total of 25 photodissociative ionization (PDI) reactions are now considered (as compared to only 3 PDI reactions previously). Solar PDI of the mother molecule CO 2 is shown to compete effectively with photoionization of CO in the production of observed CO + . The CO + density peak predicted by our improved model, for COP 2 or CO mother molecules, is deep in the inner coma, in better agreement with observation than our old CO 2 model. However, neither CO 2 nor CO mother molecule calculations reproduce the CO + /H 2 O + ratio observed in comet Kohoutek. PDI products of CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , and NH 3 mother molecules fuel a complex chemistry scheme, producing inner coma abundances of CN, C 2 , and C 3 much greater than previously calculated

  14. Ions mobilities in corona discharge

    Bakhtaev, Sh. A.; Bochkareva, G. V.; Sydykova, G. K.

    2000-01-01

    Ion mobility in unipolar corona at small inter-electron distances (up to 0.01 m) when as coroning element serves micro-wire is consider. Experimental data of ion mobility in corona discharge external zone in atmospheric air are obtained and its comparative analysis with known data is worked out. (author)

  15. Characteristics of coronal mass ejections associated with solar frontside and backside metric type II bursts

    Kahler, S.W.; Cliver, E.W.; Sheeley, N.R. Jr.; Howard, R.A.; Koomen, M.J.; Michels, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    We compare fast (v> or =500 km s -1 ) coronal mass ejections (CME's) with reported metric type II bursts to study the properties of CME's associated with coronal shocks. We confirm an earlier report of fast frontside CME's with no associated metric type II bursts and calculate that 33 +- 15% of all fast frontside CME's are not associated with such bursts. Faster CME's are more likely to be associated with type II bursts, as expected from the hypothesis of piston-driven shocks. However, CME brightness and associated peak 3-cm burst intensity are also important factors, as might be inferred from the Wagner and MacQueen (1983) view of type II shocks decoupled from associated CME's. We use the equal visibility of solar frontside and backside CME's to deduce the observability of backside type II bursts. We calculate that 23 +- 7% of all backside type II bursts associated with fast CME's can be observed at the earth and that 13 +- 4% of all type II bursts originate in backside flares. CME speed again is the most important factor in the observability of backside type II bursts

  16. Solar Central Receiver Prototype Heliostat. Volume II. Phase II planning (preliminary)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A currently planned DOE program will develop and construct a 10 MW/sub e/ Pilot Plant to demonstrate the feasibility and operational characteristics of Solar Central Receiver Power Generation. The field of heliostats is a major element of the Solar Central Receiver Power Generation system. The primary objective of the program described is to establish and verify the manufacturability, performance, durability, and maintenance requirements of the commercial plant heliostat design. End products of the 16 month effort include: (1) design, fabrication, and test of heliostats; (2) preliminary designs of manufacturing, assembly, installation, and maintenance processes for quantity production; (3) detailed design of critical tooling or other special equipment for such processes; (4) refined cost estimates for heliostats and maintenance; and (5) an updated commercial plant heliostat preliminary design. The program management and control system is discussed. (WHK)

  17. MgII Linear Polarization Measurements Using the MSFC Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph

    West, Edward; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayahsi, Ken; Davis, John; Gary, Allen; Adams, Mitzi

    2011-01-01

    This paper will describe the Marshall Space Flight Center's Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph (SUMI) sounding rocket program, with emphasis on the polarization characteristics of the VUV optics and their spectral, spatial and polarization resolution. SUMI's first flight (7/30/2010) met all of its mission success criteria and this paper will describe the data that was acquired with emphasis on the MgII linear polarization measurements.

  18. Ground-based observation of emission lines from the corona of a red-dwarf star.

    Schmitt, J H; Wichmann, R

    2001-08-02

    All 'solar-like' stars are surrounded by coronae, which contain magnetically confined plasma at temperatures above 106 K. (Until now, only the Sun's corona could be observed in the optical-as a shimmering envelope during a total solar eclipse.) As the underlying stellar 'surfaces'-the photospheres-are much cooler, some non-radiative process must be responsible for heating the coronae. The heating mechanism is generally thought to be magnetic in origin, but is not yet understood even for the case of the Sun. Ultraviolet emission lines first led to the discovery of the enormous temperature of the Sun's corona, but thermal emission from the coronae of other stars has hitherto been detectable only from space, at X-ray wavelengths. Here we report the detection of emission from highly ionized iron (Fe XIII at 3,388.1 A) in the corona of the red-dwarf star CN Leonis, using a ground-based telescope. The X-ray flux inferred from our data is consistent with previously measured X-ray fluxes, and the non-thermal line width of 18.4 km s-1 indicates great similarities between solar and stellar coronal heating mechanisms. The accessibility and spectral resolution (45,000) of the ground-based instrument are much better than those of X-ray satellites, so a new window to the study of stellar coronae has been opened.

  19. A First Comparison of Millimeter Continuum and Mg ii Ultraviolet Line Emission from the Solar Chromosphere

    Bastian, T. S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Chintzoglou, G.; De Pontieu, B.; Schmit, D. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Lab, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Shimojo, M. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Leenaarts, J. [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Loukitcheva, M., E-mail: tbastian@nrao.edu [Center For Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present joint observations of the Sun by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ). Both millimeter/submillimeter- λ continuum emission and ultraviolet (UV) line emission originate from the solar chromosphere and both have the potential to serve as powerful and complementary diagnostics of physical conditions in this enigmatic region of the solar atmosphere. The observations were made of a solar active region on 2015 December 18 as part of the ALMA science verification effort. A map of the Sun’s continuum emission was obtained by ALMA at a wavelength of 1.25 mm (239 GHz). A contemporaneous map was obtained by IRIS in the Mg ii h doublet line at 2803.5 Å. While a clear correlation between the 1.25 mm brightness temperature T{sub B} and the Mg ii h line radiation temperature T {sub rad} is observed, the slope is <1, perhaps as a result of the fact that these diagnostics are sensitive to different parts of the chromosphere and that the Mg ii h line source function includes a scattering component. There is a significant difference (35%) between the mean T{sub B} (1.25 mm) and mean T {sub rad} (Mg ii). Partitioning the maps into “sunspot,” “quiet areas,” and “plage regions” we find the relation between the IRIS Mg ii h line T {sub rad} and the ALMA T {sub B} region-dependent. We suggest this may be the result of regional dependences of the formation heights of the IRIS and ALMA diagnostics and/or the increased degree of coupling between the UV source function and the local gas temperature in the hotter, denser gas in plage regions.

  20. A First Comparison of Millimeter Continuum and Mg ii Ultraviolet Line Emission from the Solar Chromosphere

    Bastian, T. S.; Chintzoglou, G.; De Pontieu, B.; Schmit, D.; Shimojo, M.; Leenaarts, J.; Loukitcheva, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present joint observations of the Sun by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ). Both millimeter/submillimeter- λ continuum emission and ultraviolet (UV) line emission originate from the solar chromosphere and both have the potential to serve as powerful and complementary diagnostics of physical conditions in this enigmatic region of the solar atmosphere. The observations were made of a solar active region on 2015 December 18 as part of the ALMA science verification effort. A map of the Sun’s continuum emission was obtained by ALMA at a wavelength of 1.25 mm (239 GHz). A contemporaneous map was obtained by IRIS in the Mg ii h doublet line at 2803.5 Å. While a clear correlation between the 1.25 mm brightness temperature T_B and the Mg ii h line radiation temperature T _r_a_d is observed, the slope is <1, perhaps as a result of the fact that these diagnostics are sensitive to different parts of the chromosphere and that the Mg ii h line source function includes a scattering component. There is a significant difference (35%) between the mean T_B (1.25 mm) and mean T _r_a_d (Mg ii). Partitioning the maps into “sunspot,” “quiet areas,” and “plage regions” we find the relation between the IRIS Mg ii h line T _r_a_d and the ALMA T _B region-dependent. We suggest this may be the result of regional dependences of the formation heights of the IRIS and ALMA diagnostics and/or the increased degree of coupling between the UV source function and the local gas temperature in the hotter, denser gas in plage regions.

  1. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ( 4 He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with 4 He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g αγγ -10 GeV -1 (95%C.L.) for m a =0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  2. A Parameter Study for Modeling Mg ii h and k Emission during Solar Flares

    Rubio da Costa, Fatima [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kleint, Lucia, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210, Windisch (Switzerland)

    2017-06-20

    Solar flares show highly unusual spectra in which the thermodynamic conditions of the solar atmosphere are encoded. Current models are unable to fully reproduce the spectroscopic flare observations, especially the single-peaked spectral profiles of the Mg ii h and k lines. We aim to understand the formation of the chromospheric and optically thick Mg ii h and k lines in flares through radiative transfer calculations. We take a flare atmosphere obtained from a simulation with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN as input for a radiative transfer modeling with the RH code. By iteratively changing this model atmosphere and varying thermodynamic parameters such as temperature, electron density, and velocity, we study their effects on the emergent intensity spectra. We reproduce the typical single-peaked Mg ii h and k flare spectral shape and approximate the intensity ratios to the subordinate Mg ii lines by increasing either densities, temperatures, or velocities at the line core formation height range. Additionally, by combining unresolved upflows and downflows up to ∼250 km s{sup −1} within one resolution element, we reproduce the widely broadened line wings. While we cannot unambiguously determine which mechanism dominates in flares, future modeling efforts should investigate unresolved components, additional heat dissipation, larger velocities, and higher densities and combine the analysis of multiple spectral lines.

  3. Characterization of β-FeSi II films as a novel solar cell semiconductor

    Fukuzawa, Yasuhiro; Ootsuka, Teruhisa; Otogawa, Naotaka; Abe, Hironori; Nakayama, Yasuhiko; Makita, Yunosuke

    2006-04-01

    β-FeSi II is an attractive semiconductor owing to its extremely high optical absorption coefficient (α>10 5 cm -1), and is expected to be an ideal semiconductor as a thin film solar cell. For solar cell use, to prepare high quality β-FeSi II films holding a desired Fe/Si ratio, we chose two methods; one is a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) method in which Fe and Si were evaporated by using normal Knudsen cells, and occasionally by e-gun for Si. Another one is the facing-target sputtering (FTS) method in which deposition of β-FeSi II films is made on Si substrate that is placed out of gas plasma cloud. In both methods to obtain β-FeSi II films with a tuned Fe/Si ratio, Fe/Si super lattice was fabricated by varying Fe and Si deposition thickness. Results showed significant in- and out-diffusion of host Fe and Si atoms at the interface of Si substrates into β-FeSi II layers. It was experimentally demonstrated that this diffusion can be suppressed by the formation of template layer between the epitaxial β-FeSi II layer and the substrate. The template layer was prepared by reactive deposition epitaxy (RDE) method. By fixing the Fe/Si ratio as precisely as possible at 1/2, systematic doping experiments of acceptor (Ga and B) and donor (As) impurities into β-FeSi II were carried out. Systematical changes of electron and hole carrier concentration in these samples along variation of incorporated impurities were observed through Hall effect measurements. Residual carrier concentrations can be ascribed to not only the remaining undesired impurities contained in source materials but also to a variety of point defects mainly produced by the uncontrolled stoichiometry. A preliminary structure of n-β-FeSi II/p-Si used as a solar cell indicated a conversion efficiency of 3.7%.

  4. Impulsiveness and energetics in solar flares with and without type II radio bursts - A comparison of hard X-ray characteristics for over 2500 solar flares

    Pearson, Douglas H.; Nelson, Robert; Kojoian, Gabriel; Seal, James

    1989-01-01

    The hard X-ray characteristics of more than 2500 solar flares are used to study the relative size, impulsiveness, and energetics of flares with and without type II radio bursts. A quantitative definition of the hard X-ray impulsiveness is introduced, which may be applied to a large number of events unambiguously. It is found that the flares with type II bursts are generally not significantly larger, more impulsive, or more energetic than those without type II bursts. Also, no evidence is found to suggest a simple classification of the flares as either 'impulsive' or 'gradual'. Because type II bursts are present even in small flares with relatively unimpulsive energy releases, it is concluded that changes in the ambient conditions of the solar atmosphere causing an unusually low Alfven speed may be important in the generation of the shock wave that produces type II radio bursts.

  5. THE FORMATION OF IRIS DIAGNOSTICS. II. THE FORMATION OF THE Mg II h and k LINES IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    Leenaarts, J.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Carlsson, M.; De Pontieu, B. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Uitenbroek, H., E-mail: jorritl@astro.uio.no, E-mail: tiago.pereira@astro.uio.no, E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no, E-mail: bdp@lmsal.com, E-mail: huitenbroek@nso.edu [NSO/Sacramento Peak P.O. Box 62 Sunspot, NM 88349-0062 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer mission will study how the solar atmosphere is energized. IRIS contains an imaging spectrograph that covers the Mg II h and k lines as well as a slit-jaw imager centered at Mg II k. Understanding the observations requires forward modeling of Mg II h and k line formation from three-dimensional (3D) radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) models. This paper is the second in a series where we undertake this modeling. We compute the vertically emergent h and k intensity from a snapshot of a dynamic 3D RMHD model of the solar atmosphere, and investigate which diagnostic information about the atmosphere is contained in the synthetic line profiles. We find that the Doppler shift of the central line depression correlates strongly with the vertical velocity at optical depth unity, which is typically located less than 200 km below the transition region (TR). By combining the Doppler shifts of the h and k lines we can retrieve the sign of the velocity gradient just below the TR. The intensity in the central line depression is anti-correlated with the formation height, especially in subfields of a few square Mm. This intensity could thus be used to measure the spatial variation of the height of the TR. The intensity in the line-core emission peaks correlates with the temperature at its formation height, especially for strong emission peaks. The peaks can thus be exploited as a temperature diagnostic. The wavelength difference between the blue and red peaks provides a diagnostic of the velocity gradients in the upper chromosphere. The intensity ratio of the blue and red peaks correlates strongly with the average velocity in the upper chromosphere. We conclude that the Mg II h and k lines are excellent probes of the very upper chromosphere just below the TR, a height regime that is impossible to probe with other spectral lines. They also provide decent temperature and velocity diagnostics of the middle

  6. Sun and solar flares

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. (Saint Patrick' s Coll., Maynooth (Ireland))

    1982-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased /sup 14/C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind.

  7. Acoustic waves in M dwarfs: Maintaining a corona

    Mullan, D. J.; Cheng, Q. Q.

    1994-01-01

    We use a time-dependent hydrodynamics code to follow the propagation of acoustic waves into the corona of an M dwarf star. An important qualitative difference between M dwarfs and stars such as the Sun is that the acoustic spectrum in M dwarfs is expected to peak at periods close to the acoustic cutoff P(sub A): this allows more effective penetration of waves into the corona. In our code, radiative losses in the photosphere, chromosphere, and corona are computed using Rosseland mean opacities, Mg II kappa and Ly alpha emission, and optically thin emissivities respectively. We find that acoustic heating can maintain a corona with a temperature of order 0.7-1 x 10(exp 6) K and a surface X-ray flux as large as 10(exp 5)ergs/sq cm/s. In a recent survey of X-rays from M dwarfs, some (20%-30%) of the stars lie at or below this limiting X-ray flux: we suggest that such stars may be candidates for acoustically maintained coronae.

  8. Solar radio bursts of spectral type II, coronal shocks, and optical coronal transients

    Maxwell, A.; Dryer, M.

    1981-01-01

    An examination is presented of the association of solar radio bursts of spectral type II and coronal shocks with solar flare ejecta observed in H-alpha, the green coronal line, and white-light coronagraphs. It is suggested that fast-moving optical coronal transients should for the most part be identified with piston-type phenomena well behind the outward-traveling shock waves that generate type II radio bursts. A general model is presented which relates type II radio bursts and coronal shocks to optically observed ejecta and consists of three main velocity regimes: (1) a quasi-hemispherical shock wave moving outward from the flare at speeds of 1000-2000 km/sec and Alfven Mach number of about 1.5; (2) the velocity of the piston driving the shock, on the order of 0.8 that of the shock; and (3) the regime of the slower-moving H-alpha ejecta, with velocities of 300-500 km/sec.

  9. Interfacial charge separation and photovoltaic efficiency in Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized solar cells.

    Pastore, Mariachiara; Duchanois, Thibaut; Liu, Li; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier; Haacke, Stefan; Gros, Philippe C

    2016-10-12

    The first combined theoretical and photovoltaic characterization of both homoleptic and heteroleptic Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized photoanodes in working dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been performed. Three new heteroleptic Fe(ii)-NHC dye sensitizers have been synthesized, characterized and tested. Despite an improved interfacial charge separation in comparison to the homoleptic compounds, the heteroleptic complexes did not show boosted photovoltaic performances. The ab initio quantitative analysis of the interfacial electron and hole transfers and the measured photovoltaic data clearly evidenced fast recombination reactions for heteroleptics, even associated with un unfavorable directional electron flow, and hence slower injection rates, in the case of homoleptics. Notably, quantum mechanics calculations revealed that deprotonation of the not anchored carboxylic function in the homoleptic complex can effectively accelerate the electron injection rate and completely suppress the electron recombination to the oxidized dye. This result suggests that introduction of strong electron-donating substituents on the not-anchored carbene ligand in heteroleptic complexes, in such a way of mimicking the electronic effects of the carboxylate functionality, should yield markedly improved interfacial charge generation properties. The present results, providing for the first time a detailed understanding of the interfacial electron transfers and photovoltaic characterization in Fe(ii)-carbene sensitized solar cells, open the way to a rational molecular engineering of efficient iron-based dyes for photoelectrochemical applications.

  10. Type II GaSb quantum ring solar cells under concentrated sunlight.

    Tsai, Che-Pin; Hsu, Shun-Chieh; Lin, Shih-Yen; Chang, Ching-Wen; Tu, Li-Wei; Chen, Kun-Cheng; Lay, Tsong-Sheng; Lin, Chien-Chung

    2014-03-10

    A type II GaSb quantum ring solar cell is fabricated and measured under the concentrated sunlight. The external quantum efficiency confirms the extended absorption from the quantum rings at long wavelength coinciding with the photoluminescence results. The short-circuit current of the quantum ring devices is 5.1% to 9.9% more than the GaAs reference's under various concentrations. While the quantum ring solar cell does not exceed its GaAs counterpart in efficiency under one-sun, the recovery of the open-circuit voltages at higher concentration helps to reverse the situation. A slightly higher efficiency (10.31% vs. 10.29%) is reported for the quantum ring device against the GaAs one.

  11. Nanoflare heating model for collisionless solar corona

    2017-01-31

    Jan 31, 2017 ... The Sweet–Parker model uses a steady-state scaling analysis to determine ... Sweet–Parker mode. The electric field occurring in this region can be .... where V is the volume of the current sheet given by. L2 z. On substituting ...

  12. Corona-Solar Wind Coupling Review

    1987-06-01

    been reviewed and is approved for publication" E. G. Mullen E. G. Mullen Contract Manager Chief, Space Particles Environment Branch FOR THR COIN 1a...modeled, partly because the acceleration mechanism is still under study. Conclusions This review has been a survey of the current state of knowlede of

  13. Nanoflares and Heating of the Solar Corona

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Coronal heating by nanoflares is presented by using observational, analytical, numerical simulation and statistical results. Numerical simulations show the formation of numerous current sheets if the magnetic field is sheared and bipoles have unequal pole strengths. This fact supports the generation of ...

  14. Molecularly Engineered Ru(II) Sensitizers Compatible with Cobalt(II/III) Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Wu, Kuan-Lin; Huckaba, Aron J; Clifford, John N; Yang, Ya-Wen; Yella, Aswani; Palomares, Emilio; Grätzel, Michael; Chi, Yun; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-08-01

    Thiocyanate-free isoquinazolylpyrazolate Ru(II) complexes were synthesized and applied as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Unlike most other successful Ru sensitizers, Co-based electrolytes were used, and resulting record efficiency of 9.53% was obtained under simulated sunlight with an intensity of 100 mW cm(-2). Specifically, dye 51-57dht.1 and an electrolyte based on Co(phen)3 led to measurement of a JSC of 13.89 mA cm(-2), VOC of 900 mV, and FF of 0.762 to yield 9.53% efficiency. The improved device performances were achieved by the inclusion of 2-hexylthiophene units onto the isoquinoline subunits, in addition to lengthening the perfluoroalkyl chain on the pyrazolate chelating group, which worked to increase light absorption and decrease recombination effects when using the Co-based electrolyte. As this study shows, Ru(II) sensitizers bearing sterically demanding ligands can allow successful utilization of important Co electrolytes and high performance.

  15. MAGNETIC DIAGNOSTICS OF THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE WITH THE Mg II h–k LINES

    Del Pino Alemán, T.; Casini, R. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Manso Sainz, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-10-20

    We investigated the formation of the Mg ii h–k doublet in a weakly magnetized atmosphere (20–100 G) using a newly developed numerical code for polarized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel geometry, which implements a recent formulation of partially coherent scattering by polarized multi-term atoms in arbitrary magnetic-field regimes. Our results confirm the importance of partial redistribution effects in the formation of the Mg ii h and k lines, as pointed out by previous work in the non-magnetic case. We show that the presence of a magnetic field can produce measurable modifications of the broadband linear polarization even for relatively small field strengths (∼10 G), while the circular polarization remains well represented by the classical magnetograph formula. Both these results open an important new window for the weak-field diagnostics of the upper solar atmosphere.

  16. Propagation of interplanetary shock waves by observations of type II solar radio bursts on IMP-6

    Chertok, I.M.; Fomichev, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    A new interpretation of the low frequency type II solar radio bursts of 30 June 1971, and 7-8 August 1972 observed with IMP-6 satellite (Malitson, H.H., Fainberg, J. and Stone, R.G., 1973, Astrophys. Lett., vol. 14, 111; Astrophys. J., vol. 183, L35) is suggested. The analysis is carried out for two models of the electron density distribution in the interplanetary medium taking into account that N approximately 3.5 cm -3 at a distance of 1 a.u. It is assumed that the frequency of the radio emission corresponds to the average electron density behind the shock front which exceeds the undisturbed electron density by the factor of 3. The radio data indicate essential deceleration of the shock waves during propagation from the Sun up to 1 a.u. The characteristics of the shock waves obtained from the type II bursts agree with the results of the in situ observations. (author)

  17. Evolution of CME Mass in the Corona

    Howard, Russell A.; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2018-04-01

    The idea that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) pile up mass in their transport through the corona and heliosphere is widely accepted. However, it has not been shown that this is the case. We perform an initial study of the volume electron density of the fronts of 13 three-part CMEs with well-defined frontal boundaries observed with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/ Large Angle and Spectrometric COronagraph (SOHO/LASCO) white-light coronagraphs. We find that, in all cases, the volume electron density decreases as the CMEs travel through the LASCO-C2 and -C3 fields of view, from 2.6 - 30 R_{⊙}. The density decrease follows closely a power law with an exponent of -3, which is consistent with a simple radial expansion. This indicates that in this height regime there is no observed pile-up.

  18. Pulsed Streamer Corona Reactor Characterization - Phase II

    1996-12-01

    34,STATUS="UNKN0WN") OPEN (LINKCK, FORM=’UNFORMATTED’, STATUS=’UNKNOWN’, 1 FILE=’chem.bin’) CALL CKLEN (LINKCK, LOUT, LENI, LENR , LENC) CALL CKINIT...NEQ + 2*NEQ**2 MVDDE = LENR + 1 NWT = NVODE + LRW NH = NWT + KK NWDOT = NH + KK NTOT = NWDOT+ KK - 1 LIW = 30 + NEQ IVODE = LENI + 1

  19. Artificial Photosystem I and II: Highly Selective solar fuels and tandem photocatalysis

    Ding, Yuchen; Castellanos, Ignacio; Cerkovnik, Logan; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Artificial photosynthesis, or generation of solar fuels from CO2/H2O, can provide an important alternative for rising CO2 emission and renewable energy generation. In our recent work, composite photocatalysts (CPCs) made from widebandgap nanotubes and different QDs were used to mimic Photosystem II (PS680) and I (PS700), respectively. By tuning the redox potentials using the size, composition and energy band alignment of QDs, we demonstrate highly selective (>90%) and efficient production of ethane, ethanol and acetaldehyde as solar fuels with different wavelengths of light. We also show that this selectivity is a result of precise energy band alignments (using cationic/anionic doping of nanotubes, QD size etc.), confirmed using measurements of electronic density of states, and alignment of higher redox potentials with hot-carriers can also lead to hot-carrier photocatalysis. This wavelength-selective CPCs can have important implications for inexpensive production of solar fuels including alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes and hydrogen, and making tandem structures (red, green, blue) with three CPCs, allowing almost full visible spectrum (410 ~ 730nm) utilization with different fuels produced simultaneously.

