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Sample records for sol-gel tio2 films

  1. Low Loss Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Films for Waveguiding Applications

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    Alexis Fischer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel process: titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP was dissolved in isopropanol, and then hydrolyzed by adding a water/isopropanol mixture with a controlled hydrolysis ratio. The as prepared sol was deposited by “dip-coating” on a glass substrate with a controlled withdrawal speed. The obtained films were annealed at 350 and 500 °C (2 h. The morphological properties of the prepared films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The optical waveguiding properties of TiO2 films were investigated for both annealing temperature using m-lines spectroscopy. The refractive indices and the film thickness were determined from the measured effective indices. The results show that the synthesized planar waveguides are multimodes and demonstrate low propagation losses of 0.5 and 0.8 dB/cm for annealing temperature 350 and 500 °C, respectively.

  2. Sol-Gel TiO2 thin films sensitized with the mulberry pigment cyanidin

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    Emerson Henrique de Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have various applications, among them solar cells and photodegradation of pollutants. In this study, we investigated TiO2 films functionalized with the organic dye cyanidin extracted from black mulberry (Morus nigra. The TiO2 was functionalized by the sol-gel method and the film was deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between the semiconductor and the dye, as well as the influence of the velocity and number of deposits on the characteristics of the film. Using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, we observed a shift from the maximum absorption band at 545 nm for the dye’s ethanol solution to 595 nm for the film, indicating interaction of the cyanidin with the TiO2. The absorption spectra in the infrared region of the functionalized TiO2 particles showed bands characteristic of the oxide and indicated their interaction with the dye. Using profilometry and m-line techniques, we found that the films presented thicknesses in the order of 100 nm. A SEM analysis confirmed the high density of the films.

  3. Effect of Aging Time and Film Thickness on the Photoelectrochemical Properties of TiO2 Sol-Gel Photoanodes

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    D. Regonini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has focused on the investigation of a non-aqueous based sol-gel process to produce TiO2 based photoelectrodes for solar water splitting. In particular, the effect of the aging time of the sol and TiO2 film thickness on the photoelectrochemical properties of the photoanodes has been investigated. In order to achieve optimal performances (i.e., photocurrent density up to 570 µA/cm2 and IPCE of 26% at 300 nm, the sol needs to be aged for 3 to 6 h, before being dip-coated to produce the photoanodes. The importance of the aging time can also be appreciated from the optical properties of the TiO2 films; the absorbance threshold of the sol-gel aged for 3–6 h is slightly shifted towards longer wavelenghts in comparison to 0 h aging. Aging is necessary to build up a well-interconnected sol-gel network which finally leads to a photoelectrode with optimized light absorption and electron collection properties. This is also confirmed by the higher IPCE signal of aged photoelectrodes, especially below 340 nm. Among thicknesses considered, there is no apparent significant difference in the photoresponse (photocurrent density and IPCE of the TiO2 sol-gel films.

  4. Atomic force microscopy study of TiO2 sol-gel films thermally treated under NH3 atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapalis, C.; Todorova, N.; Anastasescu, M.; Anastasescu, C.; Stoica, M.; Gartner, M.; Zaharescu, M.; Stoica, T.

    2009-01-01

    Multilayered TiO 2 films were obtained by sol-gel and dipping deposition on quartz substrate followed by thermal treatment under NH 3 atmosphere. In an attempt to understand the close relationship between microstructural characteristics and the synthesis parameters, a systematic research of the structure and the morphology of NH 3 modified TiO 2 sol-gel films by XRD and Atomic Force Microscopy is reported. The surface morphology has been evaluated in terms of grains size, fractal dimension and surface roughness. For each surface, it was found a self-similar behavior (with mean fractal dimension in the range of 2.67-3.00) related to an optimum morphology favorable to maintain a nano-size distribution of the grains. The root mean square (RMS) roughness of the samples was found to be in the range of 0.72-6.02 nm.

  5. Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.J.; Brungs, M.P.; Chaplin, R.P.; Sizgek, E.

    2001-01-01

    Crack-free transparent titania films have been prepared through a new sol-gel process combined with hydrogen peroxide treatment. Hydrogen peroxide and HCl were used to dissolve amorphous titania powder which is obtained by drying common sol-gel titania sol. The peroxo-titania sol produced a thicker film than the common sol-gel titania sol due to a higher degree of condensation. Film thickness could be further increased by controlled drying conditions of the amorphous titania powder or 'aging' the sol. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chemical additives were effective in controlling condensation rate by preventing rapid condensation during curing of the film. When these two components were incorporated, it was possible to create a 0.5μm transparent film and PEG could also control the porosity of the film. The cured film was analysed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. In order to measure the reflective index and thickness of the titania film, an ellipsometer was used. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  6. Synthesis and photocatalytic properties of porous TiO2 films prepared by ODA/sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenjie; Bai Jiawei

    2012-01-01

    Porous TiO 2 films were deposited on SiO 2 pre-coated glass-slides by sol-gel method using octadecylamine (ODA) as template. The amount of ODA in the sol played an important role on the physicochemical properties and photocatalytic performance of the TiO 2 films. The films prepared at different conditions were all composed of anatase titanium dioxide crystals, and TiO 2 crystalline size got larger with increasing ODA amount. The maximum specific surface area of 41.5 m 2 /g was obtained for TiO 2 powders prepared from titanium sol containing 2.0 g ODA. Methyl orange degradation rate was enhanced along with increasing ODA amount and reached the maximal value at 2.0 g addition of ODA. After 40 min of UV-light irradiation, methyl orange degradation rate reached 30.5% on the porous film, which was about 10% higher than that on the smooth film. Porous TiO 2 film showed almost constant activity with slight decrease from 30.5% to 28.5% after 4 times of recycles.

  7. Alkali passivation mechanism of sol-gel derived TiO2-SiO2 films coated on soda-lime-silica glass substrates

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    Matsuda, A; Matsuno, Y; Katayama, S; Tsuno, T [Nippon Steel Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Toge, N; Minami, T [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). College of Engineering

    1992-09-01

    TiO2-SiO2 films prepared by the sol-gel method serves as an effective alkali passivation layer on a soda-lime-silica glass substrate and the film is superior to a sol-gel derived pure SiO2 film from the view point of weathering resistance improvement. To clarify the reason, alkali passivation mechanism of sol-gel derived TiO2-SiO2 glass films with different TiO2 contents coated on a soda-lime-silica glass substrate was studied by SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses, and compared with the results of a sol-gel derived pure SiO2 film. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: An increase in TiO2 content in the TiO2 SiO2 film increases the sodium concentration in the film, which was induced by sodium migration from the glass substrate during the heat-treatment. Because of the presence of sodium the TiO2 -SiO2 films serve not as a barrier but as an effective getter of alkali ions and thereby effectively improve the weathering resistance Of the glass substrate. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  8. A Micro Oxygen Sensor Based on a Nano Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Film

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    Hairong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen gas microsensor based on nanostructured sol-gel TiO2 thin films with a buried Pd layer was developed on a silicon substrate. The nanostructured titania thin films for O2 sensors were prepared by the sol-gel process and became anatase after heat treatment. A sandwich TiO2 square board with an area of 350 μm × 350 μm was defined by both wet etching and dry etching processes and the wet one was applied in the final process due to its advantages of easy control for the final structure. A pair of 150 nm Pt micro interdigitated electrodes with 50 nm Ti buffer layer was fabricated on the board by a lift-off process. The sensor chip was tested in a furnace with changing the O2 concentration from 1.0% to 20% by monitoring its electrical resistance. Results showed that after several testing cycles the sensor’s output becomes stable, and its sensitivity is 0.054 with deviation 2.65 × 10−4 and hysteresis is 8.5%. Due to its simple fabrication process, the sensor has potential for application in environmental monitoring, where lower power consumption and small size are required.

  9. Polythiophene thin films electrochemically deposited on sol-gel based TiO2 for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valaski, R.; Yamamoto, N.A.D.; Canestraro, C.D.; Micaroni, L.; Mello, R.M.Q.; Quirino, W.G.; Legani, C.; Achete, C.A.; Roman, L.S.; Cremona, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the influence of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films on the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices based on electrochemically synthesized polythiophene (PT) was investigated. TiO 2 films were produced by sol-gel methods with controlled thickness. The best TiO 2 annealing condition was determined through the investigation of the temperature influence on the electron charge mobility and resistivity in a range between 723 K and 923 K. The PT films were produced by chronoamperometric method in a 3-electrode cell under a controlled atmosphere. High quality PT films were produced onto 40 nm thick TiO 2 layer previously deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. The morphology of PT films grown on both substrates and its strong influence on the device performance and PT minimum thickness were also investigated. The maximum external quantum efficiency (IPCE) reached was 9% under monochromatic irradiation (λ = 610 nm; 1 W/m 2 ) that is three orders of magnitude higher than that presented by PT-homolayer devices with similar PT thickness. In addition, the open-circuit voltage (V oc ) was about 700 mV and the short-circuit current density (J sc ) was 0.03 A/m 2 (λ = 610 nm; 7 W/m 2 ). However, as for the PT-homolayer also the TiO 2 /PT based devices are characterized by antibatic response when illuminated through FTO. Finally, the Fill Factor (FF) of these devices is low (25%), indicating that the series resistance (R s ), which is strongly dependent of the PT thickness, is too large. This large R s value is compensated by TiO 2 /PT interface morphology and by FTO/TiO 2 and TiO 2 /PT interface phenomena producing preferential paths in which the internal electrical field is higher, improving the device efficiency.

  10. Effect of TiO2/Al2O3 film coated diamond abrasive particles by sol-gel technique

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    Hu, Weida; Wan, Long; Liu, Xiaopan; Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhiqi

    2011-04-01

    The diamond abrasive particles were coated with the TiO2/Al2O3 film by the sol-gel technique. Compared with the uncoated diamonds, the TiO2/Al2O3 film was excellent material for the protection of the diamonds. The results showed that the incipient oxidation temperature of the TiO2/Al2O3 film coated diamonds in air atmosphere was 775 °C, which was higher 175 °C than that of the uncoated diamonds. And the coated diamonds also had better the diamond's single particle compressive strength and the impact toughness than that of uncoated diamonds after sintering at 750 °C. For the vitrified bond grinding wheels, replacing the uncoated diamonds with the TiO2/Al2O3 film coated diamonds, the volume expansion of the grinding wheels decreased from 6.2% to 3.4%, the porosity decreased from 35.7% to 25.7%, the hardness increased from 61.2HRC to 66.5HRC and the grinding ratio of the vitrified bond grinding wheels to carbide alloy (YG8) increased from 11.5 to 19.1.

  11. Study of Optical Humidity Sensing Properties of Sol-Gel Processed TiO2 and MgO Films

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    B. C. Yadav

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Paper reports a comparative study of humidity sensing properties of TiO2 and MgO films fabricated by Sol-gel technique using optical method. One sensing element of the optical humidity sensor presented here consists of rutile structured two-layered TiO2 thin film deposited on the base of an isosceles glass prism. The other sensing element consists of a film of MgO deposited by same technique on base of the prism. Light from He-Ne laser enters prism from one of refracting faces of the prism and gets reflected from the glass-film interface, before emerging out from its other isosceles face. This emergent beam is allowed to pass through an optical fiber. Light coming out from the optical fiber is measured with an optical power meter. Variations in the intensity of light caused by changes in humidity lying in the range 5%RH to 95%RH have been recorded. MgO film shows better sensitivity than TiO2 film.

  12. Sol-gel TiO2 colloidal suspensions and nanostructured thin films: structural and biological assessments

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    Quartapelle Procopio, Elsa; Colombo, Valentina; Santo, Nadia; Sironi, Angelo; Lenardi, Cristina; Maggioni, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    The role of substrate topography in phenotype expression of in vitro cultured cells has been widely assessed. However, the production of the nanostructured interface via the deposition of sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) has not yet been fully exploited. This is also evidenced by the limited number of studies correlating the morphological, structural and chemical properties of the grown thin films with those of the sol-gel ‘brick’ within the framework of the bottom-up approach. Our work intends to go beyond this drawback presenting an accurate investigation of sol-gel TiO2 NPs shaped as spheres and rods. They have been fully characterized by complementary analytical techniques both suspended in apolar solvents, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and after deposition on substrates (solid state configuration) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the case of suspended anisotropic rods, the experimental DLS data, analyzed by the Tirado-Garcia de la Torre model, present the following ranges of dimensions: 4-5 nm diameter (∅) and 11-15 nm length (L). These results are in good agreement with that obtained by the two solid state techniques, namely 3.8(9) nm ∅ and 13.8(2.5) nm L from TEM and 5.6(1) ∅ and 13.3(1) nm L from PXRD data. To prove the suitability of the supported sol-gel NPs for biological issues, spheres and rods have been separately deposited on coverslips. The cell response has been ascertained by evaluating the adhesion of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney. The cellular analysis showed that titania films promote cell adhesion as well clustering organization, which is a distinguishing feature of this type of cell line. Thus, the use of nanostructured substrates via sol-gel could be considered a good candidate for cell culture with the further advantages of likely scalability and interfaceability with many different materials usable as supports.

  13. Sol-gel TiO2 colloidal suspensions and nanostructured thin films: structural and biological assessments.

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    Procopio, Elsa Quartapelle; Colombo, Valentina; Santo, Nadia; Sironi, Angelo; Lenardi, Cristina; Maggioni, Daniela

    2018-02-02

    The role of substrate topography in phenotype expression of in vitro cultured cells has been widely assessed. However, the production of the nanostructured interface via the deposition of sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) has not yet been fully exploited. This is also evidenced by the limited number of studies correlating the morphological, structural and chemical properties of the grown thin films with those of the sol-gel 'brick' within the framework of the bottom-up approach. Our work intends to go beyond this drawback presenting an accurate investigation of sol-gel TiO 2 NPs shaped as spheres and rods. They have been fully characterized by complementary analytical techniques both suspended in apolar solvents, by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and after deposition on substrates (solid state configuration) by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). In the case of suspended anisotropic rods, the experimental DLS data, analyzed by the Tirado-Garcia de la Torre model, present the following ranges of dimensions: 4-5 nm diameter (∅) and 11-15 nm length (L). These results are in good agreement with that obtained by the two solid state techniques, namely 3.8(9) nm ∅ and 13.8(2.5) nm L from TEM and 5.6(1) ∅ and 13.3(1) nm L from PXRD data. To prove the suitability of the supported sol-gel NPs for biological issues, spheres and rods have been separately deposited on coverslips. The cell response has been ascertained by evaluating the adhesion of the epithelial cell line Madin-Darby canine kidney. The cellular analysis showed that titania films promote cell adhesion as well clustering organization, which is a distinguishing feature of this type of cell line. Thus, the use of nanostructured substrates via sol-gel could be considered a good candidate for cell culture with the further advantages of likely scalability and interfaceability with many different materials usable as supports.

  14. Structural and electrical characteristics of ZrO2-TiO2 thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsing; Tseng, Ching-Fang; Lai, Chun-Hung; Tung, Hsin-Han; Lin, Shih-Yao

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated electrical properties and microstructures of ZrTiO 4 (ZrO 2 -TiO 2 ) thin films prepared by the sol-gel method on ITO substrates at different annealing temperatures. All films exhibited ZrTiO 4 (1 1 1) and (1 0 1) orientations perpendicular to the substrate surface, and the grain size increased with increase in the annealing temperature. A low leakage current density of 2.06 x 10 -6 A/cm 2 was obtained for the prepared films. Considering the primary memory switching behavior of ZrTiO 4 , ReRAM based on ZrTiO 4 shows promise for future nonvolatile memory applications.

  15. Preparation and properties of TiO2 films by complexing agent-assisted sol-gel method. Yuki haiishi wo mochiita sol gel ho ni yoru TiO2 usumaku no sakusei to seishitsu

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    Nishide, T [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mizukami, F [National Chemical Laboratory for Industry, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1992-09-01

    In order to control optical properties of TiO2 thin films, the TiO2 films were prepared by the sol-gel method using glycols or their ether derivatives as organic ligands to study the effect of the organic ligands on the refractive indices and crystal phases. Samples were prepared as follows: Organic ligand was added into the ethanol solution of Ti(O-iso-pr) 4, and aqueous nitric acid solution was added after reflux, and sol obtained by subsequent reflux was applied on soda lime glass or silicon wafer substrates, which were baked at 400 to 900 centigrade. Three kinds of ligand such as 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethanol were used. Measured items are the film thickness, thermal characteristics, crystal phase and refractive indices of thin films. The key points are as follows: In case of TiO2 thin films on the soda lime glass substrate, the changing pattern of refractive indices by temperature changes with the kind of ligand used and further the peak strength of anatase changes with the kind of ligand used. In case of silicon wafer substrates, the peak strength of anatase and rutile changes with the kind of ligand. The refractive indices and crystal phase can be controlled by properly using the ligand. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Photocatalytic properties of P25-doped TiO2 composite film synthesized via sol-gel method on cement substrate.

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    Guo, Xiang; Rao, Lei; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Ao, Yanhui; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Wanzhong

    2018-04-01

    TiO 2 films have received increasing attention for the removal of organic pollutants via photocatalysis. To develop a simple and effective method for improving the photodegradation efficiency of pollutants in surface water, we herein examined the preparation of a P25-TiO 2 composite film on a cement substrate via a sol-gel method. In this case, Rhodamine B (RhB) was employed as the target organic pollutant. The self-generated TiO 2 film and the P25-TiO 2 composite film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption/desorption measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photodegradation efficiencies of the two films were studied by RhB removal in water under UV (ultraviolet) irradiation. Over 4day exposure, the P25-TiO 2 composite film exhibited higher photocatalytic performance than the self-generated TiO 2 film. The photodegradation rate indicated that the efficiency of the P25-TiO 2 composite film was enhanced by the addition of the rutile phase Degussa P25 powder. As such, cooperation between the anatase TiO 2 and rutile P25 nanoparticles was beneficial for separation of the photo-induced electrons and holes. In addition, the influence of P25 doping on the P25-TiO 2 composite films was evaluated. We found that up to a certain saturation point, increased doping enhanced the photodegradation ability of the composite film. Thus, we herein demonstrated that the doping of P25 powders is a simple but effective strategy to prepare a P25-TiO 2 composite film on a cement substrate, and the resulting film exhibits excellent removal efficiency in the degradation of organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Structural and electrical studies on sol-gel derived spun TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A K; Chaure, N B; Ray, A K; Nabok, A V; Habesch, S

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were prepared by spin coating of sol precursor onto microscopic glass slides, silicon and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates. Spin speed was varied between 1000 and 6000 rpm. From the morphological analysis, it is found that thin films spun with speed ω≤4000 rpm assume higher ordered structure than those spun at a speed higher than 4000 rpm. Conduction at low voltages is believed to be variable range hopping at temperatures T a = 0.46 eV below the conduction band edge becomes dominant at temperatures higher than 220 K. At high field charge transport is due to trap-controlled space charge limited mechanism. Traps with a density N t ∼1x10 22 m -3 are thought to be situated at energy level E t 0.3 eV below the conduction band and are associated with film nonstoichiometry and interface states

  18. Co3O4/TiO2 films obtained by laser ablation and sol-gel for the reaction of oxygen liberation in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez A, J.; Fernandez V, S. M.; Escobar A, L.; Jimenez B, J.

    2008-01-01

    The laser ablation technique known as Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is used for obtaining thin films of TiO 2 /SnO 2 , which was later modified with Co 3 O 4 by PLD or by sol-gel technique. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet Vis and Raman spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy and energy analysis of the dispersed X-rays produced by Auger decay. The anatase phase with particles of nano metric size was obtained by depositing the titanium dioxide in argon atmosphere. The Co 3 O 4 films obtained by PLD on the TiO 2 showed the same morphology. The electrocatalytic activity of the films that were used as photo anodes for the reaction of oxygen liberation was carried out in the darkness, with environment light and the light emitted by a xenon lamp. The current density was higher for films of Co 3 O 4 /TiO 2 /SnO 2 obtained by PLD that for cobalt dioxide of mixed valence obtained by sol-gel. (Author)

  19. Reflection Enhancement Using TiO2/SiO2 Bilayer Films Prepared by Cost-Effective Sol-gel Method

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    R. Ajay Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer dielectric thin film structure has been demanded for its application in optoelectronic devices such as optical waveguides, vertical cavity surface-emitting devices, biosensors etc. In this paper, we present the fabrication and characterization of bilayer thin films of TiO2/SiO2 using sol-gel spin coating method. Ellipsometer measurement showed refractive index values 1.46, 2.1 corresponding to the SiO2 and TiO2 films respectively. The FTIR transmittance peaks observed at ~970 cm-1, ~1100 cm-1 and ~1400 cm-1 are attributed to the Ti-O-Si, Si-O-Si and Ti-O-Ti bonds respectively. Maximum reflectance is observed from two bilayer film structure which can be further optimized to get the high reflection to a broad wavelength range.

  20. Influence of Ni doping on phase transformation and optical properties of TiO2 films deposited on quartz substrates by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jianjun; Deng Hongmei; Sun Lin; Kong Hui; Yang Pingxiong; Chu Junhao

    2012-01-01

    The Ni-doped TiO 2 films were synthesized on quartz substrates by the sol-gel method. Results from X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra indicate that Ni doping catalyzes the anatase-to-rutile transformation. When Ni content is up to 10 mol%, the transformation has been finished. The dielectric functions of Ni-doped TiO 2 films were extracted by fitting transmittance spectra according to the Adachi's dielectric function model. The optical band gap decreases from 3.64 eV to 3.51 eV with increasing Ni content. The results suggest that the acceleration of phase change and variation of optical properties may be related to defects due to Ni doping.

  1. Influences of the iron ion (Fe3+)-doping on structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Naceur, J.; Mechiakh, R.; Bousbih, F.; Chtourou, R.

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films doping of various iron ion (Fe 3+ ) concentrations were deposited on silicon (Si) (100) and quartz substrates by sol-gel Spin Coating technique followed by a thermal treatment at 600 deg. C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties, as a function of the doping, have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). XRD and Raman analyzes of our thin films show that the crystalline phase of TiO 2 thin films comprised only the anatase TiO 2 , but the crystallinity decreased when the Fe 3+ content increased from 0% to 20%. During the Fe 3+ addition to 20%, the phase of TiO 2 thin film still maintained the amorphous state. The grain size calculated from XRD patterns varies from 29.3 to 22.6 nm. The complex index and the optical band gap (E g ) of the films were determined by the spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis. We have found that the optical band gap decreased with an increasing Fe 3+ content.

  2. Influence of surfactant and annealing temperature on optical properties of sol-gel derived nano-crystalline TiO2 thin films.

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    Vishwas, M; Sharma, Sudhir Kumar; Rao, K Narasimha; Mohan, S; Gowda, K V Arjuna; Chakradhar, R P S

    2010-03-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films have been synthesized by sol-gel spin coating technique on glass and silicon substrates with and without surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG). XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of nano-crystalline (anatase) phase at an annealing temperature of 300 degrees C. The influence of surfactant and annealing temperature on optical properties of TiO(2) thin films has been studied. Optical constants and film thickness were estimated by Swanepoel's (envelope) method and by ellipsometric measurements in the visible spectral range. The optical transmittance and reflectance were found to decrease with an increase in PEG percentage. Refractive index of the films decreased and film thickness increased with the increase in percentage of surfactant. The refractive index of the un-doped TiO(2) films was estimated at different annealing temperatures and it has increased with the increasing annealing temperature. The optical band gap of pure TiO(2) films was estimated by Tauc's method at different annealing temperature. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nano-structure TiO2 film coating on 316L stainless steel via sol-gel technique for blood compatibility improvement

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    Mohammadreza Foruzanmehr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Titanium oxides are known to be appropriate hemocompatible materials which are suggested as coatings for blood-contacting devices. Little is known about the influence of nanometric crystal structure, layer thickness, and semiconducting characteristics of TiO2 on blood hemostasis.   Materials and Methods: Having used sol-gel dip coating method in this study, TiO2 thin films were deposited on nano-scale electro-polished stainless steel 316L with 1 to 5 nano-sized layers. Surface morphology and structure of the film were studied with X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Blood compatibility was also determined by measuring the platelet activation (CD62P expression, platelet adhesion (Scanning Electron Microscopy, and the blood clotting time on these samples. Results: The films were compact and smooth and existed mainly in the form of anatase. By increasing the number of TiO2 thin layer, clotting time greatly extended, and the population of activated platelet and P-selectine expression changed according to the surface characteristics of each layer. Conclusion: The findings revealed that stainless steel 316L coated with nano-structured TiO2 layer improved blood compatibility, in terms of both blood platelet activity and coagulation cascade, which can decrease the thrombogenicity of blood contacting devices which were made from stainless steel.

  4. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Synthesized V2O5 and TiO2 Thin Films with/without Erbium Doping

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    Fatma Pınar Gökdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative work of with/without erbium- (Er- doped vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were carried out via sol-gel technique by dissolving erbium (III nitrate pentahydrate (Er(NO33·5H2O in vanadium (V oxoisopropoxide (OV[OCH(CH32]3 and titanium (IV isopropoxide (Ti[OCH(CH32]4. Effect of Er doping was traced by Fourier transform IR (FTIR, thermogravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DTA, and photoluminescence measurements. UV-Vis transmission/absorption measurement indicated a blue shift upon Er doping in V2O5 film due to the softening of V=O bond while appearance of typical absorption peaks in Er-doped TiO2 film. Granule size of the films increased (reduced upon Er substitution on host material compared to undoped V2O5 and TiO2 films, respectively.

  5. Preparation and optical properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by a two-step sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, I.; Lu, G.Q.; Meredith, P.; Zhao, X.S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns the preparation of mesoporous titania nanopowders and thin films for use in next generation photoelectrochemical solar cells. We have recently developed a novel method for preparing mesoporous TiO 2 powders using a Two-Step Sol-gel method (TSS). These materials have crystalline domains characteristic of anatase. The first step of the process involves the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide in a basic aqueous solution mediated by neutral surfactant. The solid product resulting from Step-1 is then treated in acidified ethanol solution containing a titanium precursor to yield anatase TiO 2 . The resultant powder exhibits a high surface area and large pore volume with uniform mesopores. Slurries made from the resultant powder of Steps 1 and 2 have been used to produce thin titania films on glass slides. The optical and structural properties of these films have been compared to the films made of a commercial titania (Degussa P25, BASF). We will discuss these properties with respect to the possible use of such mesoporous titania films as the wide band gap semiconductor in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2 solar cells

  6. Annealing temperature effect on the properties of mercury-doped TiO2 films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechiakh, R.; Ben Sedrine, N.; Karyaoui, M.; Chtourou, R.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the annealing temperature effect on the properties of mercury (Hg)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). Thin films and polycrystalline powders have been prepared by sol-gel process. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties, as a function of the annealing temperature, have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, reflectance and ellipsometric spectroscopies. In order to determine the transformation points, we have analyzed the xerogel-obtained powder by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Raman spectroscopy shows the crystalline anatase and rutile phases for the films annealed at 400 deg. C and 1000 deg. C respectively. The AFM surface morphology results indicate that the particle size increases from 14 to 57 nm by increasing the annealing temperature. The complex index and the optical band gap (E g ) of the films were determined by the spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis. We have found that the optical band gap decreases by increasing the annealing temperature.

  7. Sol-gel deposition and electrical properties of laser irradiated Cu doped TiO2 multilayer thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available Multilayer thin films (3, 5 and 7 of 20% copper doped titanium dioxide (Cu:TiO2 have been deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. After deposition, films have been irradiated by a beam of continuous wave diode laser (532 nm for two minutes at the angle of 45°. Structural, surface morphology and electrical properties of films have been investigated by X-rays diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and four point probe technique respectively. XRD shows the formation of titanium copper oxide. Surface morphology of thin films indicated that the average grain size is increased by increasing the number of layers. The average sheet resistivity of 3, 5 and 7 layers of thin films measured by four point probe technique is 2.2 × 104, 1.2 × 104 and 1.0 × 104 (Ohm-cm respectively. The present study will facilitate a cost effective and environmental friendly study for several properties of materials. Keywords: Cu:TiO2, Multilayer thin films, Diode laser

  8. Thickness Dependent Optical Properties of Sol-gel based MgF2 – TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddarth Krishnaraja Achar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available MgF2 – TiO2 thin films were prepared by cost effective solgel technique onto glass substrates and optical parameters were determined by envelope technique. Thin films were characterized by optical transmission spectroscopy in the spectral range 290 – 1000 nm. The refractive index, extinction coefficient, Optical thickness and band gap dependency on thickness were evaluated. Thickness dependency of thin films showed direct allowed transition with band gap of 3.66 to 3.73 eV.

  9. Influence of Ce(III/Ce(IV - supplements on the Characteristics of Humidity Sensors with TiO2 Films Prepared via a Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozhukharov, S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Humidity sensors have been prepared via a sol-gel method to deposit TiO2 films with additions of Ce-compounds on alumina substrates, with interdigitated silver palladium electrodes. Observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM were performed in order to determine the surface morphology of the respective layers. Structural and compositional characterization was done by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX for investigation of the relation between the film structures and the parameters of the respective sensors. The influence of Ce-compounds on the electrical characteristics of the samples as humidity sensing elements has been evaluated by an impedance analyzer.Los sensores de humedad han sido desarrollados mediante el método sol-gel para depositar películas superficiales basadas en TiO2 con adiciones de compuestos de cerio sobre sustratos de corindón y electrodos de aleación de plata y paladio. Se han realizado observaciones mediante el Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB para determinar la morfología superficial de las capas respectivas. Las caracterizaciones de la estructura y composición han sido realizadas mediante Difracción de Rayos X (DRX y espectroscopía de dispersión energética de rayos X (EDERX, con el fin de investigar la relación entre la estructura de las capas y los parámetros de los sensores respectivos. La influencia de los compuestos de cerio sobre las características eléctricas de los sensores de humedad obtenidos se ha evaluado mediante el análisis de impedancia eléctrica.

  10. Foldable and Cytocompatible Sol-gel TiO2 Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Wei-Ming; Lin, Hongtao; Zerdoum, Aidan B; Geiger, Sarah J; Liu, Yangchen; Xiao, Nicholas; Zou, Yi; Ogbuu, Okechukwu; Du, Qingyang; Jia, Xinqiao; Li, Jingjing; Hu, Juejun

    2015-09-07

    Integrated photonics provides a miniaturized and potentially implantable platform to manipulate and enhance the interactions between light and biological molecules or tissues in in-vitro and in-vivo settings, and is thus being increasingly adopted in a wide cross-section of biomedical applications ranging from disease diagnosis to optogenetic neuromodulation. However, the mechanical rigidity of substrates traditionally used for photonic integration is fundamentally incompatible with soft biological tissues. Cytotoxicity of materials and chemicals used in photonic device processing imposes another constraint towards these biophotonic applications. Here we present thin film TiO2 as a viable material for biocompatible and flexible integrated photonics. Amorphous TiO2 films were deposited using a low temperature (<250 °C) sol-gel process fully compatible with monolithic integration on plastic substrates. High-index-contrast flexible optical waveguides and resonators were fabricated using the sol-gel TiO2 material, and resonator quality factors up to 20,000 were measured. Following a multi-neutral-axis mechanical design, these devices exhibit remarkable mechanical flexibility, and can sustain repeated folding without compromising their optical performance. Finally, we validated the low cytotoxicity of the sol-gel TiO2 devices through in-vitro cell culture tests. These results demonstrate the potential of sol-gel TiO2 as a promising material platform for novel biophotonic devices.

  11. Insights into the annealing process of sol-gel TiO2 films leading to anatase development: The interrelationship between microstructure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, E.; Domínguez, M.; González-Leal, J. M.; Márquez, E.; Outón, J.; Ramírez-del-Solar, M.

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films, prepared by the sol-gel dip coating technique on glass substrates, were inspected. After deposition, the films were annealed at several temperatures in the 400-850 °C range and the resulting nanostructured films were studied by different techniques showing that their structural and optical characteristics evolved significantly with the increased annealing temperature. The analysis of these results by the assumption of the Tauc Lorenz model and the use of Wemple-DiDomenico equation leads to a correlation between microstructural aspects and optical characteristics of the films. Thus, crystallization processes (nucleation, growth and phase transformation) and the evolution of films texture and thickness with increasing annealing temperatures are related with the variation of the refractive index, average gap and extinction coefficient during annealing. Finally, the free-carrier concentration in the films, estimated from the Spitzer-Fan model, ranged from 1.44 × 1019 cm-3 to 3.07 × 1019 cm-3 with the changing annealing temperature, which is in agreement with those obtained in similar anatase thin films from electrical measurement techniques.

  12. Thin TiO2 Films Prepared by Inkjet Printing of the Reverse Micelles Sol-Gel Composition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr; Krýsa, Josef; Dzik, P.; Veselý, M.; Šolcová, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2011), s. 371-378 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD203/08/H032; GA ČR GA104/09/0694; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : sol-gel * titanium oxide * inkjet printing Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2011

  13. Preparation of sol-gel TiO2/purified Na-bentonite composites and their photovoltaic application for natural dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saelim, Ni-on; Magaraphan, Rathanawan; Sreethawong, Thammanoon

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Natural dye from red cabbage was successfully employed in DSSC. → A fast sol-gel method to produce TiO 2 /clay thin film was proposed. → The sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay was applied as the scattering layer on top of TiO 2 electrode. → Thicker sol-gel-prepared TiO 2 /clay electrode showed higher DSSC efficiency. - Abstract: The sol-gel TiO 2 /purified natural clay electrodes having Ti:Si molar ratios of 95:5 and 90:10 were initially prepared, sensitized with natural red cabbage dye, and compared to the sol-gel TiO 2 electrode in terms of physicochemical characteristics and solar cell efficiency. The results showed that the increase in purified Na-bentonite content greatly increased the specific surface area and total pore volume of the prepared sol-gel TiO 2 /purified Na-bentonite composites because the clay platelets prevented TiO 2 particle agglomeration. The sol-gel TiO 2 /5 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite and sol-gel TiO 2 /10 mol% Si purified Na-bentonite composites could increase the film thickness of solar cells without cracking when they were coated as a scattering layer on the TiO 2 semiconductor-based film, leading to increasing the efficiency of the natural dye-sensitized solar cells in this work.

  14. Up-conversion luminescence application in Er3+: TiO2 thin film prepared by dip coating sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, Y.; Battisha, I.K.; Salah, A.; Salem, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Sol-gel derived nano-crystalline titanium dioxide films doped with 1 up to 5% Er 3+ ions were prepared by dip coating sol-gel method. The coating sol was obtained by hydrolysis of Ti(OC 4 H 9 ) 4 in ethanol/HCI solution. The FT-Raman and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) were carried out to determine the crystal structure of the prepared samples. The morphology SEM and the cross-sectional of the film were used to characterize the microstructure and the thickness of the prepared film. It is shown that relative homogeneous, crack-free and transparent film was achieved via dipping process at 500 deg C. After the excitation with laser diode at wavelength 808 nm, visible (Vis) and infrared (IR) up-conversion emissions were evidenced in the thin film samples under investigation. The up-conversion was found to depend strongly on the Er 3+ ion concentrations. The visible emission was found to be at 540, 560, 590 and 640 nm for thin film. They are attributed to intra-4f transition of Er 3+ ions and assigned to the ( 2 H 11/2 + 4 S 3/2 ) and 4 F 9/2 , which are populated through excited state absorption (ESA) for 808 nm excitation. (author)

  15. Crystal growth of electroluminescent ZnS:Cu,Cl phosphor and its TiO2 coating by sol-gel method for thick-film EL device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang-Do; Singh, Ishwar; Singh, Devender; Lee, You-He; Sharma, Gaytri; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Bigger-sized spherical particle of ZnS:Cu,Cl to be employed for electroluminescent (EL) device has been synthesized using a new eutectic mixture as flux. The best composition of the flux was the mixture of BaCl 2 .2H 2 O, MgCl 2 .6H 2 O and NaCl in the mole percentage ratio of 13.8:39.9:46.2 and when the total amount of the mixture was 6% of the total weight of ZnS. The phosphor was synthesized firing at higher temperatures in two steps. First step firing at 1150 deg. C gave the hexagonal phase of the ZnS phosphor particles. Low intensity ball-milling of the phosphor pastes in solvents converted hexagonal phase partially to the cubic phase of the phosphor, which is an essential step. Mixing with copper sulfate or copper(I) halides and magnesium chloride and then firing (second step) at 750 deg. C gave a phosphor with better luminescent characteristics and converting to almost 100% cubic phase. The phosphor particles having size >0.020 mm size were sieved and coated with TiO 2 made by sol-gel process using titanium(IV)-isopropoxide as a precursor. The phosphor particles were coated twice with the TiO 2 sol and finally calcined at 400 deg C in nitrogen atmosphere. The EL devices were fabricated with the synthesized phosphor using a screen-printing method

  16. THERMALLY STABLE NANOCRYSTALLINE TIO2 PHOTOCATALYSTS SYNTHESIZED VIA SOL-GEL METHODS MODIFIED WITH IONIC LIQUID AND SURFACTANT MOLECULES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, sol-gel methods employing ionic liquids (ILs) have shown significant implications for the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured inorganic materials. Herein, we synthesized nanocrystalline TiO2 particles via an alkoxide sol-gel method employing a water-immi...

  17. Production of TiO_2 particles by sol-gel ultrasound assisted for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Rojas, Vanessa; Solis Veliz, Jose; Gomez Leon, Monica; Matejova, Lenka; Lopez, Alcides; Cruz, Gerardo J.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of TiO_2 particles was made by sol-gel technique assisted of ultrasonic radiation from an alcoholic solution of titanium isopropoxide. Then was subjected to a heat treatment in air at 350 °C for 1 h. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the size of the crystalline domains is between 10 and 37 nm. Infrared spectroscopy study confirms the presence of -OH groups on the surface of TiO_2. Modification of the morphology and surface area, due to the influence of exposure time to the ultrasonic radiation, is evidenced by studies of SEM and BET respectively. Properties of TiO_2 obtained were studied by monitoring the degradation of solutions of methyl orange in the presence of UV-A radiation. It was observed that larger the ultrasonic radiation exposure during the TiO_2 synthesis larger the constant velocity for the photocatalytic reaction for the methyl orange. (author)

  18. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO2-TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating techniques onto commercial glass substrates as a route for obtaining active GRadient-INdex materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Varela, Ana I.; Castro, Yolanda; Durán, Alicia; De Beule, Pieter A.A.; Flores-Arias, María T.; Bao-Varela, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    In this work, SiO 2 -TiO 2 films doped with erbium were prepared by dip-coating sol-gel process onto commercial glass substrates. The surface morphology of the films was characterized using atomic force microscopy, while thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and porosity of the films were determined by ellipsometric measurements in a wavelength region of 400-1000 nm. Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. The proof of principle presented in this paper is applicable to systems of different nature by tailoring the sol-gel precursors in such a way that active GRadient-INdex media described by a complex, parabolic-like refractive index distribution for beam shaping purposes is obtained. - Highlights: • Sol-gel route for preparation of active GRadient-INdex materials is proposed. • SiO 2 -TiO 2 films doped with erbium were prepared by dipping onto commercial glasses. • Morphological and optical characterization of the samples was performed. • Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. • Refractive index diminishes with dopant content; the contrary occurs for porosity

  19. Progress of studies on preparation of TiO2 photocatalysts with sol-gel auto igniting synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Shi, Zaifeng; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Xinghui, Wu

    2017-11-01

    In this article, influencing factors on the kinetics of the process of Sol-gel Auto igniting Synthesis (SAS) which is an advanced technology for preparing nanometer particles of inorganic materials were reviewed. The studies on preparing of nanometer TiO2 photocatalysts with SAS were focused. It was concluded that SAS will play an important role in practical preparing of high-pure nanometer TiO2 powder, and as a technical support, preparation of titania TiO2 from titanic iron ore with SAS is feasible and practicable.

