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Sample records for solanum tuberosum ssp

  1. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  2. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants.

  3. [Allelic state of the molecular marker for the golden nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) resistance gene H1 among Ukrainian and world cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelov, A V; Pilipenko, L A; Kozub, N A; Bondus, R A; Borzykh, A U; Sozinov, I A; Blium, Ia B; Sozinov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was determination of allelic state of the H1 resistance gene against the pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 of golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) among Ukrainian and world potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) cultivars. The allelic condition of the TG689 marker was determined by PCR with DNA samples isolated from tubers of potato and primers, one pair of which flanks the allele-specific region and the other one was used for the control of DNA quality. Among analyzed 77 potato cultivars the allele of marker associated with the H1-type resistance was found in 74% of Ukrainian and 90% foreign ones although some of those cultivars proved to be susceptible to the golden potato nematode in field. The obtained data confirm the presence of H1-resistance against golden nematode pathotypes Ro1 and Ro4 among the Ukrainian potato cultivars and efficiency of the used marker within the accuracy that has been declared by its authors.

  4. Comparative sequence analysis of the potato cyst nematode resistance locus H1 reveals a major lack of co-linearity between three haplotypes in potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Bakker, Erin; de Boer, Jan; van der Vossen, Edwin; Achenbach, Ute; Golas, Tomasz; Suryaningrat, Suwardi; Smant, Geert; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska

    2011-02-01

    The H1 locus confers resistance to the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotypes 1 and 4. It is positioned at the distal end of chromosome V of the diploid Solanum tuberosum genotype SH83-92-488 (SH) on an introgression segment derived from S. tuberosum ssp. andigena. Markers from a high-resolution genetic map of the H1 locus (Bakker et al. in Theor Appl Genet 109:146-152, 2004) were used to screen a BAC library to construct a physical map covering a 341-kb region of the resistant haplotype coming from SH. For comparison, physical maps were also generated of the two haplotypes from the diploid susceptible genotype RH89-039-16 (S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum/S. phureja), spanning syntenic regions of 700 and 319 kb. Gene predictions on the genomic segments resulted in the identification of a large cluster consisting of variable numbers of the CC-NB-LRR type of R genes for each haplotype. Furthermore, the regions were interspersed with numerous transposable elements and genes coding for an extensin-like protein and an amino acid transporter. Comparative analysis revealed a major lack of gene order conservation in the sequences of the three closely related haplotypes. Our data provide insight in the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the H1 locus and will facilitate the map-based cloning of the H1 resistance gene.

  5. Development of diagnostic markers for use in breeding potatoes resistant to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3 using germplasm derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena CPC 2802.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Claire; Griffin, Denis; Jones, Peter W; Bryan, Glenn J; McLean, Karen; Bradshaw, John E; Milbourne, Dan

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative resistance to Globodera pallida pathotype Pa2/3, originally derived from Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC) accession 2802, is present in several potato cultivars and advanced breeding lines. One genetic component of this resistance, a large effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) on linkage group IV (which we have renamed GpaIV(adg)(s)) has previously been mapped in the tetraploid breeding line 12601ab1. In this study, we show that GpaIV(adg)(s) is also present in a breeding line called C1992/31 via genetic mapping in an F(1) population produced by crossing C1992/31 with the G. pallida susceptible cultivar Record. C1992/31 is relatively divergent from 12601ab1, confirming that GpaIV(adg)(s) is an ideal target for marker-assisted selection in currently available germplasm. To generate markers exhibiting diagnostic potential for GpaIV(adg)(s), three bacterial artificial chromosome clones were isolated from the QTL region, sequenced, and used to develop 15 primer sets generating single-copy amplicons, which were examined for polymorphisms exhibiting linkage to GpaIV(adg)(s) in C1992/31. Eight such polymorphisms were found. Subsequently, one insertion/deletion polymorphism, three single nucleotide polymorphisms and a specific allele of the microsatellite marker STM3016 were shown to exhibit diagnostic potential for the QTL in a panel of 37 potato genotypes, 12 with and 25 without accession CPC2082 in their pedigrees. STM3016 and one of the SNP polymorphisms, C237(119), were assayed in 178 potato genotypes, arising from crosses between C1992/31 and 16 G. pallida susceptible genotypes, undergoing selection in a commercial breeding programme. The results suggest that the diagnostic markers would most effectively be employed in MAS-based approaches to pyramid different resistance loci to develop cultivars exhibiting strong, durable resistance to G. pallida pathotype Pa2/3.

  6. Plastid transformation in potato: Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkov, Vladimir T; Gargano, Daniela; Scotti, Nunzia; Cardi, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Although plastid transformation has attractive advantages and potential applications in plant biotechnology, for long time it has been highly efficient only in tobacco. The lack of efficient selection and regeneration protocols and, for some species, the inefficient recombination using heterologous flanking regions in transformation vectors prevented the extension of the technology to major crops. However, the availability of this technology for species other than tobacco could offer new possibilities in plant breeding, such as resistance management or improvement of nutritional value, with no or limited environmental concerns. Herein we describe an efficient plastid transformation protocol for potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum). By optimizing the tissue culture system and using transformation vectors carrying homologous potato flanking sequences, we obtained up to one transplastomic shoot per bombardment. Such efficiency is comparable to that usually achieved in tobacco. The method described in this chapter can be used to regenerate potato transplastomic plants expressing recombinant proteins in chloroplasts as well as in amyloplasts.

  7. DETERMINACIÓN DEL EFECTO DE DIFERENTES NIVELES DE FERTILIZACIÓN EN PAPA (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA DIACOL CAPIRO EN UN SUELO CON PROPIEDADES ÁNDICAS DE SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FERTILIZATION IN POTATO (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM SSP. ANDIGENA DIACOL CAPIRO IN A SOIL WITH PROPERTIES ANDICAS OF SANTA ROSA DE OSOS, COLOMBIA

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    Jairo Yovani Rios Quinchoa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La fertilización es una labor que cumple con la necesidad de suplementar a la planta, los nutrientes no satisfechos por el suelo en su condición de fertilidad natural. Por muchas décadas se han utilizado dosis deficientes que conducen a bajas producciones, y en ocasiones dosis excesivas de fertilizantes químicos que pueden generar problemas ambientales. La fertilización con nutrientes secundarios (Ca, Mg, S y el micronutriente B, han sido poco estudiadas en el cultivo de papa, razón por la cual se evaluó, en el Centro Agropecuario Paysandú de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Medellín, el efecto de diferentes dosis de estos nutrientes en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. Andigena de la variedad DIACOL Capiro en un suelo con propiedades ándicas de Santa Rosa de Osos. Se utilizaron dosis bajas, moderadas y altas de NPK, Ca, Mg, B y S, y se encontró una respuesta positiva en rendimiento a las aplicaciones crecientes de NPK (500, 1.500 y 3000 kg ha-1, también se presentaron diferencias significativas en peso de los tubérculos de primera y segunda categoría, mientras que los tubérculos de tercera y cuarta categoría no presentaron diferencias significativas. Las interacciones entre Ca, Mg, B y S no tuvieron efecto apreciable sobre el rendimiento de los tubérculos, ya que en la mayoría de los casos solo se observaron los efectos simples de dichos elementos.The fertilization is a work that fulfills the supplementary to the plant nutritional necessities that are not satisfied by the soil, in its condition of natural fertility. For many decades faulty doses has been used that take to low productions, and in occasions excessive doses of chemical fertilizers that lead to environmental problems. The fertilization with nutritious secondary (Ca, Mg, S and the micronutrient B, has been little studied in potato crop in Colombia; for this reason, we evaluated, in the Centro de Investigacion e Innovación Agropecuaria y Forestal

  8. Resistance to Erwinia spp. in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allefs, S.

    1995-01-01

    Blackleg is a disease of potato, Solanum tuberosum , which is caused by the bacteria Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora ( Ecc ), E.c. subsp. atroseptica ( Eca ) or

  9. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum.

  10. Expression of modified 7SL RNA gene in transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Lukáš; Matoušek, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2005), 371-380 ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : transgenic plants * Solanum tuberosum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  11. Pólen 2n e mecanismos meióticos de formação em Solanum commersonii ssp 2n pollen and meiotic mechanisms of Formation in Solanum commersonii ssp

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    Lívia Gracielle Oliveira Tomé

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. e Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 - 1EBN não podem ser diretamente cruzadas com a batata cultivada de S. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 -4 EBN em razão da barreira da ploidia e do número de equilíbrio do endosperma (EBN. No entanto, a produção de pólen não reduzido por S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 - 1EBN, permite o cruzamento desta com dihaplóides de batata e com as espécies diplóides S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. e S. chacoense Bitt., que possuem 2 EBN. Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar o mecanismo meiótico e a freqüência dos grãos de pólen não reduzidos em cinco clones de Solanum commersonii ssp. Foram avaliados três clones de S. commersonii subsp. commersonii (SCC e dois de S. commersonii subsp. malmeanum (SCM. Nas avaliações, duzentos grãos de pólen viáveis foram corados (carmim acético 2% e mensurados, sendo considerados não reduzidos aqueles com o diâmetro igual ou superior a 25 µm. O clone Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC 100 produz 26.1% de polen não reduzido, por fusos fundidos e fusos paralelos, o qual pode ser utilizado em programas de melhoramento.Solanum commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. and Solanum commersonii subsp. malmeanum Bitt. (2n=2x=24 -1EBN cannot be directly crossed with the cultivated Solanum tuberosum subsp. Tuberosum L. (2n=4x=48 - 4EBN species due to ploidy barriers and endosperm balance number (EBN. However, non-reduced pollen production by the wild species S. commersonii ssp. (2x=2n=24 -1EBN, allows the crossing of these species with dihaploids of potato and with the diploids species, S. phureja Juz. & Bukasov. and S. chacoense Bitt., all with 2EBN. The aim of this work was to determine the meiotic mechanism and frequency of non-reduced pollen production of five clones of S. commersonii ssp. Three different clones of S. commersonii subsp. commersonii Dun. (SCC and two of S

  12. The inheritance of anthocyanin pigmentation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and mapping of tuber skin colour loci using RFLPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.; Jacobs, J.M.E.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Stiekema, W.J.; Jacobsen, E.

    1994-01-01

    Two existing genetic models for anthocyanin pigmentation are compared: the genetic model as proposed by Lunden (1937, 1960, 1974) for tetraploid potato Solanum tuberosum group Tuberosum and the model by Dodds & Long (1955, 1956) for diploid cultivated Solanum species. By crossing well defined

  13. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

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    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  14. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, R.; Vries, R.S.M.; de Boer, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM

  15. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; Oliveira, De Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, M.M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, R.C.B.; Dijk, Van J.P.; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative

  16. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  17. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  18. A comparison of the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of three plant species that differ in freezing tolerance: Solanum commersonii, Solanum tuberosum, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Carvallo, Marcela A.; Pino, María-Teresa; Jeknić, Zoran; Zou, Cheng; Doherty, Colleen J.; Shiu, Shin-Han; Chen, Tony H. H.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Solanum commersonii and Solanum tuberosum are closely related plant species that differ in their abilities to cold acclimate; whereas S. commersonii increases in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, S. tuberosum does not. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cold-regulated genes have been shown to contribute to freezing tolerance, including those that comprise the CBF regulon, genes that are controlled by the CBF transcription factors. The low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of ...

  19. Molecular evolution of the disease resistance gene Rx in Solanum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butterbach, P.B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum) is the fourth most important food crop with an annual yield of about 300 million tons over the world. The history of the domestication of potato shows that disease-causing agents followed the tracks of potato cultivation in temperate climates

  20. Aspectos ecológicos y distribución de Tropaeolum tuberosum ssp. silvestre (Tropaeolaceae en Argentina

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    Eva Bulacio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav. ssp. silvestre Sparre es una hierba rizomatosa trepadora que en Argentina fue encontrada en las Sierras de Calilegua (Jujuy y en áreas montanas de Catamarca, aunque de esta última localidad sólo se conoce un único e incompleto ejemplar. Habita quebradas húmedas, entre los 2.100 y 2.650 m s.n.m., en el límite superior del bosque montano. El tallo es grácil de hasta 3 m de largo y la porción subterránea está constituida por rizomas alargados y de hasta 1 cm de diámetro. Estas son las principales diferencias con la ssp. tuberosum, en la cual el tallo es más corto, erguido y desarrolla tubérculos bien definidos.Ecological features and distribution of Tropaeolum tuberosum ssp. silvestre (Tropaeolaceae in Argentina. Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav. ssp. silvestre Sparre is a rhizomatous climbing herb that in Argentina was found in the Sierras of Calilegua (Jujuy and Catamarca mountains, yet of this last locality only is known an one and incomplete specimen. It inhabits humid gorges, between 2100-2650 masl, in the upper limit of the montane forest. The slender stem reaches 3 meters in lenght and the underground portion shows elongated rhizomes up to 1 cm in diameter. These are the main differences with the ssp. tuberosum, in which the stem is shorter, erect and develop well-defned tubers.

  1. Híbridos somáticos obtenidos por fusión de protoplastos entre Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum y la especie silvestre Solanum circaeifolium Bitter

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    Rosa Espejo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de obtener híbridos somáticos interespecíficos, se fusionaron protoplastos de la especie tetraploide Solanum tuberosum y de la especie silvestre diploide Solanum circaeifolium utilizando polietilenglicol. Los productos de fusión fueron cultivados en el medio V-KM suplementado con albúmina de suero bovino. Las primeras divisiones celulares ocurrieron a los 3 a 4 días de cultivo. Después de la formación de colonias se observó una rápida proliferación de callos, a partir de los cuales se regeneraron 19 plantas. El análisis molecular usando RAPD, confirmó que los regenerantes presentaban segmentos de ADN de ambos parentales, sugiriendo su posible naturaleza de híbridos somáticos. Las observaciones del número de cromosomas indicaron que todos los híbridos fueron aneuploides. En condiciones de invernadero, los regenerantes derivados de la fusión de protoplastos, mostraron características morfológicas intermedias entre las líneas parentales. Este estudio muestra la producción de híbridos somáticos de papa con el método de fusión presentado.

  2. Comparative effects of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on nitrogen uptake in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huiqun; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2009-01-01

    The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) as compared with deficit irrigation (DI) and full irrigation (FI) on nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were investigated. Potato plants were grown in split-root pots and were exposed to FI, PRD, and DI treatments...

  3. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delaplace, P.; Fauconnier, M.L.; Sergeant, K.; Dierick, J.F.; Oufir, M.; Wal, van der F.; America, A.H.P.; Renaut, J.; Hausman, J.F.; Jardin, du P.

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree) tuber

  4. Spontaneous and induced loss of chromosomes in slow-growing somatic hybrid calli of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, MJ; Drenth - Diephuis, L.J.; SAAT, TAWM; Jacobsen, E.

    Rate and extent of spontaneous and induced chromosome loss have been determined at the callus level of somatic hybrids of mutants of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. AEC (amino ethyl cystein) resistance in potato and Nitrate-Reductase deficiency in N. plumbaginifolia have been used

  5. Partial root zone drying (PRD) sustains yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) at reduced water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2008-01-01

    Partial root zone drying (PRD) is a new water-saving irrigation strategy being tested in many crop species. Until now it has not been investigated in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). A field experiment on sandy soil in Denmark was conducted under a mobile rainout shelter to study effects of two...... subsurface drip irrigation treatments ((1) Full Irrigation (FI) receiving 100% of evaporative demand; and (2) PRD receiving 70% water of FI) on potato yield, tuber size, leaf water relations and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). The PRD treatment was started just after the end of tuber initiation...... for two months during tuber bulking and maturing stage and was shifted from one side to the other side of the plants every 5-10 days when FI plants had used 20-25 mm. Compared to FI plants, stomatal conductance was generally lower in the PRD-treated plants, whereas leaf water potential tended to be lower...

  6. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-05-19

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency.

  7. Brilliant Green Dye Elimination from Water Using Psidium guajava Leaves and Solanum tuberosum Peels as Adsorbents in Environmentally Benign Way

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    Rabia Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of Psidium guajava (Guava leaves and peels of Solanum tuberosum (Potato as biosorbents in removal of Brilliant Green (BG in batch mode. Surface analysis of biosorbents was done by FT-IR and quantitatively analyzed by Boehm titration. The removal of dye was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Isothermal modeling was studied by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Various isothermal parameters for adsorption of Brilliant Green such as qm=1.075 mg/g, 1.173 mg/g ΔG°=-3.397, and −2.397 KJ/mol were noted for Solanum tuberosum peels (PP and Psidium guajava leaves (GL, respectively. Similarly pH, moisture content, and various metals were quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that leaves of Psidium guajava were more effective for removal of Brilliant Green.

  8. Expresión diferencial durante la interacción Solanum tuberosum - Phytophthora infestans

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    Zulma Isabel Monsalve-Fonnegra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Differential expression during Solanum tuberosum- Phytophthora infestans interaction Resumen: La papa (Solanum tuberosum L. es el cuarto cultivo más importante a nivel mundial y es el producto agrícola con mayor demanda de fungicidas, insecticidas y fertilizantes químicos. Las pérdidas mundiales ocasionadas por Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary en este cultivo, ascienden a 6,7 billones de dólares al año y su control químico genera un aumento en los costos, perjudica la salud humana y el ambiente. Todo esto justifica la búsqueda constante de mecanismos alternativos para el control de la enfermedad, entre ellos la obtención de variedades resistentes mediante cisgenesis usando genotipos silvestres. Como un aporte en este sentido, y dada la falta de conocimiento de lo que controla y constituye la diferencia entre una respuesta compatible e incompatible, en el presente estudio se compararon los perfiles de expresión génica obtenidos mediante Despliegue Diferencial de variedades resistentes y susceptibles durante su interacción con P. infestans. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias en la expresión génica, tanto a distintos tiempos post-inoculación como en el tipo de cambio de expresión, incluyendo la presencia y ausencia de bandas diferenciales y el aumento o disminución en su intensidad. Al analizar las secuencias de fragmentos diferencialmente expresados, se encontró que algunos fragmentos sobre-expresados en las variedades susceptibles, tenían homología con secuencias que codifican para una serina-acetiltranferasa y para la subunidad β de la RNA polimerasa. Por su parte, fragmentos sobre-expresados en la variedad resistente, tenían homología con una secuencia codificante para un dominio transmembranal. Palabras claves: pastusa suprema;  diacol-capiro; parda pastusa; despliegue diferencial Abstract: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the fourth most important crop worldwide; also, is the agriculture

  9. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria

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    VERA A D POIATTI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and peroxidase (POX were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in

  10. Involvement of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) MKK6 in response to potato virus Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Ana; Coll, Anna; Dobnik, David; Baebler, Spela; Bedina-Zavec, Apolonija; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have crucial roles in the regulation of plant development and in plant responses to stress. Plant recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or pathogen-derived effector proteins has been shown to trigger activation of several MAPKs. This then controls defence responses, including synthesis and/or signalling of defence hormones and activation of defence related genes. The MAPK cascade genes are highly complex and interconnected, and thus the precise signalling mechanisms in specific plant-pathogen interactions are still not known. Here we investigated the MAPK signalling network involved in immune responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) to Potato virus Y, an important potato pathogen worldwide. Sequence analysis was performed to identify the complete MAPK kinase (MKK) family in potato, and to identify those regulated in the hypersensitive resistance response to Potato virus Y infection. Arabidopsis has 10 MKK family members, of which we identified five in potato and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and eight in Nicotiana benthamiana. Among these, StMKK6 is the most strongly regulated gene in response to Potato virus Y. The salicylic acid treatment revealed that StMKK6 is regulated by the hormone that is in agreement with the salicylic acid-regulated domains found in the StMKK6 promoter. The involvement of StMKK6 in potato defence response was confirmed by localisation studies, where StMKK6 accumulated strongly only in Potato-virus-Y-infected plants, and predominantly in the cell nucleus. Using a yeast two-hybrid method, we identified three StMKK6 targets downstream in the MAPK cascade: StMAPK4_2, StMAPK6 and StMAPK13. These data together provide further insight into the StMKK6 signalling module and its involvement in plant defence.

  11. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets to gradient saline stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui-Juan; Yang, Hong-Yu; Bai, Jiang-Ping; Liang, Xin-Yue; Lou, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Lian; Wang, Di; Zhang, Jin-Lin; Niu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Ying-Long

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. “Longshu No. 3”) plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM NaCl) with two consequent observations (2 and 6 weeks, respectively). The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1) the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2) cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3) mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4) leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5) leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly, and (6) leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl) inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars. PMID:25628634

  12. Radiation hormesis in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) part 1: Laboratory research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, F.M.; Arthur, V.; Wiendl, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the results of irradiation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers of two varieties. Bintje and Baraka, with gamma radiations of Cobalt-60 at a dose of: 0.0. 2.5. 5.0 and 7.5 Gy, at the dose rate of 150 Gy per hour. Twenty eight potatoes of each variety were irradiated with each dose. Half of these potatoes were planted individually into aluminium cages of about 15 X 10 X 3 cm, using circa 120 ml of vermiculite in each cage, immediately after radiation. After seven days the rest of the potatoes was planted under the same conditions. The whole experiment was conducted into a chamber under dark conditions and temperature between 23 and 27 centigrade. Almost every two or three days each potato received circa 50 ml of plain water. After 143 to 154 days of irradiation the experiment was finished, and the following parameter were determined. Weight of potatoes without sprouts or roots; number of the eyes on which occurred sprouting; length of the longest sprout of its respective eye; humid weight of the sprouts; dry weight of the sprouts; humid weight of the roots; dry weight of the roots. (author). 19 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. after irradiation

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    IVANESA G.M. SOARES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work evaluated the effects of ionizing radiation on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the potato cultivar Ágata (Solanum tuberosum L., including budding and deterioration, with the end goal of increasing shelf life. For this, four groups of samples were harvested at the maturation stage. Three of them were separately exposed to a Co-60 source, receiving respective doses of 0.10, 0.15 and 2.00 kGy, while the non-irradiated group was kept as a control. All samples were stored for 35 days at 24 °C (± 2 and at 39% relative humidity. The following aspects were evaluated: budding, rot, loss of weight, texture, flesh color, moisture, external and internal appearance, aroma, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, protein, starch and glucose. The results indicated that 0.15 kGy was the most effective dose to reduce sprouting and post-harvest losses, under the conditions studied.

  14. Infra-red thermography for high throughput field phenotyping in Solanum tuberosum.

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    Ankush Prashar

    Full Text Available The rapid development of genomic technology has made high throughput genotyping widely accessible but the associated high throughput phenotyping is now the major limiting factor in genetic analysis of traits. This paper evaluates the use of thermal imaging for the high throughput field phenotyping of Solanum tuberosum for differences in stomatal behaviour. A large multi-replicated trial of a potato mapping population was used to investigate the consistency in genotypic rankings across different trials and across measurements made at different times of day and on different days. The results confirmed a high degree of consistency between the genotypic rankings based on relative canopy temperature on different occasions. Genotype discrimination was enhanced both through normalising data by expressing genotype temperatures as differences from image means and through the enhanced replication obtained by using overlapping images. A Monte Carlo simulation approach was used to confirm the magnitude of genotypic differences that it is possible to discriminate. The results showed a clear negative association between canopy temperature and final tuber yield for this population, when grown under ample moisture supply. We have therefore established infrared thermography as an easy, rapid and non-destructive screening method for evaluating large population trials for genetic analysis. We also envisage this approach as having great potential for evaluating plant response to stress under field conditions.

  15. Phenetic relationships of nine varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) based on morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Topik; Barlian, Andri; Kusdianti, R.; Kirana, Rinda

    2017-05-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.; Solanaceae) is an important commodity in Indonesia as one of the main crop after rice. Recently some new varieties have been released, but their relationship have not been studied yet. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship among nine varieties of potatoes. Phenetic analysis was conducted using 27 morphological character states, which was derived from stems, leaves, and tubers. The character states observed were scored, and further analyzed based on Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) method. The results showed a high diversity of morphological character states, of which 20 states were significantly different across the varieties. Phenogram indicated that the nine varieties of potato were classified into three main groups. While the first group was consisted of varieties of Cipanas, Granola, Atlantic, and Repita, the second group was housed of Manohara and GM 05. The third group was composed of Margahayu, Mb 17, and Maglia. This pattern of relationships can be used as one of the basis in the process of crossbreeding to assemble the new varieties. The crossbreeding will be better if it is made between distantly related varieties.

  16. Purification and Partial Characterization of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Invertase and Its Endogenous Proteinaceous Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Whitaker, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Invertase plays an important role in the hydrolysis of sucrose in higher plants, especially in the storage organs. In potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers, and in some other plant tissues, the enzyme seems to be controlled by interaction with an endogenous proteinaceous inhibitor. An acid invertase from potato tubers (variety russet) was purified 1560-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity by consecutive use of concanvalin A-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography, Sephadex G-150 chromatography, and DEAE-Sephadex A-50-120 chromatography. The enzyme contained 10.9% carbohydrate, had an apparent molecular weight of 60,000 by gel filtration, and was composed of two identical molecular weight subunits (Mr 30,000). The enzyme had a Km for sucrose of 16 millimolar at pH 4.70 and was most stable and had maximum activity around pH 5. The endogenous inhibitor was purified 610-fold to homogeneity by consecutive treatment at pH 1 to 1.5 at 37°C for 1 hour, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, Sephadex G-100 chromatography, DEAE-Sephadex G-50-120 chromatography, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The inhibitor appears to be a single polypeptide (Mr 17,000) without glyco groups. The purified inhibitor was stable over the pH range of 2 to 7 when incubated at 37°C for 1 hour. Images Figure 2 PMID:16667287

  17. Characteristics of the Inhibition of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Invertase by an Endogenous Proteinaceous Inhibitor in Potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Whitaker, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Effect of several parameters on inhibition of potato (Solanum tuberosum) invertase by its endogenous proteinaceous inhibitor was determined using homogeneous preparations of both proteins. The inhibitor and invertase formed an inactive complex with an observed association rate constant at pH 4.70 and 37°C of 8.82 × 102 per molar per second and a dissociation rate constant of 3.3 × 10−3 per minute. The inhibitor appeared to bind to invertase in more than one step. Initial interaction (measured by loss of invertase activity) was rapid, relatively weak, readily reversible (Ki of 2 × 10−6 molar) and noncompetitive with substrate at pH 4.70. Initial interaction was probably followed by isomerization to a tighter (Ki of 6.23 × 10−8 molar) complex, which dissociated slowly with a half-time of 3.5 hour. Interaction between enzyme and inhibitor appeared to be of ionic character and essentially pH independent between pH 3.5 and 7.4. PMID:16667286

  18. Invasion of Solanum tuberosum L. by Aspergillus terreus: a microscopic and proteomics insight on pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Bengyella; Waikhom, Sayanika Devi; Roy, Pranab; Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar; Singh, Mohendro Wakambam; Chandradev, Sharma K; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra

    2014-06-10

    Aspergillus terreus is one of the most harmful filamentous fungal pathogen of humans, animals and plants. Recently, researchers have discovered that A. terreus can cause foliar blight disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). We used light and scanning electron microscopy, and performed proteomics analysis in an attempt to dissect the invasion process of A. terreus in this important crop. Microscopic study revealed that invasion of leaf tissue is marked by rapid germination of A. terreus phialidic conidia (PC) by 4 h after inoculation. By 8 h after inoculation, primary germ tubes from PC differentiated into irregular protuberance, often displayed stomata atropism, and failed to penetrate via the epidermal cells. Colonization of leaf tissues was associated with high rate of production of accessory conidia (AC). These analyses showed the occurrence of a unique opposing pattern of AC, tissue-specific and produced on melanized colonizing hyphae during the infection of leaf tissue. A significant proteome change hallmarked by differential expression of class I patatin, lipoxygenase, catalase-peroxidase complex, and cysteine proteinase inhibitor were observed during tuber colonization. These proteins are often involved in signal transduction pathways and crosstalk in pathogenic responses. A. terreus abundantly produced AC and multipolar germinating PC to invade potato leaf tissue. Additionally, A. terreus differentially induced enzymes in potato tuber during colonization which facilitates rapid disease development.

  19. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C K; Ghosh, C K

    2015-07-05

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) are chloride-sensitive: Is this dogma valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütsch, Birgit W; Keipp, Katrin; Glaser, Ann-Kathrin; Schubert, Sven

    2018-06-01

    Chloride sensitivity of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Marabel and Désirée was investigated in two pot experiments (soil/sand mixture and hydroponics). It was tested whether there are differential effects of KCl and K 2 SO 4 application on tuber yield and tuber quality, and whether both potato cultivars differ in their chloride sensitivity. Tuber yield, dry matter percentage of the tubers, starch concentration and starch yield were not significantly affected by potassium source (K 2 SO 4 or KCl). After exposure to salt stress in hydroponics (100 mmol L -1 NaCl, 50 mmol L -1 Na 2 SO 4 , 50 mmol L -1 CaCl 2 ) for 5 days, 3-week-old potato plants had significantly reduced shoot dry mass after NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 application. However, CaCl 2 treatment did not significantly affect shoot growth, although the chloride concentration reached 65 to 74 mg Cl - mg -1 dry matter, similar to the NaCl treatment. In contrast, growth reductions were closely related to sodium concentrations, thus plants suffered sodium toxicity and not chloride toxicity. Both potato cultivars are chloride-resistant and can be fertilised with KCl instead of K 2 SO 4 without the risk of depression in tuber yield or tuber quality. The statement that potatoes are chloride-sensitive and that chloride has negative effects on yield performance needs reconsideration. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Isolation and characterization of StERF transcription factor genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zemin; Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Xiangyan; Fan, Qiang; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2015-04-01

    Ethylene response factor (ERF) is a major subfamily of the AP2/ERF family and plays significant roles in the regulation of abiotic- and biotic-stress responses. ERF proteins can interact with the GCC-box cis-element and then initiate a transcriptional cascade activating downstream ethylene response and enhancing plant stress tolerance. In this research, we cloned five StERF genes from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The expressional analysis of StERF genes revealed that they showed tissue- or organ-specific expression patterns and the expression levels in leaf, stem, root, flower, and tuber were different. The assays of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and the reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the expression of five StERF genes was regulated by ethephon, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salt and drought stress. The result from the yeast one-hybrid experiment showed that five StERFs had trans-activation activity and could specifically bind to the GCC-box cis-elements. The StERFs responded to abiotic factors and hormones suggested that they possibly had diverse roles in stress and hormone regulation of potato. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of the potato (Solanum tuberosum) CCD8 gene in stolon and tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasare, Stefania A; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Wayne L; Campbell, Raymond; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Roumeliotis, Efstathios; Kohlen, Wouter; van der Krol, Sander; Bramley, Peter M; Roberts, Alison G; Fraser, Paul D; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    · Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of phytohormones controlling shoot branching. In potato (Solanum tuberosum), tubers develop from underground stolons, diageotropic stems which originate from basal stem nodes. As the degree of stolon branching influences the number and size distribution of tubers, it was considered timely to investigate the effects of SL production on potato development and tuber life cycle. · Transgenic potato plants were generated in which the CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE8 (CCD8) gene, key in the SL biosynthetic pathway, was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi). · The resulting CCD8-RNAi potato plants showed significantly more lateral and main branches than control plants, reduced stolon formation, together with a dwarfing phenotype and a lack of flowering in the most severely affected lines. New tubers were formed from sessile buds of the mother tubers. The apical buds of newly formed transgenic tubers grew out as shoots when exposed to light. In addition, we found that CCD8 transcript levels were rapidly downregulated in tuber buds by the application of sprout-inducing treatments. · These results suggest that SLs could have an effect, solely or in combination with other phytohormones, in the morphology of potato plants and also in controlling stolon development and maintaining tuber dormancy. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Robust regeneration protocol for the Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Solanum tuberosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bilal, M.; Hussain, J.; Shah, M. M.; Hassan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant genetic transformation requires robust regeneration system. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) such as cytokinins (CKs) play a pivotal role in organogenesis; however, CKs are the most expensive PGRs. In the current study, an efficient yet economical protocol for regeneration of potato plant was developed. Stem inter-nodal and leaf explants were cultured on different regeneration media supplemented with varying concentration of different CKs such as kinetin and zeatin. Murashige- Skoog media added with zeatin (1, 1.5 mg/L) was designated as RZ1, RZ1.5, respectively or kinetin (1.5, 2 mg/L) was designated as RK1.5 and RK2, respectively, however, concentrations of other hormones such as NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) and GA3 (Gibberellic acid A3) were kept same. RZ1 and RZ1.5 gave significantly better Results as compared to RK-type media in all aspects studied such as callus initiation, days to first shoot emergence, number of shoots per explants. RZ1 medium was then selected as regeneration media for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of potato plants with cyanobacterial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase gene, which provided multiple putative transformants on selection media. The transformants were further confirmed through PCR. The current protocol is found to be cost effective and efficient for the regeneration of Solanum tuberosum and can be successfully implied for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (author)

  4. Ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets to gradient saline stress

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    Hui-Juan eGao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that impacts plant growth and reduces the productivity of field crops. Compared to field plants, test tube plantlets offer a direct and fast approach to investigate the mechanism of salt tolerance. Here we examined the ultrastructural and physiological responses of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. c.v. ‘Longshu No. 3’ plantlets to gradient saline stress (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl with two consequent observations (two and six weeks, respectively. The results showed that, with the increase of external NaCl concentration and the duration of treatments, (1 the number of chloroplasts and cell intercellular spaces markedly decreased, (2 cell walls were thickened and even ruptured, (3 mesophyll cells and chloroplasts were gradually damaged to a complete disorganization containing more starch, (4 leaf Na and Cl contents increased while leaf K content decreased, (5 leaf proline content and the activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD increased significantly, and (6 leaf malondialdehyde (MDA content increased significantly and stomatal area and chlorophyll content decline were also detected. Severe salt stress (200 mM NaCl inhibited plantlet growth. These results indicated that potato plantlets adapt to salt stress to some extent through accumulating osmoprotectants, such as proline, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT and SOD. The outcomes of this study provide ultrastructural and physiological insights into characterizing potential damages induced by salt stress for selecting salt-tolerant potato cultivars.

  5. Host Status of Different Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Varieties and Hatching in Root Diffusates of Globodera ellingtonae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Inga A; Peetz, Amy; Wade, Nadine; Navarre, Roy A; Ingham, Russ E

    2013-09-01

    Globodera ellingtonae was detected in Oregon in 2008. In order to make decisions regarding the regulation of this nematode, knowledge of its biology is required. We determined the host status of a diversity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in soil-based experiments and identified hatching stimulants in in vitro hatching assays. 'Russet Burbank,' 'Desiree,' 'Modac,' 'Norland,' 'Umatilla,' and 'Yukon Gold' were good hosts (RF > 14) for G. ellingtonae. Potato varieties 'Maris Piper,' 'Atlantic,' and 'Satina,' all which contain the Ro1 gene that confers resistance to G. rostochiensis, were not hosts for G. ellingtonae. In in vitro hatching assays, G. ellingtonae hatched readily in the presence of diffusates from potato (PRD) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; TRD). Egg hatch occurred in an average of between 87% and 90% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 144 and 164 juveniles emerging per cyst, from PRD- and TRD-treated cysts, respectively. This nematode hatched rapidly in the presence of PRD and TRD, with at least 66% of total hatch occurring by day 3 of exposure. There was no dose-response of egg hatch to concentrations of PRD or TRD ranging from 1:5 to 1:100 diffusate to water. When G. ellingtonae was exposed to root diffusates from 21 different plants, hatch occurred in 0% to 70% of exposed cysts, with an average of between 0 to 27 juveniles emerging per cyst. When root diffusate-exposed cysts were subsequently transferred to PRD to test viability, root diffusates from arugula (Eruca sativa), sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. drummondii), and common vetch (Vicia sativa) continued to inhibit egg hatch compared with the other root diffusates or water in which hatch occurred readily (60 to 182 juveniles emerging per cyst). Previously known hatching stimulants of G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, sodium metavanadate, sodium orthovanadate, and sodium thiocyanate, stimulated some egg hatch. Although, Globodera ellingtonae hatched readily in PRD and TRD

  6. Effect of salt stress on growth, Na+ accumulation and proline metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinse Jaarsma

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na(+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na(+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na(+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na(+ shoot distribution index (SDI for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na(+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na(+ points to a role of stem Na(+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1 gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na(+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na(+ transport to the leaves.

  7. Application time of nitrogen fertilizer 15N by a potato crop (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Urquiaga, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study was performed at the ''San Jorge'' experimental farm of the Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA), Bogota, Colombia. The study was performed to investigate the effect of timing of application of nitrogen fertilizer on the productivity of, and the efficiency of utilization of 15 N-labelled fertilizer by, a potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.), cv. Tequendama. The crop was fertilized with 100, 200 and 100 Kg/ha -1 of N, P 2 O 5 and K 2 O respectively. The N fertilizers were either added as 15 N labelled urea (2.955 at.% 15 N excess) or as labelled ammonium sulphate (2.071 at.% 15 N excess). In all treatments with nitrogen, a total of 100 Kg N ha -1 was added, but the nitrogen was added either in two or three split doses (only one dose being labelled with 15 N) at the following times: at planting, 35 days after emergence (DAE) and/or 60 DAE. It was found that: a) Nitrogen fertilization increased tuber production from 24 to 43 t/ha -1 ; b) The tubers constituted approximately 80% of total plant dry matter and 70% of the total nitrogen and fertilizer N accumulated by the plant; c) The fertilizer use efficiency varied between 49 and 68%, and the highest efficiency occurred when the nitrogen was split in three doses; d) The urea and ammonium sulphate gave similar results in all parameters evaluated; e) When the total nitrogen difference method was applied to interpretation of the results the fertilizer use efficiency was overestimated by 15 to 30%

  8. MEKANISME KETAHANAN KENTANG (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM TERHADAP NEMATODA SISTA KUNING (GLOBODERA ROSTOCHIENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Fitriyanti, Mulyadi, dan Christanti Sumardiyono .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance mechanism of potato (Solanum tuberosum to golden cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis.  The research was conducted from June 2005 to May 2006 in Kepuhharjo, Cangkringan, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The aims of the research were to find the resistance status of 20 potato varieties, role of  chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid  in the resistance mechanism and histopathological differences between resistant and susceptible potato varieties to  G. rostochiensis. The results showed that two varieties were resistant to G. rostochiensis, i.e, Hertha and Manohara.  Thirteen varieties were moderately resistant, i.e; No.30, No.44, No. 5, No.19, Batang Hitam, Agria,  Desiree, Berolina, Atlantik, No.095, Cipanas, FLS and Colombus, and five varieties were susceptible, i.e; Kikondo, Granola, Erika, LBR, and Fries. The presence of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in Hertha (resistant variety and in Granola (susceptible variety were analized by TLC. In Hertha chlorogenic acid was detected at 4, 5, and 6 days after inoculation (DAI, whereas in Granola it was detected at 1 and 6 DAI. It was assumed that the presence of chlorogenic acid for 3 successively week in Hertha, caused it more resistant than Granola.  Cell lignification inhibited                       G. rostochiensis grow well inside the root tissue of Hertha, whereas in Granola only a few cell was lignified as indicated by less absorption of red colour (safranin in infected areas. Caffeic acid was not detected either in uninoculated or inoculated of both potato varieties.  It indicated that caffeic acid might not be naturally present in Hertha and Granola and nematode infection could not stimulate the production of this compound.

  9. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Fogliatto Mariot

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3 and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A. According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  10. Karakteristik Edible Film dari Pati Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L. dengan Penambahan Gliserol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsiah Sjamsiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible film is a thin layer that serve as the packaging or upholstery as well as food that can be eaten with a product. It is packaged and can be degraded by nature. Potato starch can be used as raw material in manufacturing edible film, in which the addition of glycerol is needed as a plasticizer that function to improve the elasticity of the edible film. The goal of the research is to know the influence of glycerol concentration variation against the characteristics of edible film of starch potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. the parameters examined in this study i.e the physical test that includes a test of strong thickness, tensile test and present enlargement, test the solubility and organoleptic. To help figure out the data obtained in the real effect or not, is done using the SPSS Analysis Variant 1 direction or one-way ANOVA. Characteristics of edible film from potato starch with addition of glycerol with a concentration of 20%, 30% and 40% (v/v to the value of the thickness of consecutive 0,058 mm, 0,062 mm and 0,071mm. The value of the tensile strengh i.e 0,75 N/mm2, 0,69 N/mm2 and 0,35 N/mm2. The value obtained by elongation percent 4,96%, 9,04% and 9,51% where as the value of solubility is obtained that is 19%, 21,4% and 34,6%. Application of edible films from potato starch as the packaging on candy jelly can be acceptedas alternative packaging material for food.

  11. Genetic Linkage Mapping of Economically Important Traits in Cultivated Tetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Coombs, Joseph J; Zarka, Daniel G; Boone, Anne E; Kirk, William W; Hackett, Christine A; Bryan, Glenn J; Douches, David S

    2015-09-14

    The objective of this study was to construct a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genetic map at the cultivated tetraploid level to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to economically important traits in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The 156 F1 progeny and parents of a cross (MSL603) between "Jacqueline Lee" and "MSG227-2" were genotyped using the Infinium 8303 Potato Array. Furthermore, the progeny and parents were evaluated for foliar late blight reaction to isolates of the US-8 genotype of Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and vine maturity. Linkage analyses and QTL mapping were performed using a novel approach that incorporates allele dosage information. The resulting genetic maps contained 1972 SNP markers with an average density of 1.36 marker per cM. QTL mapping identified the major source of late blight resistance in "Jacqueline Lee." The best SNP marker mapped ~0.54 Mb from a resistance hotspot on the long arm of chromosome 9. For vine maturity, the major-effect QTL was located on chromosome 5 with allelic effects from both parents. A candidate SNP marker for this trait mapped ~0.25 Mb from the StCDF1 gene, which is a candidate gene for the maturity trait. The identification of markers for P. infestans resistance will enable the introgression of multiple sources of resistance through marker-assisted selection. Moreover, the discovery of a QTL for late blight resistance not linked to the QTL for vine maturity provides the opportunity to use marker-assisted selection for resistance independent of the selection for vine maturity classifications. Copyright © 2015 Massa et al.

  12. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; Van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  13. Chlorogenic Acid Biosynthesis Appears Linked with Suberin Production in Potato Tuber (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2015-05-20

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a good source of dietary antioxidants. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeic acid (CA) are the most abundant phenolic acid antioxidants in potato and are formed by the phenylpropanoid pathway. A number of CGA biosynthetic routes that involve hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HQT) and/or hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) have been proposed, but little is known about their path in potato. CA production requires a caffeoyl shikimate esterase (CSE), and CA serves as a substrate of lignin precursor ferulic acid via the action of caffeic/5-hydroxyferulic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT I). CGA is precursor of caffeoyl-CoA and, via caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT), of feruloyl-CoA. Feruloyl-CoA is required for lignin and suberin biosynthesis, crucial for tuber development. Here, metabolite and transcript levels of the mentioned and related enzymes, such as cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), were determined in the flesh and skin of fresh and stored tubers. Metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh, irrespective of storage. CGA and CA production appear to occur via p-coumaroyl-CoA, using HQT and CSE, respectively. HCT is likely involved in CGA remobilization toward suberin. The strong correlation between CGA and CA, the correspondence with C4H, HQT, CCoAOMT2, and CSE, and the negative correlation of HCT and COMT I in potato tubers suggest a major flux toward suberin.

  14. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Na+ Accumulation and Proline Metabolism in Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Rinse; de Vries, Rozemarijn S. M.; de Boer, Albertus H.

    2013-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a major crop world-wide and the productivity of currently used cultivars is strongly reduced at high soil salt levels. We compared the response of six potato cultivars to increased root NaCl concentrations. Cuttings were grown hydroponically and treated with 0 mM, 60 mM and 180 mM NaCl for one week. Growth reduction on salt was strongest for the cultivars Mozart and Mona Lisa with a severe senescence response at 180 mM NaCl and Mozart barely survived the treatment. The cultivars Desiree and Russett Burbank were more tolerant showing no senescence after salt treatment. A clear difference in Na+ homeostasis was observed between sensitive and tolerant cultivars. The salt sensitive cultivar Mozart combined low Na+ levels in root and stem with the highest leaf Na+ concentration of all cultivars, resulting in a high Na+ shoot distribution index (SDI) for Mozart as compared to Desiree. Overall, a positive correlation between salt tolerance and stem Na+ accumulation was found and the SDI for Na+ points to a role of stem Na+ accumulation in tolerance. In stem tissue, Mozart accumulated more H2O2 and less proline compared to the tolerant cultivars. Analysis of the expression of proline biosynthesis genes in Mozart and Desiree showed a clear reduction in proline dehydrogenase (PDH) expression in both cultivars and an increase in pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 1 (P5CS1) gene expression in Desiree, but not in Mozart. Taken together, current day commercial cultivars show promising differences in salt tolerance and the results suggest that mechanisms of tolerance reside in the capacity of Na+ accumulation in stem tissue, resulting in reduced Na+ transport to the leaves. PMID:23533673

  15. Sucrose and light effects on in vitro cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), chokecherry (Prunus virginiana L.) and Saskatoon berry (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.) during low temperature storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Kozai, T.; Lewis, T.; Astatkie, T.; Nowak, J.

    2000-01-01

    Cultures of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. Atlantic, chokecherry ( Prunus virginiana L.) cv. Garrington and saskatoon berry (Amelancher alnifolia Nutt.) cv. Northline grown in vitro for 3 weeks at 24/22 °C, 16-h photoperiod, 150 μmol m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) mixed

  16. Andean potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) as a source of antioxidant and mineral micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Ghislain, Marc; Bertin, Pierre; Oufir, Mouhssin; Herrera, María del Rosario; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; Evers, Danièle

    2007-01-24

    Potato tubers were evaluated as a source of antioxidants and minerals for the human diet. A genetically diverse sample of Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars native to the Andes of South America was obtained from a collection of nearly 1000 genotypes using microsatellite markers. This size-manageable collection of 74 landraces, representing at best the genetic diversity among potato germplasm, was analyzed for iron, zinc, calcium, total phenolic, total carotenoid, and total vitamin C contents. The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of each genotype was also measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The iron content ranged from 29.87 to 157.96 microg g-1 of dry weight (DW), the zinc content from 12.6 to 28.83 microg g-1 of DW, and the calcium content from 271.09 to 1092.93 microg g-1 of DW. Total phenolic content varied between 1.12 and 12.37 mg of gallic acid equiv g-1 of DW, total carotenoid content between 2.83 and 36.21 microg g-1 of DW, and total vitamin C content between 217.70 and 689.47 microg g-1 of DW. The range of hydrophilic ORAC values was 28.25-250.67 micromol of Trolox equiv g-1 of DW. The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content were highly and positively correlated (r = 0.91). A strong relationship between iron and calcium contents was also found (r = 0.67). Principal component analysis on the studied nutritional contents of the core collection revealed that most potato genotypes were balanced in terms of antioxidant and mineral contents, but some of them could be distinguished by their high level in distinct micronutrients. Correlations between the micronutrient contents observed in the sample and the genetic distances assessed by microsatellites were weakly significant. However, this study demonstrated the wide variability of health-promoting micronutrient levels within the native potato germplasm as well as the significant contribution that distinct potato tubers may impart to the intake in dietary

  17. Uptake of Plutonium-238 into Solanum tuberosum L. (potato plants) in presence of complexing agent EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawussi, Frank; Gupta, Dharmendra K; Mühr-Ebert, Elena L; Schneider, Stephanie; Bister, Stefan; Walther, Clemens

    2017-11-01

    Bioavailability and plant uptake of radionuclides depend on various factors. Transfer into different plant parts depends on chemical and physical processes, which need to be known for realistic ingestion dose modelling when these plants are used for food. Within the scope of the present work, the plutonium uptake by potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) was investigated in hydroponic solution of low concentration [Pu] = 10 -9  mol L -1 . Particular attention was paid to the speciation of radionuclides in the solution which was modelled by the speciation code PHREEQC. The speciation, the solubility and therefore the plant availability of radionuclides mainly depend on the pH value and the redox potential of the solution. During the contamination period, the redox potential did not change significantly. In contrast, the pH value showed characteristic changes depending on exudates excreted by the plants. Plant roots took up high amounts of plutonium (37%-50% of the added total amount). In addition to the uptake into the roots, the radionuclides can also adsorb to the exterior root surface. The solution-to-plant transfer factor showed values between 0.03 and 0.80 (Bq kg -1 / Bq L -1 ) for the potato tubers. By addition of the complexing agent EDTA (10 -4  mol L-1), the plutonium uptake from solution increased by 58% in tubers and by 155% in shoots/leaves. The results showed that excreted substances by plants affect bioavailability of radionuclides at low concentration, on the one hand. On the other hand, the uptake of plutonium by roots and the accumulation in different plant parts can lead to non-negligible ingestion doses, even at low concentration. We are aware of the limited transferability of data obtained in hydroponic solutions to plants growing in soil. However, the aim of this study is twofold: First we want to investigate the influence of Pu speciation on plant uptake in a rather well defined system which can be modelled using available thermodynamic data

  18. Análisis de la interacción genotipo por ambiente en papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. andigena, a través de una metodología no paramétrica Analysis of genotype by environment interaction in potato (Solanum tuberosum spp. andigena by a non-parametric methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortes José M.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Mejoramiento en Papa, liderado por la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, estableció nueve pruebas regionales durante los años 1998 y 1999, para la evaluación de 20 genotipos promisorios de Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena. Para el análisis e interpretación de la interacción genotipo por ambiente, se utilizó la metodología no paramétrica propuesta por Nassar et al. (1994, en la cual se usa un estadístico que reúne la selección por rendimiento y estabilidad fenotípica. Para la obtención de los índices
    de rendimiento-estabilidad, se implementó una MACRO en el
    programa SAS, la cual permite trabajar con datos desbalanceados, tanto por repeticiones, como por genotipos. Además, se desarrolló una metodología que permitió el análisis multivariado, utilizando, como base el estadístico de rendimiento-estabilidad, lo cual facilita el análisis del rendimiento cuando éste se divida en varias categorías, como el es caso del cultivo de papa. Los resultados, aquí, presentados muestran cómo las ventajas del uso de
    metodologías no paramétricas, no son compensadas cuando la mayor importancia del análisis de la interacción genotipo por ambiente es la selección de genotipos promisorios próximos a ser entregados al agricultor.The Potato Breeding Program, which belongs to the National
    University ofColombia, carried out nine regional trials during 1998 and 1999 for the evaluation of20 promissory genotypes of Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena. The non-pararnetric methodology proposed by Nassar el al. (1994 which it is based on a statistic that link yield and phenotypic stability was used. In order to analyzer the data set, a MACRO program in the SAS System was developed which allowed working with unbalance data for both repetitions and genotypes. It was also developed a multivariate analysis methodology, based on the yield-stability index, which permitted to analyze the yield when it is partitioning in

  19. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p potato plants.

  20. Expression of an isoflavone reductase-like gene enhanced by pollen tube growth in pistils of Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, G J; Ruiter, R K; Colla, P H; van Herpen, M M; Schrauwen, J A; Wullems, G J

    1997-03-01

    Successful sexual reproduction relies on gene products delivered by the pistil to create an environment suitable for pollen tube growth. These compounds are either produced before pollination or formed during the interactions between pistil and pollen tubes. Here we describe the pollination-enhanced expression of the cp100 gene in pistils of Solanum tuberosum. Temporal analysis of gene expression revealed an enhanced expression already one hour after pollination and lasts more than 72 h. Increase in expression also occurred after touching the stigma and was not restricted to the site of touch but spread into the style. The predicted CP100 protein shows similarity to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but belongs to a family of IFR-like NAD(P)H-dependent oxidoreductases present in various plant species.

  1. Tissue Damage, Temperature, and pH Induced by Different Electrode Arrays on Potato Pieces (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraelys Morales González

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging problems of electrochemical therapy is the design and selection of suitable electrode array for cancer. The aim is to determine how two-dimensional spatial patterns of tissue damage, temperature, and pH induced in pieces of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., var. Mondial depend on electrode array with circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic shape. The results show the similarity between the shapes of spatial patterns of tissue damage and electric field intensity, which, like temperature and pH take the same shape of electrode array. The adequate selection of suitable electrodes array requires an integrated analysis that involves, in a unified way, relevant information about the electrochemical process, which is essential to perform more efficiently way the therapeutic planning and the personalized therapy for patients with a cancerous tumor.

  2. A set of tetra-nucleotide core motif SSR markers for efficient identification of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishine, Masahiro; Tsutsumi, Katsuji; Kitta, Kazumi

    2017-12-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) is a popular tool for individual fingerprinting. The long-core motif (e.g. tetra-, penta-, and hexa-nucleotide) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are preferred because they make it easier to separate and distinguish neighbor alleles. In the present study, a new set of 8 tetra-nucleotide SSRs in potato ( Solanum tuberosum ) is reported. By using these 8 markers, 72 out of 76 cultivars obtained from Japan and the United States were clearly discriminated, while two pairs, both of which arose from natural variation, showed identical profiles. The combined probability of identity between two random cultivars for the set of 8 SSR markers was estimated to be 1.10 × 10 -8 , confirming the usefulness of the proposed SSR markers for fingerprinting analyses of potato.

  3. The Transcriptome of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Phytophthora infestans Revealed by DeepSAGE Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyetvai, Gabor; Sønderkær, Mads; Göbel, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    of the compatible and incompatible interaction were captured by DeepSAGE analysis of 44 biological samples comprising five genotypes, differing only by the presence or absence of the R1 transgene, three infection time points and three biological replicates. 30.859 unique 21 base pair sequence tags were obtained......Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker...... interactions over the infection time course and between compatible and incompatible genotypes. Transcriptional changes were more numerous in compatible than in incompatible interactions. In contrast to incompatible interactions, transcriptional changes in the compatible interaction were observed predominantly...

  4. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  5. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the ERF transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfeddine, Mariam; Saïdi, Mohamed Najib; Charfeddine, Safa; Hammami, Asma; Gargouri Bouzid, Radhia

    2015-04-01

    The ERF transcription factors belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily, one of the largest transcription factor families in plants. They play important roles in plant development processes, as well as in the response to biotic, abiotic, and hormone signaling. In the present study, 155 putative ERF transcription factor genes were identified from the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome database, and compared with those from Arabidopsis thaliana. The StERF proteins are divided into ten phylogenetic groups. Expression analyses of five StERFs were carried out by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and compared with published RNA-seq data. These latter analyses were used to distinguish tissue-specific, biotic, and abiotic stress genes as well as hormone-responsive StERF genes. The results are of interest to better understand the role of the AP2/ERF genes in response to diverse types of stress in potatoes. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of the ERF family genes in S. tuberosum is required to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms.

  6. Retrospective view of North American potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding in the 20th and 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Candice N; Hirsch, Cory D; Felcher, Kimberly; Coombs, Joseph; Zarka, Dan; Van Deynze, Allen; De Jong, Walter; Veilleux, Richard E; Jansky, Shelley; Bethke, Paul; Douches, David S; Buell, C Robin

    2013-06-21

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid, has been bred for distinct market classes, including fresh market, pigmented, and processing varieties. Breeding efforts have relied on phenotypic selection of populations developed from intra- and intermarket class crosses and introgressions of wild and cultivated Solanum relatives. To retrospectively explore the effects of potato breeding at the genome level, we used 8303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers to genotype a 250-line diversity panel composed of wild species, genetic stocks, and cultivated potato lines with release dates ranging from 1857 to 2011. Population structure analysis revealed four subpopulations within the panel, with cultivated potato lines grouping together and separate from wild species and genetic stocks. With pairwise kinship estimates clear separation between potato market classes was observed. Modern breeding efforts have scarcely changed the percentage of heterozygous loci or the frequency of homozygous, single-dose, and duplex loci on a genome level, despite concerted efforts by breeders. In contrast, clear selection in less than 50 years of breeding was observed for alleles in biosynthetic pathways important for market class-specific traits such as pigmentation and carbohydrate composition. Although improvement and diversification for distinct market classes was observed through whole-genome analysis of historic and current potato lines, an increased rate of gain from selection will be required to meet growing global food demands and challenges due to climate change. Understanding the genetic basis of diversification and trait improvement will allow for more rapid genome-guided improvement of potato in future breeding efforts.

  7. Comparación cuantitativa de ácido abscísico y citoquininas en la tuberización de Solanum tuberosum L. y Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Luz Yineth; Flórez Víctor Julio

    2008-01-01

    De las 30 variedades de papa cultivadas en Colombia tan solo 10 poseen importancia comercial. Entre otros factores, este número es limitado por la acción de hormonas endógenas que aceleran diferentes fases del proceso de tuberización, especialmente en las especies más precoces. En este trabajo fueron recolectadas muestras de tubérculos de diferentes especies de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. var. ICA-Única y Tuquerreña, y Solanum phureja

  8. Comparación cuantitativa de ácido abscísico y citoquininas en la tuberización de Solanum tuberosum L. y Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Luz Yineth; Flórez, Víctor Julio

    2008-01-01

    De las 30 variedades de papa cultivadas en Colombia tan solo 10 poseen importancia comercial. Entre otros factores, este número es limitado por la acción de hormonas endógenas que aceleran diferentes fases del proceso de tuberización, especialmente en las especies más precoces. En este trabajo fueron recolectadas muestras de tubérculos de diferentes especies de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. var. ICA-Única y Tuquerreña, y Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Yema de Huevo), en los estadios fenológic...

  9. Comparación cuantitativa de ácido abscísico y citoquininas en la tuberización de solanum tuberosum l. y solanum phureja juz. et buk.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Luz Yineth; Flórez, Víctor Julio

    2010-01-01

    De las 30 variedades de papa cultivadas en Colombia tan solo 10 poseen importancia comercial. Entre otros factores, este número es limitado por la acción de hormonas endógenas que aceleran diferentes fases del proceso de tuberización, especialmente en las especies más precoces. En este trabajo fueron recolectadas muestras de tubérculos de diferentes especies de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. var. ICA-Única y Tuquerreña, y Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Yema de Huevo), en los estadios...