  20. Carrier extraction behaviour in type II GaSb/GaAs quantum ring solar cells

    Fujita, Hiromi; James, Juanita; Carrington, Peter J; Marshall, Andrew R J; Krier, Anthony; Wagener, Magnus C; Botha, Johannes R

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of quantum dot (QD) or quantum ring (QR) nanostructures into GaAs single-junction solar cells has shown enhanced photo-response above the GaAs absorption edge, because of sub-bandgap photon absorption. However, to further improve solar cell performance a better understanding of the mechanisms of photogenerated carrier extraction from QDs and QRs is needed. In this work we have used a direct excitation technique to study type II GaSb/GaAs quantum ring solar cells using a 1064 nm infrared laser, which enables us to excite electron–hole pairs directly within the GaSb QRs without exciting the GaAs host material. Temperature and laser intensity dependence of the current–voltage characteristics revealed that the thermionic emission process produced the dominant contribution to the photocurrent and accounts for 98.9% of total photocurrent at 0 V and 300 K. Although the tunnelling process gives only a low contribution to the photocurrent, an enhancement of the tunnelling current was clearly observed when an external electric field was applied. (paper)

  1. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  2. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  3. Spectropolarimetric Inversions of the Ca II 8542 Å Line in an M-class Solar Flare

    Kuridze, D.; Henriques, V. M. J.; Mathioudakis, M.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2018-06-01

    We study the M1.9-class solar flare SOL2015-09-27T10:40 UT using high-resolution full Stokes imaging spectropolarimetry of the Ca II 8542 Å line obtained with the CRISP imaging spectropolarimeter at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. Spectropolarimetric inversions using the non-LTE code NICOLE are used to construct semiempirical models of the flaring atmosphere to investigate the structure and evolution of the flare temperature and magnetic field. A comparison of the temperature stratification in flaring and nonflaring areas reveals strong heating of the flare ribbon during the flare peak. The polarization signals of the ribbon in the chromosphere during the flare maximum become stronger when compared to its surroundings and to pre- and post-flare profiles. Furthermore, a comparison of the response functions to perturbations in the line-of-sight magnetic field and temperature in flaring and nonflaring atmospheres shows that during the flare, the Ca II 8542 Å line is more sensitive to the lower atmosphere where the magnetic field is expected to be stronger. The chromospheric magnetic field was also determined with the weak-field approximation, which led to results similar to those obtained with the NICOLE inversions.

  4. RADIOEMISSÕES SOLARES TIPO II ASSOCIADAS A FLARES E CMES

    Rafael Douglas Cunha-Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Atribuídas a ondas de choque e a ejeções de plasmoide, as emissões solares tipo II são ondaseletromagnéticas geradas a partir de oscilações do plasma coronal. A origem dos choques associados a essasemissões é ainda uma questão em aberto da física solar. Enquanto alguns trabalhos sugerem os flares solarescomo seus acionadores, outros fornecem indícios de serem as ejeções de massa coronal (CMEs sua origemmais provável. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da análise de duas emissões tipo II, registradas por doisespectrômetros da rede e-CALLISTO (extended-Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument forSpectroscopy and Transportable Observatory, os quais operam na faixa de frequências de 45-870 MHz. Oprimeiro evento, observado em 13 de junho de 2010, às 05:38 UT, apresentou uma taxa de deriva em frequênciade -0,2 MHz s-1, correspondente a uma velocidade de choque de 528 km s-1, estando, temporalmente, associadoa uma CME lenta (~320 km s-1 e a um flare solar em raios-X, classe M1.0. O segundo evento, observado em 09de Agosto de 2011, às 08:02 UT, apresentou uma taxa de deriva em frequência de -1,4 MHz s-1, correspondentea uma velocidade de choque de 1375 km s-1, estando, temporalmente, associado a uma CME tipo halo (~1610km s-1 e a um flare solar em raios-X, classe X6.9. Os resultados obtidos, para os parâmetros observacionais dasemissões tipo II e para os parâmetros físicos de suas fontes, são discutidos no contexto de sua relação com seuflares e CMEs associados.

  5. THE HANLE AND ZEEMAN POLARIZATION SIGNALS OF THE SOLAR Ca II 8542 Å LINE

    Štěpán, Jiri [Astronomical Institute ASCR, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Bueno, Javier Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-07-20

    We highlight the main results of a three-dimensional (3D) multilevel radiative transfer investigation about the solar disk-center polarization of the Ca ii 8542 Å line. First, through the use of a 3D model of the solar atmosphere, we investigate the linear polarization that occurs due to the atomic level polarization produced by the absorption and scattering of anisotropic radiation, taking into account the symmetry-breaking effects caused by its thermal, dynamic, and magnetic structure. Second, we study the contribution of the Zeeman effect to the linear and circular polarization. Finally, we show examples of the Stokes profiles produced by the joint action of the atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects. We find that the Zeeman effect tends to dominate the linear polarization signals only in the localized patches of opposite magnetic polarity, where the magnetic field is relatively strong and slightly inclined; outside such very localized patches, the linear polarization is often dominated by the contribution of atomic level polarization. We demonstrate that a correct modeling of this last contribution requires taking into account the symmetry-breaking effects caused by the thermal, dynamic, and magnetic structure of the solar atmosphere, and that in the 3D model used the Hanle effect in forward-scattering geometry (disk-center observation) mainly reduces the polarization corresponding to the zero-field case. We emphasize that, in general, a reliable modeling of the linear polarization in the Ca ii 8542 Å line requires taking into account the joint action of atomic level polarization and the Hanle and Zeeman effects.

  6. The 1995 total solar eclipse: an overview.

    Singh, J.

    A number of experiments were conducted during the total solar eclipse of October 24, 1995. First time efforts were made to photograph the solar corona using IAF jet aircrafts and transport planes ad hot air balloons.

  7. Comparison of Solar Fine Structure Observed Simultaneously in Lyα and Mg II h

    Schmit, D.; Sukhorukov, A. V.; De Pontieu, B.; Leenaarts, J.; Bethge, C.; Winebarger, A.; Auchère, F.; Bando, T.; Ishikawa, R.; Kano, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Narukage, N.; Trujillo Bueno, J.

    2017-10-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) observed the Sun in H I Lyα during a suborbital rocket flight on 2015 September 3. The Interface Region Imaging Telescope (IRIS) coordinated with the CLASP observations and recorded nearly simultaneous and co-spatial observations in the Mg II h and k lines. The Mg II h and Lyα lines are important transitions, energetically and diagnostically, in the chromosphere. The canonical solar atmosphere model predicts that these lines form in close proximity to each other and so we expect that the line profiles will exhibit similar variability. In this analysis, we present these coordinated observations and discuss how the two profiles compare over a region of quiet Sun at viewing angles that approach the limb. In addition to the observations, we synthesize both line profiles using a 3D radiation-MHD simulation. In the observations, we find that the peak width and the peak intensities are well correlated between the lines. For the simulation, we do not find the same relationship. We have attempted to mitigate the instrumental differences between IRIS and CLASP and to reproduce the instrumental factors in the synthetic profiles. The model indicates that formation heights of the lines differ in a somewhat regular fashion related to magnetic geometry. This variation explains to some degree the lack of correlation, observed and synthesized, between Mg II and Lyα. Our analysis will aid in the definition of future observatories that aim to link dynamics in the chromosphere and transition region.

  8. Comparison of Solar Fine Structure Observed Simultaneously in Ly α and Mg ii h

    Schmit, D. [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Sukhorukov, A. V.; Leenaarts, J. [Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); De Pontieu, B. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Building 252, 3176 Porter Drive, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Bethge, C.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Auchère, F. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay (France); Bando, T.; Kano, R.; Narukage, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ishikawa, R. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Bueno, J. Trujillo [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2017-10-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) observed the Sun in H i Ly α during a suborbital rocket flight on 2015 September 3. The Interface Region Imaging Telescope ( IRIS ) coordinated with the CLASP observations and recorded nearly simultaneous and co-spatial observations in the Mg ii h and k lines. The Mg ii h and Ly α lines are important transitions, energetically and diagnostically, in the chromosphere. The canonical solar atmosphere model predicts that these lines form in close proximity to each other and so we expect that the line profiles will exhibit similar variability. In this analysis, we present these coordinated observations and discuss how the two profiles compare over a region of quiet Sun at viewing angles that approach the limb. In addition to the observations, we synthesize both line profiles using a 3D radiation-MHD simulation. In the observations, we find that the peak width and the peak intensities are well correlated between the lines. For the simulation, we do not find the same relationship. We have attempted to mitigate the instrumental differences between IRIS and CLASP and to reproduce the instrumental factors in the synthetic profiles. The model indicates that formation heights of the lines differ in a somewhat regular fashion related to magnetic geometry. This variation explains to some degree the lack of correlation, observed and synthesized, between Mg ii and Ly α . Our analysis will aid in the definition of future observatories that aim to link dynamics in the chromosphere and transition region.

  9. Nonlinearity and instability in stellar coronae

    Martens, P.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis is mainly concerned with time dependent processes occurring in the hot and teneous plasma - about 1 million degrees and higher and less than 10 10 cm density - that forms the outer envelopes of many stars including the sun. These envelopes - coronae - emit X-rays and indirectly in the ultraviolet and are therefore mainly observed by satellite techniques. Part I consists of a general introduction to the work and an overview of the non-linear methods that are used in the following. Part II and part III are concerned with respectively open and closed coronal structures. There is great similarity in the physics of these two systems, but the open structures are somewhat more complicated. (Auth.)

  10. Association of solar flares with coronal mass ejections accompanied by Deca-Hectometric type II radio burst for two solar cycles 23 and 24

    Kharayat, Hema; Prasad, Lalan; Pant, Sumit

    2018-05-01

    The aim of present study is to find the association of solar flares with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) accompanied by Deca-Hectometric (DH) type II radio burst for the period 1997-2014 (solar cycle 23 and ascending phase of solar cycle 24). We have used a statistical analysis and found that 10-20∘ latitudinal belt of northern region and 80-90∘ longitudinal belts of western region of the sun are more effective for flare-CME accompanied by DH type II radio burst events. M-class flares (52%) are in good association with the CMEs accompanied by DH type II radio burst. Further, we have calculated the flare position and found that most frequent flare site is at the center of the CME span. However, the occurrence probability of all flares is maximum outside the CME span. X-class flare associated CMEs have maximum speed than that of M, C, and B-class flare associated CMEs. We have also found a good correlation between flare position and central position angle of CMEs accompanied by DH type II radio burst.

  11. Exploring He II 304 Å Spicules and Macrospicules at the Solar Limb

    Sterling, A. C.; Snyder, I. R.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a study of He II 304 Ang spicules and macrospiculesobserved at the limb of the Sun in 304 Ang channel image sequences from theAtmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Thesedata have both high spatial (0.6 arcsec pixels) and temporal (12 s) resolution. All of the observed events occurred in quiet or coronal hole regions near the solarpole. He II 304 Ang spicules and macrospicules are both transient jet-likefeatures, with the macrospicules being wider and having taller maximum heights thanthe spicules. We looked for characteristics of the populations of these twophenomena that might indicate whether they have the same initiation mechanisms. Weexamine the maximum heights, time-averaged rise velocities, and lifetimes of about30 spicules and about five macrospicules. For the spicules, these quantities are,respectively, ~10,000----40,000 km, 20---100 km/s, and a few 100--- ~600 sec. Forthe macrospicules the corresponding properties are >~60,000 km, >~55 km/s, andlifetimes of >~1800 sec. Therefore the macrospicules have velocities comparable tothose of the fastest spicules and live longer than the spicules. The leading-edgetrajectories of both the spicules and the macrospicules match well a second-order(``parabolic'') profile, although the acceleration in the fitted profiles is generally weaker than that of solar gravity. The macrospicules also have obviousbrightenings at their bases at their birth, while such brightenings are notapparent for most of the spicules. Our findings are suggestive of the twophenomena possibly having different initiation mechanisms, but this is not yetconclusive. A.C.S. and R.L.M. were supported by funding from the HeliophysicsDivision of NASA's Science Mission Directorate through the Living With a StarTargeted Research and Technology Program, and the Hinode Project. I.R.S. wassupported by NSF's Research Experience for Undergraduates Program.

  12. What can He II 304 Å tell us about transient seismic emission from solar flares?

    Lindsey, C.; Donea, A. C.

    2017-10-01

    After neary 20 years since their discovery by Kosovichev and Zharkova, the mechanics of the release of seismic transients into the solar interior from some flares remain a mystery. Seismically emissive flares invariably show the signatures of intense chromosphere heating consistent with pressure variations sufficient to drive seismic transients commensurate with helioseismic observations-under certain conditions. Magnetic observations show the signatures of apparent magnetic changes, suggesting Lorentz-force transients that could likewise drive seismic transients-similarly subject to certain conditions. But, the diagnostic signatures of both of these prospective drivers are apparent over vast regions from which no significant seismic emission emanates. What distinguishes the source regions of transient seismic emission from the much vaster regions that show the signatures of both transient heating and magnetic variations but are acoustically unproductive? Observations of acoustically active flares in He II 304 Å by the Atomospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) offer a promising new resource with which to address this question.

  13. Green corona, geomagnetic activity and radar meteor rates

    Prikryl, P.

    1979-01-01

    The short-term dependence of radar meteor rates on geomagnetic activity and/or central meridian passage (CMP) of bright or faint green corona regions is studied. A superimposed-epoch analysis was applied to radar meteor observations from the Ottawa patrol radar (Springhill, Ont.) and Ksub(p)-indices of geomagnetic activity for the period 1963 to 1967. During the minimum of solar activity (1963 to 1965) the CMP of bright coronal regions was followed by the maximum in the daily rates of persistent meteor echoes (>=4s), and the minimum in the daily sums of Ksub(p)-indices whereas the minimum or the maximum, respectively, occurs after the CMP of faint coronal regions. The time delay between the CMP of coronal structures and the corresponding maxima or minima is found to be 3 to 4 days. However, for the period immediately after the minimum of solar activity (1966 to 1967) the above correlation with the green corona is void both for the geomagnetic activity and radar meteor rates. An inverse correlation was found between the radar meteor rates and the geomagnetic activity irrespective of the solar activity. The observed effect can be ascribed to the solar-wind-induced ''geomagnetic'' heating of the upper atmosphere and to the subsequent change in the density gradient in the meteor zone. (author)

  14. Current Sheets in the Corona and the Complexity of Slow Wind

    Antiochos, Spiro

    2010-01-01

    The origin of the slow solar wind has long been one of the most important problems in solar/heliospheric physics. Two observational constraints make this problem especially challenging. First, the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, unlike the fast wind that originates on open field lines. Second, the slow wind has substantial angular extent, of order 30 degrees, which is much larger than the widths observed for streamer stalks or the widths expected theoretically for a dynamic heliospheric current sheet. We propose that the slow wind originates from an intricate network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that emanate from the polar coronal hole regions. Using topological arguments, we show that these corridors must be ubiquitous in the solar corona. The total solar eclipse in August 2008, near the lowest point of cycle 23 affords an ideal opportunity to test this theory by using the ultra-high resolution Predictive Science's (PSI) eclipse model for the corona and wind. Analysis of the PSI eclipse model demonstrates that the extent and scales of the open-field corridors can account for both the angular width of the slow wind and its closed-field composition. We discuss the implications of our slow wind theory for the structure of the corona and heliosphere at solar minimum and describe further observational and theoretical tests.

  15. The sun and solar flares

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased 14 C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind. (U.K.)

  16. Pulsed Corona for Sustainable Technology

    Heesch, E.J.M. van; Pemen, A.J.M.; Yan, K.; Blom, P.P.M.; Huijbrechts, P.A.H.J.; Der Laan, P.C.T. van

    2000-01-01

    Highly active coronas with a peak power of up to 25 MW p/m corona wire and kJ/liter energy densities in the streamer channels can be produced by pulsed power. Since the voltage pulses are short, full breakdown does not occur even though the discharge currents are hundreds of Amperes. A matched pulsed power source can deposit up to 80% of its electrical energy into such a controlled discharge. Reliable and efficient sources characterized by 100 kV,150 ns wide pulses at 1000 Hz have passed 400 hours of operation. The area of applications is growing: VOC control, hot gas cleanup, water and air purification and sterilization. (author)

  17. Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

  18. EMERGENCE OF GRANULAR-SIZED MAGNETIC BUBBLES THROUGH THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE. II. NON-LTE CHROMOSPHERIC DIAGNOSTICS AND INVERSIONS

    Rodríguez, Jaime de la Cruz [Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Hansteen, Viggo; Ortiz, Ada [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Bellot-Rubio, Luis, E-mail: jaime@astro.su.se [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

    2015-09-10

    Magnetic flux emergence into the outer layers of the Sun is a fundamental mechanism for releasing energy into the chromosphere and the corona. In this paper, we study the emergence of granular-sized flux concentrations and the structuring of the corresponding physical parameters and atmospheric diagnostics in the upper photosphere and in the chromosphere. We make use of a realistic 3D MHD simulation of the outer layers of the Sun to study the formation of the Ca ii 8542 line. We also derive semi-empirical 3D models from non-LTE inversions of our observations. These models contain information on the line-of-sight stratifications of temperature, velocity, and the magnetic field. Our analysis explains the peculiar Ca ii 8542 Å profiles observed in the flux emerging region. Additionally, we derive detailed temperature and velocity maps describing the ascent of a magnetic bubble from the photosphere to the chromosphere. The inversions suggest that, in active regions, granular-sized bubbles emerge up to the lower chromosphere where the existing large-scale field hinders their ascent. We report hints of heating when the field reaches the chromosphere.

  19. Nonuniform Effect of Carrier Separation Efficiency and Light Absorption in Type-II Perovskite Nanowire Solar Cells

    Wang, Weiping; He, Jialun; Cao, Yiyan; Kong, Lijing; Zheng, Xuanli; Wu, Yaping; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Shuping; Wu, Zhiming; Kang, Junyong

    2017-03-01

    Coaxial structures exhibit great potential for the application of high-efficiency solar cells due to the novel mechanism of radial charge separation. Here, we intensively investigate the nonuniform effect of carrier separation efficiency (CSE) and light absorption in perovskite-based type-II coaxial nanowire solar cells (ZnO/CH3NH3PbI3). Results show that the CSE rapidly decreases along the radial direction in the shell, and the value at the outer side becomes extremely low for the thick shell. Besides, the position of the main light absorption gradually moves to the outer side with the increase of the shell thickness. As a result, the external quantum efficiency shows a positional dependence with a maximal value close to the border of the nanowire. Eventually, in our case, it is found that the maximal power conversion efficiency of the solar cells reduces from 19.5 to 17.9% under the effect of the nonuniformity of CSE and light absorption. This work provides a basis for the design of high-efficiency solar cells, especially type-II nanowire solar cells.

  20. Solid State Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator for 3-, 4- and 6-Junction Solar Cell Arrays, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I was successful in delivering a complete prototype of the proposed innovation, an LED-based, solid state, large area, pulsed, solar simulator (ssLAPSS)....

  1. Pulsed Corona Discharge Generated By Marx Generator

    Sretenovic, G. B.; Obradovic, B. M.; Kovacevic, V. V.; Kuraica, M. M.; Puric J.

    2010-07-01

    The pulsed plasma has a significant role in new environmental protection technologies. As a part of a pulsed corona system for pollution control applications, Marx type repetitive pulse generator was constructed and tested in arrangement with wire-plate corona reactor. We performed electrical measurements, and obtained voltage and current signals, and also power and energy delivered per pulse. Ozone formation by streamer plasma in air was chosen to monitor chemical activity of the pulsed corona discharge.

  2. Atlas of fine structures of dynamic spectra of solar type IV-dm and some type II radio bursts

    Slottje, C.

    1982-01-01

    The author presents an atlas of spectral fine structures of solar radio bursts of types IV and II around 1 m wavelength, as obtained with a multichannel spectrograph at Dwingeloo. The structures form largely a collection of observations of these events during late 1968 through 1974, thus covering almost entirely the declining branch of solar cycle 20. The spectrograph has an extra enhanced contrast output with properties quite different from those of the commonly used swept frequency spectrographs. The corresponding instrumental characteristics and effects are discussed. A classification of fine structures and an analysis of their statistical properties and of those of the pertinent radio events are also given. (Auth.)

  3. Hi-C Observations of an Active Region Corona, and Investigation of the Underlying Magnetic Structure

    Tiwari, S. K.; Alexander, C. E.; Winebarger, A.; Moore, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The solar corona is much hotter (>=10(exp 6) K) than its surface (approx 6000 K), puzzling astrophysicists for several decades. Active region (AR) corona is again hotter than the quiet Sun (QS) corona by a factor of 4-10. The most widely accepted mechanism that could heat the active region corona is the energy release by current dissipation via reconnection of braided magnetic field structure, first proposed by E. N. Parker three decades ago. The first observational evidence for this mechanism has only recently been presented by Cirtain et al. by using High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) observations of an AR corona at a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec, which is required to resolve the coronal loops, and was not available before the rocket flight of Hi-C in July 2012. The Hi-C project is led by NASA/MSFC. In the case of the QS, work done by convection/granulation on the inter-granular feet of the coronal field lines translates into the heat observed in the corona. In the case of the AR, as here, there could be flux emergence, cancellation/submergence, or shear flows generating large stress and tension in coronal field loops which is released as heat in the corona. We are currently investigating the changes taking place in photospheric feet of the magnetic field involved with brightenings in the Hi-C AR corona. For this purpose, we are also using SDO/AIA data of +/- 2 hours around the 5 minutes Hi-C flight. In the present talk, I will first summarize some of the results of the Hi-C observations and then present some results from our recent analysis on what photospheric processes feed the magnetic energy that dissipates into heat in coronal loops.

  4. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Multijunction Solar Cell for Space Power, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to utilize quantum dots to develop a super high-efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for space. In metamorphic triple junction space solar...

  5. Precipitation and Release of Solar Energetic Particles from the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Lulu, E-mail: mzhang@fit.edu [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Blvd., Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2017-09-10

    Most solar energetic particles (SEPs) are produced in the corona. They propagate through complex coronal magnetic fields subject to scattering and diffusion across the averaged field lines by turbulence. We examine the behaviors of particle transport using a stochastic 3D focused transport simulation in a potential field source surface model of coronal magnetic field. The model is applied to an SEP event on 2010 February 7. We study three scenarios of particle injection at (i) the compact solar flare site, (ii) the coronal mass ejection (CME) shock, and (iii) the EUV wave near the surface. The majority of particles injected on open field lines are able to escape the corona. We found that none of our models can explain the observations of wide longitudinal SEP spread without perpendicular diffusion. If the perpendicular diffusion is about 10% of what is derived from the random walk of field lines at the rate of supergranular diffusion, particles injected at the compact solar flare site can spread to a wide range of longitude and latitude, very similar to the behavior of particles injected at a large CME shock. Stronger pitch-angle scattering results in a little more lateral spread by holding the particles in the corona for longer periods of time. Some injected particles eventually end up precipitating onto the solar surface. Even with a very small perpendicular diffusion, the pattern of the particle precipitation can be quite complicated depending on the detailed small-scale coronal magnetic field structures, which could be seen with future sensitive gamma-ray telescopes.

  6. Precipitation and Release of Solar Energetic Particles from the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    Most solar energetic particles (SEPs) are produced in the corona. They propagate through complex coronal magnetic fields subject to scattering and diffusion across the averaged field lines by turbulence. We examine the behaviors of particle transport using a stochastic 3D focused transport simulation in a potential field source surface model of coronal magnetic field. The model is applied to an SEP event on 2010 February 7. We study three scenarios of particle injection at (i) the compact solar flare site, (ii) the coronal mass ejection (CME) shock, and (iii) the EUV wave near the surface. The majority of particles injected on open field lines are able to escape the corona. We found that none of our models can explain the observations of wide longitudinal SEP spread without perpendicular diffusion. If the perpendicular diffusion is about 10% of what is derived from the random walk of field lines at the rate of supergranular diffusion, particles injected at the compact solar flare site can spread to a wide range of longitude and latitude, very similar to the behavior of particles injected at a large CME shock. Stronger pitch-angle scattering results in a little more lateral spread by holding the particles in the corona for longer periods of time. Some injected particles eventually end up precipitating onto the solar surface. Even with a very small perpendicular diffusion, the pattern of the particle precipitation can be quite complicated depending on the detailed small-scale coronal magnetic field structures, which could be seen with future sensitive gamma-ray telescopes.

  7. Precipitation and Release of Solar Energetic Particles from the Solar Coronal Magnetic Field

    Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Lulu

    2017-09-01

    Most solar energetic particles (SEPs) are produced in the corona. They propagate through complex coronal magnetic fields subject to scattering and diffusion across the averaged field lines by turbulence. We examine the behaviors of particle transport using a stochastic 3D focused transport simulation in a potential field source surface model of coronal magnetic field. The model is applied to an SEP event on 2010 February 7. We study three scenarios of particle injection at (I) the compact solar flare site, (II) the coronal mass ejection (CME) shock, and (III) the EUV wave near the surface. The majority of particles injected on open field lines are able to escape the corona. We found that none of our models can explain the observations of wide longitudinal SEP spread without perpendicular diffusion. If the perpendicular diffusion is about 10% of what is derived from the random walk of field lines at the rate of supergranular diffusion, particles injected at the compact solar flare site can spread to a wide range of longitude and latitude, very similar to the behavior of particles injected at a large CME shock. Stronger pitch-angle scattering results in a little more lateral spread by holding the particles in the corona for longer periods of time. Some injected particles eventually end up precipitating onto the solar surface. Even with a very small perpendicular diffusion, the pattern of the particle precipitation can be quite complicated depending on the detailed small-scale coronal magnetic field structures, which could be seen with future sensitive gamma-ray telescopes.

  8. Geomagnetic storm related to intense solar radio burst type II and III ...

    The strong energetic particles ejected during sun's activity will propagate towards earth and contribute to solar radio bursts. These solar radio bursts can be detected using CALLISTO system. The open website of the NASA provides us the data including CALLISTO, TESIS, solar monitor, SOHO and space weather. The type ...