  20. Optical Constants of Crystallized TiO2 Coatings Prepared by Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide coatings have been deposited by the sol-gel dip-coating method. Crystallization of titanium oxide coatings was then achieved through thermal annealing at temperatures above 400 °C. The structural properties and surface morphology of the crystallized coatings were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Characterization technique, based on least-square fitting to the measured reflectance and transmittance spectra, is used to determine the refractive indices of the crystallized TiO2 coatings. The stability of the synthesized sol was also investigated by dynamic light scattering particle size analyzer. The influence of the thermal annealing on the optical properties was then discussed. The increase in refractive index with high temperature thermal annealing process was observed, obtaining refractive index values from 1.98 to 2.57 at He-Ne laser wavelength of 633 nm. The Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy studies indicate that the index variation is due to the changes in crystalline phase, density, and morphology during thermal annealing.

  1. Synthesis, Structural and Optical Properties of Co Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Sridevi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A TiO2 nanoparticle doped with cobalt was synthesized by sol-gel technique employed at room temperature with appropriate reactants. In the present case, we used titanium tetra isoprotoxide (TTIP and 2–propanol as a common starting material and the obtained products were calcined at 450˚ C. From the Powder XRD data the particle size was calculated by Scherrer method. The FE-SEM analysis shows the morphology of cobalt doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The various functional groups of the samples were identified by Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR. The UV-Vis-NIR spectra of cobalt doped TiO2 material shows two absorption peaks in the visible region related to d-d transitions of Co2+ in TiO2 lattice. Compared to un-doped TiO2 nanoparticles, the cobalt doped material show a red shift in the band gap.

  2. Synthesis, Structural and Optical Properties of Co Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals by Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sridevi , D.V ,; Ramesh , V; Sakthivel , T; Geetha , K ,; Ratchagar , V ,; Jagannathan , K ,; Rajarajan , K ,; Ramachadran , K ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A TiO2 nanoparticle doped with cobalt was synthesized by sol-gel technique employed at room temperature with appropriate reactants. In the present case, we used titanium tetra isoprotoxide (TTIP) and 2–propanol as a common starting material and the obtained products were calcined at 450˚C450˚450˚C. From the Powder XRD data the particle size was calculated by Scherrer method. The FE-SEM analysis shows the morphology of cobalt doped TiO2 nanoparticles. The various functi...

  3. Bioactivity of sol-gel-derived TiO2 coating on polyetheretherketone: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takayoshi; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yamamoto, Koji; Otsuki, Bungo; Takemoto, Mitsuru; Tsukanaka, Masako; Kizuki, Takashi; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Kokubo, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2016-04-15

    A polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surface was modified using a sol-gel-derived TiO2 coating in order to confer bone-bonding ability. To enhance the bonding strength of the coating layer, pretreatment with either O2 plasma or sandblasting was performed prior to sol-gel coating. Additionally, post-treatment with acid was carried out to confer apatite (calcium phosphate)-forming ability to the surface. Biomechanical and histological analyses performed using an in vivo rabbit tibia model showed that PEEK surfaces modified with sol-gel-derived TiO2 and acid post-treatment had better bone-bonding properties than uncoated PEEK surfaces. These modified surfaces also performed well in terms of their in vitro cell responses due to their modified surface chemistries and topographies. Although O2 plasma or sandblasting treatment were, for the most part, equivocal in terms of performance, we conclude that sol-gel-derived TiO2 coating followed by acid post-treatment significantly improves the bone bonding ability of PEEK surfaces, thus rendering them optimal for their use in surgical implants. The role of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) as an alternative biomaterial to conventional metallic implant materials has become increasingly important. However, its low bone bonding ability is yet to be resolved. This in vivo and in vitro investigation on the functionalization of PEEK surfaces highlights the utility of this material in clinical interventions that require implants, and may extend range of applications of PEEK. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural, Optical, Morphological and Elemental Analysis on Sol-gel Synthesis of Ni Doped TiO2 Nanocrystallites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sakthivel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pure and Ni doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized usingXRD, UV-Visible, FTIR, FESEM and EDS techniques. XRD pattern confirms the formation of tetragonal TiO2. The absorbance spectra of pure and Ni doped TiO2 showed absorption spectrum at ultra-violet region due to electronic transition between bonding and anti-bonding orbital (π-π•. Bandgap energy of Ni doped TiO2 decreased to 2.5 eV when compared to pure TiO2 (3.39 eV. FESEM study reveals agglomerated spherical shaped morphology. The functional groups of the prepared samples were identified using FTIR spectroscopy and the elemental analysis was further supported with EDS analysis.

  5. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous TiO2 suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaming; Zhang Ke; Shi Rongrong; Li Xianwei; Dong Xiaodan; Yu Yongmei

    2006-01-01

    Anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles of about 16 nm in crystal size have been successfully synthesized via a sol-gel method. Thermal treatment of the precursor at 500-600 deg. C results in the formation of different TiO 2 phase compositions. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Effects of the pH value of the solution, H 2 O 2 addition, TiO 2 phase composition and recycled TiO 2 on the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MeO) in TiO 2 suspensions under ultraviolet (UV) illumination were primarily investigated. The results indicate that a low pH value, proper amount of H 2 O 2 and pure anatase TiO 2 will facilitate the photocatalytic oxidation of the MeO solution. The photodegradation degree decreases with increasing the pH value of the solution and varies with different amounts of H 2 O 2 . Pure anatase TiO 2 shows better photocatalytic activity for MeO decolorization than biphase TiO 2 . The photocatalytic mechanism of the as-synthesized TiO 2 nanoparticles was discussed

  6. Synthesis of cadmium tungstate films via sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennstrom, Kirk; Limmer, Steven J.; Cao Guozhong

    2003-06-23

    Cadmium tungstate is a scintillator material with excellent intrinsic photoluminescent properties. It is highly resistant to gamma radiation, has an almost non-existent afterglow and is highly efficient. Cadmium tungstate is also non-hydroscopic, unlike the more prevalent thallium-doped alkali halide scintillators. In order to create thin films of cadmium tungstate with precise stoichiometric control, a sol-gel processing technique has been applied to produce this material for the first time. In addition to lower processing temperatures, sol-gel-derived cadmium tungstate is cheaper and easier than other technologies, particularly for thin films. Furthermore, it has the potential to produce nanostructured materials with good optical quality. X-Ray diffraction results of sol-gel-derived materials fired at various temperatures imply crystallization of cadmium tungstate without the intermediate formation of either tungsten oxide or cadmium oxide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows the formation of nano-sized particles prior to heat treatment, which form meso-sized particles after the heat treatment. Photoluminesce analysis indicates emission of derived films at 480 nm, which agrees with other published data. Finally, the efficiency of derived films was approximately 6%{+-}1.8%.

  7. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2-SiO2 photocatalyst for β-naphthol photodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qourzal, S.; Barka, N.; Tamimi, M.; Assabbane, A.; Nounah, A.; Ihlal, A.; Ait-Ichou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Silica gel supported titanium dioxide particles (TiO 2 -SiO 2 ) prepared by sol-gel method was as photocatalyst in the degradation of β-naphthol in water under UV-illumination. The prepared sample has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The supported catalyst had large surface area and good sedimentation ability. The photodegradation rate of β-naphthol under UV-irradiation depended strongly on adsorption capacity of the catalyst, and the photoactivity of the supported catalyst was much higher than that of the pure titanium dioxides. The experiments were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The photodegradation rate of β-naphthol using 60% TiO 2 -SiO 2 particles was faster than that using TiO 2 'Degussa P-25', TiO 2 'PC-50' and TiO 2 'Aldrich' as photocatalyst by 2.7, 4 and 7.8 times, respectively. The kinetics of photocatalytic β-naphthol degradation was found to follow a pseudo-first-order rate law. The effect of the TiO 2 loading on the photoactivity of TiO 2 -SiO 2 particles was also discussed. With good photocatalytic activity under UV-irradiation and the ability to be readily separated from the reaction system, this novel kind of catalyst exhibited the potential effective in the treatment of organic pollutants in aqueous systems.

  8. Sol-gel synthesis and optical properties of titanium dioxide thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Irfan; Khattak, Shaukat Ali; Ahmad, Tanveer; Saman; Ludhi, Nayab Ali

    2018-03-01

    The titanium dioxide (TiO2) is synthesized by sol-gel method using titanium-tetra-iso-propoxide (TTIP) as a starting material, and deposited on the pre-cleaned glass substrate using spin coating technique at optimized parameters. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy confirms successful TiO2 growth. The optical properties concerning the transmission and absorption spectra show 85% transparency and 3.28 eV wide optical band gap for indirect transition, calculated from absorbance. The exponential behavior of absorption edge is observed and attributed to the localized states electronic transitions, curtailed in the indirect band gap of the thin film. The film reveals decreasing refractive index with increasing wavelength. The photoluminescence (PL) study ascertains that luminescent properties are due to the surface defects.

  9. Nanostructured Mesoporous Titanium Dioxide Thin Film Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 paste was prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal method with various precursors. Nanostructured mesoporous TiO2 thin-film back electrode was fabricated from the nanoparticle colloidal paste, and its performance was compared with that made of commercial P25 TiO2. The best performance was demonstrated by the DSSC having a 16 μm-thick TTIP-TiO2 back electrode, which gave a solar energy conversion efficiency of 6.03%. The ability of stong adhesion on ITO conducting glass substrate and the high surface area are considered important characteristics of TiO2 thin film. The results show that a thin film with good adhesion can be made from the prepared colloidal paste as a result of alleviating the possibility of electron transfer loss. One can control the colloidal particle size from sol-gel method. Therefore, by optimizing the preparation conditions, TiO2 paste with nanoparticle and narrow diameter distribution was obtained.

  10. Efectos de fotodegradación propiciados por recubrimientos de TiO2 y TiO2-SiO2 obtenidos por Sol-Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez Paez, J. E.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Photodegradation effect is widely used for water purification this contributes to preservation and protection of environment. Titanium oxide, (TiO2, is a compound that shows up this phenomenon. TiO2 is a semiconductor which may degradate pollutants through of a oxidation process. It permit the treatment of the residual water. It this work we has conformed coatings of TiO2 y TiO2-SiO2, utilized Sol-Gel method and investigated the degradation of the blue Methylene. For this, we introduced these coatings in the blue methylene solution which was illuminated with radiation of λ=365nm to activate its photocatilist properties. The structures of the coatings were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS.El efecto de fotodegradación es ampliamente utilizado para la purificación del agua, acción que contribuye a la conservación y protección del medio ambiente; el óxido de titanio (TiO2 es uno de los semiconductores que pueden degradar contaminantes mediante procesos de oxidación, lo que lo hace apto para el tratamiento de aguas residuales. En este trabajo se conformaron recubrimientos de TiO2 y TiO2-SiO2, por el método Sol-Gel, y se estudio la degradación que experimentaba una solución de azul de metileno al introducirle estos recubrimientos e iluminarlos con una radiación de λ=365nm para activar su propiedad fotocatalítica. Los recubrimientos fueron caracterizados microestructuralmente utilizando Microscopía de Fuerza Atómica (MFA y Espectroscopía de Fotoelectrones de rayos X (XPS. Los resultados obtenidos de los ensayos de fotodegradación indican que los recubrimientos con una cantidad pequeña de silicio presentan un mayor efecto de fotodegradación indicando que el silicio puede generar puntos de anclaje que facilitan las reacciones de fotocatálisis. Por otro lado, la formación de centros activos, constituidos principalmente por carbono, también contribuyeron al desarrollo de estas

  11. Thermal Annealing Effect on Optical Properties of Binary TiO2-SiO2 Sol-Gel Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2 binary coatings were deposited by a sol-gel dip-coating method using tetrabutyl titanate and tetraethyl orthosilicate as precursors. The structure and chemical composition of the coatings annealed at different temperatures were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The refractive indices of the coatings were calculated from the measured transmittance and reflectance spectra. An increase in refractive index with the high temperature thermal annealing process was observed. The Raman and FTIR results indicate that the refractive index variation is due to changes in the removal of the organic component, phase separation and the crystal structure of the binary coatings.

  12. Analysis on the factors affecting the preparation of TIO2-ADUN composite sol by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Yin Rongcai; Liu Jinhong

    2010-01-01

    With C 2 H 2 O 5 and water as solvent and TBT as precursor and HNO 3 as the activator and valorize, the process for preparing TiO 2 -ADUN composite Sol method was studied. The influence of different reaction conditions on Sol-Gel time was analyzed in this study. The optimal reaction condition are: reaction temperature 20-25 degree C; pH value of reaction mixture 2-5; HNO 3 value of reaction mixture 0.3-0.5 ml; molar rations of alcohol to TBT 10, of water to TBT 2-3, respectively. A concentrated ADUN solution with Ti Sol , urea, water as additive is dispersed into uniform which are prepared by external mlii. (authors)

  13. Effects of Calcination Temperature on Preparation of Boron-Doped TiO2 by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by a modified sol-gel method. Being calcinated at temperatures from 300°C to 600°C, all the 3% B-TiO2 samples presented anatase TiO2 phase, and TiO2 crystallite sizes were calculated to be 7.6, 10.3, 13.6, and 27.3 nm, respectively. The samples were composed of irregular particles with rough surfaces in the size range within 3 μm. Ti atoms were in an octahedron skeleton and existed mainly in the form of Ti4+, while the Ti-O-B structure was the main boron existing form in the 3% B-TiO2 sample. When calcination temperature increased from 300°C to 600°C, specific surface area decreased sharply from 205.6 m2/g to 31.8 m2/g. The average pore diameter was 10.53 nm with accumulative pore volume of 0.244 mL/g for the 3% B-TiO2 sample calcinated at 400°C, which performed optimal photocatalytic degradation activity. After 90 min of UV-light irradiation, degradation rate of methyl orange was 96.7% on the optimized photocatalyst.

  14. The Osteogenic Properties of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Cultures on TiO2 Sol-Gel-Derived Biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatibility of the bone implants is a crucial factor determining the successful tissue regeneration. The aim of this work was to compare cellular behavior and osteogenic properties of rat adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells (ASCs and bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (BMSCs cultured on metallic substrate covered with TiO2 sol-gel-derived nanolayer. The morphology, proliferation rate, and osteogenic differentiation potential of both ASCs and BMSCs propagated on the biomaterials were examined. The potential for osteogenic differentiation of ASCs and BMSCs was determined based on the presence of specific markers of osteogenesis, that is, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, osteopontin (OPN, and osteocalcin (OCL. Additionally, the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in extracellular matrix was determined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX. Obtained results showed that TiO2 layer influenced proliferation activity of ASCs, which manifested by shortening of population doubling time and increase of OPN secretion. However, characteristic features of cells morphology and growth pattern of cultures prompted us to conclude that ultrathin TiO2 layer might also enhance osteodifferentiation of BMSCs. Therefore in our opinion, both populations of MSCs should be used for biological evaluation of biomaterials compatibility, such results may enhance the area of investigations related to regenerative medicine.

  15. Anion embedded sol-gel films on Al for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffer, Mari; Groysman, Alec; Starosvetsky, David; Savchenko, Natali; Mandler, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    We report here on the successful incorporation of organic anions into a sol-gel film on Al as a means of enhancing the protection against corrosion. Following our previous study where we showed that hydrophobic sol-gel films provided pronounced corrosion inhibition, we studied the corrosion inhibition that phenylphosphonic acid (PPA) has when embedded inside a thin sol-gel coating on Al. The anion of this organic anion tends to stay inside a phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS) based sol-gel film due to π-interactions. Our findings, which are derived primarily from potentiodynamic polarization measurements, electrochemical noise, scanning electron microscopy measurements and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), clearly show that the organic phosphonate adds to the protection efficiency of the sol-gel film

  16. Crystal structures of sol-gel deposited zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Cheary, R.W.; Rice, M.; Ben-Nissan, B.; Cocking, J.L.; Johnstone, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors reports on the crystal structure of zirconia thin films by high temperature x-ray diffraction. The films were deposited by sol-gel processing onto polished stainless steel substrates, and dried at 200 deg C. X-ray diffraction at temperatures between 400 deg C and 800 deg C was carried out using an APEX diffractometer with a position sensitive detector. Previous results indicated that there was a transformation between the tetragonal phase and the monoclinic phase at approximately 770 deg C. Two experiments have been carried out: temperature runs, where the structure evolution is studied as a function of temperature; and time evolution of the structure at fixed temperatures. The results for both experiments, including structural analysis of the different phases found in the thin zirconia films and an analysis of the kinetics of the phase transformation(s) from the time evolution work are presented. This will include a comparison with theories of nucleation and crystallisation in single element films. Impurity phases introduced by interaction of the zirconia with the substrate have been observed, and the effect of increasing annealing time on the substrate-film interaction will also be discussed. 17 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  17. Bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films prevent pin tract and periprosthetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haibo; Knabe, Christine; Burke, Megan; Radin, Shula; Garino, Jonathan; Schaer, Thomas; Ducheyne, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Orthopedic injuries constitute the majority of wounds sustained by U.S. soldiers in recent conflicts. The risk of infection is considerable with fracture fixation devices. In this pilot study, we examined the use of unique bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films on fracture fixation devices and their ability to prevent and eradicate infections. External fixation was studied with micron-thin sol-gel coated percutaneous pins releasing triclosan and inserted medially into rabbit tibiae. A total of 11 rabbits received percutaneous pins that were either uncoated or sol-gel/triclosan coated. Internal fracture fixation was also studied using sol-gel coated intramedullary (IM) nails releasing vancomycin in the intramedullary tibiae. Six sheep received IM nails that were coated with a sol-gel film that either contained vancomycin or did not contain vancomycin. All animals were challenged with Staphylococcus aureus around the implant. Animals were euthanized at 1 month postoperative. Rabbits receiving triclosan/sol-gel coated percutaneous pins did not show signs of infection. Uncoated percutaneous pins had a significantly higher infection rate. In the sheep study, there were no radiographic signs of osteomyelitis with vancomycin/sol-gel coated IM nails, in contrast to the observations in the control cohort. Hence, the nanostructured sol-gel controlled release technology offers the promise of a reliable and continuous delivery system of bactericidals from orthopedic devices to prevent and treat infection. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanostructure Tio2/Anthraquenone (AQ Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhela M. Hussein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available sol–gel technique conducted to synthesize nano titanium dioxide with anthraquenone (AQ relatively in acidic pH. Nanoparticles were characterized using techniques like, Scanning Electrion Microscope (SEM, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, UV-Visible Spectrioscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, SEM picture display that the TiO2/AQ is spherical in style, the band gap of TiO2/AQ nanoparticle is (3.05eV, BET and BJH analysis provides Pore volume and specific Surface area and the kinetic studie Suggest that the reaction is pseudo first order and the rate of reaction was reduce with rising initial concentration for p-Nitrotolune.

  19. Topography and surface energy dependent calcium phosphate formation on Sol-Gel derived TiO2 coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järn, Mikael; Areva, Sami; Pore, Viljami; Peltonen, Jouko; Linden, Mika

    2006-09-12

    Heterogeneous nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate (CaP) on sol-gel derived TiO(2) coatings was investigated in terms of surface topography and surface energy. The topography of the coatings was derived from AFM measurements, while the surface energy was determined with contact angle measurements. The degree of precipitation was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The precipitation of CaP was found to be dependent on both topography and surface energy. A high roughness value when combining the RMS roughness parameter S(q) with the number of local maxima per unit area parameter S(ds) enhances CaP formation. The hydrophilicity of the coating was also found to be of importance for CaP formation. We suggest that the water contact angle, which is a direct measure of the hydrophilicity of the surface, may be used to evaluate the surface energy dependent precipitation kinetics rather than using the often applied Lewis base parameter.

  20. Preparation and characterization of conductive and transparent ruthenium dioxide sol-gel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhusen, John S; Conboy, John C

    2013-11-27

    RuO2 conductive thin films were synthesized using the sol-gel method and deposited onto transparent insulating substrates. The optical transmission, film thickness, surface morphology and composition, resistivity, and spectroelectrochemical performance have been characterized. The optical transmission values of these films ranged from 70 to 89% in the visible region and from 56 to 88% in the infrared region. Resistivity values of the RuO2 sol-gel films varied from 1.02 × 10(-3) to 1.13 Ω cm and are highly dependent on the initial solution concentration of RuO2 in the sol-gel. The RuO2 sol-gel films were used as electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation and reduction of ferrocenemethanol. The electrochemical behavior of our novel RuO2 sol-gel films was compared to that of a standard platinum disk electrode and showed no appreciable differences in the half-wave potential (E1/2). The mechanical and chemical stability of the coatings was tested by physical abrasion and exposure to highly acidic, oxidizing Piranha solution. Repeated exposure to these extreme conditions did not result in any appreciable decline in electrochemical performance. Finally, the use of the novel RuO2 sol-gel conductive and transparent films was demonstrated in a spectroelectrochemistry experiment in which the oxidation and reduction of ferrocenemethanol was monitored via UV-vis spectroscopy as the applied potential was cycled.

  1. Controlled release of vancomycin from thin sol-gel films on implant surfaces successfully controls osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher S; Antoci, Valentin; Harrison, Gerald; Patal, Payal; Freeman, Terry A; Shapiro, Irving M; Parvizi, Javad; Hickok, Noreen J; Radin, Shula; Ducheyne, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Peri-prosthetic infection remains a serious complication of joint replacement surgery. Herein, we demonstrate that a vancomycin-containing sol-gel film on Ti alloy rods can successfully treat bacterial infections in an animal model. The vancomycin-containing sol-gel films exhibited predictable release kinetics, while significantly inhibiting S. aureus adhesion. When evaluated in a rat osteomyelitis model, microbiological analysis indicated that the vancomycin-containing sol-gel film caused a profound decrease in S. aureus number. Radiologically, while the control side showed extensive bone degradation, including abscesses and an extensive periosteal reaction, rods coated with the vancomycin-containing sol-gel film resulted in minimal signs of infection. MicroCT analysis confirmed the radiological results, while demonstrating that the vancomycin-containing sol-gel film significantly protected dense bone from resorption and minimized remodeling. These results clearly demonstrate that this novel thin sol-gel technology can be used for the targeted delivery of antibiotics for the treatment of periprosthetic as well as other bone infections. Copyright 2008 Orthopaedic Research Society

  2. Enhancement of Ce/Cr Codopant Solubility and Chemical Homogeneity in TiO2 Nanoparticles through Sol-Gel versus Pechini Syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Fan; Mofarah, Sajjad S; Hanaor, Dorian Amir Henry; Koshy, Pramod; Chen, Hsin-Kai; Jiang, Yue; Sorrell, Charles Christopher

    2018-06-18

    Ce/Cr codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel and Pechini methods with heat treatment at 400 °C for 4 h. A conventional sol-gel process produced well-crystallized anatase, while Pechini synthesis yielded less-ordered mixed-phase anatase + rutile; this suggests that the latter method enhances Ce solubility and increases chemical homogeneity but destabilizes the TiO 2 lattice. Greater structural disruption from the decomposition of the Pechini precursor formed more open agglomerated morphologies, while the lower levels of structural disruption from pyrolysis of the dried sol-gel precursor resulted in denser agglomerates of lower surface areas. Codoping and associated destabilization of the lattice reduced the binding energies in both powders. Cr 4+ formation in sol-gel powders and Cr 6+ formation in Pechini powders suggest that these valence changes derive from synergistic electron exchange from intervalence and/or multivalence charge transfer. Since Ce is too large to allow either substitutional or interstitial solid solubility, the concept of integrated solubility is introduced, in which the Ti site and an adjacent interstice are occupied by the large Ce ion. The photocatalytic performance data show that codoping was detrimental owing to the effects of reduced crystallinity from lattice destabilization and surface area. Two regimes of mechanistic behavior are seen, which are attributed to the unsaturated solid solutions at lower codopant levels and supersaturated solid solutions at higher levels. The present work demonstrates that the Pechini method offers a processing technique that is superior to sol-gel because the former facilitates solid solubility and consequent chemical homogeneity.

  3. Photocatalytic Activity in CH3CN Related to the Surface Properties of TiO2 Powders Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bettoni, Marta; Candori, Pietro; Marmottini, Fabio; Perenze, Nicoletta; Rol, Cesare; Sebastiani, Giovanni V.; Vecchiocattivi, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Some TiO2 powders, prepared from titanium(IV)tetraisopropoxide by the sol-gel method and thermally treated between 100 and 1000∘C, have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and by nitrogen adsorption and desorption at 77 K to calculate the BET-specific surface area, from which the micropore volume and the external surface area can be derived. The photocatalytic activity (ka) of the above powders has been evaluated considering the TiO2-sensitized photo-oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl al...

  4. Morphology, structure and optical properties of sol-gel ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, T.F.; Teodorescu, V.S.; Blanchin, M.G.; Stoica, T.A.; Gartner, M.; Losurdo, M.; Zaharescu, M

    2003-08-15

    The alkoxidic route and the spinning deposition were used to prepare monolayer sol-gel indium tin oxide (ITO) films. The morphology and crystalline structure were investigated by cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The ITO sol-gel mono-layer contains three regions of different porosities. The basic crystalline structure is that of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice. The optical properties have been studied by optical transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry.

  5. Red shifts of the Eg(1) Raman mode of nanocrystalline TiO2:Er monoliths grown by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino-Merino, R.; Trejo-Garcia, P.; Portillo-Moreno, O.; Jiménez-Sandoval, S.; Tomás, S. A.; Zelaya-Angel, O.; Lozada-Morales, R.; Castaño, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Nanocrystalline monoliths of Er doped TiO2 were prepared by the sol-gel technique, by controlling the Er-doping levels into the TiO2 precursor solution. As-prepared and annealed in air samples showed the anatase TiO2 phase. The average diameter of the nanoparticles ranged from 19 to 2.6 nm as the nominal concentration of Er varies from 0% to 7%, as revealed by EDS analysis in an electron microscope. Photo Acoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) allowed calculate the forbidden band gap, evidencing an absorption edge at around 300 nm, attributed to TiO2 and evidence of electronic transitions or Er3+. The Raman spectra, corresponding to the anatase phase, show the main phonon mode Eg(1) band position at 144 cm-1 with a red shift for the annealing samples.

  6. Influence of p H on optical properties of nano structure sol-gel-derived silica films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpuor, F.; Adelkhani, H.; Nahavandi, M.; Noorbakhsh Shourabadi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sol-gel derived silica films were fabricated by dip-coating onto glass microscope substrates. Film properties such as transmission and surface morphology were monitored as function of dip speed and sol p H. Film transmission was increased with increasing of p H in visible range. The surface morphology of films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Sol-Gel Thin Films for Plasmonic Gas Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Martucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic gas sensors are optical sensors that use localized surface plasmons or extended surface plasmons as transducing platform. Surface plasmons are very sensitive to dielectric variations of the environment or to electron exchange, and these effects have been exploited for the realization of sensitive gas sensors. In this paper, we review our research work of the last few years on the synthesis and the gas sensing properties of sol-gel based nanomaterials for plasmonic sensors. PMID:26184216

  8. Au Nanoparticle Sub-Monolayers Sandwiched between Sol-Gel Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Menin, Enrico; Sada, Cinzia

    2018-01-01

    Sub-monolayers of monodisperse Au colloids with different surface coverage have been embedded in between two different metal oxide thin films, combining sol-gel depositions and proper substrates functionalization processes. The synthetized films were TiO2, ZnO, and NiO. X-ray diffraction shows the crystallinity of all the oxides and verifies the nominal surface coverage of Au colloids. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metal nanoparticles is affected by both bottom and top oxides: in fact, the SPR peak of Au that is sandwiched between two different oxides is centered between the SPR frequencies of Au sub-monolayers covered with only one oxide, suggesting that Au colloids effectively lay in between the two oxide layers. The desired organization of Au nanoparticles and the morphological structure of the prepared multi-layered structures has been confirmed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses that show a high quality sandwich structure. The multi-layered structures have been also tested as optical gas sensors. PMID:29538338

  9. Photocatalytic Activity in CH3CN Related to the Surface Properties of TiO2 Powders Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bettoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some TiO2 powders, prepared from titanium(IVtetraisopropoxide by the sol-gel method and thermally treated between 100 and 1000∘C, have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and by nitrogen adsorption and desorption at 77 K to calculate the BET-specific surface area, from which the micropore volume and the external surface area can be derived. The photocatalytic activity (ka of the above powders has been evaluated considering the TiO2-sensitized photo-oxidation of 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol in CH3CN as the test reaction. The decrease of ka have been related to the decrease of the BET surface area, the micropore volume, and the external surface area of the TiO2 powders, but a satisfactory linear correlation is observed only for the last superficial parameter.

  10. Optical Properties and Surface Morphology of Nano-composite PMMA: TiO2 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyly Nyl Ismail; Ahmad Fairoz Aziz; Habibah Zulkefle

    2011-01-01

    There are two nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 solutions were prepared in this research. First solution is nano-composite PMMA commercially available TiO 2 nanopowder and the second solution is nano-composite PMMA with self-prepared TiO 2 powder. The self-prepared TiO 2 powder is obtained by preparing the TiO 2 sol-gel. Solvo thermal method were used to dry the TiO 2 sol-gel and obtained TiO 2 crystal. Ball millers were used to grind the TiO 2 crystal in order to obtained nano sized powder. Triton-X was used as surfactant to stabilizer the composite between PMMA: TiO 2 . Besides comparing the nano-composite solution, we also studied the effect of the thin films thickness on the optical properties and surface morphology of the thin films. The thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrates. The optical properties and surface characterization were measured with UV-VIS spectrometer equipment and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The result showed that nano-composite PMMA with self prepared TiO 2 give high optical transparency than nano-composite PMMA with commercially available TiO 2 nano powder. The results also indicate as the thickness is increased the optical transparency are decreased. Both AFM images showed that the agglomerations of TiO 2 particles are occurred on the thin films and the surface roughness is increased when the thickness is increased. High agglomeration particles exist in the AFM images for nano-composite PMMA: TiO 2 with TiO 2 nano powder compare to the other nano-composite solution. (author)

  11. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Sol-Gel Derived TiO2 Coatings Based on a Variety of Precursors and Synthesis Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of synthesis way of TiO2 coatings on biocompatibility of transplanted materials using an in vitro and in vivo rat model was investigated. TiO2 layers were synthesized by a nonaqueous sol-gel dip-coating method on stainless steel 316L substrates applying two different precursors and their combination. Morphology and topography of newly formed biomaterials were determined as well as chemical composition and elemental distribution of a surface samples. In vitro tests were conducted by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on TiO2 coatings and stainless steel without coatings to assess the bioreactivity of obtained materials. A positive biological effect of TiO2/316L/1 coatings—based on titanium(IV ethoxide—was found in both in vitro and in vivo models. The TiO2/316L/1 exhibited the highest roughness and the lowest titanium concentration in TiO2 than TiO2/316L/2—based on titanium(IV propoxide and TiO2/316L/3—based on both above-mentioned precursors. The proper fibroblast-like morphology and higher proliferation rate of cells cultured on TiO2/316L/1 were observed when compared to the other biomaterials. No inflammatory response in the bone surrounding implant covered by each of the obtained TiO2 was present. Our results showed that improvement of routinely used stainless steel 316L with TiO2/316L/1 layer can stimulate beneficial biological response.

  12. Development of Cotton Fabrics with Durable UV Protective and Self-cleaning Property by Deposition of Low TiO2 Levels through Sol-gel Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anu; Butola, Bhupendra Singh

    2018-01-19

    In this article, the deposition of TiO 2 on cotton fabric using sol-gel technique has been described. Various process routes (pad-dry-cure, pad-dry-hydrothermal and pad-dry-solvothermal) were examined to impart a stable coating of TiO 2 on fabric. The role of precursor concentration, process temperature and time of treatment were studied to aim at a wash durable, UV protective and self-cleaning property in the treated fabric. EDX and ICP-MS techniques were used to examine the add-on percentage of TiO 2 on cotton fabrics treated via different routes. It has been found that the TiO 2 remains largely amorphous and nondurable if it is given a short thermal treatment. To convert the deposited TiO 2 to its anatase crystal form, a prolonged hydrothermal treatment for at least 3 h needs to be given. TiO 2 deposition levels of less than 0.1% were found to be effective in imparting reasonable degree of UV protection and self-cleaning property to the cotton fabric. The self-cleaning ability of the treated fabric against coffee stain was also studied and was found to be related to the process route and the deposition levels of TiO 2 . © 2018 The American Society of Photobiology.

  13. Photocatalytic Graphene-TiO2 Thin Films Fabricated by Low-Temperature Ultrasonic Vibration-Assisted Spin and Spray Coating in a Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zabihi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we communicate a facile and low temperature synthesis process for the fabrication of graphene-TiO2 photocatalytic composite thin films. A sol-gel chemical route is used to synthesize TiO2 from the precursor solutions and spin and spray coating are used to deposit the films. Excitation of the wet films during the casting process by ultrasonic vibration favorably influences both the sol-gel route and the deposition process, through the following mechanisms. The ultrasound energy imparted to the wet film breaks down the physical bonds of the gel phase. As a result, only a low-temperature post annealing process is required to eliminate the residues to complete the conversion of precursors to TiO2. In addition, ultrasonic vibration creates a nanoscale agitating motion or microstreaming in the liquid film that facilitates mixing of TiO2 and graphene nanosheets. The films made based on the above-mentioned ultrasonic vibration-assisted method and annealed at 150 °C contain both rutile and anatase phases of TiO2, which is the most favorable configuration for photocatalytic applications. The photoinduced and photocatalytic experiments demonstrate effective photocurrent generation and elimination of pollutants by graphene-TiO2 composite thin films fabricated via scalable spray coating and mild temperature processing, the results of which are comparable with those made using lab-scale and energy-intensive processes.

  14. Fabrication of superhydrophobic sol-gel composite films using hydrophobically modified colloidal zinc hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, R V; Basu, Bharathibai J

    2009-11-15

    A superhydrophobic sol-gel composite film was fabricated by incorporating hydrophobically modified colloidal zinc hydroxide (CZH) in sol-gel matrix. CZH was prepared by controlled precipitation and modified by treatment with stearic acid. The concentration of stearic acid and stirring time were optimized to obtain modified CZH with very high water contact angle (WCA) of 165 degrees and sliding angle (SA)superhydrophobic surfaces. FTIR spectrum also confirmed the presence of zinc stearate in the composite film. The method is simple and cost-effective and does not involve any expensive chemicals or equipments.

  15. Facile one step synthesis of novel TiO2 nanocoral by sol-gel method using Aloe vera plant extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Palani, N. S.; Thirumal, V.; Jose, Sujin P.; Wang, Fu-Ming; Ilangovan, R.

    2015-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol gel method using Aloe vera plant extract as a biological capping agent and a cauliflower-nanocoral morphology was observed in this technique. The assynthesized TiO2 nanopowder was calcined at a range of temperatures (300-600 °C) for 1 h. The influence of A. vera plant extract on the thermal, structural and morphological properties of TiO2 nanopowder was evaluated. Thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis was employed to study the thermal properties of the assynthesized TiO2 nanopowder. The crystallinity, phase transformation and the crystallite size of the calcined samples were studied by X-ray diffraction technique. XRD result confirmed the presence of TiO2 with anatase phase. FT Raman spectra showed the Raman active modes pertaining to the TiO2 anatase phase and Raman band shift was also observed with respect to particle size variation. The different functional group vibrations of as dried pure A. vera plant extract were compared with the mixture of TiO2 and A. vera plant extract by FT-IR analysis. The scanning electron microscopy images apparently showed the formation of spherical shaped NPs and also it demonstrated the effect of A. vera plant extract on the reduction of particles size. The surface area of the TiO2 NPs was measured through Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. Transmission electron microscopy images ascertained that the spherical shaped TiO2 NPs were formed with cauliflower-nanocoral morphology decorated with nanopolyps with the size range between 15 and 30 nm.

  16. Structural, Morphological and Optical Characterization of Eu3+ and Nd3+ Co-Doped Tio2 Nano Particles by Sol Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sanjay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nano crystals have been widely studied for their fundamental properties. The Eu3+ and Nd3+ doped titanium dioxide nano powder was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method. The morphological and structural properties of as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM. The Powder X- ray diffraction is carried out in order to examine the phase formation and substitution of Eu3+ and Nd3+ doped in TiO2 matrix. The UV-Vis spectral analysis was carried out between 200 nm and 1200 nm. The band gap of the Eu3+ and Nd3+ doped Tio2 nanoparticles was calculated. The functional groups of the synthesized compound have been identified by FTIR spectral analysis. The strong PL intensity confirms a blue shift.

  17. Photodegradation of ethylene by use of TiO2 sol-gel on polypropylene and on glass for application in the postharvest of papaya fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ruth Evelyn R S; Linhares, Amanda A N; de Oliveira, André Vicente; da Silva, Marcelo Gomes; de Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves; Canela, Maria Cristina

    2017-03-01

    The papaya is a commercially important fruit commodity worldwide. Being a climacteric fruit, it is highly perishable. Thus, for the transportation of papaya fruit for long distances without loss of quality, it is necessary to avoid the autocatalytic effect of ethylene in accelerating the ripening of the fruit. This work addresses the application of heterogeneous photocatalysis to the degradation of ethylene. A TiO 2 sol-gel supported on polypropylene (PP) and on glass was used as the catalytic material, and a UV-A lamp was employed as the radiation source. Initially, a concentration of 500 ppbv ethylene was exposed to the catalyst material irradiated by UV-A radiation. A sensitive photoacoustic spectrometer was used to monitor the photocatalytic activity. The TiO 2 sol-gel supported on the glass substrate was more efficient than on the PP in degrading the ethylene. Under direct UV-A exposure, the skin appearance of 'Golden' papaya was damaged, depreciating the fruit quality and thus preventing its commercialization. However, the feasibility of the heterogeneous photocatalysis to preserve the fruit quality was achieved when ethylene was removed from the storage ambient using fans, and then, this plant hormone was degraded by a reactor set apart in a ventilation closed system.

  18. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; van den Berg, Albert

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources,

  19. Identification of TiO2 clusters present during synthesis of sol-gel derived TiO2 nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    Synthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with controlled size distribution and morphology are of great interest for many applications i.e. photocatalysis and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The sol-gel method has some advantages over other preparation techniques in the many parameters, whic...

  20. Patterned transparent zinc oxide films produced by sol-gel embossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, J.; Koh, L.H.K.; Crean, G.M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Department of Microelectronic Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); O' Brien, S. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Winfield, R.J.

    2008-08-15

    A low cost zinc oxide embossing technique is reported as a method of fabricating structures relevant to a variety of applications. A zinc based sol-gel material was prepared from zinc acetate[Zn(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}], monoethanolamine[H{sub 2}NC{sub 2}H{sub 4}OH] and isopropanol. The sol-gel was cast into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould a track design, placed in contact with the substrate and dried under vacuum at 70 C for 3 hours. The formed track pattern was further densified to provide a stable conductor film that retained the embossed shape. An optimum Zn sol-gel content of 0.6 M was identified. The embossed films had a transparency of greater than 83% in the visible region. The optical bandgap energy was evaluated to be 3.306 eV. The influence of ZnO sol-gel film synthesis and embossing parameters on the microstructure, morphology and optical transparency of fabricated structures is described. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide based on hemoglobin entrapped in titania sol-gel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jiuhong; Ju Huangxian

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) was entrapped in a titania sol-gel matrix and used as a mimetic peroxidase to construct a novel amperometric biosensor for hydrogen peroxide. The Hb entrapped titania sol-gel film was obtained with a vapor deposition method, which simplified the traditional sol-gel process for protein immobilization. The morphologies of both titania sol-gel and the Hb films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and proved to be chemically clean, porous, homogeneous. This matrix provided a biocompatible microenvironment for retaining the native structure and activity of the entrapped Hb and a very low mass transport barrier to the substrates. H 2 O 2 could be reduced by the catalysis of the entrapped hemoglobin at -300 mV without any mediator. The reagentless H 2 O 2 sensor exhibited a fast response (less than 5 s) and sensitivity as high as 1.29 mA mM -1 cm -2 . The linear range for H 2 O 2 determination was from 5.0x10 -7 to 5.4x10 -5 M with a detection limit of 1.2x10 -7 M. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of the encapsulated hemoglobin was calculated to be 0.18±0.02 mM. The stability of the biosensor was also evaluated

  2. Sol-gel-derived mesoporous silica films with low dielectric constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seraji, S.; Wu, Yun; Forbess, M.; Limmer, S.J.; Chou, T.; Cao, Guozhong [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2000-11-16

    Mesoporous silica films with low dielectric constants and possibly closed pores have been achieved with a multiple step sol-gel processing technique. Crack-free films with approximately 50% porosity and 0.9 {mu}m thicknesses were obtained, a tape-test revealing good adhesion between films and substrates or metal electrodes. Dielectric constants remained virtually unchanged after aging at room temperature at 56% humidity over 6 days. (orig.)