  10. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis.

  11. Efecto antioxidante y citoprotector del Solanum tuberosum (papa en la mucosa gástrica de animales de experimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Sandoval-Vegas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Existen alternativas terapéuticas con productos naturales oriundos usados de manera empírica en la población. Tal es el caso del zumo de papa (Solanum tuberosum usado para problemas de mucosa gástrica. Objetivos: Evaluar la capacidad antioxidante y el efecto citoprotector a la mucosa gástrica del zumo de papa (Solanum tuberosum. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Materiales biológicos: Solanum tuberosum, variedad Tomasa y ratas albinas machos. Métodos: Se administró vía oral post ayuno las fracciones de sobrenadante y sedimento del zumo de Solanum tuberosum. Una hora después se administró alcohol como injuria de mucosa gástrica. Por laparotomía abdominal se obtuvo el tejido gástrico. Se midió en la mucosa gástrica el estrés oxidativo por lipoperoxidación, la formación de moco por alcian blue y la protección midiendo la extensión del área lacerada en imagen digitalizada. Principales medidas de resultados: Capacidad antioxidante y efecto citoprotector a la mucosa gástrica. Resultados: El sobrenadante de la dosis 5 mL/ kg produjo mayor protección al estrés oxidativo; el precipitado en dosis 5 mL/kg presentó mayor producción de moco, sin superar al control. El precipitado 20 mL/kg produjo mayor citoprotección (73,8%. Conclusión: La fracción sobrenadante del zumo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum posee actividad de defensa antioxidante y la fracción del sedimento, mayor actividad citoprotectora de la mucosa gástrica.

  12. Evaluation of Oxadiargyl Efficiency on Weed Control of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. at Different Growth Stages

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    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is one of the most important root crops in the world. Weed is biotic stress that reduces yield and quality of crops through competition. Chemical weed control seems indispensable and has proved efficient in controlling weeds. Metribuzin and Paraquat are registered herbicides for potato production in Iran which are using early in the growing season. Metribuzin and Paraquat are dual purpose herbicides and destruct photosystem sites of action (Metribuzin is photosystem Ⅱ inhibitor and Paraquat is photosystem Ⅰ inhibitor which are not control summer weeds. Oxadiargyl belongs to the oxidiazole chemical group and acts as a protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor and primarily has been developed for general weed control in rice and sugar cane. It is commonly used in rice, potato, sunflower, onion, cabbage, chickpea, spanish and lettuce and lavender. Weed control obtained with oxadiargyl at rates above 0.30 kg a.i/ ha was comparable to the standard metribuzin at 1.0 kg a.i/ ha; Oxadiargyl was superior comparing to the standard on Solanum nigrum, a weed of common occurrence in potato plantations, and Panicum subalbidum. The objective of our research was to evaluate the efficacy of Oxadiargyl for weed control and determination of appropriate application time in potato fields. Materials and Methods: Trials were conducted in Ardabil Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station during 2013. The factorial experiment with control (with and without weeding was performed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Potato cultivar was Agria (common cultivar in Ardabil. The first factor was Oxadiargyl dosages with six levels (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 Lit a.i/ ha, and the second factor was time of application (at different potato growth stages; potato emergence, stoloning and tuber bulking, as well as two treatments (with and without weeding were considered as control. Tubers were hand

  13. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  14. Preferential colonization of Solanum tuberosum L. roots by the fungus Glomus intraradices in arable soil of a potato farming area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaro, Patrizia; van Tuinen, Diederik; Copetta, Andrea; Chatagnier, Odile; Berta, Graziella; Gianinazzi, Silvio; Lingua, Guido

    2008-09-01

    The symbiosis between plant roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has been shown to affect both the diversity and productivity of agricultural communities. In this study, we characterized the AM fungal communities of Solanum tuberosum L. (potato) roots and of the bulk soil in two nearby areas of northern Italy, in order to verify if land use practices had selected any particular AM fungus with specificity to potato plants. The AM fungal large-subunit (LSU) rRNA genes were subjected to nested PCR, cloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analyses. One hundred eighty-three LSU rRNA sequences were analyzed, and eight monophyletic ribotypes, belonging to Glomus groups A and B, were identified. AM fungal communities differed between bulk soil and potato roots, as one AM fungal ribotype, corresponding to Glomus intraradices, was much more frequent in potato roots than in soils (accounting for more than 90% of sequences from potato samples and less than 10% of sequences from soil samples). A semiquantitative heminested PCR with specific primers was used to confirm and quantify the AM fungal abundance observed by cloning. Overall results concerning the biodiversity of AM fungal communities in roots and in bulk soils from the two studied areas suggested that potato roots were preferentially colonized by one AM fungal species, G. intraradices.

  15. Expression of a Petunia inflata pectin methyl esterase in Solanum tuberosum L. enhances stem elongation and modifies cation distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, J; Willmitzer, L; Fisahn, J

    2000-02-01

    Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants were constructed with a Petunia inflata-derived cDNA encoding a pectin methyl esterase (PME; EC 3.1.1.11) in sense orientation under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The PME activity was elevated in leaves and tubers of the transgenic lines but slightly reduced in apical segments of stems from mature plants. Stem segments from the base of juvenile PME-overexpressing plants did not differ in PME activity from the control, whereas in apical parts PME was less active than in the wild-type. During the early stages of development stems of these transgenic plants elongated more rapidly than those of the wild-type. Further evidence that overexpression of a plant-derived PME has an impact on plant development is based on modifications of tuber yield, which was reduced in the transgenic lines. Cell walls from transgenic tubers showed significant differences in their cation-binding properties in comparison with the wild-type. In particular, cell walls displayed increased affinity for sodium and calcium, while potassium binding was constant. Furthermore, the total ion content of transgenic potatoes was modified. Indications of PME-mediated differences in the distribution of ions in transgenic plants were also obtained by monitoring relaxations of the membrane potential of roots subsequent to changes in the ionic composition of the bathing solution. However, no effects on the chemical structure of pectin from tuber cell walls could be detected.

  16. Genetic analysis of somaclonal variants and induced mutants of potato ( solanum tuberosum l.) cv. diamant using RAPD markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afrasiab, H.; Iqbal, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to genetically analyze somaclonal variants and gamma induced mutants of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Diamant using RAPD-PCR technique. In the present work, callus was induced from nodes, inter nodes and leaf explants in MS medium supplemented with NAA (1.0 mg/l) and BAP (0.5 mg/l) and plants were regenerated from 14-20 weeks old calli. For gamma irradiation, ten-week old well proliferating calli were exposed to doses ranging from 5-50 Gy. All the four selected somaclonal variants and five gamma induced mutants were differentiated by banding patterns obtained from 22 primers that generated 140 polymorphic bands. The presence of polymorphic bands in variants and mutants suggest that genetic variation occurred in all the treatments as compared to control. Similarity and clustered analysis were conducted using Jaccard's coefficients and the un-weighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages. The results summarized in a dendrogram, show genetic diversity among the variants and mutants. The study shows that RAPD markers were efficient in discriminating somaclonal variants and induced mutants of potato. (author)

  17. A cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase is involved in the salvage of extracellular ATP in Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewe, David; Grosman, Lukasz; Fernie, Alisdair R; Zauber, Henrik; Wucke, Cornelia; Geigenberger, Peter

    2008-10-01

    Extracellular ATP (eATP) has recently been demonstrated to play a crucial role in plant development and growth. To investigate the fate of eATP within the apoplast, we used intact potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber slices as an experimental system enabling access to the apoplast without interference of cytosolic contamination. (i) Incubation of intact tuber slices with ATP led to the formation of ADP, AMP, adenosine, adenine and ribose, indicating operation of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase. (ii) Measurement of apyrase, 5'-nucleotidase and nucleosidase activities in fractionated tuber tissue confirmed the apoplastic localization for apyrase and phosphatase in potato and led to the identification of a novel cell wall-bound adenosine nucleosidase activity. (iii) When intact tuber slices were incubated with saturating concentrations of adenosine, the conversion of adenosine into adenine was much higher than adenosine import into the cell, suggesting a potential bypass of adenosine import. Consistent with this, import of radiolabeled adenine into tuber slices was inhibited when ATP, ADP or AMP were added to the slices. (iv) In wild-type plants, apyrase and adenosine nucleosidase activities were found to be co-regulated, indicating functional linkage of these enzymes in a shared pathway. (v) Moreover, adenosine nucleosidase activity was reduced in transgenic lines with strongly reduced apoplastic apyrase activity. When taken together, these results suggest that a complete ATP salvage pathway is present in the apoplast of plant cells.

  18. Effect of cadmium on the physiological parameters and the subcellular cadmium localization in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongyu; Chen, Zhifan; Sun, Ke; Yan, Dong; Kang, Mingjie; Zhao, Ye

    2013-11-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils with cadmium (Cd) has become a serious problem worldwide. The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) was used to investigate how different concentrations of Cd (1, 5, and 25mgkg(-1)) affected the physiological parameters and the subcellular distribution of Cd in the potato. The analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). The results suggest that the leaf is the organ with the highest accumulation of Cd. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and the chlorophyll content decreased in response to high level of Cd. The SEM-EDX microanalysis revealed that Cd was primarily deposited in the spongy and palisade tissues of the leaf. Furthermore, Cd was also detected in the cortex and the adjacent phloem and was observed inside the intercellular space, the interior surface of the plasma membrane, and on the surface of the elliptical starch granules in the tubers of the potato. Although low concentrations of Cd migrated from the root to the tuber, the accumulation of Cd in the tuber exceeded the standard for food security. Therefore, the planting of potato plants in farmland containing Cd should be seriously evaluated because Cd-containing potatoes might present high health risk to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison between Proteome and Transcriptome Response in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Leaves Following Potato Virus Y (PVY) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stare, Tjaša; Stare, Katja; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Gruden, Kristina

    2017-07-06

    Plant diseases caused by viral infection are affecting all major crops. Being an obligate intracellular organisms, chemical control of these pathogens is so far not applied in the field except to control the insect vectors of the viruses. Understanding of molecular responses of plant immunity is therefore economically important, guiding the enforcement of crop resistance. To disentangle complex regulatory mechanisms of the plant immune responses, understanding system as a whole is a must. However, integrating data from different molecular analysis (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, smallRNA regulation etc.) is not straightforward. We evaluated the response of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) following the infection with potato virus Y (PVY). The response has been analyzed on two molecular levels, with microarray transcriptome analysis and mass spectroscopy-based proteomics. Within this report, we performed detailed analysis of the results on both levels and compared two different approaches for analysis of proteomic data (spectral count versus MaxQuant). To link the data on different molecular levels, each protein was mapped to the corresponding potato transcript according to StNIB paralogue grouping. Only 33% of the proteins mapped to microarray probes in a one-to-one relation and additionally many showed discordance in detected levels of proteins with corresponding transcripts. We discussed functional importance of true biological differences between both levels and showed that the reason for the discordance between transcript and protein abundance lies partly in complexity and structure of biological regulation of proteome and transcriptome and partly in technical issues contributing to it.

  20. The Transcriptome of the Reference Potato Genome Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja Clone DM1-3 516R44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N.; Childs, Kevin L.; Lin, Haining; Bryan, Glenn J.; Giuliano, Giovanni; Buell, C. Robin

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular breeding in potato have been limited by its complex biological system, which includes vegetative propagation, autotetraploidy, and extreme heterozygosity. The availability of the potato genome and accompanying gene complement with corresponding gene structure, location, and functional annotation are powerful resources for understanding this complex plant and advancing molecular breeding efforts. Here, we report a reference for the potato transcriptome using 32 tissues and growth conditions from the doubled monoploid Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja clone DM1-3 516R44 for which a genome sequence is available. Analysis of greater than 550 million RNA-Seq reads permitted the detection and quantification of expression levels of over 22,000 genes. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses captured the biological variability that accounts for gene expression differences among tissues suggesting tissue-specific gene expression, and genes with tissue or condition restricted expression. Using gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 18 gene modules that represent tissue-specific transcriptional networks of major potato organs and developmental stages. This information provides a powerful resource for potato research as well as studies on other members of the Solanaceae family. PMID:22046362

  1. Natural co-infection of Solanum tuberosum crops by the Potato yellow vein virus and potyvirus in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Villamil-Garzón

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV, a Crinivirus with an RNA tripartite genome, is the causal agent of the potato yellow vein disease, reported in Colombian since 1950, with yield reductions of up to 50%. Co-infection of two or more viruses is common in nature and can be associated with differences in virus accumulation and symptom expression. No evidence of mixed infection between PYVV and other viruses has been reported. In this study, eight plants showing yellowing PYVV symptoms: four Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja (P and four Group Andigena (A, were collected in Cundinamarca, Colombia to detect mixed infection in the isolates using next generation sequencing (NGS. The Potato virus Y (PVY complete genome (similar to N strain and the Potato virus V (PVV partial genomes were detected using NGS and re-confirmed by RT-PCR. Preliminary field screening in a large sample showed that PYVV and PVY co-infect potato plants with a prevalence of 21% within the P group and 23% within the A group. This is the first report of co-infection of PYVV and potyvirus in Colombia and with the use of NGS. Considering that potyviruses enhance symptom severity and/or yield reductions in mixed infections, our results may be relevant for disease diagnosis, breeding programs and tuber certification.

  2. Inorganic phosphorus along with biofertilizers improves profitability and sustainability in soybean (Glycine max–potato (Solanum tuberosum cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Munda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to assess role of phosphorus (P fertilization on economics, energy efficiency, P use indices and soil P balance in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril]–potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cropping system during 2008–09 and 2009–10. Treatments in soybean as main plots consisted of two sources and two levels of phosphorus with or without biofertilizers [phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, PSB and arbuscular mycorrhizae, AM]. Three levels of P were applied to potato as subplots. System productivity was calculated in terms of soybean equivalent yield and found to be better with biofertilizers treated plots. When applied in combination with biofertilizers, 50% recommended dose of P (RDP as diammonium phosphate (DAP recorded B:C ratio at par with 100% RDP. Direct application of 100% RDP to potato resulted in significantly higher returns, enhancing the net returns. Application of biofertilizers alone increased the energy use efficiency over no biofertilizer application. Irrespective of source (DAP or rock phosphate treatments with biofertilizers had improved P use indices and apparent soil P balance even at 50% RDP. This indicates the role of biofertilizers in P solubilization and making it available to plant. Biofertilizers application can help cutting down the fertilizer P application in soybean–potato cropping system without any considerable reduction in yield and economic returns. Keywords: AM, B:C ratio, P use indices, PSB, Rock phosphate, Agronomic use efficiency

  3. Distribución Diferencial de Bacterias con Potencial Biocontrolador de Spongospora subterranea en Plantas de Papa (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro Differential Distrubution of Candidadate Biocontrol Bacteria against Spongospora subterranea in Potato Plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soler Arango

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La búsqueda de microorganismos promisorios para biocontrol de patógenos de plantas en el suelo con frecuencia se ha orientado a la detección de productores de hormonas y enzimas líticas, condiciones asociadas a su capacidad para promover crecimiento vegetal. Sin embargo, el suelo es altamente variable en escalas pequeñas y se conoce poco sobre la distribución espacial de microorganismos que expresan esas funciones. Este estudio determinó la capacidad de producción de indoles totales y quitinasas en bacterias cultivables aisladas del interior de la raíz, la rizósfera, la superficie de los tubérculos o suelo de un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum variedad Diacol Capiro. Las muestras se obtuvieron en un campo comercial en el municipio de la Unión en el departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, en plantas que presentaban síntomas de infección por Spongospora subterranea. Se encontró una producción diferencial de indoles o quitinasas según el sitio de aislamiento de las bacterias. No se encontró una alta producción de ambas actividades en un sólo aislamiento, la mayor producción de indoles totales y quitinasas se encontró en bacterias aisladas a partir de raíz y rizósfera, comparada con las aisladas de tubérculos y suelo. Estos resultados sugieren que en el suelo no es aleatoria la distribución de funciones deseables en controladores biológicos. Con estos resultados es posible orientar su búsqueda para optimizar el uso de recursos y el desarrollo de nuevos bioproductos.Abstract. Searching for promising microorganisms to biocontrol soil-borne plant pathogens has been often focused on producers of hormone and lytic enzymes, since these traits are linked to plant growth promotion. However, the environment from inner roots to bulk soil is quite variable, and little is known about the spatial distribution of microorganisms expressing these desirable traits. Using potato plants (Solanum tuberosum var. Diacol Capiro from a

  4. Actinomicetos aislados del compost y su actividad antagonista a fitopatógenos de la papa (Solanum tuberosum spp. andigena Hawkes)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Rojas, Fernanda; León-Quispe, Jorge; Galindo-Cabello, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Una de las formas de control de fitopatógenos es a través del uso de microorganismos antagonistas. El compost, un producto orgánico es fuente de microorganismos capaces de producir metabolitos secundarios de interés agrícola. Se aislaron y evaluaron mediante cultivos in vitro la capacidad antagonista de 85 actinomicetos frente a fitopatógenos que afectan a Solanum tuberosum. De los aislados, 23.5% tuvieron actividad antagonista a Ralstonia solanacearum, 16.4% a Pectobacterium carotovorum, 43....

  5. Effect of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cropping Systems on Soil and Nutrient Losses Through Runoff in a Humic Nitisol, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawade, Shadrack; Charles, Gachene; Karanja, Nancy; Elmar, Schulte-Geldermann

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion has been identified as one of the major causes of soil productivity decline in the potato growing areas of East African Highlands. Potato establishes a protective soil cover only at about 45-60 days after planting and does not yield sufficient surface mulch upon harvest which leaves the soil bare at the critical times when rainfall intensities are usually high thus exposes soil to erosion. A field study was carried out using runoff plots during the short and long rainy seasons of 2014/15 respectively at the University of Nairobi Upper Kabete Farm, Kenya. The objectives were to assess the effect of soil surface roughness and potato cropping systems on soil loss and runoff, to determine the effect of erosion on nutrient enrichment ratio and to evaluate the soil organic matter fraction most susceptible to soil erosion. The treatments comprised of Bare Soil (T1); Potato + Garden Pea (Pisum sativa) (T2); Potato + Climbing Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (T3); Potato + Dolichos (Lablab purpureus) (T4) and Sole Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) (T5). The amount of soil loss and runoff recorded in each event differed significantly between treatments (ppotato plots (T5), while mean cumulative runoff reduced by 8.5, 17.1 and 28.3 mm from T2, T3 and T4 respectively when compared with the sole potato plots (T5) indicating that T4 plots provided the most effective cover in reducing soil loss and runoff. Regression analyses revealed that both runoff and soil loss related significantly with surface roughness and percent cover (R2=0.83 and 0.73 respectively, ppotato cropping systems so as to minimize soil and nutrient losses due to erosion. Acknowledgement This study was part of the CIP-Sub Saharan Africa managed project-"Improved Soil Fertility Management for Sustainable Intensification in Potato Based Systems in Ethiopia and Kenya"-funded by the BMZ/GIZ International Agricultural Research for Development Fund.

  6. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26172952

  7. Elaboración de galletas a base de harina de papa de la variedad Parda Pastusa (Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Andrés Felipe Cerón Cardenas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La papa (Solanum tuberosum se considera el cuarto cultivo más importante en el mundo y su consumo ha pasado de producto fresco a producto laborado en forma industrial. En el estudio se determinó el nivel máximo de sustitución de la harina de trigo por harina de papa de la variedad Parda Pastusa en la elaboración de galletas fermentadas dulces. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar, donde el factor de estudio fueron el nivel de sustitución, 0%, 30%, 40% y 50%, y las variables de respuesta: sensoriales (color, sabor, textura y aceptabilidad y químicas proximales (materia seca, proteína, ceniza y grasa. No se encontraron diferencias (P < 0.05 en color, textura y aceptación; mientras para la variable sabor fue diferente en los niveles 0% y 30% de sustitución. Para los niveles de sustitución se encontraron, respectivamente, reducciones en contenido de proteína en 7.42%, 17.40% y 23.62%, y de grasa en 25.65%, 42.59% y 55.87%; mientras que la materia seca aumentó 3.83%, 4.95% y 5.62% y el contenido de ceniza en 13.14%, 17.71% y 23.43%, respectivamente. Con la sustitución de 30% se produjeron galletas de buena aceptación mientras que niveles mayores no son recomendables.

  8. Rattle tree (Albizia lebbeck Benth. effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. productivity on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria

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    Kareem Alasi Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the biotite-granite area (Alfisol of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, consisting of five cropping seasons to determine the effects of the tree rows (under alley cropping and green manure of Albizia lebbeck Benth. (rattle tree on the yield / productivity of Solanum tuberosum L. (Irish potato. The experiment was a randomized complete block design comprising five treatments and three replicates. An early maturing potato variety (Bertita was employed, its pre-sprouted tubers were planted in the alleys (spaces between the tree rows of A. lebbeck two weeks after green manure was applied (5 and 10 t ha-1, pre and post experimental soil sample analyses and cultivation operations were carried out. Results indicated that the rattle tree had profound effect on the potato growth parameters (plant height, leaf count, collar girth (at P < 0.01 and yield indices (tuber count (P < 0.05 and tuber weight (P < 0.01 due to nutrients from the green manure and nitrogen fixation activities of the rattle tree. A. lebbeck green manure application at 10 t ha-1 in the alleys of A. lebbeck hedgerows emerged as the most effective treatment in terms of growth performance and optimal yield. Collar girth and leaf count of the potato accounted for 80.4 - 91.3% of the variation in yield (R2 = 0.804 - 0.913 with collar girth having the highest value (R2 =0.910 in rainy season (rain fed cropping, while leaf count had the highest value (R2=0.913 during the dry season (irrigated cropping.

  9. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber ageing induces changes in the proteome and antioxidants associated with the sprouting pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, Pierre; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Sergeant, Kjell; Dierick, Jean-François; Oufir, Mouhssin; van der Wal, Froukje; America, Antoine H P; Renaut, Jenny; Hausman, Jean-François; du Jardin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    During post-harvest storage, potato tubers age as they undergo an evolution of their physiological state influencing their sprouting pattern. In the present study, physiological and biochemical approaches were combined to provide new insights on potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée) tuber ageing. An increase in the physiological age index (PAI) value from 0.14 to 0.83 occurred during storage at 4 degrees C over 270 d. Using this reference frame, a proteomic approach was followed based on two-dimensional electrophoresis. In the experimental conditions of this study, a marked proteolysis of patatin occurred after the PAI reached a value of 0.6. In parallel, several glycolytic enzymes were up-regulated and cellular components influencing protein conformation and the response to stress were altered. The equilibrium between the 20S and 26S forms of the proteasome was modified, the 20S form that recycles oxidized proteins being up-regulated. Two proteins belonging to the cytoskeleton were also differentially expressed during ageing. As most of these changes are also observed in an oxidative stress context, an approach focused on antioxidant compounds and enzymes as well as oxidative damage on polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins was conducted. All the changes observed during ageing seemed to allow the potato tubers to maintain their radical scavenging activity until the end of the storage period as no accumulation of oxidative damage was observed. These data are interpreted considering the impact of reactive oxygen species on the development and the behaviour of other plant systems undergoing ageing or senescence processes.

  10. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalonek, Michal; Sierpien, Barbara; Rymaszewski, Wojciech; Gieczewska, Katarzyna; Garstka, Maciej; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sass, Laszlo; Paul, Kenny; Vass, Imre; Vankova, Radomira; Dobrev, Peter; Szczesny, Pawel; Marczewski, Waldemar; Krusiewicz, Dominika; Strzelczyk-Zyta, Danuta; Hennig, Jacek; Konopka-Postupolska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin) than wild type (WT). Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII), as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Caracterización de zonas sensibles a heladas en el cultivo de papa (Solanum Tuberosum en Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Enrique Alvarado-Gaona

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La papa (Solanum tuberosum, como todas las plantas cultivadas, depende de factores atmosféricos; por tanto, las heladas se convierten en un factor limitante para su producción, lo que ha ocasionado que los agricultores opten por cultivar en zonas con alturas superiores a 3.000 msnm, para ampliar la frontera agrícola. En estos sitios, las heladas son más severas, además del daño irreversible a los ecosistemas estratégicos como los páramos ya que la aplicación excesiva de agroquímicos y el sistema de monocultivo hacen que los suelos pierdan sus propiedades y por tanto, la producción disminuye. Por esta razón, el Centro Virtual de la Cadena Agroalimentaria de la papa CEVIPAPA, en convenio con la Universidad Pedagógica y tecnológica de Colombia, UPTC desarrolló un trabajo de investigación con el propósito de reconocer áreas sensibles a heladas en el departamento de Boyacá. El trabajo se desarrolló en los municipios de Toca, Motavita, Cómbita, Úmbita,Ventaquemada, Chíquiza, Tunja, Siachoque, Soracá y Saboyá,donde se evaluó la problemática causada por las heladas en este cultivo; así mismo, se detectaron las zonas de mayor producción, identificando las veredas con mayor incidencia en cada uno de los municipios, con el fin de controlar y mitigar los efectos negativos en el cultivote dicho tubérculo.

  12. Does elevated CO2 ameliorate the impact of O3 on chlorophyll content and photosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Alison; Craigon, Jim; Black, Colin R.; Colls, Jeremy J.; Landon, Geoff

    2001-04-01

    This study examined the impact of season-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3), individually and in combination, on leaf chlorophyll content and gas exchange characteristics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje). Plants grown in open-top chambers were exposed to three CO2 (ambient, 550 and 680 µmol mol-1) and two O3 treatments (ambient and elevated; 25 and 65 nmol mol-1, 8 h day-1 means, respectively) between crop emergence and maturity; plants were also grown in unchambered field plots. Non-destructive measurements of chlorophyll content and visible foliar injury were made for all treatments at 2-week intervals between 43 and 95 days after emergence. Gas exchange measurements were made for all except the intermediate 550 µmol mol-1 CO2 treatment. Season-long exposure to elevated O3 under ambient CO2 reduced chlorophyll content and induced extensive visible foliar damage, but had little effect on net assimilation rate or stomatal conductance. Elevated CO2 had no significant effect on chlorophyll content, but greatly reduced the damaging impact of O3 on chlorophyll content and visible foliar damage. Light-saturated assimilation rates for leaves grown under elevated CO2 were consistently lower when measured under either elevated or ambient CO2 than in equivalent leaves grown under ambient CO2. Analysis of CO2 response curves revealed that CO2-saturated assimilation rate, maximum rates of carboxylation and electron transport and respiration decreased with time. CO2-saturated assimilation rate was reduced by elevated O3 during the early stages of the season, while respiration was significantly greater under elevated CO2 as the crop approached maturity. The physiological origins of these responses and their implications for the performance of potato in a changing climate are discussed.

  13. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Szalonek

    Full Text Available Annexins are a family of calcium- and membrane-binding proteins that are important for plant tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Annexins function to counteract oxidative stress, maintain cell redox homeostasis, and enhance drought tolerance. In the present study, an endogenous annexin, STANN1, was overexpressed to determine whether crop yields could be improved in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. during drought. Nine potential potato annexins were identified and their expression characterized in response to drought treatment. STANN1 mRNA was constitutively expressed at a high level and drought treatment strongly increased transcription levels. Therefore, STANN1 was selected for overexpression analysis. Under drought conditions, transgenic potato plants ectopically expressing STANN1 were more tolerant to water deficit in the root zone, preserved more water in green tissues, maintained chloroplast functions, and had higher accumulation of chlorophyll b and xanthophylls (especially zeaxanthin than wild type (WT. Drought-induced reductions in the maximum efficiency and the electron transport rate of photosystem II (PSII, as well as the quantum yield of photosynthesis, were less pronounced in transgenic plants overexpressing STANN1 than in the WT. This conferred more efficient non-photochemical energy dissipation in the outer antennae of PSII and probably more efficient protection of reaction centers against photooxidative damage in transgenic plants under drought conditions. Consequently, these plants were able to maintain effective photosynthesis during drought, which resulted in greater productivity than WT plants despite water scarcity. Although the mechanisms underlying this stress protection are not yet clear, annexin-mediated photoprotection is probably linked to protection against light-induced oxidative stress.

  14. Visualisation of plastid outgrowths in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers by carboxyfluorescein diacetate staining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, Wojciech; Bederska, Magdalena; Sujkowska-Rybkowska, Marzena

    2015-05-01

    We describe two types of plastid outgrowths visualised in potato tubers after carboxyfluorescein diacetate staining. Probable esterase activity of the outgrowths has been demonstrated for the first time ever. Plastid outgrowths were observed in the phelloderm and storage parenchyma cells of red potato (S. tuberosum L. cv. Rosalinde) tubers after administration of carboxyfluorescein diacetate stain. Endogenous esterases cleaved off acetic groups to release membrane-unpermeable green fluorescing carboxyfluorescein which accumulated differentially in particular cell compartments. The intensive green fluorescence of carboxyfluorescein exhibited highly branched stromules (stroma-filled plastid tubular projections of the plastid envelope) and allowed distinguishing them within cytoplasmic strands of the phelloderm cells. Stromules (1) were directed towards the nucleus or (2) penetrated the whole cells through the cytoplasmic bands of highly vacuolated phelloderm cells. Those directed towards the nucleus were flattened and adhered to the nuclear envelope. Stromule-like interconnections between two parts of the same plastids (isthmuses) were also observed. We also documented the formation of another type of the stroma-filled plastid outgrowths, referred to here as protrusions, which differed from previously defined stromules in both morphology and esterase activity. Unlike stromules, the protrusions were found to be associated with developmental processes leading to starch accumulation in the storage parenchyma cells. These results strongly suggest that stromules and protrusions exhibit esterase activity. This has been demonstrated for the first time. Morphological and biochemical features as well as possible functions of stromules and protrusions are discussed below.

  15. The chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA type are correlated with the nuclear composition of somatic hybrid calli of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, A M; Koornneef, M; Gilissen, L J

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the analysis of chloroplast (cp) DNA and mitochondrial (mt) DNA in 21 somatic hybrid calli of Solanum tuberosum and Nicotiana plumbaginifolia by means of Southern-blot hybridization. Each of these calli contained only one type of cpDNA; 14 had the N. plumbaginifolia (Np) type and seven the S. tuberosum (St) type. N. plumbaginifolia cpDNA was present in hybrids previously shown to contain predominantly N. plumbaginifolia chromosomes whereas hybrids in which S. tuberosum chromosomes predominated possessed cpDNA from potato. We have analyzed the mtDNA of these 21 somatic hybrid calli using four restriction enzyme/probe combinations. Most fusion products had only, or mostly, mtDNA fragments from the parent that predominated in the nucleus. The hybrids containing mtDNA fragments from only one parent (and new fragments) also possessed chloroplasts from the same species. The results suggest the existence of a strong nucleo-cytoplasmic incongruity which affects the genome composition of somatic hybrids between distantly related species.

  16. Efecto de la concentración de almidones resistentes de la papa común (Solanum tuberosum) y criolla (Solanum phureja) sobre la digestibilidad de nutrientes, energía metabolizable e integridad del tracto gastrointestinal de pollos de engorde

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Aguilar, Daniel Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    El almidón resistente retrogradado (AR3) de las variedades Pastusa (Solanum tuberosum grupo andigena) y Guaneña (Solanum tuberosum grupo phureja) fue evaluado como aditivo funcional con características similares a la fibra dietaria. En un primer experimento se comparó con manano oligosacáridos (MOS) a tres niveles de inclusión (0.5%, 1.0% y 1.5%) y un control sin suplementar, donde 600 pollos machos Ross de un día de edad fueron repartidos aleatoriamente a 10 tratamientos ex...

  17. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter; Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Nimal Punyasiri, P A; Bengtsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers. In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy potatoes contained lower amounts than stressed tubers, ranging from 25 to 500 μg g⁻¹ and from 30 to 600 μg g⁻¹, respectively. Analysis of volatile compounds emitted by potato tubers revealed that stressed tubers could clearly be distinguished from healthy tubers by the composition of their volatile profiles. Compounds that contributed to this difference were e.g. decanal, nonanal, isopropyl myristate, phenylacetaldehyde, benzothiazole, heptadecane, octadecane, myristicin, E,E-α-farnesene and verbenone. Oviposition assays, when female moths were not in contact with the tubers, clearly demonstrated that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal glycoalkaloids, which influence larval survival. We conclude that the oviposition response and larval survival of T. solanivora on healthy vs. stressed tubers supports the preference performance hypothesis for insect herbivores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2014-04-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0

  19. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lei; Zhang, Hongxia; Gan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yuchao; Nie, Fengjie; Shi, Lei; Li, Miao; Guo, Zhiqian; Zhang, Guohui; Song, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon's response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT) and re-watering treatment (RWT) at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG) examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT) plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1), auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2), GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6), Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19), abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO) and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG) were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  20. Transcriptome Profiling of the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Plant under Drought Stress and Water-Stimulus Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gong

    Full Text Available Drought stress can seriously affect tuberization, yield and quality of potato plant. However, the precise molecular mechanisms governing potato stolon's response to drought stress and water supply are not very well understood. In this work, a potato (Solanum tuberosum L. variant, Ningshu 4, was subjected to severe drought stress treatment (DT and re-watering treatment (RWT at tuber bulking stage. Strand-specific cDNA libraries of stolon materials were constructed for paired-end transcriptome sequencing analyses and differentially expressed gene (DEG examination. In comparison to untreated-control (CT plants, 3189 and 1797 DEGs were identified in DT and RWT plants and 4154 solely expressed DEGs were screened out from these two comparison groups. Interestingly, 263 genes showed opposite expression patterns in DT and RWT plants. Among them, genes homologous to Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C, Aspartic protease in guard cell 1 (ASPG1, auxin-responsive protein, Arabidopsis pseudo response regualtor 2 (APRR2, GA stimulated transcripts in Arabidopsis 6 (GASA6, Calmodulin-like protein 19 (CML19, abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases and calcium-transporting ATPase, et al. were related with drought-stress and water stimulus response. Sixteen DEGs involved in starch synthesis, accumulation and tuber formation exhibited significantly different expression upon re-watering. In addition, 1630, 1527 and 1596 transcription factor encoding genes were detected in CT, DT and RWT. DEGs of ERF, bHLH, MYB, NAC, WRKY, C2H2, bZIP and HD-ZIP families accounted for 50% in three comparison groups, respectively. Furthermore, characteristics of 565 gene ontology (GO and 108 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (KEGG were analyzed with the 4154 DEGs. All these results suggest that the drought- and water-stimulus response could be implemented by the regulated expression of metabolic pathway DEGs, and these genes were involved in the endogenous hormone biosynthesis and signal

  1. Detección de posibles duplicados en la Colección Central Colombiana de papa Solanum tuberosum subespecie andigena a partir de caracteres morfológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Ángela María

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Dentro de una colección de germoplasma, la presencia de materiales duplicados amenaza su identidad genética, enmascarando su variabilidad y aumentando los costos de manejo y mantenimiento. Por tal razón, con el fin de identificar los materiales candidatos a duplicados dentro de la Colección Central Colombiana de papa Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena, se llevó a cabo la caracterización morfológica con variables cualitativas. La investigación se realizó durante el primer y segundo semestre de 2004 en el Centro de Investigación Tibaitatá de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica. El análisis factorial de correspondencias múltiples (ACM permitió identificar los caracteres color primario y secundario de piel de tubérculo, color secundario de carne de tubérculo y color primario y secundario de flor, como los que mejor discriminan la colección, y mediante el análisis de conglomerados, se obtuvo un dendrograma que permitió definir siete grupos y cuatro subgrupos en los que se identificaron los posibles duplicados bajo un índice de nivel arbitrario que admitiera rigor estadístico y amplitud biológica. En total, se candidatizaron 64 materiales para una confirmación molecular posterior.

  2. A major QTL and an SSR marker associated with glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum × S. sparsipilum located at chromosome I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Olsson, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    tubers and identify markers that link tightly to this trait. In this study, tubers of a dihaploid BC1 population, originating from a cross between 90-HAF-01 (S. tuberosum 1) and 90-HAG-15 (S. tuberosum 2 × S. sparsipilum), were evaluated for content of α-solanine and α-chaconine (total glycoalkaloid, TGA...... and the HAF parent. Quantitative trait loci for glycoalkaloid production in foliage of different Solanum species have previously been mapped to this chromosome. In the present research, QTLs for α-solanine and α-chaconine content were mapped to the same location as for TGA content. Similar results were...

  3. Efecto de la temperatura sobre la transferencia de agua durante la deshidratación osmótica de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Paz, Reynaldo Justino; Della Rocca, Patricia A.; Tisocco, Osvaldo D.; Mascheroni, Rodolfo Horacio

    2016-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la cinética de deshidratación osmótica de papa (Solanum Tuberosum L.). Se comparó el ajuste de los datos experimentales con el modelo cinético fenomenológico y con el modelo de Azuara. Para ello, en cubos de 1 cm de arista se evaluó el efecto de la temperatura (30 ºC, 40 ºC y 50 ºC) sobre los coeficiente de difusión efectiva del agua y sólidos. Se determinó la pérdida de peso de agua y la ganancia de sólidos. Las mayores pérdidas de agua se o...

  4. Méthodes de mesure de l’âge physiologique des tubercules semences de pomme de terre (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    du Jardin P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment methods of physiological age of potato seed tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.. The study of potato tuber ageing possesses both fundamental and applied interests. Because of potential economical impacts, numerous attempts have been made to develop reliable biophysical, physiological or biochemical markers of physiological age of seed tubers intended for vegetative multiplication. At the present time, biophysical markers do not meet this objective, the obtained results being contradictory or not very transposable. Some physiological markers seem well-suited but they are not predictive. The biochemical studies often focus on potato tuber developmental process or are undertaken without accurate physiological reference frame. After defining the main concepts, this study synthesizes and critically evaluates the different methods used to assess physiological age. An integrated research strategy based on existing data is finally proposed to study potato tuber ageing.

  5. Genome-wide QTL and bulked transcriptomic analysis reveals new candidate genes for the control of tuber carotenoid content in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Raymond; Pont, Simon D A; Morris, Jenny A; McKenzie, Gaynor; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Hedley, Pete E; Ramsay, Gavin; Bryan, Glenn J; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide QTL analysis of potato tuber carotenoid content was investigated in populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja that segregate for flesh colour, revealing a novel major QTL on chromosome 9. The carotenoid content of edible plant storage organs is a key nutritional and quality trait. Although the structural genes that encode the biosynthetic enzymes are well characterised, much less is known about the factors that determine overall storage organ content. In this study, genome-wide QTL mapping, in concert with an efficient 'genetical genomics' analysis using bulked samples, has been employed to investigate the genetic architecture of potato tuber carotenoid content. Two diploid populations of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja were genotyped (AFLP, SSR and DArT markers) and analysed for their tuber carotenoid content over two growing seasons. Common to both populations were QTL that explained relatively small proportions of the variation in constituent carotenoids and a major QTL on chromosome 3 explaining up to 71 % of the variation in carotenoid content. In one of the populations (01H15), a second major carotenoid QTL was identified on chromosome 9, explaining up to 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Whereas the major chromosome 3 QTL was likely to be due to an allele of a gene encoding β-carotene hydroxylase, no known carotenoid biosynthetic genes are located in the vicinity of the chromosome 9 QTL. A unique expression profiling strategy using phenotypically distinct bulks comprised individuals with similar carotenoid content provided further support for the QTL mapping to chromosome 9. This study shows the potential of using the potato genome sequence to link genetic maps to data arising from eQTL approaches to enhance the discovery of candidate genes underlying QTLs.

  6. Nematofauna asociada a la rizosfera de papas (Solanum tuberosum cultivadas en la zona productora del Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, México Nematode fauna associated with the rhizosphere of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum grown in the region of Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Desgarennes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron y clasificaron en grupos tróficos las especies de nematodos asociados a la rizosfera de Solanum tuberosum en suelos altamente infectados por el nematodo dorado de la papa (Globodera rostochiensis en un ciclo de cultivo, en la zona productora del Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, México. Se identificaron 7 géneros (Aphelenchoides, Aphelenchus, Crassolabium, Mesodorylaimus, Plectus y Steinernema y 8 especies (Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus, Ecumenicus monohystera, Acrobeles mariannae, Acrobeles singulus, Acrobeloides nanus, Cruznema tripartitum, Eucephalobus oxyuroides, y Globodera rostochiensis en asociación con la rizosfera de papas cultivadas. Crassolabium sp. y E. monohystera se registran por primera vez para México.Nematode species associated with the rhizosphere of Solanum tuberosum were identified and classified into trophic groups from soils highly infected by the golden potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis in a single crop cycle in the producing zone on the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. Seven genera (Aphelenchoides, Aphelenchus, Crassolabium, Mesodorylaimus, Plectus and Steinernema and 8 species (Aporcelaimellus obtusicaudatus, Ecumenicus monohystera, Acrobeles mariannae, Acrobeles singulus, Acrobeloides nanus, Cruznema tripartitum, Eucephalobus oxyuroides, and Globodera rostochiensis were found in association with the rhizosphere of cultivated potatoes. Crassolabium sp. and E. monohystera are recorded for the first time in México.

  7. Climate Change: Precipitation and Plant Nutrition Interactions on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in North-Eastern Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    László Phd, M., ,, Dr.

    2009-04-01

    formation, yield quantity of potato depended decisively on the time of year when they were experienced and the period for which they lasted. Droughts in the winter or summer half-year had much the same effect on yield. Precipitation deficiency in the winter could not be counterbalanced by average rainfall during the vegetation period, and its effect on the yield was similar to that of summer drought. It was also concluded that economic yields could not be achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 0-150 kg ha-1 nitrogen and NP, NK, NPK, NPKMg combinations. Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5). And with the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of N: Y'=380.18-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NP: Y'=387.19-3.04x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96, NK: Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95, NPK: Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96 and NPKMg: Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96 nutrition systems. The optimum yields ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. Acknowledgement: This study were supported by Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (RISSAC-HAS), Budapest. References Johnston, A. E., 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139, 8. Kádár, I., Márton, L., Horváth, S., 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49, 291-306. Kádár, I., Szemes, I., 1994. A nyírlugosi tartamkísérlet 30 éve. MTA TAKI, Budapest, 248 p. Láng, I., 1973. Műtrágyázási tartamkísérletek homoktalajon. MTA Doktori értekezés. MTA TMB. Budapest

  8. Caracterización de la respuesta fisiológica de tres variedades de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) bajo condiciones de estrés por déficit hídrico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Pérez, Loyla

    2015-01-01

    En esta tesis se evalúo la respuesta fisiológica, bioquímica y de fenología de tres variedades colombianas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) sometidas a déficit hídrico y rehidratación. La hipótesis planteada fue que con base en el comportamiento de las variedades en las zonas de producción, las tres variedades de Solanum tuberosum L. presentarían respuesta diferencial a un período de déficit hídrico por suspensión del riego. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportam...

  9. Solanum tuberosum L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... sampling system. These genotypes were collected from production areas in high altitudes of the ... environmental stress factors (Aytac and Arslanoglu,. 2004). ...... Starch and Sugar Plant Production, Turkey VII. Technical.

  10. Characterization of chromosome instability in interspecific somatic hybrids obtained by X-ray fusion between potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and S. brevidens Phil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehér, A.; Preiszner, J.; Litkey, Z.; Csanádi, G; Dudits, D.

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetric somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum L. and S. brevidens Phil. have been obtained via the fusion of protoplasts from potato leaves and from cell suspension culture of S. brevidens. The wild Solanum species served as donor after irradiation of its protoplasts with a lethal X-ray dose (200 Gy). Selection of the putative hybrids was based on the kanamycin-resistance marker gene previously introduced into the genome of Solanum brevidens by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Thirteen out of the 45 selected clones exhibited reduced morphogenic potential. The morphological abnormalities of the regenerated plantlets were gradually eliminated during the extended in vitro culture period. Cytological investigations revealed that the number of chromosomes in the cultured S. brevidens cells used as protoplast source ranged between 28-40 instead of the basic 2n=24 value. There was a high degree of aneuploidy in all of the investigated hybrid clones, and at least 12 extra chromosomes were observed in addition to the potato chromosomes (2n=48). Interand intraclonal variation and segregation during vegetative propagation indicated the genetic instability of the hybrids, which can be ascribed to the pre-existing and X-ray irradiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in the donor S. brevidens cells. The detection of centromeric chromosome fragments and long, poly-constrictional chromosomes in cytological preparations as well as non-parental bands in Southern hybridizations with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers revealed extensive chromosome rearrangements in most of the regenerated clones. On the basis of the limited number of RFLP probes used, preferential loss of S. brevidens specific markers with a non-random elimination pattern could be detected in hybrid regenerants

  11. Propuesta de un sistema de transformación de plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena var. Pastusa suprema mediado por Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Alfredo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se ha demostrado que la transformación de papa (Solanum tuberosum mediada por Agrobacterium tumefaciens es dependiente del genotipo y que la mayoría de protocolos de transformación reportados son ineficientes al aplicarlos en la subespecie andigena. En esta propuesta se manejaron los procesos iniciales de mejoramiento genético de la nueva variedad colombiana de papa Pastusa suprema (Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena que es altamente androestéril, característica de gran importancia para los organismos modificados genéticamente. Esta variedad resultó de la hibridación interespecífica de tres especies de papa (Solanum stoloniferum, Solanum phureja var. Yema de huevo y Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena var. Parda pastusa. Se transformaron explantes internodales mediante el vector pCambia2301 que posee un gen reportero de la β-glucoronidasa y un gen de resistencia a la kanamicina. Se obtuvo un porcentaje de transformación inicial de 31 ± 2,5%, que se expresó mediante formación de callo sobre medios de selección y una frecuencia final con base en el ensayo GUS de 30%. Este es el primer reporte de transformación de un híbrido interespecífico de tres especies diferentes.

  12. Efecto antioxidante y citoprotector del tocosh de Solanum tuberosum ‘papa’ en la mucosa gástrica de animales de experimentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Hernán Sandoval Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El tocosh es un producto alimenticio obtenido por una técnica de conservación andina y que tiene propiedades nutritivas y terapéuticas. Objetivo: Demostrar la capacidad antioxidante y el efecto citoprotector del tocosh de Solanum tuberosum ‘papa’ en la mucosa gástrica de animales de experimentación. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Tocosh seco y molido administrado a ratas albinas. Intervenciones: A 6 grupos de ratas albinas machos (200 ± 50 g se les dividió en: (GI solución NaCl 0,9%, 10 mL/kg;(GII etanol al 70% a 10 mL/kg; (GIII, IV y V Tocosh equivalente a 900 mg/kg, 1 800 mg/kg y 2 700 mg/kg, respectivamente, y (GVI sucralfato 30 mg/kg. En todos los casos, una hora después se indujo injuria con etanol 70° a 10 mL/kg y por laparotomía abdominal se obtuvo el tejido gástrico. Principales medidas de resultados: Porcentaje de citoprotección gástrica en imagen digitalizada por image analysis software for plant disease quantification y capacidad antioxidante por lipoperoxidación método espectrofotométrico de la reacción de especies reactivas al ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. Resultados: La marcha fitoquímica identificó compuestos fenólicos, alcaloides, triterpenoides y esteroides, azúcares reductores y aminoácidos libres como metabolitos secundarios. Las dosis de 2 700 mg/kg y 900 mg/kg resultaron en 0,72 y 1,81 nmol/g tejido de lipoperoxidación, respectivamente. La dosis de 1 800 mg/kg protegió un 97% del área de la mucosa gástrica, 2 700 mg/kg un 95% y la de 900 mg/kg, 88% (p<0,05. La dosis de 1 800 mg/kg exhibió mejor efecto citoprotector y la de 2 700 mg/kg mejor actividad antioxidante, comparada con sucralfato 30 mg/kg. Conclusiones: El tocosh de Solanum tuberosum ‘papa’ tuvo efecto citoprotector y actividad antioxidante.

  13. Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis of its value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Irish potato, food security, stakeholder analysis, sustainability indicators, Cool Farm Tool-Potato, yield gap, resource use efficiency, LINTUL-POTATO model, Zimbabwe.

    Oniward Svubure (2015). Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum

  14. Combination of the auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 improves the commercial seed-tuber production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25-5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3 + 1 mg L(-1) NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L(-1) NAA + 0.25 mg L(-1) GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders.

  15. Evaluación de diferentes combinaciones fitohormonales en la regeneración de Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae Var. Pastusa Suprema a partir de explantes internodales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Paola Jiménez Barreto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La regeneración de plantas mediante el cultivo de tejidos es un importante componente de la biotecnología que es requerido para procesos tales como la obtención de plantas transgénicas. Se estableció un sistema eficiente de regeneración para la especie Solanum tuberosum L. var. Pastusa Suprema, susceptible de ser transformada genéticamente. Se evaluó el efecto de las fitohormonas zeatina ribósido (ZR, ácido naftalénacetico (ANA y ácido gibérelico (AG3, utilizadas en combinaciones específicas, sobre la inducción de callo, la regeneración y el número de brotes producidos por explante. La presencia de ANA demostró ser esencial en la respuesta callogénica y regenerativa de los explantes. Se encontró que la adición de 3,0 mg/L de ZR, 0,02 mg/L de ANA y 1,0 mg/L de AG3 sobre un medio básico M-S, es una formulación hormonal adecuada para inducir el proceso de organogénesis indirecta sobre la variedad de papa Pastusa Suprema; produce callogénesis y regeneración en porcentajes superiores al 90%, con un promedio de seis regenerantes por explante.

  16. Influence of the time of application of 32P triple Superphosphate on the efficiency of the phosphate fertilization and the productivity of the potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas, O.G.; Alvarez, A.L.; Urquiaga, S.

    1986-01-01

    A study was performed on a soil derived from volcanic ash (Andic Humitropept), in Pasto (Narino), Colombia, to investigate the influence of additions of 100 and 200 Kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 , at two application times (planting and 30 days after emergence - DAE), on the fertilizer use efficiency and productivity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Pardo Pastusa. At planting the phosphorus was applied in a continuous row in the furrow, and at 30 DAE at one side of the plant row, and immediately covered with soil from both sides of the furrow. The fertilizer used was 32 P labelled triple superphosphate (143.59 μ Ci.g -1 p -1 . It was found that: a) the phosphorus fertilization significantly increased (P -1 ) and the accumulation (from 8 to 17.8 kg P ha -1 ) by the tubers, but there was no significant effect of the different rates or times of the fertilizer application; b) the accumulation of P by the plant accompanied the accumulation of plant dry matter; c) at 75 DAE the fraction of fertiliser P in the plant shoot in the treatment fertilized at 30 DAE (52.1%) was significantly higher than that fertilized at planting (21.8%), and this corresponded to a P fertilizer use efficiency of 2.4 and 0.82, respectively

  17. The effect of in vitro mycorrhization on growth characteristics, changes in endogenous hormones and performance of microplants in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro PARVIZI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantlets were inoculated in vitro with an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices and their growth response, performance and endogenous hormonal status evaluated. A factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design consisting of two potato cultivars (Agria and Sante and four culture media was conducted with four replications. The culture media included non-inoculated Murashige and Skoog (MS medium (control, inoculated MS medium, inoculated half-strength MS medium and inoculated MS medium without vitamins and sugar. To do inoculation, germinated spores of fungus were transferred to the root zone of plantlets. Colonization percentage, total chlorophyll content, internodes and stolon length, shoot diameter, shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area and the level of three endogenous hormones (total auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins were determined. In addition, mini-tuber production was assayed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results demonstrated that the effect of two factors on all characteristics including mini-tuber production was different significantly. Interaction between cultivar and inoculation systems was significantly associated with endogen auxins as well as all range of mini-tuber production. The inoculated MS medium showed the better results, but it did not have significant difference to half-strength MS in terms of plantlet performance and growing parameters. Responses of both cultivars to inoculation were very conspicuous in the production of endogen hormones. Higher endogen hormone levels were associated with elevated growth parameters, greater biomass production and better plantlet performance.

  18. Purification of a novel chitin-binding lectin with antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities from a bangladeshi cultivar of potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Ozeki, Yasuhiro; Kabir, Syed Rashel

    2014-04-01

    A new chitin-binding lectin was purified from a Bangladeshi cultivar 'Deshi' of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) through anion-exchange and affinity chromatographies using a chitin column. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed the molecular mass of the lectin as 20,000 Daltons. This molecular mass was almost half of the molecular masses of chitin-binding lectins derived from other potatoes. The lectin showed both bactericidal and growth-inhibiting activities against Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Shigella boydii) pathogenic bacteria. It also showed antifungal activity against Rhizopus spp., Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger. Biofilm produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa was dose-dependently reduced by 5-20% in 24 h after administration of the lectin, which was attributed to the glycan-binding property of the lectin having affinity to GlcNAc polymers. It was the first observation that any potato lectin prevented biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa and, therefore, could have possible applications in clinical microbiology and biomedical science.

  19. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its relationship to other plant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lydia J R; Brockington, Samuel F; Murphy, Alex M; Pate, Adrienne E; Gruden, Kristina; MacFarlane, Stuart A; Palukaitis, Peter; Carr, John P

    2016-03-16

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) catalyze synthesis of double-stranded RNAs that can serve to initiate or amplify RNA silencing. Arabidopsis thaliana has six RDR genes; RDRs 1, 2 and 6 have roles in anti-viral RNA silencing. RDR6 is constitutively expressed but RDR1 expression is elevated following plant treatment with defensive phytohormones. RDR1 also contributes to basal virus resistance. RDR1 has been studied in several species including A. thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), N. benthamiana, N. attenuata and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) but not to our knowledge in potato (S. tuberosum). StRDR1 was identified and shown to be salicylic acid-responsive. StRDR1 transcript accumulation decreased in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing a hairpin construct and these plants were challenged with three viruses: potato virus Y, potato virus X, and tobacco mosaic virus. Suppression of StRDR1 gene expression did not increase the susceptibility of potato to these viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RDR genes present in potato and in a range of other plant species identified a new RDR gene family, not present in potato and found only in Rosids (but apparently lost in the Rosid A. thaliana) for which we propose the name RDR7.

  20. Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 reduces photosynthetic capacity and tuber production, and promotes ABA-mediated stomatal closure in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuanyuan, Guochao; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Ruofang; Jiang, Jiming

    2017-08-01

    Nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) is one of the most ubiquitous transcription factors (TFs), comprising NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC subunits, and has been identified and reported in various aspects of development for plants and animals. In this work, StNF-YB3.1, a putative potato NF-YB subunit encoding gene, was isolated from Solanum tuberosum by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Overexpression of StNF-YB3.1 in potato (cv. Atlantic) resulted in accelerated onset of flowering, and significant increase in leaf chlorophyll content in field trials. However, transgenic potato plants overexpressing StNF-YB3.1 (OEYB3.1) showed significant decreases in photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance both at tuber initiation and bulking stages. OEYB3.1 lines were associated with significantly fewer tuber numbers and yield reduction. Guard cell size and stomatal density were not changed in OEYB3.1 plants, whereas ABA-mediated stomatal closure was accelerated compared to that of wild type plants because of the up-regulation of genes for ABA signaling, such as StCPK10-like, StSnRK2.6/OST1-like, StSnRK2.7-like and StSLAC1-like. We speculate that the acceleration of stomatal closure was a possible reason for the significantly decreased stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea.