  9. Variation of Supergranule Parameters with Solar Cycles: Results from Century-long Kodaikanal Digitized Ca ii K Data

    Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Mandal, Sudip; Banerjee, Dipankar, E-mail: dipu@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India)

    2017-06-01

    The Ca ii K spectroheliograms spanning over a century (1907–2007) from Kodaikanal Solar Observatory, India, have recently been digitized and calibrated. Applying a fully automated algorithm (which includes contrast enhancement and the “Watershed method”) to these data, we have identified the supergranules and calculated the associated parameters, such as scale, circularity, and fractal dimension. We have segregated the quiet and active regions and obtained the supergranule parameters separately for these two domains. In this way, we have isolated the effect of large-scale and small-scale magnetic fields on these structures and find a significantly different behavior of the supergranule parameters over solar cycles. These differences indicate intrinsic changes in the physical mechanism behind the generation and evolution of supergranules in the presence of small-scale and large-scale magnetic fields. This also highlights the need for further studies using solar dynamo theory along with magneto-convection models.

  10. Observation of solar radio bursts of type II and III at kilometer wavelengths from Prognoz-8 during STIP Interval XII

    Pinter, S.; Kecskemety, K.; Kudela, K.

    1982-04-01

    Type II and type III radio events were observed at low frequencies (2.16 MHz to 114 kHz) by the Prognoz-8 satellite during the period of STIP Interval XII in April and May, 1981, respectively. This review covers briefly a chronology of the sub-megahertz radio events, and where possible their association with both groundbased radio observations and solar flare. (author)

  11. ICARUS Mission, Next Step of Coronal Exploration after Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus

    Krasnoselskikh, V.; Tsurutani, B.; Velli, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Balikhin, M. A.; Dudok de Wit, T.; Kretzschmar, M.

    2017-12-01

    The primary scientific goal of ICARUS, a mother-daughter satellite mission, will be to determine how the magnetic field and plasma dynamics in the outer solar atmosphere give rise to the corona, the solar wind and the heliosphere. Reaching this goal will be a Rosetta-stone step, with results broadly applicable in the fields of space plasma and astrophysics. Within ESA's Cosmic Vision roadmap, these goals address Theme 2: How does the solar system work ?" Investigating basic processes occurring from the Sun to the edge of the Solar System". ICARUS will not only advance our understanding of the plasma environment around the Sun, but also of the numerous magnetically active stars with hot plasma coronae. ICARUS I will perform the firstever direct in situ measurements of electromagnetic fields, particle acceleration, wave activity, energy distribution and flows directly in the regions where the solar wind emerges from the coronal plasma. ICARUS I will have a perihelion at 1 Solar radius from its surface, it will cross the region where the major energy deposition occurs. The polar orbit of ICARUS I will enable crossing the regions where both the fast and slow wind are generated. It will probe local characteristics of the plasma and provide unique information about the processes involved in the creation of the solar wind. ICARUS II will observe this region using remote-sensing instruments, providing simultaneous information about regions crossed by ICARUS I and the solar atmosphere below as observed by solar telescopes. It will provide bridges for understanding the magnetic links between heliosphere and solar atmosphere. Such information is crucial to understanding of the physics and electrodynamics of the solar atmosphere. ICARUS II will also play an important relay role, enabling the radio-link with ICARUS I. It will receive, collect and store information transmitted from ICARUS I during its closest approach to the Sun. It will perform preliminary data processing and

  12. Influence of Axisymmetrically Deformed Explosions in Type II Supernovae on the Reproduction of the Solar System Abundances

    Nagataki, Shigehiro

    1999-01-01

    We have tried to reproduce the solar system abundances using the nucleosynthesis products of Type Ia and Type II supernovae. In particular, we examined the effects of axisymmetrically deformed explosions in Type II supernovae. 44Ca and 47,48Ti are enhanced considerably in axisymmetrically deformed explosion models because of the active alpha-rich freezeout. The enhancement of nuclei around A=45 is a welcome result since it solves the problem of the nuclei shortage. Moreover, 59Co, 63,65Cu, and 66Zn are enhanced enough to reproduce the solar system abundances. The enhancement of Cu and Zn means the possibility that these nuclei, which have been said to be produced by the slow process, can be synthesized fairly well during the explosive nucleosynthesis. To discuss their origin quantitatively, the position of the mass cut is a very important parameter that is very difficult to determine numerically at present. We also stress that an axisymmetrically deformed explosion of Type II supernovae of the degree that is considered in this analysis is not excluded by the results of calculations of explosive nucleosynthesis, that is, the nucleosynthesis products are not extremely disturbed and the solar system abundances can be reproduced fairly well by the axisymmetrically deformed explosion models. This conclusion will be good for the theory of core collapse including the rotation of an iron core, magnetic field, and axisymmetrically modified neutrino radiation from a rotating protoneutron star, which possibly can cause an axisymmetrically deformed explosion.

  13. Processing method of images obtained during the TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON experiment

    Kuzin, S. V.; Shestov, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Reva, A. A.

    2011-04-01

    In January 2009, the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft was successfully launched. It includes a set of telescopes and spectroheliometers—TESIS—designed to image the solar corona in soft X-ray and EUV spectral ranges. Due to features of the reading system, to obtain physical information from these images, it is necessary to preprocess them, i.e., to remove the background, correct the white field, level, and clean. The paper discusses the algorithms and software developed and used for the preprocessing of images.

  14. Two-zone model of coronal hole structure in the high corona

    Wang, Z.; Kundu, M.R.; Yoshimura, H.

    1988-01-01

    The two-zone coronal hole structure model presently proposed for the high corona at 1.5-1.7 solar radii emerges from a comparison of computation results for the potential magnetic fields of the corona and meter-decameter radio observations. The two zones of a coronal hole are defined by the configuration of magnetic field lines around a coronal hole: (1) the central hole of an open diverging magnetic field line system; and (2) the boundary zone between the central zone of the open field line system and the closed field line system or systems surrounding the open field line system. 19 references

  15. The "FIP Effect" and the Origins of Solar Energetic Particles and of the Solar Wind

    Reames, Donald V.

    2018-01-01

    We find that the element abundances in solar energetic particles (SEPs) and in the slow solar wind (SSW), relative to those in the photosphere, show different patterns as a function of the first ionization potential (FIP) of the elements. Generally, the SEP and SSW abundances reflect abundance samples of the solar corona, where low-FIP elements, ionized in the chromosphere, are more efficiently conveyed upward to the corona than high-FIP elements that are initially neutral atoms. Abundances o...

  16. A Survey of Ca II H and K Chromospheric Emission in Southern Solar-Type Stars

    Henry, Todd J.; Soderblom, David R.; Donahue, Robert A.; Baliunas, Sallie L.

    1996-01-01

    More than 800 southern stars within 50 pc have been observed for chromospheric emission in the cores of the Ca II H and K lines. Most of the sample targets were chosen to be G dwarfs on the basis of colors and spectral types. The bimodal distribution in stellar activity first noted in a sample of northern stars by Vaughan and Preston in 1980 is confirmed, and the percentage of active stars, about 30%, is remarkably consistent between the northern and southern surveys. This is especially compelling given that we have used an entirely different instrumental setup and stellar sample than used in the previous study. Comparisons to the Sun, a relatively inactive star, show that most nearby solar-type stars have a similar activity level, and presumably a similar age. We identify two additional subsamples of stars -- a very active group, and a very inactive group. The very active group may be made up of young stars near the Sun, accounting for only a few percent of the sample, and appears to be less than ~0.1 Gyr old. Included in this high-activity tail of the distribution, however, is a subset of very close binaries of the RS CVn or W UMa types. The remaining members of this population may be undetected close binaries or very young single stars. The very inactive group of stars, contributting ~5%--10% to the total sample, may be those caught in a Maunder Minimum type phase. If the observations of the survey stars are considered to be a sequence of snapshots of the Sun during its life, we might expect that the Sun will spend about 10% of the remainder of its main sequence life in a Maunder Minimum phase.

  17. Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project final Report. Volume II: Silicon material

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, funded by the U.S. Government and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was formed in 1975 to develop the module/array technology needed to attain widespread terrestrial use of photovoltaics by 1985. To accomplish this, the FSA Project established and managed an Industry, University, and Federal Government Team to perform the needed research and development. The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the FSA Project, was to develop and ...

  18. Power-law Statistics of Driven Reconnection in the Magnetically Closed Corona

    Knizhnik, K. J.; Uritsky, V. M.; Klimchuk, J. A.; DeVore, C. R.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous observations have revealed that power-law distributions are ubiquitous in energetic solar processes. Hard X-rays, soft X-rays, extreme ultraviolet radiation, and radio waves all display power-law frequency distributions. Since magnetic reconnection is the driving mechanism for many energetic solar phenomena, it is likely that reconnection events themselves display such power-law distributions. In this work, we perform numerical simulations of the solar corona driven by simple convective motions at the photospheric level. Using temperature changes, current distributions, and Poynting fluxes as proxies for heating, we demonstrate that energetic events occurring in our simulation display power-law frequency distributions, with slopes in good agreement with observations. We suggest that the braiding-associated reconnection in the corona can be understood in terms of a self-organized criticality model driven by convective rotational motions similar to those observed at the photosphere.

  19. Power-Law Statistics of Driven Reconnection in the Magnetically Closed Corona

    Klimchuk, J. A.; DeVore, C. R.; Knizhnik, K. J.; Uritskiy, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    Numerous observations have revealed that power-law distributions are ubiquitous in energetic solar processes. Hard X-rays, soft X-rays, extreme ultraviolet radiation, and radio waves all display power-law frequency distributions. Since magnetic reconnection is the driving mechanism for many energetic solar phenomena, it is likely that reconnection events themselves display such power-law distributions. In this work, we perform numerical simulations of the solar corona driven by simple convective motions at the photospheric level. Using temperature changes, current distributions, and Poynting fluxes as proxies for heating, we demonstrate that energetic events occurring in our simulation display power-law frequency distributions, with slopes in good agreement with observations. We suggest that the braiding-associated reconnection in the corona can be understood in terms of a self-organized criticality model driven by convective rotational motions similar to those observed at the photosphere.

  20. "SOLAR MAGNETIZED ""TORNADOES:"" RELATION TO FILAMENTS"

    Su, Yang; Wang, Tongjiang; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Gan, Weiqun

    2012-01-01

    Solar magnetized "tornadoes", a phenomenon discovered in the solar atmosphere, appear as tornado-like structures in the corona but root in the photosphere. Like other solar phenomena, solar tornadoes are a feature of magnetized plasma and therefore differ distinctly from terrestrial tornadoes. Here we report the first analysis of solar "tornadoes" {Two papers which focused on different aspect of solar tornadoes were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters (Li et al. 2012) and Nature (W...

  1. A precise measurement of the magnetic field in the corona of the black hole binary V404 Cygni.

    Dallilar, Yigit; Eikenberry, Stephen S; Garner, Alan; Stelter, Richard D; Gottlieb, Amy; Gandhi, Poshak; Casella, Piergiorgio; Dhillon, Vik S; Marsh, Tom R; Littlefair, Stuart P; Hardy, Liam; Fender, Rob; Mooley, Kunal; Walton, Dominic J; Fuerst, Felix; Bachetti, Matteo; Castro-Tirado, A J; Charcos, Miguel; Edwards, Michelle L; Lasso-Cabrera, Nestor M; Marin-Franch, Antonio; Raines, S Nicholas; Ackley, Kendall; Bennett, John G; Cenarro, A Javier; Chinn, Brian; Donoso, H Veronica; Frommeyer, Raymond; Hanna, Kevin; Herlevich, Michael D; Julian, Jeff; Miller, Paola; Mullin, Scott; Murphey, Charles H; Packham, Chris; Varosi, Frank; Vega, Claudia; Warner, Craig; Ramaprakash, A N; Burse, Mahesh; Punnadi, Sujit; Chordia, Pravin; Gerarts, Andreas; de Paz Martín, Héctor; Calero, María Martín; Scarpa, Riccardo; Acosta, Sergio Fernandez; Hernández Sánchez, William Miguel; Siegel, Benjamin; Pérez, Francisco Francisco; Viera Martín, Himar D; Rodríguez Losada, José A; Nuñez, Agustín; Tejero, Álvaro; Martín González, Carlos E; Rodríguez, César Cabrera; Molgó, Jordi; Rodriguez, J Esteban; Cáceres, J Israel Fernández; Rodríguez García, Luis A; Lopez, Manuel Huertas; Dominguez, Raul; Gaggstatter, Tim; Lavers, Antonio Cabrera; Geier, Stefan; Pessev, Peter; Sarajedini, Ata

    2017-12-08

    Observations of binary stars containing an accreting black hole or neutron star often show x-ray emission extending to high energies (>10 kilo--electron volts), which is ascribed to an accretion disk corona of energetic particles akin to those seen in the solar corona. Despite their ubiquity, the physical conditions in accretion disk coronae remain poorly constrained. Using simultaneous infrared, optical, x-ray, and radio observations of the Galactic black hole system V404 Cygni, showing a rapid synchrotron cooling event in its 2015 outburst, we present a precise 461 ± 12 gauss magnetic field measurement in the corona. This measurement is substantially lower than previous estimates for such systems, providing constraints on physical models of accretion physics in black hole and neutron star binary systems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Preliminary results from the orbiting solar observatory 8: Persistent velocity fields in the chromosphere and transition region

    Lites, B.W.; Bruner, E.C. Jr.; Chipman, E.G.; Shine, R.A.; Rottman, G.J.; White, O.R.; Athay, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Velocity images, or tachograms, of the solar chromosphere and chromosphere-corona transition region were made by measuring the Si II 1816.93 A chromospheric line and the Si IV 1393.8 A transition region line with the University of Colorado spectrometer aboard OSO-8. Persistent flows are indicated in both active and quiet regions of the solar atmosphere. In quiet regions, areas of enhanced emission (the chromospheric network) are apparently systematically redshifted with respect to the areas of lower intensity. This correlation does not hold in active regions, where long-lived downflows into sunspots have been observed

  3. Model Solar Energy Training Program II. Final Report, July 1, 1981-June 30, 1982.

    Talcott Mountain Science Center, Avon, CT.

    Trained personnel will be needed in the future to install solar energy heating and hot water systems, and public school vocational education teachers will be needed to train these technicians. A project to train high school vocational teachers so that they can teach their students about solar energy concepts, manufacturing techniques, testing, and…

  4. OSO 8 observations of wave propagation in the solar chromosphere and transition region

    Chipman, E. G.

    1978-01-01

    The University of Colorado instrument on OSO 8 has been used to observe relative phases of the 300-s intensity variation between the temperature-minimum region and several emission lines formed in the solar chromosphere and chromosphere-corona transition region. The lines used are due to Fe II, Si II, C II, Si IV, and C IV. The scattered light in the spectrograph, which originates almost entirely in the spectral region between 1700 and 1900 A, was used as a probe of the temperature-minimum region. The lines of Fe II, Si II, and C II show almost identical delays of approximately 30 s relative to the temperature minimum, while the intensity oscillations of the lines of Si IV and C IV appear to lead the temperature-minimum intensity oscillations by about 10 s.

  5. Our prodigal sun. [solar energy technology

    1974-01-01

    Characteristics of the sun are reported indicating it as a source of energy. Data from several space missions are discussed, and the solar activity cycle is presented. The corona, flares, prominences, spots, and wind of the sun are also discussed.

  6. Blue-wing enhancement of the chromospheric Mg II h and k lines in a solar flare

    Tei, Akiko; Sakaue, Takahito; Okamoto, Takenori J.; Kawate, Tomoko; Heinzel, Petr; UeNo, Satoru; Asai, Ayumi; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2018-05-01

    We performed coordinated observations of AR 12205, which showed a C-class flare on 2014 November 11, with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and the Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory. Using spectral data in the Si IV 1403 Å, C II 1335 Å, and Mg II h and k lines from IRIS and the Ca II K, Ca II 8542 Å, and Hα lines from DST, we investigated a moving flare kernel during the flare. In the Mg II h line, the leading edge of the flare kernel showed an intensity enhancement in the blue wing and a smaller intensity of the blue-side peak (h2v) than that of the red-side one (h2r). The blueshift lasted for 9-48 s with a typical speed of 10.1 ± 2.6 km s-1, which was followed by a high intensity and a large redshift with a speed of up to 51 km s-1 detected in the Mg II h line. The large redshift was a common property for all six lines, but the blueshift prior to it was found only in the Mg II lines. Cloud modeling of the Mg II h line suggests that the blue-wing enhancement with such a peak difference could have been caused by a chromospheric-temperature (cool) upflow. We discuss a scenario in which an upflow of cool plasma is lifted up by expanding hot plasma owing to the deep penetration of non-thermal electrons into the chromosphere. Furthermore, we found that the blueshift persisted without any subsequent redshift in the leading edge of the flare kernel during its decaying phase. The cause of such a long-lasting blueshift is also discussed.

  7. The solar probe mission

    Feldman, W.C.; Anderson, J.; Bohlin, J.D.; Burlaga, L.F.; Farquhar, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Goldstein, B.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Holzer, T.E.; Jones, W.V.; Kellogg, P.J.; Krimigis, S.M.; Kundu, M.R.; Lazarus, A.J.; Mellott, M.M.; Parker, E.N.; Rosner, R.; Rottman, G.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Suess, S.T.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Woo, R.T.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Solar Probe will deliver a 133.5 kg science payload into a 4 R s perihelion solar polar orbit (with the first perihelion passage in 2004) to explore in situ one of the last frontiers in the solar system---the solar corona. This mission is both affordable and technologically feasible. Using a payload of 12 (predominantly particles and fields) scientific experiments, it will be possible to answer many long-standing, fundamental problems concerning the structure and dynamics of the outer solar atmosphere, including the acceleration, storage, and transport of energetic particles near the Sun and in the inner ( s ) heliosphere

  8. STRUCTURE AND DYNAMICS OF THE 2010 JULY 11 ECLIPSE WHITE-LIGHT CORONA

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.

    2011-01-01

    The white-light corona (WLC) during the total solar eclipse on 2010 July 11 was observed by several teams in the Moon's shadow stretching across the Pacific Ocean and a number of isolated islands. We present a comparison of the WLC as observed by eclipse teams located on the Tatakoto Atoll in French Polynesia and on Easter Island, 83 minutes later, combined with near-simultaneous space observations. The eclipse was observed at the beginning of the solar cycle, not long after solar minimum. Nevertheless, the solar corona shows a plethora of different features (coronal holes, helmet streamers, polar rays, very faint loops and radial-oriented thin streamers, a coronal mass ejection, and a puzzling 'curtain-like' object above the north pole). Comparing the observations from the two sites enables us to detect some dynamic phenomena. The eclipse observations are further compared with a hairy-ball model of the magnetic field and near-simultaneous images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, the Sun Watcher, using Active Pixel System Detector and Image Processing on ESA's PRoject for Onboard Autonomy, and the Naval Research Laboratory's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph on ESA's Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. The Ludendorff flattening coefficient is 0.156, matching the expected ellipticity of coronal isophotes at 2 Rs un , for this rising phase of the solar-activity cycle.

  9. Type II GaSb/GaAs quantum dot/ring stacks with extended photoresponse for efficient solar cells

    Carrington, Peter James, E-mail: p.carrington@lancaster.ac.uk [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Mahajumi, Abu Syed [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Wagener, Magnus C.; Botha, Johannes Reinhardt [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Zhuang Qian; Krier, Anthony [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of GaAs based p-i-n solar cells containing 5 and 10 layers of type II GaSb quantum rings grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Solar cells containing quantum rings show improved efficiency at longer wavelengths into the near-IR extending up to 1500 nm and show enhanced short-circuit current under 1 sun illumination compared to a GaAs control cell. A reduction in the open-circuit voltage is observed due to the build-up of internal strain. The MBE growth, formation and photoluminescence of single and stacked layers of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings are also presented.

  10. Type II GaSb/GaAs quantum dot/ring stacks with extended photoresponse for efficient solar cells

    Carrington, Peter James; Mahajumi, Abu Syed; Wagener, Magnus C.; Botha, Johannes Reinhardt; Zhuang Qian; Krier, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of GaAs based p–i–n solar cells containing 5 and 10 layers of type II GaSb quantum rings grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Solar cells containing quantum rings show improved efficiency at longer wavelengths into the near-IR extending up to 1500 nm and show enhanced short-circuit current under 1 sun illumination compared to a GaAs control cell. A reduction in the open-circuit voltage is observed due to the build-up of internal strain. The MBE growth, formation and photoluminescence of single and stacked layers of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings are also presented.

  11. Modeling of Trichel pulses in negative corona

    Napartovich, A.P.; Akishev, Yu. S.; Deryugin, A.A.; Kochetov, I.V.; Pan'kin, M.V.; Trushkin, N.I.

    1998-01-01

    Results are reported of detailed numerical studies of Trichel pulse formation for dry air in short-gap coronas. Continuity equations for electrons, positive and negative ions, and the Poisson equation averaged over the current cross section were solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions. The results of numerical simulation make it possible to analyze in detail the trailing edge of the Trichel pulse and the inter-pulse pause determining the period between pulses. In particular, the variations of the total number of negative ions in the corona spacing occurring under typical conditions of a pulsating corona, proved to be quite insignificant. A comparison with experiments demonstrated a reasonable agreement both for the shape of the pulse and for the average characteristics of the negative corona. (J.U.)

  12. Frontier of solar observation. Solar activity observed by 'HINODE' mission

    Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    After launched in September 2006, solar observation satellite 'HINODE' has been a solar observatory on orbit with the scientific instruments well operated and its continuous observation was conducted steadily on almost all solar atmospheres from photosphere to corona. 'HINODE' was equipped with the solar optical telescope, extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer and x-ray telescope and aimed at clarifying the mystery of solar physics related with coronal heating and magnetic reconnection. Present state of 'HINODE' was described from observations made in initial observation results, which have made several discoveries, such as Alfven waves in the corona, unexpected dynamics in the chromosphere and photosphere, continuous outflowing plasma as a possible source of solar wind, and fine structures of magnetic field in sunspots and solar surface. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Solar--geophysical data number 410, October 1978. Part II. (Comprehensive reports). Data for April 1978--March 1978 and miscellanea

    Coffey, H.E.

    1978-10-01

    This comprehensive report for April 1978, March 1978 and Miscellaneous data provides data on active regions, synoptic solar maps, solar flares, solar radio waves, energetic solar particles and plasma, synoptic chart, abbreviated calendar record, regional flare index, solar x-ray radiation, cosmic rays, energetic solar particles and plasma for March 1978 and solar flares for February 1978

  14. Proceedings of the second workshop on thermal-non-thermal interactions in solar flares [TNT-II

    Phillips, K.J.H.

    1989-09-01

    The Second Workshop on the theme of Thermal-Non-thermal Interactions in Solar Flares (TNT-II) was held at Somerville College, University of Oxford, England, during the week of April 10-14, 1989. The keynote address, gave a view of the problems still outstanding with regard to soft and hard X-ray observations of flares. The gathering broke up into four subgroups. The subjects under discussion were: large-scale magnetic field phenomena, flare dynamics, energy release and deposition, and global energy balance. (author)

  15. Novel Materials that Enhance Efficiency and Radiation Resistance of Solar Cells, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecrafts rely on arrays of solar cells to generate electrical power. It is an on-going challenge to maximize electrical power available to spacecraft while...

  16. Affordable, Lightweight, Compactly Stowable, High Strength / Stiffness Lander Solar Array, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems, Inc. (DSS) has developed a next-generation high performance solar array system specifically for NASA's future Lander and sample return...

  17. High-Performance Elastically Self-Deployed Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA), Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable roll-out solar array (ROSA) structural platform that when combined with...

  18. Development of Advanced Anti-Reflection Coatings for High Performance Solar Energy Applications, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MicroLink Devices will increase the efficiency of multi-junction solar cells by designing and demonstrating advanced anti-reflection coatings (ARCs) that will...

  19. TRUSSELATOR - On-Orbit Fabrication of High Performance Support Structures for Solar Arrays, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Trusselator technology will enable on-orbit fabrication of support structures for high-power solar arrays and large antennas, achieving order-of-magnitude...

  20. Design and Analysis Tools for Deployable Solar Array Systems, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large, lightweight, deployable solar array structures have been identified as a key enabling technology for NASA with analysis and design of these structures being...

  1. Corona Associations and Their Implications for Venus

    Chapman, M.G.; Zimbelman, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Geologic mapping principles were applied to determine genetic relations between coronae and surrounding geomorphologic features within two study areas in order to better understand venusian coronae. The study areas contain coronae in a cluster versus a contrasting chain and are (1) directly west of Phoebe Regio (quadrangle V-40; centered at latitude 15??S, longitude 250??) and (2) west of Asteria and Beta Regiones (between latitude 23??N, longitude 239?? and latitude 43??N, longitude 275??). Results of this research indicate two groups of coronae on Venus: (1) those that are older and nearly coeval with regional plains, and occur globally; and (2) those that are younger and occur between Beta, Atla, and Themis Regiones or along extensional rifts elsewhere, sometimes showing systematic age progressions. Mapping relations and Earth analogs suggest that older plains coronae may be related to a near-global resurfacing event perhaps initiated by a mantle superplume or plumes. Younger coronae of this study that show age progression may be related to (1) a tectonic junction of connecting rifts resulting from local mantle upwelling and spread of a quasi-stationary hotspot plume, and (2) localized spread of post-plains volcanism. We postulate that on Venus most of the young, post-resurfacing coronal plumes may be concentrated within an area defined by the bounds of Beta, Atla, and Themis Regiones. ?? 1998 Academic Press.