  3. Synthesis of ZrO2-TiO2 mixed oxide spheres by sol-gel method and investigation of Sr adsorption behaviours by experimental design approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, B.; Tel, H.; Altas, Y.; Eral, M.; Sert, S.; Inan, S.; Talip, Z.

    2009-01-01

    ZrO 2 -TiO 2 gel spheres were synthesized by sol-gel method. Zr-Ti sol solution was prepared from ZrCl 4 and TiCl 4 (1:1 mol ratio) via partial neutralization by ammonia to obtain 0.5M final metal concentration. ZrO 2 -TiO 2 sol was transferred to vibrating nozzle system by peristaltic pump. Vibrating nozzle system was designed and produced in Institute of Nuclear Sciences. Sol drops formed by nozzle were gelled in gelation column. Synthesized ZrO 2 -TiO 2 spheres were aged for 24h then washed with deionized water and dried in oven. Sr + 2 adsorption behaviors of ZrO 2 -TiO 2 mixed oxides were investigated with central composite design (CCD). Four independent parameters (pH, initial Sr + 2 concentration, temperature and contact time) were investigated with 7 replicates at central points. Sorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin Radushkevich equations. Thermodynamic parameters for the sorption system have been determined.

  4. Iron insertion and hematite segregation on Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles obtained from sol-gel and hydrothermal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Reginaldo da S; Faria, Guilherme A; Giles, Carlos; Leite, Carlos A P; Barbosa, Herbert de S; Arruda, Marco A Z; Longo, Claudia

    2012-10-24

    Iron-doped TiO(2) (Fe:TiO(2)) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method (with Fe/Ti molar ratio corresponding to 1, 3, and 5%), followed by hydrothermal treatment, drying, and annealing. A similar methodology was used to synthesize TiO(2) and α-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles. For comparison, a mixture hematite/titania, with Fe/Ti = 4% was also investigated. Characterization of the samples using Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction data revealed that TiO(2) consisted of 82% anatase and 18% brookite; for Fe:TiO(2), brookite increased to 30% and hematite was also identified (0.5, 1.0, and 1.2 wt % for samples prepared with 1, 3, and 5% of Fe/Ti). For hematite/titania mixture, Fe/Ti was estimated as 4.4%, indicating the Rietveld method reliability for estimation of phase composition. Because the band gap energy, estimated as 3.2 eV for TiO(2), gradually ranged from 3.0 to 2.7 eV with increasing Fe content at Fe:TiO(2), it can be assumed that a Fe fraction was also inserted as dopant in the TiO(2) lattice. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra obtained for the Ti K-edge and Fe K-edge indicated that absorbing Fe occupied a Ti site in the TiO(2) lattice, but hematite features were not observed. Hematite particles also could not be identified in the images obtained by transmission electron microscopy, in spite of iron identification by elemental mapping, suggesting that hematite can be segregated at the grain boundaries of Fe:TiO(2).

  5. Hybrid Thin Film Organosilica Sol-Gel Coatings To Support Neuronal Growth and Limit Astrocyte Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeletti, Larissa Brentano; Cardoso, Mateus Borba; Dos Santos, João Henrique Zimnoch; He, Wei

    2016-10-07

    Thin films of silica prepared by a sol-gel process are becoming a feasible coating option for surface modification of implantable neural sensors without imposing adverse effects on the devices' electrical properties. In order to advance the application of such silica-based coatings in the context of neural interfacing, the characteristics of silica sol-gel are further tailored to gain active control of interactions between cells and the coating materials. By incorporating various readily available organotrialkoxysilanes carrying distinct organic functional groups during the sol-gel process, a library of hybrid organosilica coatings is developed and investigated. In vitro neural cultures using PC12 cells and primary cortical neurons both reveal that, among these different types of hybrid organosilica, the introduction of aminopropyl groups drastically transforms the silica into robust neural permissive substrate, supporting neuron adhesion and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, when this organosilica is cultured with astrocytes, a key type of glial cells responsible for glial scar response toward neural implants, such cell growth promoting effect is not observed. These findings highlight the potential of organo-group-bearing silica sol-gel to function as advanced coating materials to selectively modulate cell response and promote neural integration with implantable sensing devices.

  6. Enhanced optical band-gap of ZnO thin films by sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghu, P., E-mail: dpr3270@gmail.com; Naveen, C. S.; Shailaja, J.; Mahesh, H. M., E-mail: hm-mahesh@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Solar Cell Laboratory, Department of Electronic Science, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi, Bangalore -560056 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Transparent ZnO thin films were prepared using different molar concentration (0.1 M, 0.2 M & 0.8 M) of zinc acetate on soda lime glass substrates by the sol-gel spin coating technique. The optical properties revealed that the transmittance found to decrease with increase in molar concentration. Absorption edge showed that the higher concentration film has increasingly red shifted. An increased band gap energy of the thin films was found to be direct allowed transition of ∼3.9 eV exhibiting their relevance for photovoltaic applications. The extinction coefficient analysis revealed maximum transmittance with negligible absorption coefficient in the respective wavelengths. The results of ZnO thin film prepared by sol-gel technique reveal its suitability for optoelectronics and as a window layer in solar cell applications.

  7. Incorporation of europium III complex into nanoparticles and films obtained by the Sol-Gel methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faley Jean de Sousa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is very effective for the preparation of new materials with potential applications in optics, sensors, catalyst supports, coatings, and specialty inorganic polymers that can be used as hosts for the accommodation of organic molecules. The low temperature employed in the process is the main advantage of this methodology. In this work, the europium (III complex with 1,10-phenantroline was prepared, and this luminescent complex was incorporated into silica nanoparticles and films by the sol-gel process. The nanoparticles were obtained by the modified Stöber methodology. The films were obtained by the dip-coating technique, at different deposition rates and numbers of layers. The nanoparticles and films were characterized by photoluminescence, thermal analysis, and Raman and infrared spectroscopies. Characterization revealed that the europium (III complex was not affected upon incorporation into the nanoparticles and films, opening a new field for the application of these materials.

  8. Caracterização textural e estrutural de V2O5/TiO2 obtidos via sol-gel: comparação entre secagem convencional e supercrítica Textural and structural characterization of V2O5/TiO2 catalysts obtained by the sol-gel method: comparison between conventional and supercritical drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane B. Rodella

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a modified sol-gel method for the preparation of V2O5/TiO2 catalysts. The samples have been characterized by N2 adsorption at 77K, x-ray diffractometry (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR. The surface area increases with the vanadia loading from 24 m² g-1, for pure TiO2, to 87 m² g-1 for 9wt.% of V2O5. The rutile form is predominant for pure TiO2 but became enriched with anatase phase when vanadia loading is increased. No crystalline V2O5 phase was observed in the catalysts diffractograms. Two species of surface vanadium observed by FT-IR spectroscopy a monomeric vanadyl and polymeric vanadates, the vanadyl/vanadate ratio remains practically constant.

  9. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia Salameh; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa

    2007-01-01

    An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gel films. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Blue chromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of any chemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitored at 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel film format enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea op...

  10. Excimer laser processing of ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, R.J.; Koh, L.H.K.; O'Brien, Shane; Crean, Gabriel M.

    2007-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared on soda-lime glass from a single spin-coating deposition of a sol-gel prepared with anhydrous zinc acetate [Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ], monoethanolamine [H 2 NC 2 H 4 OH] and isopropanol. The deposited films were dried at 50 and 300 deg. C. X-ray analysis showed that the films were amorphous. Laser annealing was performed using an excimer laser. The laser pulse repetition rate was 25 Hz with a pulse energy of 5.9 mJ, giving a fluence of 225 mJ cm -2 on the ZnO film. Typically, five laser pulses per unit area of the film were used. After laser processing, the hexagonal wurtzite phase of zinc oxide was observed from X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. The thin films had a transparency of greater than 70% in the visible region. The optical band-gap energy was 3.454 eV. Scanning electron microscopy and profilometry analysis highlighted the change in morphology that occurred as a result of laser processing. This comparative study shows that our sol-gel processing route differs significantly from ZnO sol-gel films prepared by conventional furnace annealing which requires temperatures above 450 deg. C for the formation of crystalline ZnO

  11. Li+ ions diffusion into sol-gel V2O5 thin films: electrochromic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmoussa, M.; Outzourhit, A.; Bennouna, A.; Ihlal, A.

    2009-10-01

    V{2}O{5} thin films were prepared by the sol-gel spin coating process. The Li+ ions insertion effect on optical and electrochromic properties of those films was studied. The diffusion coefficient was calculated using both cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometric curves. The amount x of Li+ ions in LixV{2}O{5} was also calculated. Finally, the electrochromic performance evolution characteristics such as the reversibility, coloration efficiency, coloration memory stability and response time were studied.

  12. Formation of Sol Gel Dried Droplets of Carbon Doped Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) at Low Temperature via Electrospraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, S. U.; Hashib, S. Abd; Abu Bakar, N. F.; Ismail, S. N.; Nazli Naim, M.; Rahman, N. Abd; Krishnan, J.

    2018-05-01

    The high band gap energy of TiO2 and inconsistency in particles size has imposed a significant drawback on TiO2 applications. Dried droplets of carbon-doped TiO2 fine particles were produced by using electrospraying technique. The C-doped TiO2 particles were prepared by hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide with the addition of carbon precursor followed by electrospraying the suspension in stable Taylor cone-jet mode. Coulomb fission of charged droplets from the electrospraying technique successfully transformed dispersed liquid C-doped TiO2 particles into solid. The deposited C-doped TiO2 droplets were collected on aluminium substrates placed at working distances of 10 to 20 cm from the tip of the electrospray needle. The collected C-doped TiO2 droplets were characterized by using FESEM, UV-Vis, FTIR and XRD. By increasing the working distance, the average droplets size of the deposited C-doped TiO2 was reduced from ±163.2 nm to ±147.56 nm. UV-Vis analysis showed a strong absorption in the visible-light region and about 93 nm red shift of the onset spectrum for C-doped TiO2. The red shift indicates an increase in photocatalytic efficiency by reducing the TiO2 band gap energy from 3.0 eV to 2.46 eV and shifting its activity to the visible-light region. FTIR analysis indicated the presence of Ti-C and C-O chemical bonding in the C-doped TiO2.

  13. Evaluation of micro-abrasion-corrosion on SiO2-TiO2-ZrO2 coatings synthesized by the sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista Ruiz, J.; Aperador, W.; Caballero Gómez, J.

    2016-02-01

    The medical science and the engineering, work to improve the materials used in the manufacture of joint implants, since they have a direct impact on the quality of people life. The surgical interventions are increasing worldwide with a high probability of a second or even a third intervention. Around these circumstances, it was evaluated the behaviour against microabrasion-corrosion phenomena on SiO2 TiO2 ZrO2 coatings, synthesized by the sol-gel method with concentration of the Si/Ti/Zr precursors: 10/70/20 and 10/20/70. The coatings were deposited on AISI 316 LVM stainless steel substrates. The morphological characterization of the wear was made by AFM techniques. It was observed that the coatings with higher levels of titanium have a good response to the phenomena of microabrasion-corrosion.

  14. Synthesis of LaVO4/TiO2 heterojunction nanotubes by sol-gel coupled with hydrothermal method for photocatalytic air purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xuejun; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Liu, Shaomin

    2012-10-01

    With the aim of improving the effective utilization of visible light, the LaVO(4)/TiO(2) heterojunction nanotubes were fabricated by sol-gel coupled with hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic ability was demonstrated through catalytic removal of gaseous toluene species. The nanotube samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface photovoltage (SPV), Raman spectra and N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements. The characterization results showed that the samples with high specific surface areas were of typical nanotubular morphology, which would lead to the high separation and transfer efficiency of photo induced electron-hole pairs. The as-prepared nanotubes exhibited high photocatalytic activity in decomposing toluene species under visible light irradiation with fine photochemical stability. The enhanced photocatalytic performance of LaVO(4)/TiO(2) nanotubes might be attributed to the matching band potentials, the interconnected heterojunction of LaVO(4) versus TiO(2), and the large specific surface areas of nanotubes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Humidity Sensitivity of MgCr2O4-TiO2-LiO2 Ceramics Sensor Prepared by Sol-Gel Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. He

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available 79.5MgCr2O4–19.5TiO2–Li2O porous ceramics were investigated as a humidity sensor. The sensors obtain by a cold isostatic pressing and sintering of the fine MgCr2O4 and TiO2 and LiCO3 powders. The MgCr2O4 and TiO2 powders were respectively synthesized by sol-gel methods. The effects of sintering temperature on the humidity sensitivity of sensors were studied by measuring electrical resistance in different conditions of relative humidity (R.H. at 27 °C. The results indicated that the calcining temperature obviously affected the resistance variation of the sensor in range of 11.3-84.7 % RH. The resistance variation was small at the calcining temperature of 600 oC for 2 h. With increasing calcining temperature, the resistance variation increased to 5.4×104% and 7.0×104 % at 800 oC and 1000 oC for 2 h, but decreased to 3.1×104 % at 1200 oC for 2 h respectively. The response times are 25 s and 35 s respectively for humidity adsorption and humidity desorption between 11.3 %RH and 84.7 %RH.

  16. The effect of thermal and vapor annealing treatments on the self-assembly of TiO2 /PS-b-PMMA nanocomposites generated via the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J; Tercjak, A; Garcia, I; Mondragon, I

    2009-01-01

    Polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (SMMA) block copolymer has been used as a structure-directing agent for generating TiO 2 /SMMA nanocomposites via the sol-gel process using a hydrophobic surfactant. The aim of the work has been focused on the preparation of well-defined nanostructured composites based on the self-assembling capability of the block copolymer using two different annealing methods: thermal- and solvent-induced microphase separation. The addition of different amounts of nanoparticles caused strong variations in the self-assembled morphology of the TiO 2 /SMMA nanocomposites with respect to the block copolymer, as observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). To verify the confinement of the nanoparticles in the PMMA block 3D AFM images and corresponding AFM profiles have also been reported. UV light irradiation of the nanocomposite films provoked the removal of the organic matrix and consequently led to an array of TiO 2 nanoparticles on the substrate surface.

  17. Optical characterization of Er-implanted ZnO films formed by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukudome, T.; Kaminaka, A.; Isshiki, H.; Saito, R.; Yugo, S.; Kimura, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the 1.54 μm photoluminescence (PL) of Er-implanted ZnO thin films formed by a sol-gel method on Si substrates. In spite of the polycrystalline structure of the sol-gel ZnO thin films, they showed strong PL emissions due to the near band edge recombination at 375 nm as well as the Er-related luminescence at 1.54 μm. The Er-related luminescence showed no decrease (quench) in the intensity up to the Er concentration of 1.5 x 10 21 cm -3 . The PL intensity of Er-implanted ZnO at 1.54 μm was found to be as strong as Er-doped PS (porous Si) at 20 K, and the intensity reduced to 1/3 at room temperature

  18. Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Esmaieli Ghodsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Retraction Notice    The paper "Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route" by H. Absalan and F. E. Ghodsi, which appeared in Iranian Journal of Physics Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, 423-428 (in Farsi is translation of the paper "Comparative Study of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Different Sol-Gel Route" by F. E. Ghodsi and H. Absalan, which appeared in ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol 118 (2010 (in English and for this reason is retracted from this journal.The corresponding author  (and also the first author is the only responsible person for this action.   

  19. Carbon as amorphous shell and interstitial dopant in mesoporous rutile TiO2: Bio-template assisted sol-gel synthesis and photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Azuwa Mohamad; Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh; Juhana Jaafar; Mohamad Saufi Rosmi; Zul Adlan Mohd Hir; Muhazri Abd Mutalib; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Tanemura, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • RCM as bio-template and in-situ carbon shell and interstitial carbon doping. • Photo-sensitizers by carbonaceous layer grafted onto the surface of TiO 2 . • Visible light response could be tailored depending on the annealing temperature. • Photocatalytic properties and charge carrier transfer mechanism was proposed. - Abstract: Regenerated cellulose membrane was used as bio-template nanoreactor for the formation of rutile TiO 2 mesoporous, as well as in-situ carbon dopant in acidified sol-gel system. The effects of calcination temperature on the physicochemical characteristic of core-shell nanostructured of bio-templated C-doped mesoporous TiO 2 are highlighted in this study. By varying the calcination temperature, the thickness of the carbon shell coating on TiO 2 , crystallinity, surface area, and optical properties could be tuned as confirmed by HRTEM, nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement, XRD and UV–vis-NIR spectroscopy. The results suggested that increment in the calcination temperature would lead to the band gap narrowing from 2.95 to 2.80 eV and the thickness of carbon shell increased from 0.40 to 1.20 nm. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the visible light absorption capability was mainly due to the incorporation of carbon dopant at interstitial position in the TiO 2 to form O−Ti−C or Ti−O−C bond. In addition, the formation of the carbon core-shell nanostructured was due to carbonaceous layer grafted onto the surface of TiO 2 via Ti−O−C and Ti−OCO bonds. The result indicated that bio-templated C-doped core-shell mesoporous TiO 2 prepared at 300 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. It is worthy to note that, the calcination temperature provided a huge impact towards improving the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties of the prepared bio-templated C-doped core-shell mesoporous TiO 2 .

  20. In situ ion-beam analysis and modification of sol-gel zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, T.E.; Mayer, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    We report the investigation of ion-beam-induced densification of sol-gel zirconia thin films via in situ ion backscattering spectrometry. We have irradiated three regions of a sample with neon, argon, and krypton ions. For each ion species, a series of irradiation and analysis steps were performed using an interconnected 3 MV tandem accelerator. The technique offers the advantages of minimizing the variation of experimental parameters and sequentially monitoring the densification phenomenon with increasing ion dose

  1. Diffusion structural analysis study of titania films deposited by sol-gel technique on silica glass

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balek, V.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Bountseva, I.M.; Haneda, H.; Málek, Z.; Šubrt, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 26, 1-3 (2003), s. 185-189 ISSN 0928-0707. [International Workshop on Glasses, Ceramics, Hybrids and Nanocomposites from Gels /11./. Abano Terme, 16.09.2001-21.09.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : titania film * diffusion structural analysis * sol-gel Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.546, year: 2003

  2. UV and visible activation of Cr(III)-doped TiO2 catalyst prepared by a microwave-assisted sol-gel method during MCPA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Alvarez, S Y; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Turnes-Palomino, G; Maya-Alejandro, F; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2017-05-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in aqueous solution using Cr(III)-doped TiO 2 under UV and visible light was investigated. The semiconductor material was synthesized by a microwave-assisted sol-gel method with Cr(III) doping contents of 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 wt%. The catalyst was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen physisorption, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of MCPA was followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The intermediates formed during degradation were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chloride ion evolution was measured by ion chromatography. Characterization results showed that Cr(III)-doped TiO 2 materials possessed a small crystalline size, high surface area, and mesoporous structure. UV-Vis DRS showed enhanced absorption in the visible region as a function of the Cr(III) concentration. The Cr(III)-doped TiO 2 catalyst with 0.04 wt% of Cr(III) was more active than bare TiO 2 for the degradation of MCPA under both UV and visible light. The intermediates identified during MCPA degradation were 4-chloro-2-methylphenol (CMP), 2-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid (HMPA), and 2-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,4-diyl-bis (oxy)dimethanol (HBDM); the formation of these intermediates depended on the radiation source.

  3. Linear and nonlinear optical studies of bare and copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles via sol gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamannan, B.; Mugundan, S.; Viruthagiri, G.; Praveen, P.; Shanmugam, N.

    2014-01-01

    In general, the nanoparticles of TiO2 may exist in the phases of anatase, rutile and brookite. In the present work, we used titanium terta iso propoxide and 2-propanol as a common starting material to prepare the precursors of bare and copper doped nanosized TiO2. Then the synthesized products were calcinated at 500 °C and after calcination the pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were harvested. The crystallite sizes of bare and copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles were calculated from X-ray diffraction analysis. The existence of functional groups of the samples was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the copper doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope fitted with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The nonlinear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  4. Adhesion strength of lead zirconate titanate sol-gel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berfield, Thomas A., E-mail: tom.berfield@louisville.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Kitey, Rajesh [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur (India); Kandula, Soma S. [Intel Corporation, Portland, OR (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion strength between a thin film and substrate is often the critical parameter that controls the initiation as well as the mode of film failure. In this work, a laser-based spallation method is used to determine the adhesion strength of “as deposited” lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sol-gel thin films on the two functionally different substrates. For the first case, PZT sol-gel film is deposited onto bare Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates via spin casting. The extremely high adhesion strength between the film and the substrate necessitated an additional platinum mass superlayer to be deposited on top of the PZT film in order to induce interfacial failure. For the superlayer film system, a hybrid experimental/numerical method is employed for determining the substrate/film interfacial strength, quantified to be in the range of 460–480 MPa. A second substrate variation with lower adhesion strength is also prepared by applying a self-assembled octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODS) monolayer to the Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate prior to the film deposition. For the monolayer-coated substrate case, the adhesion strength is observed to be significantly lower (54.7 MPa) when compared to the earlier case. - Highlights: • A non-contact laser spallation method is used to determine PZT film adhesion. • A mediated self-assembled monolayer is shown to greatly reduce interface strength. • Adhesion strength for even well-bonded thin films was found using a superlayer.

  5. Effect of UV-irradiation on sol-gel optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fan; Shen Jun; Zhou Bin; Wu Guangming; Luo Aiyun; Sun Qi

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel optical films were deposited on K9 glass and silicon wafer substrates by spin-coating method and a high-pressure mercury lamp was used to perform ultraviolet treating to solidify these films and improve their performance. SEM, AFM, IR and ellipsometer were used to characterize the structure and optical properties of the films. Mechanical property of films was measured by pencil hardness-testing device. Laser damage threshold of films was measured by a Q-switched Nd:YAG high power laser with the wave length of 1064 nm and the pulse width of 15 ns. The results show that UV-irradiation can improve the mechanical property and increase the refractive index of the films. Besides, the nodules on the surface of the films can be changed into pits by UV-irradiation process, so the laser damage threshold of sol-gel thin films will be increased. After UV-irradiation the laser damage threshold of single-layer ZrO 2 film reached 50.6 J/cm 2 (1064 nm, 1 ns). It is found that UV-irradiation is an effective method to avoid the infiltrating between the layers, and the degree of homogeneity of the multilayer films can be improved by this way. (authors)

  6. Optical and electrochromic properties of sol-gel deposited Ti- doped vanadium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezer, N.; Sabuncu, S.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the yellowish color, vanadium oxide films in the as deposited state is not as favorable as transparent coatings for most elector chromic devices. an interesting possibility to alter the yellowish colours is the doping with other non-absorbing metal oxides. Ti doped vanadium oxide films with various amounts of titanium were synthesized and investigated as transparent counter electrodes for electrochromic transmissive device application. Electrochromic titanium doped vanadium pentoxide (V sub 2 O 5) coatings were prepared by the sol-gel dip coating technique. The coating solutions were synthesized from vanadium tri(isopropoxide) precursors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies showed that the sol-gel deposited doped films heat treated at temperatures below 350 degree centigrade, were amorphous, whereas hose heat treated at higher temperatures were slight y crystalline. The optical and electrochemical properties of the Ti doped vanadium oxide films has been investigated in 0.1 m LiClO sub 4 propylene carbonate solution color changes by dropping were noted for all investigated films exhibits good electrochemical cycling (CV) measurements also showed that Ti doped V sub 2 O sub 5 films exhibits good electrochemical cycling reversibility, 'in situ' optical measurement revealed that those films exhibits good electrochemical cycling the spectra range 300 < lambda < 800 nm and change color between yellow and light green. The change in visible transmittance was 25 % for 5% Ti doped film. (author)

  7. Persistent superhydrophilicity of sol-gel derived nanoporous silica thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjoo, S; Azimirad, R; Akhavan, O; Moshfegh, A Z

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, sol-gel synthesized nanoporous silica thin films, annealed at different temperatures, with long time superhydrophilic property have been studied. Two kinds of sol-gel silica thin films were fabricated by dip-coating of glass substrates in two different solutions; with low and high water. The transparent coated films were dried at 100 deg. C and then annealed in a temperature range of 200-500 deg. C. The average water contact angle of the silica films prepared with low water content and annealed at 300 deg. C measured about 5 deg. for a long time (6 months) without any UV irradiation. Instead, adding water into the sol resulted in silica films with an average water contact angle greater than 60 deg. Atomic force microscopic analysis revealed that the silica films prepared with low water had a rough surface (∼30 nm), while the films prepared with high water had a smoother surface (∼2 nm). Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we have shown that with a decrease in the surface water on the film, its hydrophilicity increases logarithmically.

  8. Brilliant molecular nanocrystals emerging from sol-gel thin films: towards a new generation of fluorescent biochips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubuisson, E; Monnier, V; Sanz-Menez, N; Ibanez, A; Boury, B; Usson, Y; Pansu, R B

    2009-01-01

    To develop highly sensitive biosensors, we made directly available to biological aqueous solutions organic nanocrystals previously grown in the pores of sol-gel films. Through the controlled dissolution of the sol-gel surface, we obtained emerging nanocrystals that remained strongly anchored to the sol-gel coating for good mechanical stability of the final sensing device. We demonstrated that in the presence of a solution of DNA functionalized with a molecular probe, the nanocrystal fluorescence is strongly quenched by Foerster resonance energy transfer thus opening the way towards very sensitive fluorescent biosensors through biomolecules grafted onto fluorescent nanocrystals. Finally, this controlled dissolution, involving weak concentrated NaOH solution, is a generic process that can be used for the thinning of any kind of sol-gel layer.

  9. Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical properties of sol–gel TiO2 films of controlled thickness and porosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsa, J.; Baudyš, M.; Zlámal, M.; Krýsová, Hana; Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 230, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 2-7 ISSN 0920-5861 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : TiO2 film * Sol-gel * Thickness Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x Ag = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h. PMID:24523630

  11. Antimicrobial activity of thin solid films of silver doped hydroxyapatite prepared by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x(Ag) = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Liliana Iconaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with xAg=0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  13. Characterizations of maghemite thin films prepared by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, L. N., E-mail: lau7798@gmail.com; Ibrahim, N. B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor. Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Iron is one of the abundant elements of Mother Nature and its compound, iron oxide is an interesting material to study since its discovery in the form of magnetite. It can exist in many phases such as hematite and maghemite, this unique nature has put it as a potential candidate in various applications. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different precursor concentrations on the microstructural and magnetic properties of iron oxide thin film. All samples were prepared via the sol-gel method followed by a spin coating technique on quartz substrates. Iron oxide films were confirmed as maghemite phase from X-ray diffraction patterns. The film morphology was examined by a field emission scanning electron microscope and it showed non-systematic value of average grain size and film thickness throughout the study. Hysteresis loop further confirmed that maghemite is a magnetic material when it was characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The coercivity did not show any correlation with molarity. Nevertheless, it increased as the precursor concentration of the film increased due to the domain behaviour. In conclusion, maghemite thin films were successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method with different precursor concentrations in this work.

  14. Properties of Zn O/Cr thin films prepared by Sol-Gel; Propiedades de peliculas delgadas ZnO/Cr preparadas por Sol-Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado G, S.; Olvera A, R., E-mail: tirado@esfm.ipn.mx [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional A. L. M., San Pedro Zacatenco, 07788 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Zn O films and those superficially modified with chromium were deposited on substrates of soda-lime glass, using the Sol-Gel process and the repeated immersion method. Starting from dehydrated zinc acetate was prepared a solution to 0.6 M to ambient temperature in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine (Mea) stirring magnetically. The Sol was prepared with an aging to seven days and was used to grow a films group with thickness to eight immersions. These same films were superficially modified with several depositions of a chromium nitrate Sol dissolved in ethanol to low concentration. The Zn O films were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, its chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and its morphology by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, as well as their optical properties by UV-vis. Of the obtained results are proposed possible applications. (author)

  15. Sol-gel derived zinc oxide films alloyed with cobalt and aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mamta [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110 021 (India); Mehra, R.M., E-mail: rammehra2003@yahoo.co [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110 021 (India)

    2010-05-03

    ZnO films codoped with 5 at.% Co and 1 at.% Al were prepared by sol-gel technique on corning glass and silicon substrates with precursor sols of different pH values. The pH was varied from 5.4 to 11 by adding varying amounts of monoethanolamine to the sol. Since pH plays an important role in controlling the properties of films, we discuss in detail the effect of pH value on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the grown films. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy images reveal that the size of crystallites increases with pH of the sol. The variation of pH in the reaction system influences the density of homogeneous nucleation and the crystal growth along the c-axis. High quality Co and Al codoped ZnO films annealed at 600 {sup o}C have been obtained using a sol with pH = 9. These sol-gel derived films find their suitability to be used as dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  16. Sol-gel derived zinc oxide films alloyed with cobalt and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mamta; Mehra, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    ZnO films codoped with 5 at.% Co and 1 at.% Al were prepared by sol-gel technique on corning glass and silicon substrates with precursor sols of different pH values. The pH was varied from 5.4 to 11 by adding varying amounts of monoethanolamine to the sol. Since pH plays an important role in controlling the properties of films, we discuss in detail the effect of pH value on the structural, morphological and optical properties of the grown films. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy images reveal that the size of crystallites increases with pH of the sol. The variation of pH in the reaction system influences the density of homogeneous nucleation and the crystal growth along the c-axis. High quality Co and Al codoped ZnO films annealed at 600 o C have been obtained using a sol with pH = 9. These sol-gel derived films find their suitability to be used as dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  17. Preparation and characterization of ZnO transparent semiconductor thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Fan, Kai-Shiung; Chen, Sih-Han; Tsai, Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Transparent semiconductor thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) were deposited onto alkali-free glass substrates by the sol-gel method and spin-coating technique. In this study, authors investigate the influence of the heating rate of the preheating process (4 or 10 o C/min) on the crystallization, surface morphology, and optical properties of sol-gel derived ZnO thin films. The ZnO sol was synthesized by dissolving zinc acetate dehydrate in ethanol, and then adding monoethanolamine. The as-coated films were preheated at 300 o C for 10 min and annealed at 500 o C for 1 h in air ambiance. Experimental results indicate that the heating rate of the preheating process strongly affected the surface morphology and transparency of ZnO thin film. Specifically, a heating rate of 10 o C/min for the preheating process produces a preferred orientation along the (0 0 2) plane and a high transmittance of 92% at a wavelength of 550 nm. Furthermore, this study reports the fabrication of thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a transparent ZnO active channel layer and evaluates their electrical performance.

  18. Ultraviolet Stimulated Emission from Sol-Gel Spin Coated ZnO Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Razeen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low cost ultraviolet stimulated emission has been generated using optical excitation of ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel spin coating on n+ As-doped 100 Si-substrate. The number of deposited layers and the heat treatment have been investigated to obtain a film that can generate stimulated emission under optical excitation. The optimum condition for preparation of the film has been presented. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope have been used for structural and morphological investigations. Input-output intensity dependence and spectral width, peak emission wavelength, and the quantum efficiency versus the pump intensity have been presented. A quantum efficiency of about 24.2% has been reported, a power exponent higher than 8 has been obtained in input-output intensity dependence, and a threshold of about 23 Mw/cm2 has been evaluated for the samples. The mechanism by which stimulated emission occurs has been discussed. The results show that sol-gel spin coating is a promising method for generating ultraviolet stimulated emission from ZnO thin films.

  19. RBS and NRA of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Huerta, L.; Pineda, J.C.; Zavala, E.P.; Barrera, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Vargas, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    This work presents a study of cobalt oxide thin films produced by the sol-gel process on aluminum and glass substrates. These films have been analyzed using two ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: a) a standard RBS 4 He 2 MeV and b) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using a 1 MeV deuterium beam. The 12 C(d,p 0 ) 13 C nuclear reaction provides information that carbon is incorporated into the film structure, which could be associated to the sinterization film process. Other film measurements such as optical properties, XRD, and SEM were performed in order to complement the IBA analysis. The results show that cobalt oxide film coatings prepared by this technique have good optical properties as solar absorbers and potential uses in solar energy applications

  20. Evaluación anticorrosiva de tricapas cerámicas Sio2-Tio2-Zro2 sintetizadas por el método Sol-Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernando Bautista Ruiz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Se muestra la conformación de tricapas de recubrimientoscerámicos del sistema SiO2-TiO2-ZrO2, sintetizadas por elmétodo Sol-gel, utilizando como precursores Si(OC2H54,Ti(OBu4 y Zr(OC3H74, como solventes EtOH y agua, ycomo acomplejante 2,4 pentanodiona. Los recubrimientoscerámicos fueron depositados sobre sustratos de aceroinoxidable AISI/SAE 304 mediante la técnica de inmersión(dip-coating. Se estudió la influencia de los recubrimientossobre el comportamiento anticorrosivo del sustrato en unasolución de HCl al 3% mediante las técnicas deEspectroscopia de Impedancia Electroquímica (EIS ycurvas potenciodinámicas de polarización. Adicionalmentese realizó un estudio morfológico mediante la técnica deMicroscopía de Fuerza Atómica (AFM. Se encontró quelos valores de los parámetros electroquímicos cambiansustancialmente con la concentración de los precursoressumada a los efectos de la película sobre el sustrato.

  1. Silica doped with lanthanum sol-gel thin films for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuin, M. [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain); Serrano, A. [Glass and Ceramic Institute, CSIC, C. Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Llopis, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, M.A. [Glass and Ceramic Institute, CSIC, C. Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); IMDEA Nanoscience, Fco. Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Carmona, N., E-mail: n.carmona@fis.ucm.es [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    We present here anticorrosive silica coatings doped with lanthanum ions for the protection of metallic surfaces as an alternative to chromate (VI)-based conversion coatings. The coatings were synthesized by the sol-gel method starting from silicon alkoxides and two different lanthanum precursors: La (III) acetate hydrate and La (III) isopropoxide. Artificial corrosion tests in acid and alkaline media showed their effectiveness for the corrosion protection of AA2024 aluminum alloy sheets for coating prepared with both precursors. The X-ray absorption Near Edge Structure and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure analysis of the coatings confirmed the key role of lanthanum in the structural properties of the coating determining its anticorrosive properties. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica sol-gel films doped with lanthanum ions were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films from lanthanum-acetate and La-alkoxide were prepared for comparison purposes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La-acetate is an affordable chemical reactive preferred for the industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films properties were explored by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray absorption spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An alternative to anticorrosive pre-treatments for metallic surfaces is suggested.

  2. Photocatalytic properties of porous TiO2/Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Chen, J.-Y.; Hsu, T.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. By introducing polystyrene (PS) spheres into the precursor solution, porous TiO 2 /Ag thin films were prepared after calcination at a temperature of 500 deg. C for 4 h. Three different sizes (50, 200, and 400 nm) of PS spheres were used to prepare porous TiO 2 films. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy to reveal structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. When PS spheres of different sizes were introduced after calcination, the as-prepared TiO 2 films exhibited different porous structures. XRD results showed that all TiO 2 /Ag films exhibited a major anatase phase. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 thin films prepared with 200 nm PS spheres and doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where ∼ 100% methylene blue was decomposed within 8 h under UV exposure

  3. Observation and manipulation of magnetic domains in sol gel derived thin films of spinel ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashwini A.; Mathe, Vikas L.

    2017-12-01

    Thin films of spinel ferrites, namely zinc substituted nickel, cobalt ferrite, and manganese substituted cobalt ferrite, were synthesized using sol-gel derived spin-coating techniques. The films were characterized using x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy techniques for the analysis of structural, morphological and vibrational band transition properties, which confirm the spinel phase formation of the films. The magnetic force microscopy (MFM) technique was used to observe the magnetic domain structure present in the synthesized films. Further, the films were subjected to an external DC magnetic field of 2 kG to orient the magnetic domains and analyzed using an ex situ MFM technique.

  4. Development of highly-ordered, ferroelectric inverse opal films using sol gel infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, N.; Yang, S.; Sun, P.; Ruda, H. E.

    2005-07-01

    Highly-ordered, ferroelectric, Pb-doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3, inverse opal films were fabricated by spin-coating a sol gel precursor into a polystyrene artificial opal template followed by heat treatment. Thin films of the ferroelectric were independently studied and were shown to exhibit good dielectric properties and high refractive indices. The excellent quality of the final inverse opal film using this spin-coating infiltration method was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images and the good correspondence between optical reflection data and theoretical simulations. Using this method, the structural and material parameters of the final ferroelectric inverse opal film were easily adjusted by template heating and through repeated infiltrations, without changes in the initial template or precursor. Also, crack-free inverse opal thin films were fabricated over areas comparable to that of the initial crack-free polystyrene template (˜100 by 100 μm2).

  5. Preparation and characterization of ultra-thin sol-gel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Leora; Marx, Sharon; Mandler, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The formation and characterization of nanometer thick sol-gel films are reported. The films were prepared by spin-coating of a diluted solution of a silane precursor on a number of different substrates. The effect of dilution, rotation speed and nature of substrate on the thickness and homogeneity of the films was examined. Characterization of the films was carried out by profilometry, reflectance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, adhesion test and electrochemistry. We find that the dilution factor has a pronounced effect on the film thickness. Moreover, the time of dilution, namely, whether dilution was carried out before or after a period of hydrolysis, has a noticeable effect on the thickness as well as on the permeability of embedded species

  6. Preparation and characterization of the titanium dioxide thin films used for pH electrode and procaine drug sensor by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yihung; Chou, J.-C.

    2009-01-01

    We used titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) as the sensing layer of an ion selective pH sensor electrode, and as the substrate for a procaine drug sensitive membrane sensor. The TiO 2 thin films were prepared using sol-gel spin coating technology. We adopted the Ti(OC 4 H 9 ) 4 as the precursor, and added an ethanol solute to obtain the TiO 2 sol. The sol-gel was spun coated onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The drug sensitive membrane was coated on the TiO 2 film. We then measured the I DS -V G curves of the TiO 2 ion selective electrode (ISE) pH sensor in pH buffer solutions that had different pH concentrations using a Keithley 236 Semiconductor Parameter Analyzer instrument. The procaine concentration was measured from 10 -2 M to 10 -6 M with the drug sensitive membrane using a HP 34401A Digital Multimeter. We prepared the TiO 2 ISE pH sensor and obtained a high pH sensitivity of 58.73 mV/pH. Uniform TiO 2 films surface structures, with an average roughness (Ra) of 10.211 nm and root mean square roughness (Rms) of 13.01 nm were obtained. The drift effect of the titanium dioxide ion selective pH sensor electrode is 1.97 mV h -1 . The sensitivity of the procaine drug sensor is 55.03 mV pC -1 between 1.0 x 10 -2 mol L -1 and 1.0 x 10 -6 mol L -1 procaine concentrations. The detection limit is 5.0 x 10 -6 mol L -1 . The response time to reach 90% output voltage is 16 s. Forty seconds are required to reach 95% output voltage. The procaine drug sensor 1 x 10 -3 mol L -1 drift test is 3.64 mV h -1 and the variation in output voltage of the repeated measurement is less than 7.4 mV

  7. Properties of Zn O/Cr thin films prepared by Sol-Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado G, S.; Olvera A, R.