  2. Infestation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) alters cellular redox status and is influenced by ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchev, Pavel I; Fenton, Brian; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) is a major pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) but the molecular characterization of this interaction particularly with regard to oxidants and antioxidants remains to be undertaken. Aphid colonies reared on potato leaves containing high ascorbate were twice the size of those grown on leaves with low ascorbate. Infestation-dependent decreases in the abundance of key transcripts such as chloroplastic FeSOD, peroxisomal catalase 2, PR1 and JAZ1 preceded detectable leaf H(2)O(2) or polyphenol accumulation. The leaf glutathione pool was increased 48 h after infestation, but the amount of ascorbate was unchanged. The ascorbate/dehydroacorbate (DHA) ratio was lower at 48 h but the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) was unchanged. While DHA reductase and GSSG reductase activities were unaffected by aphid feeding, non-specific peroxidase activities were enhanced 48 h following aphid infestation. Brown ethanol-insoluble deposits were observed close to leaf veins following aphid infestation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that high ascorbate favours aphid colony expansion and that perturbations in the leaf antioxidant system are intrinsic to the potato leaf response to aphids. Moreover, these changes together with the induction of hormone-related transcripts precede the deposition of defence-associated oxidized polyphenols along the stylet track. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comprehensive genome-wide analysis of Glutathione S-transferase gene family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and their expression profiling in various anatomical tissues and perturbation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shiful; Choudhury, Mouraj; Majlish, Al-Nahian Khan; Islam, Tahmina; Ghosh, Ajit

    2018-01-10

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous enzymes which play versatile functions including cellular detoxification and stress tolerance. In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide identification of GST gene family was carried out in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). The result demonstrated the presence of at least 90 GST genes in potato which is greater than any other reported species. According to the phylogenetic analyses of Arabidopsis, rice and potato GST members, GSTs could be subdivided into ten different classes and each class is found to be highly conserved. The largest class of potato GST family is tau with 66 members, followed by phi and lambda. The chromosomal localization analysis revealed the highly uneven distribution of StGST genes across the potato genome. Transcript profiling of 55 StGST genes showed the tissue-specific expression for most of the members. Moreover, expression of StGST genes were mainly repressed in response to abiotic stresses, while largely induced in response to biotic and hormonal elicitations. Further analysis of StGST gene's promoter identified the presence of various stress responsive cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, one of the highly stress responsive StGST members, StGSTU46, showed strong affinity towards flurazole with lowest binding energy of -7.6kcal/mol that could be used as antidote to protect crop against herbicides. These findings will facilitate the further functional and evolutionary characterization of GST genes in potato. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduction of the plastidial phosphorylase in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals impact on storage starch structure during growth at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orawetz, Tom; Malinova, Irina; Orzechowski, Slawomir; Fettke, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), one of the most important crops, are a prominent example for an efficient production of storage starch. Nevertheless, the synthesis of this storage starch is not completely understood. The plastidial phosphorylase (Pho1; EC 2.4.1.1) catalyzes the reversible transfer of glucosyl residues from glucose-1-phosphate to the non-reducing end of α-glucans with the release of orthophosphate. Thus, the enzyme is in principle able to act during starch synthesis. However, so far under normal growth conditions no alterations in tuber starch metabolism were observed. Based on analyses of other species and also from in vitro experiments with potato tuber slices it was supposed, that Pho1 has a stronger impact on starch metabolism, when plants grow under low temperature conditions. Therefore, we analyzed the starch content, granule size, as well as the internal structure of starch granules isolated from potato plants grown under low temperatures. Besides wild type, transgenic potato plants with a strong reduction in the Pho1 activity were analyzed. No significant alterations in starch content and granule size were detected. In contrast, when plants were cultivated at low temperatures the chain length distributions of the starch granules were altered. Thus, the granules contained more short glucan chains. That was not observed in the transgenic plants, revealing that Pho1 in wild type is involved in the formation of the short glucan chains, at least at low temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. A Medicago truncatula H+-pyrophosphatase gene, MtVP1, improves sucrose accumulation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J W; Wang, H Q; Xiang, W W; Chai, T Y

    2014-05-09

    We recently cloned MtVP1, a type I vacuolar-type H(+)-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase from Medicago truncatula. In the present study, we investigated the cellular location and the function of this H(+)-PPase in Arabidopsis and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). An MtVP1::enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion was constructed, which localized to the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressing MtVP1 had more robust root systems and redder shoots than wild-type (WT) plants under conditions of cold stress. Furthermore, overexpression of MtVP1 in potato accelerated the formation and growth of vegetative organs. The tuber buds and stem base of transgenic potatoes became redder than those of WT plants, but flowering was delayed by approximately half a month. Interestingly, anthocyanin biosynthesis was promoted in transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and potato tuber buds. The sucrose concentration of transgenic potato tubers and tuber buds was enhanced compared with that of WT plants. Furthermore, sucrose concentration in tubers was higher than that in tuber buds. Although there was no direct evidence to support Fuglsang's hypothetical model regarding the effects of H(+)-PPase on sucrose phloem loading, we speculated that sucrose concentration was increased in tuber buds owing to the increased concentration in tubers. Therefore, overexpressed MtVP1 enhanced sucrose accumulation of source organs, which might enhance sucrose transport to sink organs, thus affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  7. Nutrient Concentrations of Bush Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Cultivated in Subarctic Soils Managed with Intercropping and Willow (Salix spp. Agroforestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan J. Wilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ease food insecurities in northern Canada, some remote communities started gardening initiatives to gain more access to locally grown foods. Bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. were assessed for N, P, K, Mg, and Ca concentrations of foliage as indicators of plant nutrition in a calcareous silty loam soil of northern Ontario James Bay lowlands. Crops were grown in sole cropping and intercropping configurations, with comparisons made between an open field and an agroforestry site enclosed with willow (Salix spp. trees. Foliage chemical analysis of the sites revealed an abundance of Ca, adequacies for Mg and N, and deficiencies in P and K. Intercropping bean and potato did not show significant crop–crop facilitation for nutrients. The agroforestry site showed to be a superior management practice for the James Bay lowland region, specifically for P. The agroforestry site had significantly greater P for bean plant (p = 0.024 and potato foliage (p = 0.002 compared to the open site. It is suspected that the presence of willows improve plant available P to bean and potatoes by tree root—crop root interactions and microclimate enhancements.

  8. A recombination point is conserved in the mitochondrial genome of higher plant species and located downstream from the cox2 pseudogene in Solanum tuberosum L.

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    Susely F.S. Tada

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The potato (Solanum tuberosum L. mitochondrial cox3/sdh4/pseudo-cox2 gene cluster has previously been identified by heterologous hybridization using a Marchantia polymorpha sdh4 probe. In our present study we used Southern blotting using sdh4 and cox2 probes to show that the sdh4 and cox2 genes are clustered in the mitochondria of potato, soybean and pea. Northern blotting revealed cotranscription of sdh4 and cox2 in potato but not in cauliflower, indicating that these genes are not clustered in cauliflower. A putative recombination point was detected downstream of the cox2 pseudogene (pseudo-cox2 in potato mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. This sequence corresponds to a 32 bp sequence which appears to be well-conserved and is adjacent to the terminals of some mitochondrial genes in Citrullus lanatus, Beta vulgaris and Arabidopsis thaliana and is probably involved in the genic rearrangements. It is possible the potato mtDNA pseudo-cox2 gene was generated by recombination during evolution in the same way as that of several other mitochondrial genes and remains as an inactive partial copy of the functional cox2 which was also detected in potato mtDNA.

  9. Comparación cuantitativa de ácido abscísico y citoquininas en la tuberización de Solanum tuberosum L. y Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk.

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    Ortiz Luz Yineth

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    De las 30 variedades de papa cultivadas en Colombia tan solo 10 poseen importancia comercial. Entre otros factores, este número es limitado por la acción de hormonas endógenas que aceleran diferentes fases del proceso de tuberización, especialmente en las especies más precoces. En este trabajo fueron recolectadas muestras de tubérculos de diferentes especies de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. var. ICA-Única y Tuquerreña, y Solanum phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Yema de Huevo, en los estadios fenológicos de desarrollo 03, 10 y 40. Posteriormente, las concentraciones de ácido abscísico (ABA presentes en la fracción ácida y de citoquininas presentes en la fracción orgánica de los extractos fueron determinadas a través de Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia. Los resultados en las variedades estudiadas relacionan la precocidad de la tuberización con la ausencia de ABA y los periodos de mayor latencia con su presencia; por otro lado, las concentraciones de citoquininas fueron evidentes en las variedades con mayor precocidad. Es decir, en S. phureja Juz. et Buk. var. Yema de Huevo se encontraron concentraciones bajas de ABA y altas de citoquininas; mientras que en ICA-Única y, en especial, en Tuquerreña, variedades con periodos de latencia mayor, las concentraciones de ABA fueron altas y las de citoquininas menos significativas.

  10. Estudio de libertad de operación para una línea genéticamente modificada de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Chaparro-Giraldo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Study of freedom to operate for a genetically modified potato (Solanum tuberosum L. line Título corto: Libertad de operación para papa GM Resumen: Durante el desarrollo de los productos biotecnológicos son utilizados materiales y procesos, que pueden estar protegidos por derechos de propiedad intelectual. Para evitar problemas legales en su comercialización, se deben realizar estudios de libertad de operación. Este estudio se realizó sobre una línea genéticamente modificada (GM de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. derivada de la variedad Pastusa Suprema, que expresa el gene Cry1Ac de Bacillus thuringiensis, desarrollada por la Corporación de Ciencias Biológicas y la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín. El punto de partida, fue la deconstrucción del producto, cuyo resultado fue la lista de materiales y procesos usados en el desarrollo del producto. Se buscaron en bases de datos nacionales e internacionales de acceso público, las solicitudes de patentes y patentes relacionadas. En el nivel internacional, se encontraron cuatro solicitudes de patentes y dieciocho patentes relacionadas, la mayoría de las cuales, no han sido solicitadas en Colombia. En el nivel nacional, se encontraron 13 solicitudes de patentes, que han caducado, han sido negadas, abandonadas, desistidas, o están en requerimiento. Se encontró que la variedad tiene registro comercial, pero no título de obtentor. También se examinaron documentos de las instituciones participantes, que contuvieran cláusulas sobre propiedad intelectual, y otros documentos de interés, como los acuerdos de transferencia de materiales (ATM. Se concluye que la libertad de operación puede estar afectada más por problemas detectados en los ATM y en la complejidad de los acuerdos interinstitucionales suscritos, que por los derechos de propiedad intelectual. Palabras clave: Derechos de propiedad intelectual, biotecnología, cultivos transgénicos. Abstract:

  11. Control biológico del Tizón Tardío Phytophthora infestans en papa Solanum tuberosum a través de consorcios microbianos formados por hongos nativos del género Trichoderma sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante Gavilanes, Adriana Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación evalúo la eficiencia de consorcios microbianos formados por hongos nativos del género Trichoderma sp. como biocontroladores del tizón tardío Phytophthora infestans en papa Solanum tuberosum. En las pruebas de antagonismo las cepas del género Trichoderma sp. inhibieron en promedio entre 83% y 87% al patógeno. En base a los resultados obtenidos en el ensayo de campo mostró que el tratamiento T3: Trichoderma harzianum+ Trichoderma sp. + Trichoderma atroviride es más efectivo ...

  12. Detección Serológica y Molecular del Virus PVY N y su variante PVY NTN en Papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) y Hospedantes Alternos en Tapalpa, México

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-de la Cruz, Miguel; Gómez-Leyva, Juan Florencio; López-Muraira, Irma Guadalupe; Dimas-Estrada, María Susana; Andrade-González, Isaac; Ireta-Moreno, Javier

    2007-01-01

    Se realizó un muestreo en cultivos de papa (Solanum tuberosum) para semilla en la zona productora de Tapalpa, Jalisco, México, así como de maleza e insectos asociados al cultivo con el objetivo de determinar la presencia del virus PVY N y su variante PVY NTN. Mediante técnicas serológicas y moleculares se analizaron 41 variedades de papa, 19 de Tapalpa, y 22 provenientes de Toluca, Estado de México. Con la técnica de DAS-ELISA, la variedad Malinche de Tapalpa fue positiva a PVY N, mientras qu...

  13. Combination of the Auxins NAA, IBA, and IAA with GA3 Improves the Commercial Seed-Tuber Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) under In Vitro Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumlay, Ahmet Metin

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the effects of 1.0 × MS medium containing various concentrations of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), alone or in combination with gibberellic acid (GA3) in micropropagation of three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Pasinler, Granola, and Caspar using binodal stem cuttings. The results testified improved regeneration on 1.0 × MS medium containing variants of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 on all cultivars. The minimum days to shoot induction on three cultivars ranged 4.25–5 d on 1.0 × MS medium containing 0.25 mg L−1  GA3 + 1 mg L−1 NAA. The longest shoots (11.8 cm), maximum number of nodes (13.50), and maximum number of leaves (11.00) were recorded on cv. Caspar on 1.0 × MS medium containing 1 mg L−1  NAA + 0.25 mg L−1 GA3. The minimum time to root induction (12.25 d) was noted on cv. Pasinler on the same medium. All of the regenerated shoots could be easily rooted. The results showed that the combined effect of various concentrations of NAA, IAA, and IBA plus GA3 was more pronounced compared to the auxins used alone. The results of this research are of significant importance for potato breeders. PMID:25028654

  14. Producción de polihidroxialcanoatos por bacterias halófilas nativas utilizando almidón de cáscaras de Solanum tuberosum L.

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    César Guzmán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of starch Solanum tuberosum L. “potato” peels for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA, from native halophilic bacteria as an alternative to reduce production costs of these biopolymers, possible replacements for petrochemical plastics. The bacteria were isolated of water samples of eight saline Lamba yeque region and were enriched in HM 1 broth at 30 °C with 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 g 100 mL - 1 NaCl. Dilutions were performed subsequently, aliquots were taken and plated on HM 1 agar, 203 isolates of halophilic bacteria were obtained, they were grown in HM 2 broth with 10 g.L - 1 glucose as carbon source and the 38.92% of the isolates showed PHA granules stained by Sudan Black B. Twenty bacteria with PHA granules in 65 – 75% over carried to fermentation, reaching between 0.174 to 0.889 g . g - 1 of yield Y (p / x. Three isolates were selected with the highest values among which Halomonas sp M4C1 grew and synthesized PHA in HM 2 broth with 5, 10, 15 and 20 g . L - 1 of starch as carbon source, reaching 0.019; 0.016; 0.007 y 0.006 g . L - 1 of PHA, with 0.177; 0.111; 0.056 an d 0.066 g . L - 1 of biomass after 20, 40, 24 and 16 hours respectively. The highest yield of 0.144 g . g - 1 corresponded to 10 g . L - 1 of starch demonstrating that this concentration is feasible PHA production by native halophilic bacteria.

  15. Inhibition of a ubiquitously expressed pectin methyl esterase in Solanum tuberosum L. affects plant growth, leaf growth polarity, and ion partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, J; Willmitzer, L; Bücking, H; Fisahn, J

    2004-05-01

    Two pectin methyl esterases (PMEs; EC 3.1.1.11) from Solanum tuberosum were isolated and their expression characterised. One partial clone ( pest1) was expressed in leaves and fruit tissue, while pest2 was a functional full-length clone and was expressed ubiquitously, with a preference for aerial organs. Potato plants were transformed with a chimeric antisense construct that was designed to simultaneously inhibit pest1 and pest2 transcript accumulation; however, reduction of mRNA levels was confined to pest2. The decrease in pest2 transcript was accompanied by up to 50% inhibition of total PME activity, which was probably due to the reduction of only one PME isoform. PME inhibition affected plant development as reflected by smaller stem elongation rates of selected transformants when compared with control plants, leading to a reduction in height throughout the entire course of development. Expansion rates of young developing leaves were measured simultaneously by two displacement transducers in the direction of the leaf tip (proximal-distal axis) and in the perpendicular direction (medial-lateral axis). Significant differences in leaf growth patterns were detected between wild-type and transgenic plants. We suggest that these visual phenotypes could be correlated with modifications of ion accumulation and partitioning within the transgenic plants. The ion-binding capacities of cell walls from PME-inhibited plants were specifically modified as they preferentially bound more sodium, but less potassium and calcium. X-ray microanalysis also indicated an increase in the concentration of several ions within the leaf apoplast of transgenic plants. Moreover, quantification of the total content of major cations revealed differences specific for a given element between the leaves of PME-inhibited and wild-type plants. Reduced growth rates might also be due to effects of PME inhibition on pectin metabolism, predominantly illustrated by an accumulation of galacturonic acid

  16. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  17. In silico insights into protein-protein interactions and folding dynamics of the saposin-like domain of Solanum tuberosum aspartic protease.

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    Dref C De Moura

    Full Text Available The plant-specific insert is an approximately 100-residue domain found exclusively within the C-terminal lobe of some plant aspartic proteases. Structurally, this domain is a member of the saposin-like protein family, and is involved in plant pathogen defense as well as vacuolar targeting of the parent protease molecule. Similar to other members of the saposin-like protein family, most notably saposins A and C, the recently resolved crystal structure of potato (Solanum tuberosum plant-specific insert has been shown to exist in a substrate-bound open conformation in which the plant-specific insert oligomerizes to form homodimers. In addition to the open structure, a closed conformation also exists having the classic saposin fold of the saposin-like protein family as observed in the crystal structure of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. plant-specific insert. In the present study, the mechanisms of tertiary and quaternary conformation changes of potato plant-specific insert were investigated in silico as a function of pH. Umbrella sampling and determination of the free energy change of dissociation of the plant-specific insert homodimer revealed that increasing the pH of the system to near physiological levels reduced the free energy barrier to dissociation. Furthermore, principal component analysis was used to characterize conformational changes at both acidic and neutral pH. The results indicated that the plant-specific insert may adopt a tertiary structure similar to the characteristic saposin fold and suggest a potential new structural motif among saposin-like proteins. To our knowledge, this acidified PSI structure presents the first example of an alternative saposin-fold motif for any member of the large and diverse SAPLIP family.

  18. SNPs in genes functional in starch-sugar interconversion associate with natural variation of tuber starch and sugar content of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Lena; Nader-Nieto, Anna Camila; Schönhals, Elske Maria; Walkemeier, Birgit; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2014-07-31

    Starch accumulation and breakdown are vital processes in plant storage organs such as seeds, roots, and tubers. In tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) a small fraction of starch is converted into the reducing sugars glucose and fructose. Reducing sugars accumulate in response to cold temperatures. Even small quantities of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed products such as chips and French fries. Tuber starch and sugar content are inversely correlated complex traits that are controlled by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Based on in silico annotation of the potato genome sequence, 123 loci are involved in starch-sugar interconversion, approximately half of which have been previously cloned and characterized. By means of candidate gene association mapping, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes known to have key functions in starch-sugar interconversion, which were diagnostic for increased tuber starch and/or decreased sugar content and vice versa. Most positive or negative effects of SNPs on tuber-reducing sugar content were reproducible in two different collections of potato cultivars. The diagnostic SNP markers are useful for breeding applications. An allele of the plastidic starch phosphorylase PHO1a associated with increased tuber starch content was cloned as full-length cDNA and characterized. The PHO1a-HA allele has several amino acid changes, one of which is unique among all known starch/glycogen phosphorylases. This mutation might cause reduced enzyme activity due to impaired formation of the active dimers, thereby limiting starch breakdown. Copyright © 2014 Schreiber et al.

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the Solanum tuberosum (potato) trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene family: evolution and differential expression during development and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingchun; Wang, Yanjie; Mattson, Neil; Yang, Liu; Jin, Qijiang

    2017-12-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) serves important functions in plant desiccation tolerance and response to environmental stimuli. At present, a comprehensive analysis, i.e. functional classification, molecular evolution, and expression patterns of this gene family are still lacking in Solanum tuberosum (potato). In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the TPS gene family was conducted in potato. A total of eight putative potato TPS genes (StTPSs) were identified by searching the latest potato genome sequence. The amino acid identity among eight StTPSs varied from 59.91 to 89.54%. Analysis of d N /d S ratios suggested that regions in the TPP (trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase) domains evolved faster than the TPS domains. Although the sequence of the eight StTPSs showed high similarity (2571-2796 bp), their gene length is highly differentiated (3189-8406 bp). Many of the regulatory elements possibly related to phytohormones, abiotic stress and development were identified in different TPS genes. Based on the phylogenetic tree constructed using TPS genes of potato, and four other Solanaceae plants, TPS genes could be categorized into 6 distinct groups. Analysis revealed that purifying selection most likely played a major role during the evolution of this family. Amino acid changes detected in specific branches of the phylogenetic tree suggests relaxed constraints might have contributed to functional divergence among groups. Moreover, StTPSs were found to exhibit tissue and treatment specific expression patterns upon analysis of transcriptome data, and performing qRT-PCR. This study provides a reference for genome-wide identification of the potato TPS gene family and sets a framework for further functional studies of this important gene family in development and stress response.

  20. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Yuling [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Chen, Dan [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Chen, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Haoli, E-mail: mahaoli@nwsuaf.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  1. Two carbon fluxes to reserve starch in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber cells are closely interconnected but differently modulated by temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettke, Joerg; Leifels, Lydia; Brust, Henrike; Herbst, Karoline; Steup, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Parenchyma cells from tubers of Solanum tuberosum L. convert several externally supplied sugars to starch but the rates vary largely. Conversion of glucose 1-phosphate to starch is exceptionally efficient. In this communication, tuber slices were incubated with either of four solutions containing equimolar [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate, [U-¹⁴C]sucrose, [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate plus unlabelled equimolar sucrose or [U-¹⁴C]sucrose plus unlabelled equimolar glucose 1-phosphate. C¹⁴-incorporation into starch was monitored. In slices from freshly harvested tubers each unlabelled compound strongly enhanced ¹⁴C incorporation into starch indicating closely interacting paths of starch biosynthesis. However, enhancement disappeared when the tubers were stored. The two paths (and, consequently, the mutual enhancement effect) differ in temperature dependence. At lower temperatures, the glucose 1-phosphate-dependent path is functional, reaching maximal activity at approximately 20 °C but the flux of the sucrose-dependent route strongly increases above 20 °C. Results are confirmed by in vitro experiments using [U-¹⁴C]glucose 1-phosphate or adenosine-[U-¹⁴C]glucose and by quantitative zymograms of starch synthase or phosphorylase activity. In mutants almost completely lacking the plastidial phosphorylase isozyme(s), the glucose 1-phosphate-dependent path is largely impeded. Irrespective of the size of the granules, glucose 1-phosphate-dependent incorporation per granule surface area is essentially equal. Furthermore, within the granules no preference of distinct glucosyl acceptor sites was detectable. Thus, the path is integrated into the entire granule biosynthesis. In vitro C¹⁴C-incorporation into starch granules mediated by the recombinant plastidial phosphorylase isozyme clearly differed from the in situ results. Taken together, the data clearly demonstrate that two closely but flexibly interacting general paths of starch biosynthesis are functional

  2. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae); Impacto dos nutrientes N e K e de acucares soluveis sobre populacoes de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) e Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) na cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Pinheiral, RJ (Brazil). Pro-Reitoria de Extensao], e-mail: edsonhenrique.azeredo@bol.com.br; Lima, Eduardo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Centro Integrado de Manejo de Pragas C.R.G.

    2004-03-15

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha{sup -1} of N + K with 27.03% at P< 0,05. It was observed that the effect of the dosage of N + K in the increment of the concentration of soluble sugars increased the damages in the tubercles and stems by A. ipsilon. The infestation by these species increased to 58.82% on the Monalisa cultivar, when the nitrogen dosage increased from zero to 150 kg.ha{sup -1}, in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  3. Agro-transformation and evaluation of resistance to Phytophthora infestansin Solanum tuberosumL. variety Désirée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Orbegozo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of the disease known as late blight, is primarily responsible for the decreased in production performance and potato crops worldwide. The integration of the complete Rgenes sequences in the potato genome using Agro-transformation appears an alternative to be considered in the fight against this pathogen. The Rpi-blb2 gene (Rgene from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanumDunal shows a broad resistance to isolates ofP. infestans,making it an important candidate for plant breeding studies. This paper reports the integration of the Rpi-blb2gene into potato var. Désirée genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens- mediated transformation system, the molecular characterization of 29 events transformed and whole plant infection with isolate POX67 of P. infestansfrom Peru. Désirée events [Rpi-blb2] 4 and Désirée [Rpi-blb2] 30, showed a substantial resistance to P. infestansinfection confirming complete transfer of the Rpi-blb2gene from a wild species to a cultivated species by genetic transformation.

  4. Modeling the influence of raindrop size on the wash-off losses of copper-based fungicides sprayed on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Paradelo, Marcos; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Fernández-Calviño, David; López-Periago, José Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the pesticide wash-off by raindrops is important for predicting pesticide losses and the subsequent transport of pesticides to soil and in soil run-off. Three foliar-applied copper-based fungicide formulations, specifically the Bordeaux mixture (BM), copper oxychloride (CO), and a mixture of copper oxychloride and propylene glycol (CO-PG), were tested on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves using a laboratory raindrop simulator. The losses in the wash-off were quantified as both copper in-solution loss and copper as particles detached by the raindrops. The efficiency of the raindrop impact on the wash-off was modeled using a stochastic model based on the pesticide release by raindrops. In addition, the influence of the raindrop size, drop falling height, and fungicide dose was analyzed using a full factorial experimental design. The average losses per dose after 14 mm of dripped water for a crop with a leaf area index equal to 1 were 0.08 kg Cu ha(-1) (BM), 0.3 kg Cu ha(-1) (CO) and 0.47 kg Cu ha(-1) (CO-PG). The stochastic model was able to simulate the time course of the wash-off losses and to estimate the losses of both Cu in solution and as particles by the raindrop impacts. For the Cu-oxychloride fungicides, the majority of the Cu was lost as particles that detached from the potato leaves. The percentage of Cu lost increased with the decreasing raindrop size in the three fungicides for the same amount of dripped water. This result suggested that the impact energy is not a limiting factor in the particle detachment rate of high doses. The dosage of the fungicide was the most influential factor in the losses of Cu for the three formulations studied. The results allowed us to quantify the factors that should be considered when estimating the losses by the wash-off of copper-based fungicides and the inputs of copper to the soil by raindrop wash-off.

  5. Influence of Species of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Phosphorus Nutrition on Growth, Development, and Mineral Nutrition of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, DAJ.; Knowles, N. R.

    1993-07-01

    Growth, development, and mineral physiology of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants in response to infection by three species of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and different levels of P nutrition were characterized. P deficiency in no-P and low-P (0.5 mM) nonmycorrhizal plants developed between 28 and 84 d after planting. By 84 d after planting, P deficiency decreased plant relative growth rate such that no-P and low-P plants had, respectively, 65 and 45% less dry mass and 76 and 55% less total P than plants grown with high P (2.5 mM). A severe reduction in leaf area was also evident, because P deficiency induced a restriction of lateral bud growth and leaf expansion and, also, decreased the relative plant allocation of dry matter to leaf growth. Root growth was less influenced by P deficiency than either leaf or stem growth. Moreover, P-deficient plants accumulated a higher proportion of total available P than high-P plants, indicating that P stress had enhanced root efficiency of P acquisition. Plant P deficiency did not alter the shoot concentration of N, K, Mg, or Fe; however, the total accumulation of these mineral nutrients in shoots of P-stressed plants was substantially less than that of high-P plants. P uptake by roots was enhanced by each of the VAM symbionts by 56 d after planting and at all levels of abiotic P supply. Species differed in their ability to colonize roots and similarly to produce a plant growth response. In this regard, Glomus intraradices (Schenck and Smith) enhanced plant growth the most, whereas Glomus dimorphicum (Boyetchko and Tewari) was least effective, and Glomus mosseae ([Nicol. and Gerd.] Gerd. and Trappe) produced an intermediate growth response. The partial alleviation of P deficiency in no-P and low-P plants by VAM fungi stimulated uptake of N, K, Mg, Fe, and Zn. VAM fungi enhanced shoot concentrations of P, N, and Mg by 28 d after planting and, through a general improvement of overall plant mineral nutrition

  6. Growth, yield and quality attributes of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kufri chandramukhi) under ambient and elevated carbon dioxide and ozone and their interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to study the growth and yield responses of a tropical potato variety (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Kufri chandramukhi) to different levels of carbon dioxide (382 and 570ppm) and ozone (50 and 70ppb) in combinations using open top chambers (OTCs). Plants were exposed to three ozone levels in combination with ambient CO2 and two ozone levels at elevated CO2. Significant increments in leaf area and total biomass were observed under elevated CO2 in combination with ambient O3 (ECO2+AO3) and elevated O3 (ECO2+EO3), compared to the plants grown under ambient concentrations (ACO2+AO3). Yield measured as fresh weight of potato also increased significantly under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3. Yield, however, reduced under ambient (ACO2+AO3) and elevated ozone (ACO2+EO3) compared to ACO2 (filtered chamber). Number, fresh and dry weights of tubers of size 35-50mm and>50mm used for direct consumption and industrial purposes, respectively increased maximally under ECO2+AO3. Ambient as well as elevated levels of O3 negatively affected the growth parameters and yield mainly due to reductions in number and weight of tubers of sizes >35mm. The quality of potato tubers was also modified under different treatments. Starch content increased and K, Zn and Fe concentrations decreased under ECO2+AO3 and ECO2+EO3 compared to ACO2+AO3. Starch content reduced under ACO2+AO3 and ACO2+EO3 treatments compared to ACO2. These results clearly suggest that elevated CO2 has provided complete protection to ambient O3 as the potato yield was higher under ECO2+AO3 compared to ACO2. However, ambient CO2 is not enough to protect the plants under ambient O3 levels. Elevated CO2 also provided protection against elevated O3 by improving the yield. Quality of tubers is modified by both CO2 and O3, which have serious implications on human health at present and in future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluación de cinco genotipos promisorios de papa Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena según desempeño agronómico y calidad industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Nancy M.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Con base en variables cualitativas y cuantitativas se llevó a cabo la evaluación de cinco genotipos promisorios de papa Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena pertenecientes a la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria –CORPOICA– y de la variedad Diacol Capiro, en siete localidades del país. Los resultados se analizaron por métodos univariados y multivariados para conocer las características que discriminaban a los materiales. En el análisis multivariado de componentes principales, los primeros cuatro componentes representan el 95,22% de la variación total. Las variables de mayor influencia fueron época de maduración, época de emergencia, peso total de los tubérculos por parcela, peso de los tubérculos de tamaño primera, peso de los tubérculos de tamaño cero, peso de los tubérculos de tamaño cuarta, gravedad específica y materia seca. Se detectó que existe interacción significativa entre genotipo y ambiente para las variables de rendimiento en frito y calidad industrial, las cuales, según el análisis de estabilidad fenotípica de Kang (1991, permitieron seleccionar los clones 2, 7 y 14 como los más rendidores y estables según las características peso total de los tubérculos por parcela, materia seca y rendimiento en frito. Considerando el índice de rendimiento y la estabilidad fenotípica combinadas, el clon 7 se recomienda como el material más promisorio.

  8. Climate Change and Potassium Effects Under Different N-Fertilization Input on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in a Long Term Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    achieved with poor N, P, K and Mg nutrient supply even with a normal quantity and distribution of rainfall. Yield was influenced by rainfall to a greater extent (Table 4) than by 150 kg ha-1 potassium combinations (NK, NPK, NPKMg). Drought and over rainfall negative effects were decreased by increasing N- doses with combinations of potassium, phosphorous and magnesium from 13 to 32% (Table 5 and 6). With the help of regression analysis it was found the polynomial correlation between rainfall and yield could be observed in the case of NK (Y'=381.65-2.95x+0.0056x2, n=72, R2=0.95), NPK (Y'=390.87-3.07x+0.0060x2, n=72, R2=0.96) and NPKMg (Y'=390.45-3.06x+0.0059x2, n=72, R2=0.96) nutrition systems. The optimum yield ranges between 17-20 t ha-1 at 280-330 mm of rainfall. From 1962 to 1979 the weather was highly variable, with particularly frequent droughts and over rainfall resulting in yield losses of 13 to 32 percentin in this period. Thus it is important to analyse the consequences of possible future climate change on crop in Hungary. REFERENCES A.E. Johnston. 2000. Some aspects of nitrogen use efficiency in arable agriculture. K. Scogs-o. Lantbr. Akad. Tidskr. 139: 8. Kádár, I-Márton, L.-Horváth, S. 2000. Mineral fertilisation of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. Plant Production. 49: 291-306. László, M. 2000. Nutrition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on Hungary on a chernozem soil. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 81-93. László, M. 2001a. Climate change and N, P, K, Mg fertilization effects on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) yield and quality. EAPR. Hamburg. In press László, M. 2001b. Year and N- fertilizer effect on winter rye (Secale cereale L.) yield in a long term field experiment. XLIII. Georgikon Days. University of Veszprém. Keszthely László, M.-Imre, K.-Jose, E.M. 2000a. Effects of Crotalaria juncea L. and Crotalaria spectabilis ROTH. on soil fertility and soil conservation in Hungary. Acta Agronomica Óváriensis. 42: 99

  9. Obtención de plantas sanas de papa, Solanum tuberosum L. Variedad salentuna. A través de las técnicas de termoterapia y cultivo de meristemas in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marulanda Aguirre Adriana

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron plantas Super Elite de papa (Solanum tuberosum L., de la variedad regional Salentuna, catalogada como papa filia, implementando las técnicas de termoterapia, cultivo in vitro de meristemas y multiplicación acelerada. Se limpió esta variedad del complejo de enfermedades que la afectaban, para entregarle a los productores un material sano que los motive a regresar al campo con una alternativa de producción de mayor calidad y rentabilidad. La falta de semilla sana es una necesidad sentida por los agricultores del departamento de Caldas, pues hace más de treinta años que no se renueva el material vegetal y no existen programas de producción de semilla certificad de esta variedad en el país.

  10. Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas en cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. en el Valle de Toluca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tarin Gutiérrez-Ibáñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Detection of Ca Liberibacter solanacearum and phytoplasma in potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L. in Toluca Valley Título corto: Detección de Ca Liberibacter solanacearum y fitoplasmas Resumen En México y Centro América se han detectado tubérculos de papa con manchado interno. Recientemente en Texas EUA a esta enfermedad se le ha denominado “Zebra Chip” (ZC o rayado de la papa, los síntomas foliares se asemejan al síndrome denominado “Punta Morada de la Papa” (PMP o enfermedad del “amarillamiento por psilidos” la cual es asociada con la presencia de “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum”. El objetivo de esta investigación fue detectar la presencia de esta bacteria y de fitoplasmas en plantas de papa que presentaban la coloración purpura de los foliolos. Durante el ciclo primavera – verano 2011 y 2012 se hizo un muestreo en los municipios de Tenango del Valle, Zinacantepec, Villa de Allende y San José del Rincón, del Estado de México. La detección de ambos patógenos se realizó mediante la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR con los iniciadores específicos para fitoplasmas: P1/P7, R16mF2/R16mR1 y para Ca Liberibacter solanacearum: OA2/Oi2c, resultando el 35,8% de las plantas positivas para fitoplasmas y el 11,6% para la bacteria. Los resultados indican  que en algunas regiones productoras de papa del Estado de México,  los dos presuntos agentes causales del síndrome de  PMP, fitoplasmas y Ca. Liberibacter solanacearum, pueden estar asociados. Palabras clave: Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum; Fitoplasma; punta morada. Abstract In Mexico and Central America have been detected stained potato tubers with internal browning; recently in Texas, USA, this disease has been called "Zebra Chip" (ZC or striped potato, foliar symptoms resemble the syndrome called "Potato Purple Top" (PPT or "psyllid yellows" disease which is associated with the presence of "Candidatus liberibacter solanacearum

  11. Variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L.. I - Comportamento de 12 variedades procedentes da Holanda, Alemanha e Suécia Behavior of twelve potato varieties from European sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são relatadas experiências com 12 variedades de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., recebidas da Holanda (Prinslander, Irene, Froma e Barima, Alemanha (Merkur, Sabina, Linda e Concordia e Suécia Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran e Jätte-Bintje. Essas experiências, em número de seis, das quais três no chamado período "da sêca" (março-julho e três no "das águas" (setembro-janeiro, foram executadas nas localidades de Campinas, Louveira o Capão Bonito, no Estado de São Paulo. Ficou evidenciado o seguinte: a dado o bom estado de brotação dos tubérculos, as porcentagens de falhas no plantio "da sêca" foram baixas; já no plantio "das águas", as variedades de brotação lenta, como "Voran" e "Sabina", falharam muito; b "Prinslander" e "Konsuragis" resistiram bem à sêca prolongada, e "Barima" o "Linda" mostraram ser muito sensíveis; c "Linda", "Voran" e "Merkur", principalmente a primeira destas, apresentaram boa resistência a Phytophthora infestans, e "Jätte-Bintje" foi muito suscetível; "Voran", "Irene", "Prinslander" e "Barima" não ofereceram resistência a Alternaria solani; d "Merkur" e "Konsuragis" foram as mais produtivas para as duas épocas de plantio, sendo que "nas águas", "Eigenheimer", "Barima", "Concordia" e Jätte-Bintje", também produziram bem. Outros aspectos relacionados com variedades foram estudados.Twelve potato varieties imported from Holland (Prinslander, Irene, Froma, and Barima, Germany (Merkur, Sabina, Linda, and Concordia, and Sweden (Konsuragis, Eigenheimer, Voran, and Jätte-Bintje were compared in six experiments carried out at three different localities in the state of São Paulo (Campinas, Louveira, and Capão Bonito. The experiments were planted twice a year, once during the so-called dry season (March lo July, and another time during the rainy season (September to March. The following results were obtained: a plantings made in the dry season had a good stand, whereas this was

  12. Assessment of Paclobutrazol’s Time and Concentration of Foliar Application on Production and Germination of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Mini-tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Saadatian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Health and quality of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. seeds are important in the potato seed production technology. Moreover, the basic seed materials must be free of pathogens. Therefore tissue culture techniques are used at this stage in the laboratory to produce disease free seeds. Mini-tubers can be produced after acclimatization from plantlets as tissue culture which are planted at high densities in the greenhouse in beds or containers using different substrate mixtures, or even in hydroponic culture. Foliar application of growth regulators is a way to increase potato mini-tuber production. Growth regulators influence on potato mini-tuber dormancy. Triazoles, a family which Paclobutrazol belongs to them, have both fungitoxic and plant growth regulatory effects. In addition, they can also protect plants against various stresses. Therefore, the triazoles have been characterized as plant multi-protestants. Paclobutrazol changes the relationship between source and sink and by this way, affects plant production. Also, it can inhibit giberellic acid biosynthesis. Some morphological changes observed in paclobutrazol-treated plants include the inhibition of plant growth, decreased inter-nodal elongation and increased root to shoot ratios. Time of paclobutrazol foliar application is an important factor which changes plant characters (Lim et al., 2004. This study implemented to evaluate foliar application of paclobutrazol concentrations at different time on production and mini-tuber dormancy. Materials and Methods The factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at the faculty of agriculture’s research greenhouse, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Plantlets of Agria cv. produced from nodal tissue culture in Murashinge and Skoog (MS medium. After 25 days, plantlets of free disease and uniform exported to plastic pots with 12 cm diameter and 30 cm height. Perlite, cocopite

  13. Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: Producing Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. and Bush Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. for Improved Food Security and Resilience in a Canadian Subarctic First Nations Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine D. Barbeau

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboriginal people in Canada experience disproportionately high rates of diet-related illnesses, such as obesity and diabetes. Food insecurity has been identified as a contributing factor to these illnesses along with a loss of traditional lifestyle. Current food systems within northern subarctic and arctic regions of Canada rely heavily on imported foods that are expensive (when available, and are environmentally unsustainable. A warming subarctic and arctic climate present challenges, but also offers the opportunity for local agricultural production that can increase food security and promote a more sustainable food system. In this study the feasibility of sustainably growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing agroforestry practices to enhance food security in remote subarctic communities is explored through a case study in Fort Albany First Nation in northern Ontario, Canada. Potato crops were grown over a two-year period and rotated into plots that had been planted with green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Results showed that potatoes and bush beans could be grown successfully in the subarctic without the use of greenhouses with yields comparable to more conventional high-input agricultural methods. In subarctic Canada, sustainable local food production can help to promote social capital, healthier lifestyles, and food security.

  14. Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo, Edson Henrique de; Lima, Eduardo; Cassino, Paulo Cesar Rodrigues

    2004-01-01

    Impact of the nutrients N and K and soluble sugars on Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) populations in potato crops, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae). The occurrence of Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824) and Agrotis ipsilon (Huefnagel, 1767) on the potato cultivars Achat and Monalisa, influenced by nitrogen and potassium dosage, and minimum quantity of soluble sugars, was studied. The following parameters were evaluated: concentration of mineral nutrient and sugar in green leaf, senescent leaf, leaf in abscission, stem, tubercle and total plant using extracts of infusion in ethanol 80%. The largest infestation of D. speciosa larvae was on Monalisa cultivar at 150 kg.ha -1 of N + K with 27.03% at P -1 , in the absence of potassium. On the other hand, high dosage of K reduced the damages by A. ipsilon on Monalisa cultivar. However, it did not influence the storage of soluble sugar. The results indicated that in Achat cultivar the accumulated soluble sugar was reduced, probably sensitized by elevation of potassic fertilization dosing, differing from Monalisa cultivar, in which the influence was by nitrogen dosing. (author)

  15. Characterization of StABF1, a stress-responsive bZIP transcription factor from Solanum tuberosum L. that is phosphorylated by StCDPK2 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz García, María Noelia; Giammaria, Verónica; Grandellis, Carolina; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Ulloa, Rita María; Capiati, Daniela Andrea

    2012-04-01

    ABF/AREB bZIP transcription factors mediate plant abiotic stress responses by regulating the expression of stress-related genes. These proteins bind to the abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive element (ABRE), which is the major cis-acting regulatory sequence in ABA-dependent gene expression. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress resistance in cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), we have cloned and characterized an ABF/AREB-like transcription factor from potato, named StABF1. The predicted protein shares 45-57% identity with A. thaliana ABFs proteins and 96% identity with the S. lycopersicum SlAREB1 and presents all of the distinctive features of ABF/AREB transcription factors. Furthermore, StABF1 is able to bind to the ABRE in vitro. StABF1 gene is induced in response to ABA, drought, salt stress and cold, suggesting that it might be a key regulator of ABA-dependent stress signaling pathways in cultivated potato. StABF1 is phosphorylated in response to ABA and salt stress in a calcium-dependent manner, and we have identified a potato CDPK isoform (StCDPK2) that phosphorylates StABF1 in vitro. Interestingly, StABF1 expression is increased during tuber development and by tuber-inducing conditions (high sucrose/nitrogen ratio) in leaves. We also found that StABF1 calcium-dependent phosphorylation is stimulated by tuber-inducing conditions and inhibited by gibberellic acid, which inhibits tuberization.

  16. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  17. Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora distinguish odour profiles from qualitatively different potatoes Solanum tuberosum L.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Miriam Frida; Birgersson, Göran; Witzgall, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Guatemalan potato moth, Tecia solanivora, lay eggs in the soil nearby potato Solanum spp. and larvae feed on the tubers. We investigated the oviposition behaviour of T. solanivora females and the survival of larval offspring on healthy vs. stressed, i.e. light exposed and/or damaged potato tubers...... that volatiles guide the females to lay fewer eggs on stressed tubers that are of inferior quality for the larvae. We propose that volatiles, such as sesquiterpenes and aldehydes, mediate oviposition behaviour and are correlated with biosynthetically related, non-volatile compounds, such as steroidal....... In choice tests, females laid significantly more eggs in response to potato odour of healthy tubers and female oviposition preference correlated with higher larval survival. Survival of larvae was negatively correlated with the tuber content of the steroid glycoalkaloids α-solanine and α-chaconine: healthy...

  18. RESPUESTA DE DIFERENTES POBLACIONES DE Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea A LA ROTACIÓN ENTRE DOS VARIEDADES DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT POPULATIONS OF Spongospora subterranea f .sp. subterranea TO ROTATION OF TWO POTATO CULTIVARS (Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Jaramillo Villegas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En una zona papera del Oriente de Antioquia - Colombia, se realizaron tres experimentos, para conocer el comportamiento de las variedades ICA Puracé, considerada por los agricultores, como resistente a la sarna polvosa de la papa, y la variedad Diacol Capiro susceptible. Se pretendió evaluar si hay un efecto de la rotación, entre las dos variedades con diferentes poblaciones de Spongospora subterranea f sp. subterranea sobre la sarna polvosa. Se utilizaron quistosoros de 23 poblaciones de S. subterranea, extraídos de pústulas presentes en tubérculos o agallas en raíces de diferentes variedades, y procedentes de las regiones más productoras de papa en el país. Se determinó la incidencia y el grado de severidad de dichas poblaciones bajo el proceso de rotación entre ICA Puracé-Diacol Capiro y viceversa, en tres cosechas sucesivas, en condiciones de casa de malla. Se observó que las poblaciones del patógeno, no afectaron el peso, ni causaron síntomas de sarna polvosa en los tubérculos, pero si en las raíces, con diferentes grados de severidad en las dos variedades, con tendencia poco predecible en las distintas cosechas, con niveles bajo (> 0 a 2, medio (> 2 a 6 y alto (>6, siendo mas susceptible la Diacol Capiro, que al parecer favoreció el incremento del inóculo. Diacol Capiro, presentó alta incidencia (23/23 y severidad (algunas poblaciones con grado >6 en el primer ciclo, mientras que la ICA Puracé fue levemente afectada por pocas poblaciones (7/23 de S. subterranea y posiblemente presentó efecto supresivo sobre los quistosoros en el suelo en la rotación (segundo ciclo, puesto que se redujo el grado de severidad (In Antioquia Colombia were realized three experiments with potatoes, to know the behavior of the ICA Puracé cultivar, considered by agricultures as powder scab resistant, and the Diacol Capiro cultivar, which is highly susceptible. It is pretended to evaluate if there is a rotation effect, of the two varieties and different populations of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea on the powder scab. Cistosori (spore balls was extracted from 23 populations of S. subterranea extracted from pustules in tubers surface or galls in roots from different varieties, from potato regions of Colombia . The incidence and severity degree of these populations was evaluated under the process of the ICA Puracé-Diacol Capiro rotation and viceversa, in three successive harvests, under the mesh house conditions. It was observed that the different pathogen populations did not affect the weight, neither caused powder scab symptoms in the tubers, although presented different severity levels on the roots of two varieties with unpredictable tendency during the different harvests, with low level (> 0 to 2, medium (>2 to 6 and high (>6 symptoms, being more susceptible the Diacol Capiro, which apparently incremented the infection in the soil. The ICA Puracé was low level affected by few population (7/23 with the powder scab, during the first cycle and possibly presented a suppressive effect over the powdery scab for the Diacol Capiro rotation in the second harvest, and then, a rising in the galls of both varieties during the third harvest, in the pots where originally planted, because of a possible increasing of cistosori in the soil. The initial rotation reduces the powder scab symptoms (second harvest in Diacol Capiro, but the ICA Puracé cultivar is more affected trough the generations where Diacol Capiro was growing.

  19. Asociaciones de marcadores moleculares con la resistencia a enfermedades, caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos en familias diploides de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quince familias de papa (840 genotipos provenientes de cruzas inter-específicas entre especies de Solanum stenotomum, S. goniocalyx y S. phureja  fueron genotipadas, con el objetivo de asociar  seis marcadores moleculares (GP94, HC, Nl25, Gro 1-4, RYSC3 y CP60 con genes mayores de resistencia para tizón tardío (Phytophthora infestans, verruga (Synchytrium endobioticum, nematodo - quiste (Globodera pallida y G. rostochiensis y virus PVY y PVX. Los resultados mostraron que cinco de los marcadores aplicados fueron polimórficos y amplificaron en más del 80% de las familias. El marcador RYSC3 que co-localiza con el gen Ryadg no amplificó en ninguna de las familias evaluadas. La familia 8 amplificó la banda para tres marcadores (CP60, GP94 y NL25 en la totalidad de sus clones. La prueba de χ2 se utilizó para determinar el ajuste de las proporciones de segregación de cada familia para cada marcador y genotipar los progenitores. Nueve caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos fueron evaluados en la cosecha. Mediante agrupamiento cluster fueron seleccionados 107 clones con resistencia a PVX, P. infestans, G. rostochiensis y S. endobioticum, alto rendimiento y volumen de tubérculos, elevado número de tubérculos y ojos superficiales. Sobre la base de estos resultados, aspectos prácticos para la aplicación eficiente de la selección asistida por marcadores moleculares son discutidos en este artículo.

  20. Transfer of U, Al and Mn in the water–soil–plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) system near a former uranium mining area (Cunha Baixa, Portugal) and implications to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, M.O.; Figueiredo, V.R.; Abreu, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about metals in crops, grown in contaminated soils around mine sites, is limited and concerns about exposure to hazardous elements through the consumption of contaminated foodstuff, are high. In this study a field experiment was carried out in two agricultural soils located near a former uranium mine area (Cunha Baixa, Portugal). The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of irrigation water quality on soil–potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop system and to evaluate if the consumption of the crop represents health risk to the local villagers. The soils were divided in two plots: one irrigated with contaminated water (U: 1.03–1.04 mg/L; Al: 7.5–8.00 mg/L; Mn: 4.52 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (U: 14–10 μg/L; Al: 17–23 μg/L; Mn: 2.4–5.7 μg/L). After irrigation and potato growth, only soil characteristics, as salinity and total U and Mn concentrations were significantly different from those measured at the beginning of the experiment. Within the potato plants, elements were mostly translocated and concentrated in the aerial part: stems and leaves (U: 73–87%; Al: 85–96%; Mn: 85–94%), which minimize the risk of contamination of the edible tissue. In potato tubers, the highest average concentrations (121–590 μg U/kg; 25–64 mg Al/kg; 12–13 mg Mn/kg dry weight) were registered at soil plots irrigated with contaminated water. Uranium and Al were mostly concentrated in the potato peel (88–96 and 76–85%, respectively), and Mn (67–78%) in the pulp, which reinforces the importance of removing peel to minimize human exposure. The risk analysis calculated for non-cancer health effects (hazard quotient), related only to the exposure through the consumption of this basic foodstuff, revealed safety for Cunha Baixa village residents (adults and children) even when potato crop was grown on U enriched soils and irrigated with contaminated water. - Highlights: ► Field experiment with potato in agricultural soils near a

  1. Transfer of U, Al and Mn in the water-soil-plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) system near a former uranium mining area (Cunha Baixa, Portugal) and implications to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, M.O., E-mail: orquidia.neves@ist.utl.pt [Centro de Petrologia e Geoquimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (TULisbon), Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Figueiredo, V.R., E-mail: vera.figueiredo@ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (TULisbon), Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Abreu, M.M., E-mail: manuelaabreu@isa.utl.pt [Unidade de Investigacao de Quimica Ambiental, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (TULisbon), Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge about metals in crops, grown in contaminated soils around mine sites, is limited and concerns about exposure to hazardous elements through the consumption of contaminated foodstuff, are high. In this study a field experiment was carried out in two agricultural soils located near a former uranium mine area (Cunha Baixa, Portugal). The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of irrigation water quality on soil-potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop system and to evaluate if the consumption of the crop represents health risk to the local villagers. The soils were divided in two plots: one irrigated with contaminated water (U: 1.03-1.04 mg/L; Al: 7.5-8.00 mg/L; Mn: 4.52 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (U: 14-10 {mu}g/L; Al: 17-23 {mu}g/L; Mn: 2.4-5.7 {mu}g/L). After irrigation and potato growth, only soil characteristics, as salinity and total U and Mn concentrations were significantly different from those measured at the beginning of the experiment. Within the potato plants, elements were mostly translocated and concentrated in the aerial part: stems and leaves (U: 73-87%; Al: 85-96%; Mn: 85-94%), which minimize the risk of contamination of the edible tissue. In potato tubers, the highest average concentrations (121-590 {mu}g U/kg; 25-64 mg Al/kg; 12-13 mg Mn/kg dry weight) were registered at soil plots irrigated with contaminated water. Uranium and Al were mostly concentrated in the potato peel (88-96 and 76-85%, respectively), and Mn (67-78%) in the pulp, which reinforces the importance of removing peel to minimize human exposure. The risk analysis calculated for non-cancer health effects (hazard quotient), related only to the exposure through the consumption of this basic foodstuff, revealed safety for Cunha Baixa village residents (adults and children) even when potato crop was grown on U enriched soils and irrigated with contaminated water. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Field experiment with potato in agricultural soils near

  2. Kajian Manajemen Pemasaran Kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palgunadi Palgunadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kayu Aro di Kabupaten Kerinci mempunyai kondisi agroklimat yang sesuai untuk pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman kentang. Rendahnya produktivitas kentang di Kabupaten Kerinci diduga ada hubungannya dengan faktor produksi dan gangguan hama penyakit, faktor penerapan strategi pemasaran yaitu strategi produksi, strategi harga dan strategi distribusi/pemasaran. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan antara manajemen pemasaran dengan harga yang diterima petani.  Penentuan lokasi penelitian dan contoh pedagang dilakukan secara sengaja (purposive, mencakup beberapa pedagang yang terlibat dalam pemasaran kentang, yang mendistribusikan produk ke luar daerah yang bukan bersifat musiman tetapi kontinyu. Pedagang antar kota sebanyak 30 orang yang terpencar di Kecamatan Kayu Aro, jumlah responden pedagang sebanyak 15 orang atau 50% dari jumlah sampel frame pedagang. Analisis data menggunakan model Korelasi Spearman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pedagang yang menerapkan manajemen pemasaran yang sangat baik berjumlah dua orang, manajemen pemasarannya baik sebanyak enam orang, dan tidak ada pedagang yang manajemen pemasarannya kurang-baik dan tidak-baik. Harga jual kentang rata – rata pada pedagang dengan manajemen pemasaran yang sangat-baik sebesar Rp. 1.753,906; pada pedangang dengan manajemen pemasaran yang baik sebesar Rp. 1.480,417; dan pada pedagang dengan manajemen pemasaran yang cukup-baik sebesar Rp. 1.341,295. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kedua variabel menunjukkan hubungan yang signifikan. Semakin baik tingkat manajemen pemasaran yang diterapkan pedagang kentang, ternyata harga jual kentang yang diterima pedagang semakin tinggi. Kata kunci: Pemasaran, pedagang, kentang

  3. Treated Wastewater Reuse on Potato (Solanum Tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in Northern Italy (Po Valley), within the frame of the EU project SAFIR, to asses the impact of treated wastewater reuse on potato yield, quality and hygiene. The potato crop was drip irrigated and fertigated. Wastewater produced by small communities (≤2000 EI......) was treated by Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) technology and gravel filter (FTS) during three cropping seasons. Treated wastewater, soil and tubers were analysed for the faecal indicator bacterium E. coli and heavy metals contents. Potato total yield was similar for tap and reused water, while the marketable...... production has been found higher with the latter. The tuber dry matter content as well as reducing sugars were not affected by reused water. Total sugars content was higher with MBR and FTS water. Water use efficiency (WUE) was significantly higher with reused water. Compared to tap water, crop gross margin...

  4. Morphological characterization of potato (Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saad

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... for this trait to least significant difference test (LSD) and all the varieties were grouped into five homogenous groups, where the means were not significantly different from one another (Tables 1 and 2). SH-19 and Asterix were in group 'A' by producing highest number of seedlings and this was also visible ...

  5. Rooting characteristics of Solanum chacoense and Solanum tuberosum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increases in root biomass and length have been linked to increased plant nitrogen (N) accumulation; however it is difficult to measure these parameters in soil environments. In vitro methods may aid in elucidating potato-rooting characteristics in relation to N use efficiency (NUE) due to a high lev...

  6. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  7. In vitro methods for mutation induction in potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important vegetable and staple crop worldwide and mainly propagated vegetatively. Breeding of potato is problematic and therefore induced mutation is an attractive means of improving the crop. In vitro culture systems, and especially the production of microtubers, are ideal for such ...

  8. Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria Associated With Irish Potato ( Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 15 samples of spoilt Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were collected from five grocery shops in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria and were analysed for aerobic mesophilic bacterial load. The isolated aerobic mesophilic bacteria were phenotypically characterized by biochemical tests and their susceptibility to ...

  9. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03).

  10. Avaliação da infestação de insetos-praga associados à batata (Solanum tuberosum L. sob efeito de nutrientes nitrogenados e potássicos e teores acumulados de aminoácidos livres nas cultivares Achat e Monalisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Henrique de Azeredo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of insect-pest infestation associated to potato (Solanum tuberosum L. under effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers and the accumulated amount of free aminoacids in Achat and Monalisa cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurence of insect-pests on potato plants influenced by dosages of nitrogen and potassium accumulated in plant organs. A total of 169 plants of the Achat and Monalisa cultivars were evaluated to determine the presence-absence of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 and Agrotis ipsilon Hüfnagel, 1767. The experiment was carried out and executed at the Universidade Federal Fluminense, and the delineation was complete randomized block design, with four replication and nine treatments, using three fertilization level (0; 75 and 150 Kg/ha with N-urea + KCl. The aminoacid levels were adjusted by the Leucine standard-curve (µg/l, using the Ninhydrin method, at 570 nm. The results showed that the tubercles of Monalisa accumulated high free aminoacid levels with 7,95% in the treatment N1K2 and 7,75% in the N2K1.These treatments, induced the infestation by D. speciosa larvae in 27,03%, when the aminoacid level was 2,01 ± 0,58% (X ± EP, with probability of 0,0196

  11. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  12. Efecto de la edad al trasplante y de la concentración de azúcar in vitro sobre la adaptación y el crecimiento de vitroplantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. vars. atlantic y 1625 frito lay en invernadero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Orozco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La aclimatización y posterior crecimiento y desarrollo in vivo de plantas propagadas in vitro constituye una de las etapas culminantes del proceso de micropropagación de una especie. Esta investigación se desarrolló con el objetivo de determinar el efecto de diferentes edades al trasplante (15, 20 y 25 días de cultivo y el preacondicionamiento in vitro con tres niveles de azúcar comercial (15, 30 y 45 g L-1 sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo en invernadero de vitroplantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. vars. Atlantic y 1625 Frito Lay. En el primer caso se usó el medio de cultivo MS (1962 suministrado por laboratorios Gibco, a razón de 17 g L-1 y suplementado con vitaminas y aminoácidos del mismo medio. En el segundo caso se usó el medio Hyponex a razón de 2.25 g L-1 suplementado con las vitaminas y aminoácidos del medio MS. Los resultados indican que es posible trasplantar a suelo plantas de ambas variedades en cualquiera de las tres edades, sin afectar el rendimiento de minitubérculos. Sin embargo, la tasa de fotosíntesis aparente (TFA se vio favorecida al incrementarse la edad. Respecto a la influencia del preacondicionamiento in vitro con diferentes concentraciones de azúcar, las plantas de la variedad Atlantic ganaron altura, peso seco de raíz y peso fresco y seco de minitubérculos con 15 g L-1 de azúcar, mientras que en plantas de la variedad 1625, este efecto se dio en la concentración de 30 g L-1; el número de minitubérculos no fue favorecido con las concentraciones de azúcar empleadas en el medio Hyponex, pero sí en el medio MS (1962. En este último caso, la TFA sufrió una ganancia gradual al aumentar la concentración de azúcar.

  13. Evaluación preliminar del efecto que sobre algunas enzimas del suelo tienen diferentes mecanismos de control del hongo (Phytophthora infestans en un cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum bajo dos tipos de manejo agrícola (orgánico y convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Nel Murcia García

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó comparativamente el posible efecto diferencial que, sobre la actividad de las enzimas proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina y celulasa, además del pH y la materia orgánica del suelo, tuvieron los métodos de control de Phytophthora infestans tanto en la agricultura orgánica (purín de Chipaca Bidens pilosum como en la convencional (diversos fungicidas comerciales en plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum. Igualmente, en los parámetros antes mencionados, se evaluó el efecto de un promotor fúngico utilizado como control del mismo hongo en ambas agriculturas. La investigación se dividió en una fase de campo y una de laboratorio. En la fase de campo, realizada durante siete meses de 1999, se acompañó la siembra, el desarrollo del cultivo y evolución de la enfermedad a través de la determinación de la incidencia y su severidad. En el laboratorio se determinó la actividad enzimática proteasa, fosfatasa ácida, fosfatasa alcalina, celulasa, así como también el pH y porcentaje de materia orgánica. Se encontró que en el manejo agrícola orgánico la actividad de la fosfatasa ácida, la fosfatasa alcalina y la proteasa así como también el pH fueron más influenciados por el estado de desarrollo de las plantas que por efecto del los tratamientos utilizados en el control del hongo. En el manejo agrícola convencional la actividad enzimática de las celulasas fue inhibida significativamente por los fungicidas. La actividad de las proteasas y fosfatasas ácidas fueron estimuladas por efecto de los fungicidas comerciales y por el estado de desarrollo de las plantas. Las actividades enzimáticas fosfatasa ácida, proteasa y celulasa presentaron comportamientos significativamente diferentes entre los cultivos convencional y orgánico. Para el control de la enfermedad, el uso de los fungicidas fue el tratamiento que mejores resultados presentó con una mayor producción de papa pero con mayores gastos de producción, mientras

  14. Extensive Variation in Fried Chip Color and Tuber Composition in Cold-Stored Tubers of Wild Potato (Solanum) Germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cold-induced sweetening and browning in the Maillard reaction have driven extensive research in the areas of plant physiology, biochemistry, and food science in Solanum tuberosum. To date, research in these areas excluded wild relatives of potato. This is the first assessment of cold-stored tuber c...