  2. Solar desalination using humidification-dehumidification processes. Part II. An experimental investigation

    Nafey, A.S.; Fath, H.E.S.; El-Helaby, S.O.; Soliman, A.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a humidification-dehumidification desalination (HDD) process using solar energy at the weather conditions of Suez City, Egypt, is presented. A test rig is designed and constructed to conduct this investigation under different environmental and operating conditions. The test rig consists of a solar water heater (concentrator solar collector type), solar air heater (flat plate solar collector type), humidifier tower and dehumidifier exchanger. Different variables are examined including the feed water flow rate, the air flow rate, the cooling water flow rate in the dehumidifier and the weather conditions. Comparisons between the experimental results and other published results are presented. It is found that the results of the developed mathematical model by the same authors are in good agreement with the experimental results. The tested results show that the productivity of the system is strongly affected by the saline water temperature at the inlet to the humidifier, dehumidifier cooling water flow rate, air flow rate and solar intensity. The wind speed and ambient temperature variation were found to have a very small effect on the system productivity. A general correlation is developed to predict the unit productivity under different operating conditions. The results of this correlation have a reasonable confidence level (maximum error ±6%)

  3. Solar center-limb variation of the Ca II K line and the Wilson-Bappu effect

    Engvold, O.; Marstad, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    New observations of the quiet Sun Ca II K line center-to-limb (C-L) have been made. The separation of the K 2 intensity peaks, the K 1 intensity minima and the intermediate width W 0 (the Wilson-Bappu width) are presented. It is shown that the C-L variation of all three parameters can be accounted for as a dependence on chromospheric column mass. The corresponding Ca II K line with parameters of 41 late type stars are also shown to vary in accordance with the inferred chromospheric column mass of the stars. The solar C-L and the stellar variation of the widths ΔK 1 and W 0 are found to have nearly indentical factors of proportionality with respect to log (column mass)

  4. Spicular downflows in late-type giant coronae

    Wallenhorst, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Models of the coronae of late-type stars are considered, under the assumption that the dominant coronal energy loss is not conduction, as is usually assumed, but rather the losses due to hot spicular material falling back onto the chromosphere. This assumption is used to estimated the increase in stellar mass-loss rate which should occur when stars evolve across the so-called Supersonic Transition Locus (STL). For a constant downward number flux, this increase is estimate to be about one order of magnitude. Energy-balance models are then considered for spicule-dominated coronae, under the additional assumption that the energy input flux to the corona is constant over a star's post-main sequence evolution; this assumption is found to be consistent with observed red giant mass-loss rates. A sequence of models is constructed which enables the various coronal parameters to be estimated for different masses and radii. The models yield results similar to those of the minimum flux coronal theory of A.G. Hearn; these similarities, along with the validity of the minimum flux technique, are discussed. It is shown that several criticisms of the minimum flux method, due to Antiochos and Underwood (1978) and Van Tend (1979), are valid for minimum flux models in which spicular downflow is neglected, but are satisfied by the models considered below. Solutions which precisely satisfy the constant-flux assumption are not found to exist for solar mass stars. Under the assumption that the minimum flux theory is correct, and using a downflow number flux derived from the energy-balance model, the jump in mass-loss rate at the STL is reevaluated. In this more rigorous case, the jump is found to be only about a factor of three. It is concluded that large increases in mass-loss rate are not to be expected as stars evolve across this transition locus

  5. Air corona discharge chemical kinetics

    Kline, L.E.; Kanter, I.E.

    1984-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the initial chemical processing steps which occur in pulseless, negative, dc corona discharges in flowing air. A rate equation model is used because these discharges consist of a very small ionization zone near the pin with most of the pin-plane gap filled by a drift zone where both the electric field and the electron density are relatively uniform. The primary activated species are N 2 (A),O and O 2 (a 1 Δ). The predicted activated species density due to one discharge is 100 ppm per ms . mA cm 2 assuming E/n=60 Td. In pure, dry air the final product due to these activated species is primarily O 3 . The NO /sub x/ production is about 0.5 ppm per mA. In moist air there is an additional production of about 1.5 ppm per mA of HO /sub x/ species. The predicted ozone formation reactions will be ''intercepted'' when impurities are present in the air. Impurities present at densities below about 0.1% will react primarily with the activated species rather than with electrons. Hence the predicted activated species density provides an estimate of the potential chemical processing performance of the discharge

  6. A Model for Straight and Helical Solar Jets: II. Parametric Study of the Plasma Beta

    Pariat, E.; Dalmasse, K.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Karpen, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Jets are dynamic, impulsive, well-collimated plasma events that develop at many different scales and in different layers of the solar atmosphere. Aims. Jets are believed to be induced by magnetic reconnection, a process central to many astrophysical phenomena. Within the solar atmosphere, jet-like events develop in many different environments, e.g. in the vicinity of active regions as well as in coronal holes, and at various scales, from small photospheric spicules to large coronal jets. In all these events, signatures of helical structure and/or twisting/rotating motions are regularly observed. The present study aims to establish that a single model can generally reproduce the observed properties of these jet-like events. Methods. In this study, using our state-of-the-art numerical solver ARMS, we present a parametric study of a numerical tridimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of solar jet-like events. Within the MHD paradigm, we study the impact of varying the atmospheric plasma beta on the generation and properties of solar-like jets. Results. The parametric study validates our model of jets for plasma beta ranging from 10(sup 3) to 1, typical of the different layers and magnetic environments of the solar atmosphere. Our model of jets can robustly explain the generation of helical solar jet-like events at various beta less than or equal to 1. We show that the plasma beta modifies the morphology of the helical jet, explaining the different observed shapes of jets at different scales and in different layers of the solar atmosphere. Conclusions. Our results allow us to understand the energisation, triggering, and driving processes of jet-like events. Our model allows us to make predictions of the impulsiveness and energetics of jets as determined by the surrounding environment, as well as the morphological properties of the resulting jets.

  7. DYNAMICS OF CORONAL RAIN AND DESCENDING PLASMA BLOBS IN SOLAR PROMINENCES. II. PARTIALLY IONIZED CASE

    Oliver, R.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Zaqarashvili, T. V., E-mail: ramon.oliver@uib.es [Institute of Physics, IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5, 8010, Graz (Austria)

    2016-02-20

    Coronal rain clumps and prominence knots are dense condensations with chromospheric to transition region temperatures that fall down in the much hotter corona. Their typical speeds are in the range 30–150 km s{sup −1} and of the order of 10–30 km s{sup −1}, respectively, i.e., they are considerably smaller than free-fall velocities. These cold blobs contain a mixture of ionized and neutral material that must be dynamically coupled in order to fall together, as observed. We investigate this coupling by means of hydrodynamic simulations in which the coupling arises from the friction between ions and neutrals. The numerical simulations presented here are an extension of those of Oliver et al. to the partially ionized case. We find that, although the relative drift speed between the two species is smaller than 1 m s{sup −1} at the blob center, it is sufficient to produce the forces required to strongly couple charged particles and neutrals. The ionization degree has no discernible effect on the main results of our previous work for a fully ionized plasma: the condensation has an initial acceleration phase followed by a period with roughly constant velocity, and, in addition, the maximum descending speed is clearly correlated with the ratio of initial blob to environment density.

  8. Ruthenium(ii)-polypyridyl zirconium(iv) metal-organic frameworks as a new class of sensitized solar cells.

    Maza, W A; Haring, A J; Ahrenholtz, S R; Epley, C C; Lin, S Y; Morris, A J

    2016-01-01

    A series of Ru(ii)L 2 L' (L = 2,2'-bipyridyl, L' = 2,2'-bipyridine-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid), RuDCBPY, -containing zirconium(iv) coordination polymer thin films have been prepared as sensitizing materials for solar cell applications. These metal-organic framework (MOF) sensitized solar cells, MOFSCs, each are shown to generate photocurrent in response to simulated 1 sun illumination. Emission lifetime measurements indicate the excited state quenching of RuDCBPY at the MOF-TiO 2 interface is extremely efficient (>90%), presumably due to electron injection into TiO 2 . A mechanism is proposed in which RuDCBPY-centers photo-excited within the MOF-bulk undergo isotropic energy migration up to 25 nm from the point of origin. This work represents the first example in which a MOFSC is directly compared to the constituent dye adsorbed on TiO 2 (DSC). Importantly, the MOFSCs outperformed their RuDCBPY-TiO 2 DSC counterpart under the conditions used here and, thus, are solidified as promising solar cell platforms.

  9. Design, construction and experimental study of Electric Cum Solar Oven-II

    Nandwani, S.S.

    1987-11-01

    As in many developing countries, 35-40% of the population of Costa Rica still use firewood for domestic cooking. Considering the fact that Costa Rica is blessed with good sunshine, good hydroelectric potential, and a good electric network, a hybrid solar oven was thought to be useful. In the present paper the construction and working of a new type of Electric Cum Solar Oven (ECSO) has been described. This oven can be used for cooking and baking any type of meal at any time during the year employing solar and/or electric energy but consuming the minimum quantity of electric energy in case it is required. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  10. Solar-geophysical data number 417, May 1979. Part II. Data for November 1978--October 1978 and miscellanea

    Coffey, H.E.

    1979-05-01

    This comprehensive report provides data for November 1978 on active regions, synoptic solar maps, solar flares, solar radio emission, energetic solar particles and plasma, and solar x-ray radiation. It also provides synoptic charts, abbreviated calendar record and regional flare index for October 1978. The miscellaneous data includes solar radio emission for January and February 1979 and cosmic rays for February 1979

  11. Solar fusion cross sections II: the pp chain and CNO cycles

    Adelberger, E G; Bemmerer, D; Bertulani, C A; Chen, J -W; Costantini, H; Couder, M; Cyburt, R; Davids, B; Freedman, S J; Gai, M; Garcia, A; Gazit, D; Gialanella, L; Greife, U; Hass, M; Heeger, K; Haxton, W C; Imbriani, G; Itahashi, T; Junghans, A; Kubodera, K; Langanke, K; Leitner, D; Leitner, M; Marcucci, L E; Motobayashi, T; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Nollett, Kenneth M; Nunes, F M; Park, T -S; Parker, P D; Prati, P; Ramsey-Musolf, M J; Hamish Robertson, R G; Schiavilla, R; Simpson, E C; Snover, K A; Spitaleri, C; Strieder, F; Suemmerer, K; Trautvetter, R E; Tribble, R E; Typel, S; Uberseder, E; Vetter, P; Wiescher, M

    2011-04-01

    The available data on nuclear fusion cross sections important to energy generation in the Sun and other hydrogen-burning stars and to solar neutrino production are summarized and critically evaluated. Recommended values and uncertainties are provided for key cross sections, and a recommended spectrum is given for 8B solar neutrinos. Opportunities for further increasing the precision of key rates are also discussed, including new facilities, new experimental techniques, and improvements in theory. This review, which summarizes the conclusions of a workshop held at the Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle, in January 2009, is intended as a 10-year update and supplement to 1998, Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 1265.

  12. Fibre structure of decametric type II radio bursts as a manifestation of emission propagation effects in a disturbed near-solar plasma

    A. N. Afanasiev

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the fine structure of solar decametric type II radio bursts in the form of drifting narrowband fibres on the dynamic spectrum. Observations show that this structure appears in those events where there is a coronal mass ejection (CME) traveling in the near-solar space ahead of the shock wave responsible for the radio burst. The diversity in observed morphology of fibres and values of their parameters implies that the fibres may be caused by different formation mechanisms. ...

  13. Report on the Dutch expedition to observe the 1973 June 30 solar eclipse. II

    Houtgast, J.; Namba, O.

    1979-01-01

    This paper continues to report the Dutch expedition to Atar, Mauritania, to observe the total solar eclipse of June 30, 1973. The purpose of this expedition was to obtain spectra from the transition region photosphere-chromosphere with high spectral and time resolution. (Auth.)

  14. Electrochemical Properties of Cu(II/I)-Based Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Kavan, Ladislav; Saygili, Y.; Freitag, M.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Grätzel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 227, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 194-202 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Graphene * Dye sensitized solar cell * Cu-complexes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  15. Combined cycle solar central receiver hybrid power system study. Final technical report. Volume II

    None

    1979-11-01

    This study develops the conceptual design for a commercial-scale (nominal 100 MWe) central receiver solar/fossil fuel hybrid power system with combined cycle energy conversion. A near-term, metallic heat pipe receiver and an advanced ceramic tube receiver hybrid system are defined through parametric and market potential analyses. Comparative evaluations of the cost of power generation, the fuel displacement potential, and the technological readiness of these two systems indicate that the near-term hybrid system has better potential for commercialization by 1990. Based on the assessment of the conceptual design, major cost and performance improvements are projected for the near-term system. Constraints preventing wide-spread use were not identified. Energy storage is not required for this system and analyses show no economic advantages with energy storage provisions. It is concluded that the solar hybrid system is a cost effective alternative to conventional gas turbines and combined cycle generating plants, and has potential for intermediate-load market penetration at 15% annual fuel escalation rate. Due to their flexibility, simple solar/nonsolar interfacing, and short startup cycles, these hybrid plants have significant operating advantages. Utility company comments suggest that hybrid power systems will precede stand-alone solar plants.

  16. Selective paint coatings for coloured solar absorbers: Polyurethane thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paints (Part II)

    Orel, B.; Spreizer, H.; Surca Vuk, A.; Fir, M. [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Merlini, D.; Vodlan, M. [Color d.d., Cesta komandanta Staneta 4, SI-1230 Medvode (Slovenia); Koehl, M. [Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-01-23

    Red, green and blue paints were prepared for use as thickness insensitive spectrally selective (TISS) paint coatings for solar facade absorbers. The paints were composed of a polyurethane resin binder in which various pigments were incorporated in such a way that they formed stable paint dispersions, satisfying stability criteria for facade coatings. A low emittance of the paints was achieved by using low-emittance aluminium flake pigments combined with iron oxide (red coloured paints). Black pigment was added to adjust solar absorptance. Blue and green paints were made by the addition of coloured aluminium flake pigment and the solar absorptance was also adjusted by the addition of black pigment. Efficiency for photo-thermal conversion of solar radiation was assessed by evaluation of the corresponding performance criteria, which enabled the selection of paints whose performance criteria values were higher than 0 (spectrally non-selective black coating). The results confirmed that blue and green paints and to minor extent red ones, combined selectivity with colour. The morphology of the paints was assessed, revealing that the colours originated from the deposition of finely dispersed colour and/or black pigment on the surface of the aluminium flakes during paint preparation. (author)

  17. Equitable Colorings Of Corona Multiproducts Of Graphs

    Furmánczyk Hanna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A graph is equitably k-colorable if its vertices can be partitioned into k independent sets in such a way that the numbers of vertices in any two sets differ by at most one. The smallest k for which such a coloring exists is known as the equitable chromatic number of G and denoted by =(G. It is known that the problem of computation of =(G is NP-hard in general and remains so for corona graphs. In this paper we consider the same model of coloring in the case of corona multiproducts of graphs. In particular, we obtain some results regarding the equitable chromatic number for the l-corona product G ◦l H, where G is an equitably 3- or 4-colorable graph and H is an r-partite graph, a cycle or a complete graph. Our proofs are mostly constructive in that they lead to polynomial algorithms for equitable coloring of such graph products provided that there is given an equitable coloring of G. Moreover, we confirm the Equitable Coloring Conjecture for corona products of such graphs. This paper extends the results from [H. Furmánczyk, K. Kaliraj, M. Kubale and V.J. Vivin, Equitable coloring of corona products of graphs, Adv. Appl. Discrete Math. 11 (2013 103–120].

  18. Evolving Waves and Turbulence in the Outer Corona and Inner Heliosphere: The Accelerating Expanding Box

    Tenerani, Anna; Velli, Marco [EPSS, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind display many properties reflecting an ongoing nonlinear cascade, e.g., a well-defined spectrum in frequency, together with some characteristics more commonly associated with the linear propagation of waves from the Sun, such as the variation of fluctuation amplitude with distance, dominated by solar wind expansion effects. Therefore, both nonlinearities and expansion must be included simultaneously in any successful model of solar wind turbulence evolution. Because of the disparate spatial scales involved, direct numerical simulations of turbulence in the solar wind represent an arduous task, especially if one wants to go beyond the incompressible approximation. Indeed, most simulations neglect solar wind expansion effects entirely. Here we develop a numerical model to simulate turbulent fluctuations from the outer corona to 1 au and beyond, including the sub-Alfvénic corona. The accelerating expanding box (AEB) extends the validity of previous expanding box models by taking into account both the acceleration of the solar wind and the inhomogeneity of background density and magnetic field. Our method incorporates a background accelerating wind within a magnetic field that naturally follows the Parker spiral evolution using a two-scale analysis in which the macroscopic spatial effect coupling fluctuations with background gradients becomes a time-dependent coupling term in a homogeneous box. In this paper we describe the AEB model in detail and discuss its main properties, illustrating its validity by studying Alfvén wave propagation across the Alfvén critical point.

  19. Recent perspectives in solar physics - Elemental composition, coronal structure and magnetic fields, solar activity

    Newkirk, G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Elemental abundances in the solar corona are studied. Abundances in the corona, solar wind and solar cosmic rays are compared to those in the photosphere. The variation in silicon and iron abundance in the solar wind as compared to helium is studied. The coronal small and large scale structure is investigated, emphasizing magnetic field activity and examining cosmic ray generation mechanisms. The corona is observed in the X-ray and EUV regions. The nature of coronal transients is discussed with emphasis on solar-wind modulation of galactic cosmic rays. A schematic plan view of the interplanetary magnetic field during sunspot minimum is given showing the presence of magnetic bubbles and their concentration in the region around 4-5 AU by a fast solar wind stream.

  20. Imprint of the Sun on the Solar Wind

    Woo, R.; Habbal, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Observations of the inner corona in polarized brightness by the Mauna Loa MkIII K-coronameter and soft X-ray by Yohkoh of the inner corona are combined with Ulysses radio occultation measurements of the solar wind to demonstrate that the signature of active regions and bright points is present in the heliocentric distance range of 10-30 Ro.

  1. White light coronal structures and flattening during six total solar eclipses

    B.A. Marzouk

    2016-12-01

    Flattening index is the first quantitative parameter introduced for analyses of the global structure of the solar corona. It varies with respect to the phase of the solar activity and sunspot number. In this paper we study the solar corona during the 1990, 1999, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2012 total solar eclipses. We obtain flattening coefficients for all the six eclipses by using a new computer program. Our results are in a good agreement with published results.

  2. Effects of corona discharge treatment on some properties of wool ...

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... Corona discharge after operation worsted water absorption property increased and the ... finally conditioned with atmospheric air (20°C, relative humidity ... For corona treatment, a glow discharge generator was used with a.

  3. Solar radiation measurements in forests - II. methods based on the principle of hemispherical photography

    Diaci, J.; Kolar, U.; Thormann, J.-J.

    1999-01-01

    The know-how in the field of solar radiation distribution in forests is important for basic ecological investigations and silvicultural practice. Three methods of solar radiation assessment based on hemispherical canopy photography are compared in the present article: a hemispherical photography by means of a fish-eye lens, a horizontoscope and the ALI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. Experiences, improved methods and a drawing of a horizontoscope stand which was elaborated at the Chair of Silviculture are presented. Fairly good results with some limitations can be achieved with the improved stable horizontoscope in silvicultural work. Hemispherical photography is appropriate for the assessment of light conditions in all stand types and can thus be used in research work. The method has recently been undergoing intensive development. Digitalization of the entire system will speed up standardization. The ALI-2000 instrument is highly suitable for regeneration research in conditions of abundant plant vegetation, in reach sites and modified stands [sl

  4. Graphene Nanoplatelet Cathode for Co(III)/(II) Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Nazeeruddin, M. K.; Grätzel, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 11 (2011), s. 9171-9178 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : graphene * dye sensitized solar cell * cobalt redox shuttle Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 10.774, year: 2011

  5. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  6. SOLAR CYCLE VARIABILITY AND SURFACE DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION FROM Ca II K-LINE TIME SERIES DATA

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Worden, Simon P. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Keil, Stephen L. [National Solar Observatory, P.O. Box 57, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Analysis of over 36 yr of time series data from the NSO/AFRL/Sac Peak K-line monitoring program elucidates 5 components of the variation of the 7 measured chromospheric parameters: (a) the solar cycle (period {approx} 11 yr), (b) quasi-periodic variations (periods {approx} 100 days), (c) a broadband stochastic process (wide range of periods), (d) rotational modulation, and (e) random observational errors, independent of (a)-(d). Correlation and power spectrum analyses elucidate periodic and aperiodic variation of these parameters. Time-frequency analysis illuminates periodic and quasi-periodic signals, details of frequency modulation due to differential rotation, and in particular elucidates the rather complex harmonic structure (a) and (b) at timescales in the range {approx}0.1-10 yr. These results using only full-disk data suggest that similar analyses will be useful for detecting and characterizing differential rotation in stars from stellar light curves such as those being produced by NASA's Kepler observatory. Component (c) consists of variations over a range of timescales, in the manner of a 1/f random process with a power-law slope index that varies in a systematic way. A time-dependent Wilson-Bappu effect appears to be present in the solar cycle variations (a), but not in the more rapid variations of the stochastic process (c). Component (d) characterizes differential rotation of the active regions. Component (e) is of course not characteristic of solar variability, but the fact that the observational errors are quite small greatly facilitates the analysis of the other components. The data analyzed in this paper can be found at the National Solar Observatory Web site http://nsosp.nso.edu/cak{sub m}on/, or by file transfer protocol at ftp://ftp.nso.edu/idl/cak.parameters.

  7. A survey on control schemes for distributed solar collector fields. Part II: Advanced control approaches

    Camacho, E.F.; Rubio, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de Los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion, Area de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Carretera Sacramento s/n, E-04120 La Canada, Almeria (Spain); Valenzuela, L. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, Carretera Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    This article presents a survey of the different advanced automatic control techniques that have been applied to control the outlet temperature of solar plants with distributed collectors during the last 25 years. A classification of the modeling and control approaches described in the first part of this survey is used to explain the main features of each strategy. The treated strategies range from classical advanced control strategies to those with few industrial applications. (author)

  8. Energy Input Flux in the Global Quiet-Sun Corona

    Mac Cormack, Cecilia; Vásquez, Alberto M.; López Fuentes, Marcelo; Nuevo, Federico A. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET-UBA, CC 67—Suc 28, (C1428ZAA) Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Landi, Enrico; Frazin, Richard A. [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering (CLaSP), University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We present first results of a novel technique that provides, for the first time, constraints on the energy input flux at the coronal base ( r ∼ 1.025 R {sub ⊙}) of the quiet Sun at a global scale. By combining differential emission measure tomography of EUV images, with global models of the coronal magnetic field, we estimate the energy input flux at the coronal base that is required to maintain thermodynamically stable structures. The technique is described in detail and first applied to data provided by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager instrument, on board the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory mission, and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument, on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory mission, for two solar rotations with different levels of activity. Our analysis indicates that the typical energy input flux at the coronal base of magnetic loops in the quiet Sun is in the range ∼0.5–2.0 × 10{sup 5} (erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}), depending on the structure size and level of activity. A large fraction of this energy input, or even its totality, could be accounted for by Alfvén waves, as shown by recent independent observational estimates derived from determinations of the non-thermal broadening of spectral lines in the coronal base of quiet-Sun regions. This new tomography product will be useful for the validation of coronal heating models in magnetohydrodinamic simulations of the global corona.

  9. Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

  10. Designs of solar voltaic cells based on carbon nano-tubes II

    Shen, Yin-Lin; Dai, Jong-Horng; Ou, Kenneth; Reinhardt, Kit; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Inspired by Asian rice-paddy and Firefighter spiraling steps staircase, we employ a nano-manipulator augmented with CAD as a nano-robot water-buffalo, promised to improve by an order of the magnitude the pioneer work of GE Solar voltaic cell (SVC) made of one Carbon NanoTube (CNT) enjoyed QECNT~5%. Our CNT was made of the semiconductor at NIR wavelength EBG= 1.107 eV which can absorb any photon whose wavelength λ tiny diameter 0.66 nm. It allows us to construct 3D structure, called volume pixel, "voxel," in a much efficient spiraling steps staircase fashion to capture the solar spectral energy spreading naturally by a simple focusing lens without occlusion. For real-estate premium applications, in Space or Ocean, we designed a volume pixel (Voxel) housing a stack of 16 CNTs steps spiraling 22° each like the fire house staircase occupying the height of 16 x dCNT =16 x 0.66nm= 10.56 nm and covering over 360°. The total SVC had the size 2x2 meter2, consisting of 100×100 lenslet array. Each lens was made of Pb-Crown glass which was inexpensive simple spherical lens having the diameter of Dlens=2 cm and F#=0.7. It can focus the sunlight a millionth times stronger in a smallest possible focal spot size, λYellow=0.635 μm< λMax photons <λRed=0.73 μm, where the largest number of solar photons, 68%, according to the Plank radiation spectrum at 6000°K and the Lord Rayleigh diffraction limit. The solar panel seals individually such an array of 3D cavities of SVC enjoying theoretically from the UV 12% (wasted in passing through) visible 68% to the infrared 20% at a total of 16x5%~80% total QECNT per cell. The solar panel is made of light-weight carbon composite tolerating about 20% inactive fill factor and 10% dead pixels.