    2014-08-01

    Zn O films and those superficially modified with chromium were deposited on substrates of soda-lime glass, using the Sol-Gel process and the repeated immersion method. Starting from dehydrated zinc acetate was prepared a solution to 0.6 M to ambient temperature in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine (Mea) stirring magnetically. The Sol was prepared with an aging to seven days and was used to grow a films group with thickness to eight immersions. These same films were superficially modified with several depositions of a chromium nitrate Sol dissolved in ethanol to low concentration. The Zn O films were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, its chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and its morphology by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, as well as their optical properties by UV-vis. Of the obtained results are proposed possible applications. (author)

  8. Fabrication and Crystal Structure of Sol-Gel Deposited BST Thin Films with Compositional Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czekaj D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present research technology of compositionally graded barium strontium titanate Ba1-xSrxTiO3 thin films deposited on stainless steel substrates by sol-gel spin coating followed with thermal annealing at T = 650°C is reported. Results of thermal behavior of the sol-gel derived powders with compositions used for fabrication of graded structure (i.e. with Sr mole fraction x = 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3 are described. X-ray diffraction studies of the phase composition and crystal structure of such complex thin film configuration are given. It was found that gel powders exhibited a large total weight loss of about Δm ≈ 44-47%. Three stages of weight loss took place at temperature ranges: below T ≈ 300°C, at ΔT ≈ 300-500°C and between T = 600°C and T = 800°C. Phase analysis has shown that the dominating phase is Ba0.67Sr0.33TiO3 compound while the second phase is Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 or Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 for “up-graded” and “down-graded” structure, respectively.

  9. Reinforcement of LENRA film by in-situ generated silica produced by sol gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahathir Mohamed; Eda Yuhana Ariffin; Dahlan Mohd; Ibrahim Abdullah

    2008-08-01

    Liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) film was reinforced with silica-siloxane structures formed in-situ via sol gel process. Combination of these two components produces organic-inorganic composites. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was used as precursor material for silica generation. Sol gel reaction was carried out at different concentrations of TEOS i.e. between 10 and 50 phr. Instrumental analysis was carried out by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and FTIR. It was found that miscibility between organic and inorganic components improved with the presence of silanol groups (Si-OH) and polar solvent i.e. THF, via hydrogen bonding formation between siloxane and LENRA. In this work, the effects of TEOS composition on mechanical properties and interaction that occurs between fillers and matrix have also been studied. It was observed that increasing the concentration of TEOS improved the scratch and stress properties of the film. Morphology study by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed in-situ generated silica particles were homogenous and well dispersed at low concentrations of TEOS. (Author)

  10. Preparation of titanium oxide and metal titanates as powders, thin films, and microspheres by complex sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, A.; Olczak, T.; Lada, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Jakubaszek, U.; Sartowska, B.; Goretta, K.C.; Alvani, C.; Casadio, S.; Contini, V.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium oxide, for many years an important pigment, has recently been applied widely as a photocatalyst or as supports for metallic catalysts, gas sensors, photovoltaic solar cells, and water and air purification devices. Titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and titanates based on Ba, Sr and Ca were prepared from commercial solutions of TiCl 4 and HNO 3 . The main preparation steps for the sols consisted of elimination of Cl - by distillation with HNO 3 and addition of metal hydroxides for the titanates. Resulting sols were gelled and used to: (a) prepare irregularly shaped powders by evaporation; (b) produce by a dipping technique thin films on glass, Ag or Ti supports; (c) produce spherical powders (diameters <100 μm) by solvent extraction. Results of thermal and X-ray-diffraction analyses indicated that the temperatures required to form the various compounds were lower than those necessary to form the compounds by conventional solid-state reactions and comparable to those required with use of organometallic based sol-gel methods. Temperatures of formation could be further reduced by addition of ascorbic acid (ASC) to the sols

  11. Percutaneous external fixator pins with bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films for the prevention of pin tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haibo; Knabe, Christine; Radin, Shula; Garino, Jonathan; Ducheyne, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Risk of infection is considerable in open fractures, especially when fracture fixation devices are used to stabilize the fractured bones. Overall deep infection rates of 16.2% have been reported. The infection rate is even greater, up to 32.2%, with external fixation of femoral fractures. The use of percutaneous implants for certain clinical applications, such as percutaneous implants for external fracture fixation, still represents a challenge today. Currently, bone infections are very difficult to treat. Very potent antibiotics are needed, which creates the risk of irreversible damage to other organs, when the antibiotics are administered systemically. As such, controlled, local release is being pursued, but no such treatments are in clinical use. Herein, the use of bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films on metallic fracture fixation pins is reported. The data demonstrates that triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether), an antimicrobial agent, can be successfully incorporated into micron-thin sol-gel films deposited on percutaneous pins. The sol-gel films continuously release triclosan in vitro for durations exceeding 8 weeks (longest measured time point). The bactericidal effect of the micron-thin sol-gel films follows from both in vitro and in vivo studies. Inserting percutaneous pins in distal rabbit tibiae, there were no signs of infection around implants coated with a micron-thin sol-gel/triclosan film. Healing had progressed normally, bone tissue growth was normal and there was no epithelial downgrowth. This result was in contrast with the results in rabbits that received control, uncoated percutaneous pins, in which abundant signs of infection and epithelial downgrowth were observed. Thus, well-adherent, micron-thin sol-gel films laden with a bactericidal molecule successfully prevented pin tract infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SiO2 sol-gel films after ammonia and heat two-step treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunlai; Wang Biyi; Tian Dongbin; Yin Wei; Jiang Xiaodong; Yuan Xiaodong; Yan Lianghong; Zhang Hongliang; Zhao Songnan; Lv Haibing

    2008-01-01

    SiO 2 thin films were deposited using tetraethoxylsilane as precursor, ammonia as catalyst on K9 glass by sol-gel method. These films were post-treated by ammonia and heat. The properties of the coatings were characterized by ellipsometer, UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR-spectroscopy, scanning probe microscope and contact angle measurement apparatus. The resuits indicate that the thickness of the films with ammonia and heat treatment tend to decrease. Both the refractive index and water contact angle increase after ammonia treatment. However, they both decrease after heat treatment. The former increases by 0.236 for the first step, then decreases by 0.202 for the second. The latter increases to 58.92 degree, then decreases to 38.07 degree. The transmittance of the coatings turn to be better and continuously shift to short wave by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The surface becomes smoother by AFM after the two-step treatment. (authors)

  13. Immobilization of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase onto sol-gel films for application to cholesterol biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Suman; Singhal, Rahul; Malhotra, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) sol-gel films. The tetraethylorthosilicate sol-gel/ChEt/ChOx enzyme films thus prepared have been characterized using scanning electron microscopic (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopic, Fourier-transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and amperometric techniques, respectively. The results of photometric measurements carried out on tetraethylorthosilicate sol-gel/ChEt/ChOx reveal thermal stability up to 55 deg. C, response time as 180 s, linearity up to 780 mg dL -1 (12 mM), shelf life of 1 month, detection limit of 12 mg dL -1 and sensitivity as 5.4 x 10 -5 Abs. mg -1 dL -1

  14. Immobilization of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase onto sol-gel films for application to cholesterol biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suman [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, G. Avenue, Durgapur 713209, West Bengal (India); Singhal, Rahul [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Biomolecular Electronics and Conducting Polymer Research Group, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)]. E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com

    2007-01-23

    Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and cholesterol esterase (ChEt) have been covalently immobilized onto tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) sol-gel films. The tetraethylorthosilicate sol-gel/ChEt/ChOx enzyme films thus prepared have been characterized using scanning electron microscopic (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopic, Fourier-transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and amperometric techniques, respectively. The results of photometric measurements carried out on tetraethylorthosilicate sol-gel/ChEt/ChOx reveal thermal stability up to 55 deg. C, response time as 180 s, linearity up to 780 mg dL{sup -1} (12 mM), shelf life of 1 month, detection limit of 12 mg dL{sup -1} and sensitivity as 5.4 x 10{sup -5} Abs. mg{sup -1} dL{sup -1}.

  15. Low- and high-index sol-gel films for planar and channel-doped waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canva, Michael; Chaput, Frederic; Lahlil, Khalid; Rachet, Vincent; Goudket, Helene; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Levy, Yves

    2001-11-01

    In view of realizing integrated optic components based on effects such as electro-optic, chi(2):chi(2) cascading, stimulated emission,... one has to first synthesize materials with the proper functionality; this may be achieved by doping solid state matrices by the appropriate organic chromophores. Second, and as important, these materials have to be properly structured into the final optical guiding structures. We shall report on issues related to the realization of chromophore-doped planar waveguides as well as channel waveguides. These structures were realized by either photo-transformation such as photo- chromism and photo-bleaching or reactive ion etching technique, starting with chromophore doped sol-gel materials at high loading contents for which optical index may be controlled via the local dopant concentration. With these materials and techniques, waveguides and components characterized by propagation losses of the order of a cm-1, measured off the edge of the absorption band of the doping species, were fabricated. In order to be also able to study and use waveguide functionalized with low concentration of chromophore species, we developed new sol-gel materials of high optical index, yet low temperature processed. These new films are under study to evaluate their potential as host for organic doped waveguides devices.

  16. Sol-gel optical thin films for an advanced megajoule-class Nd:glass laser ICF-driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floch, H.G.; Belleville, P.F.; Pegon, P.M.; Dijonneau, C.S.; Guerain, J.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established by manufacturers and users that optical coatings are generally prepared by the well known Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technology. In the authors' opinion sol-gel technology is an effective and competitive alternative. The aim of this paper is to emphasize on the sol-gel thin film work carried out at Centre d'Etudes de Limeil-Valenton (CEL-V) and concerning the technology for high power lasers. The authors will briefly discuss the chemistry of the sol-gel process, the production of optical coatings and the related deposition techniques. Finally, the paper describes the preparation and performance of sol-gel optical coatings they have developed to fulfill the requirements of a future 2 MJ/500 TW (351 nm) pulsed Nd:glass laser so-called LMJ (Laser MegaJoules). This powerful laser is to be used for their national Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program, to demonstrate at the laboratory scale, ignition of deuterium-tritium fusion fuel. Moreover, the aim of this article is, hopefully, to provide a convincing argument that coatings and particularly optical coatings, are some of the useful products available from sol-gel technology, and that exciting developments in other areas are almost certain to emerge within the coming decade

  17. Spectroellipsometric study of the sol-gel nanocrystalline ITO multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoica, T.F.; Gartner, M.; Losurdo, M.; Teodorescu, V.; Blanchin, M.; Stoica, T.; Zaharescu, M

    2004-05-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by sol-gel process using 'sols' of indium and tin isopropoxides. The thickness of one deposited ITO layer is approximately 50 nm. The desired thickness was obtained by 1-5 successive depositions. The XTEM cross-sectional view of an ITO sample with five depositions showed a clear delimitation of the layers with an alternating structure dense/porous ITO layers. The void fraction in porous regions varies between 20 and 25%. Cubic bixbyite In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals with size of 10-20 nm and no phases separation of tin oxide were observed. The optical properties of the films have been investigated by optical transmission and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Reliable optical constants and porosity are obtained only with the model of internal structure based on XTEM results.

  18. Luminescence of Eu(3+) doped SiO2 Thin Films and Glass Prepared by Sol-gel Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Lymari; Jia, Weiyi; Wang, Yanyun; Santiago, Miguel; Liu, Huimin

    1998-01-01

    Trivalent europium ions are an important luminophore for lighting and display. The emission of (5)D0 to (7)F2 transition exhibits a red color at about 610 nm, which is very attractive and fulfills the requirement for most red-emitting phosphors including lamp and cathode ray phosphorescence materials. Various EU(3+) doped phosphors have been developed, and luminescence properties have been extensively studied. On the other hand, sol-gel technology has been well developed by chemists. In recent years, applications of this technology to optical materials have drawn a great attention. Sol-gel technology provides a unique way to obtain homogeneous composition distribution and uniform doping, and the processing temperature can be very low. In this work, EU(3+) doped SiO2 thin films and glasses were prepared by sol-gel technology and their spectroscopic properties were investigated.

  19. Optical ph sensing material prepared from doped sol-gel film for use in acid-base titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An optical pH sensing material has been prepared in this study by using sol-gel technique. Bromothymol blue, bromophenol blue and thymol blue were chosen in this study as acidbase indicators for strong acid-strong base, strong acid-weak base and weak acid-strong base titration, respectively. The results show that these indicators could be successfully entrapped inside the sol-gel film and still maintain its chemical behaviour as in solution. The entrapped acid-base indicators respond well to any pH changes and could be used to determine the end-point of the acid-base titration.

  20. Optical ph sensing material prepared from doped sol-gel film for use in acid-base titration

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Ahmad; T.W. Tan

    2017-01-01

    An optical pH sensing material has been prepared in this study by using sol-gel technique. Bromothymol blue, bromophenol blue and thymol blue were chosen in this study as acidbase indicators for strong acid-strong base, strong acid-weak base and weak acid-strong base titration, respectively. The results show that these indicators could be successfully entrapped inside the sol-gel film and still maintain its chemical behaviour as in solution. The entrapped acid-base indicators respond well to ...

  1. Superhydrophilicity of TiO2 nano thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadizadeh, M.R.; Ashkarran, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Among the several oxide semiconductors, titanium dioxide has a more helpful role in our environmental purification due to its photocatalytic activity, photo-induced superhydrophilicity, and as a result of them non-toxicity, self cleaning, and antifogging effects. After the discovery of superhydrophilicity of titanium dioxide in 1997, several researches have been performed due to its nature and useful applications. The superhydrophilicity property of the surface allows water to spread completely across the surface rather than remains as droplets, thus making the surface antifog and easy-to-clean. The distinction of photo-induced catalytic and hydrophilicity properties of TiO 2 thin films has been accepted although, the origin of hydrophilicity property has not been recognized completely yet. TiO 2 thin films on soda lime glass were prepared by the sol-gel method and spin coating process. The calcination temperature was changed from 100 to 550 C. XRD patterns show increasing the content of polycrystalline anatase phase with increasing the calcination temperature. The AFM results indicate granular morphology of the films, which particle size changes from 22 to 166 nm by increasing the calcination temperature. The RBS, EDX and Raman spectroscopy of the films show the ratio of Ti:O∼0.5, and diffusion of sodium ions from substrate into the layer, by increasing the calcination temperature. The UV/Vis. spectroscopy of the films indicates a red shift by increasing the calcination temperature. The contact angle meter experiment shows that superhydrophilicity of the films depends on the formation of anatase crystal structure and diffused sodium content from substrate to the layer. The best hydrophilicity property was observed at 450 C calcination temperature, where the film is converted to a superhydrophilic surface after 10 minutes under 2mW/cm 2 UV irradiation. TiO 2 thin film on Si(111), Si(100), and quartz substrates needs less time to be converted to

  2. Phase Composition of Samarium Niobate and Tantalate Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruncková, H.; Medvecký, Ľ.; Múdra, E.; Kovalčiková, A.; Ďurišin, J.; Šebek, M.; Girman, V.

    2017-12-01

    Samarium niobate SmNbO4 (SNO) and tantalate SmTaO4 (STO) thin films ( 100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on alumina substrates with PZT interlayer and annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The improvement of the crystallinity of monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase via heating was observed through the coexistence of small amounts of tetragonal T-SmTa7O19 phase in STO precursor at 1000°C. The XRD results of SNO and STO films confirmed monoclinic M-SmNbO4 and M'-SmTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of orthorhombic O-SmNbO4 (in SNO). In STO film, the single monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase was revealed. The surface morphology and topography of thin films were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. STO film was smoother with roughness 3.2 nm in comparison with SNO (6.3 nm). In the microstructure of SNO film, small spherical ( 50 nm) and larger cuboidal particles ( 100 nm) of the SmNbO4 phase were observed. In STO, compact clusters composed of fine spherical SmTaO4 particles ( 20-50 nm) were found. Effect of samarium can contribute to the formation different polymorphs of these films for the application to environmental electrolytic thin film devices.

  3. Improved electrochromical properties of sol-gel WO3 thin films by doping gold nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N.; Azimirad, R.; Akhavan, O.; Moshfegh, A.Z.

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of gold nanocrystals on the electrochromical properties of sol-gel Au doped WO 3 thin films has been studied. The Au-WO 3 thin films were dip-coated on both glass and indium tin oxide coated conducting glass substrates with various gold concentrations of 0, 3.2 and 6.4 mol%. Optical properties of the samples were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometry in a range of 300-1100 nm. The optical density spectra of the films showed the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of Au-WO 3 films decreased with increasing the Au concentration. Crystalline structure of the doped films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry, which indicated formation of gold nanocrystals in amorphous WO 3 thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface chemical composition of the samples. XPS analysis indicated the presence of gold in metallic state and the formation of stoichiometric WO 3 . The electrochromic properties of the Au-WO 3 samples were also characterized using lithium-based electrolyte. It was found that doping of Au nanocrystals in WO 3 thin films improved the coloration time of the layer. In addition, it was shown that variation of Au concentration led to color change in the colored state of the Au-WO 3 thin films.

  4. Preparation of TiO2 thin films from autoclaved sol containing needle-like anatase crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Lei; Xu Mingxia; Fang Haibo; Sun Ming

    2006-01-01

    A new inorganic sol-gel method was introduced in this paper to prepare TiO 2 thin films. The autoclaved sol with needle-like anatase crystals was synthesized using titanyl sulfate (TiOSO 4 ) and peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as starting materials. The transparent anatase TiO 2 thin films were prepared on glass slides from the autoclaved sol by sol-gel dip-coating method. A wide range of techniques such as Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrum were applied to characterize the autoclaved sol and TiO 2 thin films. The results indicate that the autoclaved sol is flavescent, semitransparent and stable at room temperature. The anatase crystals of TiO 2 films connect together to form net-like structure after calcined and the films become uniform with increasing heating temperature. The surface of the TiO 2 films contain not only Ti and O elements, but also a small amount of N and Na elements diffused from substrates during heat treatment. The TiO 2 films are transparent and their maximal light transmittances exceed 80% under visible light region

  5. Wafer scale lead zirconate titanate film preparation by sol-gel method using stress balance layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jian; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yi Zhang; Maeda, Ryutaro; Mihara, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, platinum/titanium (Pt/Ti) film was introduced as a residual stress balance layer into wafer scale thick lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film fabrication by sol-gel method. The stress developing in PZT film's bottom electrode as well as in PZT film itself during deposition were analyzed; the wafer curvatures, PZT crystallizations and PZT electric properties before and after using Pt/Ti stress balance layer were studied and compared. It was found that this layer is effective to balance the residual stress in PZT film's bottom electrode induced by thermal expansion coefficient mismatch and Ti diffusion, thus can notably reduce the curvature of 4-in. wafer from - 40.5 μm to - 12.9 μm after PZT film deposition. This stress balance layer was also found effective to avoid the PZT film cracking even when annealed by rapid thermal annealing with heating-rate up to 10.5 deg. C/s. According to X-ray diffraction analysis and electric properties characterization, crack-free uniform 1-μm-thick PZT film with preferred pervoskite (001) orientation, excellent dielectric constant, as high as 1310, and excellent remanent polarization, as high as 39.8 μC/cm 2 , can be obtained on 4-in. wafer

  6. Zinc oxide films impurified with Ti and prepared by the Sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado G, S.; Cazares R, J.M.; Maldonado, A.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium-doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared on silicon substrate using the Sol-Gel technique. The structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such thin films were studied as a function of titanium concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and the thin films thickness. Zinc acetate dihydrate and titanium (VI)-oxy acetylacetonate were used as precursor materials, using 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine as via. The X-ray diffraction spectra show polycrystalline films in all the cases. It can see for all the thin films a preferential growth along the (002) planes where the titanium concentration and also the thin films thickness play an important rule. No structural changes are observed at all. The surface morphology studied shows as the grain size decreases when thin thickness is increases. For titanium concentration of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % values the grains size increase also. The thin films thickness for titanium concentration of 1.5 % was 500 nm (4v), 400 nm (3v), 180 nm (2v) and 130 nm (1v), values obtained from cross-section micrographs. Highly resistive samples are obtained for substrate soda-lime even showing high transmittance. Better physical properties are required for gas sensors or semitransparent electrodes and other possible applications. (Author)

  7. Sol-gel preparation of ion-conducting ceramics for use in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauser, M.I.

    1992-12-01

    A metal alkoxide sol-gel solution suitable for depositing a thin film of La 0.6 Sr 0.4 CoO 3 on a porous substrate has been developed; such films should be useful in fuel cell electrode and oxygen separation membrane manufacture. Crack-free films have been deposited on both dense and porous substrates by dip-coating and spin-coating techniques followed by a heat treatment in air. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical structure of metal alkoxide solution system. X-ray diffraction was used to determine crystalline phases formed at various temperatures, while scanning electron microscopy was used to determine physical characteristics of the films. Surface coatings have been successfully applied to porous substrates through the control of the substrate pore size, deposition parameters, and firing parameters. Conditions have been defined for which films can be deposited, and for which the physical and chemical characteristics of the film can be improved. A theoretical discussion of the chemical reactions taking place before and after hydrolysis in the mixed alkoxide solutions is presented, and the conditions necessary for successful synthesis are defined. Applicability of these films as ionic and electronic conductors is discussed

  8. Characterizations of multilayer ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO multilayer thin films are deposited on glass substrate using sol-gel spin coating technique and the effect of these multilayer films on optical, electrical and structural properties are investigated. It is observed that these multilayer films have great impact on the properties of ZnO. X-ray Diffraction (XRD confirms that ZnO has hexagonal wurtzite structure. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM showed the crack-free films which have uniformly distributed grains structures. Both micro and nano particles of ZnO are present on thin films. Four point probe measured the electrical properties showed the decreasing trend between the average resistivity and the number of layers. The optical absorption spectra measured using UV–Vis. showed the average transmittance in the visible region of all films is 80% which is good for solar spectra. The performance of the multilayer as transparent conducting material is better than the single layer of ZnO. This work provides a low cost, environment friendly and well abandoned material for solar cells applications. Keywords: Multilayer films, Semiconductor, ZnO, XRD, SEM, Optoelectronic properties

  9. Enhanced fatigue characteristics of sol-gel derived PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Donghyun; Pak, Jaemoon; Nam, Kuangwoo; Park, Gwangweo

    2008-01-01

    Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films with Zr/Ti ratio of 52:48 were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates using the sol-gel method. Since the conditions of heat-treatment play a great role in film growth, post-annealing processes were conducted under different environments. After standard processing, films were annealed at 600 deg. C in three different atmosphere-air, O 2 and a two-step process conducted in air for 30 min and then in O 2 ambient, all done for 10 min. Through electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we found that all films were crack-free and highly (1 1 1) oriented. Hysteresis measurements showed a generally large polarization value. The fatigue properties differ drastically for all processes, showing an abnormal behaviour near the end of the measurement. The hysteresis loops before and after 1 x 10 10 switching cycles have been slightly changed in both shape and magnitude. Such abnormality and fatigue-free property is an unusual result for PZT films prepared on conventional Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates

  10. Doped indium nitride thin film by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui San; Ng, Sha Shiong; Yam, Fong Kwong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, magnesium doped indium nitride (InN:Mg) thin films grown on silicon (100) substrate were prepared via sol-gel spin coating method followed by nitridation process. A custom-made tube furnace was used to perform the nitridation process. Through this method, the low dissociation temperature issue of InN:Mg thin films can be solved. The deposited InN:Mg thin films were investigated using various techniques. The X-rays diffraction results revealed that two intense diffraction peaks correspond to wurtzite structure InN (100), and InN (101) were observed at 29° and 33.1° respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the surface of the films exhibits densely packed grains. The elemental composition of the deposited thin films was analyzed using energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy. The detected atomic percentages for In, N, and Mg were 43.22 %, 3.28 %, and 0.61 % respectively. The Raman spectra showed two Raman- and infrared-active modes of E2 (High) and A1 (LO) of the wurtzite InN. The band gap obtained from the Tauc plot showed around 1.74 eV. Lastly, the average surface roughness measured by AFM was around 0.133 µm.

  11. AZO Thin Films by Sol-Gel Process for Integrated Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzedine Boudrioua

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Undoped and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO thin films are prepared by the sol-gel process. Zinc acetate dihydrate, ethanol, and monoethanolamine are used as precursor, solvent, and stabilizer, respectively. In the case of AZO, aluminum nitrate nonahydrate is added to the precursor solution with an atomic percentage equal to 1 and 2 at.% Al. The multi thin layers are deposited by spin-coating onto glass substrates, and are transformed into ZnO upon annealing at 550 °C. Films display a strong preferential orientation, with high values for the Texture Coefficients (TC of the (002 direction (TC(002 ≈ 3. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of the thin films as a function of aluminum content have been investigated using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM. Waveguiding properties of the thin films have been also studied using m-lines spectroscopy. The results indicate that the films are monomodes at 632.8 nm with optical propagation optical losses estimated around 1.6 decibel per cm (dB/cm.

  12. The Photocatalytic Activity and Compact Layer Characteristics of TiO2 Films Prepared Using Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 compact layers are used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs to prevent charge recombination between the electrolyte and the transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO; fluorine-doped tin oxide, FTO. Thin TiO2 compact layers are deposited onto ITO/glass by means of radio frequency (rf magnetron sputtering, using deposition parameters that ensure greater photocatalytic activity and increased DSSC conversion efficiency. The photoinduced decomposition of methylene blue (MB and the photoinduced hydrophilicity of the TiO2 thin films are also investigated. The photocatalytic performance characteristics for the deposition of TiO2 films are improved by using the Grey-Taguchi method. The average transmittance in the visible region exceeds 85% for all samples. The XRD patterns of the TiO2 films, for sol-gel with spin coating of porous TiO2/TiO2 compact/ITO/glass, show a good crystalline structure. In contrast, without the TiO2 compact layer (only porous TiO2, the peak intensity of the anatase (101 plane in the XRD patterns for the TiO2 film has a lower value, which demonstrates inferior crystalline quality. With a TiO2 compact layer to prevent charge recombination, a higher short-circuit current density is obtained. The DSSC with the FTO/glass and Pt counter electrode demonstrates the energy conversion efficiency increased.

  13. Photocatalytic decomposition of diclofenac potassium using silver-modified TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalheiro, A.A.; Bruno, J.C.; Saeki, M.J.; Valente, J.P.S.; Florentino, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of silver insertion on the TiO 2 photocatalytic activity for the degradation of diclofenac potassium were reported here. Techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to comprehend the relation between structure and properties of the silver-modified TiO 2 thin films obtained by the sol-gel method. The lattice parameters and the crystallinity of TiO 2 anatase phase were affected by inserted silver, and the film thickness increased about 4 nm for each 1 wt.% of silver inserted. The degradation of diclofenac potassium and by-products reached an efficiency of 4.6 mg C W -1 when the material was modified with silver. Although the first step of degradation involves only the photochemical process related to the loss of the chlorine and hydrogen atoms. This cyclization reaction leads to the formation of intermediate, which degradation is facilitated by the modified material

  14. Photocatalytic properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film with Ag additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Hsu, C.-S.; Chen, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, nanocrystalline TiO 2 /Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin coating technique. While, by introducing polystyrene (PS) microspheres, porous TiO 2 /Ag films were obtained after calcining at a temperature of 500 o C. The as-prepared TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methylene blue under UV irradiation. After 500 o C calcination, the microstructure of PS-TiO 2 film without Ag addition exhibited a sponge-like microstructure while significant sintering effect was noticed with Ag additions and the films exhibited a porous microstructure. Meanwhile, coalescence of nanocrystalline anatase-phase TiO 2 can be observed with respect to the sharpening of XRD diffraction peaks. The photodegradation of porous TiO 2 doped with 1 mol% Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency where 72% methylene blue can be decomposed after UV exposure for 12 h

  15. Stability of erbium and silver implanted in silica-titania sol-gel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, A.R.; Marques, C.; Alves, E.; Marques, A.C.; Almeida, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    We implanted silica-titania sol-gel films with 3 x 10 15 at./cm 2 , 180 keV Er + and 6 x 10 16 at./cm 2 , 140 keV Ag + ions. The energies were chosen so that the profiles of Ag and Er overlap. RBS and ERDA were used to study the behaviour of Ag, Er and H during the heat treatments used to density the films. Implantation causes H depletion at the film surface and an increase in H concentration just beneath the implanted Ag and Er profiles. The total H content decreases by 27% to 75% during implantation. During annealing the H content decreases, with an almost complete H loss after annealing for 35 min at 800 deg. C. The Ag profile remains stable up to 600 deg. C. Above 700 deg. C Ag becomes increasingly mobile. Annealing at 800 deg. C for 35 min results in a nearly constant Ag distribution in the film. The Er profile remains unchanged with heat treatment up to the maximum temperature used (800 deg. C)

  16. Hybrid manganese oxide films for supercapacitor application prepared by sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Tien, Yue-Han; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chung-Kwei

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid films were prepared by adding various concentrations of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) during sol-gel processing of manganese oxide films. The heat-treated films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, electrochemical performance of the MCMB-added Mn-oxide hybrid coatings was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and compared with its unadded counterpart. Experimental results showed that Mn-oxide films exhibited a mixture of Mn 2 O 3 and Mn 3 O 4 phases. The higher the heat-treatment temperature, the more Mn 2 O 3 can be observed. The specific capacitance of the unadded Mn-oxide electrodes is 209 F/g. Because the MCMB particles provide more interfacial surface area for electrochemical reactions, a significant improvement can be noticed by adding MCMB in Mn-oxide coatings. The 300 o C heat-treated hybrid Mn-oxide coating with a Mn/MCMB ratio of 10/1 exhibits the highest value of 350 F/g, showing a ∼ 170% increase in specific capacitance.

  17. Natamycin based sol-gel antimicrobial coatings on polylactic acid films for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantano, Claudia; Alfieri, Ilaria; Cavazza, Antonella; Corradini, Claudio; Lorenzi, Andrea; Zucchetto, Nicola; Montenero, Angelo

    2014-12-15

    In this work a comprehensive study on a new active packaging obtained by a hybrid organic-inorganic coating with antimicrobial properties was carried out. The packaging system based on polylactic acid was realised by sol-gel processing, employing tetraethoxysilane as a precursor of the inorganic phase and polyvinyl alcohol as the organic component, and incorporating natamycin as the active agent. Films with different organic-inorganic ratios (in a range between 1:19 and 1:4) were prepared, and the amount of antimycotic entrapped was found to be modulated by the sol composition, and was between 0.18 and 0.25mg/dm(2). FTIR microspectroscopic measurements were used to characterise the prepared coatings. The antifungal properties of the films were investigated against mould growth on the surface of commercial semi-soft cheese. The release of natamycin from the films to ethanol 50% (v/v) was studied by means of HPLC UV-DAD. The maximal level released was about 0.105 mg/dm(2), which is far below the value allowed by legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microstructure, optical, and electrochromic properties of sol-gel nanoporous tungsten oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaoued, Yahia; Ashrit, P. V.; Badilescu, S.; Bruning, R.

    2003-08-01

    Porous tungsten oxide films have been prepared by a nonhydrolitic sol-gel method using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a structure directing agent. The method entails the hydrolysis of an ethanolic solution of tungsten ethoxide (formed by the reaction of WCl6 with ethanol) followed by condensation and polymerization at the PEG-tungsten oxide oligometers interface. A highly porous WO3 framework was obtained after PEG was burned off by calcination at a relativley low temperature. AFM images of the films treated thermally show an ordered material rather than microscopic particulates. Both fibrilar nanostructures and striped phase can be obtained via this approach, depending on the concentration of PEG in the coating solution. XRD data from the fibrils indicate that they are crystalline with very small crystals, whereas the striped phases obtained with 20% PEG correspond to two crystalline phases, one, the stoichiometric WO3 and the other one an oxygen deficient phase, containing larger crystals (~28 nm). The results show that PEG promotes the formation of oxygen deficient phases and delays crystallization. Compared to WO3 with no PEG, the optical and electrochromic properties of the macroporous tungsten oxide films appear to be significantly improved. The formation of organized nanostructures is tentatively accounted for by the strong hydrogen bonding interactions between PEG and the tungsten oxide oligomers.

  19. Characterization of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al films by sol-gel spin coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gareso, P. L., E-mail: pgareso@gmail.com; Rauf, N., E-mail: pgareso@gmail.com; Juarlin, E., E-mail: pgareso@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Sugianto,; Maddu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Institute of Culture, IPB Bogor (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films doped with aluminium by sol-gel spin coating method have been investigated using optical transmittance UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction (X-RD) measurements. ZnO films were prepared using zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}@@‡2H{sub 2}O), ethanol, and diethanolamine (DEA) as a starting material, solvent, and stabilizer, respectively. For doped films, AlCl{sub 3} was added to the mixture. The ZnO:Al films were deposited on a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrate using spin coating technique at room temperature with a rate of 3000 rpm in 30 sec. The deposited films were annealed at various temperatures from 400°C to 600°C during 60 minutes. The transmittance UV-Vis measurement results showed that after annealing at 400°C, the energy band gap profile of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al film was a blue shift. This indicated that the band gap of ZnO:Al increased after annealing due to the increase of crystalline size. As the annealing temperature increased the bandgap energy was a constant. In addition to this, there was a small oscillation occurring after annealing compared to the as–grown samples. In the case of X-RD measurements, the crystalinity of the films were amorphous before annealing, and after annealing the crystalinity became enhance. Also, X-RD results showed that structure of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al films were hexagonal polycrystalline with lattice parameters are a = 3.290 Å and c = 5.2531 Å.

  20. Photocatalytic sterilization of TiO2 films coated on Al fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Li; Miao Lei; Tanemura, Sakae; Tanemura, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic TiO 2 films were coated on Al fiber by sol-gel dip-coating method, and then annealed. The crystal structure and morphology of the films were performed by XRD, TEM and SEM. Photocatalytic sterilization of the films was investigated in O 2 atmosphere through purifying the aqueous solution with facultative aerobe (Bacillus cereus), aerobe (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and anaerobe (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli). In the presence of O 2 , it benefits to generate O 2 · - and ·OH at the first stage of the photocatalytic reaction, while the excess O 2 restrains the anaerobe from reproducing and accelerates the reproducing for the aerobe at the second stage of reaction. As a result, it was found that the crystal of TiO 2 films is anatase phase and the films have excellent sterilization effect against facultative aerobe and anaerobe. Nevertheless, it only decreased the bioactivity against aerobe in a short time

  1. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of nitrided TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camps, Enrique; Escobar-Alarcon, L.; Camacho-Lopez, Marco Antonio; Casados, Dora A. Solis

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 thin films have been applied in UV-light photocatalysis. Nevertheless visible-light photocatalytic activity would make this material more attractive for applications. In this work we present results on the modification of titanium oxide (anatase) sol-gel thin films, via a nitriding process using a microwave plasma source. After the treatment in the nitrogen plasma, the nitrogen content in the TiO 2 films varied in the range from 14 up to 28 at%. The titanium oxide films and the nitrided ones were characterized by XPS, micro-Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity tests were done using a Methylene Blue dye solution, and as catalyst TiO 2 and nitrided TiO 2 films. The irradiation of films was carried out with a lamp with emission in the visible (without UV). The results showed that the nitrided TiO 2 films had photocatalytic activity, while the unnitrided films did not.

  2. Crystallization of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films in argon and oxygen atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursill, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic techniques are applied to reveal the mechanisms of crystallization of 75 nm thin films of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Sol-gel methods, followed by pyrolysis at 350 deg C, were used to provide a common starting point after which a variety of rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in the temperature range 400-700 deg C were made in argon, oxygen and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemical analysis, which points out that partial pressure of oxygen and heating rate are important experimental parameters which must be controlled if ferroelectric perovskite-type Pb 2 ZrTiO 6 , rather than pyrochlore-type Pb 2 ZrTiO 6+x , where O < X < 1 or -1 < X < O, is to be obtained after the RTA step. Thus significant improvements in the crystallization of perovskite-type PZT were clearly demonstrated by using argon atmospheres for the RTA step. The results have significance for the production of high-quality ferroelectric thin films, with improved switching and fatigue characteristics, since even small amounts of the pyrochlore phase prove detrimental for these properties. 18 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  3. Crystallization of sol-gel derived lead zirconate titanate thin films in argon and oxygen atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursill, L A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Brooks, K G [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopic techniques are applied to reveal the mechanisms of crystallization of 75 nm thin films of ferroelectric lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Sol-gel methods, followed by pyrolysis at 350 deg C, were used to provide a common starting point after which a variety of rapid-thermal annealing (RTA) experiments in the temperature range 400-700 deg C were made in argon, oxygen and nitrogen/hydrogen atmospheres. The results are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemical analysis, which points out that partial pressure of oxygen and heating rate are important experimental parameters which must be controlled if ferroelectric perovskite-type Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 6}, rather than pyrochlore-type Pb{sub 2}ZrTiO{sub 6+x}, where O < X < 1 or -1 < X < O, is to be obtained after the RTA step. Thus significant improvements in the crystallization of perovskite-type PZT were clearly demonstrated by using argon atmospheres for the RTA step. The results have significance for the production of high-quality ferroelectric thin films, with improved switching and fatigue characteristics, since even small amounts of the pyrochlore phase prove detrimental for these properties. 18 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  4. Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf structures by nanoimprint on silica sol-gel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saison, Tamar; Peroz, Christophe; Chauveau, Vanessa; Sondergard, Elin; Arribart, Herve; Berthier, Serge

    2008-01-01

    An original and low cost method for the fabrication of patterned surfaces bioinspired from butterfly wings and lotus leaves is presented. Silica-based sol-gel films are thermally imprinted from elastomeric molds to produce stable structures with superhydrophobicity values as high as 160 deg. water contact angle. The biomimetic surfaces are demonstrated to be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by annealing between 200 deg. C and 500 deg. C

  5. Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf structures by nanoimprint on silica sol-gel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saison, Tamar; Peroz, Christophe; Chauveau, Vanessa; Sondergard, Elin; Arribart, Herve [Unite mixte CNRS/Saint Gobain Saint Gobain Recherche, BP135, 93303 Aubervilliers (France); Berthier, Serge [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UMR 7588, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 140 rue Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)], E-mail: cperoz@lbl.gov

    2008-12-01

    An original and low cost method for the fabrication of patterned surfaces bioinspired from butterfly wings and lotus leaves is presented. Silica-based sol-gel films are thermally imprinted from elastomeric molds to produce stable structures with superhydrophobicity values as high as 160 deg. water contact angle. The biomimetic surfaces are demonstrated to be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by annealing between 200 deg. C and 500 deg. C.

  6. Thickness controlled sol-gel silica films for plasmonic bio-sensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figus, Cristiana, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Quochi, Francesco, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Artizzu, Flavia, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Saba, Michele, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Marongiu, Daniela, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Cagliari, S.P. Km 0.7, I-09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Floris, Francesco; Marabelli, Franco; Patrini, Maddalena; Fornasari, Lucia [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (PV) (Italy); Pellacani, Paola; Valsesia, Andrea [Plasmore S.r.l. -Via Grazia Deledda 4, I-21020 Ranco (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    Plasmonics has recently received considerable interest due to its potentiality in many fields as well as in nanobio-technology applications. In this regard, various strategies are required for modifying the surfaces of plasmonic nanostructures and to control their optical properties in view of interesting application such as bio-sensing, We report a simple method for depositing silica layers of controlled thickness on planar plasmonic structures. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used as silica precursor. The control of the silica layer thickness was obtained by optimizing the sol-gel method and dip-coating technique, in particular by properly tuning different parameters such as pH, solvent concentration, and withdrawal speed. The resulting films were characterized via atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform (FT) spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Furthermore, by performing the analysis of surface plasmon resonances before and after the coating of the nanostructures, it was observed that the position of the resonance structures could be properly shifted by finely controlling the silica layer thickness. The effect of silica coating was assessed also in view of sensing applications, due to important advantages, such as surface protection of the plasmonic structure.