  15. The impact of aeration on potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aeroponic systems are more effective than hydroponics for minituber production, as provided by the optimal system for root oxygenation. The study was conducted to improve conventional hydroponic systems by applying aeration so as to enhance potato minituber production yield via providing adequate oxygen in the root ...

  16. Influence of ventilation and media on potato (Solanum tuberosum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Considering the most suitable relationship between ventilation and media in this study, two mixtures of perlite and coir (3:1, light and 1:3, heavy v/v) were applied to determine the growth characteristics var. Sante of potato plantlets. As potato has high potential in minituber production, different levels of.

  17. Evaluation of genetic stability in cryopreserved Solanum tuberosum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... and subsequent high plant regeneration are the basic requirements. The main ... empty sterile Petri dish exposed to a sterile air flow. The alginate .... The`se doctorale de l'universite´ de Rennes 1, France. Fabre J, Derreude J ...

  18. The efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Solanum tuberosum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human schistosomiasis is one of the important diseases of helminth origin; it is among the most devastating infectious parasitic disease responsible for several deaths and economic losses amongst ... The skinned suspended tails were then immersed in the test-tube containing 150 cercariae suspension for mice infections.

  19. Pectobacterium polaris sp. nov., isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, Merete Wiken; Lysøe, Erik; Rossmann, Simeon; Perminow, Juliana; Brurberg, May Bente

    2017-12-01

    The genus Pectobacterium, which belongs to the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, contains numerous species that cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants. The species Pectobacterium carotovorum is highly heterogeneous, indicating a need for re-evaluation and a better classification of the species. PacBio was used for sequencing of two soft-rot-causing bacterial strains (NIBIO1006 T and NIBIO1392), initially identified as P. carotovorumstrains by fatty acid analysis and sequencing of three housekeeping genes (dnaX, icdA and mdh). Their taxonomic relationship to other Pectobacterium species was determined and the distance from any described species within the genus Pectobacterium was less than 94 % average nucleotide identity (ANI). Based on ANI, phylogenetic data and genome-to-genome distance, strains NIBIO1006 T , NIBIO1392 and NCPPB3395 are suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Pectobacterium, for which the name Pectobacterium polaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIBIO1006 T (=DSM 105255 T =NCPPB 4611 T ).

  20. The impact of aeration on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) minituber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... 2Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia. 3Department of ... aeroponic systems in potato minituber production showed ...... seed as an important factor for growth and total yield.

  1. Shooting responses of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at IRAD Bambui (Cameroon) to evaluate the rate of shooting in four improved IRAD potato varieties: Cipira, Tubira, Mafo and Bambui wonder. Liquid and solid media stocks prepared according to the International Potato Center (CIP)'s protocol were used. A randomized complete ...

  2. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the world’s most important vegetable crop and central to global food security. Cultivated potato is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Numerous wild potato species serve as a resource for introgress...

  3. Solanum venturii, a suitable model system for virus-induced gene silencing studies in potato reveals StMKK6 as an important player in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobnik, David; Lazar, Ana; Stare, Tjaša; Gruden, Kristina; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Žel, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an optimal tool for functional analysis of genes in plants, as the viral vector spreads throughout the plant and causes reduced expression of selected gene over the whole plant. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the most important food crops,

  4. The SSP Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovitz, Richard

    1975-01-01

    Describes a cure for the high school chemistry student with Second Semester Poisoning (SSP), the student disease of apathy which occurs in the spring. Remedy: an outdoor (preferably) demonstration of a series of controlled combustion experiments, with accompanying explanations of the chemistry involved. (MLH)

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  6. Regulation of Streptococcus gordonii sspB by the sspA Gene Product

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sabaeny, Azza; Demuth, Donald R.; Lamont, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii expresses two related adhesins, SspA and SspB, the genes for which are adjacent on the chromosome and are regulated independently. Although the adhesins are functionally similar, the sspA promoter is more active than that of sspB. In this study we show an additional role for SspA in the control of sspB activity. Gel shift and DNA footprinting assays demonstrate that the SspA protein binds to the sspB promoter and protects a region 233 to 264 bp upstream of the predicted...

  7. Characteristics of Analog Rice From Potato Flour (Solanum Tuberosom L.) Corn Flour (Zea Mays L.) and Sago Flour (Arenga Microcarpa Beccari)

    OpenAIRE

    Korompis, Olga S; Mamuaja, Christine F; Mandey, Lucia C

    2016-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), corn (Zea mays L.) and sago (Arenga microcarpa Beccari) are crops containing high carbohydrate, as source of calory food, and those can be made into rice analog. This study aimed: (1) to determine the formulations by organoleptic test in manufacture analog rice from potato flour, corn flour and sago flour, and (2) to analyze the physical properties, chemical properties of rice analog from potato flour with the addition of corn flour and sago flour. The research ...

  8. In vitro development of buds from tubers of (Solanum tuberosum L.); Desarrollo in vitro de yemas procedentes de tuberculos de patata (Solanum tuberosum L.) tratados por radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J; Garcia Collantes, M A

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the in vitro development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. Ths effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradiation is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (Author) 17 refs.

  9. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus thermotolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Gouesbet , Gwenola; Jan , Gwenaël; Boyaval , Patrick

    2001-01-01

    International audience; Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is a lactic acid bacterium widely used in the dairy food industry. Since the industrial processes are a succession of constraints, it is essential to understand the behaviour of L. bulgaricus when facing usual stresses. The influence of heat stress was investigated on the viability of L. bulgaricus cells grown in a chemically defined medium. The susceptibility of cells to heat-shock was obvious only above 55 $^{\\circ}$C. We inv...

  10. Self-stabilized pinch (SSP) concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kiwamu; Hirano, Keiichi.

    1985-01-01

    Self-Stabilized pinch (SSP) consept is revealed. SSP providcs many attractive features for application to a fusion reactor. Design studies for high temperature plasma production are carried out. Use of adiabatic compression leads to a remarkable reduction of required power source. (author)

  11. Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus: a chronicle of evolution in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kafsi, Hela; Binesse, Johan; Loux, Valentin; Buratti, Julien; Boudebbouze, Samira; Dervyn, Rozenn; Kennedy, Sean; Galleron, Nathalie; Quinquis, Benoît; Batto, Jean-Michel; Moumen, Bouziane; Maguin, Emmanuelle; van de Guchte, Maarten

    2014-05-28

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus are lactic acid producing bacteria that are largely used in dairy industries, notably in cheese-making and yogurt production. An earlier in-depth study of the first completely sequenced ssp. bulgaricus genome revealed the characteristics of a genome in an active phase of rapid evolution, in what appears to be an adaptation to the milk environment. Here we examine for the first time if the same conclusions apply to the ssp. lactis, and discuss intra- and inter-subspecies genomic diversity in the context of evolutionary adaptation. Both L. delbrueckii ssp. show the signs of reductive evolution through the elimination of superfluous genes, thereby limiting their carbohydrate metabolic capacities and amino acid biosynthesis potential. In the ssp. lactis this reductive evolution has gone less far than in the ssp. bulgaricus. Consequently, the ssp. lactis retained more extended carbohydrate metabolizing capabilities than the ssp. bulgaricus but, due to high intra-subspecies diversity, very few carbohydrate substrates, if any, allow a reliable distinction of the two ssp. We further show that one of the most important traits, lactose fermentation, of one of the economically most important dairy bacteria, L. delbruecki ssp. bulgaricus, relies on horizontally acquired rather than deep ancestral genes. In this sense this bacterium may thus be regarded as a natural GMO avant la lettre. The dairy lactic acid producing bacteria L. delbrueckii ssp. lactis and ssp. bulgaricus appear to represent different points on the same evolutionary track of adaptation to the milk environment through the loss of superfluous functions and the acquisition of functions that allow an optimized utilization of milk resources, where the ssp. bulgaricus has progressed further away from the common ancestor.

  12. The Solanum commersonii Genome Sequence Provides Insights into Adaptation to Stress Conditions and Genome Evolution of Wild Potato Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversano, Riccardo; Contaldi, Felice; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Grosso, Valentina; Iorizzo, Massimo; Tatino, Filippo; Xumerle, Luciano; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Avanzato, Carla; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Sanseverino, Walter; Cigliano, Riccardo Aiese; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Gabaldón, Toni; Frusciante, Luigi; Bradeen, James M.; Carputo, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Solanum commersonii, which consists of ∼830 megabases with an N50 of 44,303 bp anchored to 12 chromosomes, using the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome sequence as a reference. Compared with potato, S. commersonii shows a striking reduction in heterozygosity (1.5% versus 53 to 59%), and differences in genome sizes were mainly due to variations in intergenic sequence length. Gene annotation by ab initio prediction supported by RNA-seq data produced a catalog of 1703 predicted microRNAs, 18,882 long noncoding RNAs of which 20% are shown to target cold-responsive genes, and 39,290 protein-coding genes with a significant repertoire of nonredundant nucleotide binding site-encoding genes and 126 cold-related genes that are lacking in S. tuberosum. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that domesticated potato and S. commersonii lineages diverged ∼2.3 million years ago. Three duplication periods corresponding to genome enrichment for particular gene families related to response to salt stress, water transport, growth, and defense response were discovered. The draft genome sequence of S. commersonii substantially increases our understanding of the domesticated germplasm, facilitating translation of acquired knowledge into advances in crop stability in light of global climate and environmental changes. PMID:25873387

  13. Protein profiling in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf tissues by differential centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sanghyun; Chisholm, Kenneth; Coffin, Robert H; Peters, Rick D; Al-Mughrabi, Khalil I; Wang-Pruski, Gefu; Pinto, Devanand M

    2012-04-06

    Foliar diseases, such as late blight, result in serious threats to potato production. As such, potato leaf tissue becomes an important substrate to study biological processes, such as plant defense responses to infection. Nonetheless, the potato leaf proteome remains poorly characterized. Here, we report protein profiling of potato leaf tissues using a modified differential centrifugation approach to separate the leaf tissues into cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions. This method helps to increase the number of identified proteins, including targeted putative cell wall proteins. The method allowed for the identification of 1484 nonredundant potato leaf proteins, of which 364 and 447 were reproducibly identified proteins in the cell wall and cytoplasmic fractions, respectively. Reproducibly identified proteins corresponded to over 70% of proteins identified in each replicate. A diverse range of proteins was identified based on their theoretical pI values, molecular masses, functional classification, and biological processes. Such a protein extraction method is effective for the establishment of a highly qualified proteome profile.

  14. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals in plants and potential phytoremediation of lead by potato, Solanum tuberosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Snyder, John C

    2007-05-01

    The use of sewage sludge as a source of nutrients in crop production is increasing in the United States and worldwide. A field study was conducted on a 10% slope at Kentucky State University Research Farm. Eighteen plots of 22x3.7 m each were separated using metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with sewage sludge, six plots were mixed with yard waste compost, and six unamended plots were used for comparison purposes. During a subsequent 3-year study, plots were planted with potato (year 1), pepper (year 2), and broccoli (year 3). The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) characterize chemical properties of soil-incorporated sewage sludge and yard waste compost; (ii) determine the concentration of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Mo) in sewage sludge and yard waste compost used for land farming; and (iii) monitor heavy metal concentrations in edible portions of plants at harvest. Concentrations of heavy metals in sewage sludge were below the U.S. EPA limits. Analysis of potato tubers, peppers, and broccoli grown in sludge-amended soil showed that Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were not significantly different from control plants. Concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mo were significantly greater in tubers and peppers grown in sludge compared to their respective controls. Zn and Mo in broccoli heads were higher than their control plants. The ability of potato to accumulate lead needs additional investigation to optimize the phytoremediation of this pollutant element.

  16. Exploratory sensory profiling of three culinary preparations of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Helene F; Tønning, Erik; Thybo, Anette K

    2011-01-15

    A consumer-oriented description of potato quality with regard to culinary preparation could increase potato consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory attributes in 11 potato varieties grown at two locations and used for three culinary preparations. Sensory evaluation of the potatoes served either as boiled, oven-fried or mashed were performed using 15-19 descriptors for appearance, flavour and texture attributes. A principal component analysis revealed that 45% of the variation in the sensory data was related to variety differences, which was ascribed to variation in appearance, dry matter content and texture. Growing location also significantly affected appearance and texture. The sensory panel judged the sensory attributes 'yellowness', 'hardness', 'adhesiveness' and 'moistness' to be important quality descriptors in all three culinary preparations. Internal references showed the high reproducibility of the sensory evaluations. The potatoes grown in a sandy location had higher content of dry matter compared to those grown in a clay location, affecting the quality. This study showed that it was possible to do reliable and reproducible sensory profiles in a potato material with a large span in quality. Sensory information based on few attributes can be used to describe culinary quality of potato varieties. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Criodesecación atmosférica de papa (Solanum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Ramírez Navas

    2011-01-01

    etapas del proceso, empleando el índice de amarillez, y se evaluaron las propiedades microbiológicas de las papas crio-desecadas tmosféricamente. Se concluye que el secado de rodajas de papa por CDA permite eliminar el crecimiento microbiológico y las reacciones químicas, pero es necesario realizar pretratamientos para evitar el pardamiento.

  18. De verspreiding van virusziekten van de aardappel (Solanum tuberosum L.) door insekten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elze, D.L.

    1927-01-01

    The object was to study the relation between virus and the transmitting insect, especially the aphids Myzus persicae Sulz., Myzus pseudosolani Theob., Macrosiphum solanifold Ashm., Aphis rhamni Fonsc. and Aphis fabae Scop. The diseases studied were leafroll, common mosaic (virus A), crinckle (virus

  19. Pseudomonas endophytica sp. nov., isolated from stem tissue of Solanum tuberosum L. in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Cuesta, Maria José; Tejedor, Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes; Peix, Álvaro

    2015-07-01

    A bacterial strain named BSTT44(T) was isolated in the course of a study of endophytic bacteria occurring in stems and roots of potato growing in a soil from Salamanca, Spain. The 16S rRNA gene sequence had 99.7% identity with respect to that of its closest relative, Pseudomonas psychrophila E-3T, and the next most closely related type strains were those of Pseudomonas fragi, with 99.6% similarity, Pseudomonas deceptionensis, with 99.2% similarity, and Pseudomonas lundensis, with 99.0% similarity; these results indicate that BSTT44(T) should be classified within the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis of the housekeeping genes rpoB, rpoD and gyrB confirmed its phylogenetic affiliation and showed identities lower than 92% in all cases with respect to the above-mentioned closest relatives. Cells of the strain bore one polar-subpolar flagellum. The respiratory quinone was Q-9.The major fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1ω7c and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c). The strain was oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive and the arginine dihydrolase system was present, but tests for nitrate reduction, β-galactosidase production and aesculin hydrolysis were negative. It could grow at 35 °C and at pH 5-9.The DNA G+C content was 60.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed less than 48% relatedness with respect to the type strains of the four most closely related species. Therefore, the combined results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses support the classification of strain BSTT44 into a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas endophytica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BSTT44(T) ( = LMG 28456(T) = CECT 8691(T)).

  20. Mitotic and meiotic irregularities in somatic hybrids of Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, A M; Schoenmakers, H C; Kamstra, S; Eden, J; Koornneef, M; Jong, J H

    1994-10-01

    Chromosome numbers were determined in metaphase complements of root-tip meristems of 107 tomato (+) potato somatic hybrids, obtained from five different combinations of parental genotypes. Of these hybrids 79% were aneuploid, lacking one or two chromosomes in most cases. All four hybrids that were studied at mitotic anaphase of root tips showed laggards and bridges, the three aneuploids in a higher frequency than the single euploid. Hybrid K2H2-1C, which showed the highest percentage of aberrant anaphases, possessed 46 chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with total genomic DNA showed that this hybrid contained 23 tomato, 22 potato, and 1 recombinant chromosome consisting of a tomato chromosome arm and a potato chromosome arm. The potato parent of K2H2-1C was aneusomatic in its root tips with a high frequency of monosomic and trisomic cells and a relatively high frequency of cells with one fragment or telosome. Meiotic analyses of three tomato (+) potato somatic hybrids revealed laggards, which occurred most frequently in the triploid hybrids, and bridges, which were frequently present in pollen mother cells (PMCs) at anaphase I of hypotetraploid K2H2-1C. We observed putative trivalents in PMCs at diakinesis and metaphase I of eutriploid A7-82A and quadrivalents in part of the PMCs of hypotetraploid K2H2-1C, suggesting that homoeologous recombination between tomato and potato chromosomes occurred in these hybrids. All three hybrids showed a high percentage of first division restitution, giving rise to unreduced gametes. However, shortly after the tetrad stage all microspores completely degenerated, resulting in exclusively sterile pollen.

  1. Evaluation of Indigenous Potato Challisha (Solanum tuberosum L. Cv. Challisha Somaclonals Tolerance to Salinity In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Sanaullah Biswas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Potato is one of the most important food crops in the world. It is generally sensitive to salinity and likes to grow in neutral soil. On the other hand, salinity is increasing alarmingly in the ever changing climatic conditions. Thus, the selection of salt tolerant potato cultivars is necessary to keep pace the production of potato. To select salt tolerant cultivars, here we attempt to compare the salinity level between indigenous and modern cultivars. In vitro selection of local and modern potato cultivars were investigated with five levels of NaCl (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM. The indigenous potato Challisha and modern cultivars Diamant and Felsina were used as plant materials. Significant differences were noticed among the cultivars in response to different levels of NaCl. Plant growth and root development were gradually reduced with increased concentration of NaCl. All three cultivars were survived well with exhibiting different growth status up to 60 mM NaCl, but they performed poorly at 120 mM of NaCl. Cultivar Challisha performed better regarding shoot length, root length, the number of nodes per plantlet and the fresh weight per plant up to 90 mM of NaCl. Thus, we can conclude that local indigenous variety Challisha is salt tolerant comparing with the modern cultivated varieties.

  2. Occurrence of Tomato spotted wilt virus in Stevia rebaudiana and Solanum tuberosum in Northern Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzivassiliou, E.K.; Peters, D.; Lolas, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) was first reported in Greece during 1972 (3) and currently is widespread in the central and northern part of the country infecting several cultivated and wild plant species (1,2). In June 2006, virus-like symptoms similar to

  3. An efficient method for the establishment of cell suspension cultures in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, Z.A.

    2016-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures offers an In vitro system that can be used as a tool for various studies involving mutant selection, mass propagation, protoplast isolation, gene transfer and selection of cell-lines which are resistant to various biotic or abiotic stresses. Research work on the development of cell suspension cultures was carried out to establish the most efficient method in Potato (cv. Desiree). Healthy, well-proliferating tissues from different types of callus cultures (compact, friable, embryogenic or non-embryogenic) were inoculated on various media combinations, i.e., MS, MS2 or AA liquid medium containing 18.09 micro M 2, 4-D. A fixed quantity (0.5-1.0 g) of callus tissue from 60-day-old callus cultures was transferred to 10-25 ml of liquid medium in 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Cultures were placed on an orbital shaker and agitated at different speeds (75, 100 or 125 rpm) under 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2 degree C. Medium was changed after every 3 days and fractionated tissue was filtered after every 6 days through sterile mesh (100-800 micro m) to develop a cell-line by transferring resulting suspension to fresh medium under the same conditions. Results indicated that eight-week-old translucent, friable, off-white callus cultures were an excellent starting material for the initiation of homogeneous cell suspension cultures as compared to other tested sources. Of the three tested media (MS, MS2 or AA medium containing 18.09 micro M 2, 4-D), MS2 was found to be a better medium for the initiation of cell suspension cultures. Cell suspension cultures, placed in 16-h photoperiod at 25 ± 2 degree C and agitated at 120 rpm using a gyratory shaker showed excellent results. Several other factors influencing quick establishment of cell suspension cultures in this cultivar are also discussed in this communication. (author)

  4. Agronomical indicators for determination of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tolerance to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Morales Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately, water shortage has caused 50% losses in potato yields in several Central American countries. Knowledge and use of more tolerant potato varieties are a critical element to increase production and yields under stressing conditions. The experiments were developed at the Center for Tropical Crops Research (INIVIT, between December 2014, and March 2015. Ten plots were planted, including different varieties. Half of them (5 were not irrigated for 20 days, starting on the 50th day after plantation (drought stress period. Irrigation was resumed on the 70th day. The Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI, Stress Tolerance Index (STI, Tolerance Index (TOL, Mean Productivity (MP, and Yield Stability Index (YSI. The Atlas and Maranca varieties had the lowest values for SSI (0.67 and 0.61, respectively, and the highest values for STI (0.79 and 0.81, respectively. The highest MP (19.92 t/ha was achieved by Atlas. The highest YSI values were observed in Maranca and Atlas (81.07 and 79.29, respectively.

  5. Detection of Glycoalkaloids and Chlorophyll in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the use of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to detect and quantify chlorophyll (Chl) and total glycoalkaloid concentrations (TGA) in potatoes. To create a set of tubers with different concentrations of Chl and TGA, potatoes of four varieties were wounded...

  6. Mechanisms of self-incompatibility and unilateral incompatibility in diploid potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijlander, R.

    1998-01-01

    In chapter 1 an overview is given of the major mechanisms operating in Angiosperms that prevent or limit the degree of inbreeding. The two major systems that function on the basis of interaction between pollen and stigma/style, are the sporophytic and the gametophytic self-incompatibility

  7. Co adaptation of LiCl tolerant Solanum tuberosum L. callus cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... also brings about tolerance to osmotic effects of salt. This data is highly .... These RGR values of control and LiCl adapted calli were used as reference .... by the Higher Education Commission (HEC) grants. The technical ...

  8. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing dry rot in Michigan commercial potato (Solanum tuberosum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dry rot of potato is a postharvest disease caused by several Fusarium spp. and is of worldwide importance. Thirteen Fusarium spp. have been implicated in fungal dry rots of potatoes worldwide. Among them, 11 species have been reported causing potato dry rot of seed tubers in the northern Un...

  9. Preservation by Irradiation of three varieties of Colombian Potatoes (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleta, S.

    1986-01-01

    This is first study performed in the Gamma Facility of the Instituto de Asuntos Nucleares, in Bogota, Colombia, related to the Food Irradiation Programme. The study was made with: Parda Pastusa, ICA Guantiva, and ICA Purace, selected as the most important varieties of colombian potatoes. A complete study prior to the irradiation exposure was made in order to determine the optimum irradiation package. Different dose treatments, chemical and physical changes and organoleptic tests, were studied in this work. The work was performed in the early 1980s

  10. In vitro development of buds from tubers of (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gonzalez, J.; Garcia Collantes, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the in vitro development of buds from potato tubers subjected to gamma radiation at doses of 3, 6, 9 and 12 Krad. Ths effect of radiation was dependent on the dormant stage of the buds. Intermediate doses (6-9 Krad) did inhibit mitotic division but not cellular elongation. When irradiation is carried out at the end of the resting period, there is an apparent sprouting due to the elongation of previously formed cells. (Author) 17 refs

  11. Cultivar variability of patatin biochemical characteristics: table versus processing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárta, Jan; Bártová, Veronika; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Sedo, Ondrej

    2012-05-02

    Biochemical characteristics of patatin proteins purified by ion-exchange and affinity chromatography from tubers of 20 potato cultivars were studied to evaluate their genotype differences with respect to utility groups, table potato cultivars (TPCs) and processing potato cultivars (PPCs). Both groups of cultivars showed similar values of protein content in dry matter (3.98-7.39%) and of patatin relative abundance (5.40-35.40%). Three mass levels (∼40.6, 41.8, and 42.9 kDa) of purified patatins were found by MALDI-TOF MS within all cultivars. Differences among mass levels corresponding with the mass of sugar antenna (∼1.2 kDa) confirmed the previous concept of different glycosylation extentsin patatin proteins. It was showed that the individual types of patatin varying in their masses occur in the patatin family in a ratio specific for each of the cultivars, with the lowest mass type being the major one. Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated wide cultivar variability in number of patatin forms. Especially 2D-PAGE showed 17-23 detected protein spots independently on the utility group. Specific lipid acyl hydrolase (LAH) activity of purified patatins from the individual tested cultivars varied between 0.92 and 5.46 μmol/(min mg). Patatin samples within most of the TPCs exhibited higher values of specific LAH activity than samples of PPCs. It may be supposed that individual patatin forms do not have similar physiological roles.

  12. A retail market study of organic and conventional potatoes (Solanum tuberosum): mineral content and nutritional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrea M; Cook, David M; Eggett, Dennis L; Christensen, Merrill J

    2012-06-01

    Whether or not all foods marketed to consumers as organic meet specified standards for use of that descriptor, or are nutritionally different from conventional foods, is uncertain. In a retail market study in a Western US metropolitan area, differences in mineral composition between conventional potatoes and those marketed as organic were analysed. Potatoes marketed as organic had more copper and magnesium (p potatoes. Comparison of individual mineral concentrations between foodstuffs sold as organic or conventional is unlikely to establish a chemical fingerprint to objectively distinguish between organic and conventional produce, but more sophisticated chemometric analysis of multi-element fingerprints holds promise of doing so. Although statistically significant, these differences would only minimally affect total dietary intake of these minerals and be unlikely to result in measurable health benefits.

  13. Antioxidant Contents and Antioxidant Activities of White and Colored Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Oh, Seung Hee; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Woo, Shun Hee; Kim, Hong Sig; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the antioxidant substance content and antioxidant activities of white (Superior) and colored (Hongyoung, Jayoung, Jasim, Seohong, and Jaseo) potatoes. The potatoes were extracted with 80% ethanol and were evaluated for the total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents and for 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous metal ion chelating effect. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents of Hongyoung and Jayoung were higher than white and other colored potatoes. All colored potato extracts, except for Jaseo and Seohong, showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activities than the general white potato extract. Hongyoung and Jayoung had the highest ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Optical density values for the reducing power of Jayoung and Jaseo at concentration of 2 mg/mL were 0.148 and 0.090, respectively. All colored potato extracts had lower ferrous metal ion chelating effect than the white potato. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation was observed between total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content (r=0.919), anthocyanin content (r=0.992), and ABTS radical scavenging activity (r=0.897). Based on these results, this research may be useful in developing the Hongyoung and Jayoung cultivars with high antioxidant activities.

  14. biotechnological studies on the irradiated potato (solanum tuberosum) with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial wilt or brown rot disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum causes extensive annual losses of different crops especially potato crop. It is considered as one of the limiting factors for potato production and exportation in Egypt. Therefore, the main purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma rays on two potato cultivars (Diamant and Spunta). And, to obtain new genotypes of potato resistant to bacterial wilt disease. This study was carried out in the field and Biotechnology laboratory of the Plant Res. Dept., Nuclear Res. Center, Inshas, Egypt and Genetics Dept., Faculty of Agricultural., Cairo Univ., during 2008-2011. In the field experiment, dry tubers of potato cultivars were irradiated by different doses of gamma rays (20, 30 and 40 Gy) to study the effect of gamma rays on the vegetative and yield traits. The results showed that there are no significant differences between cultivars for all studied traits except a number of tubers per plant trait. Also, there are only highly significant and significant differences between treatments for weight of tubers per plant and number of tubers per plant traits, respectively. However, there are only significant differences between the interactions of cultivars and treatments for plant height and weight of tubers per plant traits. Six genotypes were selected from M 1 V 2 generation depending on high yield for RAPD analysis to determine their genetic variability from its parents at molecular level using 11 primers. The results of RAPD analysis showed that 11 primers generated 56 distinct bands of which 31 (55.4%) were considered as polymorphic. The similarity indices of six genotypes of potato and its parents ranged from 70 to 91%. The highest genetic similarity 91% was found between D20 genotype and its parent D0 (Diamant control). On the other hand, the lowest genetic similarity 70% was found between S30, S40 genotypes and its parent S0 (Spunta control). In the artificial infection experiment under in vitro condition, the irradiated and non-irradiated plantlets of potato were cultured on medium inoculated with local virulent isolate of R. solanacearum. The results showed that all in vitro plantlets of the treatments in Diamant and Spunta cultivars were susceptible except S20 treatment was resistant to the infection with R. solanacearum. Protein analysis showed that S20 genotype (resistant mutant) displayed 2 negative unique bands that may be responsible for resistance to R. solanacearum.

  15. Insight into the role of catalases in salt stress in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'Hamdi M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate a possible link between catalase (CAT activity and salinity tolerance, an in vitro and in vivo study of the behavior of transgenic lines of potato (cv. ‘Désirée’ under salt stress conditions was carried out. Three groups of transgenic lines and non transformed control (DWT were used in this study: lines expressing a bacterial catalase gene and lines repressing catalase activity by either co-suppression or anti-sense strategies. Various concentrations of NaCl were tested: in vitro 0, 25, 50 and 75 mM and in vivo 25, 50 and 75 mM. The results of this work show that the genetic modification of CAT activity affects the multiplication rate of vitroplants, as well as vegetative and physiological growth parameters under salt stress conditions. At 25, 50 and 75 mM of NaCl, over-expression (line KatE16 and repression of CAT increased and reduced respectively the multiplication rate of vitroplants. Differences between the transgenic lines and the wild type were evident in tuber yield and leaf chlorophyll content. These parameters were significantly increased in CAT over-expressing and slightly decreased in SU3 line repressed in CAT under 25 mM of salt stress. A stability of the potential quantum yield (Fv/Fm was observed in the lines over-expressing the CAT at 25, 50 and 75 mM of NaCl. The repression of CAT was associated with a decrease of Fv/Fm value at 50 mM of NaCl. These results show that catalases contribute to salinity tolerance mechanisms in potato.

  16. Effect of Different Plastic mulch on Growth and Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khosro parvizi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The advantages of plastic mulches have been known in production of agricultural crops. Their capability have been demonstrated to help nutrition uptake, precocity and yield of fruit trees, and decreasing of aphid population as viruses pest vectors. It is also demonstrated some advantages of plastic mulch on some traits in potato such as increasing growth rate, yield and number of medium tuber size. Also, the effects of combined use of straw, chopped and polyethylene as well as different levels of irrigation (60, 80, 100, 120% water requirement on yield and water use efficiency in potato have been investigated. In previous studies, it is concentrated on the effect of the special type of plastic on growing aspect of potato and there is no comparative assessment between different types of the mulches. So that in this research we evaluated the responses between types of plastic mulches. Material and Methods: this research was conducted under field conditions. A factorial experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments consisted of mulch in five levels (clear, white, black, double layer and control (without mulch and two cultivars (Agria and Sante. Each plot was designed in 4 m2. For every plot, ridges were divided into complicated double rows with 50 × 150 centimeters wide. Irrigation tapes were placed between every duplicated row. Water requirement was calculated through corrected evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith equation with considering 90% water use efficiency. During the growing season some characteristics such as requirement time to 80% emergence, tuberization time, plant height in flowering time, number of stems and leaf area have been measured. Harvesting time was recorded along with measurement of tuber weights. Total yield was measured by random selection of one m2 in each plot. Harvested tubers were separated based on three sizes; edible tuber (large tuber, average tuber and small tuber size. Tow-way analysis of variance (ANOVA of data was carried out using SAS software and means were compared byDuncan’s Multiple Range Test at probability level of 5% Results and Discussions: The results of the experiment showed that application of plastic mulch and cultivar had significant effect (P≤ 0.01 on most of growing traits. Effect of cultivar and plastic mulch had no significant different on tuber dry matter. Mean comparison of 80% emergence date, number of main stem, growth duration, ranking of tubers size and total yield showed significant effect between cultivars and plastic mulches. Sante cultivar with clear mulch reach in shortest time to 80% emergence (11.3 days and tuberization time (46.46 days. Significant difference between polyethylene mulches in emergence date is due to the effect of mulch characteristics on soil temperature and moisture. Consequently, soil microclimate would be changed and growth habits of potato plant inclined to suitable responses. Clear plastic mulch had highest plant height and number of main stem compared to other mulches and control treatment. Leaf area also affected by mulches; so that four types of plastic mulches had more leaf area comparison to control. Significant effect of mulch treatments on leaf area can be related to conservation of moisture and reduction of water stress. Meanwhile, increasing of uptake and transferring of mineral nutrient can be promoted growth rate. All this reaction can increase leaf area in plastic mulch treatments. Totally, application of plastic mulches could improve growth rate, growth duration and total yield of potato. Conclusions: The result of this research showed that polyethylene mulch can obviously increase growth rate as well reduce growth duration. Also, plastic mulch can significantly increase total yield and positive reaction effect on tuber size. Different types of plastic mulches showed different responses on growth traits and total yield. It seems clear mulch be more capable in the most traits and total yield compared with other plastic.

  17. Biological Control Of The Egyptian Brown Rot In Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.A.; Askora, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescence, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtillus and streptomyces spp. Were used in control of Ralstonia solanacearum, the casual agent of brown rot in potato. In vitro, antagonistic activities showed that streptomyces spp. was the most antagonistic followed by P. fluorescence, Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa respectively. Also, in vivo, biological control of R. solanacearum showed that Streptomyces spp. was found to reduce the percentage of brown rot infection to 5% followed by P. fluorescence, Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa reducing the percentage of infection to 15 , 25 and 40%, respectively. Also, the disease severity when using Streptomyces spp. and P. fluorescence was reduced from 5 to 1 and reduced from 5 to 2 when using Bacillus subtilus and P. aeruginosa.

  18. Analysis of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the Irish potato sector in Zimbabwe is not well understood. Using value chain analysis, this article evaluated the potato industry using quantitative data gathered from stakeholders using structured questionnaires, field observations, local knowledge and expert consultation.

  19. 5-Azacytidine mediated reactivation of silenced transgenes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) at the whole plant level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyč, Dimitrij; Nocarová, Eva; Sikorová, Lenka; Fischer, Lukáš

    2017-08-01

    Transient 5-azacytidine treatment of leaf explants from potato plants with transcriptionally silenced transgenes allows de novo regeneration of plants with restored transgene expression at the whole plant level. Transgenes introduced into plant genomes frequently become silenced either at the transcriptional or the posttranscriptional level. Transcriptional silencing is usually associated with DNA methylation in the promoter region. Treatments with inhibitors of maintenance DNA methylation were previously shown to allow reactivation of transcriptionally silenced transgenes in single cells or tissues, but not at the whole plant level. Here we analyzed the effect of DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (AzaC) on the expression of two silenced reporter genes encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) in potato plants. Whereas no obvious reactivation was observed in AzaC-treated stem cuttings, transient treatment of leaf segments with 10 μM AzaC and subsequent de novo regeneration of shoots on the selective medium with kanamycin resulted in the production of whole plants with clearly reactivated expression of previously silenced transgenes. Reactivation of nptII expression was accompanied by a decrease in cytosine methylation in the promoter region of the gene. Using the plants with reactivated GFP expression, we found that re-silencing of this transgene can be accidentally triggered by de novo regeneration. Thus, testing the incidence of transgene silencing during de novo regeneration could be a suitable procedure for negative selection of transgenic lines (insertion events) which have an inclination to be silenced. Based on our analysis of non-specific inhibitory effects of AzaC on growth of potato shoots in vitro, we estimated that AzaC half-life in the culture media is approximately 2 days.

  20. Cereal cystatins delay sprouting and nutrient loss in tubers of potato, Solanum tuberosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Aurélie; Simon, Marie-Aube; Khalf, Moustafa; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-12-21

    Recent studies have reported agronomically useful ectopic effects for recombinant protease inhibitors expressed in leaves of transgenic plants, including improved tolerance to abiotic stress conditions and partial resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Here we assessed the effects of these proteins on the post-dormancy sprouting of storage organs, using as a model potato tubers expressing cysteine protease inhibitors of the cystatin protein superfamily. Sprout emergence and distribution, soluble proteins, starch and soluble sugars were monitored in tubers of cereal cystatin-expressing clones stored for several months at 4 °C. Cystatin expression had a strong repressing effect on sprout growth, associated with an apparent loss of apical dominance and an increased number of small buds at the skin surface. Soluble protein content remained high for up to 48 weeks in cystatin-expressing tubers compared to control (untransformed) tubers, likely explained by a significant stabilization of the major storage protein patatin, decreased hydrolysis of the endogenous protease inhibitor multicystatin and low cystatin-sensitive cysteine protease activity in tuber tissue. Starch content decreased after several months in cystatin-expressing tubers but remained higher than in control tubers, unlike sucrose showing a slower accumulation in the transgenics. Plantlet emergence, storage protein processing and height of growing plants showed similar time-course patterns for control and transgenic tubers, except for a systematic delay of 2 or 3 d in the latter group likely due to limited sprout size at sowing. Our data point overall to the onset of metabolic interference effects for cereal cystatins in sprouting potato tubers. They suggest, in practice, the potential of endogenous cysteine proteases as relevant targets for the development of potato varieties with longer storage capabilities.

  1. Changes in anthocyanidin levels during the maturation of color-fleshed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Miloslav; Kotíková, Zora; Paznocht, Luboš; Pivec, Vladimír; Hamouz, Karel; Lachman, Jaromír

    2017-12-15

    Certain potato cultivars are capable of producing anthocyanin pigments in the potato skin and flesh and those pigments have been shown, together with other phytochemicals, to promote good health. Six common anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, malvidin and peonidin) were analyzed weekly for 15weeks in red- and purple-fleshed potato cultivars (Red Emma, Königspurpur, Valfi and Blaue de la Mancha) grown in field conditions using a validated LC-(+ESI)MS/MS method. Pelargonidin was the major type detected in red-fleshed cultivars whereas petunidin was the major type detected in the purple ones. Neither cyanidin nor delphinidin were found in any of the cultivars. The anthocyanidin levels observed were as high as 78mg/100g FW during tuber growth; however, fully matured tubers contained only 10-39mg anthocyanidins/100gFW. Anthocyanidin levels were moderately correlated with global solar irradiation (r<0.6252) but not with rainfall or daily temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of genotypic variation for nitrogen response in potato (Solanum tuberosum) under low nitrogen input circumstances

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for crop growth. The demand for nitrogen in the potato crop is relatively high. However, in organic farming nitrogen input is rather limited, compared with conventional farming. In this research nine potato varieties were tested at three nitrogen levels. Genotypic variation for yield, leaf area index, period of maximum soil cover, sensitivity for N-shortage and nitrogen efficiency under low input circumstances was found. However, in these experiments varietie...

  3. Hongos solubilizadores de fosfato en suelo de páramo cultivado con papa (Solanum tuberosum)

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Pineda, M. E

    2014-01-01

    Los hongos solubilizadores de fosfato (HSF) son un grupo funcional de microorganismos que juegan un rol fundamental en el ciclaje de fósforo en los suelos; gracias a su actividad, las plantas pueden aprovechar las grandes reservas de fósforo insoluble que se encuentra fijado a los minerales del suelo, contribuyendo a que disminuya la aplicación de fertilizantes fosforados a los suelos. En este estudio se lograron aislar 43 cepas de hongos con capacidad solubilizadora de fosfato a partir de la...

  4. Variation of Growth and Disease Characters Between Clones of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Bång, H; Kotkas, K

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence and magnitude of variation of selected characters in clones derived from meristem tips of four potato cultivars in field trials in three countries was assessed. Recorded were: the number of plants per plot; maturity of plants; skin and flesh colour; tuber deformity; time of emergence......; flowering; number of stems and tubers per plant; tuber size, yield and dry matter percentage; and the occurrence of common scab. Far more significant differences between clones than could be expected by chance were found for the last eight characters. Most of the significant differences for number of stems...... per plant, number of tubers, yield and tuber size distribution were found in six clones of three cultivars and were repeated at different locations and in different years. It is concluded that significant clone differences exist and are repeated at independent locations over the years...

  5. Respon Enam Generasi Kentang (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Terhadap Pemberian Pyraclostrobin Di Dataran Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Hans Kurnia; Ainurrasyid, Ainurrasyid; Kuswanto, Kuswanto

    2016-01-01

    Kentang ialah salah satu tanaman yang dibudidayakan karena kaya akan karbohidrat, mineral dan vitamin. Pyraclostrobin merupakan fungisida sis-temik yang berbentuk emulsi yang dapat larut dalam air, yang berfungsi sebagai pemicu pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman. Selain sebagai fungisida, Pyraclostrobin dapat digunakan sebagai tambahan unsur hara bagi tanaman karena Pyraclostrobin juga mengandung unsur nitrogen (N) dan klor (Cl) yang diperlukan tanaman. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji resp...

  6. Technical Analysis of SSP-21 Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromberger, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-09

    As part of the California Energy Systems for the Twenty-First Century (CES-21) program, in December 2016 San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to perform an independent verification and validation (IV&V) of a white paper describing their Secure SCADA Protocol for the Twenty-First Century (SSP-21) in order to analyze the effectiveness and propriety of cryptographic protocol use within the SSP-21 specification. SSP-21 is designed to use cryptographic protocols to provide (optional) encryption, authentication, and nonrepudiation, among other capabilities. The cryptographic protocols to be used reflect current industry standards; future versions of SSP-21 will use other advanced technologies to provide a subset of security services.

  7. Note rétrospective sur l'histoire de la pomme de terre Solarium tuberosum dans l'Est du Zaïre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoy Kadiebwe, N.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective note on history of the potato Solanum tuberosum in Eastern Zaire. Potato is after cassava and sweet potato, the third culture practished in Ituri area. In this respect, it highly contributes to the feeding of the population and at the same time is a source of their income. There is no indication as when potato culture has been broughtin Ituri. However, research works on this speculation have well begun in 1941 but were suspended in 1959 due to political crisis is... preceded our independance. They have effectively started again in the beginning of 1989, yet no result is given. Despite favorable ecological conditions its expansion is slow nowadays owing to difficulties such as insufficience of selected seeds as well as ignorance of conservation techniques.

  8. Impact of recombination on polymorphism of genes encoding Kunitz-type protease inhibitors in the genus Solanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Poltronieri, Palmiro; Santino, Angelo; Oparina, Nina Y; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Guseva, Marina A; Shevelev, Alexei B

    2012-08-01

    The group of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (KPI) from potato is encoded by a polymorphic family of multiple allelic and non-allelic genes. The previous explanations of the KPI variability were based on the hypothesis of random mutagenesis as a key factor of KPI polymorphism. KPI-A genes from the genomes of Solanum tuberosum cv. Istrinskii and the wild species Solanum palustre were amplified by PCR with subsequent cloning in plasmids. True KPI sequences were derived from comparison of the cloned copies. "Hot spots" of recombination in KPI genes were independently identified by DnaSP 4.0 and TOPALi v2.5 software. The KPI-A sequence from potato cv. Istrinskii was found to be 100% identical to the gene from Solanum nigrum. This fact illustrates a high degree of similarity of KPI genes in the genus Solanum. Pairwise comparison of KPI A and B genes unambiguously showed a non-uniform extent of polymorphism at different nt positions. Moreover, the occurrence of substitutions was not random along the strand. Taken together, these facts contradict the traditional hypothesis of random mutagenesis as a principal source of KPI gene polymorphism. The experimentally found mosaic structure of KPI genes in both plants studied is consistent with the hypothesis suggesting recombination of ancestral genes. The same mechanism was proposed earlier for other resistance-conferring genes in the nightshade family (Solanaceae). Based on the data obtained, we searched for potential motifs of site-specific binding with plant DNA recombinases. During this work, we analyzed the sequencing data reported by the Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium (PGSC), 2011 and found considerable inconsistence of their data concerning the number, location, and orientation of KPI genes of groups A and B. The key role of recombination rather than random point mutagenesis in KPI polymorphism was demonstrated for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Scirpus lacustrus L. ssp. flevensis Bakker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.

    1957-01-01

    De ssp. flavensis was tot voor kort alleen bekend van de IJselmeerkust ter hoogte van het Kampereiland en van Schokkerhaven in de Noordoostpolder. In de zomer van 1956 ontdekte ik de plant tevens op een eilandje in het Kadoelermeer hij Vollenhove en aan de rand van een matig voedselrijk veen tussen

  10. SolRgene: an online database to explore disease resistance genes in tuber-bearing Solanum species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vleeshouwers Vivianne GAA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is an important food crop, but highly susceptible to many pathogens. The major threat to potato production is the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which causes the devastating late blight disease. Potato breeding makes use of germplasm from wild relatives (wild germplasm to introduce resistances into cultivated potato. The Solanum section Petota comprises tuber-bearing species that are potential donors of new disease resistance genes. The aim of this study was to explore Solanum section Petota for resistance genes and generate a widely accessible resource that is useful for studying and implementing disease resistance in potato. Description The SolRgene database contains data on resistance to P. infestans and presence of R genes and R gene homologues in Solanum section Petota. We have explored Solanum section Petota for resistance to late blight in high throughput disease tests under various laboratory conditions and in field trials. From resistant wild germplasm, segregating populations were generated and assessed for the presence of resistance genes. All these data have been entered into the SolRgene database. To facilitate genetic and resistance gene evolution studies, phylogenetic data of the entire SolRgene collection are included, as well as a tool for generating phylogenetic trees of selected groups of germplasm. Data from resistance gene allele-mining studies are incorporated, which enables detection of R gene homologs in related germplasm. Using these resources, various resistance genes have been detected and some of these have been cloned, whereas others are in the cloning pipeline. All this information is stored in the online SolRgene database, which allows users to query resistance data, sequences, passport data of the accessions, and phylogenic classifications. Conclusion Solanum section Petota forms the basis of the SolRgene database, which contains a

  11. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F; Velvis, H; Zachow, C; Berg, G; Van Elsas, JD; Sessitsch, A

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4

  12. Impact of transgenic potatoes expressing anti-bacterial agents on bacterial endophytes is comparable with the effects of plant genotype, soil type and pathogen infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, F.; Velvis, H.; Zachow, C.; Berg, G.; Elsas, van J.D.; Sessitsch, A.

    2006-01-01

    1. Blackleg and soft rot disease of potatoes Solanum tuberosum L., mainly caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. atrospetica (Eca), lead to enormous yield losses world-wide. Genetically modified (GM) potatoes producing anti-bacterial agents, such as cecropin/attacin and T4

  13. Molecular characterisation of resistance against potato wart races 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid population of potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Jennifer; Song, Yesu; Kellermann, Adolf; Schwarzfischer, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Potato wart is caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus Synchytrium endobioticum, which is subject to quarantine regulations due to the production of long persisting spores in the soil and the lack of effective fungicides. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance against potato wart races (R) 1, 2, 6 and 18 in a tetraploid potato population developed by crossing cv. Saturna (resistant to R1) with cv. Panda (resistant to R1, R2, R6, R18). A total of 92 progenies were used for phenotyping and genotyping. Resistance tests were performed for races 1 and 18 in 2 years and for races 2 and 6 in 1 year on 10 to 20 eyepieces per genotype. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, linkage maps were established for the female and male parent, respectively. Single marker analysis followed by a multiple regression analysis revealed initial marker-trait associations. The interval mapping routine of TetraploidMap was applied for QTL analysis. A major QTL for resistance against race 1 explaining between 46 % and 56 % of the phenotypic variation was identified near Sen1, a known resistance locus for potato wart race 1 on chromosome XI. Other resistance QTL were detected on chromosomes I (to R2), II (to R6, 18), VI (to R1, 2, 6, 18), VII (to R2, 6, 18), VIII (to R1, 2, 6, 18), X (to R2, 6, 18), XI (to R2, 6, 18) and on an unknown linkage group (to R18) explaining minor to moderate effects of the phenotypic variation. Resistance QTL against different potato wart races often overlapped, particularly concerning races 2, 6 and 18. Overall, this study gives a valuable insight into the complex inheritance of resistance against potato wart.

  14. AFLP analysis reveals a lack of phylogenetic structure within Solanum section Petota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vleeshouwers Vivianne GAA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secondary genepool of our modern cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L. consists of a large number of tuber-bearing wild Solanum species under Solanum section Petota. One of the major taxonomic problems in section Petota is that the series classification (as put forward by Hawkes is problematic and the boundaries of some series are unclear. In addition, the classification has received only partial cladistic support in all molecular studies carried out to date. The aim of the present study is to describe the structure present in section Petota. When possible, at least 5 accessions from each available species and 5 individual plants per accession (totally approx. 5000 plants were genotyped using over 200 AFLP markers. This resulted in the largest dataset ever constructed for Solanum section Petota. The data obtained are used to evaluate the 21 series hypothesis put forward by Hawkes and the 4 clade hypothesis of Spooner and co-workers. Results We constructed a NJ tree for 4929 genotypes. For the other analyses, due to practical reasons, a condensed dataset was created consisting of one representative genotype from each available accession. We show a NJ jackknife and a MP jackknife tree. A large part of both trees consists of a polytomy. Some structure is still visible in both trees, supported by jackknife values above 69. We use these branches with >69 jackknife support in the NJ jackknife tree as a basis for informal species groups. The informal species groups recognized are: Mexican diploids, Acaulia, Iopetala, Longipedicellata, polyploid Conicibaccata, diploid Conicibaccata, Circaeifolia, diploid Piurana and tetraploid Piurana. Conclusion Most of the series that Hawkes and his predecessors designated can not be accepted as natural groups, based on our study. Neither do we find proof for the 4 clades proposed by Spooner and co-workers. A few species groups have high support and their inner structure displays also

  15. Chloroplast genomes of Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea: Structures and comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Waqas, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-08-08

    We investigated the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of non-model Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera and Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea using Illumina paired-end sequencing to understand their genetic organization and structure. Detailed bioinformatics analysis revealed genome sizes of both subspecies ranging between 154.4~154.5 kbp, with a large single-copy region (84,197~84,158 bp), a small single-copy region (17,738~17,813 bp) and pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 26,264~26,259 bp). Both cp genomes encode 130 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 transfer RNA genes. Whole cp genome comparison of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera and A. lyrata ssp. petraea, along with ten other Arabidopsis species, showed an overall high degree of sequence similarity, with divergence among some intergenic spacers. The location and distribution of repeat sequences were determined, and sequence divergences of shared genes were calculated among related species. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the entire genomic data set and 70 shared genes between both cp genomes confirmed the previous phylogeny and generated phylogenetic trees with the same topologies. The sister species of A. halleri ssp. gemmifera is A. umezawana, whereas the closest relative of A. lyrata spp. petraea is A. arenicola.

  16. Solanum tuberosum y Solanum commersonii, sobre-expresando el gen ScCBFI, mejoraron su tolerancia a sequía en condiciones de cultivo in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Pino, María Teresa; Ávila, Andrea; Molina, Andrea; Jeknic, Zoran; Chen, Tony H.H

    2013-01-01

    Cultivated potato crops are sensitive to drought stress, reducing yield and tuber quality when the soil water potential drops to -0.3 MPa. However, drought not only affects plant growth and physiological activity, but this stress also induces biochemical and molecular changes in the cellular gene expression profile. triggering genes that play a direct role in plant protection and gene regulation. The genes involved in regulation include C-repeat Binding Factors/Dehydration responsive element ...

  17. Antihypertensive effect of extracts from Crateva adansonii DC.ssp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crateva adansonii DC.ssp. adansonii (CA) is a medicinal plant used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases including hypertension. The main objective of ... All rights reserved. Keywords: Crateva adansonii DC.ssp. adansonii, medicinal plant, L-NAME, high blood pressure, Wistar rat, liquid-liquid chromatography ...

  18. Aryltetralin lignans from Linum mucronatum Bertol. ssp mucronatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Konuklugil, B; Evren, H

    2005-01-01

    The dried and aerial part of Linum mucronatum ssp. mucronatum was analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS). Two aryltetralin lignans, podophylloyoxin, 6-methoxypodophylloyoxin, and P-peltatin, were identified. This is the first report of the analysis of L. mucronatum ssp. mucronatum.

  19. In vitro organogenesis of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Atlantic for the genetic transformationOrganogênese in vitro de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar Atlantic visando transformação genética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Kelson Silva Rezende

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The obtaining of commercial cultivars of potato with resistance to the phytopatogen is a very promising alternative that the genetic engineering can provide, through the introduction of exogenous genes for the genetic transformation. In order to establish an efficient system of transformation, it is crucial first to optimize in vitro organogenesis protocol. This work aimed to establish an efficient protocol for the genetic transformation of potato cv. Atlantic. The efficiency of the in vitro organogenesis is influenced by the explant type and by the kind and concentrations of growth regulators used. Shoot segments of potato cv. Atlantic present better organogenesis capacity than leaf explants. It is recommended to use the woody plant medium (WPM supplied with 1,0 mg L-1 of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 5,0 mg L-1 of zeatin riboside (ZEA, to obtain shoots from shoot segments, and the carbenicilin (Cb added to this medium increased this formation. For the process to enlarge shoots, this same antibiotic when added to the WPM medium in growing concentrations (100; 250; 500 mg L-1 promoted a decrease in the height of plants, number of shoots and length of roots. After the co-cultivation of shoots segments with Agrobacterium tumefaciens these concentrations of Cb are not efficient in the elimination of the bacteria, which commits the organogenesis. However, it is possible to establish a protocol of in vitro organogenesis of potato cv. Atlantic starting from shoots segments not co-cultivated. These results will be useful for futures experiments of genetic transformation with this and another commercials cultivars of potato.A obtenção de cultivares comerciais de batata com resistência a fitopatógenos é uma alternativa muito promissora que a engenharia genética pode proporcionar, através da introdução de genes exógenos visando transformação genética. Para tal, torna-se imprescindível estabelecer um sistema eficiente de transformação, e neste sentido a determinação de um protocolo de organogênese in vitro é o passo fundamental para este processo. Objetivou-se determinar um protocolo eficiente para a transformação genética de batata cv. Atlantic. A eficiência da organogênese in vitro é influenciada pelo tipo de explante e pelo tipo e concentrações de reguladores de crescimento utilizados. Segmentos internodais de batata cv. Atlantic apresentam melhor capacidade organogenética que explantes foliares. Recomenda-se utilizar o meio woody plant medium (WPM suplementado com 1,0 mg L-1 de ácido naftaleno-acético (ANA + 5,0 mg L-1 de zeatina ribosídeo (ZEA, para se obter brotações em segmentos internodais, sendo que a carbenicilina (Cb adicionada a este meio potencializa esta formação. Para o processo de alongamento de brotos, este mesmo antibiótico quando adicionado ao meio WPM em concentrações crescentes (100; 250; 500 mg L-1 promove uma diminuição na altura de plantas, número de nós e comprimento radicular. Após o co-cultivo de segmentos internodais com Agrobacterium tumefaciens estas concentrações de Cb não são eficientes na eliminação da bactéria, o que compromete a organogênese. No entanto, é possível estabelecer um protocolo de organogênese in vitro de batata cv. Atlantic a partir de segmentos internodais não co-cultivados. Estes resultados serão úteis para futuros experimentos de transformação genética com esta e outras cultivares comerciais de batata.

  20. Efeito da substituição parcial da farinha de trigo por farinha de casca de batata (Solanum Tuberosum Lineu Effect of the partial replacement of wheat flour for potato skin flour (Solanum Tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Felicori Fernandes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O aproveitamento dos subprodutos da agroindústria de alimentos diminui os custos da produção, aumenta o aproveitamento total do alimento e reduz o impacto que esses subprodutos podem causar ao serem descartados no ambiente. Dessa forma, alguns subprodutos da batata são aproveitados e transformados em ingredientes alimentícios, como é o caso da casca. Neste estudo utilizou-se a casca de batata para produção de farinha visando a sua utilização em produtos de panificação, sendo utilizadas as seguintes porcentagens na composição da farinha mista: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50% e 12-38-50% de farinha de casca de batata, farinha de trigo branca e farinha de trigo integral, respectivamente. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas na farinha de casca de batata, análises físicas na farinha de casca, nas farinhas de trigo branca e integral e análises reológicas nas farinhas mistas. A farinha de casca de batata apresentou bons teores de fibras e minerais, e dentro deste último, destacam-se os teores de fósforo, cálcio e magnésio. Quanto à granulometria e à diferença de cor, as farinhas de casca de batata e a farinha de trigo integral apresentaram valores mais próximos uma da outra. À medida que se aumentou a substituição da farinha de trigo branca pela farinha de casca de batata, as análises reológicas indicaram uma queda na qualidade tecnológica das massas.Reusing some agro-industrial food by-products lower the production costs, increase efficient food utilization, and reduce the impact that these sub-products cause if discarded in the environment. Thus, some potato by-products are reused utilized and transformed into food ingredients, such as potato skin. In this study, potato skin was utilized for the production of flour to be used in bakery products. The following percentages were utilized in the composition of the mixed flour: 0-50-50%; 3-47-50%; 6-44-50%; 9-41-50%, and 12-38-50% of potato skin flour, white wheat flour, and whole wheat flour, respectively. Physicochemical analyses of the potato skin flour, physical analyses of the skin flour, white, and whole wheat flours, and rheological analyses of the mixed flours were performed. The potato skin flour presented relatively high contents of fibers and minerals especially phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium. Regarding grain size and color difference, the potato skin and whole wheat flour presented similar values. With the increase of the ratio of white wheat flour replacement level for potato skin flour, the rheological analyses indicated a reduction in the technological quality of the dough.

  1. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation; Variaciones observadas en la actividad respiratoria de tuberculos de patata (Solanum tuberosum L.) despues de un tratamiento con radiacion GAMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon Matanzo, M P; Fernandez Gonzalez, J

    1976-07-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs.