  11. Pulsed corona demonstrator for semi-industrial scale air purification

    Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Hoeben, W.F.L.M.; Huiskamp, T.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Although pulsed corona technology for air purification is widely investigated by the lab experiments, large-scale application has yet to be proven. Industrial systems require large flow handling and thus, high corona power. An autonomous semi-industrial scale pilot wire-cylinder type corona reactor

  12. Comparison of Mg-based multilayers for solar He II radiation at 30.4 nm wavelength

    Zhu Jingtao; Zhou Sika; Li Haochuan; Huang Qiushi; Wang Zhanshan; Le Guen, Karine; Hu, Min-Hui; Andre, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe

    2010-07-10

    Mg-based multilayers, including SiC/Mg, Co/Mg, B4C/Mg, and Si/Mg, are investigated for solar imaging and a He II calibration lamp at a 30.4 nm wavelength. These multilayers were fabricated by a magnetron sputtering method and characterized by x-ray reflection. The reflectivities of these multilayers were measured by synchrotron radiation. Near-normal-incidence reflectivities of Co/Mg and SiC/Mg multilayer mirrors are as high as 40.3% and 44.6%, respectively, while those of B4C/Mg and Si/Mg mirrors are too low for application. The measured results suggest that SiC/Mg, Co/Mg multilayers are promising for a 30.4 nm wavelength.

  13. High Molar Extinction Coefficient Ru(II-Mixed Ligand Polypyridyl Complexes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Application

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new ruthenium(II mixed ligand terpyridine complexes, “Ru(Htcterpy(NCS(L1 (N(C4H94, mLBD1” and Ru(Htcterpy(NCS(L2(N(C4H94, mLBD2 were synthesized and fully characterized by UV-Vis, emission, cyclic voltammogram, and other spectroscopic means, and the structures of the compounds are confirmed by 1H-NMR, ESI-MASS, and FT-IR spectroscopes. The influence of the substitution of L1 and L2 on solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency (η of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs was evaluated relative to reference black dye. The dyes showed molar extinction coefficients of 17600 M−1 cm−1 for mLBD1 and 21300 M−1 cm−1 for mLBD2 both at λ maximum of 512 nm, while black dye has shown 8660 M−1 cm−1 at λ maximum of 615 nm. The monochromatic incident photon-to-collected electron conversion efficiencies of 60.71% and 75.89% were obtained for mLBD1 and mLBD2 dyes, respectively. The energy conversion efficiencies of mLBD1 and mLBD2 dyes are 3.15% (SC=11.86 mA/cm2, OC=613 mV, ff=0.4337 and 3.36% (SC=12.71 mA/cm2, OC=655 mV, ff=0.4042, respectively, measured at the AM1.5G conditions, the reference black dye-sensitized solar cell, fabricated and evaluated under identical conditions exhibited η-value of 2.69% (SC=10.95 mA/cm2, OC=655 mV, ff=0.3750.

  14. Versatile ruthenium(II) dye towards blue-light emitter and dye-sensitizer for solar cells

    Zanoni, Kassio P. S.; Amaral, Ronaldo C.; Murakami Iha, Neyde Y.; Abreu, Felipe D.; de Carvalho, Idalina M. M.

    2018-06-01

    A versatile Ru(II) complex bearing an anthracene moiety was synthesized in our search for suitable compounds towards efficient molecular devices. The new engineered dye, cis‑[Ru(dcbH2)(NCS)2(mbpy‑anth)] (dcbH2 = 2,2‧‑bipyridyl‑4,4‧‑dicarboxylic acid, mbpy‑anth = 4‑[N‑(2‑anthryl)carbamoyl]‑4‧‑methyl‑2,2‧‑bipyridine), exhibits a blueish emission in a vibronically structured spectrum ascribed to the fluorescence of a 1LCAnth (ligand centered) excited state in the anthracene and has a potential to be exploited in the fields of smart lighting and displays. This complex was also employed in dye-sensitized solar cells with fairly efficient solar energy conversion with the use of self-assembled TiO2 compact layers beneath the TiO2 mesoporous film to prevent meso‑TiO2/dye back reactions. Further photoelectrochemical investigations through incident photon-to-current efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra showed that the all-nano-TiO2 compact layer acts as contact layers that increase the electron harvesting in the external circuit, enhancing efficiencies up to 50%.

  15. NEOCE: a new external occulting coronagraph experiment for ultimate observations of the chromosphere, corona and interface

    Damé, Luc; Fineschi, Silvano; Kuzin, Sergey; Von Fay-Siebenburgen, Erdélyi Robert

    Several ground facilities and space missions are currently dedicated to the study of the Sun at high resolution and of the solar corona in particular. However, and despite significant progress with the advent of space missions and UV, EUV and XUV direct observations of the hot chromosphere and million-degrees coronal plasma, much is yet to be achieved in the understanding of these high temperatures, fine dynamic dissipative structures and of the coronal heating in general. Recent missions have shown the definite role of a wide range of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic and physically fundamental changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled and governed by the emerging magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. The solar corona consists of many localised loop-like structures or threads with the plasmas brightening and fading independently. The plasma evolution in each thread is believed to be related to the formation of filaments, each one being dynamic, in a non-equilibrium state. The mechanism sustaining this dynamics, oscillations or waves (Alfvén or other magneto-plasma waves), requires both very high-cadence, multi-spectral observations, and high resolution and coronal magnetometry. This is foreseen in the future Space Mission NEOCE (New External Occulting Coronagraph Experiment), the ultimate new generation high-resolution coronagraphic heliospheric mission, to be proposed for ESA M4. NEOCE, an evolution of the HiRISE mission, is ideally placed at the L5 Lagrangian point (for a better follow-up of CMEs), and provides FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (two satellites in formation flying 375 m apart minimizing scattered light) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and

  16. Type II solar radio bursts, interplanetary shocks, and energetic particle events

    Cane, H.V.; Stone, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Using the ISEE 3 radio astronomy experiment data we have identified 37 interplanetary type II bursts in the period 1978 September to 1981 December. We lists these events and the associated phenomena. The events are preceded by intense, soft X-ray events with long decay times and type II or type IV bursts, or both, at meter wavelengths. The meter wavelength type II bursts are usually intense and exhibit herringbone structure. The extension of the herringbone structure into the kilometer wavelength range appears as a fast drift radio feature which we refer to as a shock associated radio event. The shock associated event is an important diagnostic for the presence of a strong shock and particle acceleration. The majority of the interplanetary type II bursts are associated with energetic particle events. Our results support other studies which indicate that energetic soalr particles detected at 1 A.U. are generatd by shock acceleration. From a preliminary analysis of the available data there appears to be a high correlation with white light coronal transients. The transients are fast: i.e., velocities greater than 500 km s -1

  17. Solar-geophysical data number 420, August 1979. Part II (Comprehensive reports). Data for February 1979, January 1979

    Coffey, H.E.

    1979-08-01

    This comprehensive report provides data for February 1979 on active regions, synoptic solar maps, solar radio emission, energetic solar particles and plasma, and solar x-ray radiation. It also provides synoptic charts and abbreviated calendar record for January 1979. The miscellaneous data include solar radio emission, cosmic rays-April and May 1979, Solar flares-January 1979, and regional flare index - December 1978

  18. An Investigation of the Physical Properties of Erupting Solar Prominences, Phase II

    2014-12-30

    recently). In addition to the focus difference between channels there is also an overall retraction of the O2 focus westward, and concurrent movement of...clear images. The entire process takes ≈13:50 minutes. In that time the telescope moves ≈4˚ in RA, and the image rotator moves 2˚. Declination movement ...The 1st line is a Si I solar line at 1082.7 nm. The 2nd line is a telluric line formed by water vapor in earth’s atmosphere at 1083.2 nm. This

  19. Measurement and analysis of time-domain characteristics of corona-generated radio interference from a single positive corona source

    Li, Xuebao; Li, Dayong; Chen, Bo; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Li, Yinfei

    2018-04-01

    The corona-generated electromagnetic interference commonly known as radio interference (RI) has become a limiting factor for the design of high voltage direct current transmission lines. In this paper, a time-domain measurement system is developed to measure the time-domain characteristics of corona-generated RI from a single corona source under a positive corona source. In the experiments, the corona current pulses are synchronously measured through coupling capacitors. The one-to-one relationship between the corona current pulse and measured RI voltage pulse is observed. The statistical characteristics of pulse parameters are analyzed, and the correlations between the corona current pulse and RI voltage pulse in the time-domain and frequency-domain are analyzed. Depending on the measured corona current pulses, the time-domain waveform of corona-generated RI is calculated on the basis of the propagation model of corona current on the conductor, the dipolar model for electric field calculation, and the antenna model for inducing voltage calculation. The well matched results between measured and simulated waveforms of RI voltage can show the validity of the measurement and calculation method presented in this paper, which also further show the close correlation between corona current and corona-generated RI.

  20. Novel modulator topology for corona plasma generation

    Ariaans, T.H.P.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Winands, G.J.J.; Liu, Z.; Heesch, van E.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gas cleaning using plasma technology is slowly introduced into industry nowadays. Several challenges still have to be overcome: increasing the scale, safety, life time and reducing costs. In 2006 we demonstrated a 20 kW nanosecond pulsed corona system. The electrical efficiency was > 90%. O-radical

  1. Coloured solar collectors. Phase II : from laboratory samples to collector prototypes. Final report

    Schueler, A; Roecker, Ch; Chambrier, E de; Munari Probst, M

    2007-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with the second phase of a project concerning the architectural integration of glazed solar collectors into the facades of buildings for heat production. The factors that limit the integration of photovoltaic panels in facades are discussed. The authors state that, for a convincing demonstration, sufficiently large samples and high quality levels are needed. The sol-gel deposition of the multi-layered coatings on A4-sized glass panes demonstrated in the laboratory by EPFL-LESO are discussed. The coatings produced exhibit a coloured reflection in combination with a high solar transmittance, a homogenous appearance, and are free of visible defects. Film hardening by UV exposure is discussed: This should result in the speeding up of the sol-gel process and thus save energy, thereby significantly reducing costs. Collaboration with industry is discussed in which full-scale glass panes are to be coated with novel multiple layers. The novel glazing is to be integrated into first prototype collectors. The manufacturing and test processes for the prototypes manufactured are discussed in detail.

  2. CONSTRAINING THE SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH USING SPLIT-BAND TYPE II RADIO BURST OBSERVATIONS

    Kishore, P.; Ramesh, R.; Hariharan, K.; Kathiravan, C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore—560034 (India); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: kishore@iiap.res.in [Code 671, Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We report on low-frequency radio (85–35 MHz) spectral observations of four different type II radio bursts, which exhibited fundamental-harmonic emission and split-band structure. Each of the bursts was found to be closely associated with a whitelight coronal mass ejection (CME) close to the Sun. We estimated the coronal magnetic field strength from the split-band characteristics of the bursts, by assuming a model for the coronal electron density distribution. The choice of the model was constrained, based on the following criteria: (1) when the radio burst is observed simultaneously in the upper and lower bands of the fundamental component, the location of the plasma level corresponding to the frequency of the burst in the lower band should be consistent with the deprojected location of the leading edge (LE) of the associated CME; (2) the drift speed of the type II bursts derived from such a model should agree closely with the deprojected speed of the LE of the corresponding CMEs. With the above conditions, we find that: (1) the estimated field strengths are unique to each type II burst, and (2) the radial variation of the field strength in the different events indicate a pattern. It is steepest for the case where the heliocentric distance range over which the associated burst is observed is closest to the Sun, and vice versa.

  3. Plasma physical aspects of the solar cycle

    Raadu, M.A.

    1982-08-01

    Mass motions below the photosphere drive the solar cycle which is association with variations in the magnetic field structure and accompanying phenomena. In addition to semi-empirical models, dynamo theories have been used to explain the solar cycle. The emergence of magnetic field generated by these mechanisms and its expansions into the corona involves many plasma physical processes. Magnetic buoyancy aids the expulsion of magnetic flux. The corona may respond dynamically or by continually adjusting to a quasi-static force-free or pressure-balanced equilibrium. The formation and disruption of current sheets is significant for the overall structure of the coronal magnetic field and the physics of quiescent prominences. The corona has a fine structure consisting of magnetic loops. The structure and stability of these are important as they are one of the underlying elements which make up the corona. (Author)

  4. A Spectroscopic Study of the Energy Deposition in the Low Corona: Connecting Global Modeling to Observations

    Szente, J.; Landi, E.; Toth, G.; Manchester, W.; van der Holst, B.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    We are looking for signatures of coronal heating process using a physically consistent 3D MHD model of the global corona. Our approach is based on the Alfvén Wave Solar atmosphere Model (AWSoM), with a domain ranging from the upper chromosphere (50,000K) to the outer corona, and the solar wind is self-consistently heated and accelerated by the dissipation of low-frequency Alfvén waves. Taking into account separate electron and anisotropic proton heating, we model the coronal plasma at the same time and location as observed by Hinode/EIS, and calculate the synthetic spectra that we compare with the observations. With the obtained synthetic spectra, we are able to directly calculate line intensities, line width, thermal and nonthermal motions, line centroids, Doppler shift distributions and compare our predictions to real measurements. Our results directly test the extent to which Alfvénic heating is present in the low corona.

  5. Millimeter radiation from a 3D model of the solar atmosphere. II. Chromospheric magnetic field

    Loukitcheva, M.; White, S. M.; Solanki, S. K.; Fleishman, G. D.; Carlsson, M.

    2017-05-01

    Aims: We use state-of-the-art, three-dimensional non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the quiet solar atmosphere to carry out detailed tests of chromospheric magnetic field diagnostics from free-free radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths (mm/submm). Methods: The vertical component of the magnetic field was deduced from the mm/submm brightness spectra and the degree of circular polarization synthesized at millimeter frequencies. We used the frequency bands observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) as a convenient reference. The magnetic field maps obtained describe the longitudinal magnetic field at the effective formation heights of the relevant wavelengths in the solar chromosphere. Results: The comparison of the deduced and model chromospheric magnetic fields at the spatial resolution of both the model and current observations demonstrates a good correlation, but has a tendency to underestimate the model field. The systematic discrepancy of about 10% is probably due to averaging of the restored field over the heights contributing to the radiation, weighted by the strength of the contribution. On the whole, the method of probing the longitudinal component of the magnetic field with free-free emission at mm/submm wavelengths is found to be applicable to measurements of the weak quiet-Sun magnetic fields. However, successful exploitation of this technique requires very accurate measurements of the polarization properties (primary beam and receiver polarization response) of the antennas, which will be the principal factor that determines the level to which chromospheric magnetic fields can be measured. Conclusions: Consequently, high-resolution and high-precision observations of circularly polarized radiation at millimeter wavelengths can be a powerful tool for producing chromospheric longitudinal magnetograms.

  6. Second-stage acceleration in solar flares

    Mullan, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    A model proposed by Chevalier and Scott to account for cosmic ray acceleration in an expanding supernova remnant is applied to the case of a shock wave injected into the solar corona by a flare. Certain features of solar cosmic rays can be explained by this model. (orig.) [de

  7. IMAGING COMET ISON C/2012 S1 IN THE INNER CORONA AT PERIHELION

    Druckmüller, Miloslav [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Habbal, Shadia Rifai [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu 96822, Hawaii (United States); Aniol, Peter [ASTELCO Systems GmbH, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany); Ding, Adalbert [Institute of Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universitaet Berlin, and Institute of Technical Physics, Berlin (Germany); Morgan, Huw [Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Computer Science, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion, Cymru SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Much anticipation and speculation were building around comet ISON, or C/2012 S1, discovered on 2012 September 21 by the International Scientific Optical Network telescope in Russia, and bound for the Sun on 2013 November 28, with a closest heliocentric approach distance of 2.7 R {sub ☉}. Here we present the first white light image of the comet's trail through the inner corona. The image was taken with a wide field Lyot-type coronagraph from the Mees Observatory on Haleakala at 19:12 UT, past its perihelion passage at 18:45 UT. The perfect match between the comet's trail captured in the inner corona and the trail that had persisted across the field of view of 2-6 R {sub ☉} of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment/C2 coronagraph at 19:12 UT demonstrates that the comet survived its perihelion passage.

  8. Distribution of electric currents in sunspots from photosphere to corona

    Gosain, Sanjay [National Solar Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Démoulin, Pascal [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, UMR 8109 (CNRS), F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); López Fuentes, Marcelo [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, CC. 67, Suc. 28 Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2014-09-20

    We present a study of two regular sunspots that exhibit nearly uniform twist from the photosphere to the corona. We derive the twist parameter in the corona and in the chromosphere by minimizing the difference between the extrapolated linear force-free field model field lines and the observed intensity structures in the extreme-ultraviolet images of the Sun. The chromospheric structures appear more twisted than the coronal structures by a factor of two. Further, we derive the vertical component of electric current density, j{sub z} , using vector magnetograms from the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). The spatial distribution of j{sub z} has a zebra pattern of strong positive and negative values owing to the penumbral fibril structure resolved by Hinode/SOT. This zebra pattern is due to the derivative of the horizontal magnetic field across the thin fibrils; therefore, it is strong and masks weaker currents that might be present, for example, as a result of the twist of the sunspot. We decompose j{sub z} into the contribution due to the derivatives along and across the direction of the horizontal field, which follows the fibril orientation closely. The map of the tangential component has more distributed currents that are coherent with the chromospheric and coronal twisted structures. Moreover, it allows us to map and identify the direct and return currents in the sunspots. Finally, this decomposition of j{sub z} is general and can be applied to any vector magnetogram in order to better identify the weaker large-scale currents that are associated with coronal twisted/sheared structures.

  9. Catalytic role of Cu(II) in the reduction of Cr(VI) by citric acid under an irradiation of simulated solar light.

    Li, Ying; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Jing; Lan, Yeqing

    2015-05-01

    The catalytic role of Cu(II) in the reduction of Cr(VI) by citric acid with simulated solar light was investigated. The results demonstrated that Cu(II) could significantly accelerate Cr(VI) reduction and the reaction obeyed to pseudo zero-order kinetics with respect to Cr(VI). The removal of Cr(VI) was related to the initial concentrations of Cu(II), citric acid, and the types of organic acids. The optimal removal of Cr(VI) was achieved at pH 4, and the rates of Cu(II) photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by organic acids were in the order: tartaric acid (two α-OH groups, two -COOH groups)>citric acid (one α-OH group, three -COOH groups)>malic acid (one α-OH group, two -COOH groups)>lactic acid (one α-OH group, one -COOH group)≫succinic acid (two -COOH groups), suggesting that the number of α-OH was the key factor for the reaction, followed by the number of -COOH. The formation of Cu(II)-citric acid complex could generate Cu(I) and radicals through a pathway of metal-ligand-electron transfer, promoting the reduction of Cr(VI). This study is helpful to fully understanding the conversion of Cr(VI) in the existence of both organic acids and Cu(II) with solar light in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On the relevance of chaos for halo stars in the solar neighbourhood II

    Maffione, Nicolas P.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Cincotta, Pablo M.; Giordano, Claudia M.; Grand, Robert J. J.; Marinacci, Federico; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Simpson, Christine M.; Springel, Volker; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2018-05-01

    In a previous paper based on dark matter only simulations we show that, in the approximation of an analytic and static potential describing the strongly triaxial and cuspy shape of Milky Way-sized haloes, diffusion due to chaotic mixing in the neighbourhood of the Sun does not efficiently erase phase space signatures of past accretion events. In this second paper we further explore the effect of chaotic mixing using multicomponent Galactic potential models and solar neighbourhood-like volumes extracted from fully cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, thus naturally accounting for the gravitational potential associated with baryonic components, such as the bulge and disc. Despite the strong change in the global Galactic potentials with respect to those obtained in dark matter only simulations, our results confirm that a large fraction of halo particles evolving on chaotic orbits exhibit their chaotic behaviour after periods of time significantly larger than a Hubble time. In addition, significant diffusion in phase space is not observed on those particles that do exhibit chaotic behaviour within a Hubble time.

  11. THE MASS-SIZE RELATION FROM CLOUDS TO CORES. II. SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD CLOUDS

    Kauffmann, J.; Shetty, R.; Goodman, A. A.; Pillai, T.; Myers, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the mass and size of cloud fragments in several molecular clouds continuously over a wide range of spatial scales (0.05 ∼ 2 , is not well suited to describe the derived mass-size data. Solar neighborhood clouds not forming massive stars (∼ sun ; Pipe Nebula, Taurus, Perseus, and Ophiuchus) obey m(r) ≤ 870 M sun (r/pc) 1.33 . In contrast to this, clouds forming massive stars (Orion A, G10.15 - 0.34, G11.11 - 0.12) do exceed the aforementioned relation. Thus, this limiting mass-size relation may approximate a threshold for the formation of massive stars. Across all clouds, cluster-forming cloud fragments are found to be-at given radius-more massive than fragments devoid of clusters. The cluster-bearing fragments are found to roughly obey a mass-size law m ∝ r 1.27 (where the exponent is highly uncertain in any given cloud, but is certainly smaller than 1.5).

  12. Reconstructing solar magnetic fields from historical observations. II. Testing the surface flux transport model

    Virtanen, I. O. I.; Virtanen, I. I.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Yeates, A.; Mursula, K.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We aim to use the surface flux transport model to simulate the long-term evolution of the photospheric magnetic field from historical observations. In this work we study the accuracy of the model and its sensitivity to uncertainties in its main parameters and the input data. Methods: We tested the model by running simulations with different values of meridional circulation and supergranular diffusion parameters, and studied how the flux distribution inside active regions and the initial magnetic field affected the simulation. We compared the results to assess how sensitive the simulation is to uncertainties in meridional circulation speed, supergranular diffusion, and input data. We also compared the simulated magnetic field with observations. Results: We find that there is generally good agreement between simulations and observations. Although the model is not capable of replicating fine details of the magnetic field, the long-term evolution of the polar field is very similar in simulations and observations. Simulations typically yield a smoother evolution of polar fields than observations, which often include artificial variations due to observational limitations. We also find that the simulated field is fairly insensitive to uncertainties in model parameters or the input data. Due to the decay term included in the model the effects of the uncertainties are somewhat minor or temporary, lasting typically one solar cycle.

  13. Photocatalytic reactors for treating water pollution with solar illumination. II: a simplified analysis for flow reactors

    Sagawe, G.; Bahnemann, D. [Inst. fuer Technische Chemie, Univ. Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Brandi, R.J.; Cassano, A.E. [INTEC (Univ. Nacional del Litoral and CONICET), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    Very frequently outgoing streams of real wastewaters do not have a definite and constant composition. Additionally, when the degradation process makes use of solar irradiation, the photon flux is hardly constant. These two factors strongly militate against the use of very elaborate, exact models for analyzing the performance of the employed reactors. In these cases, approximate methods may be the most practical approach. One possible way is presented in this paper. The observed photonic efficiency concept developed in a previous contribution (sagawe et al., 2002a) is applied to continuous reactors for both steady state and transient operations of photocatalytic reactions applied to wastewaters decontamination processes. For this reactor the local observed photonic efficiency, defined at each reactor longitudinal position, is the convenient property to express the concentration spatial evolution. It is also shown that the description of the reactor performance employing a mass balance can be done in a rather simple way introducing a mass-moving coordinate transformation that remodel the mass inventory and permits working with simpler ordinary differential equations. (orig.)

  14. Photocapacitance study of type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum ring solar cells

    Wagener, M. C.; Botha, J. R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Carrington, P. J.; Krier, A. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-07

    In this study, the density of states associated with the localization of holes in GaSb/GaAs quantum rings are determined by the energy selective charging of the quantum ring distribution. The authors show, using conventional photocapacitance measurements, that the excess charge accumulated within the type-II nanostructures increases with increasing excitation energies for photon energies above 0.9 eV. Optical excitation between the localized hole states and the conduction band is therefore not limited to the Γ(k = 0) point, with pseudo-monochromatic light charging all states lying within the photon energy selected. The energy distribution of the quantum ring states could consequently be accurately related from the excitation dependence of the integrated photocapacitance. The resulting band of localized hole states is shown to be well described by a narrow distribution centered 407 meV above the GaAs valence band maximum.

  15. Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridine and titaniumdioxide - photocatalysts for solar induced water remediation; Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridin und Titandioxid - Photokatalysatoren zum solarinduzierten Abbau von Schadstoffen

    Bossmann, S [Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltmesstechnik, Engler-Bunte-Inst., Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)

    1997-01-01

    The photophysical and photochemical properties of photocatalysts capable of working under solar-light-irradiation are of great interest. An especially promising application is the development of low-cost `Advanced Oxidation Procedures` (AOP). The aim of this endeavor is the detoxification of hazardous chemicals in wastewaters, which cannot be treated by conventional techniques. The mineralization of the most (highly) toxic chemicals to CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and simple inorganic compounds is favored by thermodynamics, however various difficulties such as kinetic barriers and hindered diffusion exist in systems for heterogeneous photocatalysis. In that respect, Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridine ([Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}) and TiO{sub 2} - codoped photocatalysts offer several advantages. The photoreactive centers consist of supramolecular units of [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} and TiO{sub 2} - nanocrystals. Pollutants, such as our model compound 2,4-Dimethylaniline, diffuse through the framework of zeolite Y and undergo oxidative degradation at the reactive centers of the photocatalysts in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Under the aspect of application, the size of the zeolite Y-particles (diameter: 1x10{sup -6} m in average) permits their easy handling in filtration and recyling operations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die photophysikalischen und -chemischen Eigenschaften von Katalysatoren, die das Licht der Sonne als kostenguenstige Energiequelle ausnutzen, treten immer staerker in den Vordergrund des Interesses. Dies gilt vor allem fuer ihren Einsatz in `Advanced Oxidation Technologies` (AOT`s) zur Entgiftung toxischer Substanzen im Abwasser. Die Mineralisation der meisten (hoch)giftigen Chemikalien zu CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O und einfachen anorganischen Verbindungen ist zwar thermodynamisch beguenstigt, es treten jedoch sowohl kinetische Hemmschwellen als auch Diffusionshindernisse in der heterogenen Photokatalyse auf. Ruthenium(II)-tris-bipyridin ([Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}) und TiO{sub 2

  16. AN IMAGING STUDY OF A COMPLEX SOLAR CORONAL RADIO ERUPTION

    Feng, S. W.; Chen, Y.; Song, H. Q.; Wang, B.; Kong, X. L., E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2016-08-10

    Solar coronal radio bursts are enhanced radio emission excited by energetic electrons accelerated during solar eruptions. Studying these bursts is important for investigating the origin and physical mechanism of energetic particles and further diagnosing coronal parameters. Earlier studies suffered from a lack of simultaneous high-quality imaging data of the radio burst and the eruptive structure in the inner corona. Here we present a study on a complex solar radio eruption consisting of a type II burst and three reversely drifting type III bursts, using simultaneous EUV and radio imaging data. It is found that the type II burst is closely associated with a propagating and evolving CME-driven EUV shock structure, originated initially at the northern shock flank and later transferred to the top part of the shock. This source transfer is coincident with the presence of shock decay and enhancing signatures observed at the corresponding side of the EUV front. The electron energy accelerated by the shock at the flank is estimated to be ∼0.3 c by examining the imaging data of the fast-drifting herringbone structure of the type II burst. The reverse-drifting type III sources are found to be within the ejecta and correlated with a likely reconnection event therein. The implications for further observational studies and relevant space weather forecasting techniques are discussed.