  7. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M. A. R., E-mail: ameerridhwan89@gmail.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com; Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Malek, M. F., E-mail: firz-solarzelle@yahoo.com [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  8. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M. A. R.; Mamat, M. H.; Ismail, A. S.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  9. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gelfilms. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Bluechromoionophore (ETH 5294 and urease enzyme separately without the need of anychemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitoredat 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel filmformat enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea opticalbiosensor constructed from three layers of sol-gel films that contained urease demonstrateda much wider linear response range of up to 100 mM urea when compared with biosensorsthat constructed from 1-2 layers of films. Analysis of urea in urine samples with thisoptical urea biosensor yielded results similar to that determined by a spectrophotometricmethod using the reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (R2 = 0.982, n = 6. The averagerecovery of urea from urine samples using this urea biosensor is approximately 103%.

  10. A Urea Biosensor from Stacked Sol-Gel Films with Immobilized Nile Blue Chromoionophore and Urease Enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasaimeh, Muawia Salameh; Heng, Lee Yook; Ahmad, Musa

    2007-10-11

    An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gelfilms. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Bluechromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of anychemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitoredat 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel filmformat enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea opticalbiosensor constructed from three layers of sol-gel films that contained urease demonstrateda much wider linear response range of up to 100 mM urea when compared with biosensorsthat constructed from 1-2 layers of films. Analysis of urea in urine samples with thisoptical urea biosensor yielded results similar to that determined by a spectrophotometricmethod using the reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (R² = 0.982, n = 6). The averagerecovery of urea from urine samples using this urea biosensor is approximately 103%.

  11. Effect of laser irradiation on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of polycrystalline TiO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin film is deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique. After deposition, films were irradiated by continuous wave (CW diode laser at an angle of 45°. XRD shows both the anatase and brookite phases of TiO2. Nano particles of regular and control sizes are appeared in SEM micrographs. Therefore, shape and size of nano particles can be control by using Laser irradiation. The average sheet resistivity of TiO2 thin film irradiated by 0, 2, 4 and 6 min are 6.72 × 105, 5.32 × 105, 3.44 × 105 and 4.95 × 105 (ohm-m respectively, according to four point probe. Keywords: TiO2, Diode laser, XRD, SEM

  12. Homogenous smooth sol gel films doped with organic compounds for nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliu, I.C. [INOE 2000 — National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania); Ionita, I., E-mail: i_ionita@yahoo.com [UB — University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania); Matei, A. [INFLPR — National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania); Elisa, M.; Iordanescu, R.; Feraru, I.; Emandi, A. [INOE 2000 — National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania)

    2016-02-29

    The demand for protection of various types of optical sensors from laser-beam pulses has resulted in the search for optical limiting devices that have the property of being transparent at low intensity of light (normal light), but no transparent towards high intensity (laser) light. Organic material with nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as reverse saturable absorption and two-photon absorption can be used for optical limiting with the advantage of a very fast response and self-activation. A promising approach in the fabrication of thin films by low cost/easy use deposition methods for second-order nonlinear optics is sol–gel technique. The present paper reports on the sol–gel synthesis of some pyrazolone derivative doped SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} smooth and homogenous films (Root mean square roughness (Rq) = 1.1 nm) using as precursors tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The structure of the deposited azo-derivatives doped thin films was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, while their optical properties of the films by UV–VIS spectroscopy. The nonlinear optical efficiencies due to the interaction of the NLO-active chromophores with the inorganic matrix have a significant influence on the second harmonic generation capabilities that was measured using a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser. The properties of the films were investigated and correlated with the concentration of the organic dopant and the thermal treatment temperature. - Highlights: • We obtained pyrazolone derivative doped SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} smooth and homogenous films. • The pyrazolone derivative presents SHG characteristics by itself. • Thin sol gel films doped with organic compounds with NLO properties. • Temperature of thermal treatment and aging time can improve NLO properties of films. • We found that 150 °C and 28 h aging time give the maximum performance in SHG response.

  13. Nitrate ions as cathodic alkalization promoters for the electro-assisted deposition of sol-gel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Shangzhi; Liu Liang [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Hu Jiming [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)], E-mail: kejmhu@zju.edu.cn; Zhang Jianqing; Cao Chunan [Department of Chemistry, Yuquan Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Nitrate was used as a promoter to prepare dodecyltrimethoxysilane thin films on aluminum substrates. With the addition of nitrate into silane sol-gel precursors, the electro-assisted formation of silane films was facilitated, as indicated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, due to the promotion in cathodic alkalization. However, an extra-high concentration of nitrate would be harmful because of the salting-out effect in precursors and the soluble nitrate remaining in silane films.

  14. Study and fabrication of ZnNb2O6 thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsing; Yang, Pai-Chuan; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Yan, Shu-Fong; Tung, Hsin-Han

    2011-01-01

    Zinc niobium oxide (ZnNb 2 O 6 ) thin films were grown on ITO/glass substrate by sol-gel process. Microstructure and surface morphology of the ZnNb 2 O 6 thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties of the ZnNb 2 O 6 thin films were obtained by UV-visible recording spectrophotometer. The dependence of the microstructure, optical transmittance spectra, optical band gap on annealing temperature was also investigated.

  15. Sol-Gel-Hydrothermal Synthesis of the Heterostructured TiO2/N-Bi2WO6 Composite with High-Visible-Light- and Ultraviolet-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterostructured TiO2/N-Bi2WO6 composites were prepared by a facile sol-gel-hydrothermal method. The phase structures, morphologies, and optical properties of the samples were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activities for rhodamine B of the as-prepared products were measured under visible and ultraviolet light irradiation at room temperature. The TiO2/N-Bi2WO6 composites exhibited much higher photocatalytic performances than TiO2 as well as Bi2WO6. The enhancement in the visible light photocatalytic performance of the TiO2/N-Bi2WO6 composites could be attributed to the effective electron-hole separations at the interfaces of the two semiconductors, which facilitate the transfer of the photoinduced carriers.

  16. The effect of rare earth dopants on the structure, surface texture and photocatalytic properties of TiO2-SiO2 prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.M.; Mkhalid, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sol-gel method was successfully used to prepare a series of TiO 2 -SiO 2 and rare earth (RE) (La 3+ , Nd 3+ , Sm 3+ , Gd 3+ )-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 nanoparticles at a doping level of 3 atomic percent. The structural features of parent TiO 2 -SiO 2 and RE-TiO 2 -SiO 2 fired at 550 o C have been investigated by XRD, UV-diffuse reflection, SEM and nitrogen adsorption measurements at -196 o C. XRD data verified the formation of typical characteristic anatase form in all the prepared RE-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 samples. In comparison with the pure TiO 2 -SiO 2 samples (ca. 35 nm in diameter), the RE-TiO 2 -SiO 2 samples have relatively small particle size indicating that the doping with RE metal ions can improve the particle morphology, and retard the grain growth of TiO 2 -SiO 2 during heat treatment. The results indicated that Gd 3+ doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 has the lowest bandgap and particle size compared with pure TiO 2 -SiO 2 and other nanoparticles of RE-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 . The highest surface area (S BET ) and pore volume (V p ) values were recorded for Gd-TiO 2 -SiO 2 as well. The effect of doping on the photoactivity was evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of EDTA as a probe reaction. Among all the pure and RE-doped TiO 2 -SiO 2 , Gd 3+ -TiO 2 -SiO 2 performed the highest catalytic activity towards the tested reaction. That might be due to its special characteristics of particle size, surface texture and bandgap properties. Details of the synthesis procedure and results of the characterization studies of the produced RE-TiO 2 -SiO 2 are presented in this paper.

  17. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical characterization of different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes for the immobilization of Cytochrome c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiaounis, Stavros; Tiflidis, Christina; Tsekoura, Christina; Topoglidis, Emmanuel

    2018-03-01

    In this work three different mesoporous TiO2 film electrodes were prepared and used for the immobilization of Cytochrome c (Cyt-c). Films prepared via a standard sol-gel route (SG-films) were compared with commercially available benchmark nanotitania materials, namely P25 Degussa (P25-films) and Dyesol nanopaste (Dyesol films). Their properties, film deposition characteristics and their abilities to adsorb protein molecules in a stable and functional way were examined. We investigated whether it is possible, rather than preparing TiO2 films using multistep, lengthy and not always reproducible sol-gel procedures, to use commercially available nanotitania materials and produce reproducible films faster that exhibit all the properties that make TiO2 films ideal for protein immobilization. Although these materials are formulated primarily for dye-sensitized solar cell applications, in this study we found out that protein immobilization is facile and remarkably stable on all of them. We also investigated their electrochemical properties by using cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry and found out that not only direct reduction of Fe(III)-heme to Fe(II)-heme of immobilized Cyt-c was possible on all films but that the adsorbed protein remained electroactive.

  18. Visible photoenhanced current-voltage characteristics of Au : TiO2 nanocomposite thin films as photoanodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N; Amiri, M; Moshfegh, A Z

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the effect of annealing temperature and concentration of gold nanoparticles on the photoelectrochemical properties of sol-gel deposited Au : TiO 2 nanocomposite thin films is studied. Various gold concentrations have been added to the TiO 2 thin films and their properties are compared. All the deposited samples are annealed at different temperatures. The optical density spectra of the films show the formation of gold nanoparticles in the films. The optical bandgap energy of the Au : TiO 2 films decreases with increasing Au concentration. The crystalline structure of the nanocomposite films is studied by x-ray diffractometry indicating the formation of gold nanocrystals in the anatase TiO 2 nanocrystalline thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the presence of gold in the metallic state and the formation of TiO 2 are stoichiometric. The photoelectrochemical properties of the Au : TiO 2 samples are characterized using a compartment cell containing H 2 SO 4 and KOH as cathodic and anodic electrolytes, respectively. It is found that the addition of Au nanoparticles in TiO 2 films enhances the photoresponse of the layer and the addition of gold nanocrystals with an optimum value of 5 mol% resulted in the highest photoelectrochemical activity. Moreover, the photoresponse of the samples is also enhanced with an increase in the annealing temperature.

  19. Epoxy-based organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings and films prepared by sol-gel process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Brus, Jiří; Matějka, Libor

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 6, 3-4 (2004), s. 7-15 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/01/0735; GA AV ČR IAA4050008; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : sol-gel process * nanocomposite s * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  20. Structural and optical properties of sol-gel deposited proton conducting Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, N.; Lampert, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Proton conducting tantalum oxide films were deposited by spin coating using a sol-gel process. The coating solutions were prepared using Ta(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 5} as a precursor. X-ray diffraction studies determined that the sol-gel films, heat treated at temperatures below 400 C, were amorphous. Films heat treated at higher temperatures were crystalline Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The solar transmission values (T{sub s}) of tantala films on glass generally range from 0.8--0.9 depending on thickness. The refractive index and the extinction coefficient were evaluated from transmittance characteristics in the UV-VIS-NIR regions. The refractive index values calculated at 550 nm increased from 1.78 to 1.97 with increasing heat treatment from 150 to 450 C. The films heat treated at different temperatures showed low absorption with extinction coefficients of less than k=1x10{sup -3} in the visible range. Spectrophotometric and impedance spectroscopic investigations performed on Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films revealed that these films have protonic conductivity of 3.2x10{sup -6} S/cm. The films are suitable for proton conducting layers in electrochromic (EC) devices.

  1. Visible light active TiO2 films prepared by electron beam deposition of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xinggang; Ma Jun; Liu Andong; Li Dejun; Huang Meidong; Deng Xiangyun

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 films prepared by sol-gel method were modified by electron beam deposition of noble metals (Pt, Pd, and Ag). Effects of noble metals on the chemical and surface characteristics of the films were studied using XPS, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. Photocatalytic activity of modified TiO 2 films was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange dye solution under visible light UV irradiation. The result of TEM reveals that most of the surface area of TiO 2 is covered by tiny particles of noble metals with diameter less than 1 nm. Broad red shift of UV-Visible absorption band of modified photocatalysts was observed. The catalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solutions under visible light illumination demonstrates a significant enhancement of photocatalytic activity of these films compared with the un-loaded films. The photocatalytic efficiency of modified TiO 2 films by this method is affected by the concentration of impregnating solution.

  2. Enhancement of photoelectric catalytic activity of TiO2 film via Polyaniline hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yajun; Xu Jing; Zong Weizheng; Zhu Yongfa

    2011-01-01

    A Polyaniline (PANI)/TiO 2 film coated on titanium foil was successfully prepared using the sol-gel method followed by a facile chemisorption. Compared with pristine TiO 2 , the photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation rates of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) with the PANI/TiO 2 film were enhanced by 22.2% and 57.5%, respectively. 2,4-DCP can be mineralized more effectively in the presence of PANI/TiO 2 film. The best PEC degradation efficiency of 2,4-DCP with the PANI/TiO 2 film was acquired at an external potential of 1.5 V with a layer of 1 nm thick PANI. The PANI/TiO 2 film was characterized by Raman spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and electrochemical analysis. These results indicated that there was a chemical interaction on the interface of PANI and TiO 2 . This interaction may be of significance to promote the migration efficiency of carriers and induce a synergetic effect to enhance the PC and PEC activities. - Graphical abstract: The effect of PANI content on 2,4-DCP degradation with initial concentration of 50 mg/L, external potential=1.5 V. Inset: degradation rate constants of various PANI/TiO 2 films. Highlights: → Polyaniline/TiO 2 film was prepared using the sol-gel method followed by chemisorption. → Photoelectrocatalytic degradation rate of 2,4-dichlorophenol was enhanced by 57.5%. → The modification of Polyaniline to TiO 2 film caused a rapid charge separation. → Best degradation efficiency was acquired at 1.5 V with 1 nm thick PANI.

  3. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  4. Nanocrystalline TiO2 Composite Films for the Photodegradation of Formaldehyde and Oxytetracycline under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively photodegradate organic pollutants, ZnO composite and Co-B codoped TiO2 films were successfully deposited on glass substrates via a modified sol-gel method and a controllable dip-coating technique. Combining with UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and photoluminescence spectra (PL analyses, the multi-modification could not only extend the optical response of TiO2 to visible light region but also decrease the recombination rate of electron-hole pairs. XRD results revealed that the multi-modified TiO2 film had an anatase-brookite biphase heterostructure. FE-SEM results indicated that the multi-modified TiO2 film without cracks was composed of smaller round-like nanoparticles compared to pure TiO2. BET surface area results showed that the specific surface area of pure TiO2 and the multi-modified TiO2 sample was 47.8 and 115.8 m2/g, respectively. By degradation of formaldehyde and oxytetracycline, experimental results showed that the multi-modified TiO2 film had excellent photodegradation performance under visible light irradiation.

  5. Functional coatings: the sol-gel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belleville, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    CEA's sol-gel laboratory is specialized in the development of innovative sol-gel optical coatings and has extended its application field to membrane materials and coatings for energy conversion, to electric coatings for microelectronics devices and to thin films for gas sensing. This article describes, by way of examples, the laboratory's research on sol-gel functional coatings, including nano-material synthesis, organic-inorganic hybrid-based solution preparation as well as deposition process development and prototyping. (author)

  6. Fabrication and study of sol-gel ZnO films for use in Si-based heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniya Mukhamedshina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the use of zinc oxide thin films prepared via the sol-gel route as an n-type layer in heterojunction ZnO/Si solar cells. The ZnO films were prepared via a simple spin-coating technique using zinc acetate dihydrate as a zinc precursor, isopropanol as a solvent and monoethanolamine as a stabilizing agent. Optical, structural and morphological properties of ZnO were investigated for thin films grown from sol-gel solutions with different concentrations both on glass and silicon substrates. As such, a distribution of crystallite sizes and surface topology parameters corresponding to various zinc acetate dihydrate concentrations were obtained to elucidate optimal film deposition conditions. Correlation between thin film morphology and structural characteristics of ZnO thin films was made based on atomic-force microscopy studies. Finally, our results on fabrication, characterization and simulation of ZnO/Si heterojunctions for use as photovoltaic devices are presented. Although noticeable rectifying and photovoltaic properties were observed for Al/Si/ZnO/Ti/Au devices, there appears to exist a considerable room for device improvement with simulation studies suggesting that efficiencies of the order of 24% may be obtained for devices with optimal silicon wafer passivation, i.e. with lifetimes of the order of 1000 μs.

  7. Electroluminescence of zinc oxide thin-films prepared via polymeric precursor and via sol-gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, S.A.M.; Cremona, M.; Davolos, M.R.; Legnani, C.; Quirino, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an electroluminescent (EL) material that can emit light in different regions of electromagnetic spectrum when electrically excited. Since ZnO is chemically stable, inexpensive and environmentally friendly material, its EL property can be useful to construct solid-state lamps for illumination or as UV emitter. We present here two wet chemical methods to prepare ZnO thin-films: the Pechini method and the sol-gel method, with both methods resulting in crystalline and transparent films with transmittance >85% at 550 nm. These films were used to make thin-film electroluminescent devices (TFELD) using two different insulator layers: lithium fluoride (LiF) or silica (SiO 2 ). All the devices exhibit at least two wide emission bands in the visible range centered at 420 nm and at 380 nm attributed to the electronic defects in the ZnO optical band gap. Besides these two bands, the device using SiO 2 and ZnO film obtained via sol-gel exhibits an additional band in the UV range centered at 350 nm which can be attributed to excitonic emission. These emission bands of ZnO can transfer their energy when a proper dopant is present. For the devices produced the voltage-current characteristics were measured in a specific range of applied voltage

  8. Preparation of SDC electrolyte thin films on dense and porous substrates by modified sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Hongfei; Ding, Changsheng; Sato, Kazuhisa; Tsutai, Yoshifumi; Ohtaki, Hiromichi; Iguchi, Mabito; Wada, Chiharu; Hashida, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline fluorite type samarium doped ceria (SDC) electrolyte thin film for intermediate temperature-solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) application were prepared on the dense and porous substrates at low temperatures of 573-1373 K using a novel citrate sol-gel route combined with a sol suspension spray coating technique. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the decomposition of the citrate gel film and the initial crystallization of the SDC occurred at a low temperature of about 590 K. XRD examination revealed that the annealing of the green film at temperatures of 573-1373 K provided cubic nanocrystalline SDC phase. The crystallite sizes were in the range of 9-19 nm. Microscopic observations indicated that the derived film was homogeneous, dense and crack-free without pinholes. The desired thickness for preparation of thin electrolyte films from hundreds of nm to several μm should be controllable and feasible by repeating the simple and inexpensive citrate sol-gel spray coating process

  9. Analyses of desorbed H2O with temperature programmed desorption technique in sol-gel derived HfO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, H.; Nemoto, D.; Ikeda, M.; Nishide, T.

    2009-01-01

    Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) is a promising material for the gate insulator in highly miniaturized silicon (Si) ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) devices (32 nm and beyond). In the field chemistry, a sol-gel processing has been used to fabricate HfO 2 thin film with the advantages of low cost, relative simplicity, and easy control of the composition of the layers formed. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) has been used not only for analyzing adsorbed gases on the surfaces of bulk sol-gel-derived HfO 2 of sol-gel-derived HfO 2 thin film fired at 350, 450, 550 and 700 deg C in sol-gel derived HfO 2 films in air is investigated using TPD, and also the material characterization of HfO 2 thin films is evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The dielectric constant of the films was also estimated using the capacitance-voltage (C-V) method. TPD is essentially a method of analyzing desorped gases from samples heated by infra-red light as a function of temperature under vacuum conditions using a detector of quadruple mass spectroscopy (QMS). Sol-gel-derived HfO 2 films were fabricated on 76-mm-diameter Si(100) wafers as follows. Hafnia sol solutions were prepared by dissolving HfCl 4 in NH 4 OH solution, followed by the of HCOOH. (author)

  10. Highly sensitive determination of hydroxylamine using fused gold nanoparticles immobilized on sol-gel film modified gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, P. [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302, Dindigul, Tamilnadu (India); John, S. Abraham, E-mail: abrajohn@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624302, Dindigul, Tamilnadu (India)

    2010-03-24

    We are reporting the highly sensitive determination of hydroxylamine (HA) using 2-mercapto-4-methyl-5-thiazoleacetic acid (TAA) capped fused spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified Au electrode. The fused TAA-AuNPs were immobilized on (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MPTS) sol-gel film, which was pre-assembled on Au electrode. The immobilization of fused TAA-AuNPs on MPTS sol-gel film was confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM image showed that the AuNPs retained the fused spherical morphology after immobilized on sol-gel film. The fused TAA-AuNPs on MPTS modified Au electrode were used for the determination of HA in phosphate buffer (PB) solution (pH = 7.2). When compared to bare Au electrode, the fused AuNPs modified electrode not only shifted the oxidation potential of HA towards less positive potential but also enhanced its oxidation peak current. Further, the oxidation of HA was highly stable at fused AuNPs modified electrode. Using amperometric method, determination of 17.5 nM HA was achieved for the first time. Further, the current response of HA increases linearly while increasing its concentration from 17.5 nM to 22 mM and a detection limit was found to be 0.39 nM (S/N = 3). The present modified electrode was also successfully used for the determination of 17.5 nM HA in the presence of 200-fold excess of common interferents such as urea, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, oxalate, Mn{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}. The practical application of the present modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of HA in ground water samples.

  11. Effect of laser irradiation on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of polycrystalline TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.; Ali, Asghar

    TiO2 thin film is deposited on glass substrate by sol-gel dip coating technique. After deposition, films were irradiated by continuous wave (CW) diode laser at an angle of 45°. XRD shows both the anatase and brookite phases of TiO2. Nano particles of regular and control sizes are appeared in SEM micrographs. Therefore, shape and size of nano particles can be control by using Laser irradiation. The average sheet resistivity of TiO2 thin film irradiated by 0, 2, 4 and 6 min are 6.72 × 105, 5.32 × 105, 3.44 × 105 and 4.95 × 105 (ohm-m) respectively, according to four point probe.

  12. Effect of sol-age on the surface and optical properties of sol-gel derived mesoporous zirconia thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous ZrO2 thin films have been deposited by a modified sol-gel dip coating technique using HCl as catalyst. Effects of sol-age on the surface and on the optical properties are studied. Transmission electron micrographs of the films reveal the pore dimensions in mesoporous regime. A strong correlation in surface topography with sol-age has been observed where increase in sol-age induces a systematic enhancement in the value of root mean square roughness of the films. Optical study shows that deposited films have high transmittance and an enhancement of 5.6 times in porosity in films prepared with sol-age of 10 days with respect to that of 1 day. Band gap estimation by Tauc's plots of films is observed to 5.74 eV, which shows invariance with the sol-age.

  13. High Refractive Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Films Prepared by Low Water Sol-Gel and UV-Irradiation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Yuan Ma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic-inorganic hybrid sols (Ti–O–Si precursor were first synthesized by the sol-gel method at low addition of water, and were then employed to prepare a highly refractive hybrid optical film. This film was obtained by blending the Ti–O–Si precursor with 2-phenylphenoxyethyl acrylate (OPPEA to perform photo-polymerization by ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Results show that the film transparency of poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA film is higher than that of a pure poly(Ti–O–Si precursor film, and that this poly(Ti–O–Si precursor-co-OPPEA hybrid film exhibits a high transparency of ~93.7% coupled with a high refractive index (n of 1.83 corresponding to a thickness of 2.59 μm.

  14. Sol-gel Synthesis and Photocatalytic Characterization of Immobilized TiO2 Films

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Haidong

    2009-01-01

       Contamination of surface and ground water from industrial wastes and anthropogenic activities represents one of the greatest challenges to the sustainable development of human society. Heterogeneous photocatalysis, a kind of advanced oxidation process characterized by the production of highly oxidative hydroxyl radicals, is a relatively novel subject with tremendous potential in water treatment applications.     The purpose of this research was first to develop feasible hydroxyl radical de...

  15. Sol-gel route to synthesis of microporous ceramic membranes: Thermal stability of TiO2-ZrO2 mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qunyin Xu; Anderson, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper concerning the synthesis of microporous ceramic membranes, the authors focus on the preparation and thermal stability of unsupported microporous TiO 2 -ZrO 2 mixed-oxide membranes. It has been observed that, by adding up to 20% ZrO 2 into TiO 2 or up to 10% TiO 2 into ZrO 2 , these microporous membranes display improved thermal stability. They can be fired up to 500 C for 0.5 h without closing micropores. However, membranes containing almost equal percentages of each component have lost microporous features and have low surface areas and low porosities. A phase diagram of a two-component TiO 2 -ZrO 2 mixed-oxide membrane has been prepared based on DTA and X-ray diffraction data in order to better understand the microstructure changes upon firing

  16. Submicrometric gratings fabrication from photosensitive organo-silica-hafnia thin films elaborated by sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franc, Janyce [Universite de Lyon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS, UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Universite de Saint-Etienne, Jean-Monnet, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Barnier, Vincent, E-mail: barnier@emse.fr [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, SMS-EMSE, CNRS:UMR 5146, LCG, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Vocanson, Francis, E-mail: francis.vocanson@univ-st-etienne.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS, UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Universite de Saint-Etienne, Jean-Monnet, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Gamet, Emilie; Lesage, Maryline [Universite de Lyon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS, UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Universite de Saint-Etienne, Jean-Monnet, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Jamon, Damien [Universite de Lyon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Laboratoire Claude Chappe, Telecom Saint-Etienne, 42000 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France); Universite de Saint-Etienne, Jean-Monnet, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Jourlin, Yves [Universite de Lyon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); CNRS, UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Universite de Saint-Etienne, Jean-Monnet, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France)

    2012-07-31

    The aim of this study is the elaboration of a high index sol-gel material in order to prepare submicrometric grating. The gratings were obtained after few seconds of UV exposure in one step using an organically modified silica-hafnia matrix. The chemical composition of thin films after UV and annealing treatments were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The study of optical properties revealed that the annealed films are transparent from 200 to 1000 nm and have a refractive index from 1.550 to 1.701 depending on the hafnium concentration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica-hafnia matrix with high refractive index was prepared using sol-gel process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic and inorganic networks formation of thin films was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical properties are influenced by annealing treatment and initial hafnium amount. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of high Si:Hf molar ratio can lead to a loss transmittance below 300 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Submicrometric grating period can be prepared using a holographic method.

  17. TiO2/SiO2 prepared via facile sol-gel method as an ideal support for green synthesis of Ag nanoparticles using Oenothera biennis extract and their excellent catalytic performance in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Khodadadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the extract of the plant of Oenothera biennis was used to green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs as an environmentally friendly, simple and low cost method. And Additionally, TiO2/SiO2 was prepared via facile sol-gel method using starch as an important, naturally abundant organic polymer as an ideal support. The Ag NPs/TiO2/SiO2 as an effective catalyst was prepared through reduction of Ag+ ions using Oenothera biennis extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent and Ag NPs immobilization on TiO2/SiO2 surface in the absence of any stabilizer or surfactant. Several techniques such as FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, sScanning eElectron mMicroscopy (FE-SEM, Eenergy dDispersive X-ray sSpectroscopy (EDS, and Ttransmission Eelectron Mmicroscopy (TEM were used to characterize TiO2/SiO2, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, and Ag NPs/TiO2/SiO2. Moreover, the catalytic activity of the Ag NPs/ TiO2/SiO2 was investigated in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP at room temperature. On the basis of the results, the Ag NPs/TiO2/SiO2 was found to be high catalytic activity highly active catalyst according to the experimental results in this study. In addition, Ag NPs/TiO2/SiO2 can be recovered and reused several times in the reduction of 4-NP with no significant loss of catalytic activity.

  18. α Fe2O3 films grown by the spin-on sol-gel deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila G, A.; Carbajal F, G.; Tiburcio S, A.; Barrera C, E.; Andrade I, E.

    2003-01-01

    α-Fe 2 O 3 polycrystalline films with grains larger than 31 nm were grown by the spin-on sol-gel deposition method. The particular sol used was prepared starting from two distinct precursor reagents. Both precursors leaded to similar films. Order within the films was altered by adding tin to the samples. Transmittance measurements confirmed that the hematite phase is obtained by annealing the samples above 400 C and yielded an optical gap of about 2.2 eV, but additional transitions at 2.7 eV were also observed. From RBS measurements it was found that tin inclusion decreases iron content as expected, but also increases oxygen concentration within the films. This last observation was associated to the disorder rise when introducing tin atoms. (Author)

  19. Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol-gel derived bioactive glass film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Ji, Huijiao; Hu, Xiaomeng; Teng, Yu; Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Chen, Weibo; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol-gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

  20. Characterization and hydrogen gas sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidry, Azhar Ali [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Puskelova, Jarmila [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Plecenik, Tomas; Durina, Pavol; Gregus, Jan; Truchly, Martin; Roch, Tomas; Zahoran, Miroslav [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Vargova, Melinda [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kus, Peter; Plecenik, Andrej [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Plesch, Gustav, E-mail: plesch@fns.uniba.sk [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation and characterization of hydrogen sensing TiO{sub 2} thin films by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The annealing effect on the structure, electrical, optical and sensing properties was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The best sensitivity show the films composed of rutile with grain size of {approx}100 nm. - Abstract: Thin films of titanium dioxide with thickness of about 150 nm were deposited by spin coating method on a sapphire substrate from a sol-gel and annealed at various temperatures (from 600 Degree-Sign C to 1000 Degree-Sign C). Structural, optical and hydrogen gas sensing properties of the films were investigated. The annealing temperatures from 600 to 800 Degree-Sign C led to anatase phase with grain size in the range of 14-28 nm. Further increase of the annealing temperature resulted in transformation to rutile phase with larger grain size of about 100-120 nm. The optical band gap tended to decrease with increasing annealing temperature. The estimated values of activation energy for charge transport were in the range of 0.6-1.0 eV for films annealed at temperatures from 600 Degree-Sign C to 800 Degree-Sign C and 0.37-0.38 eV for films annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C and 1000 Degree-Sign C. The films annealed at 900 Degree-Sign C and 1000 Degree-Sign C showed better hydrogen sensitivity, what can be at least partially caused by their higher surface roughness.

  1. Structural and Spectroscopic Studies of Sm3+/CdS Nanocrystallites in Sol-Gel TiO2-ZrO2 Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, S.; Prathibha, Vasudevan; Ann, Mary K. A.; Viji, Vidyadharan; Biju, P. R.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2014-02-01

    A sol-gel method was used to prepare titania-zirconia matrices doped with Sm3+/CdS nanocrystallites. The structural properties of the matrices were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy studies. The thermal stability of the material was determined by TGA/DTA analysis. The absorption spectrum shows the characteristic peaks of the Sm3+ ions and the absorption peak corresponding to the CdS nanocrystallites. The optical bandgap and size of the CdS nanoparticles were calculated from the absorption spectrum. From TEM, the interplanar distance ( d) was estimated to be 3.533 Å, which matches with the (1 0 0) plane of bulk CdS. The measurements yield a nanocrystallite size of around 7.8 nm. The optical absorption and emission spectra confirmed the formation of CdS nanoparticles along with samarium ions in the titania-zirconia matrices. The fluorescence intensity of the samarium ions was found to be greatly enhanced by codoping with CdS nanocrystallites.

  2. Sol-gel derived antireflective coatings for silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, C J; Harrington, M S

    1981-08-01

    The preparation of TiO2-SiO2 AR coatings, containing from 30 to 95 mol % TiO2, from alkoxide precursor solutions (titanium tetraethoxide and silicon tetraethoxide) by a sol-gel process is presented. The preparation of the solutions is described, which involves the separate partial hydrolysis of one or both alkoxides prior to their mixing (Yoldas, 1980). The solutions are applied to polished, circular (1 and 2 in. diameter) silicon wafers by a spinning process. The coated wafers are successively heated in air at each of the following temperatures: 200, 300, 350, 400, and 450 C, and optical measurements are performed on them after each heat treatment. The durability of 90 and 95% TiO2 coatings is evaluated in both acidic and basic environments, and reflectivity, film thickness, and refractive index are measured as a function of exposure time. It is shown that sol-gel films applied at 400 C reveal broad regions of antireflectance compared to other titanium-based films.

  3. Electrochemically deposited sol-gel-derived silicate films as a viable alternative in thin-film design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa, P N; Kanungo, Mandakini; Claycomb, Greg; Sherwood, Peter M A; Collinson, Maryanne M

    2003-10-15

    Sol-gel-derived silicate films were electrochemically deposited on conducting surfaces from a sol consisting of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). In this method, a sufficiently negative potential is applied to the electrode surface to reduce oxygen to hydroxyl ions, which serves as the catalyst for the hydrolysis and condensation of TMOS. The electrodeposition process was followed by the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance and cyclic voltammetry. The electrodeposited films were characterized for their surface morphology, porosity, and film thickness using atomic force microscopy, electrochemical probe techniques, surface area and pore size analysis, and profilometry. The electrodeposited films were found to have a completely different surface structure and to be significantly rougher relative to spin-coated films. This is likely due in part to the separation of the gelation and evaporation stages of film formation. The electrodeposited films were found to be permeable to simple redox molecules, such as ruthenium(III) hexaammine and ferrocene methanol. Film thickness can be easily varied from 15 microm by varying the electrode potential from -600 mV to more than -1000 mV, respectively. The electrodeposition process was further applied for the electroencapsulation of redox molecules and organic dyes within the silicate network. Cyclic voltammograms for the gel-entrapped ferrocene methanol (FcCH2OH) and ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridine) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)) exhibited the characteristic redox behavior of the molecules. The electroencapsulation of organic dyes in their "native" form proved to be more difficult because these species typically contain reducible functionalities that change the structure of the dye.

  4. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Carol S.; Reed, Scott T.

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  5. Effect of annealing temperature on the tribological behavior of ZnO films prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Liyu; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2009-01-01

    The tribological behavior of zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown on glass and silicon (100) substrates by sol-gel method was investigated. Particularly, the as-coated films were post-annealed at different temperatures in air to investigate the effect of annealing temperature. Crystal structural and surface morphology of the films were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). XRD patterns and AFM images indicated that the crystallinity and grain size of the films were enhanced and increased, respectively, with temperature. The tribological behavior of films was evaluated by sliding the ZnO films against a Si 3 N 4 ball under 0.5 gf normal load using a reciprocating pin-on-plate tribo-tester. The wear tracks of the films were measured by AFM to quantify the wear resistance of the films. The results showed that the wear resistance of the films could be improved by the annealing process. The wear resistance of the films generally increased with annealing temperature. Specifically, the wear resistance of the films was significantly improved when the annealing temperature was higher than 550 deg. C. The increase in the wear resistance is attributed to the increase in hardness and modulus of the film with annealing temperature

  6. Evaluation of bulk and surfaces absorption edge energy of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Aparecido Floriano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The absorption edge and the bandgap transition of sol-gel-dip-coating SnO2 thin films, deposited on quartz substrates, are evaluated from optical absorption data and temperature dependent photoconductivity spectra. Structural properties of these films help the interpretation of bandgap transition nature, since the obtained nanosized dimensions of crystallites are determinant on dominant growth direction and, thus, absorption energy. Electronic properties of the bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces are also presented, calculated by means of density functional theory applied to periodic calculations at B3LYP hybrid functional level. Experimentally obtained absorption edge is compared to the calculated energy band diagrams of bulk and (110 and (101 surfaces. The overall calculated electronic properties in conjunction with structural and electro-optical experimental data suggest that the nature of the bandgap transition is related to a combined effect of bulk and (101 surface, which presents direct bandgap transition.

  7. The zinc-loss effect and mobility enhancement of DUV-patterned sol-gel IGZO thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuan-Hsun; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Soppera, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the composition of the DUV-patterned sol-gel indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and observe a significant zinc loss effect during developing when the DUV exposure is insufficient. The zinc loss, however, is beneficial for increasing the mobility. Reducing zinc to indium composition ratio from 0.5 to 0.02 can effectively increase mobility from 0.27 to 7.30 cm2 V-1 s-1 when the gallium to indium ratio is fixed as 0.25 and the post annealing process is fixed as 300 °C for 2 h. On the other hand, an IGO TFT fails to deliver a uniform film and a reproducible TFT performance, revealing the critical role of zinc in forming homogeneous IGZO TFTs.

  8. Dependence of electrical and optical properties of sol-gel prepared undoped cadmium oxide thin films on annealing temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Cruz, J.; Torres-Delgado, G.; Castanedo-Perez, R.; Jimenez-Sandoval, S.; Jimenez-Sandoval, O.; Zuniga-Romero, C.I.; Marquez Marin, J.; Zelaya-Angel, O.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the annealing temperature (T a ) on the optical, electrical and structural properties of the undoped cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films obtained by the sol-gel method, using a simple precursor solution, was studied. All the CdO films annealed in the range from 200 to 450 deg. C are polycrystalline with (111) preferential orientation and present high optical transmission > 85% for wavelengths above 500 nm. The resistivity decreases as T a increases until it reaches a value of 6 x 10 -4 Ω cm for T a 350 deg. C. For higher temperatures the resistivity experiences a slight increase. Images obtained by atomic force microscopy show an evident incremental change of the aggregate size (clusters of grains) as T a increases. The grain size also increases when T a increases as observed in data calculated from X-ray measurements

  9. Surfactant-assisted sol gel preparation of high-surface area mesoporous TiO2 nanocrystalline Li-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casino, S.; Di Lupo, F.; Francia, C.; Tuel, A.; Bodoardo, S.; Gerbaldi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mesoporous TiO 2 nanocrystalline lithium battery anodes with tunable morphology. • Simple sol–gel technique using different cationic surfactants is adopted. • Textural/morphological characteristics define the electrochemical behaviour. • TiO 2 anatase using C16TAB exhibits stable performance after 200 cycles. • It shows promising prospects as high-voltage safe Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: We here investigate the physico-chemical/morphological characteristics and cycling behaviour of several kinds of nanocrystalline TiO 2 Li-ion battery anodes selectively prepared through a simple sol–gel strategy based on a low-cost titanium oxysulfate precursor, by mediation of different cationic surfactants having different features (e.g., chain lengths, counter ion, etc.): i.e., cetyl-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), cetyl-trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), benzalkonium chloride (BC) or octadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (C 18 TAB). X-ray diffraction profiles reveal single phase anatase having good correspondence with the reference pattern when using short chain CTAB, while in the other cases the presence of chloride and/or an increased chain length affect the purity of the samples. FESEM analysis reveal nanosized particles forming cauliflower-like aggregates. TiO 2 materials demonstrate mesoporous characteristics and large specific surface area ranging from 250 to 30 m 2 g −1 . Remarkably stable electrode performance are achieved by appropriately selecting the cationic surfactant and the surfactant/precursor ratio. Detailed analysis is provided on the effect of the reaction conditions upon the formation of mesoporous crystalline titania enlightening new directions for the development of high performing lithium storage electrodes by a simple and low cost sol–gel strategy

  10. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell with Conventionally Annealed and Post-Hydrothermally Treated Nanocrystalline Semiconductor Oxide TiO2 Derived from Sol-Gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Yuwono

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC is one of the very promising alternative renewable energy sources to anticipate the declination in the fossil fuel reserves in the next few decades and to make use of the abundance of intensive sunlight energy in tropical countries like Indonesia. In the present study, TiO2 nanoparticles of different nanocrystallinity was synthesized via sol−gel process with various water to inorganic precursor ratio (Rw of 0.85, 2.00 and 3.50 upon sol preparation, followed with subsequent drying, conventional annealing and post-hydrothermal treatments. The resulting nanoparticles were integrated into the DSSC prototype and sensitized with an organic dye made of the extract of red onion. The basic performance of the fabricated DSSC has been examined and correlated to the crystallite size and band gap energy of TiO2 nanoparticles. It was found that post-hydrothermally treated TiO2 nanoparticles derived from sol of 2.00 Rw, with the most enhanced nanocrystalline size of 12.46 nm and the lowest band gap energy of 3.48 eV, showed the highest open circuit voltage (Voc of 69.33 mV.