  2. Efeito da fertilização fosfatada na culturada batata (solanum tuberosum l. no planalto do huambo (Angola Effects of phosphorus fertilization on potato (solanum tuberosum l. crop production, in huambo country (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imaculada da Conceição Henriques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatam-se ensaios realizados, no ano agrícola 2004/5, em blocos completos casualizados, para estudo do efeito na produção de doses de fertilização fosfatada da cultivar de batata-semente importada ‘Romano’ e da cultivar regional ‘Tchigembo’, plantadas em duas datas (Outubro e Fevereiro da época das chuvas e numa terceira data (Junho, na época seca, praticada em regadio. Os ensaios foram repetidos em três locais da Província do Huambo - Bailundo, Chianga e Calenga - distanciados de cerca de 50 km. Avaliaram-se os efeitos, na produção total e comercial de tubérculos (diâmetro > 25 mm, de diferentes doses de fósforo, na forma de superfosfato simples (24% de P2O5, tendo-se aplicado uniformemente ureia (300 kg ha-1 de N, fraccionada em três aplicações. As doses de fósforo ensaiadas foram 0, 50, 100, 200, 400 e 800 kg ha-1 de P2O5, comparadas com uma testemunha sem qualquer aplicação de fertilizante, azotado ou fosfatado. As modalidades de fertilização azotada receberam, uniformemente 300 de azoto. A dose que maior benefício económico originou, sem desperdício de químicos para o meio ambiente, foi a de 200 kg ha-1 de P2O5.Several trials were carried out to compare total and commercial potato yield of the imported cultivar ‘Romano’ and the regional cultivar ‘Tchigembo’, planted in two dates on rain season (October and February and in a third date (June, in dry season, with irrigation. The trials were repeated in three locations of the Huambo country - Bailundo, Chianga and Calenga. The effects on total and commercial (tubers diameter > 25 mm potato yields of different amounts of phosphorus, applied with single superphosphate (24% of P2O5 were evaluated. Treatments were: control (any type of soil fertilization null, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 kg ha-1 of P2O5. Phosphorus treatments received also 300 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (urea applied uniformly, in three times. The greatest economic benefice for both potato varieties was 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5.

  3. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status.

  4. Growth and stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Glycine max, Solanum tuberosum and Brassica napus cultivated under polychromatic LEDs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janda, Martin; Navrátil, Oldřich; Haisel, Daniel; Jindřichová, Barbora; Fousek, Jan; Burketová, Lenka; Čeřovská, Noemi; Moravec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, MAY 3 (2015) ISSN 1746-4811 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-26798S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1942; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1761; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-10768S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : LED * Fluorescent tubes * Plant physiology Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 3.449, year: 2015

  5. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M. P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The present work studies the variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months. By immediate effect of gamma radiation we can observe an increase in the oxygen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers, such increase persists even fours months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated in vitro the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues. (Author) 15 refs

  6. Effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation pf potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) during the storing period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of the gamma radiation on the preservation of potato tubers stored during a period of six months is described by evaluating the loss by sprouting, transpiration and infections. The dose of 9 Krad inhibits sprouting with independence of the epoch in wich the treatment is made, on the other hand a dose of 6 Krad inhibits sprouting only if the tubers are irradiated during the resting period. The treatment with IPC gave similar results to those obtained with a dose of 9 Krad. (author) [es

  7. The changes of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L. due to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hrabovská

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Cultivar is one of the most important internal factors affecting polyphenol concentration in the plants. However, influence of the grown locality, climate conditions and way of cultivation belong to important external factors. In our experiment the influence of different nitrogen doses (0 - 40 - 80 - 120 - 160 - 240 kg N.ha-1 applied in the form of Vermikompost on the total polyphenol content and derived total antioxidant activity in cv. Sorento were investigated. While in the 1st - 5th variants the determined polyphenol content in dry mater of potato tubers decreased from 399.2 to 70.40 mg.kg-1, in the 6th variant that was twice higher in comparison to the 5th variants (135.6 mg.kg-1. The statistically significant differences in values of total polyphenol content between variants (polynomial function of 2nd degree were confirmed. The study also confirmed a strong statistical correlation between the content of polyphenols and the content of antioxidant activity has been confirmed (sign. F: 3.24E-10. The highest value of antioxidant activity was observed in the first variant. From the first to the fifth variant (7.62 - 4.84%, the value of antioxidant activity was decreasing and in the sixth variant this value increased to 6.31%.

  8. Appropriateness of culinary preparations of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) varieties and relation to sensory and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Helene F; Tønning, Erik; Wiking, Lars; Thybo, Anette K

    2011-02-01

    Appropriateness of potatoes for culinary preparations is defined as the optimal use of a given variety for a specific culinary preparation. The aim of this study was to examine the sensory attributes and physicochemical characteristics (dry matter content, starch properties, instrumental texture) of 11 potato varieties in relation to their appropriateness for boiling, oven-frying or mashing. The reproducibility of appropriateness was studied by including the effect of two growing conditions and yearly variation combined with internal references. The potato varieties, tested by 31 evaluators in two years, showed three groupings differing in appropriateness, which could be explained by a few sensory attributes: yellowness, mealiness, creaminess and butter taste. The physicochemical data showed a large variation of 23-25% in dry matter content, amylose content and starch granule size and an extreme variation in texture hardness. High reproducibility was found in the ranking of potatoes across years and culinary preparations. Hence, if a variety was judged well appropriate for boiled potatoes, it was also judged well appropriate as mashed or oven-fried potatoes. This study showed the relevance of using sensory descriptors appropriateness in an objective manner. A few sensory descriptors can be used in consumer-labelling appropriateness of potatoes. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized.

  10. Effect of potato (Solanum tuberosum addition on dough properties, sensory qualities and resistant starch content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lidia IANCU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the effects of adding different varieties of boiled potatoes-pasta (PP, Impala (I and Orchestra (O, to wheat flour in bread making. These potato varieties were used to replace wholemeal 1250 type flour (F1 and hard wheat semolina flour (F2 in different concentrations: 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%. The rheological properties of dough with added potato were assessed by means of the flour-graphic technique. The study also determined the amount of resistant starch (RS, non-resistant starch (n-RS, total starch (TS and moisture content of the potato bread. The results showed that the water absorption (WA in the potato dough containing salt and yeast decreased by 28.8% (F2-I-PP, and by 41.2% (F1-I-PP respectively. The same happened with the dough development time, dough stability and quality number. We found out that the degree of dough softening was increased, as was the moisture content of the bread, which went from 47.7% (O-PP-F2 to 50.3% (I-PP-F1. The level of the ten analyzed sensory properties led to the conclusion that, by adding up to 20% PP, we enhance the bread quality. The RS content increased by 5.1 g/100 g d.m. for F1 bread for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. In F2 bread, the RS content increased by up to 5.11g/100 g d.m. for the 30% (O-PP-F2 potato content batch. Given the method of analysis, RS may be a mixture of RS2 (natural granule starch and RS3 (retrograde or non crystalline retrograde. Therefore, potato bread is very healthy and recommended for its nutritional benefits.

  11. Molecular and biological characterisation of two novel pomo-like viruses associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum) fields in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Jose Fernando; Adams, Ian; Boonham, Neil; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-06-01

    Potato is the fourth most important crop worldwide that is used as a staple food, after rice, wheat and maize. The crop can be affected by a large number of pathogens, including fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and viruses. Diseases caused by viruses are among the most important factors contributing to reduced quality and yield of the crop. Potato mop-top virus (genus Pomovirus) induces necrotic flecks in the tuber flesh and skin of potato in temperate countries. Spongospora subterranea is the vector of PMTV. Both the virus and its vector cause disease in potato. In Colombia, PMTV has been detected throughout the country together with a novel pomo-like virus in the centre (Cundinamarca and Boyacá) and south west (Nariño) of the country. We studied the molecular and biological characteristics of this novel virus. Its genome resembles those of members of the genus Pomovirus, and it is closely related to PMTV. It induces mild systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana (mosaic, branch curling), but no symptoms in N. tabacum, N. debneyi and Chenopodium amaranticolor. The proposed name for the virus is "Colombian potato soil-borne virus" (CPSbV). Additionally, another pomo-like virus was identified in Nariño. This virus induces severe systemic stem declining and mild mosaic in N. benthamiana. The tentative name "soil-borne virus 2" (SbV2) is proposed for this virus. No vectors have been identified for these viruses despite several attempts. This work focused on the characterisation of CPSbV. The risk posed by these viruses if they are introduced into new territories is discussed.

  12. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines (Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jang Ryoel; Lee, Yeong Il; Song, Hee Seop; Kim, Jae Seong; Sin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek

    1993-09-01

    For the development of the technique on the plant tissue culture and application of nuclear technique in the in vitro mutation breeding, present research laid emphasis on the development of techniques of potato tissue culture, and on the induction and selection of radiation mutation. Another culture for haploid induction, optimum radiation dosage for cybrid formation of potato and mutation induction from in vitro cultured microtuber and plantlets were investigated for modelling the technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines. Inheritance stability of the selected mutants were also studied in field condition. In vitro system of micropropagation and selection of mutation was summarized

  13. REGENERACION Y SENSIBILIDAD A MANOSA EN ENTRENUDOS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum spp. andígena Var Diacol Capiro.

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    MARY LUZ YAYA-LANCHEROS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se estableció un sistema de organogénesis indirecta para la obtención de brotes múltiples a partir de segmentos internodales de la variedad Diacol Capiro. La ubicación de explantes en medio Murashige y Skoog (MS suplementado con 2 mg/l de zeatina ribosido (ZR, 0,02 mg/l de ácido naftalenácetico (ANA y 0,02 mg/l de ácido giberélico (AG3, permite la obtención de plántulas entre la séptima y novena semana con una efectividad del 80-100%. Mediante ubicación de explantes previamente cocultivados con la cepa LBA4404 de Agrobacterium tumefaciens que contiene el plásmido recombinante pNOV022, se verificó la utilidad del medio para procesos de transformación, obteniéndose tasas hasta del 100% de regeneración. Finalmente, con el objetivo de determinar el uso potencial de la manosa como agente selectivo en procesos de transformación, se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de manosa sobre la viabilidad y capacidad regenerativa de explantes. Palabras clave: organogénesis indirecta, selección positiva, plantas transgénicas, Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ABSTRACT A system of indirect organogenesis for the multiple buds production from internode stem sections in Diacol Capiro variety was established. Explants on Murashige & Skoog (MS medium with zeatine riboside (ZR 2 mg/l, naftalenacetic acid (NAA 0.02 mg/l and giberelic acid (GA3 0.02 mg/l, produced plants ranging between 7 to 9 weeks with 80-100% effectiveness. In the same medium, explants infected with Agrobacterium LBA4404 strain which carries recombinant plasmid pNOV022, produced regeneration rates reached 100%, thus, the medium utility for trnsformation processes was verified. Finally, to determine the potential use of the mannose as selective agent in transformation processes, the effect of different mannose concentrations on explant viability and regenerative capacity was evaluated. Key words: Indirect organogenesis, positive selection, transgenic plants, Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  14. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Adamski, Zbigniew; Chudzińska, Ewa; Miądowicz-Kobielska, Mariola; Marciniak, Paweł; Büyükgüzel, Ender; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Erdem, Meltem; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed) generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  15. Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum Leaf Extracts and Single Metabolites Affect Development and Reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ventrella

    Full Text Available Glycoalkaloids are secondary metabolites commonly found in Solanaceae plants. They have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and insecticidal activities. In the present study we examine the effects of potato and tomato leaf extracts and their main components, the glycoalkaloids α-solanine, α-chaconine and α-tomatine, on development and reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster wild-type flies at different stages. Parental generation was exposed to five different concentrations of tested substances. The effects were examined also on the next, non-exposed generation. In the first (exposed generation, addition of each extract reduced the number of organisms reaching the pupal and imaginal stages. Parent insects exposed to extracts and metabolites individually applied showed faster development. However, the effect was weaker in case of single metabolites than in case of exposure to extracts. An increase of developmental rate was also observed in the next, non-exposed generation. The imagoes of both generations exposed to extracts and pure metabolites showed some anomalies in body size and malformations, such as deformed wings and abdomens, smaller black abdominal zone. Our results further support the current idea that Solanaceae can be an impressive source of molecules, which could efficaciously be used in crop protection, as natural extract or in formulation of single pure metabolites in sustainable agriculture.

  16. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GIBERELIN TERHADAP PRODUKSI BIBIT KENTANG (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM L. CV. GRANOLA UKURAN M (31 - 60 GRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Arpiwi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to increase the production of seed potato size 31 - 60 grams by applying gibberellic acid (GA3. Seeds that passed their dormancy period were dipped in gibberellic acid solutions (10, 15 and 20 mg/L for 15 minutes a day before planting. Control seeds were dipped in water. Seeds were then air dried for 24 hours. Seeds were planted in plots with length, width and height of 150 x 100 x 30 cm respectively with planting space 20 cm and planting depth 15 cm. The design was randomized block with four replications. The results showed that gibberellic acid enhanced shoot emergence. Gibberellic acid increased stem number, tuber number and yield per plant. Tuber number and yield of size M (31 ? 60 g increased, whereas tuber number and yield of size LL decreased drastically. The optimum concentration of gibberellin for these increases was 15 mg/L. Plant height was not influenced by gibberellic acid.

  17. Influence of low dose {gamma} radiation on the dormancy, growth and physiological activity of seed potato (solanum tuberosum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, H. Y.; Baek, M. H.; Yoo, Z. C. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To observe the stimulating effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the dormancy breaking and growth of potato with different storage duration and conditions, potato were irradiated with the dose of 1 {approx} 16 Gy. Though varied with storage duration and conditions, sprouting rate of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was promoted at the 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to 20 .deg. C in the light. The field growth of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was highly increased at the 2, 4, 8 Gy irradiation group. The CAT activity of potato was increased by about 20% at 1,8 and 16 Gy irradiation group. POD activity was also increased by 7 {approx} 16% at 1, 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to the control. Fv/Fm was not changed by the low dose {gamma} radiation. However, the effective quantum yield of PSII was slightly increased by about 12% at 1 and 16 Gy irradiation group. Seedling irradiated with low dose {gamma} radiation showed the lower excitation pressure on PSII (1- {sub q}P), while NPQ was greatly increased by 45% at 4 Gy irradiation group. These results clearly showed the positive effect of low dose {gamma} radiation on the seedling growth of potato via increasing photoprotective capacities of photosynthetic apparatus.

  18. Effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers on growth and tuber yield of very early potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Wadas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of multi-nutrient complex fertilizers (HydroComplex, Nitrophoska Blue Special and Viking 13 from the nitrophoska group, and Polimag S from the amophoska group and single-nutrient fertilizers on the growth and tuber yield of very early potato cultivars (‘Aster’, ‘Fresco’, ‘Gloria’. The field experiment was carried out on podzolic soil in mid-eastern Poland during 2005–2007. The study showed a greater beneficial effect of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special on the growth of very early potato cultivars than that of Viking 13 and Polimag S. The application of HydroComplex and Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in greater above-ground plant biomass and assimilation leaf area compared with single-nutrient fertilizers; the leaf area index (LAI was higher by 0.28 and 0.32, respectively. The differences were smaller and not statistically confirmed with the use of Polimag S and Viking 13. When the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers were applied, leaf weight ratio (LWR, leaf area ratio (LAR and specific leaf area (SLA were similar to the single-nutrient fertilizers. Of the multi-nutrient complex fertilizers, only Nitrophoska Blue Special resulted in higher tuber yield, on average by 2.40 t × ha-1, compared with the single-nutrient fertilizers. The studied cultivars showed a similar response to applied fertilizers. LAI for ‘Gloria’ was higher than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Fresco’, with smaller LAR found in ‘Gloria’. LWR for ‘Fresco’ was smaller than for ‘Aster’ and ‘Gloria’, with higher SLA found in ‘Fresco’. The tuber yield of ‘Aster” (24.04 t × ha-1 was higher on average by 3 t × ha-1 than for ‘Fresco’ and ‘Gloria’.

  19. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers synthesize the full spectrum of inulin molecules naturally occurring in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwege, Elke M.; Czapla, Sylvia; Jahnke, Anuschka; Willmitzer, Lothar; Heyer, Arnd G.

    2000-01-01

    The ability to synthesize high molecular weight inulin was transferred to potato plants via constitutive expression of the 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and the 1-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chromatography. These results demonstrate in planta that the enzymes sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase are sufficient to synthesize inulin molecules of all chain lengths naturally occurring in a given plant species. Inulin made up 5% of the dry weight of transgenic tubers, and a low level of fructan production also was observed in fully expanded leaves. Although inulin accumulation did not influence the sucrose concentration in leaves or tubers, a reduction in starch content occurred in transgenic tubers, indicating that inulin synthesis did not increase the storage capacity of the tubers. PMID:10890908

  20. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola G Zuno-Floriano

    Full Text Available One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  1. Isolation and chemoenzymatic treatment of glycoalkaloids from green, sprouting and rotting Solanum tuberosum potatoes for solanidine recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffi, Grokoré Yvonne; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Due, Ahipo Edmond; Combes, Didier

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of glycoalkaloids in the flesh of different types of decayed potatoes was evaluated. The results showed that turned green and also sprouting or rotting potato flesh contain high amounts of toxic solanine and chaconine, exceeding by 2-5-fold the recommended limit, and ranging from 2578±86mg/kg to 5063±230mg/kg of dry weight potato flesh. For safety consideration, these decayed potatoes should be systematically set aside. To avoid a net economic loss and encourage the removal of this hazardous food, a recycling process was investigated to generate added-value compounds from the toxic glycoalkaloids. A simple chemo-enzymatic protocol comprising a partial acidic hydrolysis followed by an enzymatic treatment with the β-glycosidase from Periplaneta americana allowed the efficient conversion of α-chaconine to solanidine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Trace Elements in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) from a Suburban Area of Naples, Italy: The "Triangle of Death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Antonella De; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Picazio, Giuseppe; Caiazzo, Marcello; D'auria, Jacopo Luigi; Esposito, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    Human exposure to contaminated food is a general health concern worldwide; it is necessary to evaluate food safety with respect to contaminants present in the edible parts of major food crops. This study evaluated the concentrations of 17 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn) from 51 potato plantations in the Campania region, inside the area known as the "Triangle of Death," with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Results confirm that the potatoes collected from the suburban area of Naples contained concentrations of trace elements below the safe limits prescribed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. The concentrations of elements were similar to those reported for potatoes grown in other countries. Monitoring the content of toxic and potentially toxic elements is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance. The environmental persistence of metals may result in the accumulation of significant levels of these contaminants in plants. They are absorbed to different extents, depending on their source, soil and climatic factors, plant genotype, and agrotechnical conditions, thereby entering the food chain and representing a risk to human health.

  3. Antifungal activity of secondary plant metabolites from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.): Glycoalkaloids and phenolic acids show synergistic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Maldonado, A F; Schieber, A; Gänzle, M G

    2016-04-01

    To study the antifungal effects of the potato secondary metabolites α-solanine, α-chaconine, solanidine and caffeic acid, alone or combined. Resistance to glycoalkaloids varied among the fungal species tested, as derived from minimum inhibitory concentrations assays. Synergistic antifungal activity between glycoalkaloids and phenolic compounds was found. Changes in the fluidity of fungal membranes caused by potato secondary plant metabolites were determined by calculation of the generalized polarization values. The results partially explained the synergistic effect between caffeic acid and α-chaconine and supported findings on membrane disruption mechanisms from previous studies on artificial membranes. LC/MS analysis was used to determine variability and relative amounts of sterols in the different fungal species. Results suggested that the sterol pattern of fungi is related to their resistance to potato glycoalkaloids and to their taxonomy. Fungal resistance to α-chaconine and possibly other glycoalkaloids is species dependent. α-Chaconine and caffeic acid show synergistic antifungal activity. The taxonomic classification and the sterol pattern play a role in fungal resistance to glycoalkaloids. Results improve the understanding of the antifungal mode of action of potato secondary metabolites, which is essential for their potential utilization as antifungal agents in nonfood systems. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Data on the sensory evaluation of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan, performed by untrained young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negishi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi

    2017-12-01

    This data article describes a sensory evaluation of potatoes used in food processing from the Tokachi, Kamikawa, and Abashiri geographic areas of Hokkaido, Japan, performed by untrained young adults. We gathered sensory data on potatoes from the four cultivars 'Toyoshiro,' 'Kitahime,' 'Snowden,' and 'Poroshiri.' The sensory evaluation was performed on steamed potatoes from each cultivar; these potatoes were harvested from each of the three geographic areas. Table 1 provides the data from the evaluation of the five basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami), as well as the evaluation of the egumi taste, which is a Japanese term indicating a taste that is acrid, astringent, and slightly bitter.

  5. Data integration and knowledge management to facilitate research on plant-pathogen interactions: case study Solanum tuberosum – Verticillium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt is an important disease causing considerable economic losses in potato production globally. Soil and environmental conditions affect symptom expression and the effect of the disease on yield. A ten year field trial has been conducted in order to better understand the dynamics of wi...

  6. The relationship between sap flow and commercial soil water sensor readings in irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many irrigation scheduling methods utilized in commercial production settings rely on soil water sensors that are normally purchased as off-the-shelf technology or through contracted services that install and monitor readings throughout the season. These systems often assume a direct relationship be...

  7. The combined effect of CO2 and ethylene sprout inhibitor on the fry colour of stored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels-Lake, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the darkening of potato processing colour attributable to a trace concentration of ethylene gas is more severe when CO2 is also elevated. In view of the increasing use of ethylene gas for sprout suppression in potato storage facilities, it was considered important to

  8. The Effect of Climate Change on Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Production in Feridonshahr Region of Isfahan I- Growth and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohrab adavi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The historical trend of Iran annual average temperature of shows a 0.05 °C.year-1 increase which indicates that future emissions of greenhouse gases will continue to increase temperature and consequently cause to climatic change in the country. This change in environment will have a serious impact on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes like photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photo-assimilates. The negative impacts of climate change on potato production are reported in the literature. The present study was conducted to quantify the potential impacts of climate change on phenology, growth and tuber yield of potato. Materials and Methods The climate projections of Hadley Centre Coupled Model version 3 (HadCM3, France and Institute of Pierre Simon Laplace (IPCM4, United Kingdom, was used to simulate the future conditions based on A2, B1 and A1B SRES (Special Report on Emissions Scenarios scenario at three time periods including 2015-2045 (2030, 2046-2075 (2060 and 2076-2105 (2090with a baseline of 1988-2012 (2012. For each period, the year shown in the parenthesis was considered as target year. The SUBSTOR-Potato model, one of the sixteen models embedded within the DSSAT (v4.5 program, was used to simulate the baseline and future yield and growth characteristics of potato. The model was calibrated and validated during 2012 and 2013 with two different farm experiments. In these experiments, the effects of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and morphological traits of three potato cultivars were investigated. Six levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg urea. ha-1 and three commonly planted potato cultivars in the region (Arinda, Santeh and Agria as early, medium and late maturity varieties, respectively were studied as a factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Several criteria were used to quantify the difference between simulated and observed data. The root mean-squared error (RMSE-N (% was computed to measure the coincidence between measured and simulated values, while mean deviation (RMD was calculated to evaluate the systematic bias of the model and model efficiency (ME to estimate the model performance in relation to the observed mean. Results and Discussion The evaluation of the SUBSTOR-Potato model showed adequate accuracy for simulating tuber yield, LAI, DTA and DTH of potato (Table 3. The results showed that the RMSE-N (% was low for all the parameters. In both GCMs, number of days from planting to anthesis stages of potato decreased in compare to baseline of Fereydoon-Shahr region. Modeled values of day to anthesis in all scenarios and models (except B1 scenario in HadCM3 model showed a decrease over the time, with the lowest amount in 2090. Under all scenarios and GCMs, the length of planting to harvest period will be declined in compareto baseline. Tuber yield will decline in compare to the baseline with a reduction range from 11.21% to 27.53% for HadCM3 model and from 12.60% to 30.58%for IPCM4 model. In HadCM3, B1 scenario in 2030 had the least difference with the baseline period (29.15 t ha-1 (Table 5, which is about 11.21% lower than the current condition. In IPCM4 model, the highest tuber yield was simulated under B1 scenario in 2030 (25.48 t ha-1, which shows a reduction of about 12.60% in compare to the baseline. A2 scenario in both GCMs showed the lowest tuber yield in 2090 (21.13 t ha-1 for HadCM3 and 20.24 t ha-1 for IPCM4, means a drop of 27.53% and 30.58% in tuber yield in compare to the baseline. In fact, in A1B, A2 and B1 scenarios, a decline of 20.29%, 27.53% and 16.04% in tuber yield for HadCM3 and a reduction of 20.88%, 30.58% and 17.90% for IPCM4 model was simulated, respectively. Conclusion The results indicated that tuber yield of common varieties of potato under all scenarios (A1B, A2 and B1 in both GCMs and during the evaluated years will decline in compare to the baseline in Fereydoon-shahr region.

  9. Development of technique on the induction and selection of in vitro mutant lines(Potato, Solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Joo Bong; Lee, Young Il; Song, Hee Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Young Keun; Shin, In Chul; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Woon; Lim, Yong Taek

    1992-08-01

    The radiosensitivity and salt resistance on the single cell and callus of potato, mass production method of plantlet and microtuber of potato by in vitro culture and microtuber formation from the stem irradiated with radiation were investigated to obtain a optimum condition for selection of mutant cell line. (Author)

  10. The effect of mineral fertilization on fungi colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L. tubers after harvest and after storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a three-year exact experiment conducted in Bałcyny, in which a late potato cultivar, Jasia, was grown. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different levels of mineral fertilization: A (N 80 kg × ha-1 P 80 kg × ha-1 K120 kg × ha-1 and B (N 120 kg × ha-1 P 144 kg × ha-1 K156 kg × ha-1, and foliar fertilization (Basfoliar 12-4-6, ADOB Mn and Solubor DF on the quantitative and qualitative composition of fungal populations colonizing potato tubers. Fungi were isolated immediately after harvest and after a five-month storage period. After seven days of incubation, fungal colonies were transferred onto agar slants for microscopic identification. Over the entire experimental period, more pathogenic fungi were obtained from potato tubers analyzed after storage (62.9% of the total fungal population after storage than from those analyzed immediately after harvest (39.1%, and the greatest number of fungi was reported in 2004. Rhizoctonia solani was isolated most frequently, followed by Colletotrichum coccodes and Alternaria alternata. Pathogens of the genus Fusarium and the species Helminthosporium solani were not numerous. In the treatment A with soil mineral fertilization with lower NPK rates, larger numbers of pathogenic fungi were noted in 2004 after harvest and after five-month storage, and in 2005 after harvest. At the remaining dates of analysis, pathogens were more frequently isolated from potato tubers in experimental variant B with higher NPK rates. Immediately after harvest, the highest number of pathogenic fungi was isolated in the treatment with foliar application of ADOB Mn and Basfoliar 12-4-6. After five-month storage, pathogens most often colonized potato tubers in experimental variant B with foliar application of Solubor DF, Solubor DF and ADOB Mn, and in experimental variant A with a combination of fertilizers. In the other fertilization variants, including in the control treatment, the population size of pathogenic agents remained at a similar level.

  11. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Désirée, Merkur and transgenic Désirée line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons

  12. Effects of plant genotype and growth stage on the structure of bacterial communities associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overbeek, Leo; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    The effects of genotype, plant growth and experimental factors (soil and year) on potato-associated bacterial communities were studied. Cultivars Achirana Inta, Desiree, Merkur and transgenic Desiree line DL12 (containing T4 lysozyme gene) were assessed in two field experiments. Cross-comparisons

  13. Potato Annexin STANN1 Promotes Drought Tolerance and Mitigates Light Stress in Transgenic Solanum tuberosum L. Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szalonek, M.; Sierpien, B.; Rymaszewski, W.; Gieczewska, K.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Dobrev, Petre; Szczesny, P.; Marczewski, W.; Krusiewicz, D.; Strzelczyk-Zyta, D.; Konopka-Postupolska, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2015), e0132683 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : MEDIATED OXIDATIVE STRESS * VIOLAXANTHIN DE-EPOXIDASE * BRASSICA-JUNCEA ANNEXIN-3 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  14. Yield and Nitrogen Assimilation of Potato Varieties (Solanum tuberosum L.) as Affected by Saline Water Irrigation and Organic Manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdy, A.; Gadalla, A.M.; El-Kholi, A.F.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Ismail, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in lysimeter under controlled greenhouse conditions. Saline water was applied in different levels, i.e. fresh water, 3 and 6 dS/m. Organic manure were applied to soil at rates of 0, 2.6 and 5.2 kg/m2. Basal recommended doses of P and K were applied. Labelled urea (10% a.e.) was applied at rate of 200 kg N/ha. 15 N technique was used to evaluate N-uptake and fertilizer efficiency. Comparison held between the two potato varieties indicated that higher reduction in shoot dry weight was recorded with Nicola variety than Spunta one which irrigated with 6 dS/m water salinity level. Addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 organic rate induced an increase in N uptake with fresh water and 3 dS/m salinity then tended to decrease with 6 dS/m level as compared to the untreated control. Concerning the nitrogen fertilization, data of 15 N analysis showed that, water salinity levels combined with organic addition rates were frequently affected the nitrogen derived from fertilizer and consequently the fertilizer use efficiency. Most of nitrogen was derived from the applied nitrogen fertilizer with maximum accumulation in tuber rather than shoots or roots of both potato varieties. Gradual increase of tuber starch with increasing salinity levels was noticed with addition of 2.6 kg/m 2 of organic matter. In general, Spunta variety showed some superiority in tuber starch over those of Nicola variety tuber

  15. Variations observed in the respiratory activity of potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) after a treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon Matanzo, M.P.; Fernandez Gonzalez, J.

    1976-01-01

    The variations in the respiratory activity of irradiated and IPC treated potato tubers during a storage period of five months have been studied. By immediate effect of gamma radiation, an increase in the oxigen consumption of the parenchyma in relation with the control tubers has been observed. Such increase persits even four months after gamma radiation. The respiratory activity is reduced in the IPC treated tubers. In the tissues cultivated ''in vitro'' the respiratory activity increases at the end of the cultivation period, not only in the control tissues but also in the irradiated ones, though this increase is greater in the control tissues.(author) [es

  16. Phenolic compounds with antioxidant capacity of the native Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum L. Huagalina variety in La Libertad - Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rojas-Padilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato is grown and consumed throughout the world for their particular calori fi c nutritional value and vitamin C, but it also contai ns phytochemicals (secondary metabolites that have been studied and found to have positive effects in preventing degenerative diseases in human health, such as hypertensive activity , and also atherosclerosis , type 2 diabetes, liver fibrosis, Alzheimer's d isease, macular degeneration and cancer. We aimed to identify and quantify p henolic compounds in potatoes grown on El Zuro (EZ and Huayatan Alto (HA in Santiago de Chuco, La Libertad, Peru. The field trials were carried out in EZ (altitude 3750 m.a.s.l. and HA (altitude 3150 m.a.s.l. employing organic and inorganic fertilization respectively. Ext raction from the peel and flesh was obtained separately , with the following solution: 50% methanol, 50% deionized water and 0.5% acetic acid. The sample was inj ected into the system UPLC - MS / MS, using ESI ionization ( Electrospray Ionization and fifteen external reference standards. Thirteen metabolites were detected in the flesh and potato peel. The highest content of secondary metabolites (mg/100 g DW were: Chlorogenic acid (476.82 ± 63.58, neochlorogenic acid (87.90 ± 19.42 caffeic acid (77.53 ± 14.49 and vanillin (11.52 ± 1.38. The PCA ( Principal Components Analysis scores show that the highest concentration of metabolites was found in the peel of bot h cultivars. We concluded that the native potato Huagalina contains the genes expressed in different biosynthetic pathways of the metabolites found in this study .

  17. Quality evaluation of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) starch blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu, Joseph Oneh; Enyinnaya, Chinma Chiemela; James, Samaila; Okeleke, Ezinne

    2012-06-01

    Quality attributes of stiff porridges prepared from Irish potato and pigeon pea starch blends were studied. Starches were extracted from Irish potato and pigeon pea using a wet extraction method. Various ratios of the starches were mixed and analyzed for chemical, functional and pasting properties. The starch blends were then prepared into stiff porridges for sensory evaluation using a 20-man sensory panel. Substitution of Irish potato starch with pigeon pea starch led to increases in protein (0.15 to 1.2%), fat (0.26 to 0.56%) and ash (0.30 to 0.69%) while the amylose content of the starch blends decreased (from 23.8 to 18.4%) respectively. Functional properties such as bulk density (0.75 to 0.60 g/cm(3)), water absorption capacity (3.1 to 2.6 g water/ g sample) and dispersibility (58.6 to 42.7%) decreased significantly (P pigeon pea starch respectively. Pasting properties such as peak, breakdown, final and setback viscosities increased with increasing levels of pigeon pea starch while peak time and pasting temperature decreased. The sensory attributes of stiff porridges were not adversely affected by pigeon pea starch inclusion. Therefore it should be possible to incorporate up to 50% of low digestible pigeon pea starch into Irish potato starch from legumes such as pigeon pea as alternatives to cassava starch in the preparation of stiff porridges. Such porridges made from Irish potato and legume starches could provide additional incentive for individuals requiring decreased and or slow starch digestibility such as diabetics.

  18. Cloning and functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollenberg, Benjamin J; Liu, Jingjing; Yu, Shu; Lin, Hong; Tian, Li

    2018-02-05

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase (C3'H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated and functionally characterized in potato. In this work, we cloned StC3'H from potato and showed that it catalyzed the formation of caffeoylshikimate and CGA (caffeoylquinate) from p-coumaroyl shikimate and p-coumaroyl quinate, respectively, but was inactive towards p-coumaric acid in in vitro enzyme assays. When the expression of StC3'H proteins was blocked through antisense (AS) inhibition under the control of a tuber-specific patatin promoter, moderate changes in tuber yield as well as phenolic metabolites in the core tuber tissue were observed for several AS lines. On the other hand, the AS and control potato lines exhibited similar responses to a bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum. These results suggest that StC3'H is implicated in phenolic metabolism in potato. They also suggest that CGA accumulation in the core tissue of potato tubers is an intricately controlled process and that additional C3'H activity may also be involved in CGA biosynthesis in potato. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined Amendments of Nano-hydroxyapatite Immobilized Cadmium in Contaminated Soil-Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Wang, Lei; Yin, Jiang; Qi, Lipan; Feng, Yan

    2018-04-01

    The toxicity of cadmium (Cd) has posed major public health concern in crops grown in the Cd-contaminated soils. The effects of five amendments, nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and it combined with lime, zeolite, bone mill and fly ash on Cd immobilization in soils and uptake in potatoes, were investigated in a contaminated soil by pot experiments. The result showed that the applications of combined amendments significantly decreased the bioavailable Cd concentrations extracted by TCLP, DTPA-TEA and MgCl 2 in the contaminated soils, and changed the soluble and exchangeable and specifically sorbed fractions to oxide-bound and organic-bound fractions. Compared to the control group, the concentrations of Cd in the potato tubers grown in n-HA, n-HA + Fly ash, n-HA + Lime, n-HA + Bone mill and n-HA + Zeolite soil were reduced 17.4%, 20.7%, 15.2%, 32.6% and 39.1%, respectively. Nano-hydroxyapatite combined amendments was more effective in reducing bioavailable Cd concentrations and Cd accumulations in potatoes, especially for n-HA + Z.

  20. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve process quality through reconditioning. Breeding for retention of postharvest quality and LTS resistance should consider strategies for incorporating more robust tolerance to in-season heat stress.

  1. Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Acharya, Vishal; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2013-08-01

    NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signalling. Our genome-wide analysis identified 110 StNAC genes in potato encoding for 136 proteins, including 14 membrane-bound TFs. The physical map positions of StNAC genes on 12 potato chromosomes were non-random, and 40 genes were found to be distributed in 16 clusters. The StNAC proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 12 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of StNACs along with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 18 subgroups. Our comparative analysis has also identified 36 putative TNAC proteins, which appear to be restricted to Solanaceae family. In silico expression analysis, using Illumina RNA-seq transcriptome data, revealed tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of StNAC genes. Several StNAC genes, including StNAC072 and StNAC101that are orthologs of known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 26 (RD26) were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis largely corroborated the expression profile of StNAC genes as revealed by the RNA-seq data. Taken together, this analysis indicates towards putative functions of several StNAC TFs, which will provide blue-print for their functional characterization and utilization in potato improvement.

  2. Influence of low dose γ radiation on the dormancy, growth and physiological activity of seed potato (solanum tuberosum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, Y. K.; Lee, H. Y.; Baek, M. H.; Yoo, Z. C.

    2002-01-01

    To observe the stimulating effect of low dose γ radiation on the dormancy breaking and growth of potato with different storage duration and conditions, potato were irradiated with the dose of 1 ∼ 16 Gy. Though varied with storage duration and conditions, sprouting rate of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was promoted at the 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to 20 .deg. C in the light. The field growth of potato stored at 5 .deg. C in the dark was highly increased at the 2, 4, 8 Gy irradiation group. The CAT activity of potato was increased by about 20% at 1,8 and 16 Gy irradiation group. POD activity was also increased by 7 ∼ 16% at 1, 8 and 16 Gy irradiation group compared to the control. Fv/Fm was not changed by the low dose γ radiation. However, the effective quantum yield of PSII was slightly increased by about 12% at 1 and 16 Gy irradiation group. Seedling irradiated with low dose γ radiation showed the lower excitation pressure on PSII (1- q P), while NPQ was greatly increased by 45% at 4 Gy irradiation group. These results clearly showed the positive effect of low dose γ radiation on the seedling growth of potato via increasing photoprotective capacities of photosynthetic apparatus

  3. The differential gene expression of key enzyme in the gibberellin pathway in the potato (solanum tuberosum) mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.B.; Ye, G.J.; Yang, Y.Z.; Wang, F.; Zhou, Y; Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the expression patterns of the key genes in the gibberellin synthesis pathway in the potato dwarf mutant M4P-9 were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Using Actin as an internal control, CPS1, KS, KO, GA20ox1, and GA2ox1, genes for key gibberellin synthesis enzymes, were evaluated, along with a gibberellin receptor gene. The standard curves were obtained from dilutions of PCR product; the correlation coefficient for Actin was 0.995, and those for the target genes varied from 0.994 to 1.000. The expression patterns of gibberellin pathway genes in different growth stages and tissues were calculated according to the method of Pfaffl. These genes showed expression patterns that varied based on growth stage and tissue type. The higher expression levels of CPS1 and GA2ox1 in roots, the lower expression levels of GA20ox1 in roots during tuber formation stage; as well as the increased expression of GA20ox1 and GA2ox1 genes in stems during the tuber formation stage, likely play key roles in the plant height phenotype in M4P-9 mutant materials. This article provides a basis for researching the mechanism of gibberellin synthesis in potato. (author)

  4. Chlorogenic acid, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol biosynthesis in flesh and skin of Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiñas, Matías Ariel; Lanteri, María Luciana; Ten Have, Arjen; Andreu, Adriana Balbina

    2017-08-15

    Natural variation of Andean potato was used to study the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds. Levels of phenolic compounds and corresponding structural gene transcripts were examined in flesh and skin of tubers. Phenolic acids, mainly chlorogenic acid (CGA), represent the major compounds, followed by anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols. High-anthocyanin varieties have high levels of CGA. Both metabolite and transcript levels were higher in skin than in flesh and showed a good correspondence. Two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA transferases (HCT/HQT) have been involved in CGA production, of which HCT reflects CGA levels. Catechin was found in pigmented tissues whereas epicatechin was restricted to tuber skin. Transcripts of leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LCR), which generates catechin, could not be detected. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) transcripts, the enzyme responsible for epicatechin production, showed similar levels among samples. These data suggest that the biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols in potato tuber would require ANR but not LCR and that an epimerization process is involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping Loci That Control Tuber and Foliar Symptoms Caused by PVY in Autotetraploid Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Washington L; Ingram, Jason; Hackett, Christine A; Coombs, Joseph J; Douches, David; Bryan, Glenn J; De Jong, Walter; Gray, Stewart

    2017-11-06

    Potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD) is a tuber deformity associated with infection by the tuber necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVY NTN ). PTNRD negatively impacts tuber quality and marketability, and poses a serious threat to seed and commercial potato production worldwide. PVY NTN symptoms differ in the cultivars Waneta and Pike: Waneta expresses severe PTNRD and foliar mosaic with vein and leaf necrosis, whereas Pike does not express PTNRD and mosaic is the only foliar symptom. To map loci that influence tuber and foliar symptoms, 236 F 1 progeny of a cross between Waneta and Pike were inoculated with PVY NTN isolate NY090029 and genotyped using 12,808 potato SNPs. Foliar symptom type and severity were monitored for 10 wk, while tubers were evaluated for PTNRD expression at harvest and again after 60 d in storage. Pairwise correlation analyses indicate a strong association between PTNRD and vein necrosis (τ = 0.4195). QTL analyses revealed major-effect QTL on chromosomes 4 and 5 for mosaic, 4 for PTNRD, and 5 for foliar necrosis symptoms. Locating QTL associated with PVY-related symptoms provides a foundation for breeders to develop markers that can be used to eliminate potato clones with undesirable phenotypes, e.g. , those likely to develop PTNRD or to be symptomless carriers of PVY. Copyright © 2017 Silva et al.

  6. Comparative shoot proteome analysis of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes contrasting in nitrogen deficiency responses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meise, Philipp; Jozefowicz, Anna Maria; Uptmoor, Ralf; Mock, Hans-Peter; Ordon, Frank; Schum, Annegret

    2017-08-23

    Aiming at a better understanding of the physiological and biochemical background of nitrogen use efficiency, alterations in the shoot proteome under N-deficiency were investigated in two contrasting potato genotypes grown in vitro with 60 and 7.5mM N, respectively. A gel based proteomic approach was applied to identify candidate proteins associated with genotype specific responses to N-deficiency. 21% of the detected proteins differed in abundance between the two genotypes. Between control and N-deficiency conditions 19.5% were differentially accumulated in the sensitive and 15% in the tolerant genotype. 93% of the highly N-deficiency responsive proteins were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. The major part was associated with photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, stress response and regulation. Differential accumulation of enzymes involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis suggest activation of alternative carbohydrate pathways. In the tolerant genotype, increased abundance under N-deficiency was also found for enzymes involved in chlorophyll synthesis and stability of enzymes, which increase photosynthetic carbon fixation efficiency. Out of a total of 106 differentially abundant proteins, only eight were detected in both genotypes. Our findings suggest that mutually responsive proteins reflect universal stress responses while adaptation to N-deficiency in metabolic pathways is more genotype specific. Nitrogen losses from arable farm land considerably contribute to environmental pollution. In potato, this is a special problem due cultivation on light soils, irrigation and the shallow root system. Therefore, breeding of cultivars with improved nitrogen use efficiency and stable yields under reduced N fertilization is an important issue. Knowledge of genotype dependent adaptation to N-deficiency at the proteome level can help to understand regulation of N efficiency and development of N-efficient cultivars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional characterization of a p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase from potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3’-hydroxylase (C3’H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated or characterized i...

  8. Phenotypic performance of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants with pyramided rice cystatin genes (OCI and OCII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The evaluation of transgenic plants commonly carried out under controlled conditions in culture rooms and greenhouses can give valuable information about the influence of introduced genes on transgenic plant phenotype. However, an overall assessment of plant performance can only be made by testing t...

  9. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF WEEDS AFTER POTATO CULTIVATION (Solanum tuberosum L. IN THE VENEZUELAN ANDES:AN AGROECOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Manuel Villa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Weeds represent one problem for potato cultivation in the Venezuelan Andes; however ecological studies to improve their management are limited. This study has aimed to carry out a phytosociological survey of weed community after potato cultivation in Mérida, Mérida state, Venezuela. The experiment was carried out under a completely randomized design with 20 plots (2x2 m. The weeds surveys were conducted at two month intervals, randomly selecting five plots per session during June 2006 and February 2007, to 60 days after cultivation (DDC, 120, 180, and 240 DDC. The phytosociological survey was performed involving identification and quantification of numbers of individuals the weeds in each plot. After were estimated of phytosociological parameters such as density, frequency, abundance to calculate the importance value index. A multivariate non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS was performed using species abundances; also was used the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA with presence absence data. Seventeen families, 32 genera and 35 species of weeds were identified, with the Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae families showed higher importance within the community. The most important species in the all stages were Pennisetum clandestinum, Paspalum decumbens, Desmodium adscendens, Aldama dentata, Borreria laevis, and Jaegeria hirta. Significant differences in phytosociological parameters were observed among weed species at each stage and among the different stages after potato cultivation.

  10. Application of potato (Solanum tuberosum plant wastes for the removal of methylene blue and malachite green dye from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dye pollutants from the textile, paper, and leather industries are important sources of environmental contamination. In the present study an agricultural waste from potato plant (potato stem powder, PSP and potato leaves powder, PLP was used as an adsorbent for removal of the methylene blue (MB and malachite green (MG dyes from aqueous solution. The adsorbent materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the effect of physico-chemical parameters, such as pHpzc, ionic strength, adsorbent dose, contact time, initial dyes concentration and temperature. The kinetics of adsorption was studied by applying the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model better represented the adsorption kinetics and the mechanism was controlled by surface adsorption and intraparticle diffusion. Equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in enthalpy (ΔH°, entropy (ΔS° and Gibb’s free energy (ΔG° of adsorption systems were also determined and evaluated.

  11. CCD-Based Skinning Injury Recognition on Potato Tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.): A Comparison between Visible and Biospeckle Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingwang; Geng, Jinfeng; Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin

    2016-10-18

    Skinning injury on potato tubers is a kind of superficial wound that is generally inflicted by mechanical forces during harvest and postharvest handling operations. Though skinning injury is pervasive and obstructive, its detection is very limited. This study attempted to identify injured skin using two CCD (Charge Coupled Device) sensor-based machine vision technologies, i.e., visible imaging and biospeckle imaging. The identification of skinning injury was realized via exploiting features extracted from varied ROIs (Region of Interests). The features extracted from visible images were pixel-wise color and texture features, while region-wise BA (Biospeckle Activity) was calculated from biospeckle imaging. In addition, the calculation of BA using varied numbers of speckle patterns were compared. Finally, extracted features were implemented into classifiers of LS-SVM (Least Square Support Vector Machine) and BLR (Binary Logistic Regression), respectively. Results showed that color features performed better than texture features in classifying sound skin and injured skin, especially for injured skin stored no less than 1 day, with the average classification accuracy of 90%. Image capturing and processing efficiency can be speeded up in biospeckle imaging, with captured 512 frames reduced to 125 frames. Classification results obtained based on the feature of BA were acceptable for early skinning injury stored within 1 day, with the accuracy of 88.10%. It is concluded that skinning injury can be recognized by visible and biospeckle imaging during different stages. Visible imaging has the aptitude in recognizing stale skinning injury, while fresh injury can be discriminated by biospeckle imaging.

  12. Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis: bacterial canker of tomato, molecular interactions and disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Munmun; Macdonald, Jacqueline; Liu, Peng; Weselowski, Brian; Yuan, Ze-Chun

    2018-03-12

    Bacterial canker disease is considered to be one of the most destructive diseases of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and is caused by the seed-borne Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis (Cmm). This vascular pathogen generally invades and proliferates in the xylem through natural openings or wounds, causing wilt and canker symptoms. The incidence of symptomless latent infections and the invasion of tomato seeds by Cmm are widespread. Pathogenicity is mediated by virulence factors and transcriptional regulators encoded by the chromosome and two natural plasmids. The virulence factors include serine proteases, cell wall-degrading enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, pectinases) and others. Mutational analyses of these genes and gene expression profiling (via quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, transcriptomics and proteomics) have begun to shed light on their roles in colonization and virulence, whereas the expression of tomato genes in response to Cmm infection suggests plant factors involved in the defence response. These findings may aid in the generation of target-specific bactericides or new resistant varieties of tomato. Meanwhile, various chemical and biological controls have been researched to control Cmm. This review presents a detailed investigation regarding the pathogen Cmm, bacterial canker infection, molecular interactions between Cmm and tomato, and current perspectives on improved disease management. © 2018 AGRICULTURE AND AGRI-FOOD CANADA. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2018 JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  13. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  14. Mechanism and control of Solanum lycocarpum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, L.V.A.; Silva, Da E.A.A.; Davide, A.C.; Mendes de Jesus, V.A.; Toorop, P.E.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Solanaceae seed morphology and physiology have been widely studied but mainly in domesticated crops. The present study aimed to compare the seed morphology and the physiology of germination of Solanum lycocarpum, an important species native to the Brazilian Cerrado, with two species with

  15. Flowerlocation in Solanum dulcamara L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zhuravlyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of inflorescence of Solanum dulcamara is studied. Pseudolateral location of inflorescence relatively to plant body is set, the absence of bracteae and the sympodial type of growing of branches are found out. From W. Troll point of view the inflorescence of nightshade is defined as the polytelica synflorescence – complex dichasium.

  16. Protein (Viridiplantae): 816753 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e Solanum tuberosum MIDEVKEEWPETPSFLNPETPNSQNPETPTFSNPESPTFSKSETPTFSMPETPTFSKPETPSFSKPETPSFSKPET...PSSQKLEASTFSKTETPTFSKLETPSFSKLETPISPNPETPTFSKPKTPSFSKPEIPSFSKPKTPSFSKSETPTLSKPETPSSPKPETPNSPKIEAPSFSKPETPSFSKPET...PTFSNPETLSSPKSETLTFQKPEIPSSPKLETQSSSKPETPSFSKPETPTFSKSKTPSSSKPEMPSSPKPETPSFSKPEILTFSKPKTPSFSKPETPSFSKPETPSFSRPET...PSFSNPETPSSSKPEPETLSSPKPKTPSSAKLETPSFSKLETPSFSKPETPSSLKPETPSFSKPET...PSSPNPKTPSSPKSETPSFSKPKTPSFSKPETPSSSKLETPNFLKPETPSSLKLEAPPTFLKPETSSSTKPKTPSFSTPETPTFSKPETPTFSKSETPSFSKSETPSSFKPETPSFSKPETPSSPKFETPSSPKPETPSSPKT

  17. Protein (Viridiplantae): 816755 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e Solanum tuberosum MAQHYKLSSILLLAFIYFIHDHMITTITARRILQTPSFSTPTTPSFSMPTTPSFSKSPGVSKPASPSFSNSPSLSKPET...PSFSKSETLSFSKPETPSFSTSETPSFSKPETPSFSKPETPSFSKPEIPSFSKPETPSSPRLETPIFIKPETPTFSKPETPTFSKPKTPSLLKPETPSSQKPETPTFSKPET...PIFSKSETHSFSKPETPTSPNPETPTFSKPETPSSPKPETPSFSKPETSSFSKPETPTFSKPETPSSPKSETPSFSKPETPTFSKPET...PSSPKSETPTFPKPKIPSSLKPETPSSPNLETPSFLKPETPIFSKPETPSFSKPEMPSSTKPETPIPQSPRPLLSQSLKSQILQTPRPQLETSSFSKPET...PSFSKPETPSSSKPEAPSSPTPEMQSFTKPETPSFSKPETPNSPKPETPSFPKPETSTFSKPQTSNSPKSETSSSPKPETSSFSKSETPSFSKPEMPSSPTPETPNFSKPET

  18. Linkage mapping of candidate genes for induce resistance and growth promotion by trichoderma koningiopsis (th003) in tomato solanum lycopersicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbaqueba, Jaime; Cotes, Alba Marina; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2011-01-01

    Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is a mechanism by which plants enhance defenses against any stress condition. ISR and growth promotion are enhanced when tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is inoculated with several strains of Trichoderma ssp. this study aims to genetically map tomato candidate genes involved in ISR and growth promotion induced by the Colombian native isolate Trichoderma koningiopsis th003. Forty-nine candidate genes previously identified on tomato plants treated with th003 and T. hamatum T382 strains were evaluated for polymorphisms and 16 of them were integrated on the highly saturated genetic linkage map named TOMATO EXPEN 2000. The location of six unigenes was similar to the location of resistance gene analogs (RGAS), defense related ests and resistance QTLs previously reported, suggesting new possible candidates for these quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions. The candidate gene-markers may be used for future ISR or growth promotion assisted selection in tomato.

  19. School Teams up for SSP Functional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignolet, G.; Lallemand, R.; Celeste, A.; von Muldau, H.

    2002-01-01

    Space Solar Power systems appear increasingly as one of the major solutions to the upcoming global energy crisis, by collecting solar energy in space where this is most easy, and sending it by microwave beam to the surface of the planet, where the need for controlled energy is located. While fully operational systems are still decades away, the need for major development efforts is with us now. Yet, for many decision-makers and for most of the public, SSP often still sounds like science fiction. Six functional demonstration systems, based on the Japanese SPS-2000 concept, have been built as a result of a cooperation between France and Japan, and they are currently used extensively, in Japan, in Europe and in North America, for executive presentations as well as for public exhibitions. There is demand for more models, both for science museums and for use by energy dedicated groups, and a senior high school in La Reunion, France, has picked up the challenge to make the production of such models an integrated practical school project for pre-college students. In December 2001, the administration and the teachers of the school have evaluated the feasibility of the project and eventually taken the go decision for the school year 2002- 2003, when for education purposes a temporary "school business company" will be incorporated with the goal to study and manufacture a limited series of professional quality SSP demonstration models, and to sell them world- wide to institutions and advocacy groups concerned with energy problems and with the environment. The different sections of the school will act as the different services of an integrated business : based on the current existing models, the electronic section will redesign the energy management system and the microwave projector module, while the mechanical section of the school will adapt and re-conceive the whole packaging of the demonstrator. The French and foreign language sections will write up a technical manual for

  20. Genome sequence of M6, a diploid inbred clone of the high-glycoalkaloid-producing tuber-bearing potato species Solanum chacoense, reveals residual heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Hamilton, John P; Crisovan, Emily; Manrique-Carpintero, Norma C; Marand, Alexandre P; Newton, Linsey; Pham, Gina M; Jiang, Jiming; Douches, David S; Jansky, Shelley H; Buell, C Robin

    2018-05-01

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a highly heterozygous autotetraploid that presents challenges in genome analyses and breeding. Wild potato species serve as a resource for the introgression of important agronomic traits into cultivated potato. One key species is Solanum chacoense and the diploid, inbred clone M6, which is self-compatible and has desirable tuber market quality and disease resistance traits. Sequencing and assembly of the genome of the M6 clone of S. chacoense generated an assembly of 825 767 562 bp in 8260 scaffolds with an N50 scaffold size of 713 602 bp. Pseudomolecule construction anchored 508 Mb of the genome assembly into 12 chromosomes. Genome annotation yielded 49 124 high-confidence gene models representing 37 740 genes. Comparative analyses of the M6 genome with six other Solanaceae species revealed a core set of 158 367 Solanaceae genes and 1897 genes unique to three potato species. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms across the M6 genome revealed enhanced residual heterozygosity on chromosomes 4, 8 and 9 relative to the other chromosomes. Access to the M6 genome provides a resource for identification of key genes for important agronomic traits and aids in genome-enabled development of inbred diploid potatoes with the potential to accelerate potato breeding. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Chemical constituents of Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Torres, Maria da conceicao M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the stem EtOH extract of S. buddleifolium resulted in the isolation of terpenoids, amides, lignans and a steroidal alkaloid. Based on HRMS, IR and 1 H and 13 C NMR data analysis, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified as: 13-hydroxysolavetivone, betulinic acid, N-trans-caffeoyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyldopamine, N-trans-p-cumaroyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyl- 3’-O-methoxydopamine, alangilignoside C, isolariciresinol, polistachiol, (+)-(8R,7’S,8’S)-3α-O-(β-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol, (-)-(8S,7’R,8’R)-3α-O-(β-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol and solamargine. The occurrence of terpenoids and amides is common in Solanum, unlike lignans which are rare. The isolated lignans described in this work are reported for the first time in the genus Solanum. (author)

  2. The SSP4: A world of deepening inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Katherine; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; Eom, Jiyong; Hartin, Corinne; Kim, Sonny; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Moss, Richard; McJeon, Haewon; Patel, Pralit; Smith, Steve; Waldhoff, Stephanie; Wise, Marshall

    2017-01-01

    The Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 4 (SSP4), “Inequality” or “A Road Divided,” is one of the five SSPs developed to guide the creation of new scenarios for the “Parallel Process”. We describe, in quantitative terms, the SSP4 as implemented by the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), the marker model for this scenario. We use demographic and economic assumptions, in combination with technology and non-climate policy assumptions to develop a quantitative representation of energy, land-use and land-cover that are consistent with the SSP4 storyline. The resulting scenario is one with stark differences across regions. High-income regions prosper, continuing to increase their demand for energy and food. Electrification increases in these regions, with the increased generation being met by nuclear and renewables. Low-income regions, however, stagnate due to limited growth in income. These regions continue to depend on traditional biofuels, leading to high pollutant emissions. Due to a declining dependence on fossil fuels in all regions, total radiative forcing only reaches 6.4 Wm-2 in 2100, making this a world with relatively low challenges to mitigation. We explore the effects of mitigation effort on the SSP4 world, finding that the imposition of a carbon price has a varied effect across regions. In particular, the SSP4 mitigation scenarios are characterized by afforestation in the high-income regions and deforestation in the low-income regions. Finally, we compare the GCAM SSP4 results to other integrated assessment model (IAM) quantifications of the SSP4 and to other SSPs, both those generated by GCAM and those of the other IAMs.