  17. A MULTI-SITE CAMPAIGN TO MEASURE SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN PROCYON. II. MODE FREQUENCIES

    Bedding, Timothy R.; Bruntt, Hans; Kiss, Laszlo L.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Campante, Tiago L.; Appourchaux, Thierry; Bonanno, Alfio; Chaplin, William J.; Garcia, Rafael A.; Martic, Milena; Mosser, Benoit; Butler, R. Paul; O'Toole, Simon J.; Kambe, Eiji; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Ando, Hiroyasu; Sato, Bun'ei; Hartmann, Michael; Hatzes, Artie

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed data from a multi-site campaign to observe oscillations in the F5 star Procyon. The data consist of high-precision velocities that we obtained over more than three weeks with 11 telescopes. A new method for adjusting the data weights allows us to suppress the sidelobes in the power spectrum. Stacking the power spectrum in a so-called echelle diagram reveals two clear ridges, which we identify with even and odd values of the angular degree (l = 0 and 2, and l = 1 and 3, respectively). We interpret a strong, narrow peak at 446 μHz that lies close to the l = 1 ridge as a mode with mixed character. We show that the frequencies of the ridge centroids and their separations are useful diagnostics for asteroseismology. In particular, variations in the large separation appear to indicate a glitch in the sound-speed profile at an acoustic depth of ∼1000 s. We list frequencies for 55 modes extracted from the data spanning 20 radial orders, a range comparable to the best solar data, which will provide valuable constraints for theoretical models. A preliminary comparison with published models shows that the offset between observed and calculated frequencies for the radial modes is very different for Procyon than for the Sun and other cool stars. We find the mean lifetime of the modes in Procyon to be 1.29 +0.55 -0.49 days, which is significantly shorter than the 2-4 days seen in the Sun.

  18. THE TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES OF SOLAR CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS. II. THE RECLOSING OF AN OPENED FIELD

    Low, B. C.; Janse, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a study of the spontaneous formation of current sheets responding to the closing of an opened magnetic field by resistive reconnection in an electrically, highly conducting atmosphere outside a unit sphere. Pairs of initial-final equilibrium states are calculated explicitly, taking the field to be composed of three systems of untwisted flux in both states. In the initial state, two of the three flux systems are closed potential fields whereas the third system contains an equilibrium current sheet that keeps the potential fields on its two sides globally open. The final state is an everywhere potential field, with all three flux systems closed, produced by the resistive dissipation of the current sheet in the initial state. The unit sphere is taken to be a rigid, perfectly conducting wall during reconnection, so that the normal flux distribution is unchanged on the unit sphere. Field solutions subject to this unchanging boundary condition are obtained with and without the assumption of axisymmetry. The mathematical model has been designed to show that the topological changes produced by the current-sheet dissipation are simple under axisymmetry but radically different in the absence of axisymmetry, a fundamental point established in the first paper of this series. In the general case, the topological changes imply that other current sheets must have formed. Some of these current sheets form on the separatrix flux surfaces of the multipolar field. Others form throughout the closed-flux systems induced by volumetric changes. The opening and reclosing of magnetic fields during a solar coronal mass ejection may produce a multitude of current sheets not previously anticipated in the current understanding of this phenomenon. Basic to this study is a general topological property of magnetic flux tubes treated separately in the Appendix.

  19. Automatic recognition of coronal type II radio bursts: The ARBIS 2 method and first observations

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver; Robinson, Peter; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    Major space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompa-nied by solar radio bursts, which can potentially be used for real-time space weather forecasts. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency and its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typi-cal speed of 1000 km s-1 . The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time and durations of several minutes. We present a new method developed to de-tect type II coronal radio bursts automatically and describe its implementation in an extended Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). Preliminary tests of the method with spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ˜ 80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, with one false positive per 100-200 hr for high solar activity and less than one false event per 10000 hr for low solar activity periods. The first automatically detected coronal type II radio bursts are also presented. ARBIS 2 is now operational with IPS Radio and Space Services, providing email alerts and event lists internationally.

  20. 200W Deep Space CubeSat Composite Beam Roll-Up Solar Array (COBRA), Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar arrays that have very high specific power (W/kg) and compact stowed volume (W/m3), while still providing shielding to the solar cell, are an enabling...

  1. Multi-Use Solar Thermal System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith [7227-570], Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an innovative solar thermal system for oxygen production from lunar regolith. In this system solar radiation is collected by the concentrator...

  2. Engineered Photosystem II reaction centers optimize photochemistry versus photoprotection at different solar intensities.

    Vinyard, David J; Gimpel, Javier; Ananyev, Gennady M; Mayfield, Stephen P; Dismukes, G Charles

    2014-03-12

    The D1 protein of Photosystem II (PSII) provides most of the ligating amino acid residues for the Mn4CaO5 water-oxidizing complex (WOC) and half of the reaction center cofactors, and it is present as two isoforms in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. These isoforms, D1:1 and D1:2, confer functional advantages for photosynthetic growth at low and high light intensities, respectively. D1:1, D1:2, and seven point mutations in the D1:2 background that are native to D1:1 were expressed in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We used these nine strains to show that those strains that confer a higher yield of PSII charge separation under light-limiting conditions (where charge recombination is significant) have less efficient photochemical turnover, measured in terms of both a lower WOC turnover probability and a longer WOC cycle period. Conversely, these same strains under light saturation (where charge recombination does not compete) confer a correspondingly faster O2 evolution rate and greater protection against photoinhibition. Taken together, the data clearly establish that PSII primary charge separation is a trade-off between photochemical productivity (water oxidation and plastoquinone reduction) and charge recombination (photoprotection). These trade-offs add up to a significant growth advantage for the two natural isoforms. These insights provide fundamental design principles for engineering of PSII reaction centers with optimal photochemical efficiencies for growth at low versus high light intensities.

  3. Colours of minor bodies in the outer solar system. II. A statistical analysis revisited

    Hainaut, O. R.; Boehnhardt, H.; Protopapa, S.

    2012-10-01

    We present an update of the visible and near-infrared colour database of Minor Bodies in the Outer Solar System (MBOSSes), which now includes over 2000 measurement epochs of 555 objects, extracted from over 100 articles. The list is fairly complete as of December 2011. The database is now large enough to enable any dataset with a large dispersion to be safely identified and rejected from the analysis. The selection method used is quite insensitive to individual outliers. Most of the rejected datasets were observed during the early days of MBOSS photometry. The individual measurements are combined in a way that avoids possible rotational artifacts. The spectral gradient over the visible range is derived from the colours, as well as the R absolute magnitude M(1,1). The average colours, absolute magnitude, and spectral gradient are listed for each object, as well as the physico-dynamical classes using a classification adapted from Gladman and collaborators. Colour-colour diagrams, histograms, and various other plots are presented to illustrate and investigate class characteristics and trends with other parameters, whose significances are evaluated using standard statistical tests. Except for a small discrepancy for the J-H colour, the largest objects, with M(1,1) < 5, are indistinguishable from the smaller ones. The larger ones are slightly bluer than the smaller ones in J-H. Short-period comets, Plutinos and other resonant objects, hot classical disk objects, scattered disk objects and detached disk objects have similar properties in the visible, while the cold classical disk objects and the Jupiter Trojans form two separate groups of their spectral properties in the visible wavelength range. The well-known colour bimodality of Centaurs is confirmed. The hot classical disk objects with large inclinations, or large orbital excitations are found to be bluer than the others, confirming a previously known result. Additionally, the hot classical disk objects with a

  4. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Knölker, M., E-mail: chitta@mps.mpg.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  5. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van; Rodríguez, J. Blanco; Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco; Schmidt, W.; Pillet, V. Martínez; Knölker, M.

    2017-01-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  6. CORONA ACADEMY, Opportunities for Enhancement of Training Capabilities in VVER Technology

    Ilieva, M.; Dieguez Porras, P.; Klepakova, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The general objective of the project CORONA II is to enhance the safety of nuclear installations through further improvement of the training capabilities for providing the necessary personnel competencies in VVER area. More specific objective of the project is to continue the development of a state-of-the-art regional training network for VVER competence called CORONA Academia. The project aims at continuation of the European cooperation and support in this area for preservation and further development of expertise in the nuclear field by improvement of higher education and training. The consortium is focusing its effort on using the most advanced ways of providing training to the trainees, saving cost and time–distance learning and e-learning approaches which will be tested in CORONA II Project. The knowledge management portal will integrate the information on VVER web into a single communication system and develop and implement a semantic web structure to achieve mutual recognition of authentication information with other databases. That will enable the partners to share the materials available in each specific training center. (author

  7. Determination of the Corona model parameters with artificial neural networks

    Ahmet, Nayir; Bekir, Karlik; Arif, Hashimov

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The aim of this study is to calculate new model parameters taking into account the corona of electrical transmission line wires. For this purpose, a neural network modeling proposed for the corona frequent characteristics modeling. Then this model was compared with the other model developed at the Polytechnic Institute of Saint Petersburg. The results of development of the specified corona model for calculation of its influence on the wave processes in multi-wires line and determination of its parameters are submitted. Results of obtained calculation equations are brought for electrical transmission line with allowance for superficial effect in the ground and wires with reference to developed corona model

  8. Investigating the concept of fraunhofer lines as a potential method to detect corona in the wavelength region 338.67nm – 405nm during the day

    Maistry, N

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available the results obtained it was determined that the purchased optical filter was not filtering out the solar radiation and hence no corona was detected. The signal to noise ratio was 0.0314. Hence a new approach of simulating a narrow band-pass filter in MATLAB...

  9. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II); Suche nach solaren Axionen mit dem Roentgenteleskop des CAST-Experiments (Phase II)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-10-14

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ({sup 4}He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with {sup 4}He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g{sub {alpha}}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}<1.6-6.0 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1} (95%C.L.) for m{sub a}=0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  10. SIMULATIONS OF THE KELVIN–HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY DRIVEN BY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN THE TURBULENT CORONA

    Gómez, Daniel O.; DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mininni, Pablo D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-02-20

    Recent high-resolution Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory images show evidence of the development of the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability, as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) expand in the ambient corona. A large-scale magnetic field mostly tangential to the interface is inferred, both on the CME and on the background sides. However, the magnetic field component along the shear flow is not strong enough to quench the instability. There is also observational evidence that the ambient corona is in a turbulent regime, and therefore the criteria for the development of the instability are a priori expected to differ from the laminar case. To study the evolution of the KH instability with a turbulent background, we perform three-dimensional simulations of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations. The instability is driven by a velocity profile tangential to the CME–corona interface, which we simulate through a hyperbolic tangent profile. The turbulent background is generated by the application of a stationary stirring force. We compute the instability growth rate for different values of the turbulence intensity, and find that the role of turbulence is to attenuate the growth. The fact that KH instability is observed sets an upper limit on the correlation length of the coronal background turbulence.

  11. TESIS experiment on XUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Bogachev, S. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Suhodrev, N. K.; Pertsov, A. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Slemzin, V. A.

    We present a brief description of new complex of space telescopes and spectrographs, TESIS, which will be placed aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. The complex is intended for high-resolution imaging observation of full Sun in the coronal spectral lines and in the spectral lines of the solar transition region. TESIS will be launched at the end of 2007 - early of 2008. About 25 % of the daily TESIS images will be free for use and for downloading from the TESIS data center that is planned to open 2 months before the TESIS launching at http://www.tesis.lebedev.ru

  12. Large-scale volcanism associated with coronae on Venus

    Roberts, K. Magee; Head, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The formation and evolution of coronae on Venus are thought to be the result of mantle upwellings against the crust and lithosphere and subsequent gravitational relaxation. A variety of other features on Venus have been linked to processes associated with mantle upwelling, including shield volcanoes on large regional rises such as Beta, Atla and Western Eistla Regiones and extensive flow fields such as Mylitta and Kaiwan Fluctus near the Lada Terra/Lavinia Planitia boundary. Of these features, coronae appear to possess the smallest amounts of associated volcanism, although volcanism associated with coronae has only been qualitatively examined. An initial survey of coronae based on recent Magellan data indicated that only 9 percent of all coronae are associated with substantial amounts of volcanism, including interior calderas or edifices greater than 50 km in diameter and extensive, exterior radial flow fields. Sixty-eight percent of all coronae were found to have lesser amounts of volcanism, including interior flooding and associated volcanic domes and small shields; the remaining coronae were considered deficient in associated volcanism. It is possible that coronae are related to mantle plumes or diapirs that are lower in volume or in partial melt than those associated with the large shields or flow fields. Regional tectonics or variations in local crustal and thermal structure may also be significant in determining the amount of volcanism produced from an upwelling. It is also possible that flow fields associated with some coronae are sheet-like in nature and may not be readily identified. If coronae are associated with volcanic flow fields, then they may be a significant contributor to plains formation on Venus, as they number over 300 and are widely distributed across the planet. As a continuation of our analysis of large-scale volcanism on Venus, we have reexamined the known population of coronae and assessed quantitatively the scale of volcanism associated

  13. Highly efficient and stable cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Huang, Jian-Feng; Liu, Jun-Min; Su, Pei-Yang; Chen, Yi-Fan; Shen, Yong; Xiao, Li-Min; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four novel thiocyanate-free cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizer were conveniently synthesized. • The D-CF 3 -sensitized DSSCs show higher efficiency compared to N719 based cells. • The DSSCs based on D-CF 3 and D-bisCF 3 sensitizers exhibit excellent long-term stability. • The diverse cyclometalated Ru complexes can be developed as high-performance sensitizers for use in DSSC. - Abstract: Four novel thiocyanate-free cyclometallted Ru(II) complexes, D-bisCF 3 , D-CF 3 , D-OMe, and D-DPA, with two 4,4′-dicarboxylic acid-2,2′-bipyridine together with a functionalized phenylpyridine ancillary ligand, have been designed and synthesized. The effect of different substituents (R = bisCF 3 , CF 3 , OMe, and DPA) on the ancillary C^N ligand on the photophysical properties and photovoltaic performance is investigated. Under standard global AM 1.5 solar conditions, the device based on D-CF 3 sensitizer gives a higher conversion efficiency of 8.74% than those based on D-bisCF 3 , D-OMe, and D-DPA, which can be ascribed to its broad range of visible light absorption, appropriate localization of the frontier orbitals, weak hydrogen bonds between -CF 3 and -OH groups at the TiO 2 surface, moderate dye loading on TiO 2 , and high charge collection efficiency. Moreover, the D-bisCF 3 and D-CF 3 based DSSCs exhibit good stability under 100 mW cm −2 light soaking at 60 °C for 400 h

  14. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies

    Delucchi, Mark A.; Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2011-01-01

    This is Part II of two papers evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, and heating/cooling), everywhere in the world, from wind, water, and the sun (WWS). In Part I, we described the prominent renewable energy plans that have been proposed and discussed the characteristics of WWS energy systems, the global demand for and availability of WWS energy, quantities and areas required for WWS infrastructure, and supplies of critical materials. Here, we discuss methods of addressing the variability of WWS energy to ensure that power supply reliably matches demand (including interconnecting geographically dispersed resources, using hydroelectricity, using demand-response management, storing electric power on site, over-sizing peak generation capacity and producing hydrogen with the excess, storing electric power in vehicle batteries, and forecasting weather to project energy supplies), the economics of WWS generation and transmission, the economics of WWS use in transportation, and policy measures needed to enhance the viability of a WWS system. We find that the cost of energy in a 100% WWS will be similar to the cost today. We conclude that barriers to a 100% conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic. - Research highlights: → We evaluate the feasibility of global energy supply from wind, water, and solar energy. → WWS energy can be supplied reliably and economically to all energy-use sectors. → The social cost of WWS energy generally is less than the cost of fossil-fuel energy. → Barriers to 100% WWS power worldwide are socio-political, not techno-economic.

  15. EMBEDDED PROTOSTELLAR DISKS AROUND (SUB-)SOLAR STARS. II. DISK MASSES, SIZES, DENSITIES, TEMPERATURES, AND THE PLANET FORMATION PERSPECTIVE

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.

    2011-01-01

    We present basic properties of protostellar disks in the embedded phase of star formation (EPSF), which is difficult to probe observationally using available observational facilities. We use numerical hydrodynamics simulations of cloud core collapse and focus on disks formed around stars in the 0.03-1.0 M sun mass range. Our obtained disk masses scale near-linearly with the stellar mass. The mean and median disk masses in the Class 0 and I phases (M mean d,C0 = 0.12 M sun , M mdn d,C0 = 0.09 M sun and M mean d,CI = 0.18 M sun , M mdn d,CI = 0.15 M sun , respectively) are greater than those inferred from observations by (at least) a factor of 2-3. We demonstrate that this disagreement may (in part) be caused by the optically thick inner regions of protostellar disks, which do not contribute to millimeter dust flux. We find that disk masses and surface densities start to systematically exceed that of the minimum mass solar nebular for objects with stellar mass as low as M * = 0.05-0.1 M sun . Concurrently, disk radii start to grow beyond 100 AU, making gravitational fragmentation in the disk outer regions possible. Large disk masses, surface densities, and sizes suggest that giant planets may start forming as early as in the EPSF, either by means of core accretion (inner disk regions) or direct gravitational instability (outer disk regions), thus breaking a longstanding stereotype that the planet formation process begins in the Class II phase.

  16. An estimation of impact of anthropogenic aerosols in atmosphere of Tirana on solar insolation. Part II: Modification of solar energy potential

    Buzra, Urim, E-mail: rimibuzra@yahoo.com; Berberi, Pellumb; Mitrushi, Driada; Muda, Valbona [Department of Engineering Physics, FIMIF, PUT, Tirana (Albania); Halili, Daniela [Department of physics, FNS, AXHU, Elbasan (Albania); Berdufi, Irma [Institute of Nuclear Physics, INP, TU, Tirana (Albania)

    2016-03-25

    Change of irradiative properties of the atmosphere during clear days is an indicator, among others, of existence of atmospheric aerosols and can be used as an indicator for assessment both air pollution and local modifications of solar energy potentials. The main objective of this study is estimation of influence of anthropogenic aerosols on solar energy falling in a horizontal surface during a cloudless day. We have analyzed and quantified the effect of aerosols on reducing the amount of solar energy that falls on the horizontal ground surface in cloudless sky conditions, estimating temporal evolution, both in daily and hour scale, considering also, side effects caused by relative humidity of the air wind speed and geometric factor. As an indicator of concentration of aerosols in atmosphere, we agreed to use the attenuation of solar radiation after the last rainy day. All data were corrected by factors such as, variations of relative humidity, wind speed and daily change of incident angle of solar radiation. We studied the change of solar insolation in three sites with different traffic intensity, one in city of Shkodra and two in city of Tirana. Fifteen days after last rainy day, approximate time needed to achieve saturation, the insolation drops only 3.1% in the city of Shkodra, while in two sites in city of Tirana are 8.5 % and 18.4%. These data show that reduction of solar insolation is closely related with anthropogenic activity, mainly traffic around the site of the meteorological station. The day to day difference tends to decrease with increasing of number of days passed from the last rainy day, which is an evidence of a trend toward a dynamic equilibrium between decantation process of aerosols during the night and their generation during the day.

  17. Chaotic characteristics of corona discharges in atmospheric air

    Tan Xiangyu; Zhang Qiaogen; Wang Xiuhuan; Sun Fu; Zha Wei; Jia Zhijie

    2008-01-01

    A point-plane electrode system in atmospheric air is established to investigate the mechanism of the corona discharge. By using this system, the current pulses of the corona discharges under the 50 Hz ac voltage are measured using partial discharge (PD) measurement instrument and constitute the point-plane voltage-current (V-I) characteristic equation together with the voltage. Then, this paper constructs the nonlinear circuit model and differential equations of the system in an attempt to give the underlying dynamic mechanism based on the nonlinear V-I characteristics of the point-plane corona discharges. The results show that the chaotic phenomenon is found in the corona circuit by the experimental study and nonlinear dynamic analysis. The basic dynamic characteristics, including the Lyapunov exponent, the existence of the strange attractors, and the equilibrium points, are also found and analyzed in the development process of the corona circuit. Moreover, the time series of the corona current pulses obtained in the experiment is used to demonstrate the chaotic characteristics of the corona current based on the nonlinear dynamic circuit theory and the experimental basis. It is pointed out that the corona phenomenon is not a purely stochastic phenomenon but a short term deterministic chaotic activity

  18. The effect of atmospheric corona treatment on AA1050 aluminium

    Jariyaboon, Manthana; Møller, Per; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of atmospheric corona discharge on AM 050 aluminium surface was investigated using electrochemical polarization, SEM-EDX, FIB-SEM. and XPS. The corona treatment was performed with varying time (1, 5, and 15 min) in atmospheric air. A 200 nm oxide layer was generated on AA1050 after...

  19. The nanoparticle biomolecule corona: lessons learned - challenge accepted?

    Docter, D; Westmeier, D; Markiewicz, M; Stolte, S; Knauer, S K; Stauber, R H

    2015-10-07

    Besides the wide use of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) in technical products, their applications are not only increasing in biotechnology and biomedicine, but also in the environmental field. While the physico-chemical properties and behaviour of NMs can be characterized accurately under idealized conditions, this is no longer the case in complex physiological or natural environments. Herein, proteins and other biomolecules rapidly bind to NMs, forming a protein/biomolecule corona that critically affects the NMs' (patho)biological and technical identities. As the corona impacts the in vitro and/or in vivo NM applications in humans and ecosystems, a mechanistic understanding of its relevance and of the biophysical forces regulating corona formation is mandatory. Based on recent insights, we here critically review and present an updated concept of corona formation and evolution. We comment on how corona signatures may be linked to effects at the nano-bio interface in physiological and environmental systems. In order to comprehensively analyse corona profiles and to mechanistically understand the coronas' biological/ecological impact, we present a tiered multidisciplinary approach. To stimulate progress in this field, we introduce the potential impact of the corona for NM-microbiome-(human)host interactions and the novel concept of 'nanologicals', i.e., the nanomaterial-specific targeting of molecular machines. We conclude by discussing the relevant challenges that still need to be resolved in this field.

  20. AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF CORONAL TYPE II RADIO BURSTS: THE AUTOMATED RADIO BURST IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM METHOD AND FIRST OBSERVATIONS

    Lobzin, Vasili V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.; Steward, Graham; Patterson, Garth

    2010-01-01

    Major space weather events such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections are usually accompanied by solar radio bursts, which can potentially be used for real-time space weather forecasts. Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency and its harmonic by fast electrons accelerated by a shock wave moving through the corona and solar wind with a typical speed of ∼1000 km s -1 . The coronal bursts have dynamic spectra with frequency gradually falling with time and durations of several minutes. This Letter presents a new method developed to detect type II coronal radio bursts automatically and describes its implementation in an extended Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS 2). Preliminary tests of the method with spectra obtained in 2002 show that the performance of the current implementation is quite high, ∼80%, while the probability of false positives is reasonably low, with one false positive per 100-200 hr for high solar activity and less than one false event per 10000 hr for low solar activity periods. The first automatically detected coronal type II radio burst is also presented.