  11. Photostability and moisture uptake properties of wood veneers coated with a combination of thin sol-gel films and light stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandla A. Tshabalala; Ryan Libert; Christian M. Schaller

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of inorganic UV blocking nanoparticles for photostabilization of wood surfaces. Photostability and moisture uptake properties of wood veneers coated with a combination of hybrid inorganic-organic thin sol-gel films and organic light stabilizers was investigated. The light stabilizers were applied by brushing...

  12. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co-doped ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayani, Zohra Nazir; Shah, Iqra; Zulfiqar, Bareera; Sabah, Aneeqa [Lahore College for Women Univ., Lahore (Pakistan); Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad [Univ. of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics

    2018-04-01

    Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited using a sol-gel route by changing the number of coats on the substrate from 6 to 18. This project deals with various film thicknesses by increasing the number of deposited coats. The effect of thickness on structural, magnetic, surface morphology and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin film was studied. The crystal structure of the Co-doped ZnO films was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The films have polycrystalline wurtzite hexagonal structures. A Co{sup 2+} ion takes the place of a Zn{sup 2+} ion in the lattice without creating any distortion in its hexagonal wurtzite structure. An examination of the optical transmission spectra showed that the energy band gap of the Co-doped ZnO films increased from 3.87 to 3.97 eV with an increase in the number of coatings on the substrate. Ferromagnetic behaviour was confirmed by measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The surface morphology of thin films was assessed by scanning electron microscope. The grain size on the surface of thin films increased with an increase in the number of coats.

  13. Applications of sol gel ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, D.

    1996-01-01

    The sol gel method is a chemical technique in which polycrystalline ceramic films are fabricated from a solution of organometallic precursors. The technique is attractive for many industrial applications because it is a simple (films are processed in air), flexible (can be used to coat complex geometries) and cost effective (does not require expensive equipment) process. In addition, dense, high quality coatings can be achieved at much lower temperatures than is generally required for sintering bulk ceramics. In this paper the conventional sol gel method and the new datec process are reviewed and potential applications of sol gel coatings in automotive, aerospace, petrochemical, nuclear and electronic industries are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Size control of nanocrystals in InGaZnO4 thin films fabricated by using the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, S. J.; Cho, J. H.; Jang, Y. H.; Kim, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    We report the structural properties of InGaZnO 4 (IGZO) thin films prepared by using the sol-gel method. The structural properties of IGZO thin films were controlled by using the film thickness and thermal annealing temperature. In this study, the crystallization temperature of amorphous IGZO thin films was observed to be about 700 .deg. C. Also, we observed that the crystal size of IGZO thin films increased as the thickness and the annealing temperature were increased. In addition, we could observe that the atomic ratio of In, Ga and Zn of the IGZO thin film was slightly different from the molar ratio of a previous IGZO sol-gel solution (In:Ga:Zn = 1:1:1) post-annealed at 900 .deg. C because In and Zn are more volatile than Ga. The study of the crystallization of amorphous IGZO thin films provides an understanding of the growth mechanisms and thermal annealing effects for IGZO nanocrystals.

  15. Highly transparent ITO thin films on photosensitive glass: sol-gel synthesis, structure, morphology and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Dekany, Imre [University of Szeged, Supramolecular and Nanostructured Materials Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary); Beke, Szabolcs [Italian Institute of Technology, Department of Nanophysics, Genova (Italy); Pecz, Bela; Horvath, Robert; Petrik, Peter; Agocs, Emil [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-05-15

    Conductive and highly transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on photosensitive glass substrates by the combination of sol-gel and spin-coating techniques. First, the substrates were coated with amorphous Sn-doped indium hydroxide, and these amorphous films were then calcined at 550 {sup circle} C to produce crystalline and electrically conductive ITO layers. The resulting thin films were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The measurements revealed that the ITO films were composed of spherical crystallites around 20 nm in size with mainly cubic crystal structure. The ITO films acted as antireflection coatings increasing the transparency of the coated substrates compared to that of the bare supports. The developed ITO films with a thickness of {proportional_to}170-330 nm were highly transparent in the visible spectrum with sheet resistances of 4.0-13.7 k{omega}/sq. By coating photosensitive glass with ITO films, our results open up new perspectives in micro- and nano-technology, for example in fabricating conductive and highly transparent 3D microreactors. (orig.)

  16. Sol-gel prepared B2O3-SiO2 thin films for protection of copper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouda, M.; Ahmed, M.S.; Shahin, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.Borosilicate coating has potential for applications in the field of electronics, e.g., as passivation layers. One of the main difficulties for applying these films by the conventional melting process is the extensive volatilization of B 2 O 3 from the melt. In this work transparent borosilicate films of 2OB 2 O3.8OSiO 2 (in mole %). Prepared by the sole gel method, were applied onto copper substrates by dip-coating technique. The transparency of these films was very sensitive to the humidity of the atmosphere during the coating process. Transparent films were obtained below 20% relative humidity at 20 celsius degree. High temperature oxidation tests, at about 585 celsius degree stream of air, showed that the sol-gel prepared 2OB 2 O 3 .8OSiO 2 thin films are protective coating for copper substrates under fairly severe temperature gradient and oxidizing atmosphere. It was found that the protective action of these films depends on the film thickness

  17. Optical Properties of Sol-Gel Nb2O5 Films with Tunable Porosity for Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin Nb2O5 films with tunable porosity are deposited by the sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly methods using organic template Pluronic PE6100 with different molar fractions with respect to NbCl5 used as a precursor for synthesis of Nb sol. Surface morphology and structure of the films are studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction. The optical characterization of the films is carried out through reflectance spectra measurements of the films deposited on silicon substrates and theoretical modeling in order to obtain refractive index, extinction coefficient, and thickness of the films. The overall porosity of the films and the amount of adsorbed acetone vapors in the pores are quantified by means of Bruggeman effective medium approximation using already determined optical constants. The sensing properties of the samples are studied by measuring both the reflectance spectra and room-temperature photoluminescence spectra prior to and after exposure to acetone vapors and liquid, respectively. The potential of using the studied mesoporous Nb2O5 films for chemooptical sensing is demonstrated and discussed.

  18. A practical demonstration of water disinfection using TiO2 films and sunlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelover, Silvia; Gómez, Luis A; Reyes, Karina; Teresa Leal, Ma

    2006-10-01

    The scope of this study is the assessment of the efficiency of solar disinfection by heterogeneous photocatalysis with sol-gel immobilized (titanium dioxide) TiO2 films over glass cylinders. The solar disinfection process known as SODIS was considered as a reference. Spring water naturally polluted with coliform bacteria was exposed to sunlight in plastic bottles with and without TiO2 over simple solar collectors and the disinfection effectiveness was measured. Total and fecal coliforms quantification was performed by means of the chromogenic substrate method in order to obtain the efficiency of each disinfection treatment. The disinfection with TiO2 was more efficient than the SODIS process, inactivating total coliforms as well as fecal coliforms. On a sunny day (more than 1000 W m(-2) irradiance), it took the disinfection with immobilized TiO2 15 min of irradiation to inactivate the fecal coliforms to make them undetectable. For inactivation of total coliforms, 30 min was required, so that in less than half the time it takes SODIS, the treated water complies with the microbial standards for drinking water in Mexico. Another important part of this study has been to determine the bacterial regrowth in water after the disinfection processes were tested. After SODIS, bacterial regrowth of coliforms was observed. In contrast, when using the TiO2 catalyst, coliforms regrowth was not detected, neither for total nor for fecal coliforms. The disinfection process using TiO2 kept treated water free of coliforms at least for seven days after sun irradiation. This demonstration opens the possibility of application of this simple method in rural areas of developing countries.

  19. Improvement of Sol-Gel Derived PbZrxTi1-xO3 Film Properties Using Thermal Press Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Toshihiko; Kim, Joo-Nam; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2010-09-01

    A thermal press treatment was introduced in the sol-gel process of PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) thin films for the first time and the crystalline and electrical characteristics of the PZT films were investigated. The thermal press treatment was applied to the amorphous PZT gel film before crystallization annealing. It is found that the crystalline orientation and grain size of the PZT film fabricated with the thermal press treatment are different from those of the film fabricated by the conventional sol-gel process without the thermal press treatment, even though the crystallization conditions are exactly the same. It is demonstrated that the electrical properties, especially leakage current density and breakdown field, are significantly improved for the PZT film fabricated with the thermal press treatment. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the fatigue property is improved by introducing the thermal press treatment.

  20. Epitaxial growth of Er, Ti doped LiNbO3 films prepared by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Yoshiga, Tsuyoshi; Kajitani, Naofumi; Takeda, Yuki; Sato, Shoji; Wakita, Koichi; Ohnishi, Naoyuki; Hotta, Kazutoshi; Kurachi, Masato

    2006-01-01

    Erbium (Er 3+ ) doped lithium niobate (LiNbO 3 ) thick films were deposited on z-cut congruent LiNbO 3 (LN) substrate by the sol-gel method from the 0.20 mol/dm 3 precursor solution containing various Er 3+ concentration and 0.10 mol/dm 3 poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and their crystal characteristics were evaluated. The Er 3+ concentration in the LN film was controlled by the Er 3+ concentration in the starting solution. The orientation relationships between Er doped LN films and substrates were determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, and (006) oriented Er doped LN epitaxial layers with parallel epitaxial relationships could be grown on the z-cut LN wafer. Moreover, it was made clear from the electron beam diffraction measurements that the film came to be polycrystalline, when the Er concentration was over 3 mol%. The refractive index of Er-doped LN films decreased with increasing Er concentration. 1.5 mol% Ti: 1.0 mol% Er LN films, which acted as a waveguide, were prepared by our so-gel method. It showed the 1530 nm emission by 980 nm excitation, which was considered to be due to the Er 3+ corresponding to the 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 transition. (author)

  1. Investigation of Electrical, Optical and GaS Sensing properties Sol-Gel Derived WO3 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumludag, F.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) is a wide band gap n-type semiconductor. Thin films of WO 3 are considerable interest because of their potential applications in electrochromic devices, and gas sensors. In this work, WO 3 thin films were deposited on IDT (Interdigital electrodes) by a sol-gel dipping process. Precursor solution was prepared by dissolving of tungstic acid in ammonia. We investigated d.c. and a.c. (40 Hz-100 KHz) electrical properties of the films in the temperature range of 293K and 473K in vacuum ambient (10 - 2 mbar). We observed frequency dependent conductivity behavior at high frequencies. Absorption spectra of the film showed that a maximum absorption occurred at 330 nm. We also investigated the response of the films to vapors of the volatile organic compounds (acetone, chloroform, toluene, ethanol, ammonia) and water vapor. The films showed no sensitivity to the test gases at room temperature. Concentration of the vapors were controlled by mass flowmeters. All the measurement system was computerized

  2. Influence of annealing temperature on microstructure and optical properties of sol-gel derived tungsten oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xilian; Cao Hongtao; Liu Zhimin; Li Jianzhong

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) thin films have been extensively studied for their interesting physical properties and a variety of potential applications in electrochromic devices. In order to explore the possibility of using these in electrochromic devices, a preliminary and thorough study of the optical properties of the host materials is an important step. Based on this, the influence of annealing temperature on the structural, surface morphological, optical and electrochromic properties has been investigated in the present work. The host material, WO 3 films, has been prepared from an ethanolic acetylated peroxotungstic acid sol containing 5 wt.% oxalic acid dehydrate (OAD) by sol-gel technique. The monoclinic structure and textured nature change of the films with the temperature increasing have been investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. The surface morphology evolution of the films has been characterized by SEM. The shift in absorption edge towards the higher wavelength region observed from optical studies may be due to the electron scattering effects and the optical band filling effect that reveals the crystallization of the film. The amorphous film shows better optical modulation (ΔT = 76.9% at λ = 610 nm), fast color-bleach kinetics (t c ∼ 4 s and t b ∼ 9 s) and good reversibility (Q b /Q c = 90%), thereby rendering it suitable for smart window applications.

  3. Effect of Eosin Y Dye on Electrical Properties of ZnO Film Synthesized by Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents preparation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles by the sol-gel technique. ZnO films were prepared by the doctor-blade method, and the resulting films were sensitized with eosin Y (EY) by immersing them in a solution of EY dye in ethanol. The prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy. The monodispersed ZnO nanocrystals possess a wurtzite hexagonal structure with diameter of ˜7 nm to 17 nm as observed by XRD and TEM analyses. The absorption spectrum of EY-dye-sensitized ZnO (ZnO/EY) film is slightly broadened, with a red-shift in the peak position compared with the absorbance spectrum of the dye in ethanol. Measurements of electrical parameters such as dark conductivity and photoconductivity were carried out at different temperatures. Transient photoconductivity was also studied at different temperatures to investigate the photoconduction mechanism. The photosensitivity of the ZnO/EY film is higher than that of the ZnO film. Hall measurements show n-type behavior for both samples. The visible absorption spectrum and high photosensitivity of the ZnO/EY films support their potential use as photoanode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Low-cost growth of magnesium doped gallium nitride thin films by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, N. Mohd; Ng, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost sol-gel spin coating growth of magnesium (Mg) doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films with different concentrations of Mg was reported. The effects of the Mg concentration on the structural, surface morphology, elemental compositions, lattice vibrational, and electrical properties of the deposited films were investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that the Mg-doped samples have wurtzite structure with preferred orientation of GaN(002). The crystallite size decreases and the surface of the films with pits/pores were formed, while the crystalline quality of the films degraded as the Mg concentration increases from 2% to 6. %. All the Raman active phonon modes of the wurtzite GaN were observed while a broad peak attributed to the Mg-related lattice vibrational mode was detected at 669 cm-1. Hall effect results show that the resistivity of the thin films decreases while the hole concentration and hall mobility of thin films increases as the concentration of the Mg increases.

  5. Influence of Nd-Doping on Photocatalytic Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles and Thin Film Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojcieszak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural, optical, and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and TiO2:Nd nanopowders and thin films composed of those materials have been compared. Titania nanoparticles with 1, 3, and 6 at. % of Nd-dopant were synthesized by sol-gel method. Additionally, thin films with the same material composition were prepared with the aid of spin-coating method. The analysis of structural investigations revealed that all as-prepared nanopowders were nanocrystalline and had TiO2-anatase structure. The average size of crystallites was ca. 4-5 nm and the correlation between the amount of neodymium and the size of TiO2 crystallites was observed. It was shown that the dopant content influenced the agglomeration of the nanoparticles. The results of photocatalytic decomposition of MO showed that doping with Nd (especially in the amount of 3 at. % increased self-cleaning activity of the prepared titania nanopowder. Similar effect was received in case of the thin films, but the decomposition rate was lower due to their smaller active surface area. However, the as-prepared TiO2:Nd photocatalyst in the form of thin films or nanopowders seems to be a very attractive material for various applications.

  6. X-ray line profile analysis of BaTiO3 thin film prepared by sol-gel deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Zeen Vee; Saif, Ala'eddin A.; Wahab, Yufridin; Jamal, Zul Azhar Zahid

    2017-04-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin film was prepared using sol-gel method and spun-coated on SiO2/Si substrate. The phase and crystallinity of the synthesized film were identified using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), which scanned at the range of 20° to 60°. The phase and lattice parameters of the fabricated film were extracted from the recorded XRD patterns using lattice geometry equations. The crystallite size and lattice strain were determined using X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA) with various approaches. The Scherrer equation was applied to the perovskite peaks of the film to explore the size contribution on the peak broadening. Meanwhile, the Williamson-Hall and size-strain plot (SSP) methods were used to review two main independent contributions, i.e. crystallite sizes and lattice strain, on the X-ray line broadening. From the analysis, it is found that Scherrer method gives smallest crystallite size value by ignoring the strain-induced broadening effect. On the other hand, Williamson-Hall and SSP graphs revealed the existence of the lattice strain within the film, which contributes to the broadening in the Bragg peak. The results that analyzed via both techniques show a linear trend with all data points fitted. However, result obtained from SSP method gives better settlement due to the best fit of the data.

  7. Zirconium titanate thin film prepared by surface sol-gel process and effects of thickness on dielectric property

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C H

    2002-01-01

    Single phase of multicomponent oxide ZrTiO sub 4 film could be prepared through surface sol-gel route simply by coating the mixture of 100mM zirconium butoxide and titanium butoxide on Pt/Ti/SiO sub 2 /Si(100) substrate, following pyrolysis at 450 .deg. C, and annealing it at 770 .deg. C. The dielectric constant of the film was reduced as the film thickness decreased due to of the interfacial effects caused by layer/electrode and a few voids inside the multilayer. However, the dielectric property was independent of applied dc bias sweeps voltage (-2 to +2 V). The dielectric constant of bulk film, 31.9, estimated using series-connected capacitor model was independent of film thickness and frequency in the measurement range, but theoretical interfacial thickness, t sub i , was dependent on the frequency. It reached a saturated t sub i value, 6.9 A, at high frequency by extraction of some capacitance component formed at low frequency range. The dielectric constant of bulk ZrTiO sub 4 pellet-shaped material was 3...

  8. Structural, Optical Constants and Photoluminescence of ZnO Thin Films Grown by Sol-Gel Spin Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Sattar Gadallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report manufacturing and characterization of low cost ZnO thin films grown on glass substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. For structural properties, X-ray diffraction measurements have been utilized for evaluating the dominant orientation of the thin films. For optical properties, reflectance and transmittance spectrophotometric measurements have been done in the spectral range from 350 nm to 2000 nm. The transmittance of the prepared thin films is 92.4% and 88.4%. Determination of the optical constants such as refractive index, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant in this wavelength range has been evaluated. Further, normal dispersion of the refractive index has been analyzed in terms of single oscillator model of free carrier absorption to estimate the dispersion and oscillation energy. The lattice dielectric constant and the ratio of free carrier concentration to free carrier effective mass have been determined. Moreover, photoluminescence measurements of the thin films in the spectral range from 350 nm to 900 nm have been presented. Electrical measurements for resistivity evaluation of the films have been done. An analysis in terms of order-disorder of the material has been presented to provide more consistency in the results.

  9. Sol-gel reaction stability studied: Influence in the formation temperature and properties of ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.; Vilarinho, P.M.; Kholkin, A.L.; Almeida, A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) sol-gel solutions were prepared based on distilled lead acetate precursor solutions. A detailed analysis of the distillation effect on the lead precursor and the final PZT solution were carried out by Infrared and Raman techniques. It was found that the increase in the number of distillation steps experienced by the lead precursor solutions removes the constitutional water and increases the lead acetate-2-methoxyethanol interconnectivity; thus improving stability and avoiding the aging effect of the resulting PZT solutions. The thermal decomposition process of the PZT solutions was analyzed based on the thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric analysis (DTA) measurements. It was found that as the number of distillation steps in the lead precursor solutions increases, the decomposition rate increases and the formation temperature of pure perovskite PZT films decreases. X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to study the film phase formation. A pure perovskite phase at 500 deg. C was found by the XRD analysis after the second distillation step. Scanning electron microscope technique was used to carry out the microstructural analysis. Dense microstructure was found in all analyzed films and an incipient columnar grain growth was revealed in PZT films prepared based on lead precursor solution with more than three distillation steps. The dependence of the dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties on the number of distillation steps was revealed and a correlation between the distillation process, film microstructure properties and electrical performance was established

  10. Structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline NiO thin film synthesized by sol-gel spin-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghamdi, A.A. [King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Mahmoud, Waleed E., E-mail: w_e_mahmoud@yahoo.co [King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Yaghmour, S.J.; Al-Marzouki, F.M. [King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-11-03

    NiO thin film was prepared by sol-gel spin-coating method. This thin film annealed at T = 600 deg. C. The structure of NiO thin film was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical properties of the deposited film were characterized from the analysis of the experimentally recorded transmittance and reflectance data in the spectral wavelength range of 300-800 nm. The values of some important parameters of the studied films are determined, such as refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), optical absorption coefficient (alpha) and band energy gap (E{sub g}). According to the analysis of dispersion curves, it has been found that the dispersion data obeyed the single oscillator of the Wemple-DiDomenico model, from which the dispersion parameters and high-frequency dielectric constant were determined. In such work, from the transmission spectra, the dielectric constant (epsilon{sub i}nfinity), the third-order optical nonlinear susceptibility chi{sup (3)}, volume energy loss function (VELF) and surface energy loss function (SELF) were determined.

  11. Effect of sol concentration on the properties of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, M.; Mridha, S.; Basak, D.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO thin films are deposited on the glass substrates by sol-gel drain coating technique by varying the concentration of the sol. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis were used to investigate the effect of sol concentration on the crystallinity and surface morphology of the films. The results show that with increase in sol concentration, the value of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (0 0 2) peak decreases while the strain first increases and then decreases. The sol with higher concentration results in the increase in the grain size. The studies on the optical properties show that the band gap value increases from 3.27 to 3.3 eV when the sol concentration changes from 0.03 to 0.1 M. The photoconductivity studies reveal that the film for 0.05 M sol shows the maximum photoresponse for ultraviolet (UV) wavelength (<400 nm) which is co-related with the deep-level defects. The growth and decay of the photocurrent is found to be slowest for the same film

  12. Preparation of CuAlO2 Thin Films by Sol-Gel Method Using Nitrate Solution Dip-Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehara Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CuAlO2 thin films are prepared by sol-gel dip-coating followed by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere using copper nitrate and aluminum nitrate as metal source materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns show (003, (006 and (009 oriented peaks of CuAlO2 at annealing temperature of 800 – 1000°C. This result indicates that the CuAlO2 films prepared in the present work are c-axis oriented. XRD peak intensity increase with annealing temperature and becomes maximum at 850°C. The CuAlO2 XRD peak decreased at annealing temperature of 900°C with appearance of a peak of CuO, and then increased again with annealing temperature until 1000 °C. The films have bandgap of 3.4 eV at annealing temperature of 850°C in which the transparency becomes the highest. At the annealing temperature of 850°C, scanning electron microscope (SEM observation reveals that the films are consist of amorphous fraction and microcrystalline CuAlO2 fraction.

  13. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Short, K.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel bonds have been produced between smooth, clean silicon substrates by spin-coating solutions containing partially hydrolysed silicon alkoxides. The two coated substrates were assembled and the resulting sandwich fired at temperatures ranging from 60 to 600 deg. C. The sol-gel coatings were characterised using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy, while the corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were characterised using both microindentation and tensile testing. Bonding of silicon wafers has been successfully achieved at temperatures as low as 60 deg. C. At 300 deg. C, the interfacial fracture energy was 1.55 J/m 2 . At 600 deg. C, sol-gel bonding provided superior interfacial fracture energy over classical hydrophilic bonding (3.4 J/m 2 vs. 1.5 J/m 2 ). The increase in the interfacial fracture energy is related to the increase in film density due to the sintering of the sol-gel interface with increasing temperature. The superior interfacial fracture energy obtained by sol-gel bonding at low temperature is due to the formation of an interfacial layer, which chemically bonds the two sol-gel coatings on each wafer. Application of a tensile stress on the resulting bond leads to fracture of the samples at the silicon/sol-gel interface

  14. Photoluminescence studies of ZnO thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates grown by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Su [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Giwoong; Kim, Soaram [Department of Nano Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Yeob [Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Lee, Dong-Yul [LED R and D team, Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Yongin 446-711 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Soo [Research Center of Advanced Materials Development (RCAMD), Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-O [Holcombe Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Kim, Jong Su [Department of Physics, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeong-Sik [Department of Visual Optics, Kyungwoon University, Gumi, Gyeongsangbuk-do 730-850 (Korea, Republic of); Leem, Jae-Young, E-mail: jyleem@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates were grown by the sol-gel spin-coating method. The optical properties of the ZnO thin films were investigated using photoluminescence. In the UV range, the asymmetric near-band-edge emission was observed at 300 K, which consisted of two emissions at 3.338 and 3.279 eV. Eight peaks at 3.418, 3.402, 3.360, 3.288, 3.216, 3.145, 3.074, and 3.004 eV, which respectively correspond to the free exciton (FX), bound exciton, transverse optical (TO) phonon replica of FX recombination, and first-order longitudinal optical phonon replica of FX and the TO (1LO+TO), 2LO+TO, 3LO+TO, 4LO+TO, and 5LO+TO, were obtained at 12 K. From the temperature-dependent PL, it was found that the emission peaks at 3.338 and 3.279 eV corresponded to the FX and TO, respectively. The activation energy of the FX and TO emission peaks was found to be about 39.3 and 28.9 meV, respectively. The values of the fitting parameters of Varshni's empirical equation were {alpha}=4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} eV/K and {beta}=4.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} K, and the S factor of the ZnO thin films was 0.658. With increasing temperature, the exciton radiative lifetime of the FX and TO emissions increased. The temperature-dependent variation of the exciton radiative lifetime for the TO emission was slightly higher than that for the FX emission. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO thin films on R-plane sapphire substrates were grown by sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two emission peaks at 3.338 and 3.279 eV were observed at 300 K Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation energies of the two peaks were 39.3 and 28.9 meV,respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exciton radiative lifetime of the two peaks increased with increasing temperature.

  15. Fabrication of highly conductive graphene/ITO transparent bi-film through CVD and organic additives-free sol-gel techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemasiri, Bastian Waduge Naveen Harindu; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Ji-Myon

    2017-12-19

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) still remains as the main candidate for high-performance optoelectronic devices, but there is a vital requirement in the development of sol-gel based synthesizing techniques with regards to green environment and higher conductivity. Graphene/ITO transparent bi-film was synthesized by a two-step process: 10 wt. % tin-doped ITO thin films were produced by an environmentally friendly aqueous sol-gel spin coating technique with economical salts of In(NO 3 ) 3 .H 2 O and SnCl 4 , without using organic additives, on surface free energy enhanced (from 53.826 to 97.698 mJm -2 ) glass substrate by oxygen plasma treatment, which facilitated void-free continuous ITO film due to high surface wetting. The chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene was transferred onto the synthesized ITO to enhance its electrical properties and it was capable of reducing sheet resistance over 12% while preserving the bi-film surface smoother. The ITO films contain the In 2 O 3 phase only and exhibit the polycrystalline nature of cubic structure with 14.35 ± 0.5 nm crystallite size. The graphene/ITO bi-film exhibits reproducible optical transparency with 88.66% transmittance at 550 nm wavelength, and electrical conductivity with sheet resistance of 117 Ω/sq which is much lower than that of individual sol-gel derived ITO film.

  16. Induced conductivity in sol-gel ZnO films by passivation or elimination of Zn vacancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Winarski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Undoped and Ga- and Al- doped ZnO films were synthesized using sol-gel and spin coating methods and characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM, optical spectroscopy and Hall-effect measurements. SEM measurements reveal an average grain size of 20 nm and distinct individual layer structure. Measurable conductivity was not detected in the unprocessed films; however, annealing in hydrogen or zinc environment induced significant conductivity (∼10−2 Ω.cm in most films. Positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements provided strong evidence that the significant enhancement in conductivity was due to hydrogen passivation of Zn vacancy related defects or elimination of Zn vacancies by Zn interstitials which suppress their role as deep acceptors. Hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies is shown to play an important role in tuning the electrical conductivity of ZnO, similar to its role in passivation of defects at the Si/SiO2 interface that has been essential for the successful development of complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS devices. By comparison with hydrogen effect on other oxides, we suggest that hydrogen may play a universal role in oxides passivating cation vacancies and modifying their electronic properties.

  17. Induced conductivity in sol-gel ZnO films by passivation or elimination of Zn vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarski, D. J.; Anwand, W.; Wagner, A.; Saadatkia, P.; Selim, F. A.; Allen, M.; Wenner, B.; Leedy, K.; Allen, J.; Tetlak, S.; Look, D. C.

    2016-09-01

    Undoped and Ga- and Al- doped ZnO films were synthesized using sol-gel and spin coating methods and characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical spectroscopy and Hall-effect measurements. SEM measurements reveal an average grain size of 20 nm and distinct individual layer structure. Measurable conductivity was not detected in the unprocessed films; however, annealing in hydrogen or zinc environment induced significant conductivity (˜10-2 Ω .cm) in most films. Positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements provided strong evidence that the significant enhancement in conductivity was due to hydrogen passivation of Zn vacancy related defects or elimination of Zn vacancies by Zn interstitials which suppress their role as deep acceptors. Hydrogen passivation of cation vacancies is shown to play an important role in tuning the electrical conductivity of ZnO, similar to its role in passivation of defects at the Si/SiO2 interface that has been essential for the successful development of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices. By comparison with hydrogen effect on other oxides, we suggest that hydrogen may play a universal role in oxides passivating cation vacancies and modifying their electronic properties.

  18. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of Ti-doped hematite thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian Xiaojuan; Yang Xin; Liu Shangjun; Xu Ying; Jiang Chunping; Chen Jinwei [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wang Ruilin, E-mail: rlwang26@yahoo.com.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Ti-doped {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were successfully prepared on FTO substrates by the sol-gel route. Hematite film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The XRD data showed {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} had a preferred (1 1 0) orientation which belonged to the rhombohedral system. Interestingly, the grains turned into worm-like shape after annealed at high temperature. The IPCE could reach 32.6% at 400 nm without any additional potential vs. SCE. Titanium in the lattice can affect the photo electro chemical performance positively by increasing the conductivity of the thin film. So the excited electrons and holes could live longer, rather than recombining with each other rapidly as undoped hematite. And the efficient carrier density on the Ti-doped anode surface was higher than the undoped anode, which contribute to the well PEC performance.

  19. Influência do tipo de ácido e tempo de envelhecimento na atividade fotocatalítica de filmes finos de TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Key Okada Nakamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were prepared by the sol-gel method using different acids (HCl and HAc, with a parallel evaluation of the gel ageing effects on the film properties. After the thermal treatments, the resulting materials were characterized through gravimetric analysis, UV-VIS spectrophotometry (from which optical parameters such as band gap was derived, XRD, morphological surface analysis (AFM and photocatalytic activity. The majority of the obtained thin films parameters were similar independent of the acid type and the ageing time of the gel. Nevertheless, a visible effect of the surface morphology properties on the films and their photocatalytic activity was observed.

  20. Comparative microstructure and electrical property studies of lead scandium tantalate thin films as prepared by LDCVD, sol-gel and sputtering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z; Donohue, P P; Zhang, Q; Williams, D J; Anthony, C J; Whatmore, R W; Todd, M A

    2003-01-01

    Lead scandium tantalate (PST) thin films for uncooled infrared (IR) detector applications have been deposited by liquid delivery chemical vapour deposition (LDCVD), sputtering and sol-gel techniques. The sol-gel and sputtered films were deposited at low temperature into a non-ferroelectric phase with the required perovskite structure being formed using a high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA). In contrast to this, the LDCVD films were deposited at high temperature directly into the perovskite phase but were found to still require a high temperature RTA step to optimize their merit for IR detection. Detailed structural and electrical characterization of the PST films deposited by these different methods have revealed that there is no simple relationship between microstructure and electrical properties. The sol-gel and LDCVD techniques produce thin films with excellent microstructures, as determined by x-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy, but inferior electrical properties and relatively low merit figures. By contrast, the sputtered and then rapid thermal annealed films have inferior microstructures, characterized by extensive voiding, but excellent electrical properties and high merit figures

  1. Zinc oxide films impurified with Ti and prepared by the Sol-gel method; Peliculas de oxido de zinc impurificadas con Ti y preparadas por el metodo Sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado G, S. [ESFM-IPN, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cazares R, J.M.; Maldonado, A. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Titanium-doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared on silicon substrate using the Sol-Gel technique. The structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such thin films were studied as a function of titanium concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and the thin films thickness. Zinc acetate dihydrate and titanium (VI)-oxy acetylacetonate were used as precursor materials, using 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine as via. The X-ray diffraction spectra show polycrystalline films in all the cases. It can see for all the thin films a preferential growth along the (002) planes where the titanium concentration and also the thin films thickness play an important rule. No structural changes are observed at all. The surface morphology studied shows as the grain size decreases when thin thickness is increases. For titanium concentration of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % values the grains size increase also. The thin films thickness for titanium concentration of 1.5 % was 500 nm (4v), 400 nm (3v), 180 nm (2v) and 130 nm (1v), values obtained from cross-section micrographs. Highly resistive samples are obtained for substrate soda-lime even showing high transmittance. Better physical properties are required for gas sensors or semitransparent electrodes and other possible applications. (Author)

  2. Structural and electrochemical behavior of sol-gel ZrO2 ceramic film on chemically pre-treated AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Chen Bo; Xu Shuqiang; Gao Hui; Zhang Liang; Liu Chao

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation sol-gel-based ZrO 2 ceramic film was obtained using zirconium acetate as the precursor material. The film was deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy by a dip-coating technique. An uniform stannate conversion coating as chemical pretreatment was employed as an intermediate layer prior to deposition of the ZrO 2 film in order to provide advantage for the formation of sol-gel-based ZrO 2 layer. The corrosion properties, structure, composition and morphology of these coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy were studied by potentiodynamic polarization tests, EIS, XRD, SEM, respectively. According to the electrochemical tests, the corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy was found to be greatly improved by means of this new environment-friendly surface treatment.

  3. Effects of lithium doping on microstructure, electrical properties, and chemical bonds of sol-gel derived NKN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematic and Physical Sciences, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chan-Ching; Weng, Chung-Ming [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Cheng-Che [Department of Digital Game and Animation Design, Tung-Fang Design University, Kaohsiung 829, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highly (100/110) oriented lead-free Li{sub x}(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 1−x}NbO{sub 3} (LNKN, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) thin films are fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates via a sol-gel processing method. The lithium (Li) dopants modify the microstructure and chemical bonds of the LNKN films, and therefore improve their electrical properties. The optimal values of the remnant polarization (P{sub r} = 14.3 μC/cm{sup 2}), piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33} = 48.1 pm/V), and leakage current (<10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2}) are obtained for a lithium addition of x = 0.04 (i.e., 4 at. %). The observation results suggest that the superior electrical properties are the result of an improved crystallization, a larger grain size, and a smoother surface morphology. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by an Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect under high electric fields.

  4. Effects of lithium doping on microstructure, electrical properties, and chemical bonds of sol-gel derived NKN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chen, Chan-Ching; Weng, Chung-Ming; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Hong, Cheng-Shong; Tsai, Cheng-Che

    2015-01-01

    Highly (100/110) oriented lead-free Li x (Na 0.5 K 0.5 ) 1−x NbO 3 (LNKN, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) thin films are fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates via a sol-gel processing method. The lithium (Li) dopants modify the microstructure and chemical bonds of the LNKN films, and therefore improve their electrical properties. The optimal values of the remnant polarization (P r  = 14.3 μC/cm 2 ), piezoelectric coefficient (d 33  = 48.1 pm/V), and leakage current (<10 −5 A/cm 2 ) are obtained for a lithium addition of x = 0.04 (i.e., 4 at. %). The observation results suggest that the superior electrical properties are the result of an improved crystallization, a larger grain size, and a smoother surface morphology. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by an Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect under high electric fields

  5. Optical Degradation of Colloidal Eu-Complex Embedded in Silica Glass Film Using Reprecipitation and Sol-Gel Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Tomokazu; Yamaki, Tatsuki

    2016-04-01

    A reprecipitation method has been investigated for fabricating colloidal nanoparticles using Eu-complex. Herein, we investigated optical degradation characteristics of (1,10-phenanthroline)tris [4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-thienyl)-1,3-butanedionato]europium(III) colloidal nanoparticles, which were embedded into a silica glass film fabricated by a conventional sol-gel process. At first, we tried several types of good solvents for the reprecipitation method, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is found to be a suitable solvent for realizing the small diameter and the high long-term stability against the ultraviolet irradiation even though the boing point of DMSO is higher than that of water used as a poor solvent. By optimizing the good solvent and the concentration of Eu-complex, the relative photoluminescence intensity of 0.96 was achieved even though the ultraviolet light was continuously irradiated for 90 min. In addition, the average diameter of 106 nm was achieved when DMSO was used as a good solvent, resulting in the high transmittance at a visible wavelength region. Therefore, we can achieve the transparent emissive thin film with a center wavelength of 612 nm, and the optical degradation was drastically reduced by forming nanoparticles.

  6. Surface analysis and biocorrosion properties of nanostructured surface sol-gel coatings on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advincula, Maria C; Petersen, Don; Rahemtulla, Firoz; Advincula, Rigoberto; Lemons, Jack E

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces of biocompatible alloys used as implants play a significant role in their osseointegration. Surface sol-gel processing (SSP), a variant of the bulk sol-gel technique, is a relatively new process to prepare bioreactive nanostructured titanium oxide for thin film coatings. The surface topography, roughness, and composition of sol-gel processed Ti6Al4V titanium alloy coatings was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS). This was correlated with corrosion properties, adhesive strength, and bioreactivity in simulated body fluids (SBF). Electroimpedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization studies indicated similar advantageous corrosion properties between sol-gel coated and uncoated Ti6Al4V, which was attributed to the stable TiO2 composition, topography, and adhesive strength of the sol-gel coating. In addition, inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) analysis of substrates immersed in SBF revealed higher deposition of calcium and phosphate and low release rates of alloying elements from the sol-gel modified alloys. The equivalent corrosion behavior and the definite increase in nucleation of calcium apatite indicate the potential of the sol-gel coating for enhanced bioimplant applications. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. ARSENIC REMOVAL USING SOL-GEL SYNTHESIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the effectiveness of TiO2 nanoparticles in arsenic adsorption was examined. TiO2 particles (LS) were synthesized via sol-gel techniques and characterized for their crystallinity, surface area and pore volume. Batch adsorption studies were perf...

  8. Evaluation of hybrid sol-gel incorporated with nanoparticles as nano paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameel, Zainab N.; Haider, Adawiya J.; Taha, Samar Y.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Bok, Sangho

    2016-01-01

    A coating with self-cleaning characteristics has been developed using a TiO_2/SiO_2 hybrid sol-gel, TiO_2 nanoparticles and organosilicate nanoparticles (OSNP). A patented technology of the hybrid sol-gel and OSNP was combined with TiO_2 nanoparticles to create the surface chemistry for self-cleaning. Two synthesis methods have been developed to prepare TiO_2 nanoparticles (NPs), resulting in the enhancement of local paint by the addition of anatase and rutile TiO_2 phases. The NPs size as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) ranges within of (3-4) and (20-42) nm, which was also confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The nanoparticles showed surface charge (zeta-potential, ζ) of +35 and +25.62 mV for the methods, respectively, and ζ values of +41.31 and 34.02 mV for anatase and rutile phases, respectively. The NPs were mixed with the coating solution (i.e., hybrid sol-gel and OSNP) in different concentrations and thin films were prepared by spin coating. Self-cleaning tests were performed using Rhodamine B (RhB) as a pollution indicator. The effect of UV-irradiation on the films was also studied. Anatase and rutile incorporated as a mixture with different ratios in local paint and washability as well as a contrast ratio tests were performed. It was found that the addition of TiO_2 NPs in combination with irradiation show a great enhancement of RhB degradation (1%) wt. with a decrease in contact angle and improved washability.