  3. Evaluation of biol`s effect on fourteen accession of native potato (Solanum ssp. at the experimental station kallutaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condori-Mamani Pastor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Bolivia the productive potato regions, you characterize for an extensive agriculture in blankets (of traditional form, of car subsistence and not much diversified, the little properties for the cultivation of potato possess the greater part of the productive, and they locate at little plots of land that annually they go rotating. The present research work has the objective to make a comparison and to characterize fourteen accessions of native potato of germoplasma's collection, of Agronomic Ingeniería's race, (UPEA. The study carried completion at Kallutaca's experiment station itself, becoming established on the basis of a Design Bloques Complete at random (DBCA with three repetitions each accession, the second factor is diligent biol's dose, considered himself like a stimulant compound fito, for cultivations, where increments in the capability of photosynthesis and the production allow principal. Whose moral values place between 2.0 2.6% themselves (% in dry material and that they yielded 3.3 %'s concentration of total N to 3.7%. The analysis of microcomputer Hierro's (132 ppm, Manganeso's, Cobre's and Zinc's presence with 12.1 and 6 ppm detected nutrient in the obtained effluent. Accessions Pole, Sacampaya, Sani imilla, Janq'o, collide, Runic Bola, Q'aysalla and Laramq'aysa had bigger development, the same the remainders have bigger performances they did not have the same incidence. This answer is due to a positive effect of the biol on the performance of tubers in accordance with dose of diligent biol the accessions of native potato where 1 with the application of dose of 25 % of Biol obtained to 10 t.h-1 an equivalent yield.

  4. Genetic diversity of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill. and S. nigrum L. (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Berg, van den R.G.; Feron, R.M.C.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Mariani, C.

    2008-01-01

    Two hexaploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum are present in Africa: Solanum scabrum and S. nigrum. Solanum scabrum is a widely cultivated species and is used as a leafy vegetable, as a source of medicine and as a source of ink dye. In previous studies a wide range of morphological diversity has

  5. [Flavonoids of Artemisia campestris, ssp. glutinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurabielle, M; Eberle, J; Paris, M

    1982-10-01

    Four flavanones (pinostrobin, pinocembrin, sakuranetin and naringenin), one dihydroflavonol (7-methyl aromadendrin) and one flavone (hispidulin) have been isolated from Artemisia campestris L. ssp. glutinosa Gay and identified by spectroscopic methods. Artemisia campestris L. sous-espèce glutinosa Gay est une Composée Anthémidée largement répandue sur les sables du littoral méditerranéean et abondante dans certaines régions d'Espagne et d'Italie. Dans le cadre d'une étude chimiotaxonomique du genre Artemisia Tourn., nous nous sommes intéressés à l'analyse des flavonoïdes, composés jamais décrits, à notre connaissance, dans cette espèce d' Artemisia. Les sommités fleuries d' Artemisia campestris sous-espèce glutinosa, séchées et pulvérisées, sont dégraissées à l'ether de pétrole et épuisées par le chloroforme. Le fractionnement de l'extrait chloroformique, par chromatographie sur colonne de silice, et la purification de certaines fractions conduisent à l'isolement de six génines flavoniques, à l'etat pur. L' étude des spectres UV, des spectres de masse et des spectres de RMN [1,2] et la comparaison avec des échantillons authentiques permettent de proposer, pour ces flavonoïdes, les structures de la pinostrobine [3], de la pinocembrine [4], de la sakuranétine, de la naringénine [5] (flavanones), de la méthyl-7-aromadendrine, [6, 7] (dihydroflavonol) et de l'hispiduline [8, 9] (flavone); quatre de ces génines sont méthylées. Parmi ces flavonoïdes, la pinostrobine n'a jamais été décrite, à notre connaissance, dans la famille des Composées; la pinocembrine, la sakuranétine et la naringénine ont déjà été signalées chez quelques Astéracées et Eupatoriées [10], et l'hispiduline dans la tribu des Anthémidées ( Santolina chamaecyparissus L.) [8]. Seule, la méthyl-7-aromadendrine semble décrite, à ce jour, dans le genre Artemisia Tourn. [7].

  6. SSP Plus at 36 Months: Effects of Adding Employment Services to Financial Work Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ying; Michalopoulos, Charles

    A study examined effects of the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) Plus program. A small group of long-term income assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick was offered an earnings supplement and employment services (SSP Plus); a second group was offered the regular SSP earnings supplement only; and a third group was offered neither supplement nor…

  7. Determination of chromosomal ploidy in Agave ssp. | Lingling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromosome observation is necessary to elucidate the structure, function and organization of Agave plants' genes and genomes. However, few researches about chromosome observation of Agave ssp. were done, not only because their chromosome numbers are large, but also because their ploidies are complicated.

  8. Campylobacter fetus ssp jejuni en patología humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Echeverri

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Algunos microorganismos, como los Rotovirus y el Compylobocter fetus ssp jejuni reconocidos y estudiados recientemente, han llegado a ocupar un lugar preponderante en el grupo de enteropatógenos considerados como problema en salud pública.

  9. Bibliography of Selected SCSD, URBS, SSP, SEF, and RAS Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. School Planning Lab.

    The annotated bibliography contains publications and report listings of the following sources--(1) School Construction Systems Development (SCSD), (2) University Residential Building Systems (URBS), (3) Florida Schoolhouse Systems Project (SSP), (4) Study of Educational Facilities (SEF), and (5) Recherches en Amenagements Scolaires (RAS) Building…

  10. The bright-star masks for the HSC-SSP survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean; Czakon, Nicole; Bosch, James; Komiyama, Yutaka; Medezinski, Elinor; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Oguri, Masamune

    2018-01-01

    We present the procedure to build and validate the bright-star masks for the Hyper-Suprime-Cam Strategic Subaru Proposal (HSC-SSP) survey. To identify and mask the saturated stars in the full HSC-SSP footprint, we rely on the Gaia and Tycho-2 star catalogues. We first assemble a pure star catalogue down to GGaia SSP, finding that our star catalogue is 99.2% pure down to GGaia SSP observations at "ftp://obsftp.unige.ch/pub/coupon/brightStarMasks/HSC-SSP/".

  11. Chemical constituents of Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn; Constituintes quimicos de Solanum buddleifolium Sendtn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Francisco das Chagas L.; Torres, Maria da conceicao M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L., E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Ondina, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Botanica

    2013-10-01

    The chemical investigation of the stem EtOH extract of S. buddleifolium resulted in the isolation of terpenoids, amides, lignans and a steroidal alkaloid. Based on HRMS, IR and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data analysis, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified as: 13-hydroxysolavetivone, betulinic acid, N-trans-caffeoyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyldopamine, N-trans-p-cumaroyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyl- 3'-O-methoxydopamine, alangilignoside C, isolariciresinol, polistachiol, (+)-(8R,7'S,8'S)-3{alpha}-O-({beta}-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol, (-)-(8S,7'R,8'R)-3{alpha}-O-({beta}-D-glucopiranosyl)-lioniresinol and solamargine. The occurrence of terpenoids and amides is common in Solanum, unlike lignans which are rare. The isolated lignans described in this work are reported for the first time in the genus Solanum. (author)

  12. Binding Properties of Streptococcus gordonii SspA and SspB (Antigen I/II Family) Polypeptides Expressed on the Cell Surface of Lactococcus lactis MG1363

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Ann R.; Gilbert, Christophe; Wells, Jeremy M.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    1998-01-01

    The oral bacterium Streptococcus gordonii expresses two cell wall-associated polypeptides, designated SspA (1,542 amino acid residues) and SspB (1,462 amino acid residues), that have 70% sequence identity. These polypeptides are members of the antigen I/II family of oral streptococcal adhesins and mediate the binding of streptococci to salivary glycoproteins, collagen, and other oral microorganisms such as Actinomyces naeslundii. To determine if SspA and SspB have differential binding propert...

  13. Chemical and Antibacterial Polymorphism of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (Cupressaceae Leaf Essential Oils from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnène Medini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from Juniperus oxycedrus L. have been used since antiquity for fragrance, flavoring, medicinal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, and cosmetic purposes. Several works studied the chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves. The aim of this study is to investigate the chemotaxonomic relationships and antibacterial activity of two Tunisian subspecies: Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (L. K. Deb. and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m. Ball. In addition, and for the first time, we reported the antibacterial activities of Tunisian J. oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus against four bacteria. Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-five constituents were identified. Thirty four major compounds were retained for the study of the chemical variability, and α-pinene, sylvestrene, p-cymene, and 13-epi-manoyl oxide were the main ones. The chemical principal components analysis (PCA identified three chemotypes. The study of the antibacterial activity showed that Escherichia coli was found to be extremely resistant (zone diameter 0 mm to all the oils tested, while Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain (zone diameter 13.5 mm and MIC ranged from 600 to 650 μg/mL.

  14. Molecular diversity among seven Solanum (eggplant and relatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2012-11-08

    Nov 8, 2012 ... Seven Solanum species (eggplants) were investigated for molecular diversity. Besides its ... Eggplant comprises three closely related cultivated species .... generated with SSR data was submitted to 2-way Mantel test (Man-.

  15. Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of acaricidal activity of Solanum nigrum on Tetranychus urticae Koch under laboratory conditions. Stephanie Johana Numa Vergel, Lorena Rodríguez Coy, Daniel Rodríguez Caicedo, Ericsson Coy-Barrera ...

  16. Een nieuwe variëteit van Solanum triflorum Nutt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1966-01-01

    A note on a new variety of Solanum triflorum Nutt., viz. var. dentatum Ooststr., found in 1938 near Nijmegen, prov. Gelderland. SANDWITH (2, p. 346) mentions a plant from Bristol, which is identical with this.

  17. Steroidal glycoalkaloids and molluscicidal activity of Solanum asperum Rich. fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Tania M. S.; Camara, Celso A.; Freire, Kristerson R. L.; Silva, Thiago G. da; Agra, Maria de F.; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata

    2008-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the alkaloidal extract of the green fruits of Solanum asperum afforded a new compound, solanandaine along with solasonine and solamargine. The total crude alkaloids as well as the isolated pure alkaloids exhibited significant molluscicidal activity. O fracionamento bio-monitorado do extrato alcaloídico dos frutos verdes de Solanum asperum forneceu um novo alcalóide esteroidal, denominado solanandaina, juntamente com a solasonina e a solamargina. Tanto o ext...

  18. Palinologia de espécies de Solanum L. (Solanaceae A. Juss. ocorrentes nas restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Palynology of species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae A. Juss. from the restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Patrícia Rodrigues Batista-Franklim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 21 táxons de Solanum L., com o objetivo de caracterizá-los palinologicamente e, assim, contribuir para a elaboração de um catálogo polínico da flora das restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os táxons examinados foram Solanum affine Sendtn., Solanum americanum Mill. var. americanum,Solanum argenteum Dunal ex Poir., Solanum aturense Dunal, Solanum caavurana Vell., Solanum capsicoides All., Solanum carautae Carv., Solanum cordifolium Dunal, Solanum curvispinum Dunal, Solanum echidnaeforme Dunal, Solanum gardneri Sendtn.,Solanum indigoferum A. St.-Hil., Solanum insidiosum Mart., Solanum mauritianum Scop., Solanum paludosum Moric., Solanum paniculatum L., Solanum paratyense Vell., Solanum pseudoquina A.St.-Hil., Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam., Solanum torvum Sw., Solanum velleum Sw. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, mensurados, descritos e fotomicrografados. A análise sob microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada, em grãos de pólen não acetolisados, para confirmar as descrições feitas sob microscopia de luz e, em alguns casos para confirmar as descrições de abertura e ornamentação. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são pequenos ou médios, isopolares, subprolatos a oblato-esferoidais, 3-colporados, sexina granulada, rugulado-granulada ou escabrada. Pela análise dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que os táxons analisados apresentam certa heterogeneidade polínica, quanto à forma, aos atributos das aberturas e à ornamentação da sexina, podendo-se usar estes caracteres na taxonomia do gênero.In this study 21 taxa of Solanum L. were investigated for palynological characterization and to contribute to the Pollen Catalog of the Flora of the Rio de Janeiro restingas. The taxa analysed were Solanum affine Sendtn., Solanum americanum Mill. var. americanum,Solanum argenteum Dunal ex Poir., Solanum aturense Dunal, Solanum caavurana Vell., Solanum capsicoides All., Solanum carautae Carv., Solanum

  19. Chemical characteristic of salt fermented meat inoculated with Pediococcus ssp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Y. B.; Rahayu, E. S.; Suparmo; Utami, T.; Nurwantoro; Yunianto, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    The research goal is knowing of the characteristict of salt fermented meat by Pediococcus ssp. There were microbiological, chemical, and off-flavor compound during fermentation. This study was conducted on research of influence of salt-meat fermentation inoculated used starter. They were included microbiological characteristics, and chemical characteristics. Microbiological characteristics observed were total bacteria, number of coliform groups, bacteria producing bioamine, and total lactic acid bacteria. The result showed that decreasing of coliform and bioamine producer bacteria, and total lactic acid bacteria decreased 3 log cycle. While the soluble protein increased of 7-8% and bioamine increased of 5-6 mg/100 g. And then Off-flavour compound, TVN and TMA increased of 36-20 mg/100g and 16-30 mg/100g, respectively. Conclusion of the research that Pedioccoccus ssp. influenced salt fermented meat.

  20. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis as Potential Functional Starter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Cvrtila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and characterise potential autochthonous functional starter cultures in homemade horsemeat sausage. The dominant microflora in the samples of horsemeat sausage were lactic acid bacteria (LAB, followed by micrococci. Among the LAB, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species, and since the first is not common in fermented sausages, we characterised it as a potential functional starter culture. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis produced a significant amount of lactic acid, displayed good growth capability at 12, 18 and 22 °C, growth in the presence of 5 % NaCl, good viability after lyophilisation and in simulated gastric and small intestinal juice, antimicrobial activity against test pathogens, and good adhesive properties in vitro.

  1. Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Dual Docked Operations (DDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Joel W., Jr.; Bruno, Erica E.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the concept definition, studies, and analysis results generated by the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), International Space Station (ISS) Program (ISSP), and Mission Operations Directorate for implementing Dual Docked Operations (DDO) during mated Orbiter/ISS missions. This work was performed over a number of years. Due to the ever increasing visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS, it became apparent to both the ISSP and the SSP that there would arise occasions where conflicts between a visiting vehicle docking and/or undocking could overlap with a planned Space Shuttle launch and/or during docked operations. This potential conflict provided the genesis for evaluating risk mitigations to gain maximum flexibility for managing potential visiting vehicle traffic to and from the ISS and to maximize launch and landing opportunities for all visiting vehicles.

  2. Flavonoids from Ulex airensis and Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máximo, Patrícia; Lourenço, Ana; Feio, Sónia Savluchinske; Roseiro, José Carlos

    2002-02-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of Ulex airensis three new isoflavonoids, ulexin C (1), ulexin D (2), and 7-O-methylisolupalbigenin (3), were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Ulexin D (2) was also identified from the dichloromethane extract of Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus. Together with these new metabolites, 18 compounds of previously known structures were isolated and identified from both species. The antifungal activity of these compounds was tested against Cladosporium cucumerinum by a bioautographic TLC assay.

  3. Determinación cuantitativa de vitamina C y pigmentos y procesamiento de la papa criolla, variedad yema de huevo (Solanum phureja Juz et Buck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Alvarez G.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Empleando papa pardo'pastusa (Solanum tuberosum como control, se determinó el contenido de Vitamina C total en la papa criolla, variedad Yema de Huevo (Solanum phureja, Juz et Buck y se evaluaron las pérdidas durante la cocción y el freído. Se utilizaron los métodos colorimétrico y densitométrico: el primero dio resultados altos debido a sustancias interferentes; el segundo reportó los siguientes valores: criolla 21 mg/100 g, pardo-pastusa 18 mg/100 g (para muestra fresca. Las pérdidas de Vitamina C de papa criolla con piel fueron durante la cocción {92°C durante 25' de 1 9 % y en el freído (175°C por 3' de 30%. También se analizaron los carotenos y xantofilas dando: carotenos en papa criolla, 1.5 mg/100 g, en pardo-pastusa 0.5 mg/100 g (muestra fresca y xantofilas en papa criolla 0.6 mg/100 g, en pardo-pastusa 0.13 mg/100 g. Se procesó en las siguientes formas no tradicionales: en harinas compuestas aceptadas por ios consumidores, en una sustitución del 2 0% con puré; frita en tajadas con piel y pasabocas de puré. El tiempo de vida fue para frita tres semanas a 16°C V más de una semana a 25°C; para pasabocas cinco semanas y media a 16 C y un mes a 30°C.

  4. Choleretic activity of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, N; Herekman-Demir, T; Oztürk, Y; Bozan, B; Başer, K H

    1998-08-01

    Effects of an ethanolic extract prepared from G. lutea ssp. symphyandra roots on the bile production and liver in rats were investigated. Bile flows of rats which were treated by a single i.p. dose of CCl(4) 24 h prior to experiments were measured after the cannulation of bile duct under urethane anaesthesia. After an equilibration period of 1 h, the lyophilized extract were administered intraduodenally (500 mg/kg i.p.), while control animals received physiological saline only. To monitor the effect of multiple dose therapy, rats received the same dose of G. lutea ssp. symphyandra extract for 3 days (2 days prior to CCl(4) administration) and their bile flows were measured after the cannulation. In all groups, bile samples were collected for 3 h with 15 min intervals. After the completion of bile flow experiment, rat livers were removed and put in neutral formaldehyde solution (10%) for the histological examination. According to results obtained, multiple dose treatment of rats with the plant extract normalized the decreased bile flow due CCl(4), whereas single dose therapy was ineffective on the impaired bile flow. These data indicate that the extract prepared from Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has a hepatoprotective activity. Copyright © 1998 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  6. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo de folhas de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Diniz Araújo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, espécies pertencentes à Solanum sect. Crinitum Child, com o objetivo de efetuar morfodiagnoses macroscópicas e microscópicas que possibilitem suas caracterizações. As três espécies são conhecidas popularmente como "jurubeba", fruta-de-lobo" e "lobeira" e usadas na medicina popular contra o diabetes e também para outros fins. Essas espécies compartilham vários caracteres morfológicos, dentre os quais se destacam o hábito arbustivo a arbóreo, o indumento velutino às vezes cerdoso, a corola é pentagonal-estrelada, roxa a púrpura, e o fruto globoso acima de 5 cm de diâmetro. Entretanto, apesar da grande semelhança morfológica entre as espécies estudadas, destacaram-se como parâmetros distintivos: a morfologia do pecíolo, a base do limbo, o indumento da face adaxial, a anatomia do mesofilo, os tipos de estômatos e a morfologia do bordo foliar.

  7. Corte de tubérculos de batatinha (Solatium tuberosum L.: parte I - Estudos comparativos sôbre plantio de tubérculos inteiros, e cortados em "ápice" e "base"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavo J. Boock

    1947-01-01

    Full Text Available Several trials were conducted with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. to study the relative value of the apical and basal sets, as compared to whole seed tubers, since cutting potatoes before planting has been a matter of discussion. The experiments have been carried out on a high and on a low districts, say, respectively, at Joanópolis mountainous region, and at Taubaté flat lands, the latter on the right bank of Paraíba river, both in the State of São Paulo. Results have shown that on high lands, over 1,000 meters above sea level, the cutting process may be accomplished, though the basal sets have yielded less than apical ones, and whole tubers. Apical sets produced as well as whole tubers. At Taubaté district, aproximately 500 meters above sea level, where potato crop is usually grown from May to September in the dry season, on irrigated flat lands, after rice has been harvested, best results were secured from whole seed tubers. Apical and basal sets decayed easily, due probably to irrigation water ; for this reason they are not to be used.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER KEJUJURAN DAN KEPEDULIAN SISWA SD KELAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hariyati Qodriyah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran berupa SSP Tematik yang dapat mengembangkan karakter siswa kelas 2 sekolah dasar, meliputi karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan yang terdiri dari tujuh tahap, yaitu studi pendahuluan, perencanaan, mengembangkan produk awal, uji coba awal, revisi produk utama, uji coba lapangan, dan revisi terhadap produk operasional. SSP yang dikembangkan dievaluasi oleh seorang ahli materi dan media untuk mengetahui validitasnya. Subjek uji coba berjumlah 90 siswa terdiri dari 23 siswa SD Sonosewu, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY sebagai subjek uji coba terbatas dan 33 siswa untuk kelas control dan 34 siswa untuk kelas eksperimen SD 1 Kadipiro, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY. Hasil penelitian ini berupa SSP yang meliputi: silabus, RPP, LKS, dan lembar penilaian. Hasil evaluasi dari ahli materi dan ahli media untuk menguji tingkat kevalidan SSP menyatakan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan adalah valid dan berkategori “baik”. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan dinyatakan layak serta memenuhi kriteria praktis dan efektif dalam mengembangkan karakter siswa. Pembelajaran dengan SSP yang dikembangkan mampu mengembangkan karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Kata Kunci: SSP, karakter jujur dan peduli   DEVELOPING THEMATIC INTEGRATIVE SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF HONESTY AND CARE GRADE II STUDENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Abstract This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of honesty and care of grade II students of elementary school. This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, i.e. preliminary study, planning, preliminary product development, preliminary tryout, main product revision, field tryout, revision of operational product, operational product revision, and revision of the final product. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess

  9. Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) Willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. amani heywood from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Demirci, Fatih; Demirci, Betül; Gören, Nezhun; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2010-01-01

    Water-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Tanacetum argenteum ssp. argenteum and T. densum ssp. amani from Turkey were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The essential oil of T. argenteum ssp. argenteum was characterized with alpha-pinene 36.7%, beta-pinene 27.5% and 1,8-cineole 9.8%. T. densum ssp. amani was characterized with beta-pinene 27.2%, 1,8-cineole 13.1%, alpha-pinene 9.7% and p-cymene 8.9%. Antibacterial activity of the oils were evaluated for five Gram-positive and five Gram-negative bacteria by using a broth microdilution assay. The highest inhibitory activity was observed against Bacillus cereus for T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil (125 microg/mL) when compared with positive control chloramphenicol it showed the same inhibition potency. However, the same oil showed lower inhibitory activity against B. subtilis when compared. The oil of T. densum ssp. amani did not show significant activity against the tested microorganisms. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the T. argenteum ssp. argenteum oil was investigated for 15 and 10 mg/mL concentrations. However, the oil did not show significant activity when compared to positive control alpha-tocopherol. Both oils showed toxicity to Vibrio fischeri in the TLC-bioluminescence assay.

  10. Efectos del Almacenamiento y de la Cocción sobre el Contenido de Glicoialcaloides en Papa (Solanum Iuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Marín Héctor

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Los glicoalcaloides son O-glicósidos derivados de alcaloides 3 hidroxi-esteroides. Son bases débiles, ligeramente solubles en agua, solubles en ácidos débiles y alcoholes acidificados. Los que se encuentran en la papa (Solanum tuberosum son α-solanina y α-chaconina. A partir de ciertas concentraciones pueden manifestarse como mutagénicos, teratogénicos y carcinogénicos. Valores superiores a 1O mg/1OOg de tubérculo fresco imparten un sabor amargo. Contenidos de 20 mg/1OOg o más, dan sensación de quemadura. Se han reportado muertes a niveles de 30 mg/1OOg. Se estudiaron los efectos del almacenamiento y de la cocción sobre el contenido de glicoalcaloides totales (cuantitativo y el sabor amargo (cualitativo, en las dos variedades de papa de mayor consumo en Antioquia: ICA puracé y DIACOL capiro, bajo las condiciones de temperatura 16 y 21.5 °C. Los contenidos de glicoalcaloides totales fueron: 1.5 mg/1OOg en el tubérculo fresco variedad DIACOL capiro y 2.6 mg/1OOg para la variedad ICA puracé. Al pasar de 15 a 30 días el almacenamiento de las dos variedades a ambas temperaturas, se incrementaron los glicoalcaloides totales. No obstante, estos valores están por debajo de los niveles que inciden en el sabor amargo y más distantes aún de los considerados tóxicos. Con respecto a la cocción, hubo una clara reducción en el contenido de los glicoalcaloides. Para la variedad ICA puracé, hubo menores niveles de glicoalcaloides a la temperatura 21.5 °C, pero la variedad DIACOL capiro no mostró esa diferencia.

  11. Two new South American species of Solanum section Crinitum (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Farruggia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Solanum section Crinitum are described here. Solanum falciforme Farruggia, sp. nov., closely resembles S. crinitum and S. lycocarpum, but differs by the presence of falcate trichomes on the young growth. It is endemic to the cerrado and adjacent woodlands of Distrito Federal, Bahia, Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil. The other species, Solanum pseudosycophanta Farruggia, sp.nov., has close affinities to S. sycophanta but differs from the latter inprominent long-stalked stellate hairs along the stem, calyx, petiole and the adaxial surface of the leaf, in contrast to S. sycophanta which is glabrous or pubescent with sessile to short-stalked multangulate hairs. This species is narrowly distributed in tropical montane forests of northern Peru and southern Ecuador.

  12. Decrease in spermatic parameters of mice treated with hydroalcoholic extract Tropaeolum tuberosum “mashua”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Vásquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we provided a Tropaeolum tuberosum hydroalcoholic extract to male mice (780 mg kg-1 for 7, 14 and 21 days treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight gain, testes, epididymides and prostate weight (p> 0.05, nevertheless progressive motility decreased and immobile sperm count increased significantly after 21 days treatment (p <0.05. The sperm count in the epididymis cauda decreased in the 3 three assessments, concentration on 21 days treatment was significantly lower than those of 7 and 14 days treatments (p <0.05. Our results suggest, that T. tuberosum has a direct action on the male reproductive system decreasing spermatic parameters without exerting toxic effects on mice.

  13. Serological comparison of selected isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. Salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.; Boatman, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight isolates of Acronionus salmonicida ssp. salmonicida were collected during furunculosis epizootics in North American Pacific coast states and provinces. Both virulent and avirulent forms of each isolate, confirmed by challenge and electron microscopy, were examined. Serological comparisons by cross-absorption agglutination tests revealed no serological differences between isolates. Using the double diffusion precipitin test, a single band was observed when antigen from a sonicated virulent strain was reacted with antiserum against a sonicated, virulent strain absorbed with homologous, avirulent strain. The presence of the single band was eliminated by excess sonication.

  14. In vitro trypanocidal activity of solamargine and extracts from Solanum palinacanthum and Solanum lycocarpum of brazilian cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    MOREIRA, RAQUEL R.D.; MARTINS, GILMARCIO Z.; MAGALHAES, NATHALIA O.; ALMEIDA, ADELIA E.; PIETRO, ROSEMEIRE C.L.R.; SILVA, FLAVIA A. J.; CICARELLI, REGINA M.B.

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a potencial atividade tripanocida do extrato bruto etanólico dos frutos de Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum lycocarpum e do glicoalcalóide solamargina. Pó do fruto seco de S. palinacanthum e S. lycocarpum foram submetidos a extracção por refluxo com etanol a 96% e solamargina foi isolada a partir do extrato bruto de S. palinacanthum. Foram determinadas de ambos os extratos e a solamargina a atividade tripanocida utilizando o ensaio colorimétrico MTT. O Extrat...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SSP in NIR. II. Synthesis models (Meneses-Goytia+, 2015)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meneses-Goytia, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Trager, S. C.; Vazdekis, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present Single Stellar Populations (SSP) models are derived from my Ph.D.'s thesis and this paper. The following nomenclature is used throughout the paper and the website (http://smg.astro-research.net/ssp-models/the-models/) to describe the models, e.g. MarS models use the M08 isochrones (Mar)

  16. Susceptibility of wild carrot (Daucus carota ssp. carota) to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brita Dahl; Finckh, M.R.; Munk, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Sclerotinia soft rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a severe disease of cultivated carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus) in storage. It is not known whether Sclerotinia soft rot also affects wild carrots (D. carota ssp. carota), which hybridise and exchange genes, among them resistance...

  17. Essential-oil composition of Daucus carota ssp. major (Pastinocello Carrot) and nine different commercial varieties of Daucus carota ssp. sativus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Guido; Cosimi, Elena; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Molfetta, Ilaria; Braca, Alessandra

    2014-07-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the pastinocello carrot, Daucus carota ssp. major (Vis.) Arcang. (flowers and achenes), and from nine different commercial varieties of D. carota L. ssp. sativus (achenes) was investigated by GC/MS analyses. Selective breeding over centuries of a naturally occurring subspecies of the wild carrot, D. carota L. ssp. sativus, has produced the common garden vegetable with reduced bitterness, increased sweetness, and minimized woody core. On the other hand, the cultivation of the pastinocello carrot has been abandoned, even if, recently, there has been renewed interest in the development of this species, which risks genetic erosion. The cultivated carrot (D. carota ssp. sativus) and the pastinocello carrot (D. carota ssp. major) were classified as different subspecies of the same species. This close relationship between the two subspecies urged us to compare the chemical composition of their essential oils, to evaluate the differences. The main essential-oil constituents isolated from the pastinocello fruits were geranyl acetate (34.2%), α-pinene (12.9%), geraniol (6.9%), myrcene (4.7%), epi-α-bisabolol (4.5%), sabinene (3.3%), and limonene (3.0%). The fruit essential oils of the nine commercial varieties of D. carota ssp. sativus were very different from that of pastinocello, as also confirmed by multivariate statistical analyses. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Solanum sisymbriifolium (Lam.) : a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.G.H.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Solanumsisymbriifolium ,Globoderapallida ,Globoderarostochiensis ,

  19. Critical Period for Weed Removal in Garden Egg (Solanum Incanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo during the 2004 and 2005 cropping seasons to determine the extent of yield loss due to weed infestation and the critical time for weed removal in garden egg (Solanum incanum). The experiment which was ...

  20. Quantitative resistance to Botrytis cinerea from Solanum neorickii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers, H.J.; Bai, Y.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Berloo, van R.; Meijer-Dekens, R.G.; Have, ten A.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Lindhout, P.; Heusden, van A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). Quantitative resistance to B. cinerea was previously identified in a wild relative, S. neorickii G1.1601. The 122 F3 families derived from a cross between the susceptible S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker and the partially

  1. New Solanum species from Tanzanian coastal forests may already ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unusually long inflorescences with a dense covering of long straight prickles on the rachis distinguish S. ruvu from all other African species of spiny Solanum. Its likely affinities lie with another coastal forest species, S. zanzibarense, which exhibits a similar scandent habit, subentire leaves, thin stems, and prickles that ...

  2. Total lipid profile with aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. on the total lipid profile: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) on hypercholesterolaemic rats. Total serum cholesterol ...

  3. Role of Solanum dulcamara L. in Potato Late Blight Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golas, T.M.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Berg, van den R.G.; Mariani, C.; Allefs, J.J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Four sites with naturally growing Solanum dulcamara were surveyed during 2006 and 2007 for the presence of late blight. Despite 2 years of observations, no late blight was detected among natural populations of bittersweet. Nevertheless, repeated infections occurred on few S. dulcamara plants from a

  4. Solanum cultivar responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in a sandy soil with a low available phosphorus to evaluate responsiveness of four Solanum aethiopicum cultivars to indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Results showed clear interaction between genetic variability of cultivars and fungal isolates on shoot biomass and on ...

  5. Cytogenetic studies on some Nigerian species of Solanum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytogenetic studies to determine the chromosome number, structure and behaviour of some species of Solanum in Nigeria were carried out. Attempt was also made to induce polyploidy in the species. Comparative analysis of the cytological behaviour of the diploid and polyploid cytotypes was made. The studies show that ...

  6. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Granstedt, Artur

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  7. Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L. Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kjellenberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA, consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems. According to the PCA, potato samples treated with inorganic fertilizers exhibited a variation positively related to amounts of crude protein, yield, cooking or tissue discoloration and extract decomposition. Potato samples treated according to biodynamic principles, with composted cow manure, were more positively related to traits such as Quality- and EAA-indices, dry matter content, taste quality, relative proportion of pure protein and biocrystallization value. Distinctions between years, crop rotation and cultivars used were sometimes more significant than differences between manuring systems. Grown after barley the potato crop exhibited better quality traits compared to when grown after ley in both the conventional and the biodynamic farming system.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Irish Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Production in the Farming Sectors that Emerged from Zimbabwe’s Radical Land Reform of 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.; Struik, P.C.; Haverkort, A.J.; Steyn, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 European Association for Potato ResearchIrish potato production in Zimbabwe can be traced back to the early 1900s. Large-scale commercial farmers dominated production until the early 2000s. Potato is the most important horticultural crop and has been declared a strategic national food

  9. Influence of heat treatment on the sensory and physical characteristics and carbohydrate fractions of french-fried potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Carvalho Montenegro de VASCONCELOS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze the impact that heat treatment with salts and freezing processes on the sensory, instrumental, and physico-chemical characteristics of fried potatoes of the Monalisa cultivar. The potatoes were blanched in distilled water (P; sodium chloride solution (B1; calcium chloride solution (B2, and a solution with both of these salts (B3. They were then pre-cooked and frozen for 24 hours and for 30 days. After frying, sensory characteristics were analyzed (color, texture, flavor, oiliness, along with overall preference and instrumental determinations of texture, color, and oil content. Further tests were conducted on the sample with the best results in the sensory analysis (B1, along with sample P as a control, to determine granule microstructure, carbohydrate fractions, glycemic index, and glycemic load. Blanching B3, despite reducing oil absorption and providing less oiliness, obtained lesser overall preference. Freezing for 30 days increased the lightness, except for when sodium chloride was used, which intensified the color yellow. The use of sodium chloride did not interfere with the type of starch granules, nor with the formation of resistant starch; however, longer freezing time reduced the glycemic index and concentrated the dietary fiber content. All samples exhibited low glycemic index and moderate glycemic loads.

  10. SEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURAL GENE FOR GRANULE-BOUND STARCH SYNTHASE OF POTATO (SOLANUM-TUBEROSUM L) AND EVIDENCE FOR A SINGLE POINT DELETION IN THE AMF ALLELE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, Feike R.; VISSER, RGF; Ponstein, Anne S.; Jacobsen, Evert; Feenstra, Willem

    The genomic sequence of the potato gene for starch granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS; "waxy protein") has been determined for the wild-type allele of a monoploid genotype from which an amylose-free (amf) mutant was derived, and for the mutant part of the amf allele. Comparison of the wild-type

  11. Evaluation of an organic package of practice towards integrated management of Solanum tuberosum and its comparison with conventional farming in terms of yield, quality, energy efficiency and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antara Seal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken up during 2014-16 for evaluating the potential of an organic package of practice towards integrated crop production (green farming in comparison to conventional farmers’ practice in West Bengal, India. Under green farming, compost was integrated with chemical fertilizer for soil management while organic plant/ pest management was undertaken utilizing Inhana Rational Farming (IRF Technology. The study indicated higher yield (9.7 %, higher nutrient use efficiency and economic sustainability under green farming irrespective of study area or potato variety. Higher qualitative expression in terms of starch content, pulp pH, vitamin C etc. under green farming might be due to the organic plant management aimed at energization of plant biochemical functions. Soil quality development as noted under green farming might have been influenced by the on-farm produced compost containing rich self- generated micro flora (in order of 1016 per colony forming unit.. The study indicated that green farming may serve as an efficient substitute of conventional farming towards yield sustenance, abatement of food toxicity and quality end product; through higher use of renewable energy and activation of plant physiological functions.

  12. Production of Phytophthora infestans-resistant potato (Solanum tuberosum) utilising Ensifer adhaerens OV14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Toni; Doohan, Fiona; Mullins, Ewen

    2012-01-01

    their gene transfer efficiencies. In this study we set out to identify alternative bacteria species that could (a) utilize vir genes for genetic transformation and (b) substitute for A. tumefaciens in existing transformation protocols, without a prerequisite for protocol modifications. To this end we...... isolated a collection (n=751) of plant-associated bacteria from the rhizosphere of commercially grown crops. Based on various screens, including plant transformation with the open-source vector pCAMBIA5105, we identified a strain of the bacterium Ensifer adhaerens with the capacity to transform both......Based on the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation commodity crop improvement through genetic engineering is the fastest adopted crop technology in the world (James 2010). However, the complexity of the Agrobacterium patent landscape remains a challenge for non-patent holders who...

  13. Texture of cooked potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). 1. Relationships between dry matter content, sensory-perceived texture and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Fischer, M.; Holm, J.; Beekhuizen, J.G.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Boeriu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Properties of fresh potatoes, including dry matter (DM) content, starch content, and near-infrared (NIR) spectra, were determined and related to the sensory-perceived texture of the steam-cooked samples. To quantify these relationships, three potato cultivars, respectively representing a firm

  14. Gas-exchange, water use efficiency and yield responses of elite potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, temperature and relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaminski, Kacper Piotr; Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Nielsen, Kåre Lehmann

    2014-01-01

    photosynthetic water use efficiency (pWUE) by stimulation in net photosynthesis rate (62% and 43% increase of An) with coincident decline in both stomatal conductance (21% and 43% decrease of gs) and leaf transpiration rate (19% and 40% decrease of E) resulting in pWUE increments of 89% and 147%. Furthermore...

  15. Genome analysis methods: Solanum tuberosum [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available th ab initio gene predictions, protein similarity and transcripts to build optimal gene models. 39,031 PGSC; http://potato.plantbiolo...gy.msu.edu/index.shtml v4.03 v4.03 10.1038/nature10158 21743474 ...

  16. Reducing Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans and Improving Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Tuber Yield with Pre-Harvest Application of Calcium Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewubnesh Wendimu Seifu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pre-harvest application of calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and combined application of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate (1:1 was evaluated in reducing the severity of P. infestans and improving potato tuber yield. Pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of combination of two potato varieties (Shenkola and Gera and three types of calcium nutrients (calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate, each at three levels (5, 10, and 15 g per liter per plant and the control treatment (0 g of calcium nutrients. In comparison to the control treatment, the application of calcium nutrients significantly decreased the severity of late blight disease and improved potato tuber yield. The effect of calcium nutrients on the severity of late blight disease and potato tuber yield differed among the two potato varieties. The maximum severity reduction (60% was noticed in the Gera potato variety with the application of calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate (1:1, supplied at 15 g per plant. However, the highest average tuber yield was obtained with the application of calcium nitrate at 15 g per plant, and average tuber yield was increased by 77% in both potato varieties. Hence, foliar application of either calcium nitrate alone or calcium nitrate mixed with calcium chloride was found to be more efficient than the application of calcium chloride alone. This result suggests that the nitrate ion present in the calcium nitrate may make a difference in terms of reducing the severity of late blight disease and improving potato tuber yield. The lowered severity of late blight disease and the increased tuber yield in potato plants sprayed with calcium nutrients may be because of the higher accumulation of calcium in the plant tissue.

  17. Data on the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers for food processing from different areas of Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negichi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi

    2017-04-01

    This data article provides the weights, specific gravities and chemical compositions (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate) of potato tubers, for food processing use, from the Tokachi, Kamikawa and Abashiri areas of Hokkaido, Japan. Potato tubers of four cultivars ('Toyoshiro', 'Kitahime', 'Snowden' and 'Poroshiri') were employed in the current study. The weights and specific gravities of potato tubers from each cultivar, harvested from three areas, were measured, and those of near average weight and specific gravity from each group were analyzed for their chemical composition. In this article, weight, specific gravity, and chemical composition data are provided in tables.

  18. Confrontación entre un agrupamiento a priori de germoplasma de papa Solanum tuberosum subespecie andigena y un agrupamiento no jerárquico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Ángela María

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Con el fin de establecer patrones de similitud entre las accesiones para facilitar la identificación de cruzamientos potenciales, se realizó el agrupamiento a priori de la Colección Central Colombiana de papa subespecie andigena por características de color de piel y carne del tubérculo. La necesidad de incluir otras variables de tubérculo y realizar una clasificación basada en métodos estadísticos aumentó con el tiempo y con la evolución de las técnicas multivariadas de datos. En este trabajo se realizó el agrupamiento no jerárquico de la Colección, mediante un análisis de partición que utiliza el algoritmo de k-medias, luego de la caracterización morfológica de 435 accesiones sólo por características del tubérculo. Al comparar ambos agrupamientos se encontró la no correspondencia entre uno y otro, así como la necesidad de mejorar la objetividad en la caracterización de recursos genéticos. Las caracterizaciones tuvieron lugar en el Centro de Investigación Tibaitatá de la Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (Corpoica, en   Mosquera (Cundinamarca, donde se conserva la Colección Central Colombiana de papa.

  19. Evaluation of iodate toxicity (KIO3 on growth, morpho-physiological characteristics and mineral nutrients concentrations of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezatollah Esfandiari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study was aimed to assess the effects of different iodate concentrations on morpho-physiological characteristics of potato. In this regard, a pot experiment was carried out during the spring and summer 2013. Five concentrations of KIO3 including control beside 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/Kgsoil were applied through irrigation system. The results showed that all selected agronomical and morphological characteristics of potato except dry weight of stem (SDW and root (RDW were negatively affected by high iodate concentrations. The results showed that applying 80 mg KIO3/Kgsoil compared to control resulted in around 15, 86, 84, 41, 16, 25, 20, and 87% reductions in harvest index (HI, leaf dry weight (LDW, tuber dry weight (TDW, plant dry weight (PDW, stem length (SL, root length (RL, plant height (PH, and number of tuber per plant (NT, respectively. Iodate application (80 mg KIO3/Kgsoil vs. control also affected potato’s physiological characteristics including chlorophyll content (SPAD, relative water content (RWC, water use efficiency (WUE, evapo-transpiration efficiency (ETE, cell membrane stability index (CMSI and tolerance index (TI showing around 27, 12, 87, 39, 40, and 77% reductions for each one, respectively. Increasing iodate concentrations, although, showed no effect of Zn concentration of root and Fe and Mn concentrations of leaf, gradually decreased Zn concentration of leaf and increased Fe and Mn concentrations of root and Cu concentrations of root and leaf. Plants also showed several visible symptoms including stunting, chlorosis, browning of leaf tip and reduction in growth due to iodate toxicity.

  20. Genética de la resistencia de la papa (Solanum tuberosum a patógenos. Estado de arte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosquera Teresa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Este artículo presenta una revisión de la resistencia en papa a patógenos, en cuanto a genes mapeados y clonados, y loci de rasgos cuantitativos (QTL mapeados, en la que se resaltan las relaciones entre resistencia cuantitativa y cualitativa en el caso P. infestans. El conocimiento logrado ha permitido generar un mapa funcional sobre el cual se localizan QTL para resistencia a patógenos. Se han mapeado 20 genes R de resistencia a virus, hongos, nematodos y oomicetos, utilizando marcadores moleculares. La mayoría de estos genes R fueron introducidos de especies silvestres. Catorce de ellos se encuentran en hot spots para resistencia y confieren resistencia a varios patógenos. A la fecha se han identificado cinco clusters de resistencia. La resistencia monogénica envuelve dos procesos básicos: percepción del ataque del patógeno, seguida de una respuesta para limitar la enfermedad. La percepción implica receptores específicos para cepas patogénicas, que son decodificadas por genes de resistencia. En una planta se encuentra un gran repertorio de genes de resistencia R, ubicados en diferentes sitios del genoma. Estos genes expresan diferentes proteínas que pueden ser agrupadas en varias familias. La mayoría de proteínas R contienen repeticiones en grupos, ricas en leucina (LRR. Se plantea la colocalización de genes R y QTL en diferentes cromosomas. Una hipótesis señala que los QTL son variantes alélicas con efecto menos extremo que los genes R y una segunda hipótesis plantea que los QTL de resistencia mapean en regiones del genoma que contienen genes de función conocida involucrados en la respuesta general al ataque de patógenos.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a β-propeller gene containing phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 for growth promotion of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanif, Muhammad Kashif; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Naqqash, Tahir; Shahid, Muhammad; van Elsas, Jan D

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no.

  2. Electrochemical Determination of Low Molecular Mass Thiols Content in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum Cultivated in the Presence of Various Sulphur Forms and Infected by Late Blight (Phytophora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper potato plants were cultivated in the presence of ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur supplementation into the soil to reveal the effects of different sulphur forms on content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur, and yield of tubers. During the investigation of the influence of different sulphur forms on yield of potato tubers we did not observe significant changes. Average weight of tubers of control plants per one experimental pot was 355 g. Application of sulphur in both forms resulted in moderate potato tubers weight reduction per one experimental pot compared to control group; average value ranged from 320 to 350 g per one experimental pot. Further we treated the plants with two different supplementation of sulphur with cadmium(II ions (4 mg of cadmium(II acetate per kilogram of the soil. The significantly lowest cadmium content (p < 0.05 was determined in tissues of plants treated with the highest dosage of elemental sulphur (0.64 mg Cd/kg compared to control plants (0.82 mg Cd/kg. We also aimed our attention on the cadmium content in proteins, lipids or soluble carbohydrates and ash. Application of sulphate as well as elemental sulphur resulted in significant cadmium content reduction in lipid fraction compared to control plants. In addition to this we quantified content of low molecular mass thiols in potatoes tissues. To determine the thiols content we employed differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. After twelve days of the treatment enhancing of thiols level was observed in all experimental groups regardless to applied sulphur form and its concentration. Finally we evaluated the effect of sulphur supplementation on Phytophora infestans infection of potato plants.

  3. Respuesta de variedades mejoradas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. al estrés hídrico por sequía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the antioxidant response to water stress by drought in seven improved varieties, we assessed the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (ASPX and guayacol peroxidase (POX. The results showed that the Aurora, Victoria and Jaspe varieties were resistance to water stress by drought and showed higher values in the enzymatic activity of CAT, ASPX and POX, that their own controls. This confirmed that these varieties were more resistant to water stress by drought. In contrast, clones 00-216-3, 00-207-6 and Desirée and Salome varieties, showed resistance and lower values than their controls. However, the Salome variety with 20 days of drought water stress contrary to what was expected showed high levels of enzyme activity compared to controls. This suggested that this variety probably had other mechanisms of resistance to water stress by drought that allowed more dramatic reaction to drought stress. Finally, cuticular permeability showed that Aurora and Victoria varieties had low chlorophyll content in reference to its controls that showed high chlorophyll content.

  4. Effect of Dose and Oxadiargyl Application Time at the Different Growth Stages on Weed Biomass and Tuber Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samadi Kalkhoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of dose and application time of oxadiargyl, as a postemergence herbicide, on weed biomass and tuber yield of potato, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications was conducted at Alaroog Research Station at the University of Mohaghegh-Ardabili in 2013. Treatments consisted of oxadiargyl dosages (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 lit a.i /ha, and its time of applications at different potato growth stages (potato emergence, stolon initiation and potato tuber bulking, weed free treatment was considered as control. Statistical analysis showed that 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl reduced biomass of weed by 66.16 percent. Oxadiargyl application at emergence time resulted in highest percent reduction of weed biomass. Results, also, showed that application 0.8 lit a.i/ha of oxadiargyl, after weed free condition, increased number of seed tuber and total tuber yield by 82.16 and 51.59 percent respectively, but it reduced number of non seed tuber by 43.17 percent. Application of oxadiargyl at emergence time, as compared with the other application times, resulted in highest increase in the number of seed tuber and total tuber yield, but it did not affected number of non seed tubers. Interaction effect of dose by time of oxadiargyl application revealed that using 0.8 lit a.i/ha dose at potato emergence time increased number of edible tubers by 100%. It may be conducted that application of this dose at potato emergence time was highly efficient in controlling weeds and increasing potato tuber yield.

  5. Evaluation of content and estimation of daily intake of cadmium and lead in several varieties of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, G; Rubio, C; González-Weller, D; Gutiérrez, A J; Revert, C; Hardisson, A

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring the metal content in foods such as potatoes is an important aspect of food safety and regulation. Samples of nine varieties of potatoes (73 samples of local potatoes and 77 samples of imported potatoes) were randomly obtained from supermarkets, farmers markets, and farmer plots in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis because Spaniards traditionally eat only peeled potatoes. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd concentrations ranged from 0.006 mg/kg in the Cara and Negra varieties to 0.019 mg/kg in the Bonita variety, and Pb concentrations ranged from 0.007 mg/kg in the Up-to-date variety to 0.023 mg/kg in the Recara variety. The mean concentrations of Cd (0.01 mg/kg) and Pb (0.014 mg/kg) were below the limits established by European regulations for potatoes (0.1 mg/kg of wet weight for each metal). Based on a mean consumption of 143.2 g of potato per person per day for the Canary Islands population, the mean daily intakes of Cd (0.015 mg/day) and Pb (0.023 mg/day) were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes. Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat with regard to the metal concentrations found.

  6. Extract of Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) decreases body weight gain and adiposity and improves glucose control in the mouse model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stan; Hobson, Luc; Iskandar, Michèle M; Sabally, Kebba; Donnelly, Danielle J; Agellon, Luis B

    2014-11-01

    Both sexes of mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks without and with polyphenolic-rich potato extracts (PRPE) of cultivars Onaway and Russet Burbank. PRPE attenuated weight gain in male and female mice by as much as 63.2%, which was associated mostly with a reduction in adiposity. Mice receiving PRPE showed enhanced capacity for blood glucose clearance. Sex differences regarding the impact of HFD and PRPE on plasma levels of insulin, ghrelin, leptin, gastric inhibitory peptide, and resistin were noted. PRPE may serve as part of a preventative dietary strategy against the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Efeito do nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na adubação da batatinha - Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J. Boock

    1950-08-01

    Full Text Available Five potatoes fertilizers trials were carried out. in diffeient soil types of the State of São Paulo with the purpose to study the effect of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash, on tuber production. It was found that nitrogen increased plant growth, intensified green color of foliage and retarded maturity. Nitrogen also increased susceptibility to fungus diseases. Phosphoric acid increased yield and shortened the vegetative period. Potassium induced a light -green color of the foliage, but otherwise had almost no influence on plant development. Phosphoric acid was the most important factor in increasing tuber production : nitrogen was second and potassium, third. A response to potassium was noticed only when this element was applied together with phosphorus and nitrogen.

  8. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research. © 2010 SETAC.

  9. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greehouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.) and peas (Pisum sataivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and exp...

  10. Efecto de la temperatura sobre el crecimiento de plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum L., variedades atlantic y 1625 frito lay, crecidas in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Orozco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación, se estudio el efecto que causa sobre el crecimiento vegetativo de dos variedades de papa (1625 Frito Lay y Atlantic, el aumento de la temperatura en condiciones in vitro, para lo cual se usaron dos valores de temperatura (30/26 °C y 27/25 °C dia/noche. El medio de cultivo utilizado fue el MS (1962 de laboratorios Gibco, el cual se usó a razón de 17 g/L y se suplementó con vitaminas y aminoácidos del mismo medio. En ambas variedades la alta temperatura (30/26 °C causó una disminución en el diámetro del tallo y en el número de nudos por planta, así como un incremento en la longitud internodal y en la altura de la planta. Por otro lado, la alta temperatura disminuyó significativamente (P < 0,05 la longitud de la raíz en la variedad Frito Lay mientras que la variedad Atlantic mostró un incremento no significativo.

  11. Oxygen Availability Influences Expression of Dickeya solani Genes Associated With Virulence in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. and Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Lisicka

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dickeya solani is a Gram-negative necrotrophic, plant pathogenic bacterium able to cause symptoms in a variety of plant species worldwide. As a facultative anaerobe, D. solani is able to infect hosts under a broad range of oxygen concentrations found in plant environments. However, little is known about oxygen-dependent gene expression in Dickeya spp. that might contribute to its success as a pathogen. Using a Tn5 transposon, harboring a promoterless gusA reporter gene, 146 mutants of D. solani IPO2222 were identified that exhibited oxygen-regulated expression of the gene into which the insertion had occurred. Of these mutants 114 exhibited higher expression under normal oxygen conditions than hypoxic conditions while 32 were more highly expressed under hypoxic conditions. The plant host colonization potential and pathogenicity as well as phenotypes likely to contribute to the ecological fitness of D. solani, including growth rate, carbon and nitrogen source utilization, production of pectinolytic enzymes, proteases, cellulases and siderophores, swimming and swarming motility and the ability to form biofilm were assessed for 37 strains exhibiting the greatest oxygen-dependent change in gene expression. Eight mutants expressed decreased ability to cause disease symptoms when inoculated into potato tubers or chicory leaves and three of these also exhibited delayed colonization of potato plants and exhibited tissue specific differences in gene expression in these various host tissues. The genes interrupted in these eight mutants encoded proteins involved in fundamental bacterial metabolism, virulence, bacteriocin and proline transport, while three encoded hypothetical or unknown proteins. The implications of environmental oxygen concentration on the ability of D. solani to cause disease symptoms in potato are discussed.

  12. Effect of bacterial inoculation, plant genotype and developmental stage on root-associated and endophytic bacterial communities in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreote, F.D.; Rocha, da U.N.; Araujo, W.L.; Azevedo, J.L.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial bacteria interact with plants by colonizing the rhizosphere and roots followed by further spread through the inner tissues, resulting in endophytic colonization. The major factors contributing to these interactions are not always well understood for most bacterial and plant species. It is

  13. HRE-type genes are regulated by growth-related changes in internal oxygen concentrations during the normal development of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licausi, Francesco; Giorgi, Federico Manuel; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Usadel, Björn; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost Thomas; Geigenberger, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The occurrence of hypoxic conditions in plants not only represents a stress condition but is also associated with the normal development and growth of many organs, leading to adaptive changes in metabolism and growth to prevent internal anoxia. Internal oxygen concentrations decrease inside growing potato tubers, due to their active metabolism and increased resistance to gas diffusion as tubers grow. In the present work, we identified three hypoxia-responsive ERF (StHRE) genes whose expression is regulated by the gradual decrease in oxygen tensions that occur when potato tubers grow larger. Increasing the external oxygen concentration counteracted the modification of StHRE expression during tuber growth, supporting the idea that the actual oxygen levels inside the organs, rather than development itself, are responsible for the regulation of StHRE genes. We identified several sugar metabolism-related genes co-regulated with StHRE genes during tuber development and possibly involved in starch accumulation. All together, our data suggest a possible role for low oxygen in the regulation of sugar metabolism in the potato tuber, similar to what happens in storage tissues during seed development.

  14. VARIACIÓN DE LA DIFUSIVIDAD TÉRMICA DEL LOCHE (Cucurbita moschata Duch.), LA PAPA (Solanum tuberosum L.) Y EL CAMOTE (Ipomoea batatas L.) DURANTE EL CALENTAMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Solano-Corenjo, Miguel Ángel; Universidad Señor de Sipan; Vidaurre-Ruiz, Julio Mauricio; Universidad Señor de Sipan

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la variación de la difusividad térmica del loche, la papa y el camote durante el calentamiento. También se evaluó la bondad de ajuste con los diferentes modelos predictivos que relacionan la variación de la difusividad térmica con respecto a la temperatura. Los valores de difusividad térmica efectiva se obtuvieron utilizando la curva de calentamiento de las muestras a las temperaturas de 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 y 90°C y se compararon los valores experi...

  15. Studies on the interaction between the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica A30, and blackleg-causing Dickeya sp. (biovar 3) in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; Boer, de W.J.; Veen, van J.A.; Wolf, van der J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In

  16. Studies on the interaction between the biocontrol agent, Serratia plymuthica A30, and blackleg-causing Dickeya sp (biovar 3) in potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, R.L.; De Boer, W.J.; Van Veen, J.A.; Van der Wolf, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between Serratia plymuthica A30 and a blackleg-causing biovar 3 Dickeya sp. were examined. In a potato slice assay, S. plymuthica A30 inhibited tissue maceration caused by Dickeya sp. IPO2222 when co-inoculated at a density at least 10 times greater than that of the pathogen. In

  17. Antioxidant profiling of native Andean potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals cultivars with high levels of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and petanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Christelle M; Oufir, Mouhssin; Guignard, Cédric; Hoffmann, Lucien; Hausman, Jean-François; Evers, Danièle; Larondelle, Yvan

    2007-12-26

    The antioxidant profile of 23 native Andean potato cultivars has been investigated from a human nutrition perspective. The main carotenoid and tocopherol compounds were studied using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a fluorescence detector, respectively, whereas polyphenols (including anthocyanins in colored tubers) were identified by means of both HPLC-mass spectrometry and HPLC-DAD. Antioxidant profiling revealed significant genotypic variations as well as cultivars of particular interest from a nutritional point of view. Concentrations of the health-promoting carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, ranged from 1.12 to 17.69 microg g(-1) of dry weight (DW) and from 0 to 17.7 microg g(-1) of DW, with cultivars 704353 and 702472 showing the highest levels in lutein and zeaxanthin, respectively. Whereas beta-carotene is rarely reported in potato tubers, remarkable levels of this dietary provitamin A carotenoid were detected in 16 native varieties, ranging from 0.42 to 2.19 microg g(-1) of DW. The amounts of alpha-tocopherol found in Andean potato tubers, extending from 2.73 to 20.80 microg g(-1) of DW, were clearly above the quantities generally reported for commercial varieties. Chlorogenic acid and its isomers dominated the polyphenolic profile of each cultivar. Dark purple-fleshed tubers from the cultivar 704429 contained exceptionally high levels of total anthocyanins (16.33 mg g(-1) of DW). The main anthocyanin was identified as petanin (petunidin-3-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-glucoside). The results suggest that Andean potato cultivars should be exploited in screening and breeding programs for the development of potato varieties with enhanced health and nutritional benefits.

  18. Complementation of the amylose-free starch mutant of potato (Solanum tuberosum.) by the gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, E.R.; Visser, R.G.E.; OOSTERHAVEN, K; VANDERKOP, DAM; Jacobsen, E.; Feenstra, W.

    1991-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated introduction of the wild-type allele of the gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS) into the amylose-free starch mutant amf of potato leads to restoration of GBSS activity and amylose synthesis, which demonstrates that Amf is the structural gene for GBSS.