  1. An analytical theory of corona discharge plasmas

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe an analytical investigation of corona discharge systems. Electrical charge and the energy transfer mechanism are investigated based on the circuit analysis. Efficient delivery of electrical energy from the external circuit to the reactor chamber is a major issue in design studies. The optimum condition obtained in this paper ensures 100% energy transfer. Second-order coupled differential equations are numerically solved. All the analytical results agree remarkably well with numerical data. The reactor capacitor plays a pivotal role in circuit performance. The voltage profile is dominated by the reactor capacitor. Corona discharge properties in the reactor chamber are also investigated, assuming that a specified voltage profile V(t) is fed through the inner conductor. The analytical description is based on the electron moment equation. Defining the plasma breakdown parameter u=V/R c p, plasma is generated for a high-voltage pulse satisfying u>u c , where u c is the critical breakdown parameter defined by geometrical configuration. Here, u is in units of a million volts per m per atm, and R c is the outer conductor radius. It is found that the plasma density profile generated inside the reactor chamber depends very sensitively on the system parameters. A small change of a physical parameter can easily lead to a density change in one order of magnitude

  2. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Rutgers, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are ∼170 kV cm -1 in air and ∼100 kV cm -1 in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  3. Pulsed positive corona streamer propagation and branching

    Veldhuizen, E.M. van [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl; Rutgers, W.R. [Department of Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2002-09-07

    The propagation and branching of pulsed positive corona streamers in a short gap is observed with high resolution in space and time. The appearance of the pre-breakdown phenomena can be controlled by the electrode configuration, the gas composition and the impedance of the pulsed power circuit. In a point-wire gap the positive corona shows much more branching than in the parallel plane gap with a protrusion. In air, the branching is more pronounced than in argon. The pulsed power circuit appears to operate in two modes, either as an inductive circuit creating a lower number of thick streamers or as a resistive circuit giving a higher number of thin streamers. A possible cause for branching is electrostatic repulsion of two parts of the streamer head. The electric field at the streamer head is limited, the maximum values found are {approx}170 kV cm{sup -1} in air and {approx}100 kV cm{sup -1} in argon. At these maximum field strengths, the electrons have 5-10 eV energy, so the ionization is dominated by two-step processes. Differences between argon and ambient air in the field strength at which streamers propagate are ascribed to the difference in de-excitation processes in noble and molecular gases. The fact that the pulsed power circuit can control the streamer structure is important for applications, but this effect must also be taken into account in fundamental studies of streamer propagation and branching. (author)

  4. Solar origins of solar wind properties during the cycle 23 solar minimum and rising phase of cycle 24

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Petrie, Gordon; Riley, Pete

    2012-01-01

    The solar wind was originally envisioned using a simple dipolar corona/polar coronal hole sources picture, but modern observations and models, together with the recent unusual solar cycle minimum, have demonstrated the limitations of this picture. The solar surface fields in both polar and low-to-mid-latitude active region zones routinely produce coronal magnetic fields and related solar wind sources much more complex than a dipole. This makes low-to-mid latitude coronal holes and their associated streamer boundaries major contributors to what is observed in the ecliptic and affects the Earth. In this paper we use magnetogram-based coronal field models to describe the conditions that prevailed in the corona from the decline of cycle 23 into the rising phase of cycle 24. The results emphasize the need for adopting new views of what is ‘typical’ solar wind, even when the Sun is relatively inactive. PMID:25685422

  5. A Long-Term Dissipation of the EUV He ii (30.4 nm) Segmentation in Full-Disk Solar Images

    Didkovsky, Leonid

    2018-06-01

    Some quiet-Sun days observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) during the time interval in 2010 - 2017 were used to continue our previous analyses reported by Didkovsky and Gurman ( Solar Phys. 289, 153, 2014a) and Didkovsky, Wieman, and Korogodina ( Solar Phys. 292, 32, 2017). The analysis consists of determining and comparing spatial spectral ratios (spectral densities over some time interval) from spatial (segmentation-cell length) power spectra. The ratios were compared using modeled compatible spatial frequencies for spectra from the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) on-board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and from AIA images. With the new AIA data added to the EIT data we analyzed previously, the whole time interval from 1996 to 2017 reported here is approximately the length of two "standard" solar cycles (SC). The spectral ratios of segmentation-cell dimension structures show a significant and steady increase with no detected indication of SC-related returns to the values that characterize the SC minima. This increase in spatial power at high spatial frequencies is interpreted as a dissipation of medium-size EUV network structures to smaller-size structures in the transition region. Each of the latest ratio changes for 2010 through 2017 spectra calculated for a number of consecutive short-term intervals has been converted into monthly mean ratio (MMR) changes. The MMR values demonstrate variable sign and magnitudes, thus confirming the solar nature of the changes. These changes do not follow a "typical" trend of instrumental degradation or a long-term activity profile from the He ii (30.4 nm) irradiance measured by the Extreme ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (ESP) either. The ESP is a channel of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board SDO.

  6. Solar Probe Plus: A NASA Mission to Touch the Sun

    Fox, N. J.; Velli, M. M. C.; Kasper, J. C.; McComas, D. J.; Howard, R.; Bale, S. D.; Decker, R. B.

    2014-12-01

    Solar Probe Plus (SPP), currently in Phase C, will be the first mission to fly into the low solar corona, revealing how the corona is heated and the solar wind and energetic particles are accelerated, solving fundamental mysteries that have been top priority science goals since such a mission was first proposed in 1958. The scale and concept of such a mission has been revised at intervals since that time, yet the core has always been a close encounter with the Sun. The primary science goal of the Solar Probe Plus mission is to determine the structure and dynamics of the Sun's coronal magnetic field, understand how the solar corona and wind are heated and accelerated, and determine what mechanisms accelerate and transport energetic particles. The SPP mission will achieve this by identifying and quantifying the basic plasma physical processes at the heart of the Heliosphere. SPP uses an innovative mission design, significant technology development and a risk-reducing engineering development to meet the SPP science objectives: 1) Trace the flow of energy that heats and accelerates the solar corona and solar wind; 2) Determine the structure and dynamics of the plasma and magnetic fields at the sources of the solar wind; and 3) Explore mechanisms that accelerate and transport energetic particles. In this presentation, we present Solar Probe Plus and examine how the mission will address the science questions that have remained unanswered for over 5 decades.

  7. Prediction of CMEs and Type II Bursts from Sun to Earth

    Cairns, I. H.; Schmidt, J. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; van der Holst, B.

    2017-12-01

    Most major space weather events are due to fast CMEs and their shocks interacting with Earth's magnetosphere. SImilarly, type II solar radio bursts are well-known signatures of CMEs and their shocks moving through the corona and solar wind. The properties of the space weather events and the type II radio bursts depend sensitively on the CME velocity, shape, and evolution as functions of position and time, as well as on the magnetic field vector in the coronal and solar wind plasma, downstream of the CME shock, and inside the CME. We report simulations of CMEs and type II bursts from the Sun to Earth with the Space Weather Modelling Framework (2015 and 2016 versions), set up carefully using relevant data, and a kinetic radio emission theory. Excellent agreement between observations, simulations, and theory are found for the coronal (metric) type II burst of 7 September 2014 and associated CME, including the lack of radio emission in the solar wind beyond about 10 solar radii. Similarly, simulation of a CME and type II burst from the Sun to 1 AU over the period 29 November - 1 December 2013 yield excellent agreement for the radio burst from 10 MHz to 30 kHz for STEREO A and B and Wind, arrival of the CME at STEREO A within 1 hour reported time, deceleration of the CME in agreement with the Gopalswamy et al. [2011] observational analyses, and Bz rotations at STEREO A from upstream of the CME shock to within the CME. These results provide strong support for the type II theory and also that the Space WeatherModeling Framework can accurately predict the properties and evolution of CMEs and the interplanetary magnetic field and plasma from the Sun to 1 AU when sufficiently carefully initialized.

  8. Solar Chameleons

    Brax, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the creation of chameleons deep inside the sun and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetised surface of the sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft X-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarisations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft X-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft X-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling the chameleons emitted by the sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST pipes, which could be within the reach...

  9. Solar chameleons

    Brax, Philippe; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the creation of chameleons deep inside the Sun (R∼0.7R sun ) and their subsequent conversion to photons near the magnetized surface of the Sun. We find that the spectrum of the regenerated photons lies in the soft x-ray region, hence addressing the solar corona problem. Moreover, these back-converted photons originating from chameleons have an intrinsic difference with regenerated photons from axions: their relative polarizations are mutually orthogonal before Compton interacting with the surrounding plasma. Depending on the photon-chameleon coupling and working in the strong coupling regime of the chameleons to matter, we find that the induced photon flux, when regenerated resonantly with the surrounding plasma, coincides with the solar flux within the soft x-ray energy range. Moreover, using the soft x-ray solar flux as a prior, we find that with a strong enough photon-chameleon coupling, the chameleons emitted by the Sun could lead to a regenerated photon flux in the CAST magnetic pipes, which could be within the reach of CAST with upgraded detector performance. Then, axion helioscopes have thus the potential to detect and identify particle candidates for the ubiquitous dark energy in the Universe.

  10. Search for neutrino events in the Kamiokande-II detector in correlation with the solar-flare activity in March 1989

    Hirata, K.S.; Kajita, T.; Kifune, T.

    1989-12-01

    A search has been made for neutrino events (E v > or approx. 50 MeV) in the Kamiokande-II water Cherenkov detector in correlation with the great solar-flare activity observed in March 1989. No evidence was obtained for such a correlation. Upper limits are separately given for the optical importance 4, 3, and 2 flares for both time-integrated and time-averaged solar-flare ν e fluxes at E v = 50 MeV and 100 MeV. At E v = 100 MeV, the 90% confidence-level upper limit for the time-integrated ν e flux per importance 4 (3) flare is 3.5 x 10 7 (1.4x10 7 ) cm -2 . Even the upper limit for the importance 4 flare is considerably lower than the ν e flux at the corresponding energy needed to explain the excess neutrino captures reported in some of the 37 Cl experimental runs when large solar flares occurred. A search has also been made for low-energy events (recoil e +- energy > or approx. 10 MeV) in correlation with importance ≥ 2 flares and with the solar proton flux ≥ 10 MeV). Again, no significant signal has been observed. (author)

  11. Mission Concepts for High-Resolution Solar Imaging with a Photon Sieve

    Rabin, Douglas M.; Davila, Joseph; Daw, Adrian N.; Denis, Kevin L.; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Shah, Neerav; Widmyer, Thomas R.

    2017-08-01

    The best EUV coronal imagers are unable to probe the expected energy dissipation scales of the solar corona (rocket, a single spacecraft with a deployed boom, and two spacecraft flying in precise formation.

  12. Extended neutral atmosphere effect on solar wind interaction with nonmagnetic bodies of the solar system

    Breus, T.K.; Krymskij, A.M.; Mitnitskij, V.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Numeric modelling of the Venus flow-around by the solar wind with regard to stream loading by heavy ions, produced under photoionization of the Venus neutral oxygen corona, is conducted. It is shown, that this effect can account for a whole number of peculiarities related to the solar wind interaction with the planet which have not been clearly explained yet, namely, shock wave position, solar wind stream and magnetic field characteristics behind the front

  13. Solar Probe Plus

    Szabo, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Solar Probe Plus mission is planned to be launched in 2018 to study the upper solar corona with both.in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation. The mission will utilize 6 Venus gravity assist maneuver to gradually lower its perihelion to 9.5 Rs below the expected Alfven pOint to study the sub-alfvenic solar wind that is still at least partially co-rotates with the Sun. The detailed science objectives of this mission will be discussed. SPP will have a strong synergy with The ESA/NASA Solar orbiter mission to be launched a year ahead. Both missions will focus on the inner heliosphere and will have complimentary instrumentations. Strategies to exploit this synergy will be also presented.

  14. New techniques for the characterisation of dynamical phenomena in solar coronal images

    Robbrecht, E.

    2007-02-01

    ) was an important step on the way to subarcsecond telescopes. It allows a spatial resolution of 1" in the EUV and UV bands and, simultaneously, a temporal resolution of the order of a few seconds. Coronal physics studies are dominated by two major and interlinked problems: coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. Above the chromosphere there is a thin transition layer in which the temperature suddenly increases and density drops. How can the temperature of the solar corona be three orders of magnitude higher than the temperature of the photosphere? In order for this huge temperature gradient to be stationary, non-thermal energy must be transported from below the photosphere towards the chromosphere and corona and converted into heat to balance the radiative and conductive losses. This puzzle of origin, transport and conversion of energy is referred to as the "coronal heating problem". Due to its fundamental role in the structuring of the corona, the magnetic field is supposed to play an important role in the heating. In this dissertation we describe two aspects of solar coronal dynamics: waves in coronal loops (Part I) and coronal mass ejections (Part II). We investigate the influence of (semi-) automated techniques on solar coronal research. This is a timely discussion since the observation of solar phenomena is transitioning from manual detection to "Solar Image Processing". Our results are mainly based on images from the Extreme UV Imaging Telescope (EIT) and the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO), two instruments onboard the satellite SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) of which we recently celebrated its 11th anniversary. The high quality of the images together with the long timespan created a valuable database for solar physics research. Part I reports on the first detection of slow magnetoacoustic waves in transequatorial coronal loops observed in high cadence image sequences simultaneously produced by EIT and TRACE (Transition Region

  15. Solar radio bursts as a tool for space weather forecasting

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Matamoros, Carolina Salas; Zucca, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    The solar corona and its activity induce disturbances that may affect the space environment of the Earth. Noticeable disturbances come from coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are large-scale ejections of plasma and magnetic fields from the solar corona, and solar energetic particles (SEPs). These particles are accelerated during the explosive variation of the coronal magnetic field or at the shock wave driven by a fast CME. In this contribution, it is illustrated how full Sun microwave observations can lead to (1) an estimate of CME speeds and of the arrival time of the CME at the Earth, (2) the prediction of SEP events attaining the Earth. xml:lang="fr"

  16. Corona ignition system for highly efficient gasoline engines; Corona-Zuendsystem fuer hocheffiziente Ottomotoren

    Burrows, John [Federal-Mogul Limited, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lykowski, Jim; Mixell, Kristapher [Federal-Mogul, Plymouth, MI (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Many future gasoline engines will require higher air/fuel ratios and higher mean effective pressures to further improve fuel efficiency. Federal-Mogul has taken up this challenge and has developed the Advanced Corona Ignition System (ACIS) as a new solution to reliably ignite a mix with high AFR/EGR and high MEP. During engine tests ACIS enabled a direct fuel economy improvement of up to 10 %. (orig.)

  17. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejection accompanied with DH type II radio burst in relation with interplanetary magnetic field, geomagnetic storms and cosmic ray intensity

    Chandra, Harish; Bhatt, Beena

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have selected 114 flare-CME events accompanied with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II radio burst chosen from 1996 to 2008 (i.e., solar cycle 23). Statistical analyses are performed to examine the relationship of flare-CME events accompanied with DH type II radio burst with Interplanetary Magnetic field (IMF), Geomagnetic storms (GSs) and Cosmic Ray Intensity (CRI). The collected sample events are divided into two groups. In the first group, we considered 43 events which lie under the CME span and the second group consists of 71 events which are outside the CME span. Our analysis indicates that flare-CME accompanied with DH type II radio burst is inconsistent with CSHKP flare-CME model. We apply the Chree analysis by the superposed epoch method to both set of data to find the geo-effectiveness. We observed different fluctuations in IMF for arising and decay phase of solar cycle in both the cases. Maximum decrease in Dst during arising and decay phase of solar cycle is different for both the cases. It is noted that when flare lie outside the CME span CRI shows comparatively more variation than the flare lie under the CME span. Furthermore, we found that flare lying under the CME span is more geo effective than the flare outside of CME span. We noticed that the time leg between IMF Peak value and GSs, IMF and CRI is on average one day for both the cases. Also, the time leg between CRI and GSs is on average 0 to 1 day for both the cases. In case flare lie under the CME span we observed high correlation (0.64) between CRI and Dst whereas when flare lie outside the CME span a weak correlation (0.47) exists. Thus, flare position with respect to CME span play a key role for geo-effectiveness of CME.

  18. Fine-Scale Fluctuations in the Corona Observed with Hi-C

    Winebarger, Amy; Schuler, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The High Resolution Coronal Imager(HiC) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July11 and captured roughly 345 s of high spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 Angstrom channel. We have analyzed the fluctuations in intensity of Active Region11520.We selected events based on a lifetime greater than 11s (twoHiC frames)and intensities greater than a threshold determined from the average background intensity in a pixel and the photon and electronic noise. We find fluctuations occurring down to the smallest timescale(11s).Typical intensity fluctuations are 20% background intensity, while some events peaka t100%the background intensity.Generally the fluctuations are clustered in solar structures, particularly the moss.We interpret the fluctuations in the moss as indicative of heating events. We use the observed events to model the active region core.

  19. Characteristics of pulse corona discharge over water surface

    Fujii, Tomio; Arao, Yasushi; Rea, Massimo

    2008-12-01

    Production of ozone and OH radical is required to advance the plasma chemical reactions in the NOx removal processes for combustion gas treatment. The corona discharge to the water surface is expected to induce the good conditions for the proceeding of the NO oxidation and the NO2 dissolution removal into water. In order to get the fundamental data of the corona discharge over the water surface, the positive and negative V-I characteristics and the ozone production were measured with the multi needle and the saw-edge type of the discharge electrodes. The pulse corona characteristics were also measured with some different waveforms of the applied pulse voltage. The experiments were carried out under the atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Both the DC and the pulse corona to the water surface showed a stable and almost the same V-I characteristics as to plate electrodes though the surface of water was waved by corona wind. The positive streamer corona showed more ozone production than the negative one both in the DC and in the pulse corona.

  20. Characteristics of pulse corona discharge over water surface

    Fujii, Tomio; Arao, Yasushi; Rea, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Production of ozone and OH radical is required to advance the plasma chemical reactions in the NOx removal processes for combustion gas treatment. The corona discharge to the water surface is expected to induce the good conditions for the proceeding of the NO oxidation and the NO 2 dissolution removal into water. In order to get the fundamental data of the corona discharge over the water surface, the positive and negative V-I characteristics and the ozone production were measured with the multi needle and the saw-edge type of the discharge electrodes. The pulse corona characteristics were also measured with some different waveforms of the applied pulse voltage. The experiments were carried out under the atmospheric pressure and room temperature. Both the DC and the pulse corona to the water surface showed a stable and almost the same V-I characteristics as to plate electrodes though the surface of water was waved by corona wind. The positive streamer corona showed more ozone production than the negative one both in the DC and in the pulse corona.

  1. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume II. Preliminary design. Part 2. System performance and supporting studies. Final report

    None,

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design developed for the Solar Total Energy System to be installed at Fort Hood, Texas, is presented. System performance analysis and evaluation are described. Feedback of completed performance analyses on current system design and operating philosophy is discussed. The basic computer simulation techniques and assumptions are described and the resulting energy displacement analysis is presented. Supporting technical studies are presented. These include health and safety and reliability assessments; solar collector component evaluation; weather analysis; and a review of selected trade studies which address significant design alternatives. Additional supporting studies which are generally specific to the installation site are reported. These include solar availability analysis; energy load measurements; environmental impact assessment; life cycle cost and economic analysis; heat transfer fluid testing; meteorological/solar station planning; and information dissemination. (WHK)

  2. CuInGaAlSe2 Solar Absorbers On Flexible High-Temperature Substrates, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ITN Energy Systems (ITN) proposes to take the next step in spacecraft solar array development, building upon previous development and new findings to make the...

  3. SphinX: The Solar Photometer in X-Rays

    Gburek, S.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Kordylewski, Z.; Podgorski, P.; Plocieniak, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S.; Pertsov, A.A.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Fárník, František; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 2 (2013), s. 631-649 ISSN 0038-0938 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar corona * solar instrumentation * X-rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.805, year: 2013

  4. A Detection of the Same Hot Plasma in the Corona: During a CME and Later at Ulysses

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    We show direct evidence for the same very hot plasma being detected remotely from SOHO in the corona and subsequently, at Ulysses in the solar wind. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that such an unambiguous identification has been made in the case of hot plasma. This detection complements studies correlating other plasma and field properties observed to the properties measured at the source in the corona. This observation takes advantage of a SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadrature, during which the Sun-Ulysses included angle is $90^\\circ$ and it is possible to observe with Ulysses instruments the same plasma that has previously been remotely observed with SOHO instruments in the corona on the limb of the Sun. The identification builds on an existing base of separate SOHO and interplanetary detections of hot plasma. SOHO/UVCS has found evidence for very hot coronal plasma in current sheets in the aftermath of CMEs in the [Fe XVIII] $\\lambda$ \\AA\\ line, implying a temperature on the order of $6\\times 10(exp 6)$ K. This temperature is unusually high even for active regions, but is compatible with the high temperature predicted in current sheets. In the solar wind, ACE data from early 1998 to middle 2000 revealed high frozen-in Fe charge state in many cases to be present in interplanetary plasma.

  5. Ionization and Corona Discharges from Stressed Rocks

    Winnick, M. J.; Kulahci, I.; Cyr, G.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Freund, F. T.

    2008-12-01

    Pre-earthquake signals have long been observed and documented, though they have not been adequately explained scientifically. These signals include air ionization, occasional flashes of light from the ground, radio frequency emissions, and effects on the ionosphere that occur hours or even days before large earthquakes. The theory that rocks function as p-type semiconductors when deviatoric stresses are applied offers a mechanism for this group of earthquake precursors. When an igneous or high-grade metamorphic rock is subjected to deviatoric stresses, peroxy bonds that exist in the rock's minerals as point defects dissociate, releasing positive hole charge carriers. The positive holes travel by phonon-assisted electron hopping from the stressed into and through the unstressed rock volume and build up a positive surface charge. At sufficiently large electric fields, especially along edges and sharp points of the rock, air molecules become field-ionized, loosing an electron to the rock surface and turning into airborne positive ions. This in turn can lead to corona discharges, which manifest themselves by flashes of light and radio frequency emissions. We applied concentrated stresses to one end of a block of gabbro, 30 x 15 x 10 cm3, inside a shielded Faraday cage and observed positive ion currents through an air gap about 25 cm from the place where the stresses were applied, punctuated by short bursts, accompanied by flashes of light and radio frequency emissions characteristic of a corona discharge. These observations may serve to explain a range of pre-earthquake signals, in particular changes in air conductivity, luminous phenomena, radio frequency noise, and ionospheric perturbations.

  6. Ion-impact secondary emission in negative corona with photoionization

    B. X. Lu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A corona discharge measurement system and simulation model are presented to investigate the effects of photoionization and ion-impact secondary emission process in negative corona discharge. The simulation results obtained is shown good agreement with experimental observations. Distribution of electron density along the symmetry axis at three critical moments is shown and the role of photoionization in negative corona discharge is clearly explained. Moreover, the current pulses are also presented under different secondary emission coefficients and the effect of the secondary emission coefficient is discussed.

  7. Core-Shell-Corona Micelles with a Responsive Shell.

    Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas; Varshney, Sunil; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Jérôme, Robert

    2001-09-03

    A reactor for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is one of the uses of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) which forms core-shell-corona micelles in water. Very low polydispersity spherical micelles are observed that consist of a PS core surrounded by a pH-sensitive P2VP shell and a corona of PEO chains end-capped by a hydroxyl group. The corona can act as a site for attaching responsive or sensing molecules. © 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  8. Towards the Development of Functionalized PolypyridineLigands for Ru(II Complexes as Photosensitizers inDye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs

    Adewale O. Adeloye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of novel ruthenium(II polypyridine complexes have been designedand synthesized for use as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs due totheir rich photophysical properties such as intense absorption, long-lived lifetimes, highemission quantum yields and unique redox characteristics. Many of these complexesexhibit photophysical behavior that can be readily controlled through a careful choice ofligands and/or substituents. With this perspective, we review the design and general syntheticmethods of some polypyridine ligands based on bipyridine, phenanthroline, terpyridine andquaterpyridine with/without anchoring groups with a view to correlate functionality ofligand structures with the observed photophysical, electroredox and power conversionefficiency of some examples of Ru(II polypyridyl complexes that have been reported andparticularly used in the DSSCs applications. The main interest, however, is focused onshowing the development of new polypyridine ligand materials containing long-rangeelectron transfer motifs such as the alkenyl, alkynyl and polyaromatic donor functionalities.

  9. Statistical characteristic in time-domain of direct current corona-generated audible noise from conductor in corona cage

    Li, Xuebao, E-mail: lxb08357x@ncepu.edu.cn; Cui, Xiang, E-mail: x.cui@ncepu.edu.cn; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai [State Key Laboratory of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu, Tiebing, E-mail: tiebinglu@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory of High Voltage and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Hiziroglu, Huseyin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kettering University, Flint, Michigan 48504 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.

  10. Statistical characteristic in time-domain of direct current corona-generated audible noise from conductor in corona cage

    Li, Xuebao; Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Ma, Wenzuo; Bian, Xingming; Wang, Donglai; Hiziroglu, Huseyin

    2016-03-01

    The corona-generated audible noise (AN) has become one of decisive factors in the design of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission lines. The AN from transmission lines can be attributed to sound pressure pulses which are generated by the multiple corona sources formed on the conductor, i.e., transmission lines. In this paper, a detailed time-domain characteristics of the sound pressure pulses, which are generated by the DC corona discharges formed over the surfaces of a stranded conductors, are investigated systematically in a laboratory settings using a corona cage structure. The amplitude of sound pressure pulse and its time intervals are extracted by observing a direct correlation between corona current pulses and corona-generated sound pressure pulses. Based on the statistical characteristics, a stochastic model is presented for simulating the sound pressure pulses due to DC corona discharges occurring on conductors. The proposed stochastic model is validated by comparing the calculated and measured A-weighted sound pressure level (SPL). The proposed model is then used to analyze the influence of the pulse amplitudes and pulse rate on the SPL. Furthermore, a mathematical relationship is found between the SPL and conductor diameter, electric field, and radial distance.

  11. The Origin and Dynamics of Solar Magnetism

    Thompson, M. J; Culhane, J. L; Nordlund, Å; Solanki, S. K; Zahn, J.-P

    2009-01-01

    The articles collected in this volume present all aspects of solar magnetism: from its origin in the solar dynamo to its evolution and dynamics that create the variability of solar phenomena, its well-known 11-year activity cycle that leads to the ever-changing pattern of sunspots and active regions on the Sun. Several contributions deal with the solar dynamo, the driver of many solar phenomena. Other contributions treat the transport and emergence of the magnetic flux through the outer layers of the Sun. The coupling of magnetic fields from the surface to the solar corona and beyond is also described, together with current studies on the predictability of solar activity. This book is aimed at researchers and graduate students working in solar physics and space science. It provides a full review of our current understanding of solar magnetism by the foremost experts in the field.