  9. Advancements in artificial heart valve disks using nano-sized thin films deposited by CVD and sol-gel techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kousar, Y.; Ali, N.; Neto, V.F.; Mei, S.; Gracio, J.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is widely used in manufacturing commercial artificial heart valve disks (HVD). Although, PyC is commonly used in HVD, it is not the best material for this application since its blood compatibility is not ideal for prolonged clinical use. As a result thrombosis often occurs and the patients are required to take anti- coagulation drugs on a regular basis in order to minimise the formation of thrombosis. However, the anti-coagulation therapy gives rise to some detrimental side effects in patients. Therefore, it is extremely urgent that newer and more technically advanced materials with better surface and bulk properties are developed. In this paper, we report the mechanical properties of PyC-HVD, namely, strength, wear resistance and coefficient of friction. The strength of the material was assessed using Brinell indentation tests. Furthermore, wear resistance and the coefficient of friction values were obtained from the pin-on-disk testing. The micro-structural properties of PyC were characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis. Also, in this paper we report the preparation of free standing nanocrystalline diamond films (FSND) using the time-modulated chemical vapor deposition (TMCVD) process. Furthermore, the sol-gel technique was used to uniformly coat PyC-HVD with dense, nanocrystalline-titanium oxide (nc-TiO/sub 2/) coatings. The as-grown nc-TiO/sub 2/ coatings were characterized for microstructure using SEM and XRD analysis. (author)

  10. Current-voltage characterization of Au contact on sol-gel ZnO films with and without conducting polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Jheng, Mei-Jyuan; Zeng, Jian-Jhou

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the current density-voltage (J-V) characteristics of Au/n-type ZnO and Au/polyaniline (PANI)/n-type ZnO devices. ZnO films were prepared by the sol-gel method. For Au/n-type ZnO devices, native defects and impurities resident within the ZnO depletion region contribute to barrier thinning of, carrier hopping across, and tunneling through the Schottky barrier. This leads to the formation of nonalloyed ohmic contacts. However, rectifying junctions were formed on n-type ZnO by employing the simple technique of spin-coating PANI to act as the electron-blocking layer. Our present results suggest that the ZnO depletion region at the PANI/n-type ZnO interface is not the origin of the rectifying behavior of Au/PANI/n-type ZnO contact. In addition, the presence of the built-in potential of Au/PANI/n-type ZnO devices could result in the shift of the J-V curve toward negative voltage. Excellent agreement between simulated and measured data was obtained when the built-in potential was taken into account in the J-V relationship.

  11. A Humidity Sensor Based on Nb-doped Nanoporous TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Anbia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The humidity sensing properties of the sensor fabricated from Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 by screen-printing on the alumina substrate with Ag-Pd interdigital electrodes have been investigated. The nanoporous thin film has been prepared by sol-gel technique. The product has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the structure and its morphology. It is found that the impedance of this sensor changes more than four orders of magnitude in the relative humidity (RH range of 11–95 % at 25 °C. The response and recovery time of the sensor are about 19 and 25 s, respectively, during the RH variation from 11 to 95 %. The sensor shows high humidity sensitivity, rapid response and recovery, prominent stability, good repeatability and narrow hysteresis loop. These results indicate that Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 thin films have a great potential for humidity sensing applications in room temperature operations.

  12. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Sol-gel-derived Thin Films as Gas Sensor for NO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. O’Shea

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the possibilities and properties of Indium tin oxide (ITO-covered quartz crystal as a NOx toxic gas-sensor. The starting sol-gel solution was prepared by mixing indium chloride dissolved in acetylacetone and tin chloride dissolved in ethanol (0-20% by weight. The ITO thin films were deposited on the gold electrodes of quartz crystal by spin-coating technique and subsequently followed a standard photolithography to pattern the derived films to ensure all sensors with the same sensing areas. All heat treatment processes were controlled below 500°C in order to avoid the piezoelectric characteristics degradation of quartz crystal (Quartz will lose its piezoelectricity at ~573°C due to the phase change from α to β. The electrical and structural properties of ITO thin films were characterized with Hall analysis system, TG/DTA, XRD, XPS, SEM and etc. The gas sensor had featured with ITO thin films of ~100nm as the receptor to sense the toxic gas NO and quartz crystal with frequency of 10MHz as the transducer to transfer the surface reactions (mass loading, etc into the frequency shift. A homemade setup had been employed to measure the sensor response under the static mode. The experimental results had indicated that the ITO-coated QCM had a good sensitivity for NO gas, ~12Hz/100ppm within 5mins. These results prove that the ITO-covered quartz crystals are usable as a gas sensor and as an analytical device.

  13. Influence of different TiO2 blocking films on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenxi; Luo, Yudan; Chen, Xiaohong; Ou-Yang, Wei; Chen, Yiwei; Sun, Zhuo; Huang, Sumei

    2016-12-01

    Organolead trihalide perovskite materials have been successfully used as light absorbers in efficient photovoltaic (PV) cells. Cell structures based on mesoscopic metal oxides and planar heterojunctions have already demonstrated very impressive and brisk advances, holding great potential to grow into a mature PV technology. High power conversion efficiency (PCE) values have been obtained from the mesoscopic configuration in which a few hundred nano-meter thick mesoporous scaffold (e.g. TiO2 or Al2O3) infiltrated by perovskite absorber was sandwiched between the electron and hole transport layers. A uniform and compact hole-blocking layer is necessary for high efficient perovskite-based thin film solar cells. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of TiO2 compact layer using various methods and its effects on the PV performance of perovskite solar cells. TiO2 compact layer was prepared by a sol-gel method based on titanium isopropoxide and HCl, spin-coating of titanium diisopropoxide bis (acetylacetonate), screen-printing of Dyesol's bocking layer titania paste, and a chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique via hydrolysis of TiCl4, respectively. The morphological and micro-structural properties of the formed compact TiO2 layers were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The analyses of devices performance characteristics showed that surface morphologies of TiO2 compact films played a critical role in affecting the efficiencies. The nanocrystalline TiO2 film deposited via the CBD route acts as the most efficient hole-blocking layer and achieves the best performance in perovskite solar cells. The CBD-based TiO2 compact and dense layer offers a small series resistance and a large recombination resistance inside the device, and makes it possible to achieve a high power conversion efficiency of 12.80%.

  14. In Situ Formation of Decavanadate-Intercalated Layered Double Hydroxide Films on AA2024 and their Anti-Corrosive Properties when Combined with Hybrid Sol Gel Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A layered double hydroxide (LDH film was formed in situ on aluminum alloy 2024 through a urea hydrolysis method, and a decavanadate-intercalated LDH (LDH-V film fabricated through the dip coating method. The microstructural and morphological characteristics were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The corrosion-resistant performance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM, and a salt-spray test (SST.The SEM results showed that a complete and defect-free surface was formed on the LDH-VS film. The anticorrosion results revealed that the LDH-VS film had better corrosion-resistant properties than the LDH-S film, especially long-term corrosion resistance. The mechanism of corrosion protection was proposed to consist of the self-healing effect of the decavanadate intercalation and the shielding effect of the sol-gel film.

  15. Formation and prevention of fractures in sol-gel-derived thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappert, Emiel; Pavlenko, Denys; Malzbender, J.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Tsai, Peichun Amy

    2015-01-01

    Sol–gel-derived thin films play an important role as the functional coatings for various applications that require crack-free films to fully function. However, the fast drying process of a standard sol–gel coating often induces mechanical stresses, which may fracture the thin films. An experimental

  16. Bulk and thick films of the superconducting phase YBa2Cu3O7/sub -//sub y/ made by controlled precipitation and sol-gel processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboux, P.; Tarascon, J.M.; Greene, L.H.; Hull, G.W.; Bagley, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of high-temperature superconducting oxides using solution chemistry has been investigated and physical properties are compared to ceramics obtained by conventional solid-state reactions. We report on controlled precipitation and sol-gel processes, both of which produce materials with particle sizes smaller than 5 μm. We find that the superconducting properties of the high T/sub c/ ceramics are affected by their manner of preparation, such that the transitions are slightly lower in temperature, but sharper, for samples made by solution rather than solid-state chemistry. The ability to prepare stable viscous gels provides an opportunity for obtaining large areas of superconducting coatings. For thick films on alumina or silicon substrates, contamination from the substrate is shown to be a problem. Finally, we observe that the sol-gel process lowers the synthesis temperature by 100 0 C.ing,

  17. Spatially resolved speckle-correlometry of sol-gel transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, A. A.; Isaeva, E. A.; Pantyukov, A. V.; Zimnyakov, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Sol-gel transition was studied using the speckle correlometry method with a localized light source and spatial filtering of backscattered radiation. Water solutions of technical or food gelatin with added TiO2 nanoparticles were used as studied objects. Structural transformation of "sol-gel" system was studied at various temperatures from 25°C to 50°C using analysis of the correlation and structure functions of speckle intensity fluctuations. The characteristic temperatures of "sol - gel" transition were evaluated for studied systems. Obtained results can be used for various applications in biomedicine and food industry.

  18. The photocatalytic application and regeneration of anatase thin films with embedded commercial TiO2 particles deposited on glass microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Valtierra, Jorge; Garcia-Servin, Josafat; Frausto-Reyes, Claudio; Calixto, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Anatase thin films ( 2 were prepared by sol-gel method. TiO 2 -anatase thin films were deposited on a fiberglass substrate and then ground to obtain glass microrods containing the composite films. The film structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, atomic absorption and UV-vis spectrophotometry, and atomic force microscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the composite films, calcined at 450 deg. C, and the regeneration of the activity under the same experimental conditions, were assessed using gas chromatography to study the photodegradation of phenol, an industrial pollutant, in water under 365 nm irradiation. The film with 15.0 wt.% of P25 TiO 2 was found to be more photoactive (54 ppm of degraded phenol at 6 h of illumination) than the other ones

  19. Texture variations in sol-gel derived PZT films on substrates with platinum metallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Cobianu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Metalorganic precursor solutions of composition Zr : Ti = 0.53 : 0.47 were used to spin-cast PZT layers on sputtered Pt films. After annealing at temperatures of 550 °C - 800 °C, the PZT films of tetragonal perovskite structure reproducibly showed different textures and surface morphologies,

  20. Copper oxide thin films anchored on glass substrate by sol gel spin coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Venu, M. Parvathy; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the excellent optical, thermal, electrical and photocatalytic properties, copper oxide nanoparticles/films have found applications in optoelectronic devices like solar/photovoltaic cells, lithium ion batteries, gas sensors, catalysts, magnetic storage media etc. Copper oxide is a p-type semiconductor material having a band gap energy varying from 1.2 eV-2.1 eV. Syzygium Samarangense fruit extract was used as reducing agent to synthesize copper oxide nanostructures at room temperature from 10 mM copper sulphate pentahydrate solution. The synthesized nanostructures are deposited onto glass substrate by spin coating followed by annealing the film at 200 °C. Both the copper oxide colloid and films are characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Presence of 2 peaks at 500 nm and a broad peak centered around 800 nm in the UV-Vis absorbance spectra of copper oxide colloid/films is indicative of the formation of anisotropic copper oxide nanostructures is confirmed by the FESEM images which showed the presence of triangular shaped and rod shaped particles. The rod shaped particles inside island like structures were found in unannealed films whereas the annealed films contained different shaped particles with reduced sizes. The elemental analysis using EDS spectra of copper oxide nanoparticles/films showed the presence of both copper and oxygen. Electrical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles are affected due to quantum size effect. The electrical studies carried out on both unannealed and annealed copper oxide films revealed an increase in resistivity with annealing of the films.

  1. Ferroelectric properties of PZT/BFO multilayer thin films prepared using the sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seo-Hyeon; Lee, Sung-Gap; Lee, Young-Hie

    2012-01-05

    In this study, Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3/BiFeO3 [PZT/BFO] multilayer thin films were fabricated using the spin-coating method on a Pt(200 nm)/Ti(10 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/p-Si(100) substrate alternately using BFO and PZT metal alkoxide solutions. The coating-and-heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All PZT/BFO multilayer thin films show a void-free, uniform grain structure without the presence of rosette structures. The relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the six-coated PZT/BFO [PZT/BFO-6] thin film were approximately 405 and 0.03%, respectively. As the number of coatings increased, the remanent polarization and coercive field increased. The values for the BFO-6 multilayer thin film were 41.3 C/cm2 and 15.1 MV/cm, respectively. The leakage current density of the BFO-6 multilayer thin film at 5 V was 2.52 × 10-7 A/cm2.

  2. Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, John M.; Wallace, Steven A.; Dai, Sheng

    1999-01-01

    An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

  3. Bioactive materials for biomedical applications using sol-gel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Radha; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-01-01

    This review paper focuses on the sol-gel technology that has been applied in many of the potential research areas and highlights the importance of sol-gel technology for preparing bioactive materials for biomedical applications. The versatility of sol-gel chemistry enables us to manipulate the characteristics of material required for particular applications. Sol-gel derived materials have proved to be good biomaterials for coating films and for the construction of super-paramagnetic nanoparticles, bioactive glasses and fiberoptic applicators for various biomedical applications. The introduction of the sol-gel route in a conventional method of preparing implants improves the mechanical strength, biocompatibility and bioactivity of scaffolds and prevents corrosion of metallic implants. The use of organically modified silanes (ORMOSILS) yields flexible and bioactive materials for soft and hard tissue replacement. A novel approach of nitric-oxide-releasing sol-gels as antibacterial coatings for reducing the infection around orthopedic implants has also been discussed

  4. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberto Gómez-Pozos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C3H8, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 104, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C3H8 gas.

  5. The effect of aeration and solar intensity power on photocatalytic degradation of textile industrial wastewater using TiO2 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Kassim, N.F.; Ku Hamid, K.H.; Azizan, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solar photo catalytic degradation of the textile industry wastewater using TiO 2 thin films was studied. This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of aeration and solar intensity power on decreasing of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). A serpentine flow photo catalytic reactor was developed for this purpose. TiO 2 thin films photo catalyst supported on the stainless steel 304 substrates were prepared using sol-gel dip coating method. The results of thin films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). XRD result showed that the prepared thin films gave the anatase crystallite formation whilst SEM demonstrated the macro pores were formed. Finally, the aeration and solar intensity power factors are considered to be responsible for the photo catalytic degradation. (Author)

  6. Fabrication and application of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film coated on Al wire by sol-gel method with EISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Linkang; Lu, Jianjun, E-mail: lujianjunktz@tyut.edu.cn

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Successfully fabricated mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin film on Al wire by sol-gel method with EISA. • Ni supported on this film and exhibits good methanation performance. • Investigate the decomposition temperature of template agent F127 in TiO{sub 2} precursor system. - Abstract: Mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film on Al wire was fabricated by sol-gel method with evaporation induced self assembly (EISA) process using F127 as templating agent in the mixed solution of ethanol and Tetra-n-butyl Titanate. The Ni/TiO{sub 2} film catalyst supported on Al wire was prepared by impregnation and the catalytic performance on methanation was carried out in a titanium alloy micro-reactor tube. It was shown that anatase mesoporous TiO{sub 2} film was prepared in this conditions (1 g F127,calcined at 400 °C and aged for 24 h), which has specific surface area of 127 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and narrow pore size distribution of 5.3 nm. Low calcined temperature (300 °C) cannot transfer film to anatase and decompose F127 completely. Ni/TiO{sub 2} film on Al wire catalyst was proved to be active in CO methanation reaction. And the CO conversion reaches 99% and CH{sub 4} selectivity close is to 80% when the reaction temperature is higher 360 °C.

  7. Sol-gel preparation of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) powders and thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, T.J.

    1999-01-12

    A method of preparing a lead magnesium niobium oxide (PMN), Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}, precursor solution by a solvent method wherein a liquid solution of a lead-complex PMN precursor is combined with a liquid solution of a niobium-complex PMN precursor, the combined lead- and niobium-complex liquid solutions are reacted with a magnesium-alkyl solution, forming a PMN precursor solution and a lead-based precipitate, and the precipitate is separated from the reacted liquid PMN precursor solution to form a precipitate-free PMN precursor solution. This precursor solution can be processed to form both ferroelectric powders and thin films. 3 figs.

  8. Effect of precursor concentration and film thickness deposited by layer on nanostructured TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Sol-gel spin coating method is used in the production of nanostructured TiO2 thin film. The surface topology and morphology was observed using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The electrical properties were investigated by using two probe current-voltage (I-V) measurements to study the electrical resistivity behavior, hence the conductivity of the thin film. The solution concentration will be varied from 14.0 to 0.01wt% with 0.02wt% interval where the last concentration of 0.02 to 0.01wt% have 0.01wt% interval to find which concentrations have the highest conductivity then the optimized concentration's sample were chosen for the thickness parameter based on layer by layer deposition from 1 to 6 layer. Based on the result, the lowest concentration of TiO2, the surface becomes more uniform and the conductivity will increase. As the result, sample of 0.01wt% concentration have conductivity value of 1.77E-10 S/m and will be advanced in thickness parameter. Whereas in thickness parameter, the 3layer deposition were chosen as its conductivity is the highest at 3.9098E9 S/m.

  9. A weak-light-responsive TiO2/g-C3N4 composite film: photocatalytic activity under low-intensity light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peifang; Guo, Xiang; Rao, Lei; Wang, Chao; Guo, Yong; Zhang, Lixin

    2018-05-10

    A TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 composite photocatalytic film was prepared by in situ synthesis method and its photocatalytic capability under weak-visible-light condition was studied. The co-precursor with different ratio of melamine and TiO 2 sol-gel precursor were treated using ultrasonic mixing, physical deposition, and co-sintering method to form the smooth, white-yellow, and compact TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 composite films. The prepared TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 materials were characterized by SEM, TEM, EDS, XRD, BET, VBXPS, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The results of composite showed that TiO 2 and g-C 3 N 4 have close interfacial connections which are favorable to charge transfer between these two semiconductors with suitable band structure, g-C 3 N 4 retard the anatase-to-rutile phase transition of TiO 2 significantly, the specific surface area were increased with g-C 3 N 4 ratio raised. Under weak-light irradiation, composite films photocatalytic experiments exhibited RhB removal efficiency approaching 90% after three recycles. Powders suspension degradation experiments revealed the removal efficiency of TiO 2 /g-C 3 N 4 (90.8%) was higher than pure TiO 2 (52.1%) and slightly lower than pure g-C 3 N 4 (96.6%). By control experiment, the enhanced photocatalysis is ascribed to the combination of TiO 2 and g-C 3 N 4 , which not only produced thin films with greater stability but also formed heterojunctions that can be favorable to charge transfer between these two semiconductors with suitable band structure. This study presents the potential application of photocatalytic film in the wastewater treatment under weak-light situation.

  10. Effect of metal ion dopants on photochemical properties of anatase TiO{sub 2} films synthesized by a modified sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Zhangfu [Multi-Phase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10080 (China)]. E-mail: yuanzhf@home.ipe.ac.cn; Zhang Junling [Multi-Phase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10080 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Bin [Multi-Phase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10080 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Jianqiang [Multi-Phase Reaction Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10080 (China)

    2007-06-25

    Anatase TiO{sub 2} films were successfully synthesized by a modified sol-gel method wherein peroxo titanic acid solution was derived from TiCl{sub 4}/ethanol/water solution at room temperature. The as-prepared films were further surface-doped by photodeposited Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} to improve its physicochemical properties. The phase and structure of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The physicochemical properties of the films were also measured. The results show that both hydrophilicity and photocatalytic activity of the films were remarkably improved by doping transition metal ion Fe{sup 3+}. In case of Cr{sup 3+} doped films, hydrophilicity was also significantly enhanced but photocatalytic activity for methyl orange under UV irradiation was still comparable with the undoped films.

  11. Studies on the performance of TiO2 thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malliga, P.; Selvi, B. Karunai; Pandiarajan, J.; Prithivikumaran, N.; Neyvasagam, K.

    2015-01-01

    Thin films of TiO 2 were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X – Ray diffraction (XRD), UV – Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO 2 has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO 2 thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO 2 thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants

  12. An investigation on linear optical properties of dilute Cr doped ZnO thin films synthesized via sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandjani, A. Esmaielzadeh; Tabriz, M. Farzalipour; Moradi, O. Mohammad; Mehr, H.R. Rezaeian; Kandjani, S. Ahmadi; Vaezi, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In current work, ZnO:Cr thin films were synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. → By increasing in dopant concentration the average roughness of the film increases slightly while the thickness of these films remains constant. → By increase in dopant concentration band gap values of thin films show a decrease while the interior microstrain shows an increase based on increase in its Urbach energies. → By increase in annealing temperature band gap values and interior microstrains of thin films show a decrease. → By increase in number of applied dip coating, film thickness increase from 74 nm (after 1 procedure dip coating) to 147 nm (3 procedures dip coating), band gap values and interior microstrains of thin films show a decrease. - Abstract: Cr doped ZnO thin films were prepared via sol-gel method. The effects of dopant concentration (0%, 1.5% and 3%) annealing temperature and film thickness on UV-Vis spectra of prepared films were investigated. Also, the thickness and surface topology of thin films were investigated by thickness profile meter (DEKTAK) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. In addition, the band gap and Urbach energy of prepared films were calculated completely for the samples. The results showed that by increasing the dopant concentrations, the microstrain of the prepared thin film structures also increases while the band-gap values decrease. Meanwhile, an increase in annealing temperature makes a decrease in band gap and microstrain of thin films. The increase in thickness resulted in red shift in band gap and reduction in interior microstrains.

  13. Structure/Property Relationships for Sol-gel Derived YBa2Cu3O7-d and SrTiO3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawley, Jeff; Clem, Paul; Siegal, Michael; Overmyer, Don

    2001-03-01

    Solution deposition of c-axis oriented YBa2Cu3O7-d (YBCO) films on buffered RABiT substrates is a potential method for rapid, low cost production of superconducting tapes for power transmission and other applications. For this work, 100-250 nm thick YBCO and SrTiO3 (STO) films have been prepared by spin-coating and dip-coating sol-gel solutions onto LaAlO3 (100) and RABiT Ni (200) substrates. Biaxially textured STO coatings have been deposited on LaAlO3 and RABiT Ni by using a "templating" technique and controlling growth temperature and pO2. YBCO films grown on STO coated LaAlO3 possess comparable superconducting properties to YBCO films grown directly on LaAlO3 ( 1 MA/cm2 at 77K), indicating that a high quality STO layer does not degrade the crystalline quality of the YBCO. The effects of processing parameters on the STO buffer layer and novel processing techniques for decreasing the processing time and simplifying the integration of sol-gel YBCO with Ni substrates will be discussed. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corp., a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US Dept. Of Energy under contract DE-AC04-94A185000.

  14. Effect of La and W dopants on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    La or W-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films (PLZT or PZTW) were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by sol-gel process. The effects of La or W dopant on the phase development, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of films were studied. For PLZT films, the optimum doping concentration was found to be 2 mol%. While for PZTW films, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were found to be improved as the doping concentration increased. The fatigue properties of PLZT and PZTW thin films were also investigated, the results showed that A- or B-site donor doping could improve the fatigue properties of PZT thin films. The theory of oxygen vacancy was used to explain the performance improvement caused by donor doping. (orig.)

  15. Effect of La and W dopants on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Mi; Zhang, Zebin; Zhang, Weikang; Zhang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    La or W-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films (PLZT or PZTW) were prepared on platinized silicon substrates by sol-gel process. The effects of La or W dopant on the phase development, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics of films were studied. For PLZT films, the optimum doping concentration was found to be 2 mol%. While for PZTW films, the dielectric and ferroelectric properties were found to be improved as the doping concentration increased. The fatigue properties of PLZT and PZTW thin films were also investigated, the results showed that A- or B-site donor doping could improve the fatigue properties of PZT thin films. The theory of oxygen vacancy was used to explain the performance improvement caused by donor doping.

  16. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells using TiO2/reduced graphene oxide films as electron transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Andreia; Alves, João Paulo C.; Lima, Francisco Anderson S.; Lira-Cantu, Monica; Nogueira, Ana Flavia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated inverted hybrid bulk-heterojunction solar cells with the following configuration: fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) |TiO2/RGO|P3HT:PC61BM|V2O5 or PEDOT:PSS|Ag. The TiO2/GO dispersions were prepared by sol-gel method, employing titanium isopropoxide and graphene oxide (GO) as starting materials. The GO concentration was varied from 0.1 to 4.0 wt%. The corresponding dispersions were spin-coated onto FTO substrates and a thermal treatment was performed to remove organic materials and to reduce GO to reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The TiO2/RGO films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed that the addition of RGO significantly changes the morphology of the TiO2 films, with loss of uniformity and increase in surface roughness. Independent of the use of V2O5 or PEDOT: PSS films as the hole transport layer, the incorporation of 2.0 wt% of RGO into TiO2 films was the optimal concentration for the best organic photovoltaic performance. The solar cells based on TiO2/RGO (2.0 wt%) electrode exhibited a ˜22.3% and ˜28.9% short circuit current density (Jsc) and a power conversion efficiency enhancement, respectively, if compared with the devices based on pure TiO2 films. Kelvin probe force microscopy images suggest that the incorporation of RGO into TiO2 films can promote the appearance of regions with different charge dissipation capacities.

  17. Carbon nanotube TiO2 hybrid films for detecting traces of O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobet, E.; Espinosa, E. H.; Sotter, E.; Ionescu, R.; Vilanova, X.; Torres, J.; Felten, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Ke, X.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Renaux, F.; Paint, Y.; Hecq, M.; Bittencourt, C.

    2008-09-01

    Hybrid titania films have been prepared using an adapted sol-gel method for obtaining well-dispersed hydrogen plasma-treated multiwall carbon nanotubes in either pure titania or Nb-doped titania. The drop-coating method has been used to fabricate resistive oxygen sensors based on titania or on titania and carbon nanotube hybrids. Morphology and composition studies have revealed that the dispersion of low amounts of carbon nanotubes within the titania matrix does not significantly alter its crystallization behaviour. The gas sensitivity studies performed on the different samples have shown that the hybrid layers based on titania and carbon nanotubes possess an unprecedented responsiveness towards oxygen (i.e. more than four times higher than that shown by optimized Nb-doped TiO2 films). Furthermore, hybrid sensors containing carbon nanotubes respond at significantly lower operating temperatures than their non-hybrid counterparts. These new hybrid sensors show a strong potential for monitoring traces of oxygen (i.e. beverage industry.

  18. Sol gel-derived hydroxyapatite films over porous calcium polyphosphate substrates for improved tissue engineering of osteochondral-like constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whitaik David; Gawri, Rahul; Pilliar, Robert M; Stanford, William L; Kandel, Rita A

    2017-10-15

    Integration of in vitro-formed cartilage on a suitable substrate to form tissue-engineered implants for osteochondral defect repair is a considerable challenge. In healthy cartilage, a zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) acts as an intermediary for mechanical force transfer from soft to hard tissue, as well as an effective interlocking structure to better resist interfacial shear forces. We have developed biphasic constructs that consist of scaffold-free cartilage tissue grown in vitro on, and interdigitated with, porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) substrates. However, as CPP degrades, it releases inorganic polyphosphates (polyP) that can inhibit local mineralization, thereby preventing the formation of a ZCC at the interface. Thus, we hypothesize that coating CPP substrate with a layer of hydroxyapatite (HA) might prevent or limit this polyP release. To investigate this we tested both inorganic or organic sol-gel processing methods, asa barrier coating on CPP substrate to inhibit polyP release. Both types of coating supported the formation of ZCC in direct contact with the substrate, however the ZCC appeared more continuous in the tissue formed on the organic HA sol gel coated CPP. Tissues formed on coated substrates accumulated comparable quantities of extracellular matrix and mineral, but tissues formed on organic sol-gel (OSG)-coated substrates accumulated less polyP than tissues formed on inorganic sol-gel (ISG)-coated substrates. Constructs formed with OSG-coated CPP substrates had greater interfacial shear strength than those formed with ISG-coated and non-coated substrates. These results suggest that the OSG coating method can modify the location and distribution of ZCC and can be used to improve the mechanical integrity of tissue-engineered constructs formed on porous CPP substrates. Articular cartilage interfaces with bone through a zone of calcified cartilage. This study describes a method to generate an "osteochondral-like" implant that mimics this

  19. Effects of ion irradiation on the mechanical properties of SiNa wO xC yH z sol-gel derived thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucca, D. A.; Qi, Y.; Harriman, T. A.; Prenzel, T.; Wang, Y. Q.; Nastasi, M.; Dong, J.; Mehner, A.

    2010-10-01

    A study of the effects of ion irradiation of hybrid organic/inorganic modified silicate thin films on their mechanical properties is presented. NaOH catalyzed SiNa wO xC yH z thin films were synthesized by sol-gel processing from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) precursors and spin-coated onto Si substrates. After drying at 300 °C, the films were irradiated with 125 keV H + or 250 keV N 2+ at fluences ranging from 1 × 10 14 to 2.5 × 10 16 ions/cm 2. Nanoindentation was used to characterize the films. Changes in hardness and reduced elastic modulus were examined as a function of ion fluence and irradiating species. The resulting increases in hardness and reduced elastic modulus are compared to similarly processed acid catalyzed silicate thin films.

  20. Effects of ion irradiation on the mechanical properties of SiNawOxCyHz sol-gel derived thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucca, D.A.; Qi, Y.; Harriman, T.A.; Prenzel, T.; Wang, Y.Q.; Nastasi, M.; Dong, J.; Mehner, A.

    2010-01-01

    A study of the effects of ion irradiation of hybrid organic/inorganic modified silicate thin films on their mechanical properties is presented. NaOH catalyzed SiNa w O x C y H z thin films were synthesized by sol-gel processing from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) precursors and spin-coated onto Si substrates. After drying at 300 o C, the films were irradiated with 125 keV H + or 250 keV N 2+ at fluences ranging from 1 x 10 14 to 2.5 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 . Nanoindentation was used to characterize the films. Changes in hardness and reduced elastic modulus were examined as a function of ion fluence and irradiating species. The resulting increases in hardness and reduced elastic modulus are compared to similarly processed acid catalyzed silicate thin films.

  1. Sol-gel processes. January 1970-September 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the development and utilization of sol-gel processes and techniques. Topics include antireflective coatings, studies of sol-gel transitions, sol-gel synthesis and polymerization, sol-gel derived thin films and glasses, and sol-gel production of microspheres. Applications in nuclear waste management, nuclear-fuel manufacturing, glass optical waveguide development, and solar-energy collection are presented. (This updated bibliography contains 179 citations, 39 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  2. Correlation between microstructure and optical properties of nano-crystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Ceramiques, Universite Mentouri Constantine (Algeria); Sedrine, N. Ben; Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Bensaha, R. [Laboratoire de Ceramiques, Universite Mentouri Constantine (Algeria)

    2010-11-15

    Titanium dioxide thin films have been prepared from tetrabutyl-orthotitanate solution and methanol as a solvent by sol-gel dip coating technique. TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared using a sol-gel process have been analyzed for different annealing temperatures. Structural properties in terms of crystal structure were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The surface morphology and composition of the films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optical transmittance and reflectance spectra of TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited on silicon substrate were also determined. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study was used to determine the annealing temperature effect on the optical properties and the optical gap of the TiO{sub 2} thin films. The results show that the TiO{sub 2} thin films crystallize in anatase phase between 400 and 800 deg. C, and into the anatase-rutile phase at 1000 deg. C, and further into the rutile phase at 1200 deg. C. We have found that the films consist of titanium dioxide nano-crystals. The AFM surface morphology results indicate that the particle size increases from 5 to 41 nm by increasing the annealing temperature. The TiO{sub 2} thin films have high transparency in the visible range. For annealing temperatures between 1000 and 1400 deg. C, the transmittance of the films was reduced significantly in the wavelength range of 300-800 nm due to the change of crystallite phase and composition in the films. We have demonstrated as well the decrease of the optical band gap with the increase of the annealing temperature.

  3. Synthesis of ZnO thin film by sol-gel spin coating technique for H2S gas sensing application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Amol R.; Patil, Maruti G.

    2017-12-01

    In this present work, zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film synthesized by a simple sol-gel spin coating technique. The structural, morphology, compositional, microstructural, optical, electrical and gas sensing properties of the film were studied by using XRD, FESEM, EDS, XPS, HRTEM, Raman, FTIR and UV-vis techniques. The ZnO thin film shows hexagonal wurtzite structure with a porous structured morphology. Gas sensing performance of synthesized ZnO thin film was tested initially for H2S gas at different operating temperatures as well as concentrations. The maximum gas response is achieved towards H2S gas at 300 °C operating temperature, at 100 ppm gas concentration as compared to other gases like CH3OH, Cl2, NH3, LPG, CH3COCH3, and C2H5OH with a good stability.

  4. Optical and electrical properties study of sol-gel derived Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films for solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Guo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of environmental-friendly Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS thin films with pure kesterite phase is always a challenge to researchers in the field of solar cells. We introduce a simple non-vacuum sol-gel method to fabricate kesterite CZTS films. Ethylenediamine is used as the chelating agent and stabilizer and plays an important role in preparing stable precursor. X-ray diffraction, Raman and scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the microstructure and optical properties of CZTS films depend strongly on annealing temperatures. The temperature dependence of conductivity of 500 °C annealed CZTS film shows that the Mott law dominates in the low temperature region and thermionic emission is predominant at high temperatures.

  5. Sol-gel approach to the novel organic-inorganic hybrid composite films with ternary europium complex covalently bonded with silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Dewen; Yang Yongsheng; Jiang Bingzheng

    2006-01-01

    Novel organic-inorganic hybrid composite films with ternary lanthanide complex covalently bonded with silica matrix were prepared in situ via co-ordination of N-(3-propyltriethoxysilane)-4-carboxyphthalimide (TAT) and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) with europium ion (Eu 3+ ) during a sol-gel approach and characterized by the means of spectrofluorimeter, phosphorimeter and infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The resulting transparent films showed improved photophysical properties, i.e. increased luminescence intensity and longer luminescence lifetime, compared with the corresponding binary composite films without Phen. All the results revealed that the intense luminescence of the composite film was attributed to the efficient energy transfer from ligands, especially Phen, to chelated Eu 3+ and the reduced non-radiation through the rigid silica matrix and 'site isolation'

  6. {alpha} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown by the spin-on sol-gel deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila G, A.; Carbajal F, G. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, CINVESTAV del l.P.N., Av. I.P.N. No. 2508, Apartado Postal 14-740, Mexico 07360, D.F (Mexico); Tiburcio S, A. [Division Posg, lnstituto Tecnologico de Toluca-SEP, P.O. Box 890, 50000 Toluca, Edo. Mex. (Mexico); Barrera C, E. [Departamento de IPH, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-lztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-5340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Andrade I, E. [Instituto de Fsica, Universidad Nacional Autononca de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, Mexico 01000, D. F (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystalline films with grains larger than 31 nm were grown by the spin-on sol-gel deposition method. The particular sol used was prepared starting from two distinct precursor reagents. Both precursors leaded to similar films. Order within the films was altered by adding tin to the samples. Transmittance measurements confirmed that the hematite phase is obtained by annealing the samples above 400 C and yielded an optical gap of about 2.2 eV, but additional transitions at 2.7 eV were also observed. From RBS measurements it was found that tin inclusion decreases iron content as expected, but also increases oxygen concentration within the films. This last observation was associated to the disorder rise when introducing tin atoms. (Author)

  7. Preparation of transparent sol-gel films containing europium, terbium, and ytterbium cations from 4-(3'-triethoxysilylpropylimino)pent-2-en-2-ol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.V.; Cherepennikova, N.F.; Kuznetsova, O.V.; Melenskova, N.V.; Bushuk, B.A.; Bushuk, S.B.; Kal'vinkovskaya, Yu.A.; Duglas, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    A reaction of 3-aminopropyl(triethoxy)silane with acetylacetone gave a mixture of two isomeric carbon-functionalized organosilicon compounds capable of complexation and sol-gel polymerization. These were 4-(3'-triethoxysilylpropylimino)pent-2-en-2-ol (EtO) 3 Si-CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -N=C(Me)CH=C(Me)OH (Ia, 83%) and 4-(3'-triethoxysilylpropylamino)pent-3-en-2-one (EtO) 3 Si-CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -NH-C(Me)=CH-C(O)Me (Ib, 17%). With acetylacetone trimethylsilyl ether instead of acetylacetone itself, compound Ia and silylated derivatives (Me 3 SiO) n (EtO) 3-n Si-CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -N=C(Me)CH=C(Me)OH were obtained as admixture in 84 and 16% yields, respectively. Reactions of ligands Ia and Ib with europium and terbium propan-2-olates afforded the corresponding complexes. Formulations of lanthanide complexes, oligodimethylsiloxanediols, and 3-aminopropyl(triethoxy)silane were used to prepare transparent sol-gel films. The photoluminescence spectra of the films show narrow bands due to Eu 3+ or Tb 3+ emission. Emission from the organosilicon matrix appears as a broad band at 430 to 435 nm [ru

  8. In-situ sol-gel synthesis and thin film deposition of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.; Lyubenova, T.; Marti, R.; Fraga, D.; Rey, A.; Carda, J.; Kozhukharov, V.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays chalcogenide-based solar cells, like Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 , are competitive in the photovoltaic market, due to its improved performances like higher efficiency (20,3%), long-time stability and excellent durability. In addition, CIGS stand out with an exceptionally high absorption coefficient (more than; 105/cm for 1.5eV) and higher energy photons. These properties make it an excellent candidate as an absorber material for large scale production of photovoltaic modules for building-integrated applications. Traditional methods of manufacture involve vacuum processes including co-evaporation and sputtering that increase production costs. With the aim to lower the expenses by using non-vacuum solution processes we propose an ‘in-situ’ sol-gel synthesis route and direct thin film deposition in the same production step. As a result, we achieved better stoichiometric control, simplicity in the procedure and cost reduction. In this work we describe a procedure to obtain CIGS absorber layer by soft chemistry technique and further deposition onto different substrates. Preparation parameters like precursors, chemical composition, solvents, thermal treatment factors (temperature, time, and atmosphere) were detailed studied. Finally, the resulting materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), UV-VIS Spectroscopy among others.; key words: sol-gel synthesis, thin film deposition, photovoltaic modules, solar cells

  9. Thoria sol-gel processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.B.

    1978-10-01

    Alternate fuel fabrication techniques are being developed at WNRE as part of the thorium fuel cycle program. The sol-gel techniques are attractive and this report assembles and summarizes information relating to thoria sol-gel fuels. Some background information on the behaviour and advantages of sol-gel fuel forms is presented, followed by a review of relevant colloid chemistry and an explanation of the fundamental steps of sol-gel processes. Finally, several variants to the basic process are reviewed and evaluated. (author)

  10. Preparation and optical properties of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Cr{sup 3+} thin films derived by sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weiwei [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37 XueYuan Road, HaiDian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang Junying, E-mail: zjy@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37 XueYuan Road, HaiDian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Li Yuan; Chen Ziyu; Wang Tianmin [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37 XueYuan Road, HaiDian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2010-05-01

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Cr{sup 3+} thin films with bright red emission were synthesized using a sol-gel process, characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and UV-vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry measurements. Effects of calcining temperature, film thickness, calcining duration and substrates on the crystal structure and photoluminescent property have been investigated. It is found that the crystallinity, Ga/Zn ratio and band gap energy (E{sub g}) are significant factors influencing optical characteristics, while the nature of substrates affect the surface morphologies of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Cr{sup 3+} thin films.

  11. Annealing temperature effect on the properties of mercury-doped TiO{sub 2} films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar Batna, Batna (Algeria); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie (CRTEn), BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Sedrine, N. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie (CRTEn), BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Karyaoui, M. [Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar Batna, Batna (Algeria); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie (CRTEn), BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie (CRTEn), BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-04-15

    This work presents the annealing temperature effect on the properties of mercury (Hg)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). Thin films and polycrystalline powders have been prepared by sol-gel process. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties, as a function of the annealing temperature, have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, reflectance and ellipsometric spectroscopies. In order to determine the transformation points, we have analyzed the xerogel-obtained powder by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Raman spectroscopy shows the crystalline anatase and rutile phases for the films annealed at 400 deg. C and 1000 deg. C respectively. The AFM surface morphology results indicate that the particle size increases from 14 to 57 nm by increasing the annealing temperature. The complex index and the optical band gap (E{sub g}) of the films were determined by the spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis. We have found that the optical band gap decreases by increasing the annealing temperature.