  19. Detection and sequencing of Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV in a volunteer plant of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Diacol-Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Camilo Medina Cárdenas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viral diseases are among the most limiting factors in the production of potato in Colombia and the rest of the world. The best strategy to control plant viruses consists on the use of certified seed tubers, control of arthropod vectors and the use of adequate crop management practices that reduce mechanical transmission and the presence of viral reservoirs like weeds and volun-teer plants. However, the successful implementation of these practices relies on the availability of highly sensitive techniques that allow for the asymptomatic detection of viruses. In this work, we tested the performance of Next-generation sequencing (NGS and real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR on a single volunteer potato plant (cv. Diacol-Capiro growing naturally in a seed-tuber storage facility in Yarumal (Antioquia. Our NGS results demonstrate a mixed infection with Potato virus Y (PVY and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV. RT-qPCR was performed in roots, main stolons, crown (root collar and upper, middle and lower leaves using specific primers for PVY, PLRV, Potato virus S (PVS, Potato virus V (PVV, Potato virus X (PVX and Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV. Only PVY and PLRV were detected in good agreement with the NGS data. This work demonstrates the use-fulness of both techniques for supporting integrated management of plant viruses in potato, in-cluding virus detection in natural reservoirs such as volunteer plants and weeds.

  20. Prediction of Starch, Soluble Sugars and Amino Acids in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Hyperspectral Imaging, Dielectric and LF-NMR Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Handling and processing of potatoes is performed in increasingly large and more automated facilities, and the industry calls for more automated machinery for quality assessment and sorting by concentration of starch, soluble sugars, protein, amino acids etc. of the potato tubers. The present study...... cultivars were simultaneously sampled for analyses of content and scanned by the five different scanning methods. The resulting multivariate dataset was used to estimate the prediction ability of the individual scanning methods on starch-related parameters, selected simple sugars, selected amino acids......, conductivity of pressed cell sap and cell sizes. Results showed that most types of spectral analyses had relatively high potential for predicting the starch-related parameters and medium potential for predicting the concentration of the reducing sugars fructose and glucose. Most methods showed medium potential...

  1. Preliminary study on the effect of cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the conservation of potato tubers for consumption (Solanum tuberosum l.), during the storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montepeque Roldan, R.

    1984-03-01

    The object of the thesis is the study of the inhibiting effect of the sprouting of potato tubers, variety Loman, after Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation (with doses of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 Krads) as well as after treatment with the chemical inhibitor Isopropyl-N-Phenyl Carbonate (IPC). These treatments were applied to different groups of tubers, after 15 and 45 days from harvesting, stored under two illumination conditions: darkness (closed room), and indirect light (straw hut). The number, length and thickness of the sprouts, as well as the weight, humidity contents and infection of the tubers were recorded twice a month. A random 2x2x7x4 multifactorial design, with 3 repetitions, was used for the analysis and interpretation of the results. Variance and multiple regression analysis, as well as Tukey tests were performed on the IBM/370 computer of the San Carlos University (Guatemala). It was found that both the 4 and 6 Krad doses and the IPC treatments have no effect on the sprouting inhibition. The irradiation with the 8, 10, and 12 Krad doses inhibited the sprouting in an irreversible way, with insignificant loss of weight and moisture, regardless of the irradiation epoch and light condition. However, the tubers stored in darkness, showed ideal characteristics for consumption, and the 8 Krad dose, applied at 15 days after harvesting is concluded to be the best

  2. Foliar application of chlorocholine chloride improves leaf mineral nutrition, antioxidant enzyme activity, and tuber yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huigun; Xiao, Langtao; Tong, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    activity. Results showed that 1.5 and 2.0 g l-1 CCC treatments significantly increased the contents of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in potato leaves. These treatments also increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves. A positive linear relationship...

  3. Partitioning of photoassimilates by potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) as influenced by irradiance. II. Partitioning patterns by four clones grown under high and low irradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gawronska, H.; Dwelle, R.B.; Pavek, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is the second in a three-part series describing the influence of varied irradiance on growth and photoassimilate partitioning by potato plants. Four clones (Russet Burbank, Lemhi Russet, A66107-51, and A6948-4) were grown under two light regimes: a) high light levels (HL) of 500 to 1200 μE m -2 s -1 , varying with changes in natural sunlight and time of day, and b) low light levels (LL) at approximately one quarter of high light (21 to 28%). Three weeks after tuber initiation, the most recently-matured leaf was labelled with 14 CO 2 , and plants were harvested: 1) one day after labelling, and 2) two weeks after labelling. Plants of all clones responded to the low light levels in a similar way by: 1) changing some morphological characteristics, 2) decreasing biomass accumulation and tuber yield, and 3) changing the sink-source relationship by promoting growth of leaves and stems at the expense of tubers. However, there were evident clonal differences in reactions to growth under low light; e.g., Lemhi Russet appeared to be most sensitive to light stress, while clones A66107-51 and A6848-4 were much less sensitive. No matter what the prior light history (HL or LL), clone A6948-4 was able to maintain higher rates of photosynthesis than the other clones at all light levels between 200 and 1200 μE m -2 s -1 . This study showed that the potential exists to breed for cuttivars that can maintain higher rates of photosynthesis and higher tuber yield under low light levels. (author)

  4. Cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases play crucial roles in controlling cold-induced sweetening and apical dominance of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tengfei; Fang, Hui; Liu, Jun; Reid, Stephen; Hou, Juan; Zhou, Tingting; Tian, Zhendong; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2017-12-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an important enzyme that functions in producing energy and supplying intermediates for cellular metabolism. Recent researches indicate that GAPDHs have multiple functions beside glycolysis. However, little information is available for functions of GAPDHs in potato. Here, we identified 4 putative cytosolic GAPDH genes in potato genome and demonstrated that the StGAPC1, StGAPC2, and StGAPC3, which are constitutively expressed in potato tissues and cold inducible in tubers, encode active cytosolic GAPDHs. Cosuppression of these 3 GAPC genes resulted in low tuber GAPDH activity, consequently the accumulation of reducing sugars in cold stored tubers by altering the tuber metabolite pool sizes favoring the sucrose pathway. Furthermore, GAPCs-silenced tubers exhibited a loss of apical dominance dependent on cell death of tuber apical bud meristem (TAB-meristem). It was also confirmed that StGAPC1, StGAPC2, and StGAPC3 interacted with the autophagy-related protein 3 (ATG3), implying that the occurrence of cell death in TAB-meristem could be induced by ATG3 associated events. Collectively, the present research evidences first that the GAPC genes play crucial roles in diverse physiological and developmental processes in potato tubers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Identification and reproducibility of diagnostic DNA markers for tuber starch and yield optimization in a novel association mapping population of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, E M; Ortega, F; Barandalla, L; Aragones, A; Ruiz de Galarreta, J I; Liao, J-C; Sanetomo, R; Walkemeier, B; Tacke, E; Ritter, E; Gebhardt, C

    2016-04-01

    SNPs in candidate genes Pain - 1, InvCD141 (invertases), SSIV (starch synthase), StCDF1 (transcription factor), LapN (leucine aminopeptidase), and cytoplasm type are associated with potato tuber yield, starch content and/or starch yield. Tuber yield (TY), starch content (TSC), and starch yield (TSY) are complex characters of high importance for the potato crop in general and for industrial starch production in particular. DNA markers associated with superior alleles of genes that control the natural variation of TY, TSC, and TSY could increase precision and speed of breeding new cultivars optimized for potato starch production. Diagnostic DNA markers are identified by association mapping in populations of tetraploid potato varieties and advanced breeding clones. A novel association mapping population of 282 genotypes including varieties, breeding clones and Andean landraces was assembled and field evaluated in Northern Spain for TY, TSC, TSY, tuber number (TN) and tuber weight (TW). The landraces had lower mean values of TY, TW, TN, and TSY. The population was genotyped for 183 microsatellite alleles, 221 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in fourteen candidate genes and eight known diagnostic markers for TSC and TSY. Association test statistics including kinship and population structure reproduced five known marker-trait associations of candidate genes and discovered new ones, particularly for tuber yield and starch yield. The inclusion of landraces increased the number of detected marker-trait associations. Integration of the present association mapping results with previous QTL linkage mapping studies for TY, TSC, TSY, TW, TN, and tuberization revealed some hot spots of QTL for these traits in the potato genome. The genomic positions of markers linked or associated with QTL for complex tuber traits suggest high multiplicity and genome wide distribution of the underlying genes.

  6. A Three-Way Transcriptomic Interaction Study of a Biocontrol Agent (Clonostachys rosea), a Fungal Pathogen (Helminthosporium solani), and a Potato Host (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysøe, Erik; Dees, Merete W; Brurberg, May Bente

    2017-08-01

    Helminthosporium solani causes silver scurf, which affects the quality of potato. The biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea greatly limited the severity of silver scurf symptoms and amount of H. solani genomic DNA in laboratory experiments. Transcriptomic analysis during interaction showed that H. solani gene expression was highly reduced when coinoculated with the biocontrol agent C. rosea, whereas gene expression of C. rosea was clearly boosted as a response to the pathogen. The most notable upregulated C. rosea genes were those encoding proteins involved in cellular response to oxidative stress, proteases, G-protein signaling, and the methyltransferase LaeA. The most notable potato response to both fungi was downregulation of defense-related genes and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. At a later stage, this shifted, and most potato defense genes were turned on, especially those involved in terpenoid biosynthesis when H. solani was present. Some biocontrol-activated defense-related genes in potato were upregulated during early interaction with C. rosea alone that were not triggered by H. solani alone. Our results indicate that the reductions of silver scurf using C. rosea are probably due to a combination of mechanisms, including mycoparasitism, biocontrol-activated stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, microbial competition for nutrients, space, and antibiosis.

  7. The effects of potato virus Y-derived virus small interfering RNAs of three biologically distinct strains on potato (Solanum tuberosum) transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Lindani; Ramesh, Shunmugiah V; Kappagantu, Madhu; Mitter, Neena; Sathuvalli, Vidyasagar; Pappu, Hanu R

    2017-07-17

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) from potato cv. Russet Burbank individually infected with PVY-N, PVY-NTN and PVY-O strains were recently characterized. Plant defense RNA-silencing mechanisms deployed against viruses produce vsiRNAs to degrade homologous viral transcripts. Based on sequence complementarity, the vsiRNAs can potentially degrade host RNA transcripts raising the prospect of vsiRNAs as pathogenicity determinants in virus-host interactions. This study investigated the global effects of PVY vsiRNAs on the host potato transcriptome. The strain-specific vsiRNAs of PVY, expressed in high copy number, were analyzed in silico for their proclivity to target potato coding and non-coding RNAs using psRobot and psRNATarget algorithms. Functional annotation of target coding transcripts was carried out to predict physiological effects of the vsiRNAs on the potato cv. Russet Burbank. The downregulation of selected target coding transcripts was further validated using qRT-PCR. The vsiRNAs derived from biologically distinct strains of PVY displayed diversity in terms of absolute number, copy number and hotspots for siRNAs on their respective genomes. The vsiRNAs populations were derived with a high frequency from 6 K1, P1 and Hc-Pro for PVY-N, P1, Hc-Pro and P3 for PVY-NTN, and P1, 3' UTR and NIa for PVY-O genomic regions. The number of vsiRNAs that displayed interaction with potato coding transcripts and number of putative coding target transcripts were comparable between PVY-N and PVY-O, and were relatively higher for PVY-NTN. The most abundant target non-coding RNA transcripts for the strain specific PVY-derived vsiRNAs were found to be MIR821, 28S rRNA,18S rRNA, snoR71, tRNA-Met and U5. Functional annotation and qRT-PCR validation suggested that the vsiRNAs target genes involved in plant hormone signaling, genetic information processing, plant-pathogen interactions, plant defense and stress response processes in potato. The findings suggested that the PVY-derived vsiRNAs could act as a pathogenicity determinant and as a counter-defense strategy to host RNA silencing in PVY-potato interactions. The broad range of host genes targeted by PVY vsiRNAs in infected potato suggests a diverse role for vsiRNAs that includes suppression of host stress responses and developmental processes. The interactome scenario is the first report on the interaction between one of the most important Potyvirus genome-derived siRNAs and the potato transcripts.

  8. Effect of Storage Temperature on Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, UPLC Phenolic Acid Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleven Potato (Solanum tuberosum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hubert Yamdeu Galani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Storage of potato tubers at low temperature affects their metabolism and may alter their phytochemical properties. There is a need to elucidate the changes in antioxidant compounds, activity and enzymes during storage of tubers. Eleven Indian potato varieties were evaluated for antioxidant parameters, after 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at room temperature, 15 °C and 4 °C. Total phenolics (0.0786–0.1546 mg gallic acid equivalents⋅g−1 FW and vitamin C content (0.0828–0.2416 mg⋅g−1 FW varied among the varieties and were different with storage temperature; their levels fluctuated during storage but remained above the initial level until the last day of observation. Phenolic acid profiling by UPLC identified 12 compounds among which the most abundant was chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Except para-coumaric acid which decreased at 4 °C, all the phenolic acids increased with storage. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid mostly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.456, 0.482, 0.588 and 0.620, respectively. Antioxidant activity against both DPPH and ABTS radicals increased during the initial days of storage and then dropped to a level comparable or lower than the original value, irrespective of the storage temperature. Correlation study revealed that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid mostly contributed to antioxidant activity. Activity of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, increased initially but then decreased to values lower than the initial level and were not influenced by storage temperature. Correlation with antioxidant activity indicated that the enhancement of reactive oxygen scavenging species in cold stored tubers could result mainly from ascorbate peroxidase activity. Our results demonstrate that storage temperature adversely influences the metabolism and the content of antioxidant compounds in potato tubers, with subsequent increase on their antioxidant capacity.

  9. Effect of farming systems on the yield, quality parameters and sensory properties of conventionally and organically grown potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinskiene, V; Asakaviciute, R; Miezeliene, A; Alencikiene, G; Ivanauskas, L; Jakstas, V; Viskelis, P; Razukas, A

    2014-02-15

    The objectives of this two-year research were to study the impact of two different farming types, conventional and organic, on the yield and sensory properties of five Lithuanian varieties of potato tuber. The parameters and properties examined were: phenolic acids; dry matter and starch content; and the spread and intensity of Phytophthora infestans growth. It was determined that potato yield fluctuates with the variety, but for conventional farming it is significantly (p0.05) on the content of phenolic acids. No significant effect (p>0.05) of farming type on dry matter and starch content, or sensory properties was found. No significant relation (p>0.05) was found between the content of phenolic acids and P. infestans spread. The spread of P. infestans was faster and infection was heavier in organically grown potatoes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies regarding the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis oil treatments in healthy and potato virus Y (PVY infected plants Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Liliana BĂDĂRĂU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The potato virus Y cause loss in yield and quality of tubers. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and antioxidants such as rosmarinic acid present in oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants are implicated in signaling against stress. The effects of these chemicals on tuber yield and pigments content were evaluated in plants testing positive after virus mechanical infection. Without chemical treatment, positive plants showed significant reductions in leaf pigments content and tuber weights compared to uninfected controls. Hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and oil treatments of PVY infected plants significantly reduced the number of minitubers, enhancing their weights, while leaf pigment content also increased. This research demonstrates potential benefits of treatments with oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis plants and hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid in enhancing the yield and quality of tubers.

  11. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Steen L.

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most important aphid-transmitted virus affecting potato crops in Denmark. Because of a changed seed potato growing strategy, the seed potato area in Denmark is changing from regions with a low average temperature to regions...... with a higher average temperature. This means that the aphids may infest the potato crops earlier and the population development of the aphids may be faster, and consequently PVY may more easily become epidemic in seed potato crops. With a view to reducing the spread of PVY a 3-year experiment was carried out...... with a combination of mineral oil and insecticides. In 2005 and 2007 when a very high number of aphids were present, nearly all plants were infected with PVY. In 2006 with a lower number of aphids a smaller proportion of the plants were infected, and a tendency to a lower PVY incidence in mineral-oil treated plots...

  12. Use of Gentamicine sulfate for the control of Pantoea agglomerans, contaminant of the Solanum tuberosum L cv. Desirée in vitro multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelenys Alvarado-Capó

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination is one of the principal problems of plant tissue culture. The use of natural or synthetic antimicrobial substances represent an alternative for it solution. In potato micropropagation bacterial contamination produce serious damages. In this paper the effect of Gentamicine sulfate on control of high frequently contaminant was evaluated. The microorganism was isolated from media culture of potato cv. Desirée in vitro plants in multiplication stage. Traditional tintorial, bioquemical and physiological test were performed for bacteria identification together with BIOLOG bacteria identification system. Besides, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC of Gentamicine sulfate were determined and it antimicrobial and phytotoxic effect in multiplication stage were evaluated too. Pantoea agglomerans was identificated as potato contaminant and show sensibility to Gentamicine sulfate. The MIC was 0.625 mg.l-1 and the MBC was 1.25 mg.l-1. The antibiotics controlled the contamination in the 80% of contaminated explants without phytotoxicity at 2.5 mg.l-1. Key words: bacteria, in vitro culture, microbial contamination, potato

  13. Postharvest application of organic and inorganic salts to control potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage soft rot: plant tissue-salt physicochemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaganza, E S; Tweddell, R J; Arul, J

    2014-09-24

    Soft rot caused by Pectobacterium sp. is a devastating disease affecting stored potato tubers, and there is a lack of effective means of controlling this disease. In this study, 21 organic and inorganic salts were tested for their ability to control soft rot in potato tubers. In the preventive treatment, significant control of soft rot was observed with AlCl3 (≥66%) and Na2S2O3 (≥57%) and to a lesser extent with Al lactate and Na benzoate (≥34%) and K sorbate and Na propionate (≥27%). However, only a moderate control was achieved by curative treatment with AlCl3 and Na2S2O3 (42%) and sodium benzoate (≥33%). Overall, the in vitro inhibitory activity of salts was attenuated in the presence of plant tissue (in vivo) to different degrees. The inhibitory action of the salts in the preventive treatment, whether effective or otherwise, showed an inverse linear relationship with water ionization capacity (pK') of the salt ions, whereas in the curative treatment, only the effective salts showed this inverse linear relationship. Salt-plant tissue interactions appear to play a central role in the attenuated inhibitory activity of salts in potato tuber through reduction in the availability of the inhibitory ions for salt-bacteria interactions. This study demonstrates that AlCl3, Na2S2O3, and Na benzoate have potential in controlling potato tuber soft rot and provides a general basis for understanding of specific salt-tissue interactions.

  14. EVALUACIÓN DE LA MACROFAUNA DEL SUELO EN SOLANUM TUBEROSUM (SOLANALES: SOLANACEAE) CON SISTEMAS DE LABRANZA TRADICIONAL Y MÍNIMA

    OpenAIRE

    Botina G., Bibiana; Velásquez I., ángel; Bacca, Tito; Castillo F., Jesús; Dias, Lucimar G.

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la diversidad, abundancia y biomasa de la macrofauna en cuatro diferentes usos del suelo; cultivo de papa con labranza mínima, cultivo de papa con labranza tradicional, suelo desnudo y una pradera de kikuyo. Para evaluar la fauna fue utilizada la metodología del programa Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF). La macrofauna del suelo fue identificada hasta nivel de orden y familia. La mayor abundancia y diversidad de macroinvertebrados fue enc...

  15. Vacuolar invertase gene silencing in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. improves processing quality by decreasing the frequency of sugar-end defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Zhu

    Full Text Available Sugar-end defect is a tuber quality disorder and persistent problem for the French fry processing industry that causes unacceptable darkening of one end of French fries. This defect appears when environmental stress during tuber growth increases post-harvest vacuolar acid invertase activity at one end of the tuber. Reducing sugars produced by invertase form dark-colored Maillard reaction products during frying. Acrylamide is another Maillard reaction product formed from reducing sugars and acrylamide consumption has raised health concerns worldwide. Vacuolar invertase gene (VInv expression was suppressed in cultivars Russet Burbank and Ranger Russet using RNA interference to determine if this approach could control sugar-end defect formation. Acid invertase activity and reducing sugar content decreased at both ends of tubers. Sugar-end defects and acrylamide in fried potato strips were strongly reduced in multiple transgenic potato lines. Thus vacuolar invertase silencing can minimize a long-standing French fry quality problem while providing consumers with attractive products that reduce health concerns related to dietary acrylamide.

  16. Inhibition of Erwinia chrysanthemi growth to different concentrations of folic acid: possible use of folic acid as bacteriostatic agent and fortifying of Solanum tuberosum potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Marcelo Correa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The enterobacteria of the Erwinia spp genus produce disease in potatoes, which is a tuber of mass consumption. The regulation of DNA methylation can regulate the proliferation of Erwinia in such a way that the concentrations of folic acid may have an effect on the microorganism pathogenic ability. On the other hand, the folic acid prevents the appearance of neural tube defects in humans. Objective: To evaluate folic acid as a bacteriostatic agent of Erwinia and, at the same time, as part of the fortification of mass consumption food such as the potatoes. Materials and methods: The biochemical characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi was carried out and its growth compared to different concentrations of folic acid was studied. Results: When increasing the concentrations of the vitamin from 0.3 µg/L up to 6.8 µg/L, the bacterial growth of Erwinia chrysanthemi is inhibited. The vitamin inhibits the growth in cultivation of Erwinia chrysanthemi and acts as a bacteriostatic agent. This aspect is of great importance given that, theoretically, if potatoes were fortified with micro-nutrient, this would act against the infectious agent and, at the same time, contribute to the adequate intake of the vitamin in the general population.

  17. Inbreeding, heterosis, fertility, plasmon differentiation and Phytophthora resistance in Solanum verrucosum Schlechtd., and some interspecific crosses in Solanum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.M.F.

    1970-01-01

    Solanum verrucosum (2n = 24) is a self-compatible, highly fertile species. This conclusion is drawn from the results of studies on 21 various introductions of this species. In spite of self-compatibility and good male and female fertility, the species generally needs a pollinating agent to

  18. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D3 and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem ...

  19. Efficiency of PCR-based methods in discriminating Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis strains of human origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srůtková, Dagmar; Spanova, Alena; Spano, Miroslav; Dráb, Vladimír; Schwarzer, Martin; Kozaková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2011-10-01

    Bifidobacterium longum is considered to play an important role in health maintenance of the human gastrointestinal tract. Probiotic properties of bifidobacterial isolates are strictly strain-dependent and reliable methods for the identification and discrimination of this species at both subspecies and strain levels are thus required. Differentiation between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis is difficult due to high genomic similarities. In this study, four molecular-biological methods (species- and subspecies-specific PCRs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method using 5 primers, repetitive sequence-based (rep)-PCR with BOXA1R and (GTG)(5) primers and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA)) and biochemical analysis, were compared for the classification of 30 B. longum strains (28 isolates and 2 collection strains) on subspecies level. Strains originally isolated from the faeces of breast-fed healthy infants (25) and healthy adults (3) showed a high degree of genetic homogeneity by PCR with subspecies-specific primers and rep-PCR. When analysed by RAPD, the strains formed many separate clusters without any potential for subspecies discrimination. These methods together with arabionose/melezitose fermentation analysis clearly differentiated only the collection strains into B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis at the subspecies level. On the other hand, ARDRA analysis differentiated the strains into the B. longum/infantis subspecies using the cleavage analysis of genus-specific amplicon with just one enzyme, Sau3AI. According to our results the majority of the strains belong to the B. longum ssp. infantis (75%). Therefore we suggest ARDRA using Sau3AI restriction enzyme as the first method of choice for distinguishing between B. longum ssp. longum and B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural killer cell activities of synbiotic Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei in conjunction with dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T; Asai, Y; Tamai, R; Makimura, Y; Sakamoto, H; Hashikawa, S; Yasuda, K

    2006-01-01

    We have reported previously that Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei, together with specific substrate dextran, exhibited an adjuvant effect of stimulating humoral immune responses against bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model antigen in BALB/c mice. In the present study, among the Lactobacillus species tested, L. casei ssp. casei with dextran significantly elevated the natural killer (NK) cell activities in spleen mononuclear cells from BALB/c mice in comparison to L. casei ssp. casei alone or other Lactobacillus species with or without dextran. Oral administration of L. casei ssp. casei together with dextran also resulted in a significant increase of NK cell activities in healthy human volunteers. Further, L. casei ssp. casei induced significant production of interleukin (IL)-12 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and IL-15 mRNA expression in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. L. casei ssp. casei with dextran in food also significantly elevated the survival rate of BALB/c mice bearing Meth-A cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that dietary synbiotic supplementation which is a combination of the L. casei ssp. casei used as a probiotic together with the dextran, a specific substrate as a prebiotic, efficiently elicits murine and human NK cell activities.

  1. Evaluación de dos tipos de esquejes para producción de tubérculo-semilla élite en cuatro variedades de papa Solanum phureja juz et buk y Solanum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Benhur Moreno Rengifo

    2004-07-01

    (axilar y apical. Se evaluaron las siguientes variables respuesta: porcentaje de supervivencia de esquejes a la tercera semana, longitud y número de hojas de esquejes durante tres semanas, área foliar y peso seco de esquejes a la cuarta semana. Después de esto los esquejes se sembraron en bolsas plásticas de 10 x 14 pulgadas calibre seis y se llevaron a invernaderos donde se realizó el aporque y demás manejo agronómico. Luego de cumplido el ciclo vegetativo de las plantas se midieron los rendimientos (peso y número de tubérculos para cada tratamiento. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar para cada ensayo (dosis de ANA y Hormonagro en cada variedad en un arreglo factorial 2 x 4 y 2 x 2 correspondientes al tipo de esqueje (axilar o apical y concentración de ANA (0, 5, 10 y 15 mg/l en el primer caso y (sin Hormonagro y con Hormonagro en el segundo caso. El porcentaje de supervivencia de esquejes fue superior al 90% en los axilares y mayor del 95% en los apicales. El Hormonagro redujo significativamente la supervivencia de esquejes y afectó considerablemente las otras variables. En los rendimientos no se observaron diferencias respecto al control por la aplicación de Hormonagro. El regulador ANA en dosis entre 5 y 10 mg/l mostró ser conveniente para el prendimiento de los esquejes. Se obtuvo mayor peso total de tubérculos en esquejes axilares de las variedades Capiro y Puracé, mientras que para la variable número total de tubérculos los esquejes axilares de las variedades Capiro y Clon 1 mostraron los mejores promedios. La mayor cantidad de tubérculos-semilla cosechados pesaron entre 3 y 21 g. La aplicación adecuada de la metodología propuesta puede ayudar a reducir costos en producción de semilla de papa fase 1 de buena calidad fitosanitaria.

  2. Phenetic analysis of medicinally important species of the genus solanum from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, Z.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Khan, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Solanum is one of the largest and hyper diverse genera of the family Solanaceae. In Pakistan Solanum is represented by 15 species, of which 11 species have the medicinal properties. Taxonomically this is a complex genus because of the presence of number of hybrid and controversial taxonomic status of S. nigrum complex. In the present study numerical techniques were utilized to evaluate the taxonomic status of the genus Solanum. Cluster analysis was employed to work out the relationship among the taxa of the genus Solanum. The Euclidean distance measured similarity matrix and a dendrogram was constructed by using the complete linkage method. This analysis showed that all the species of genus Solanum can easily be divided into two groups at hundred percentage linkage distance. Co-relation of quantitative characters showed that floral characters had highly significant relationship with the stem characters, these characters plays a significant role in the identification of the species of the genus Solanum. (author)

  3. Tetrahydroxanthones from Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuangxin; Tanaka, Naonobu; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Damdinjav, Davaadagva; Dorjbal, Enkhjargal; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-10-01

    Two tetrahydroxanthones, 1,3,5S,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (1) and 1,3,5R,8S-tetrahydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxanthone (2), and six new tetrahydroxanthone glycosides, amarellins A-F (3-8), were isolated from the aerial parts of a Mongolian medicinal plant Gentianella amarella ssp. acuta (Gentianaceae). The structures of 1-8 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, chemical conversion, and ECD calculation. Amarellins A-C (3-5) were assigned as 8-O-β-D-glucoside, 8-O-β-D-xyloside, and 1-O-β-D-glucoside of 1, respectively, while amarellins D-F (6-8) were elucidated to be 8-O-β-D-xyloside, 1-O-β-D-glucoside, and 3-O-β-D-glucoside of 2, respectively.

  4. Evaluation of RO modules for the SSP ETC/LSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasionowski, W. J.; Bambenek, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    During the past eight years the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an Integrated Water and Waste Management System for use in the Space Station Prototype (SSP) Environmental Thermal Control/Life-Support System (ETC/LSS). This system includes the reverse osmosis (RO) process for recycling wash water and the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water and the wash water concentrated by RO. This paper summarizes the experimental work performed during the past four years to select the best commercially available RO module for this system and to also define which surfactants and germicides are most compatible with the selected module.

  5. Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, Matt G.

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

  6. Functional characterization of gynodioecy in Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Koski, Matthew H; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2012-02-01

    Gynodioecy is a phylogenetically widespread and important sexual system where females coexist with hermaphrodites. Because dioecy can arise from gynodioecy, characterization of gynodioecy in close relatives of dioecious and sub-dioecious species can provide insight into this transition. Thus, we sought to determine whether Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata, a close relative to F. chiloensis and F. virginiana, exhibits the functional and population genetic hallmarks of a gynodioecious species. We compared reproductive allocation of females and hermaphrodites grown in the greenhouse and estimated genetic diversity (allelic diversity, heterozygosity) and inbreeding coefficients for field-collected adults of both sexes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We estimated mating system and early seed fitness from open-pollinated families of both sex morphs. Under greenhouse conditions, females and hermaphrodites allocated similarly to all reproductive traits except flower number, and, as a consequence, females produced 30 % fewer seeds per plant than hermaphrodites. Under natural conditions, hermaphrodites produce seeds by self-fertilization approx. 75 % of the time, and females produced outcrossed seeds with very little biparental inbreeding. Consistent with inbreeding depression, seeds from open-pollinated hermaphrodites were less likely to germinate than those from females, and family-level estimates of hermaphrodite selfing rates were negatively correlated with germination success and speed. Furthermore, estimates of inbreeding depression based on genetic markers and population genetic theory indicate that inbreeding depression in the field could be high. The joint consideration of allocation and mating system suggests that compensation may be sufficient to maintain females given the current understanding of sex determination. Fragaria vesca ssp. bracteata exhibited similar sex morph-dependent patterns of mating system and genetic diversity, but less reproductive

  7. Pengaruh SSP tematik terhadap peningkatkan karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik kelas I SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masnur Masnur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui, pengaruh Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP tematik dan pembelajaran tematik yang tidak menggunakan SSP tematik terhadap peningkatan karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik pada tema peristiwa alam semester genap kelas I SDN di Kecamatan Ujung kota Parepare tahun ajaran 2013/2014. Penelitian eksperimen semu dengan nonequivalent groups pretest-posttest design ini mengandung satu variabel bebas dan dua variabel terikat. Variabel bebas adalah Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP tematik sedangkan variabel terikat adalah karakter kejujuran dan disiplin. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh peserta didik kelas I SDN di Kecamatan Ujung Kota Parepare. Sampel dipilih dengan tekhnik purposive sampling, sehingga didapat tiga kelas sebagai sampel penelitian. Kelompok eksperimen 1 dan kelompok eksperimen 2 diberi perlakuan menggunakan SSP tematik, dan kelompok kontrol diberi perlakuan menggunakan pembelajaran tematik yang tidak menggunakan SSP tematik. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah teknik angket dan teknik observasi. Teknik angket digunakan untuk mengetahui nilai karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik. Teknik observasi digunakan untuk mengungkap perilaku karakter kejujuran dan disiplin peserta didik. Teknik analisis data digunakan adalah Analisys of Variance (ANOVA dengan taraf signifikansi 0.05. Hasil penelitian ini adalah SSP tematik secara signifkan berpengaruh positif terhadap peningkatan karakter kejujuran peserta didik dibandingkan dengan pembelajaran tematik yang tidak menggunakan SSP tematik diperoleh p < α yaitu p = 0,000 < α = 0,05 dengan F = 27,890; dan karakter disiplin peserta didik dibandingkan dengan pembelajaran tematik diperoleh p < α yaitu p = 0,000 < α = 0,05 dengan F= 9,294. Kata kunci: Subject Specific Pedagogy tematik, kejujuran, disiplin The effect of SSP thematic on the increase of characters honesty and discipline of grade 1 elementary school students Abstract The

  8. EFECTO DE Tropaeolum tuberosum FRENTE A LA HIPERPLASIA PROSTÁTICA BENIGNA INDUCIDA EN RATAS HOLTZMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioliana Aire-Artezano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de Tropaeolum tuberosum(mashua frente a la Hiperplasia Prostática Benigna (HPB y compararlo con finasterida. Métodos: Estudio experimental completo. Se emplearon 30 ratas Holtzman macho de 12 semanas de edad, aleatorizadas y divididas en seis gru- pos: grupo blanco; grupo testosterona; grupo finasterida (0.33mg/kg/rata; y tres grupos dosis, dosis 1 (300mg/kg/rata, dosis 2 (500mg/kg/rata y dosis 3 (800mg/kg/rata tratados con Tropaeolum tuberosum. Se realizó una medición basal del volumen prostático mediante una ecografía transabdominal. La inducción de HPB se realizó con enantato de testosterona (0,083mg/Kg/rata en los grupos dosis, finasterida y testosterona, el día uno y siete. Paralelamente, se administró liofilizado de Tropaeolum tuberosum y finasterida durante 21 días. Para el diagnóstico, se realiza- ron estudios por imágenes, anatomopatológicos e histopatológicos. Resultados: El estudio por imágenes, en relación al incremento del volumen prostático,no arrojó diferencia significativa entre dosis 2 y finasterida; mientras que en relación con la ecogenicidad, dosis 3 presentó similitud cualitativa al finasterida. En el estudio anatomopatológico, no hubo diferencia significativa entre el grupo dosis 3 y el grupo finasterida. Histo- patológicamente, dosis 3 se asemejó cuantitativamente al finasterida. Conclusiones: Se evidenció disminución de la HPB histológicamente y en el estudio por imágenes; sin embargo, ninguna de las dosis mostró efecto superior al finasterida.

  9. Other chemical constituents isolated from Solanum crinitum Lam. (Solanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius, Marli T. F.; Carvalho, Mário G. de; Silva, Tania M. S. da; Alves, Cassia C. F.; Siston, Ana P. N.; Alves, Kelly Z.; Sant'Anna, Carlos M. R.; Neto, Mario B.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2010-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Solanum crinitum Lam led to the isolation from the fruit trichomes of four flavonoids, tiliroside (1), astragalin (2), kaempferol (3), biochanin A-7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→5)-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), along with 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12), and four cinnamic acid derivatives, cis- and trans- coumaric acids (10 and 11) and cis- and trans- ethyl coumarate (8 and 9). Three tri-glycosyl-steroidal alkaloids, solama...

  10. Structure of elementary module of Solanum dulcamara L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Zhuravlyeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The structures (metamers of Solanum dulcamara at the level of elementary module have been studied. The features for identification of their variability have been ascertained. 44 variants of metamers are described. The characteristic is represented for such individual features as: the type of lateral organ (leaf of a middle formation and axillary structure (bud, shoot, serial complex; the degree of development of the generative organs; and the presence and type of roots.

  11. An abstract class loader for the SSP and its implementation in TL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickstrom, Gregory Lloyd; Winter, Victor Lono (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE); Fraij, Fares (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Roach, Steve (University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX); Beranek, Jason (University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE)

    2004-08-01

    The SSP is a hardware implementation of a subset of the JVM for use in high consequence embedded applications. In this context, a majority of the activities belonging to class loading, as it is defined in the specification of the JVM, can be performed statically. Static class loading has the net result of dramatically simplifying the design of the SSP as well as increasing its performance. Due to the high consequence nature of its applications, strong evidence must be provided that all aspects of the SSP have been implemented correctly. This includes the class loader. This article explores the possibility of formally verifying a class loader for the SSP implemented in the strategic programming language TL. Specifically, an implementation of the core activities of an abstract class loader is presented and its verification in ACL2 is considered.

  12. ICLUS v2.1 land use projections for the Fourth National Climate Assessment (SSP2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SSP2 is a “middle-of-the-road” projection, where social, economic and technological trends do not shift markedly from historical patterns, resulting in a U.S....

  13. Comparison between MRI and 3D-SSP in olivopontocerebellar atrophy and cortical cerebellar atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Kanda, Fumio; Hosaka, Kayo; Fujii, Masahiko; Chihara, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    We compared images of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projections (3D-SSP) of SPECT with MRI images in spinocerebellar degeneration patients (13 olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and 7 cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA)). We analyzed a brain blood flow pattern with an image of statistics by 123 I-IMP SPECT. In OPCA patients, a blood flow reduction was more remarkable in 3D-SSP than a degree of cerebellar atrophy in MRI. In patients with CCA, the cerebellum showed little blood flow reduction in 3D-SSP despite of apparent atrophy in MRI. Simultaneous examination both MRI and 3D-SSP might be useful for differential diagnosis of spinocerebellar degenerations. (author)

  14. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M...

  15. Kvalitet, faglighed og legitime videnformer i SSP-samarbejdet under transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    2016-01-01

    Quality, professionalism and legitimate knowledge in a changing SSP-collaboration. This article explores the inter professional collaboration in a crime preventive initiative called SSP, which is a collaboration between school, social work and police. By drawing on interviews of actors from...... the collaboration and on historic sources that document the background of the establishment of SSP, the articles main focus is to explore and explain how the actors in the collaboration view legitimate and valuable knowledge. The article’s main conclusion is that the actors mainly view knowledge legitimate...... to the extent it can be linked to research based models. Consequently, this means that the conception of professional knowledge in SSP is at risk of being reduced to only include their information, which can be linked to these models....

  16. Comparative pathogenicity of Vibrio spp., Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes in juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, T J; Bricknell, I R; Preziosi, B M

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile Atlantic halibut (~100 mg, Hippoglossus hippoglossus) were exposed to Vibrio proteolyticus, a Vibrio spp. isolate, Photobacterium damselae ssp. damselae and five different isolates of Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. achromogenes via an hour-long bath immersion to ascertain their variation in pathogenicity to this fish species. Results were analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Analysis of the data from challenges using A. salmonicida ssp. achromogenes revealed three survival values of zero and a spread of values from 0 to 28.43. Challenges using a Vibrio spp isolate, V. proteolyticus and P. damselae resulted in Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of 31.21, 50.41 and 57.21, respectively. As all bacterial species tested could induce juvenile halibut mortalities, they must all be considered as potential pathogens. However, the degree of pathogenicity of A. salmonicida is isolate dependent. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae for Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Särkinen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native species are endemic to Peru. Additional 58 species occur only in small number of populations outside Peru, and these species are here labelled as near-endemics to highlight the role Peru playes in their future protection. Species diversity is observed to peak between 2500 – 3000 m elevation, but endemic species diversity is highest between 3000 – 3500 m elevation. Cajamarca has the highest number of endemic (29 spp. and total species (130 spp., even when considering the effect of area. Centers of endemic species diversity are observed in provinces of Cajamarca (Cajamarca, Huaraz and Carhuaz (Ancash, and Canta and Huarochirí (Lima. Secondary centres of endemism with high concentrations of both endemics and near-endemics are found in San Ignacio and Cutervo (Cajamarca, Santiago de Chuco (La Libertad, Oxapampa (Pasco, and Cusco (Cusco. Current diversity patterns are highly correlated with collection densities, and further collecting is needed across all areas, especially from Arequipa, Ayacucho, Puno, Ancash, Huánuco, Amazonas and Cajamarca, where high levels of species diversity and endemism are indicated but only a few collections of many species are known.

  18. MglA/SspA complex interactions are modulated by inorganic polyphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrench, Algevis P; Gardner, Christopher L; Siegel, Sara D; Pagliai, Fernando A; Malekiha, Mahsa; Gonzalez, Claudio F; Lorca, Graciela L

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD = 0.3 µM). These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC), where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm) of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP.

  19. MglA/SspA complex interactions are modulated by inorganic polyphosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algevis P Wrench

    Full Text Available The transcription factors MglA and SspA of Francisella tularensis form a heterodimer complex and interact with the RNA polymerase to regulate the expression of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI genes. These genes are essential for this pathogen's virulence and survival within host cells. Our goal was to determine if an intracellular metabolite modulate these protein/protein interactions. In this study, we identified inorganic polyphosphate (polyP as a signal molecule that promotes the interaction of MglA and SspA from F. tularensis SCHU S4. Analysis of the Mgla/SspA interaction was carried out using a two-hybrid system. The Escherichia coli reporter strain contained a deletion on the ppK-ppX operon, inhibiting polyP synthesis. The interaction between MglA and SspA was significantly impaired, as was the interaction between the MglA/SspA complex and the regulatory protein, FevR, indicating the stabilizing effect of polyP. In F. tularensis, chromatin immune precipitation studies revealed that in the absence of polyP, binding of the MglA/SspA complex to the promoter region of the pdpD, iglA, fevR and ppK genes is decreased. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC indicated that polyP binds directly to the MglA/SspA complex with high affinity (KD = 0.3 µM. These observations directly correlated with results obtained from calorimetric scans (DSC, where a strong shift in the mid-transition temperature (Tm of the MglA/SspA complex was observed in the presence of polyP.

  20. Estudo farmacobotânico comparativo de folhas de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil., Solanaceae The pharmacobotanical comparative study of leaves of Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal and Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Diniz Araújo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho realizou-se um estudo farmacobotânico de Solanum crinitum Lam., Solanum gomphodes Dunal e Solanum lycocarpum A. St-Hil, espécies pertencentes à Solanum sect. Crinitum Child, com o objetivo de efetuar morfodiagnoses macroscópicas e microscópicas que possibilitem suas caracterizações. As três espécies são conhecidas popularmente como "jurubeba", fruta-de-lobo" e "lobeira" e usadas na medicina popular contra o diabetes e também para outros fins. Essas espécies compartilham vários caracteres morfológicos, dentre os quais se destacam o hábito arbustivo a arbóreo, o indumento velutino às vezes cerdoso, a corola é pentagonal-estrelada, roxa a púrpura, e o fruto globoso acima de 5 cm de diâmetro. Entretanto, apesar da grande semelhança morfológica entre as espécies estudadas, destacaram-se como parâmetros distintivos: a morfologia do pecíolo, a base do limbo, o indumento da face adaxial, a anatomia do mesofilo, os tipos de estômatos e a morfologia do bordo foliar.In this work, a pharmacobotanical study of Solanum crinitum Lam., S. gomphodes Dunal and S. lycocarpum A. St-Hil., all belonging to the Solanum sect. Crinitum Child. has been realized with the objective of providing a macroscopical and microscopical morphodiagnosis for their characterizations. The three species are commonly named "jurubeba", "fruta-de-lobo" and "lobeira", and they are used in the folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes and others diseases. The three species studied share various morphological characters, like shrub and tree forms, the velutinous abaxial indument, the presence of bristles, the flower with stellate-pentagonal corollas ranging from violet to purple, and the fruit reaching up to 5 cm in diameter. The principal parameters to distinct the three species studied were the morphology of petiole and base of the blade leaf, the indument of adaxial surface, the anatomy of mesophyll, the types of stomata and the leaf margin.

  1. Nouvelle technique d'élevage de l'acarien phyllophage Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychidae et son application à l'étude de l'efficacité de quelques acaricides sur pomme de terre (Solarium tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badegana, AM.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A New Rearing Technique of Phytophagous Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari : Tetranychida and its Application in the Study of the Efficacy of some Acaricides on Potato [Solanum tuberosum L.. A 5 cm diameter leaf disc of potato or another host plant (or four on 2.5 cm diameter was used in a Petri dish of 9 cm diameter for the rearing technique. This leaf disc, pierced in its centre, slides along a rustproof pin and floats on a 1 mm thick lamina of demineralized fresh water. Water is a "strong barrier" which confines the tetranychid mites on the leaf disc, even if this one does not corne from a host plant (tetranychid mites deprived of food. This rearing technique was used as a bioassay to test the effectiveness of acaricides (pyrimiphos-methyl, bromopropylate, fenpropathrin, dienochlor on the developmental stages of Tetranychus urticae. The ovicidal activity against the eggs of one, three, seven days old (the eggs incubation duration being 8.1 ±0.15 days was also studied. The results obtained show that bromopropylate, fenpropathrin and dienochlor have an ovicidal activity against the eggs of the different ages, but dienochlor has the highest efficiency (90 % mortality. Pyrimiphos-methyl is only active against the seven-day old eggs and bromopropylate has a high efficiency only on the one-day old eggs. Concerning the other developmental stages such as chrysalis (protochrysalis, deu-tochrysalis, teleiochrysalis and mobile stages (larva, protonymph, deutonymph and adult female, pyrimiphos-methyl has de highest efficiency (90 % mortality ; dienochlor also, except mobile stages. Bromopropylate has no activity against the chrysalis and mobile stages and fenpropathrin has a remarkable repulsive effect.

  2. Comparative sequence analysis of Solanum and Arabidopsis in a hot spot for pathogen resistance on potato chromosome V reveals a patchwork of conserved and rapidly evolving genome segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruggmann Rémy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative phenotypic variation of agronomic characters in crop plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors (quantitative trait loci = QTL. To understand the molecular basis of such QTL, the identification of the underlying genes is of primary interest and DNA sequence analysis of the genomic regions harboring QTL is a prerequisite for that. QTL mapping in potato (Solanum tuberosum has identified a region on chromosome V tagged by DNA markers GP21 and GP179, which contains a number of important QTL, among others QTL for resistance to late blight caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans and to root cyst nematodes. Results To obtain genomic sequence for the targeted region on chromosome V, two local BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome contigs were constructed and sequenced, which corresponded to parts of the homologous chromosomes of the diploid, heterozygous genotype P6/210. Two contiguous sequences of 417,445 and 202,781 base pairs were assembled and annotated. Gene-by-gene co-linearity was disrupted by non-allelic insertions of retrotransposon elements, stretches of diverged intergenic sequences, differences in gene content and gene order. The latter was caused by inversion of a 70 kbp genomic fragment. These features were also found in comparison to orthologous sequence contigs from three homeologous chromosomes of Solanum demissum, a wild tuber bearing species. Functional annotation of the sequence identified 48 putative open reading frames (ORF in one contig and 22 in the other, with an average of one ORF every 9 kbp. Ten ORFs were classified as resistance-gene-like, 11 as F-box-containing genes, 13 as transposable elements and three as transcription factors. Comparing potato to Arabidopsis thaliana annotated proteins revealed five micro-syntenic blocks of three to seven ORFs with A. thaliana chromosomes 1, 3 and 5. Conclusion Comparative sequence analysis revealed highly conserved collinear regions

  3. Interspecific somatic hybrid plants between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Sink, K C

    1988-10-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts of eggplant (cv Black Beauty) and of Solanum torvum (both 2n=2x=24) were fused using a modification of the Menczel and Wolfe PEG/DMSO procedure. Protoplasts post-fusion were plated at 1 × 10(5)/ml in modified KM medium, which inhibited division of S. torvum protoplasts. One week prior to shoot regeneration, ten individual calluses had a unique light-green background and were verified as cell hybrids by the presence of the dimer isozyme patterns for phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT). Hybridity was also confirmed at the plant stage by DNA-DNA hybridization to a pea 45S ribosomal RNA gene probe. The ten somatic hybrid plants were established in the greenhouse and exhibited intermediate morphological characteristics such as leaf size and shape, flower size, shape, color and plant stature. Their chromosome number ranged from 46-48 (expected 2n=4x=48) and pollen viability was 5%-70%. In vitro shoots taken from the ten hybrid plants exhibited resistance to a verticillium wilt extract. Total DNA from the ten hybrids was restricted and hybridized with a 5.9 kb Oenothera chloroplast cytochrome f gene probe, a 2.4 kb EcoRI clone encoding mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II from maize and a 22.1 kb Sal I mitochondrial clone from Nicotiana sylvestris. Southern blot hybridization patterns showed that eight of ten somatic hybrids contained the eggplant cpDNA, while two plants contained the cpDNA hybridization patterns of both parents. The mtDNA analysis revealed the presence of novel bands, loss of some specific parental bands and mixture of specific bands from both parents in the restriction hybridization profiles of the hybrids.

  4. Steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum species : consequences for potato breeding and food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, van W.M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Tuberiferous and nontuberiferous wild Solanum species are increasingly being used in potato breeding as a source of genes for disease and pest resistances and for other valuable characteristics. A disadvantage of Solanum species, from a consumers point

  5. UNA NUEVA ESPECIE DE SOLANUM SECCIÓN GEMINATA (SOLANACEAE DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRANADOS-TOCHOY JUAN CARLOS

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Solanum sagittantherum Granados-Tochoy & C.I. Orozco, una nuevaespecie de Solanum sección Geminata encontrada en la Cordillera Oriental de losAndes de Colombia. Se presenta información sobre su distribución, hábitat y taxonomía.

  6. Chromosome evolution in Solanum traced by cross-species BAC-FISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szinay, D.; Wijnker, E.; Berg, van den R.G.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Bai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements are relatively rare evolutionary events and can be used as markers to study karyotype evolution. This research aims to use such rearrangements to study chromosome evolution in Solanum. Chromosomal rearrangements between Solanum crops and several related wild species were

  7. Full Scale Test of a SSP 34m boxgirder 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt; Branner, Kim; Nielsen, Per Hørlyk

    was part of a proof of concept investigation for a patent. The tests were performed at the Blaest test facility in August 2007. The tests are an important part of a research project established in cooperation between Risø National Laboratory for sustainable energy – Technical university of Denmark, SSP......This report presents the setup and result from three static full-scale tests of the reinforced glass fiber/epoxy box girder used in a 34m wind turbine blade. One test was without reinforcement one with cap reinforcement and the final test was with rib reinforcement. The cap reinforcement test......-Technology A/S and Blaest (Blade test centre A/S) and it has been performed as a part of Find Mølholt Jensen’s PhD thesis. This report is the second data report containing the complete test data for the three full-scale tests. This report deals only with the test methods and the obtained results...

  8. Cameroun

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2014 ... yohimbe, Rauvolfia vomitoria, Solanum lycopersicum,. Solanum nigrum, Solanum tuberosum, Voacanga africana, Voacanga thouarsii, Zingiber officinale. Les espèces exotiques sont : Acanthus montanus,. Ageratum conyzoides, Aloe vera, Allium sativum,. Apium graveolens, Amaranthus hybridus, Ananas.

  9. Pengaruh Variasi Penambahan Sari Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum Betaceum) Hasil Sambung Pucuk Dengan Lancing (Solanum Mauritianum) Pada Pembuatan Nata De Coco Dengan Menggunakan Acetobacter Xylinum

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Adilah Wirdhani

    2015-01-01

    One of the benefit from coconut water is making nata de coco through phosphate pentose pathway by using Acetobacter xylinum bacteria. Making its became nata de coco by variation of Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum) bud grafting yield with Lancing (Solanum mauritianum) produced red colour of nata de coco that it fermented for 14 days and had good nutrient value. The yield of this product was analyzed with qualitative and quantitative analysis. The variation volume of it used 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ...

  10. SSP: an interval integer linear programming for de novo transcriptome assembly and isoform discovery of RNA-seq reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safikhani, Zhaleh; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the sequencing technologies have provided a handful of RNA-seq datasets for transcriptome analysis. However, reconstruction of full-length isoforms and estimation of the expression level of transcripts with a low cost are challenging tasks. We propose a novel de novo method named SSP that incorporates interval integer linear programming to resolve alternatively spliced isoforms and reconstruct the whole transcriptome from short reads. Experimental results show that SSP is fast and precise in determining different alternatively spliced isoforms along with the estimation of reconstructed transcript abundances. The SSP software package is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/software/ssp. © 2013.

  11. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

  12. Control Químico de Maleza en el Cultivo de Papa Solanum tuberosum L., en la Región de Irapuato, Gto., México Control Químico de Maleza en el Cultivo de Papa Solanum tuberosum L., en la Región de Irapuato, Gto., México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pérez Moreno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó en el Campo Agrícola Experimental del Instituto de Ciencias Agrícolas de la Universidad de Guanajuato, municipio de Irapuato, Gto., México; las actividades iniciaron en Septiembre de 1998 y culminaron en Diciembre de 1998. La variedad de papa utilizada fue la Alfa. Se evaluaron los tratamientos herbicidas oxadiazón, metribuzín y diurón, comparados con un testigo limpio y un testigo con maleza todo el ciclo. Se usó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Se analizaron las variables: a respuesta de cada una de las especies de maleza al efecto de los herbicidas y b daño al follaje de la papa por efecto de los herbicidas. Se encontró que ninguno de los herbicidas evaluados ocasionó fitotoxicidad a las plantas de papa. Con respecto a control de maleza, los mejores tratamientos fueron el testigo sin maleza todo el ciclo, el oxadiazón en dosis de 3, 4 y 5 l ha-1 y el metribuzín en dosis de 1 kg ha-1. This study was conducted at the Experimental Agricultural Field of the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the University of Guanajuato, in Irapuato, Gto., Mexico; the study was started on September 1998 and was ended on December of the same year. The variety used was Alpha. The treatments evaluated were the application of herbicides oxadiazon, metribuzin and diuron, to weeded and unweeded plots for a complete cycle. A randomized block design was used with four replicates. The variables examined were: a response of each weed species to the effect of herbicides and, b damage to the potato leaves affected by herbicides. It was found that none of the evaluated herbicides caused phytointoxication to potato plants. Regarding the weed control the best treatments were the unweeded whole cycle, the oxadiazon at dosages of 3, 4 and 5 l ha-1 and metribuzin at a dosage of 1.0 kg ha-1.  

  13. Evaluación y selección preliminar por rendimiento de tubérculo y potencial industrial de 36 clones de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. Preliminary evaluation and selection of yield and industrial potential of 36 potato clones (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perilla C. Alexánder

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 36 clones de papa por calidad para la industria, rendimiento, respuesta a gota y precocidad, utilizando como testigos las variedades cultivadas para procesamiento industrial, Diacol Capiro, Diacol Monserrate e lCA Unica. Las variables evaluadas fueron porcentaje de tiras y hojuelas no quemadas, gravedad específica, rendimiento procesable, peso tamaño 2, área bajo la curva de la severidad de gota y días después de la siembra a maduración. El experimento se realizó en la Estación Experimental San Jorge, municipio de Soacha (Cundinamarca, se analizó bajo una metodología estadística propuesta en el Programa de Fitomejoramiento de
    Papa de la Universidad Nacional, que utiliza la suma de rangos en el análisis de diseños incrementados bajo bloques
    completos al azar para seleccionar clones por varias variables y no por una como el análisis tradicional. Se seleccionaron 19 clones, de los cuales 7 son superiores para el conjunto de las variables: los clones 6.5 y 12.59 recomendables para procesamiento en forma de tiras; 2.14,6.8, 11.35, 12.62 y 12.71 para hojuelas. Entre los 7 clones se destacan el 6.8 y 2.14 por presentar menor susceptibilidad a gota y, el clon 6.5 por tener menor tiempo a maduración de tubérculo (15 días menos que Capiro.
    36 clones ofpotato were evaluated for industrial quality, yield, late blight response and early ripen, using the varieties grew for industrial processing, Diacol Capiro, Diacol Monserrate and lCA Unica. Data consisted of the percentage of french fries and chips than did not burn, specific gravity, useful yield, weight of second tubers, area under the curve for the severity of late blight and days to ripen. The experiment was carried out at San Jorge Experiment Station, at Soacha municipality (Cundinamarca - Colombia, it was analyzed under a new statistic methodology proposed in the Breeding Program of
    the Universidad Nacional of Colombia that uses ranks sum on the augmented designs analysis in randomized bloc s, in order to choose the clones for several variables and not for one as the traditional analysis. With the macro in the analysis procedure, were found 19 clones, 7 are superior in the group of the evaluated variables: the clones 6.5 and 12.59 are recommended for processing in french fries, 2.14, 6.8, 11.35, 12.62 y 12.71 for chips. Between 7 clones mentioned stand out 6.8 and 2.14 for present an less susceptibility to late blight and, the clon 6.5 for having less time in the ripen of tuber (15 days less than Capiro.

  14. Expressão eficiente do gene reporter beta-glucuronidase nos tecidos vasculares de batata (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizando de um promotor específico (BRA3 de Agrobacterium rhizogenes Efficient expression of beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in vascular tissue of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. utilizing a specific promoter (BRA3 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Promotores tecido-específico controlam a transcrição de genes em diferentes tecidos vegetais bem como em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento da planta, levando à indução de distintos níveis de atividade transiente e/ou estável do gene. Tais promotores podem ser empregados para a expressão seletiva de genes de interesse. O promotor rol A de Agrobacterium rhizogenes, por exemplo, é floema-específico, sugerindo que possa ser empregado em estratégias de defesa de plantas que são infectadas por vírus com replicação restrita ao floema. A expressão do gene marcador da ß-glucuronidase (gus dirigido pelo promotor rol A (pBRA3 foi observada em plantas transgênicas de batata (cvs. Macaca e Baronesa. Entrenós e secções de folhas foram submetidos ao cocultivo com A. tumefaciens. A atividade do gene gus avaliada em brotações resistentes à canamicina não se restringiu ao floema (alto nível de expressão do gene, mas também se manifestou no xilema dos caules. As expressões transiente e estável são, no entanto, tecido-específicas, localizadas sobretudo no sistema vascular de entrenós e ausente em raízes e folhas. As plantas gus positivas foram micropropagadas, plantadas em casa de vegetação e avaliadas por PCR, utilizando-se 'primers' específicos para o gene npt II. Nenhuma alteração fenotípica foi observada em plantas transgênicas, em relação às não transformadas.Tissue-especific promoters allow the modulation of gene transcription in different tissue types as well as in different stages of plant development, leading different levels of transient and stable activity of the gene product. These promoters have been employed for selective gene expression. The Agrobacterium rhizogenes rol A gene promoter (BRA3 controls phloem-specific expression indicating that this promoter might have an important role in plant defense strategies against virus which replicated only in the phloem. The expression of ß-glucuronidase (gus activity drived by BRA3 promoter was observed in transgenic potato plants (cvs Macaca and Baronesa. Entrenodes and leaf explants were infected and cocultivated with A. tumefaciens. The regeneration of putative transformants was in medium with 50 mg.L-1 of kanamycin. High frequency of transformants based upon kanamycin resistance and gus expression was obtained. All gus positive plants showed blue staining in vascular bundle (phloem and xylem. PCR analysis showed the amplification of npt II. No conspicuous phenotipic alteration was observed when comparing transgenic vs non-transgenic plants.