  12. Fibre structure of decametric type II radio bursts as a manifestation of emission propagation effects in a disturbed near-solar plasma

    A. N. Afanasiev

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the fine structure of solar decametric type II radio bursts in the form of drifting narrowband fibres on the dynamic spectrum. Observations show that this structure appears in those events where there is a coronal mass ejection (CME traveling in the near-solar space ahead of the shock wave responsible for the radio burst. The diversity in observed morphology of fibres and values of their parameters implies that the fibres may be caused by different formation mechanisms. The burst emission propagates through extremely inhomogeneous plasma of the CME, so one possible mechanism can be related to radio propagation effects. I suggest that the fibres in some events represent traces of radio emission caustics, which are formed due to regular refraction of radio waves on the large-scale inhomogeneous structure of the CME front. To support this hypothesis, I have modeled the propagation of radio waves through inhomogeneous plasma of the CME, taking into consideration the presence of electron density fluctuations in it. The calculations, which are based on the Monte Carlo technique, indicate that, in particular, the emission of the fibres should be harmonic. Moreover, the mechanism under consideration suggests that in solar observations from two different points in space, the observed sets of fibres can be shifted in frequency with respect to one another or can have a different structure. This potentially can be used for identifying fibres caused by the propagation effects.

  13. Electronic optimization of heteroleptic Ru(II) bipyridine complexes by remote substituents: synthesis, characterization, and application to dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Han, Won-Sik; Han, Jung-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Young; Choi, Mi Jin; Kang, Yong-Soo; Pac, Chyongjin; Kang, Sang Ook

    2011-04-18

    We prepared a series of new heteroleptic ruthenium(II) complexes, Ru(NCS)(2)LL' (3a-3e), where L is 4,4'-di(hydroxycarbonyl)-2,2'-bipyridine and L' is 4,4'-di(p-X-phenyl)-2,2'-pyridine (X = CN (a), F (b), H (c), OMe (d), and NMe(2) (e)), in an attempt to explore the structure-activity relationships in their photophysical and electrochemical behavior and in their performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). When substituent X is changed from electron-donating NMe(2) to electron-withdrawing CN, the absorption and emission maxima reveal systematic bathochromic shifts. The redox potentials of these dyes are also significantly influenced by X. The electronic properties of the dyes were theoretically analyzed using density functional theory calculations; the results show good correlations with the experimental results. The solar-cell performance of DSSCs based on dye-grafted nanocrystalline TiO(2) using 3a-3e and standard N3 (bis[(4,4'-carboxy-2,2'-bipyridine)(thiocyanato)]ruthenium(II)) were compared, revealing substantial dependences on the dye structures, particularly on the remote substituent X. The 3d-based device showed the best performance: η = 8.30%, J(SC) = 16.0 mA·cm(-2), V(OC) = 717 mV, and ff = 0.72. These values are better than N3-based device.

  14. Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Electrodes for Gas Phase Pulsed Corona Reactors

    Locke, B

    1998-01-01

    A new design for gas phase pulsed corona reactors incorporating reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is demonstrated to be effective for the removal of nitrogen oxides from synthetic air mixtures...

  15. Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Electrodes for Gas Phase Pulsed Corona Reactors

    LOCKE, B

    1999-01-01

    A new design for gas phase pulsed corona reactors incorporating reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes is demonstrated to be effective for the removal of nitrogen oxides from synthetic air mixtures...

  16. High-tension corona controlled ozone generator for environment protection

    Vijayan, T; Patil, Jagadish G

    2010-01-01

    Engineering details of a high voltage driven corona-plasma ozone generator are described. The plasma diode of generator has coaxial cylindrical geometry with cathode located inside anode. Cathode is made of a large number of radial gas nozzles arranged on central tubular mast which admits oxygen gas. The sharp endings of the nozzles along with a set of corona rings create the high electric field at the cathode required for formation of dense corona plume responsible for O 3 evolution. A model of coronal plasma generation and ozone production is presented. The plasma formation is strongly dependent on the electric field and temperature in side diode where a high electron density in a low temperature negative corona is suited for high ozone yields. These are established by suitable regulation of A-K gap, voltage, oxygen pressure, and cathode-nozzle population.

  17. Nanoparticles formation and deposition in the trichel pulse corona

    Amirov, R H; Samoylov, I S; Petrov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Cathode erosion in the negative corona discharge has been studied in the point-to-plane electrode configuration with Cu cathodes in the Trichel pulse regime. Redeposition of erosion products has been found on the cathode surface in form of agglomerates of 10-nm nanoparticles. Nanocraters and nanoparticles formation in the negative corona discharge has been considered in frames of electro-explosive mechanism of cathode erosion. According to this mechanism the cathode erosion is performed as a consequence of elementary erosion events each of which is caused by a Trichel pulse. A 1-dimentional model of corona-produced nanoparticles dynamics in the gap was elaborated. According to results of the simulation, the redeposition is explained by charging of the nanoparticles due to positive ions adsorption and thermionic emission. The size, temperature and initial velocity of the aerosol nanoparticles have the decisive action on redeposition in the negative corona discharge.

  18. ''Relaxing phenomena'' in negative corona discharge in air: new aspects

    Strelle, D.; Pavlik, M.; Skalny, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Several conspicuous differences between the positive and the negative corona discharges in air observed in small discharge gaps have been explained by two recent theoretical models considering the ion-molecule and chemical reactions in the negative corona discharge in air. In the present paper the discrepancies of these models are discussed, and the earlier experimental data and the presumptions used in the models are re-examined in the light of the latest experimentally confirmed facts. (J.U.)

  19. Why the negative corona current in air decreases?

    Pavlik, M.; Skalny, J.D.; Strelle, D.

    1996-01-01

    The time dependence of negative corona current I, called by Gagarin like 'relaxing of CV-characteristics', is a observed phenomena. The observed phenomena was explained by two theoretical models considering the ion-molecule and chemical reactions in the negative corona discharges in air, especially the ozone production. In the presented paper the discrepancies of above mentioned models, re-examination the earlier experimental data and presumptions used in models in a light the latest experimentally confirmed facts are discussed

  20. Elastic Thickness Estimates for Coronae Associated with Chasmata on Venus

    Hoogenboom, T.; Martin, P.; Housean, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Coronae are large-scale circular tectonic features surrounded by annular ridges. They are generally considered unique to Venus and may offer insights into the differences in lithospheric structure or mantle convective pattern between Venus and Earth. 68% of all coronae are associated with chasmata or fracture belts. The remaining 32% are located at volcanic rises or in the plains. Chasmata are linear to arcuate troughs, with trough parallel fractures and faults which extend for 1000 s of kilometers. Estimates of the elastic thickness of the lithosphere (T(sub e)) have been calculated in a number of gravity/topography studies of Venus and for coronae specifically. None of these studies, however, have explored the dependence of T(sub e) on the tectonic history of the region, as implied from the interpretation of relative timing relationships between coronae and surrounding features. We examine the relationship between the local T(sub e) and the relative ages of coronae and chasmata with the aim of further constraining the origin and evolution of coronae and chasmata systems.

  1. Corona development and floral nectaries of Asclepiadeae (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae

    Mariana Maciel Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Flowers of Asclepiadoideae are notable for possessing numerous nectaries and elaborate coronas, where nectar can accumulate but is not necessarily produced. Given the complexity and importance of these structures for reproduction, this study aimed to analyze the ontogeny of the corona, the structure and position of nectaries and the histochemistry of the nectar of species of Asclepiadeae. Two types of coronas were observed: androecial [C(is] and corolline (Ca. The development of the C(is-type of corona initiates opposite the stamens in all species examined with the exception of Matelea in which it begins to develop as a ring around the filament tube. Despite their morphological variation, coronas typically originate from the androecium. A notable difference among the studied species was the location of the nectaries. Primarily, they are located in the stigmatic chamber, where nectar composed of carbohydrates and lipids is produced. A secondary location of nectaries found in species of Peplonia and Matelea is within the corona, where nectar is produced and stored, composed of carbohydrates and lipids in Peplonia and only carbohydrates in Matelea. The functional role of nectar is related to the location of its production since it is a resource for pollinators and inducers of pollen germination.

  2. Optically Transparent Cathode for Co(III/II) Mediated Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Graphene Oxide

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Graetzel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 12 (2012), s. 6998-7005 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene oxide * reduced graphene oxide * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 5.008, year: 2012

  3. La Colección de Tapices de la Corona de España. Notas sobre su formación y conservación

    Herrero Carretero, Concha

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa Colección de Tapices de la Corona de España puede considerarse una de las mayores del mundo, gracias al patrocinio de los Monarcas que enriquecieron el patrimonio de la Corona con sucesivas adquisiciones y a la custodia ejercida por el Real Oficio de la Tapicería. Medidas excepcionales que permitieron la pervivencia de una colección tan rica en calidad y en cantidad, paradigma de las colecciones europeas, fueron las disposiciones testamentarias de los Monarcas de la Casa de Austria cuya progresiva evolución, desde Carlos V a Carlos II, vinculó las tapicerías al servicio de los príncipes herederos y las imprimió un carácter de bien afecto representativo de la autoridad de la Corona.

  4. Direct observation of a single nanoparticle-ubiquitin corona formation

    Ding, Feng; Radic, Slaven; Chen, Ran; Chen, Pengyu; Geitner, Nicholas K.; Brown, Jared M.; Ke, Pu Chun

    2013-09-01

    The advancement of nanomedicine and the increasing applications of nanoparticles in consumer products have led to administered biological exposure and unintentional environmental accumulation of nanoparticles, causing concerns over the biocompatibility and sustainability of nanotechnology. Upon entering physiological environments, nanoparticles readily assume the form of a nanoparticle-protein corona that dictates their biological identity. Consequently, understanding the structure and dynamics of a nanoparticle-protein corona is essential for predicting the fate, transport, and toxicity of nanomaterials in living systems and for enabling the vast applications of nanomedicine. Here we combined multiscale molecular dynamics simulations and complementary experiments to characterize the silver nanoparticle-ubiquitin corona formation. Notably, ubiquitins competed with citrates for the nanoparticle surface, governed by specific electrostatic interactions. Under a high protein/nanoparticle stoichiometry, ubiquitins formed a multi-layer corona on the particle surface. The binding exhibited an unusual stretched-exponential behavior, suggesting a rich binding kinetics. Furthermore, the binding destabilized the α-helices while increasing the β-sheet content of the proteins. This study revealed the atomic and molecular details of the structural and dynamic characteristics of nanoparticle-protein corona formation.The advancement of nanomedicine and the increasing applications of nanoparticles in consumer products have led to administered biological exposure and unintentional environmental accumulation of nanoparticles, causing concerns over the biocompatibility and sustainability of nanotechnology. Upon entering physiological environments, nanoparticles readily assume the form of a nanoparticle-protein corona that dictates their biological identity. Consequently, understanding the structure and dynamics of a nanoparticle-protein corona is essential for predicting the fate

  5. Large-Area, Multi-Junction, Epitaxial Lift-Off Solar Cells with Backside Contacts, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II program we propose to develop a manufacturable production process to introduce backside contacts to MicroLink Devices? large-area, multi-junction...

  6. The Soft X-ray Spectrophotometer SphinX for the CORONAS-Photon Mission

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Szymon, Gburek; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kuzin, Sergey; Kotov, Yury; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio

    The purpose, construction details and calibration results of the new design, Polish-led solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX will be presented. The instrument constitutes a part of the Russian TESIS X-ray and EUV complex aboard the forthcoming CORONAS-Photon solar mission to be launched later in 2008. SphinX uses Si-PIN detectors for high time resolution (down to 0.01 s) measurements of solar spectra in the energy range between 0.5 keV and 15 keV. The spectral resolution allows separating 256 individual energy channels in this range with particular groups of lines clearly distinguishable. Unprecedented accuracy of the instrument calibration at the XACT (Palermo) and BESSY (Berlin) synchrotron will allow for establishing the solar soft X-ray photometric reference system. The cross-comparison between SphinX and the other instruments presently in orbit like XRT on Hinode, RHESSI and GOES X-ray monitor, will allow for a precise determination of the coronal emission measure and temperature during both very low and very high activity periods. Examples of the detectors' ground calibration results as well as the calculated synthetic spectra will be presented. The operation of the instrument while in orbit will be discussed allowing for suggestions from other groups to be still included in mission planning.

  7. Preliminary results from the oribiting solar observatory 8: Velocities in the solar chromosphere observed in the Si II lambda1816 line

    Chipman, E.G.; Bruner, E.C. Jr.; Shine, R.A.; Lites, B.W.; Rottman, G.J.; Athay, R.G.; White, O.R.

    1976-01-01

    The University of Colorado instrument on OSO-8 was used to measure repeated line profiles of the Si II lambda1816 line over quiet and active areas of approximately 20'' by 5'' during entire orbits of 60 minutes. Velocity oscillations with periods near 300 s are observed in approximately half of the time series, and periods near 180 s are sometimes observed. Periodic intensity variations are also observed at both of these periods. For both periods, the intensity leads the velocity in phase by approximately 30degree

  8. Solar atmosphere wave dynamics generated by solar global oscillating eigenmodes

    Griffiths, M. K.; Fedun, V.; Erdélyi, R.; Zheng, R.

    2018-01-01

    The solar atmosphere exhibits a diverse range of wave phenomena, where one of the earliest discovered was the five-minute global acoustic oscillation, also referred to as the p-mode. The analysis of wave propagation in the solar atmosphere may be used as a diagnostic tool to estimate accurately the physical characteristics of the Sun's atmospheric layers. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics and upward propagation of waves which are generated by the solar global eigenmodes. We report on a series of hydrodynamic simulations of a realistically stratified model of the solar atmosphere representing its lower region from the photosphere to low corona. With the objective of modelling atmospheric perturbations, propagating from the photosphere into the chromosphere, transition region and low corona, generated by the photospheric global oscillations the simulations use photospheric drivers mimicking the solar p-modes. The drivers are spatially structured harmonics across the computational box parallel to the solar surface. The drivers perturb the atmosphere at 0.5 Mm above the bottom boundary of the model and are placed coincident with the location of the temperature minimum. A combination of the VALIIIC and McWhirter solar atmospheres are used as the background equilibrium model. We report how synthetic photospheric oscillations may manifest in a magnetic field free model of the quiet Sun. To carry out the simulations, we employed the magnetohydrodynamics code, SMAUG (Sheffield MHD Accelerated Using GPUs). Our results show that the amount of energy propagating into the solar atmosphere is consistent with a model of solar global oscillations described by Taroyan and Erdélyi (2008) using the Klein-Gordon equation. The computed results indicate a power law which is compared to observations reported by Ireland et al. (2015) using data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly.

  9. Prominence-corona interface compared with the chromosphere-corona transition region

    Orrall, F Q; Schmahl, E J [Harvard Coll. Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. (USA)

    1976-11-01

    The intensities of 52 EUV emission lines from each of 9 hedgerow prominences observed at the limb with the Harvard experiment on ATM-Skylab have been compared with intensities from the interior of network cells at the center of the disk, in order to compare the prominence-corona (P-C) interface with the chromosphere-corona (C-C) transition region. The intensity ratio Isub(cell)/Isub(prominence) for each line varies systematically (in all of the prominences observed), with the temperature of formation of the line as approximately Tsup(-0.6). The density sensitive C III (formed at T approximately 9x10/sup 4/ K) line ratio Isub(lambda1175)/Isub(lambda977) implies an average density 1.3x10/sup 9/ electrons cm/sup -3/ in the P-C interface and approximately 4 times this value in the C-C transition of the cells. The total optical thickness at the head of the Lyman continuum is < approximately 10 in most of the prominences studied; in two of the prominences, however, the possibility that tau/sub 0/ is large cannot be rejected. Methods of analysis of these EUV data are developed assuming both a resolved and an unresolved internal prominence structure. Although the systematic differences between the P-C interface and the C-C transition are stressed, the similarities are probably more remarkable and may be a result of fine structure in the C-C transition.

  10. Understanding Solar Cycle Variability

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2017-07-10

    The level of solar magnetic activity, as exemplified by the number of sunspots and by energetic events in the corona, varies on a wide range of timescales. Most prominent is the 11-year solar cycle, which is significantly modulated on longer timescales. Drawing from dynamo theory, together with the empirical results of past solar activity and similar phenomena for solar-like stars, we show that the variability of the solar cycle can be essentially understood in terms of a weakly nonlinear limit cycle affected by random noise. In contrast to ad hoc “toy models” for the solar cycle, this leads to a generic normal-form model, whose parameters are all constrained by observations. The model reproduces the characteristics of the variable solar activity on timescales between decades and millennia, including the occurrence and statistics of extended periods of very low activity (grand minima). Comparison with results obtained with a Babcock–Leighton-type dynamo model confirm the validity of the normal-mode approach.

  11. Willow Park II Community Center. Design report for the passive solar commercial buildings design assistance and demonstration program

    None

    1981-01-15

    The design process for a passive solar community center in Texas is documented. Weather data are given. Energy analysis for early drawings is performed using the ENERGYLOOK program and the results shown graphically. Energy consumption and cost data are given. The design evolution is then traced and the performance of alternative designs compared. Design indicators for best strategies and concepts are discussed and the final design is presented. Energy consumption and cost are given, along with incremental passive solar design costs. A schematic review meeting report and life cycle value tables are included. Overviews, unavailable information, incremental passive design costs, performance comparison of alternatives, and architectural compatibility are discussed for each step in the design process. (LEW)

  12. Novel highly active Pt/graphene catalyst for cathodes of Cu(II/I)-mediated dye-sensitized solar cells

    Kavan, Ladislav; Krýsová, Hana; Janda, Pavel; Tarábková, Hana; Saygili, Y.; Freitag, M.; Zakeeruddin, S. M.; Hagfeldt, A.; Grätzel, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 251, OCT 2017 (2017), s. 167-175 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 696656 - GrapheneCore1 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene * platinum * cathode catalyst * dye sensitized solar cell * Cu-complexes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  13. GaAsSb/InAs/(In)GaAs type II quantum dots for solar cell applications

    Vyskočil, Jan; Hospodková, Alice; Petříček, Otto; Pangrác, Jiří; Zíková, Markéta; Oswald, Jiří; Vetushka, Aliaksi

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, Apr (2017), s. 64-68 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-21285P; GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : InAs * GaAsSb * InGaAs * quantum dot * solar cells Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  14. SIXTEEN YEARS OF ULYSSES INTERSTELLAR DUST MEASUREMENTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM. II. FLUCTUATIONS IN THE DUST FLOW FROM THE DATA

    Strub, Peter; Krüger, Harald; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2015-01-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft provided the first opportunity to identify and study interstellar dust (ISD) in situ in the solar system between 1992 and 2007. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the ISD component in the entire Ulysses dust data set. We analyzed several parameters of the ISD flow in a time-resolved fashion: flux, flow direction, mass index, and flow width. The general picture is in agreement with a time-dependent focusing/defocusing of the charged dust particles due to long-term variations of the solar magnetic field throughout a solar magnetic cycle of 22 years. In addition, we confirm a shift in dust direction of 50° ± 7° in 2005, along with a steep, size-dependent increase in flux by a factor of 4 within 8 months. To date, this is difficult to interpret and has to be examined in more detail by new dynamical simulations. This work is part of a series of three papers. This paper concentrates on the time-dependent flux and direction of the ISD. In a companion paper we analyze the overall mass distribution of the ISD measured by Ulysses, and a third paper discusses the results of modeling the flow of the ISD as seen by Ulysses

  15. SIXTEEN YEARS OF ULYSSES INTERSTELLAR DUST MEASUREMENTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM. II. FLUCTUATIONS IN THE DUST FLOW FROM THE DATA

    Strub, Peter; Krüger, Harald [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Sterken, Veerle J., E-mail: krueger@mps.mpg.de [International Space Science Institute, Hallerstrasse 6, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-10-20

    The Ulysses spacecraft provided the first opportunity to identify and study interstellar dust (ISD) in situ in the solar system between 1992 and 2007. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of the ISD component in the entire Ulysses dust data set. We analyzed several parameters of the ISD flow in a time-resolved fashion: flux, flow direction, mass index, and flow width. The general picture is in agreement with a time-dependent focusing/defocusing of the charged dust particles due to long-term variations of the solar magnetic field throughout a solar magnetic cycle of 22 years. In addition, we confirm a shift in dust direction of 50° ± 7° in 2005, along with a steep, size-dependent increase in flux by a factor of 4 within 8 months. To date, this is difficult to interpret and has to be examined in more detail by new dynamical simulations. This work is part of a series of three papers. This paper concentrates on the time-dependent flux and direction of the ISD. In a companion paper we analyze the overall mass distribution of the ISD measured by Ulysses, and a third paper discusses the results of modeling the flow of the ISD as seen by Ulysses.

  16. Spatial Mapping and Quantification of Soft and Hard Protein Coronas at Silver Nanocubes

    Miclaus, Teodora; Bochenkov, Vladimir; Ogaki, Ryosuke

    2014-01-01

    kinetics of the corona-formation at cube edges/corners versus facets at short incubation times, where the polymer stabilization agent delayed corona hardening. The soft corona contained more protein than the hard corona at all time-points (8-fold difference with 10% serum conditions).......Protein coronas around silver nanocubes were quantified in serum-containing media using localized surface plasmon resonances. Both soft and hard coronas showed exposure-time and concentration-dependent changes in protein surface density with time-dependent hardening. We observed spatially dependent...

  17. The SOLAR-C Mission

    Suematsu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Solar-C is a Japan-led international solar mission planned to be launched in mid2020. It is designed to investigate the magnetic activities of the Sun, focusing on the study in heating and dynamical phenomena of the chromosphere and corona, and also to develop an algorithm for predicting short and long term solar evolution. Since it has been revealed that the different parts of the magnetized solar atmosphere are essentially coupled, the SOLAR-C should tackle the spatial scales and temperature regimes that need to be observed in order to achieve a comprehensive physical understanding of this coupling. The science of Solar-C will greatly advance our understanding of the Sun, of basic physical processes operating throughout the universe. To dramatically improve the situation, SOLAR-C will carry three dedicated instruments; the Solar UV-Vis-IR Telescope (SUVIT), the EUV Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVST) and the High Resolution Coronal Imager (HCI), to jointly observe the entire visible solar atmosphere with essentially the same high spatial resolution (0.1-0.3 arcsec), performing high resolution spectroscopic measurements over all atmospheric regions and spectro-polarimetric measurements from the photosphere through the upper chromosphere. In addition, Solar-C will contribute to our understanding on the influence of the Sun-Earth environments with synergetic wide-field observations from ground-based and other space missions. Some leading science objectives and the mission concept, including designs of the three instruments aboard SOLAR-C will be presented.

  18. CORONA DISCHARGE IGNITION FOR ADVANCED STATIONARY NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    Dr. Paul D. Ronney

    2003-09-12

    An ignition source was constructed that is capable of producing a pulsed corona discharge for the purpose of igniting mixtures in a test chamber. This corona generator is adaptable for use as the ignition source for one cylinder on a test engine. The first tests were performed in a cylindrical shaped chamber to study the characteristics of the corona and analyze various electrode geometries. Next a test chamber was constructed that closely represented the dimensions of the combustion chamber of the test engine at USC. Combustion tests were performed in this chamber and various electrode diameters and geometries were tested. The data acquisition and control system hardware for the USC engine lab was updated with new equipment. New software was also developed to perform the engine control and data acquisition functions. Work is underway to design a corona electrode that will fit in the new test engine and be capable igniting the mixture in one cylinder at first and eventually in all four cylinders. A test engine was purchased for the project that has two spark plug ports per cylinder. With this configuration it will be possible to switch between corona ignition and conventional spark plug ignition without making any mechanical modifications.

  19. Comparative ranking of 0. 1-10 MW/sub e/ solar thermal electric power systems. Volume II. Supporting data. Final report

    Thornton, J.P.; Brown, K.C.; Finegold, J.G.; Gresham, J.B.; Herlevich, F.A.; Kriz, T.A.

    1980-07-01

    This report is part of a two-volume set summarizing the results of a comparative ranking of generic solar thermal concepts designed specifically for electric power generation. The original objective of the study was to project the mid-1990 cost and performance of selected generic solar thermal electric power systems for utility applications and to rank these systems by criteria that reflect their future commercial acceptance. This study considered plants with rated capacities of 1-10 MW/sub e/, operating over a range of capacity factors from the no-storage case to 0.7 and above. Later, the study was extended to include systems with capacities from 0.1 to 1 MW/sub e/, a range that is attractive to industrial and other nonutility applications. Volume I summarizes the results for the full range of capacities from 0.1 to 1.0 MW/sub e/. Volume II presents data on the performance and cost and ranking methodology.

  20. Cyclotron Line in Solar Microwave Radiation by Radio Telescope RATAN-600 Observations of the Solar Active Region NOAA 12182

    Peterova, N. G.; Topchilo, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the results of observation of a rare phenomenon—a narrowband increase in the brightness of cyclotron radiation of one of the structural details of a radio source located in the solar corona above the solar active region NOAA 12182 in October 2014 at a frequency of 4.2 ± 0.1 GHz. The brightness of radiation in the maximum of the phenomenon has reached 10 MK; its duration was equal to 3 s. The exact location of the source of the narrowband cyclotron radiation is indicated: it is a corona above a fragmented (4-nuclear) sunspot, on which a small UV flare loop was closed.