  15. OBSERVAÇÕES SOBRE DEGENERESCÊNCIA E COMPORTAMENTO EM DIFERENTES ÉPOCAS DE PLANTIO DE QUATRO VARIEDADES DE BATATA (Solanum Tuberosum L. COMMENTS ON DEGENERATION AND BEHAVIOR AT DIFFERENT PLANTING DATES OF FOUR POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    As variedades de batata DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA foram plantadas em duas gerações, a primeira na seca e a segunda, nas águas de 1971, em Goiânia. Para o primeiro plantio, usaram-se batatas-sementes importadas, para o segundo, as filhas destas. HANSA, HYDRA e TONDRA produziram mais na segunda geração do que na primeira, devido às melhores condições da época chuvosa. A produção da DELTA-A praticamente não variou nas duas épocas. HANSA foi significantemente superior às outras, em produção total, nas duas épocas e em produção de tubérculos comerciáveis (acima de 33 mm, na época chuvosa. Neste período, seus tubérculos grandes, (acima de 40 mm apresentaram-se com superdesenvolvimento de lenticelas e manchados internamente, ficando comercialmente desvalorizados. A variedade HYDRA destacou-se das demais pela produção de batatas grandes, principalmente na seca. Mostrou-se, porém, muito suscetível à sarna comum, cujo ataque inutilizou grande parte de seus tubérculos. TONDRA foi a variedade que melhor se adaptou ao período chuvoso. Produziu duas vezes mais tubérculos comerciáveis e quase três vezes mais tubérculos grandes, que na seca.

    The four potato varieties DELTA-A, HANSA, HYDRA and TONDRA were tested in the dry and in the rainy season of 1971, in Goiânia. Imported certified seed potatoes were used for the first planting and the harvested tubers, for the second. All varieties, except DELTA-A, yielded more in the rainy than in the dry season. This difference was found to be caused by the better water supply during the rainy season. There was no significant influence of the season on the production of DELTA-A. HANSA produced in both seasons significantly more in total weight than the other varieties and more marketable potatoes (over 33 mm in the rainy season. But the large tubers (over 40 mm harvested in this season became nearly worthless because of the intensive occurrence of internal dark and scattered spots, associated to enlarged lenticels. HYDRA was the best variety in producing large potatoes, mainly in the dry season. In both seasons, however, most of the potatoes were lost for the market, due to the strong attack of common scab (Streptomyces scabies. TONDRA showed the greatest difference between yields of different seasons. Production of marketable tubers increased twice and that of large tubers, almost three times, in the rainy season. This variety had no trouble similar to that of the other ones and in the rainy season, its yield of large potatoes was not significantly lower than that of HANSA and HYDRA.

  16. Physcio chemical analysis of browning inhibitors treated solanum turberosum powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, M.N.K.; Abid, H.

    2008-01-01

    White potatoes (Solanum turberosum) were procured from agriculture Research Institute Tarnab Farm Peshawar to use for the preparation of potato powder. The process involves sorting. Washing, peeling slicing, blanching, treating with poly phenol oxidase inhibitors, dehydration, grinding and packing. All these parameters used in process were standardized. Chemical analysis of fresh potato and potato powder were carried out. Microbiological examination, functional properties and storage life studies of the potato powder were also performed. The product prepared by drying in cabinet dryer at 55 C for 7 hours was off white colour potatoes chips which was grinded to make off white potato powder. The potato powder possessed taste and texture. (author)

  17. Searching for moving objects in HSC-SSP: Pipeline and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Alexandersen, Mike; Lehner, Matthew J.; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wang, Jen-Hung; Yoshida, Fumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    The Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) is currently the deepest wide-field survey in progress. The 8.2 m aperture of the Subaru telescope is very powerful in detecting faint/small moving objects, including near-Earth objects, asteroids, centaurs and Tran-Neptunian objects (TNOs). However, the cadence and dithering pattern of the HSC-SSP are not designed for detecting moving objects, making it difficult to do so systematically. In this paper, we introduce a new pipeline for detecting moving objects (specifically TNOs) in a non-dedicated survey. The HSC-SSP catalogs are sliced into HEALPix partitions. Then, the stationary detections and false positives are removed with a machine-learning algorithm to produce a list of moving object candidates. An orbit linking algorithm and visual inspections are executed to generate the final list of detected TNOs. The preliminary results of a search for TNOs using this new pipeline on data from the first HSC-SSP data release (2014 March to 2015 November) present 231 TNO/Centaurs candidates. The bright candidates with Hr 5 show that the best-fitting slope of a single power law to absolute magnitude distribution is 0.77. The g - r color distribution of hot HSC-SSP TNOs indicates a bluer peak at g - r = 0.9, which is consistent with the bluer peak of the bimodal color distribution in literature.

  18. Staphylococcus saprophyticus surface-associated protein (Ssp) is associated with lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabados, Florian; Mohner, Amelie; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2013-10-01

    Staphylococcal lipases have been proposed as pathogenicity factors. In Staphylococcus saprophyticus the surface-associated protein (Ssp) has been previously characterized as a cell wall-associated true lipase. A S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutant has been described as less virulent in an in vivo model of urinary tract infection compared with its wild-type. This is the first report showing that S. saprophyticus induced a lifespan reduction in Caenorhabditis elegans similar to that of S. aureus RN4220. In two S. saprophyticus Δssp::ermB mutants lifespan reduction in C. elegans was partly abolished. In order to attribute virulence to the lipase activity itself and distinguish this phenomenon from the presence of the Ssp-protein, the conserved active site of the lipase was modified by site-directed ligase-independent mutagenesis and lipase activity-deficient mutants were constructed. These results indicate that the Ssp is associated with pathogenicity in C. elegans and one could speculate that the lipase activity itself is responsible for this virulence.

  19. Cytogenetic Diversity of Simple Sequences Repeats in Morphotypes of Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin-Shuang; Sun, Cheng-Zhen; Zhang, Shu-Ning; Hou, Xi-Lin; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Although these sequences are widely used for studying genetic variation, linkage mapping and evolution, little attention had been paid to the chromosomal distribution and cytogenetic diversity of these sequences. In this paper, we report the distribution characterization of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide SSRs in Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to characterize the cytogenetic diversity of SSRs among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. The proportion of different SSR motifs varied among morphotypes of B. rapa ssp. chinensis, with tri-nucleotide SSRs being more prevalent in the genome of B. rapa ssp. chinensis. We determined the chromosomal locations of mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide repeat loci. The results showed that the chromosomal distribution of SSRs in the different morphotypes is non-random and motif-dependent, and allowed us to characterize the relative variability in terms of SSR numbers and similar chromosomal distributions in centromeric/peri-centromeric heterochromatin. The differences between SSR repeats with respect to abundance and distribution indicate that SSRs are a driving force in the genomic evolution of B. rapa species. Our results provide a comprehensive view of the SSR sequence distribution and evolution for comparison among morphotypes B. rapa ssp. chinensis.

  20. RASS sound speed profile (SSP) measurements for use in outdoor sound propagation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, S G [Physics Department, University of Auckland (New Zealand); Huenerbein, S v; Waddington, D [Research Institute for the Built and Human Environment, University of Salford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.vonhunerbein@salford.ac.uk

    2008-05-01

    The performance of outdoor sound propagation models depends to a great extent on meteorological input parameters. In an effort to improve speed and accuracy, model output synthetic sound speed profiles (SSP) are commonly used depending on meteorological classification schemes. In order to use SSP measured by RASS in outdoor sound propagation models, the complex profiles need to be simplified. In this paper we extend an investigation on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the meteorological data set required to yield adequate comparisons between models and field measurements, so that the models can be fairly judged. Vertical SSP from RASS, SODAR wind profiles as well as mast wind and temperature data from a flat terrain site and measured over a period of several months are used to evaluate applicability of the logarithmic approximation for a stability classification scheme proposed by the HARMONOISE working group.

  1. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  2. RASS sound speed profile (SSP) measurements for use in outdoor sound propagation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, S G; Huenerbein, S v; Waddington, D

    2008-01-01

    The performance of outdoor sound propagation models depends to a great extent on meteorological input parameters. In an effort to improve speed and accuracy, model output synthetic sound speed profiles (SSP) are commonly used depending on meteorological classification schemes. In order to use SSP measured by RASS in outdoor sound propagation models, the complex profiles need to be simplified. In this paper we extend an investigation on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the meteorological data set required to yield adequate comparisons between models and field measurements, so that the models can be fairly judged. Vertical SSP from RASS, SODAR wind profiles as well as mast wind and temperature data from a flat terrain site and measured over a period of several months are used to evaluate applicability of the logarithmic approximation for a stability classification scheme proposed by the HARMONOISE working group

  3. Solanum Tuberíferos nuevos para Colombia - II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Jaramillo Luis E.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante los 174 años que han transcurrido desde la descripción del primer Solanum tuberífero silvestre de Colombia (VALENZUELA, 1809, se han descubierto en total 10 especies de papa silvestre en el país (CORRELL,1962; BTTTER,1913; OCHOA, 1978; LOPEZ-JARAMILLO, 1983. Esas especies son: Solanum andreanum Baker, S. colombianum Dun., S. estradae L. López J. S. flahaultii Bitt., S. qarciabarrigae Ochoa, S. lobbianum. Bitt., S. moscopanum. Hawkes, S. pamplonense L. Lopez J., S. papa Valenzuela y S. tuquerrense Hawkes. Las especies S. jublandifolium Dun. y S. ochranthum Dun., son comunes en Colombia, Perú y Venezuela y, aunque no son tuberíferas, están clasificadas dentro clel grupo por su morfología.El objeto cle esta publicación es describir una nueva especie proveniente del Departamento cle Santander. Se confirma así la sospecha de que aún quedan en Colombia especies tuberíferas nativas por descubrir. Estas especies están bajo amenaza de extinción debido a la rápida destrucción de los páramos que constituyen su hábitat natural.

  4. Identication of potivirus present in lulo (solanum quitoense lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vaca

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The Solanaceous fruit Solanum quitoense Lam, is originally from Andean región of South America. This fruit has commercial prospective. The Leaf Yellowing Disease in Lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam was first described by Zuluaga in 1991. It causes economically losses and has been associated with a virus attack. The disease's symptoms included stunting, yellow streaking or mosaic patterns in leaves, often with a curling of the leaf margins. In order to diagnostic the presence of virus, we applied two different strategies. The first one consisted of a modified technique of RNA double strand isolation (Morris and Dodds, 1979. The second one consisted on applying RT-PCR system using specific "primers" designed to amplify cDNA fragments spaning the 3'-terminal part of the Nlb cistron and the 5'-terminal part of the potyvirus CP cistron (Langeveld et al 1991. By applying the modified method of Morris and Dodds, it was possible to observe characteristic bands of double strand RNA. Amplification with "primers" POT1 and POT2 yielded a fragment of about 1 Kpb, whose length was in agreement with the known sequences of potyvirus. Here we report by the first time a potyvirus presence in Lulo plants affected with leaf yellowing disease, identified by dsRNA analysis and RT-PCR procedure.

  5. Does SSP Plus Increase Employment? The Effect of Adding Services to the Self-Sufficiency Project's Financial Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quets, Gail; Robins, Philip K.; Pan, Elsie C.; Michalopoulos, Charles; Card, David

    In 1992, Human Resources Development Canada launched the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP), which was a research and demonstration effort involving long-term, single-parent Income Assistance (IA) recipients in New Brunswick and British Columbia. Under SSP, IA recipients who left IA and worked at least 30 hours per week were offered a generous but…

  6. Some aspects of cultivation and utilization of waxy maize (Zea mays L. ssp. ceratina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of available literature on Zea mays L.ssp.ceratina. It contains information on the origin, cul- tivation and utilization of waxy maize in the world and can be a contribution to the development of new research on maize cultivation and starch processing technology. Maize, as an old and economically important cereal, played an enormous role in the ancient civilisations of the New World. Among the maize subspecies compared, Z. mays ssp. indurata and Z. mays ssp. indentata are now the most important in Poland. The subspecies Z. mays ssp. saccharata has a marginal role, while Z. mays ssp. ceratina has not been hitherto cultivated. Decisions to introduce the subspecies Z. mays ssp. ceratina into cultivation are based on different grounds, taking into account both agro-climatic conditions and industrial uses of grain processing products. The growing demand for maize grain, stimulated by the increased demand for maize starch and oil in the global market as raw materials that are important in food production, is an impulse for the development of agrobiological research. The development of the starch industry, associated with the demand for industrial starch, will probably contribute to increased interest in this subspecies in Central Europe, also including Poland. Waxy maize grain can be a major ingredient of high-energy feeds for livestock, replacing in this role the type of maize that has been grown for this purpose until now. A great advantage of waxy maize is its specific structure of starch, due to its unique and high amylopectin content (95-98%, which creates unlimited possibilities of industrial use. Currently, waxy maize acreage in Europe does not exceed 2% of the maize crop area in this continent.

  7. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4?C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A ...

  8. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condori, Bruno; Hijmans, Robert J; Ledent, Jean Francois; Quiroz, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri) and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme). The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the impact of frosts

  9. Managing potato biodiversity to cope with frost risk in the high Andes: a modeling perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Condori

    Full Text Available Austral summer frosts in the Andean highlands are ubiquitous throughout the crop cycle, causing yield losses. In spite of the existing warming trend, climate change models forecast high variability, including freezing temperatures. As the potato center of origin, the region has a rich biodiversity which includes a set of frost resistant genotypes. Four contrasting potato genotypes--representing genetic variability--were considered in the present study: two species of frost resistant native potatoes (the bitter Solanum juzepczukii, var. Luki, and the non-bitter Solanum ajanhuiri, var. Ajanhuiri and two commercial frost susceptible genotypes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum var. Alpha and Solanum tuberosum ssp. andigenum var. Gendarme. The objective of the study was to conduct a comparative growth analysis of four genotypes and modeling their agronomic response under frost events. It included assessing their performance under Andean contrasting agroecological conditions. Independent subsets of data from four field experiments were used to parameterize, calibrate and validate a potato growth model. The validated model was used to ascertain the importance of biodiversity, represented by the four genotypes tested, as constituents of germplasm mixtures in single plots used by local farmers, a coping strategy in the face of climate variability. Also scenarios with a frost routine incorporated in the model were constructed. Luki and Ajanhuiri were the most frost resistant varieties whereas Alpha was the most susceptible. Luki and Ajanhuiri, as monoculture, outperformed the yield obtained with the mixtures under severe frosts. These results highlight the role played by local frost tolerant varieties, and featured the management importance--e.g. clean seed, strategic watering--to attain the yields reported in our experiments. The mixtures of local and introduced potatoes can thus not only provide the products demanded by the markets but also reduce the

  10. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  11. In vitro trypanocidal activity of solamargine and extracts from Solanum palinacanthum and Solanum lycocarpum of brazilian cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAQUEL R.D. MOREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was to evaluate the potential trypanocidal activity of crude ethanolic extract of the fruits of Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum lycocarpum and the glycoalcaloid, solamargine. S. palinacanthum and S. lycocarpum fruit powders were submitted to exhaustively extraction with 96% ethanol and solamargine were isolated from the extract of S. palinacanthum. Both extracts and solamargine were analysed for trypanocidal activity by using MTT colorimetric assay. Extracts of S. palinacanthum showed to be more active (IC50 = 175.9 µg.ml–1 than S. lycocarpum (IC50 = 194.7 µg.ml–1. Solamargine presented a strong activity (IC50 = 15.3 µg.ml–1, which can explain the better activity of the both extracts. Benznidazol (IC50 = 9.0 µg.ml–1 is the only drug used to treat Chagas' disease. These findings demonstrate for the first time that ethanol extracts obtained from both fruits of S. palinacanthum and S. lycocarpum and also solamargine have a potential anti-trypanosomal activity.

  12. Notes on some insect galls associated with Solanum plants in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-12-18

    . Received 10 ... in press) related to the biological control of Solanum weed species. During ... in the Albany Museum (Natural History) and the National ..... identifying insect specimens. MJ. ... insects imported for weed control.

  13. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize "trample burr" dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martine, Christopher T; Cantley, Jason T; Frawley, Emma S; Butler, Alice R; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic "Dioicum Complex" lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent "trample burr" seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum 'Tanami.' Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA.

  14. Biotransformation of 2-(4-methoxybenzyl)cyclopentanone by Solanum aviculare and Rheum palmatum plant cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 12, 3-4 (2014), s. 213-216 ISSN 1459-0255 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12162 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Solanum aviculare * Rheum palmatum * plant cell culture Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2012 http://world-food.net/ biotransformation -of-2-4-methoxybenzylcyclopentanone-by-solanum-aviculare-and-rheum-palmatum-plant-cells/

  15. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum , may utilize ?trample burr? dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Martine, Christopher T.; Cantley, Jason T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Butler, Alice R.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic ?Dioicum Complex? lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent ?trample burr? seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Aus...

  16. Spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana methanolic extracts on the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Rodríguez, Rodolfo; González-Trujano, María Eva; Ángeles-López, Guadalupe E; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Gómez, Claudia

    2017-01-20

    Agastache mexicana has been used in traditional medicine for relief of abdominal pain and treatment of other diseases. Two subspecies have been identified: A. mexicana ssp. mexicana (AMM) and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana (AMX) and both are used traditionally without distinction or in combination. To determine the effect of methanol extracts of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana and A. mexicana ssp. xolocotziana on gut motility and their possible mechanism of action. The effect of AMM and AMX methanol extracts were tested on the spontaneous activity in the isolated guinea pig ileum and on tissues pre-contracted with KCl, electrical field stimulation (EFS) or ACh. In addition, the possible mechanism of action of each subspecies on gut motility was analyzed in the presence of hexametonium, indomethacin, L-NAME, verapamil, atropine or pyrylamine. A comparative chromatographic profile of these extracts was also done to indicate the most abundant flavonoids presents in methanol extracts of both subspecies. AMM, but not AMX, induced a contractile effect in the guinea pig ileum. This spasmogenic effect was partially inhibited by atropine, antagonist of muscarinic receptors; and pyrilamine, antagonist of H 1 receptors. In contrast, AMX, but not AMM, diminished the contractions induced by KCl, EFS or ACh. The spasmolytic activity of AMX was partially inhibited by hexamethonium, ganglionic blocker; and indomethacin, inhibitor of the synthesis of prostaglandins; but not by L-NAME, inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. In addition, AMX diminished the maximal contraction induced by CaCl 2 in a calcium-free medium. Chromatographic analyses of these methanol extracts showed the presence of acacetin and tilanin in both. These results suggest that in folk medicine only AMX should be used as spasmolytic, and not in combination with AMM as traditionally occurs, due to the spasmogenic effects of the latter. In addition, activation of nicotinic receptors, prostaglandins and calcium channels, but

  17. Rapid screening of toxic glycoalkaloids and micronutrients in edible nightshades (Solanum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available African indigenous vegetables (AIVs because of their nutrient density have the unique potential to reduce micronutrient deficiencies in sub-Saharan Africa, yet some may also contain anti-nutritive compounds. Vegetable nightshades from Solanum americanum, Solanum nigrum, Solanum scabrum and Solanum villosum are among the major AIVs used as a leafy vegetables and consumed regularly in many countries in sub-Sahara Africa. These under-recognized food crops have not been subjected to extensive studies for their nutritional and antinutritive factors. In this study, 15 entries of the vegetable nightshades were field-grown and the leaves which are the consumed product of commerce chemically profiled by LC/ESI-MS. Twenty-three flavones, eight saponins, and two glycoalkaloids along with a phenolic acid of chlorogenic acid were identified by MS and UV data. Anti-nutrient glycoalkaloids were quantified as total aglycones after acidic hydrolysis using MS detection and found to be within safe-consumption thresholds by comparison with the glycoalkaloid level in the globally consumed Solanum member eggplants. Edible nightshades were also found to be sources of β-carotene, vitamin E and total polyphenols and exhibited high antioxidant activity. Results of this study support that consumption of vegetable nightshades are safe from the presence of glycoalkaloids and thus, can contribute to the reduction of micronutrient deficiency in sub-Sahara Africa. Keywords: Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Carotene, Vitamin E, Antioxidant activity, Saponins, Solanum

  18. Second generation bioethanol production from Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Consentino; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2010-01-01

    Saccharum (Saccharum spontaneum L. ssp. aegyptiacum (Willd.) Hack.), is a rapidly growing, wide ranging high-yield perennial, suitable for second generation bioethanol production. This study evaluated oxalic acid as a pretreatment for bioconversion. Overall sugar yields, sugar degradation products, enzymatic glucan hydrolysis and ethanol production were studied as...

  19. Interrelationships among light, photosynthesis and nitrogen in the crown of mature Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; W. K. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Scaling leaf-level measurements to estimate carbon gain of entire leaf crowns or canopies requires an understanding of the distribution of photosynthetic capacity and corresponding light microenvironments within a crown. We have compared changes in the photosynthetic light response and nitrogen (N) content (per unit leaf area) of Pinus contorta Dougl. ssp. latifolia...

  20. Proteomic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins from mice infected with Francisella tularensis ssp novicida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.; Frevert, Charles; Skerret, Shawn J.; Wunschel, David S.

    2012-07-06

    Francisella tularensis causes the zoonosis tularemia in humans and is one of the most virulent bacterial pathogens. We utilized a global proteomic approach to characterize protein changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from mice exposed to one of three organisms, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, an avirulent mutant of F. tularensis ssp. novicida (F.t. novicida-ΔmglA); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The composition of BALF proteins was altered following infection, including proteins involved in neutrophil activation, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Components of the innate immune response were induced including the acute phase response and the complement system, however the timing of their induction varied. Francisella tularensis ssp. novicida infected mice do not appear to have an effective innate immune response in the first hours of infection, however within 24 hours they show an upregulation of innate immune response proteins. This delayed response is in contrast to P. aeruginosa infected animals which show an early innate immune response. Likewise, F.t. novicida-ΔmglA infection initiates an early innate immune response, however this response is dimished by 24 hours. Finally, this study identifies several candidate biomarkers, including Chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1 or YKL-40) and peroxiredoxin 1, that are associated with F. tularensis ssp. novicida but not P. aeruginosa infection.

  1. Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis ssp collina cultivated in Bulgaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R; Hendriks, H; Pras, N; St Stojanova, A; Georgiev, EV

    2000-01-01

    The essential oils obtained from air-dried subterranean parts of Valeriana officinalis ssp. collina (Wallr.) Nyman (Valerianaceae), 'Shipka,' was analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and 62 components were identified. The oil yield, collected in plants grown in 1995 and 1938, was 0.42% (v/m) and 0.40% (v/m)

  2. PENGEMBANGAN SSP FISIKA BERBASIS PENDEKATAN CTL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN PROSES SAINS DAN MOTIVASI BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiq Makhdum Noor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop a learning device as Subject-Specific Pedagogy (SSP of physics, and to improve science process skills and learning motivation of the students. This research used the 4D model. The subjects of this research were the XI grade students of Muhammadiyah High School 2 Yogyakarta. The data collecting instruments were expert validation sheets, science process skill observation sheets, questionnaire of students’ response to the student books and worksheets, question-naire of students’ response to teaching process, students’ motivation learning sheets, and science process skill paper test. The research data were collected through observation, questionnaire, and paper test, and analyzed quantitatively. The results show as follows. (1 The development of physics SSP is carried out in accordance with the procedures of 4D model product development. (2 The results of expert’s validation show the physics SSP is in the very good criteria. (3 The readability of the student books and worksheets is in the good criteria. (4 The increasing of the score of science process skills and students’ learning motivation in the experimental class is higher than that in the control class. This shows that the physics SSP is fit for use in physics teaching.

  3. Bovine glycomacropeptide promotes the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis and modulates its gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, N; O'Callaghan, J; Buttò, L F; Kilcoyne, M; Joshi, L; Hickey, R M

    2018-05-23

    Bovine milk glycomacropeptide (GMP) is derived from κ-casein, with exclusively o-linked glycosylation. Glycomacropeptide promoted the growth of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis in a concentration-dependent manner, and this activity was lost following periodate treatment of the GMP (GMP-P), which disables biological recognition of the conjugated oligosaccharides. Transcriptional analysis of B. longum ssp. infantis following exposure to GMP revealed a substantial response to GMP relative to bacteria treated with GMP-P, with a greater number of differentially expressed transcripts and larger fold changes versus the control. Therefore, stimulation of B. longum ssp. infantis growth by GMP is intrinsically linked to the peptide's O-linked glycosylation. The pool of differentially expressed transcripts included 2 glycoside hydrolase (family 25) genes, which were substantially upregulated following exposure to GMP, but not GMP-P. These GH25 genes were present in duplicated genomic islands that also contained genes encoding fibronectin type III binding domain proteins and numerous phage-related proteins, all of which were also upregulated. Homologs of this genomic arrangement were present in other Bifidobacterium species, which suggest it may be a conserved domain for the utilization of glycosylated peptides. This study provides insights into the molecular basis for the prebiotic effect of bovine milk GMP on B. longum ssp. infantis. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Attempting to restore mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana) four years after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of shrubs is increasingly needed throughout the world because of altered fire regimes, anthropogenic disturbance, and over-utilization. The native shrub mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) is a restoration priority in western North America be...

  5. Identification of functional candidates amongst hypothetical proteins of Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ahmad Abu Turab; Shahbaaz, Mohd; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2015-01-01

    Syphilis is a globally occurring venereal disease, and its infection is propagated through sexual contact. The causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, a Gram-negative sphirochaete, is an obligate human parasite. Genome of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum SS14 strain (RefSeq NC_010741.1) encodes 1,027 proteins, of which 444 proteins are known as hypothetical proteins (HPs), i.e., proteins of unknown functions. Here, we performed functional annotation of HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum using various database, domain architecture predictors, protein function annotators and clustering tools. We have analyzed the sequences of 444 HPs of T. pallidum ssp. pallidum and subsequently predicted the function of 207 HPs with a high level of confidence. However, functions of 237 HPs are predicted with less accuracy. We found various enzymes, transporters, binding proteins in the annotated group of HPs that may be possible molecular targets, facilitating for the survival of pathogen. Our comprehensive analysis helps to understand the mechanism of pathogenesis to provide many novel potential therapeutic interventions.

  6. Surveillance of Campylobacter ssp. in broiler flocks by PCR on boot sock samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Lund, Marianne; Hald, Birthe

    on sampling with one pair of boot sock was established. Samples were collected by the farmer app. 10 days before slaughter and send to laboratory for analysis. To detect Campylobacter ssp. in these fecal samples, a PCR based method was established and validated. The assay was developed as a genus specific...

  7. Six cultivars of Solanum macrocarpon (Solanaceae in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available The  Solanum macrocarpon complex (the cultivated egg plant has been studied in Ghana using morphological and experimental methods. Six cultivars belonging to the S.  macrocarpon complex have been recognized and described. The cultivars are  S. macrocarpon ‘Gboma’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Mankessim’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Akwaseho’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Kade’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Sarpeiman’ and  S. macrocarpon ‘Bui’. The very spiny, hairy plant traditionally called S. dasyphyllum is regarded as the wild ancestor from which the cultivars have been derived through a process of crop evolution. The variation within S. macrocarpon complex is attributable to genotypic differences and environmental factors.

  8. Induced micro-mutations in Solanum khasianum Clarke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, B.; Borua, P.K.; Talukdar, P.

    1996-01-01

    Extent of genetic variability for plant height, branches/plant, leaves/plant, spines/leaf, fruits/plant, seeds/fruit, fresh weight of fruits/plant and dry weight of fruits/plant was studied in spined and spineless strains of Solanum khasianum Clarke, following exposure of seeds to seven doses of gamma rays. Gamma ray treatments induced sufficient genetic variability in M 2 generation for the characters particularly in spined strain. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation and heritability in broad sense were high for spines/leaf, fruits/plant, fresh and dry weight of fruits/plant. High heritability was accompanied by high genetic advance for fresh and dry weight of fruits/plant, seeds/fruit and fruits/plant. Spineless strain was found to be more sensitive to increased gamma ray exposure in comparison to spined strain. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs

  9. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK-INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER DISIPLIN DAN KREATIF SISWA KELAS I SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Wahyu Setyawan

    2015-01-01

    DEVELOPING THEMATIC-INTEGRATED SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF DISCIPLINE AND CREATIVE OF GRADE I STUDENT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ABSTRACT This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of discipline and creative of grade I students of elementary school.This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, namely: preliminary study and data collection, planning, product draft development, preliminary field tryout, revision of the tryout result, field tryout, product finalization based the field tryout result, field implementation testing, final product finalization, and dissemination. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess the validity. The tryout subjects comprised 82 students consisting of 26 students of SD Baran, Pundong, Bantul, DIY in the small-scale tryout, 25 students in the control class of SD Manding Tengah, Bantul, DIY and 31 students in the experimental class of SD 1 Tulung, Bantul, DIY. The results of this study are in the form of SSP consisting of: a syllabus, lesson plans, course sheets, student worksheets, and evaluation sheets. The results of the evaluation show that the developed syllabus is good score of 47. The developed lesson plans score of 67, student course sheets score of 65, student worksheets score of 47, and assessment instruments, are very good , while the developed learning media are good score of 66. The results of the tryout show that the developed SSP otherwise meet the criteria for the practical views of teacher assessment score of 281 and a score of 730 student responses. In field trials the results obtained for the control class average pretest score of 70.8 and an average posttest score of 80.8. While the experimental class scored an average of 74.1 pretest and posttest score of 90.9. Improved control class scores of 10 and an increase of 16.8 experimental class. Teaching using developed SSP is capable of developing

  10. Effect of Mo-Doped Mesoporous Al-SSP Catalysts for the Catalytic Dehydration of Ethanol to Ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titinan Chanchuey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic dehydration of ethanol to ethylene over the mesoporous Al-SSP and Mo-doped Al-SSP catalysts was investigated. The Al-SSP catalyst was first synthesized by the modified sol-gel method and then doped with Mo by impregnation to obtain 1% Mo/Al-SSP and 5% Mo/Al-SSP catalysts (1 and 5 wt% of Mo. The final catalysts were characterized using various techniques such as XRD, N2 physisorption, SEM/EDX, TEM, and NH3-TPD. The catalytic activity for all catalysts in gas-phase ethanol dehydration reaction was determined at temperature range of 200°C to 400°C. It was found that the most crucial factor influencing the catalytic activities appears to be the acidity. The acid property of catalysts depended on the amount of Mo loading. Increased Mo loading in Al-SSP resulted in increased weak acid sites, which enhanced the catalytic activity. Besides acidity, the high concentration of Al at surface of catalyst is also essential to obtain high activity. Based on the results, the most suitable catalyst in this study is 1% Mo/Al-SSP catalyst, which can produce ethylene yield of ca. 90% at 300°C with slight amounts of diethyl ether (DEE and acetaldehyde.

  11. Streptococcus mutans SpaP binds to RadD of Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lihong; Shokeen, Bhumika; He, Xuesong; Shi, Wenyuan; Lux, Renate

    2017-10-01

    Adhesin-mediated bacterial interspecies interactions are important elements in oral biofilm formation. They often occur on a species-specific level, which could determine health or disease association of a biofilm community. Among the key players involved in these processes are the ubiquitous fusobacteria that have been recognized for their ability to interact with numerous different binding partners. Fusobacterial interactions with Streptococcus mutans, an important oral cariogenic pathogen, have previously been described but most studies focused on binding to non-mutans streptococci and specific cognate adhesin pairs remain to be identified. Here, we demonstrated differential binding of oral fusobacteria to S. mutans. Screening of existing mutant derivatives indicated SpaP as the major S. mutans adhesin specific for binding to Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum but none of the other oral fusobacteria tested. We inactivated RadD, a known adhesin of F. nucleatum ssp. nucleatum for interaction with a number of gram-positive species, in F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum and used a Lactococcus lactis heterologous SpaP expression system to demonstrate SpaP interaction with RadD of F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. This is a novel function for SpaP, which has mainly been characterized as an adhesin for binding to host proteins including salivary glycoproteins. In conclusion, we describe an additional role for SpaP as adhesin in interspecies adherence with RadD-SpaP as the interacting adhesin pair for binding between S. mutans and F. nucleatum ssp. polymorphum. Furthermore, S. mutans attachment to oral fusobacteria appears to involve species- and subspecies-dependent adhesin interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Summary of Recent Results from NASA's Space Solar Power (SSP) Programs and the Current Capabilities of Microwave WPT Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden, James; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of placing enormous solar power satellite (SPS) systems in space represents one of a handful of new technological options that might provide large-scale, environmentally clean base load power into terrestrial markets. In the US, the SPS concept was examined extensively during the late 1970s by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). More recently, the subject of space solar power (SSP) was reexamined by NASA from 1995-1997 in the "fresh look" study, and during 1998 in an SSP "concept definition study". As a result of these efforts, in 1999-2000, NASA undertook the SSP Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) program which pursued preliminary strategic technology research and development to enable large, multi-megawatt SSP systems and wireless power transmission (WPT) for government missions and commercial markets (in-space and terrestrial). During 2001-2002, NASA has been pursuing an SSP Concept and Technology Maturation (SCTM) program follow-on to the SERT, with special emphasis on identifying new, high-leverage technologies that might advanced the feasibility of future SSP systems. In addition, in 2001, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a major report providing the results of a peer review of NASA's SSP strategic research and technology (R&T) road maps. One of the key technologies needed to enable the future feasibility of SSP/SPS is that of wireless power transmission. Advances in phased array antennas and rectennas have provided the building blocks for a realizable WPT system. These key components include the dc-RF converters in the transmitter, the retrodirective beam control system, and the receiving rectenna. Each subject is briefly covered, and results from the SERT program that studied a 5.8 GHz SPS system are presented. This paper presents a summary results from NASA's SSP efforts, along with a summary of the status of microwave WPT technology development.

  13. Streptococcal adhesin SspA/B analogue peptide inhibits adherence and impacts biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Ito

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, the major causative agent of dental caries, adheres to tooth surfaces via the host salivary glycoprotein-340 (gp340. This adherence can be competitively inhibited by peptides derived from the SspA/B adhesins of Streptococcus gordonii, a human commensal microbe that competes for the same binding sites. Ssp(A4K-A11K, a double-lysine substituted SspA/B peptide analogue, has been shown to exhibit superior in vitro binding affinity for a gp340-derived peptide (SRCRP2, suggesting that Ssp(A4K-A11K may be of clinical interest. In the present work, we tested the inhibitory effects of Ssp(A4K-A11K on adherence and biofilm formation of S. mutans by reconstructing an artificial oral environment using saliva-coated polystyrene plates and hydroxyapatite disks. Bacterial adherence (adherence period: 1 h was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using biotinylated bacterial cells. Biofilm formation (periods: 8, 11, or 14 h was assessed by staining and imaging of the sessile cells, or by recovering biofilm cells and plating for cell counts. The pH values of the culture media were measured as a biofilm acidogenicity indicator. Bactericidality was measured by loss of optical density during culturing in the presence of the peptide. We observed that 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K significantly inhibited adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated polystyrene; a similar effect was seen on bacterial affinity for SRCRP2. Ssp(A4K-A11K had lesser effects on the adherence of commensal streptococci. Pretreatment of polystyrene and hydroxyapatite with 650 μM Ssp(A4K-A11K significantly attenuated biofilm formation, whether tested with glucose- or sucrose-containing media. The SspA/B peptide's activity did not reflect bactericidality. Strikingly, pH in Ssp-treated 8-h (6.8 ± 0.06 and 11-h (5.5 ± 0.06 biofilms showed higher values than the critical pH. Thus, Ssp(A4K-A11K acts by inhibiting bacterial adherence and cariogrnic biofilm formation. We further

  14. In vitro and in vivo aphrodisiac properties of the seed extract from Allium tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation and sexual behavior parameters in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xingli; Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Zhou, Yifeng; Hou, Xilin

    2017-12-01

    Allium tuberosum is a well-known spice as well as a herb in traditional Chinese medicine, used for increasing libido and treating erectile dysfunction. However, not many studies have been done to evaluate the sexual enhancing properties of A. tuberosum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aphrodisiac and vasorelaxant properties of A. tuberosum on corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) as well as checking the effect on enhancing male rat sexual behavior, libido, potency as well as its spermatogenic properties. The seeds were powdered and sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol. Male Wistar rats were administered with graded doses of the n-BuOH extracts (ATB) of A. tuberosum (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and Viagra was used as the positive control drug. The extract/drug was administered by gastric probe once daily for 45 days and the sexual behavior was analyzed by exposing the male rats to female rats in the estrus period. ATB relaxed corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (68.9%) at a concentration of 200 μg/ml. The results obtained from the animal studies indicated that ATB significantly increased mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF), ejaculation latency (EL) and markedly reduced post ejaculatory interval (PEI), mount latency (ML), and intromission latency (IL). Furthermore, a remarkable increase in the test for potency was observed as witnessed by marked increase in erections, quick flips, long flips and total reflex. In addition, ATB significantly improved the sperm viability and count as well as increased the concentrations of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and phosphatases in the treated animals. Thus our results suggest that A. tuberosum could stimulate sexual arousal and enhance sexual execution in male rats, thus providing valuable experimental evidence that A. tuberosum possesses sexual enhancing properties.

  15. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D

    2012-08-07

    Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200 bp (total of 24 kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Each marker was mapped with high confidence (etomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive identification of introgressed genes within crop species such as S. lycopersicum will help

  16. ANÁLISIS EXPLORATORIO DE LOS ÁCIDOS GRASOS DEL ISAÑO (Tropaeolum tuberosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramallo Zamora

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los tubérculos transformados en harina a partir de seis variedades domésticas de isaño (Tropaeolum tuberosum fueron analizados con el fin de explorar el perfil de ácidos grasos de sus lípidos y así conocer mejor sus cualidades nutricionales. Los resultados mostraron que las harinas de isaño contienen un balance muy interesante de ácidos grasos. Los perfiles fueron muy similares entre todas las variedades analizadas. Se observó un alto contenido de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (70,8%, con una relación promedio insaturados/saturados de 3,0. La relación promedia linoleico/-linolénico fue de 2,2. Este valor se sitúa dentro del margen recomendado para una dieta saludable (<5. Sin embargo, cabe mencionar que el contenido de grasa de los tubérculos de isaño es bajo (<1% de la materia seca. Se debe analizar el contenido de grasa de las semillas del isaño, que podrían tener una concentración más importante de grasas. De todas maneras, los resultados son alentadores para la utilización de la planta de isaño como una fuente alimenticia.

  17. Foliar-applied ethephon enhances the content of anthocyanin of black carrot roots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Espin, Gregorio; Glied, Stephan; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black carrots (Daucus carota ssp. sativus var. atrorubens Alef.) constitute a valuable source of anthocyanins, which are used as natural red, blue and purple food colourants. Anthocyanins and phenolic compounds are specialised metabolites, accumulation of which often requires elicitors...

  18. A 16 deg2 survey of emission-line galaxies at z SSP Public Data Release 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masao; Tanaka, Masayuki; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Furusawa, Hisanori; Momose, Rieko; Koyama, Yusei; Silverman, John D.; Kodama, Tadayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lin, Yen-Ting; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Yabe, Kiyoto

    2018-01-01

    We present initial results from the Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) with Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on a comprehensive survey of emission-line galaxies at z SSP fields suggests that a survey volume of >5 × 105 Mpc3 is essential to overcome cosmic variance. Since the current data have not reached the full depth expected for the HSC-SSP, the color cut in i - NB816 or z - NB921 induces a bias towards star-forming galaxies with large equivalent widths, primarily seen in the stellar mass functions for the H α emitters at z ≈ 0.25-0.40. Even so, the emission-line galaxies clearly cover a wide range of luminosity, stellar mass, and environment, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the narrowband data from the HSC-SSP for investigating star-forming galaxies at z < 1.5.

  19. Intrascrotal Abscess, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano, Masciovecchio; Del Rosso, Alessandro; Saldutto, Pietro; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The Propionibacterium acnes and the Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii are occasional pathogenic bacteria. The intrascrotal localization of the Propionibacterium acnes is exceptional. The Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii is not able to colonize the urogenital apparatus but it is the most frequently responsible for blood culture contamination even if it can sustain, in particular conditions, systemic infections. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 72-year-old man who is un...

  20. Multiple plasmid-borne virulence genes of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici critical for disease development in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Sun; Oh, Eom-Ji; Kim, Donghyuk; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2018-02-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici is a Gram-positive plant-pathogenic bacterium causing bacterial canker disease in pepper. Virulence genes and mechanisms of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici in pepper have not yet been studied. To identify virulence genes of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici, comparative genome analyses with C. michiganensis ssp. capsici and its related C. michiganensis subspecies, and functional analysis of its putative virulence genes during infection were performed. The C. michiganensis ssp. capsici type strain PF008 carries one chromosome (3.056 Mb) and two plasmids (39 kb pCM1 Cmc and 145 kb pCM2 Cmc ). The genome analyses showed that this bacterium lacks a chromosomal pathogenicity island and celA gene that are important for disease development by C. michiganensis ssp. michiganensis in tomato, but carries most putative virulence genes in both plasmids. Virulence of pCM1 Cmc -cured C. michiganensis ssp. capsici was greatly reduced compared with the wild-type strain in pepper. The complementation analysis with pCM1 Cmc -located putative virulence genes showed that at least five genes, chpE, chpG, ppaA1, ppaB1 and pelA1, encoding serine proteases or pectate lyase contribute to disease development in pepper. In conclusion, C. michiganensis ssp. capsici has a unique genome structure, and its multiple plasmid-borne genes play critical roles in virulence in pepper, either separately or together. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Toxicological, Antidiarrheal and Spasmolytic Activities of Solanum paniculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementino-Neto, José; Pereira, Joedna C; Vasconcelos, Luiz H C; de Souza, Iara L L; Silva, Anne D S; Silva, Telma M G; Ramos, Natalia S M; Pessôa, Hilzeth L F; Silva, Tania M S; da Silva, Bagnólia A; de Cavalcante, Fabiana A

    2016-01-01

    Solanum paniculatum is popularly known as "jurubeba-verdadeira". In folk medicine, its roots, stems, and leaves are used as tonics, anti-inflammatories, carminatives, diuretics, and for gastrointestinal disorders. This species is listed in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and belongs to the "Relação Nacional de Plantas Medicinais de Interesse ao SUS". Based on folk medicine data of the Solanum genus, we decided to investigate whether the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts presents toxicological, antidiarrheal, and spasmolytic activities. The crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts did not produce in vitro or in vivo toxicity and showed dose-dependent antidiarrheal activity, inhibiting equipotently both the defecation frequency (ED50 = 340.3 ± 35.1 mg/kg) and liquid stool formation (ED50 = 370.1 ± 19.4 mg/kg) in mice. Conversely, the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts did not inhibit normal intestinal transit, even though it has shown a dose-dependent reduction of both the castor oil-induced intestinal transit (Emax = 36.9 ± 1.3 %, ED50 = 242.0 ± 8.6 mg/kg) and intestinal fluid content (Emax = 74.8 ± 2.4 %, ED50 = 328.9 ± 15.9 mg/kg). Additionally, the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts was approximately 2-fold more potent in antagonizing the phasic contractions induced with histamine (IC50 = 63.7 ± 3.5 µg/mL) than carbachol 10(-6) M (IC50 = 129.3 ± 14.1 µg/mL). Therefore, we concluded that the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts presents antidiarrheal activity in mice related to the inhibition of small intestinal motility and secretion as well as nonselective spasmolytic activity on the guinea pig ileum. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mgṡkg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

  3. Effects of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra on the central nervous system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Nilgün; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Aydin, Süleyman; Oztürk, Yusuf; Caliş, Ihsan

    2002-11-01

    A methanolic extact of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots has been investigated for its possible effects on the central nervous system of mice. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg (i.p.), the methanol extract of Gentiana roots caused a significant increase in the swimming endurance test and exhibited slight analgesic activity, but no lethality in mice suggesting some activity on the central nervous system. However, there was no indication of sedation or muscular fatigue at the doses employed. HPLC analysis showed that three secoiridoid compounds, gentiopicroside, swertiamarine and sweroside were present and may have been responsible for the CNS effects of the methanol extract of Gentiana lutea ssp. symphyandra roots. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Purification and partial characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Archana; Akkoç, Nefise; Akçelik, Mustafa

    2012-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are possessing ability to synthesize antimicrobial compounds (like bacteriocin) during their growth. In this regard, novel bacteriocin compound secreting capability of LAB isolated from Tulum Cheese in Turkey was demonstrated. The synthesized bacteriocin was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and gel filtration. The molecular weight (≈3.4 kDa) of obtained bacteriocin was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed single peptide band. Molecular identification of LAB strain isolated from Tulum Cheese was conducted using 16S rDNA gene sequencing as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171. The amino acid sequences (KKIDTRTGKTMEKTEKKIELSLKNMKTAT) of the bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis LL171 was found unique and novel than reported bacteriocins. Further, the bacteriocin was possessed the thermostable property and active at wide range of pH values from 1 to 11. Thus, bacteriocin reported in this study has the potential applications property as food preservative agent.

  5. SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

  6. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  7. Brain SPECT analysis by 3D-SSP and clinical features of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, Yasunori; Yoshida, Kazuto; Makino, Kenichi; Yabe, Ichiro; Kikuchi, Seiji; Sasaki, Hidenao; Tashiro, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) with cerebral perfusion on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The clinical features of PD were compared with SPECT images of the brain obtained by three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) analysis. Thirty-eight patients who had PD without dementia (17 men and 21 women with a mean age of 68.6±4.7 years) were enrolled in this study. Their symptoms were rated using the unified parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS). Within a week, all patients were examined by SPECT with I-123, and reconstructed images were analyzed with 3D-SSP using an image-analysis software, iSSP ver. 3.5. Data on brain surface perfusion extracted by 3D-SSP analysis were compared between the PD patients and the normal control group. The same comparisons were made for subgroups of PD patients with severe symptoms, such as tremor, gait disturbance, bradykinesia, and the UPDRS motor score. Cerebral perfusion was decreased at the anterior cingulate cortex and occipital lobe of the PD patients compared with the normal controls. In the subgroups with severe gait disturbance and severe bradykinesia, additional hypoperfusion was seen at the lateral frontal association and lateral temporal association and the medial frontal gyrus, and by the pixel-by-pixel comparison, perfusion was significantly decreased (p<0.05) at the medial frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex compared with the normal control group. In PD patients, severe gait disturbance and bradykinesia may be correlated with hypoperfusion of the medial aspect of the frontal lobe. This suggests that functional disturbance of the supplementary motor area and other parts of the frontal lobe are involved in the development of gait disturbance and bradykinesia in PD. (author)

  8. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR tests and 7 controls (negative serology, all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  9. Stem rust (Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola Urban its hosts and harmfulness in grasses grown for seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Prończuk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem rust development on four species of grasses was studied in field experiments conducted at Radzików in 1997-2001. Population of Puccinia graminis ssp. graminicola from different hosts was characterised and their harmfulness for grass grown for seed was estimated. The materials for study were ecotypes and strains of Lolium perenne, Festuca rubra, Poa pratensis and Deschampsia caespitosa collected in breeding nursery and cultivars and strains of L.perenne, F.rubra, P.pratensis cultivated for seed. It was found that the changes in environmental conditions during last years influenced earlier occurrence of stem rust on grasses in Poland. All examined species were the host of P.graminis ssp. graminicola, however the period of infection of particular hosts were different. L.perenne and D.caespitosa were infected in early summer but F.rubra and P.pratensis in late summer or in the autumn. Morphological analysis of spores of P.graminis ssp. graminicola have shoved significant differences between populations obtained from L.perenne and D.caespitosa. Some differences were found between populations from F.rubra and P.pratensis also, but they need more study. Every year occurrence of stem rust on L.perenne and D.caespitosa and its relation with spring temperature in Radzików indicated that populations of patogen could overwinter in local turf. Incidental appearance of stem rust on F.rubra and P.pratensis in centre of Poland allowed to suppose that spores of these forms might be transfer by wind from other regions. The investigation revealed that stem rust can be dangerous for L.perenne grown for seed when infection occurs at flowering time. It has been established that infection of F.rubra and P.pratensis in autumn should not be disregarded. Damages of leaves by P.graminis ssp. graminicola substantially limited plant heading in the next year.

  10. Extinction risk assessment for the species survival plan (SSP) population of the Bali mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnhardt, Joanne M; Thompson, Steven D; Faust, Lisa J

    2009-05-01

    The Bali mynah Species Survival Plan (SSP), an Association of Zoos and Aquariums program, strives to maintain the genetic and demographic health of its population, avoid unplanned changes in size, and minimize the risk of population extinction. The SSP population meets current demographic and genetic objectives with a population size of 209 birds at 61 institutions and 96% genetic diversity (GD) retained from the source population. However, participating institutions have expressed concerns regarding space allocation, target population size (TPS), breeding restrictions, inbreeding depression, and harvest in relation to future population availability and viability. Based on these factors, we assess five questions with a quantitative risk assessment, specifically a population viability analysis (PVA) using ZooRisk software. Using an individual-based stochastic model, we project potential population changes under different conditions (e.g. changes in TPS and genetic management) to identify the most effective management actions. Our projections indicate that under current management conditions, population decline and extinction are unlikely and that although GD will decline over 100 years the projected loss does not exceed levels acceptable to population managers (less than 90% GD retained). Model simulations indicate that the combination of two genetic management strategies (i.e. priority breeding based on mean kinship and inbreeding avoidance) benefits the retention of GD and reduces the accumulation of inbreeding. The current TPS (250) is greater than necessary to minimize the risk of extinction for the SSP population but any reduction in TPS must be accompanied by continued application of genetic management. If carefully planned, birds can be harvested for transfer to Bali for a reintroduction program without jeopardizing the SSP population.

  11. Over-expression of miR158 causes pollen abortion in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiming; Jiang, Jianxia; Hu, Ziwei; Lyu, Tianqi; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Jingjing; Cao, Jiashu

    2017-02-01

    We identified and cloned the two precursors of miR158 and its target gene in Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis, which both had high relative expression in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility, which was caused by the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage. These results first suggest the role of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in many important growth and development processes both in plants and animals by regulating the expression of their target genes via mRNA cleavage or translational repression. In this study, miR158, a Brassicaceae specific miRNA, was functionally characterized with regard to its role in pollen development of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis). Two family members of miR158 in B. campestris, namely bra-miR158a1 and bra-miR158a2, and their target gene bra027656, which encodes a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) containing protein, were identified. Then, qRT-PCR analysis and GUS-reporter system revealed that both bra-miR158 and its target gene had relatively high expression levels in the inflorescences. Further study revealed that over-expression of miR158 caused reduced pollen varbility and pollen germination ratio, and the degradation of pollen contents from the binucleate microspore stage was also found in those deformed pollen grains, which led to pollen shrinking and collapse in later pollen development stage. These results first shed light on the importance of miR158 in pollen development of Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

  12. Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Katz, Samantha; Chi, Kai-Hua; Vahi, Ventis; Sun, Yongcheng; Mabey, David C; Solomon, Anthony W; Chen, Cheng Y; Pillay, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination (TPPA) and Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) tests and 7 controls (negative serology), all collected as part of a prospective study of yaws in the Solomon Islands. All samples were also tested by a nested PCR for T. pallidum. 12 patients had clinical evidence of active yaws whilst 128 were considered to have latent yaws. 43 children had high titre rapid plasma reagins (RPRs) of ≥1:32. PCR testing with both assays gave negative results in all cases. It is possible that the failure to detect T. pallidum ssp. pertenue in blood reflects lower loads of organism in latent yaws compared to those in latent infection with T. pallidum ssp. pertenue, and/or a lower propensity for haematogenous dissemination in yaws than in syphilis. As the goal of the yaws control programme is eradication, a tool that can differentiate true latent infection from individuals who are serofast would be of value; however, PCR of blood is not that tool.

  13. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425). PMID:28561762

  14. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoung Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK cell activity, interleukin (IL-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425.

  15. Consumption of Dairy Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis and Heat-Treated Lactobacillus plantarum Improves Immune Function Including Natural Killer Cell Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ayoung; Lee, Young Ju; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kim, Minkyung; Chang, Yeeun; Lee, Dong Seog; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei ( L. paracasei ), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis ( B. lactis ) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum ( L. plantarum ) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-γ and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei , B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-γ concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).

  16. Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Site-Specific Plan (SSP) for fiscal year 1992 (FY92)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The FY-92 Site-Specific Plan (FY-92 SSP) for environmental restoration and waste management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is designed to provide the reader with easy access to the status of environmental restoration and waste management activities at INEL. The first chapter provides background on INIEL's physical environment, site history and mission, and general information about the site and its facilities. In addition, this chapter discusses the inter-relationships between the Site Specific Plan, the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan, the environmental restoration and waste management prioritization systems, and the Activity Data Sheets (ADSs) for environmental restoration and waste management. This discussion should help readers understand what the SSP is and how it fits into the environmental restoration and waste management process at INEL. This understanding should provide the reader with a better context for understanding the discussions in the SSP as well as a better feel for how and what to comment on during the public comment period that will be held from the first of September through the end of October 1991

  17. Simultaneous genotyping of HPA-17w to -21w by PCR-SSP in Chinese Cantonese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haojie; Ding, Haoqiang; Chen, Yangkai; Li, Xiaofan; Ye, Xin; Nie, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported the polymorphism of human platelet antigen (HPA)-17w, -18w, -19w, -20w, and -21w. However, the distribution of these five antigens in Chinese Cantonese is still unknown. In this study, we designed new sequence-specific primers for HPA-19w to -21w and used published primers for HPA-17w and -18w to develop a polymerase chain reaction with the sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w. A total of 820 unrelated Cantonese apheresis platelet donors in Guangzhou were involved in this study. Among the five HPAs, complete a/a homozygosity was observed for HPA-17w to -20w with an allele frequency of 1.0000. For HPA-21w, nine individuals (9/820, 1.10%) were found to be HPA-21a/bw heterozygous and the allele frequencies of HPA-21a and HPA-21bw were 0.9945 (1631/1640) and 0.0055 (9/1640), respectively. The reliability of the PCR-SSP method was determined by comparing with the genotyping results by DNA sequencing, and no inconsistencies were observed between the two methods. This study provides a reliable PCR-SSP method for simultaneously genotyping HPA-17w to -21w and could improve HPA-matched platelet transfusion in Chinese Cantonese.

  18. RNA-seq Analysis of Cold and Drought Responsive Transcriptomes of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Meixue; McNeil, David; Liang, Shan; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-01-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is a member of teosinte, a wild relative of the Zea mays spp. mays L. This subspecies has strong growth and regeneration ability, high tiller numbers, high protein and lysine content as well as resistance to many fungal diseases, and it can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, we reported a Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. transcriptome by merging data from untreated control (CK), cold (4°C) and drought (PEG2000, 20%) treated plant samples. A total of 251,145 transcripts (N50 = 1,269 bp) and 184,280 unigenes (N50 = 923 bp) were predicted, which code for homologs of near 47% of the published maize proteome. Under cold conditions, 2,232 and 817 genes were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, while fewer genes were up-regulated (532) and down-regulated (82) under drought stress, indicating that Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. is more sensitive to the applied cold rather than to the applied drought stresses. Functional enrichment analyses identified many common or specific biological processes and gene sets in response to drought and cold stresses. The ABA dependent pathway, trehalose synthetic pathway and the ICE1-CBF pathway were up-regulated by both stresses. GA associated genes have been shown to differentially regulate the responses to cold in close subspecies in Zea mays . These findings and the identified functional genes can provide useful clues for improving abiotic stress tolerance of maize.

  19. First detection of Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Dobler, Gerhard; Schaper, Sabine; Küpper, Thomas; Kattner, Simone; Wölfel, Silke

    2017-11-01

    Ticks are important vectors for Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group all around the world. Rickettsia conorii is the etiological agent of boutonneuse fever in the Mediterranean region and Africa. Tick identification was based on morphological features and further characterized using the 16S rRNA gene. The ticks were individually tested using pan-Rickettsia real-time-PCR for screening, and 23S-5S intergenic spacer region, 16S rDNA, gltA, sca4, ompB, and ompA genes were used to analyze the Rickettsia positive samples. Rickettsia conorii ssp. caspia was detected in tick collected in Zambia for the first time, thus demonstrating the possibility of the occurrence of human disease, namely Astrakhan fever, due to this Rickettsia ssp. in this region of Africa. The prevalence of R. conorii ssp. caspia was 0.06% (one positive tick out of 1465 tested ticks) and 0.07% (one positive tick out of 1254 tested Rh. sanguineus).

  20. CD4 T Cell Dependent Colitis Exacerbation Following Re-Exposure of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandi, Abdulhadi; Bargen, Imke; Pils, Marina C; Krey, Martina; Zur Lage, Susanne; Singh, Anurag K; Basler, Tina; Falk, Christine S; Seidler, Ursula; Hornef, Mathias W; Goethe, Ralph; Weiss, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of cattle characterized by intermittent to chronic diarrhea. In addition, MAP has been isolated from Crohn's disease (CD) patients. The impact of MAP on severity of clinical symptoms in JD as well as its role in CD are yet unknown. We have previously shown that MAP is able to colonize inflamed enteric tissue and to exacerbate the inflammatory tissue response (Suwandi et al., 2014). In the present study, we analyzed how repeated MAP administration influences the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In comparison to mice exposed to DSS or MAP only, repeated exposure of DSS-treated mice to MAP (DSS/MAP) revealed a significantly enhanced clinical score, reduction of colon length as well as severe CD4 + T cell infiltration into the colonic lamina propria . Functional analysis identified a critical role of CD4 + T cells in the MAP-induced disease exacerbation. Additionally, altered immune responses were observed when closely related mycobacteria species such as M. avium ssp. avium and M. avium ssp. hominissuis were administered. These data reveal the specific ability of MAP to aggravate intestinal inflammation and clinical symptoms. Overall, this phenotype is compatible with similar disease promoting capabilites of MAP in JD and CD.