  12. Direct crystallization of perovskite phase in PMN-PT thin films prepared by polyvinylpyrrolidone modified sol-gel processing and their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Z.H.; Zhang, T.S.; Zhu, M.M.; Ma, J.

    2009-01-01

    A modified sol-gel processing has been developed by using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as modifier and lead nitrate as lead source to synthesize (1-x)Pb(Mg 1/3 ,Nb 2/3 )O 3 -xPbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) thin films with x=0.23-0.43. With PVP additions, perovskite phase could directly crystallize from amorphous films at the temperature as low as 430 deg. C via bypassing the metastable phase-pyrochlore and crystallinity was significantly enhanced. The PVP addictives have been optimized with molecular weight 1/3 ,Nb 2/3 )O 3 -PbTiO 3 films via bypassing pyrochlore phase.

  13. Preparation and studies of Eu3+ and Tb3+ co-doped Gd2O3 and Y2O3 sol-gel scintillating films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Ramirez, A. de J; Garcia Murillo, A.; Carrillo Romo, F. de J; Ramirez Salgado, J.; Le Luyer, C.; Chadeyron, G.; Boyer, D.; Moreno Palmerin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Eu 3+ (2.5 at.%) and Tb 3+ (0.005-0.01 at.%) co-doped gadolinium and yttrium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 ) powders and films have been prepared using the sol-gel process. High density and optical quality thin films were prepared with the dip-coating technique. Gadolinium (III) 2,4-pentadionate and yttrium (III) 2,4-pentadionate were used as precursors, and europium and terbium in their nitrate forms were used as doping agents. Chemical and structural analyses (infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy) were conducted on both sol-gel precursor powders and dip-coated films. The morphology of thin films heat-treated at 700 o C was studied by means of atomic force microscopy. It was shown that the highly dense and very smooth films had a root mean roughness (RMS) of 2 nm ± 0.2 (A = 0.0075 Tb 3+ ) and 24 nm ± 3.0 (B = 0.01 Tb 3+ ). After treatment at 700 o C, the crystallized films were in the cubic phase and presented a polycrystalline structure made up of randomly oriented crystallites with grain sizes varying from 20 to 60 nm. The X-ray induced emission spectra of Eu 3+ - and Tb 3+ -doped Gd 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 powders showed that Tb 3+ contents of 0.005, 0.0075 and 0.01 at.% affected their optical properties. Lower Tb 3+ concentrations (down to 0.005 at.%) in both systems enhanced the light yield.

  14. Fabrication of Meso-Porous Gamma-Alumina Films by Sol-Gel and Gel Casting Processes for Making Moisture Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Kumar Mistry

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meso-porous g-Al2O3 film may be used as a highly sensitive trace moisture sensor. The crack-free alumina film was developed using a combination of sol-gel and tape casting processes, which produce high porosity, high surface area and small pore dimensions in the range of few nano-meter at uniform distribution. Sol-gel processes are well known in nano-technology and nano-material preparation, but it is difficult to make crack-free thick or thin films using this method. Tape cast methods are used for the fabrication of flexible crack-free thick ceramic sheets. Our objective was to develop nano-structured, crack-free, transparent Al2O3 film a few microns thick, has a highly porous and stable crystallographic nature. A metallic paste was printed by screen printing on both side of the film surface for electrodes to form a sensitive element. A silver wire (dia j=0.1mm lead was connected to a grid structure electrode using a silver paste spot for fine joining. Alumina is absorbs moisture molecules into its meso-porous layer and changes its electrical characteristics according to the moisture content, its dielectric constant increase as moisture increase. Moisture molecules can be conceived of as dipoles in random state before the application of an electric field. When the dipole orientation was changed from random to an equilibrium state under the application of external field, a large change in dielectric constant was observed. The number of water molecules absorbed determines the electrical impedance of the capacitor, which in turn is proportional to water vapor pressure.

  15. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor L [Los Alamos, NM

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  16. X-ray diffraction measurement of residual stress in sol-gel grown lead zirconate titanate thick films on nickel-based super alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshyarmanesh, Hamidreza; Nehzat, Naser; Salehi, Mehdi [Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman)

    2015-02-15

    Residual compressive stress of Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} thick films was investigated using residual strains derived from X-ray diffraction patterns. Sin{sup 2}ψ method was applied for the 5, 10 and 15 μm sol-gel derived thick films annealed at 700 .deg. C for 1 hr as high frequency structural health monitoring square-shape transducers of 10 x10 mm, deposited onto the curved nickel-based super alloy substrates. A triaxial model was proposed based on piezoelectric constitutive equations, and Bragg's law at a large diffraction angle (∼89°) was utilized considering the electromechanical coupling factor as well as elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric constants. Thickness variations led to a significant change in residual stress magnitudes delineated from more-accurate triaxial model compared to small angle plane-stress results not considering the piezoelectric coupling effects.

  17. Sol-gel synthesis of Cu-doped p-CdS nanoparticles and their analysis as p-CdS/n-ZnO thin film photodiode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sandeep; Sharma, Asha; Singh, Bikram; Riyas, Mohammad; Bandhoria, Pankaj; Aatif, Mohammad; Gupta, Vinay

    2018-05-01

    Copper (Cu) doped p-CdS nanoparticles have been synthesized via sol-gel method. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were successfully characterized and implemented for fabrication of Glass/ITO/n-ZnO/p-CdS/Al thin film photodiode. The fabricated device is tested for small (-1 V to +1 V) bias voltage. Results verified that the junction leakage current within the dark is very small. During reverse bias condition, the maximum amount of photocurrent is obtained under illumination of 100 μW/cm2. Electrical characterizations confirmed that the external quantum efficiency (EQE), gain and responsivity of n-ZnO/p-CdS photodiode show improved photo response than conventional p-type materials for such a small bias voltage. It is therefore revealed that the Cu-doped CdS nanoparticles is an efficient p-type material for fabrication of thin film photo-devices.

  18. Uniform Thin Films of CdSe and CdSe(ZnS) Core(shell) Quantum Dots by Sol-Gel Assembly: Enabling Photoelectrochemical Characterization and Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korala, Lasantha; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Yi; Maldonado, Stephen; Brock, Stephanie L.

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronic properties of quantum dot (QD) films are limited by (1) poor interfacial chemistry and (2) non-radiative recombination due to surface traps. To address these performance issues, sol-gel methods are applied to fabricate thin films of CdSe and core(shell) CdSe(ZnS) QDs. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging with chemical analysis confirms that the surface of the QDs in the sol-gel thin films are chalcogen-rich, consistent with an oxidative-induced gelation mechanism in which connectivity is achieved by formation of dichalcogenide covalent linkages between particles. The ligand removal and assembly process is probed by thermogravimetric, spectroscopic and microscopic studies. Further enhancement of inter-particle coupling via mild thermal annealing, which removes residual ligands and reinforces QD connectivity, results in QD sol-gel thin films with superior charge transport properties, as shown by a dramatic enhancement of electrochemical photocurrent under white light illumination relative to thin films composed of ligand-capped QDs. A more than 2-fold enhancement in photocurrent, and a further increase in photovoltage can be achieved by passivation of surface defects via overcoating with a thin ZnS shell. The ability to tune interfacial and surface characteristics for the optimization of photophysical properties suggests that the sol-gel approach may enable formation of QD thin films suitable for a range of optoelectronic applications. PMID:23350924

  19. The role of Ar plasma treatment in generating oxygen vacancies in indium tin oxide thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Deuk-Kyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seoul, 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Misra, Mirnmoy; Lee, Ye-Eun [Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seong-nam dae-ro, Seong-nam si, Gyeonggi-do, 13120 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Sung-Doo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seoul, 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Myoung, Jae-Min, E-mail: jmmyoung@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seoul, 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Il, E-mail: t2.lee77@gachon.ac.kr [Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, 1342 Seong-nam dae-ro, Seong-nam si, Gyeonggi-do, 13120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • Indium tin oxide thin film with about 41 nm thickness was obtained by the sol-gel process. • Thin film exhibited low resistivity. • Sheet resistance of thin film decreases with Ar plasma treatment time. • Ar plasma treatment on thin film does not alter the crystal structure and optical properties of the ITO thin-film. • There is no significant change in oxygen vacancies after 20 min of plasma treatment. - Abstract: Argon (Ar) plasma treatment was carried out to reduce the sheet resistance of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The Ar plasma treatment did not cause any significant changes to the crystal structure, surface morphology, or optical properties of the ITO thin films. However, an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study confirmed that the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the film dramatically increased with the plasma treatment time. Thus, we concluded that the decrease in the sheet resistance was caused by the increase in the oxygen vacancy concentration in the film. Furthermore, to verify how the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the film increased with the Ar plasma treatment time, cumulative and continuous plasma treatments were conducted. The oxygen vacancies were found to be created by surface heating via the outward thermal diffusion of oxygen atoms from inside the film.

  20. Corrosion behavior of TiO{sub 2}-NiO nanocomposite thin films on AISI 316L stainless steel prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, H., E-mail: hoch2020@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), P.O. Box: 16765163, Narrmak Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmiri, M., E-mail: mshahmiri@iust.ac.ir [Materials Science and Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), P.O. Box: 16765163, Narrmak Street, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghian, Z. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), P.O. Box: 14857-3311, West Blvd. Azadi Sport Complex, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    TiO{sub 2}-NiO nanocomposite thin films were deposited on the 316L stainless steel using sol-gel method by a dip coating technique. Different techniques such as differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy were carried out in order to characterize the structure of the coatings. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by using Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of uncoated and coated specimens in a 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. It was found that to obtain desirable structure in coatings, the coatings should be calcined at 600 Degree-Sign C for one and half hour. NiTiO{sub 3}, anatase and rutile were the phases obtained in different calcination conditions in air atmosphere. The results of corrosion tests indicated that with increasing the dipping times from 2 to 4, the corrosion current density first decreases but when increasing the dipping times to 6, it increases. Also the corrosion current density decreased from 186.7 nA.cm{sup -2} (uncoated steel) to 34.21 nA.cm{sup -2} (80%TiO{sub 2}-20%NiO) and corrosion potential increased from - 150.2 mV (uncoated steel) to - 107.3 mV (67%TiO{sub 2}-33%NiO). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2}-NiO thin films were deposited on the 316L stainless steel using sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different compositions, annealing times and temperatures resulted in various phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films having different compositions showed various surface morphologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films having a composition of 80%TiO{sub 2}-20%NiO showed a good corrosion protection.

  1. Effect of thickness on structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Co and Al doped ZnO films deposited by sol-gel route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mamta [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India); Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India)], E-mail: rammehra2003@yahoo.com

    2008-12-30

    This paper reports deposition and characterization of Zn{sub 0.94}Co{sub 0.05}Al{sub 0.01}O films of thickness ranging from 70 nm to 400 nm. These films were deposited on a glass (Corning, 7059) substrate using sol-gel route. The films have been characterized to study their structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the crystallinity and growth mode of the films. The films deposited up to a thickness of 200 nm showed improvement in crystallinity and preferential c-axis orientation. A transition in the growth mode from vertical (c-axis) to lateral (a and b-axis) was observed with further increase in the thickness of the film. The average transmittance of the films for thickness less than 200 nm was above 80% in the visible region which decreased at higher thickness of the film. The resistivity of the film was found to decrease with increase in thickness up to 200 nm. Ferromagnetism, at room temperature, was confirmed for 200 nm and 400 nm thick films.

  2. Effect of thickness on structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Co and Al doped ZnO films deposited by sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mamta; Mehra, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports deposition and characterization of Zn 0.94 Co 0.05 Al 0.01 O films of thickness ranging from 70 nm to 400 nm. These films were deposited on a glass (Corning, 7059) substrate using sol-gel route. The films have been characterized to study their structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the crystallinity and growth mode of the films. The films deposited up to a thickness of 200 nm showed improvement in crystallinity and preferential c-axis orientation. A transition in the growth mode from vertical (c-axis) to lateral (a and b-axis) was observed with further increase in the thickness of the film. The average transmittance of the films for thickness less than 200 nm was above 80% in the visible region which decreased at higher thickness of the film. The resistivity of the film was found to decrease with increase in thickness up to 200 nm. Ferromagnetism, at room temperature, was confirmed for 200 nm and 400 nm thick films.

  3. Effects of UV assistance on the properties of al-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yung-Kuan; Pai, Feng-Ming; Chen, Yan-Cheng; Wu, Chao-Hsien

    2013-11-01

    We report here the preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent conductive thin films by a UV-assisted sol-gel method. It was found that UV irradiation creates ozone, which promotes the conductivity and transparency of the films. Boro-silicate glasses are used as substrates; an PGME is used as a solvent; after spin-coating, the films are dried and radiated with UV and then heated to 400°C for decarburization and 500°C for annealing under air. The surface morphologies of the prepared films are observed by FE-SEM and AFM. It was found that the films irradiated with UV-C are smoother and denser. An XRD analysis shows that the films have a typical wurtzite crystalline structure with a c-axis orientation normal to the surface. The electric resistance values measured with a four-point probe show that the films irradiated with UV have better conductivity (at approximately 3.4 × 10-3Ω-cm) than the films that did not undergo UV irradiation. An analysis by visible light spectrometry indicates that the AZO films irradiated with UV are more transparent than the films without UV-irradiation.

  4. Sol-gel formed spherical nanostructured titania based liquefied petroleum gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabhajeet, S. R.; Yadav, B. C.; Sonker, Rakesh K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the preparation of Titania(TiO2) thin film by sol-gel technique and its Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) sensing. TiO2 exists in numerous phases possessing different structural properties like amorphous, anatase or anatase/rutile mixed phases. The structural analysis confirmed the formation of TiO2 having an average crystallite size 21 nm. SEM showed the regular and porous surface morphology. The band gap of the material was found as 3.65 eV. This film was employed for LPG sensing and variations in resistance with exposure of LPG were observed. Sensor response (S) as a function of time was calculated and its maximum value was found as 2.8 for 4% vol. of LPG with a response and recovery times of 240 sec and 248 sec respectively.

  5. Physical properties and heterojunction device demonstration of aluminum-doped ZnO thin films synthesized at room ambient via sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaagac, Hakan, E-mail: hkaraagac@ucdavis.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Yengel, Emre; Saif Islam, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-04-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Undoped and Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films were successfully prepared using sol-gel technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural analysis has revealed that Al doping has a significant influence on preferential orientation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It has been observed that wrinkles forms on the surface of films when annealed with a fast heat ramp up rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical analysis has revealed that that the band gap energy of ZnO thin film increases with increasing Al doping concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lowest resistivity is observed for 1% Al ZnO thin film, which is 2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} ({Omega} cm). - Abstract: ZnO and some of its ternary wide-bandgap alloys offer interesting opportunities for designing materials with tunable band gaps, strong piezoresistivity and controlled electrical conductance with high optical transparency. Synthesizing these materials on arbitrary substrates using low-cost and unconventional techniques can help in integrating semiconductors with different physical, electrical, and optical characteristics on a single substrate for heterogeneous integration of multifunctional devices. Here we report the successful synthesis of aluminum (Al) doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on soda-lime glass, silicon and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) pre-coated glass substrates by using sol-gel deposition method at ambient condition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that varying degree of Al doping significantly impacts the crystal orientation, semiconductor bandgap and optical transparency of the film. Crystal structure of the film is also found to be strongly correlated to the characteristics of the substrate material. The impact of heating rate during post annealing process is studied and optimized in order to improve the surface morphology of the deposited films. Optical characterizations have revealed that bandgap energy of AZO films can be tuned

  6. Al2O3 - TiO2-A simple sol-gel strategy to the synthesis of low temperature sintered alumina-aluminium titanate composites through a core-shell approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasankar, M.; Ananthakumar, S.; Mukundan, P.; Wunderlich, W.; Warrier, K.G.K.

    2008-01-01

    A simple sol-gel based core-shell approach for the synthesis of alumina-aluminium titanate composite is reported. Alumina is the core and titania is the shell. The coating of titania has been performed in aqueous medium on alumina particle by means of heterocoagulation of titanyl chloride. Further heat treatment results in low temperature formation of aluminium titanate as well as low temperature sintering of alumina-aluminium titanate composites. The lowering of the reaction temperature can be attributed to the maximisation of the contact surface between the reactants due to the core-shell approach involving nanoparticles. The mechanism of formation of aluminium titanate and the observations on densification features in the present process are compared with that of mixture of oxides under identical conditions. The sintered alumina-aluminium titanate composite has an average grain size of 2 μm. - Graphical abstract: The article presents a simple sol-gel process through core-shell approach to the synthesis of low temperature sintered alumina-aluminium titanate. The lowering of the reaction temperature can be attributed to the maximisation of the contact surface between the reactant due to the core-shell approach. This material showed the better microstructure control compared to the standard solid-state mixing route

  7. Sol-gel growth of vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines the chemical reactivity of vanadium (IV) tetrakis(t-butoxide) as a precursor for the sol-gel synthesis of vanadium dioxide. Hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxide was studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical modification of the vanadium tetraalkoxide by alcohol interchange was studied using 51 V NMR and FTIR. Vanadium dioxide thin films and powders were made from vanadium tetrakis(t-butoxide) by standard sol-gel techniques. Post-deposition heating under nitrogen was necessary to transform amorphous gels into vanadium dioxide. Crystallization of films and powders was studied by FTIR, DSC, TGA, and XRD. Gel-derived vanadium dioxide films undergo a reversible semiconductor-to-metal phase transition near 68C, exhibiting characteristic resistive and spectral changes. The electrical resistance decreased by two to three orders of magnitude and the infrared transmission sharply dropped as the material was cycled through this thermally induced phase transition. The sol-gel method was also used to make doped vanadium dioxide films. Films were doped with tungsten and molybdenum ions to effectively lower the temperature at which the transition occurs

  8. Phase and electrical properties of PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles by a hybrid sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreesattabud, Tharathip; Gibbons, Brady J.; Watcharapasorn, Anucha; Jiansirisomboon, Sukanda

    2013-07-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 or PZT thin films embedded with CuO nano-particles were successfully prepared by a hybrid sol-gel process. In this process, CuO (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 wt. %) nanopowder was suspended in an organometallic solution of PZT, and then coated on platinised silicon substrate using a spin-coating technique. The influence of CuO nano-particles' dispersion on the phase of PZT thin films was investigated. XRD results showed a perovskite phase in all films. At the CuO concentration of 0.4-1 wt. %, a second phase was observed. The addition of CuO nano-particles affected the orientation of PZT thin films. The addition was also found to reduce the ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films. However, at 0.2 wt. % CuO concentration, the film exhibited good ferroelectric properties similar to those of PZT films. In addition, the fatigue retention properties of the PZT/CuO system was observed, and it showed 14% fatigue at 108 switching bipolar pulse cycles while the fatigue in PZT thin films was found to be 17% at the same switching bipolar pulse cycles.

  9. Structural and magnetic study of CoCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films obtained by employing the sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Toro, A.D.; Garcia, R.P.; Davila, Y.G.; Gomes, J.L.; Goncalves, L.P.; Hernandez, E.P. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work we made a study about the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt chromite. We obtained samples in a film format and also in chromite nanopowder. Both, the powder and films were fabricated by the sol-gel chemical method, the film were deposited by the spin coating technique followed by an appropriate heat treatment at 500 °C. The used substrate was glass based on silica and we studied the rotating speed parameter during deposition. The initial aim of the work was the study of the influence of rotating speed on the quality of cromite films. The crystallinity of samples was confirmed by diffraction X-ray (XRD). The lattice parameters were determined using the Rietveld method from which we calculate grain size of 8.6 nm. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed granular films with good homogeneity and we observed the dependence of the rotating speed on the quality of the deposited films. The magnetic properties were measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). For powder samples we obtained Curie temperature of 94 K, which is a phase transition from ferrimagnetic to paramagnetic. The applied magnetic field during in the characterization of the film was oriented parallel to the plane of the substrate and we observed a high coercivity. The Curie temperature value for the films was 93 K, similar to the powder samples. (author)

  10. The influence of annealing atmosphere on the material properties of sol-gel derived SnO2:Sb films before and after annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2012-01-01

    SnO 2 films with and without Sb doping were prepared by the sol-gel spin-coating method. Material properties of the SnO 2 films with different Sb contents were investigated before and after annealing under O 2 or N 2 . When SnO 2 films are annealed under N 2 or O 2 , the resistivity decreases with increasing annealing temperature, which may be related to the increased crystallinity and reduced film defects. The intensity of SnO 2 peaks for both O 2 - and N 2 -annealed films increases as the annealing temperature increases. Small nodules are revealed on the surface of SnO 2 films after annealing in N 2 or O 2 atmospheres, and some voids are present on the surface of N 2 -annealed SnO 2 films. After doping with Sb, the resistivity of SnO 2 films after annealing in O 2 is greater than that of N 2 -annealed SnO 2 films. The surface morphology of SnO 2 films incorporating different molar ratios of Sb after annealing are similar to that of as-spun SnO 2 films with adding Sb. There were no voids found on the surfaces of N 2 -annealed SnO 2 :Sb films. In addition, the peak intensity of SnO 2 :Sb films after O 2 -annealing is higher than those films after N 2 -annealing. The chemical binding states and Hall mobility of the high-temperature annealed SnO 2 films without and with adding Sb are also related to the annealing atmospheres. This study discusses the connection among the material properties of the SnO 2 films with different Sb contents and how these properties are influenced by the Sb-doping concentration and the annealing atmospheres of SnO 2 films.

  11. Effect of both deposition temperature and indium doping on the properties of sol-gel dip-coated SnO2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Mujdat; Atar, Kadir Cemil

    2012-10-01

    Using indium chloride as an In source, In-doped SnO(2) films were fabricated by sol-gel method through dip-coating on borofloat glass substrates. The undoped SnO(2) films were deposited in air between 400 and 600 °C to get optimum deposition temperature in terms of crystal quality and hence In-doped SnO(2) films were deposited in air at 600 °C. The effect of both deposition temperature and In content on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties was investigated. The crystalline structure and orientation of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface morphology was studied by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The compositional analysis of the films was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The absorption band edge of the SnO(2) films shifted from 3.88 to 3.66 eV with In content. The van der Pauw method was used to measure the sheet resistance of the films. The sheet resistance was affected significantly by deposition temperature and In content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural and Luminescence Properties of Lu2O3:Eu3+ F127 Tri-Block Copolymer Modified Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Morales Ramírez, Angel; Hernández, Margarita García; Murillo, Antonieta García; de Jesús Carrillo Romo, Felipe; Palmerin, Joel Moreno; Velazquez, Dulce Yolotzin Medina; Jota, María Luz Carrera

    2013-01-01

    Lu2O3:Eu3+ transparent, high density, and optical quality thin films were prepared using the sol-gel dip-coating technique, starting with lutetium and europium nitrates as precursors and followed by hydrolysis in an ethanol-ethylene glycol solution. Acetic acid and acetylacetonate were incorporated in order to adjust pH and as a sol stabilizer. In order to increment the thickness of the films and orient the structure, F127 Pluronic acid was incorporated during the sol formation. Structural, morphological, and optical properties of the films were investigated for different F127/Lu molar ratios (0–5) in order to obtain high optical quality films with enhanced thickness compared with the traditional method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that the films present a highly oriented cubic structure beyond 1073 K for a 3-layer film, on silica glass substrates. The thickness, density, porosity, and refractive index evolution of the films were investigated by means of m-lines microscopy along with the morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and luminescent properties. PMID:28809336

  13. Characteristics and optical properties of iron ion (Fe{sup 3+})-doped titanium oxide thin films prepared by a sol-gel spin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hjlin@nuu.edu.tw; Yang, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China)

    2009-04-03

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films doping of various iron ion (Fe{sup 3+}) concentrations have been prepared on a glass substrate by the sol-gel spin coating process. Characteristics and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films doping of various Fe content were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} thin films comprised only the anatase TiO{sub 2}, but the crystallinity decreased when the Fe{sup 3+} content increased from 0 to 25.0 wt%. During the Fe{sup 3+} addition to 25.0 wt%, the phase of TiO{sub 2} thin film still maintained the amorphous state. The absorption edge of TiO{sub 2} thin films shifted towards longer wavelengths (i.e. red shifted) from 355 to 415 nm when the Fe{sup 3+}-doped concentration increased from 0 to 25.0 wt%. The values of the refractive index (n), and extinction coefficient (k), decreased with an increasing Fe{sup 3+} content. Moreover, the band-gap energy of TiO{sub 2} thin films also decreased from 3.29 to 2.83 eV with an increase in the Fe{sup 3+} content from 0 to 25.0 wt%.

  14. Annealing time dependence of the physical, electrical and pH response characteristics of spin coated TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkefle, M A; Rahman, R A; Yusoff, K A; Herman, S H; Abdullah, W F H; Rusop, M

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin film was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and used as sensing membrane of EGFET pH sensor. The thin film was fabricated using sol- gel spin coating method. All samples were annealed at 400 °C but the annealing time was varied. This is done to study the effects of annealing time on physical and electrical properties of titanium dioxide thin film. The sensitivity of each sample towards H + ion was measured and result shows that sample annealed for 45 minutes has the highest sensitivity (52.6 mV/pH). It is found that increasing annealing duration will increase the pH sensitivity but a limit will be reached at certain point. Longer annealing processes done beyond this point will results in lower pH sensitivity. (paper)

  15. Imprinted propyl gallate electrochemical sensor based on graphene/single walled carbon nanotubes/sol-gel film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guilin; Chi, Yu; Li, Lu; Liu, Shouhua; Kan, Xianwen

    2015-06-15

    A novel imprinted sol-gel electrochemical sensor for the determination of propyl gallate (PG) was developed based on a composite of graphene and single walled carbon nanotubes (GR-SWCNTs). It was fabricated by stepwise modifying GR-SWCNTs and molecularly imprinted polymers and stored in 0.10 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution pH 6.0, which endowed the sensor good sensitivity and selective recognition towards template molecules. The morphology and specific adsorption capacity of the sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscope and electrochemical methods, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, a linear range of the sensor to PG was 8.0 × 10(-8)-2.6 × 10(-3)mo lL(-1) with a limit of detection of 5.0 × 10(-8)mol L(-1) (S/N=3). The sensor exhibited specificity and selectivity towards template molecules as well as excellent reproducibility, regeneration and stability. Furthermore, the sensor could be applied to determine PG in edible oils, instant noodles and cookies with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fabrication of Mesoporous Silica/Alumina Hybrid Membrane Film Nanocomposites using Template Sol-Gel Synthesis of Amphiphilic Triphenylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintang, H. O.; Jalani, M. A.; Yuliati, L.; Salleh, M. M.

    2017-05-01

    Herein we reported that by introducing a one-dimensional (1D) substrate with a porous structure such as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, mesoporous silica/alumina hybrid nanocomposites were successfully fabricated by using amphiphilic triphenylene (TPC10TEG) as a template in sol-gel synthesis (TPC10TEG/silicahex). For the optical study of the nanocomposites, TPC10TEG/silicahex showed absorption peak at 264 nm due to the ordered and long-range π-π stacking of the disc-like aromatic triphenylene core. Moreover, the hexagonal arrangement of TPC10TEG/silicahex was proven based on their diffraction peaks of d 100 and d 200 at 2θ = 2.52° and 5.04° and images of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. For fabrication of mesoporous silica/alumina hybrid membrane, TPC10TEG/silicahex was drop-casted onto AAO membrane for penetration into the porous structure via gravity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the resulted hybrid nanocomposites showed that the diffraction peaks of d 100 and d 200 of TPC10TEG/silicahex were still preserved, indicating that the hexagonal arrangements of mesoporous silica were maintained even on AAO substrate. The morphology study on the hybrid nanocomposites using TEM, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) showed the successful filling of most AAO channels with the TPC10TEG/silicahex nanocomposites.

  17. Fabrication of the heterojunction diode from Y-doped ZnO thin films on p-Si substrates by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Singh, Satendra Pal; Kim, Deuk Young

    2018-02-01

    The heterojunction diode of yttrium-doped ZnO (YZO) thin films was fabricated on p-Si(100) substrates by sol-gel method. The post-annealing process was performed at 600 °C in vacuum for a short time (3 min) to prevent inter-diffusion of Zn, Y, and Si atoms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of as-grown and annealed (600 °C in vacuum) films showed the preferred orientation along the c-axis (002) regardless of dopant concentrations. The uniform surface microstructure and the absence of other metal/oxide peaks in XRD pattern confirmed the excellence of films. The increasing bandgap and carrier concentration of YZO thin films were interpreted by the BM shift, that is, the Fermi level moves towards the conduction band edge. The current-voltage characteristics of the heterojunction diode, In/n-ZnO/p-Si/Al, showed a rectification behavior. The turn-on voltage and ideality factor of n-ZnO/p-Si and n-YZO/p-Si were observed to be 3.47 V, 2.61 V, and 1.97, 1.89, respectively. Y-dopant in ZnO thin films provided more donor electrons caused the shifting of Fermi-energy level towards the conduction band and strengthen the interest for heterojunction diodes.

  18. Effect of annealing temperature on structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanoparticles TiO{sub 2} thin films by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muaz, A. K. M.; Hashim, U., E-mail: uda@unimap.edu.my; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Foo, K. L. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Univerisiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this paper, the sol-gel method is used to prepare nanoparticles titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films at different annealing temperature. The prepared sol was deposited on the p-SiO{sub 2} substrates by spin coating technique under room temperature. The nanoparticles TiO{sub 2} solution was synthesized using Ti{OCH(CH_3)_2}{sub 4} as a precursor with an methanol solution at a molar ratio 1:10. The prepared TiO{sub 2} sols will further validate through structural, morphological and electrical properties. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, as-deposited films was found to be amorphous in nature and tend to transform into tetragonal anatase and rutile phase as the films annealed at 573 and 773 K, respectively. The diversification of the surface roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated the roughness and thickness very dependent on the annealing temperature. The two-point probe electrical resistance and conductance of nanoparticles TiO{sub 2} thin films were determined by the DC current-voltage (IV) analysis. From the I-V measurement, the electrical conductance increased as the films annealed at higher temperature.

  19. Effect of Sn-doped on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, C.-Y.; Cheng, H.-C.; Tung, Y.-T.; Tuan, W.-H.; Lin, C.-K.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, transparent thin films of Sn-doped ZnO (ZnO:Sn) were deposited onto alkali-free glass substrates by a sol-gel method; the effect of Sn doping on crystallinity, microstructural and optical properties was investigated. The atomic percentages of dopant in ZnO-based sols were Sn/Zn = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 at.%. The as-deposited films were pre-heated at 300 deg. C for 10 min and then annealed in air at 500 deg. C for 1 h. The results show that Sn-doped ZnO thin films demonstrate obviously improved surface roughness, enhanced transmittance in the 400-600 nm wavelength range and reduced average crystallite size. Among all of the annealed ZnO-based films in this study, films doped with 2 at.% Sn concentration exhibited the best properties, namely an average transmittance of 90%, an RMS roughness value of 1.92 nm and a resistivity of 9.3 x 10 2 Ω-cm

  20. The antibacterial and hydrophilic properties of silver-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films using sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xuemin [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Hou Xinggang, E-mail: hou226@163.com [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Luan Weijiang [College of Biology, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, 300387 (China); Li Dejun; Yao Kun [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, 300387 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Ag-TiO{sub 2} composite thin films were deposited on glass slides by sol-gel spin coating technique. The surface structure, chemical components and transmittance spectra were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectrophotometer. The TiO{sub 2} thin films with silver molar ratio from 0 to 10% were tested for its antibacterial property by using Escherichia coliform (E. coli) under irradiation of UV light. The concentration of E. coli was evaluated by plating technique. The influences of different molar ratio of Ag on hydrophilicity and long-term durability of the films were also investigated by measuring the water contact angle. The results showed that the antibacterial ability was significantly improved by increasing silver content comparing with pure TiO{sub 2} thin film, and the best molar ratio of Ag was 5%. While the hydrophilicity of films increased with increasing silver content, and the best molar ratio of Ag was 1%.

  1. CdO thin films based on the annealing temperature differences prepared by sol-gel method and their heterojunction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, M.; Yazici, T.

    2017-12-01

    Undoped CdO films were prepared on glass substrate and p-type silicon wafer using sol-gel spin coating method. The structural and optical properties of the films were investigated as a function of the annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that the films are formed from CdO with cubic crystal structure and (1 1 1) preferred orientation. It is seen that good crystallinity is due to the high annealing temperature. The surface morphology of the CdO films was found to be depending on the annealing temperature, showing cauliflower like structure. Optical band gaps for annealing temperature of 250 °C and 450 °C were found to be 2.49 eV and 2.27 eV, respectively, showing a decrease with raising temperature. Optics parameters such as extinction coefficient, refractive index, and surface-volume energy loss were determined with spectrophotometric analysis as a function of annealing temperature. CdO/p-Si heterojunction structure showed weak rectifying behavior. The diode parameters were found to be depending on annealing temperature. The results are encouraging to get better conjunction with CdO thin film component at optimize annealing temperature.

  2. Characteristics of TiO_2/ZnO bilayer film towards pH sensitivity prepared by different spin coating deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Rohanieza Abdul; Zulkefle, Muhammad Al Hadi; Abdullah, Wan Fazlida Hanim; Rusop, M.; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2016-01-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide (TiO_2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) bilayer film for pH sensing application will be presented. TiO_2/ZnO bilayer film with different speed of spin-coating process was deposited on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), prepared by sol-gel method. This fabricated bilayer film was used as sensing membrane for Extended Gate Field-Effect Transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing application. Experimental results indicated that the sensor is able to detect the sensitivity towards pH buffer solution. In order to obtained the result, sensitivity measurement was done by using the EGFET setup equipment with constant-current (100 µA) and constant-voltage (0.3 V) biasing interfacing circuit. TiO_2/ZnO bilayer film which the working electrode, act as the pH-sensitive membrane was connected to a commercial metal-oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFET). This MOSFET then was connected to the interfacing circuit. The sensitivity of the TiO2 thin film towards pH buffer solution was measured by dipping the sensing membrane in pH4, pH7 and pH10 buffer solution. These thin films were characterized by using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) to obtain the surface morphology of the composite bilayer films. In addition, I-V measurement was done in order to determine the electrical properties of the bilayer films. According to the result obtained in this experiment, bilayer film that spin at 4000 rpm, gave highest sensitivity which is 52.1 mV/pH. Relating the I-V characteristic of the thin films and sensitivity, the sensing membrane with higher conductivity gave better sensitivity.

  3. Effect of Co doping concentration on structural properties and optical parameters of Co-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel dip-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Byunggu; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jong Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating method were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films were grown with a c-axis preferred orientation. The position of the (002) peak was almost the same in all samples, irrespective of the Co concentration. It is thus clear that Co doping had little effect on the position of the (002) peak. To confirm that Co2+ was substituted for Zn2+ in the wurtzite structure, optical measurements were conducted at room temperature by a UV-visible spectrometer. Three absorption peaks are apparent in the Co-doped ZnO thin films that do not appear for the undoped ZnO thin film. As the Co concentration was increased, absorption related to characteristic Co2+ transitions increased because three absorption band intensities and the area underneath the absorption wells between 500 and 700 nm increased with increasing Co concentration. The optical band gap and static dielectric constant decreased and the Urbach energy and extinction coefficient increased with increasing Co concentration.

  4. Impedance/modulus analysis of sol-gel Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saif, Alaeddin A.; Poopalan, P. [University Malaysia Perlis, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Perovskite-structure-type sol-gel barium-strontium-titanate (BST) thin films with molar formula Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} (x = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8) have been successfully fabricated as Al/BST/Pt capacitors. In order to study the role of the grain size in the conduction mechanisms, we present atomic force microscopy (AFM) results. The impedance and the electric modulus of Ba{sub x}Sr{sub 1-x}TiO{sub 3} thin films have been analyzed in order to correlate the effect of the film regional processes on the conduction mechanism. The impedance and the electric modulus complex planes show three overlapping regions as response for the bulk, the grain boundary and the film/electrode interface mechanisms, and an equivalent circuit has been proposed for each mechanism. The conduction mechanism resulting from the bulk and the grain boundaries is discussed; the results show that the grain boundaries have less effect on the conduction mechanism than the bulk.

  5. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Sol-Gel Spin-Coating-Derived Cu2ZnSnS4 Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Rabie; Izadifard, Morteza; Ghazi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Bahramian, Bahram

    2018-02-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on structural, optical, and electrical properties of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films grown on a glass substrate by spin coating sol-gel technique has been studied. Structural study showed that all samples had kesterite crystalline structure. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the crystalline quality of the samples was improved by heat treatment. Optical study showed that the energy gap values for the samples ranged from 1.55 eV to 1.78 eV. Moreover, good optical conductivity values (1012 S-1 to 1014 S-1) were obtained for the samples. Investigation of the electrical properties of the CZTS thin films showed that the carrier concentration increased significantly with the annealing temperature. The photoelectrical behavior of the samples revealed that the photocurrent under light illumination increased significantly. Overall, the results show that the CZTS thin films annealed at 500°C had better structural, optical, and electrical properties and that such CZTS thin films are desirable for use as absorber layers in solar cells. The photovoltaic properties of the CZTS layer annealed at 500°C were also investigated and the associated figure of merit calculated. The results showed that the fabricated ZnS-CZTS heterojunction exhibited good rectifying behavior but rather low fill factor.

  6. Fabrication and electrical resistivity of Mo-doped VO2 thin films coated on graphite conductive plates by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W.; Jung, H.M.; Um, S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Vanadium oxides (VO2) can be used in optical devices, thermochromic smart windows and sensors. This paper reported on a study in which vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) powder was prepared and mixed with Molybdenum Oxides (MoO3) to form Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films by a sol-gel method on graphite conductive substrates. The micro-structure and chemical compositions of the Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films was investigated using X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in electrical resistivity were measured as a function of the stoichiometric compositions between vanadium and molybdenum. In this study. Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films showed the typical metal to insulator transition (MIT), where temperature range could be adjusted by modifying the dopant atomic ratio. The through-plane substrate structure of the Mo-doped layer influences the electrical resistivity of the graphite substrate. As the amount of the molybdenum increases, the electrical resistivity of the graphite conductive substrate decreases in the lower temperature range below the freezing point of water. The experimental results showed that if carefully controlled, thermal dissipation of VO2 thin films can be used as a self-heating source to melt frozen water with the electrical current flowing through the graphite substrate. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Far-infrared properties of sol-gel derived PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films on Pt-coated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafadaryan, E A; Hovsepyan, R K; Khachaturova, A A; Aghamalyan, N R; Shirinyan, G O; Manukyan, A L; Vardanyan, R S; Hayrapetyan, A G; Grigoryan, S G; Vardanyan, E S

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline tetragonal PbZr 0.52 Ti 0.48 O 3 (PZT) thin films have been deposited on the nickel and (111) platinum coated (110) sapphire substrates by the sol-gel method. Optical properties of the PZT thin films were studied using far-infrared reflectivity spectroscopy in the 200-10 000 cm -1 frequency range at 300 K. The frequency dependence of the optical characteristics (σ, ε, -Im ε -1 ) of the films were calculated by the Kramers-Kronig transformation of the reflectivity spectra and analysed by the Drude-Lorentz model. The frequency dependence of the optical conductivity, σ(ω), of the PZT films deposited on platinum coated sapphire is well described by the free-carrier term and an overdamped mid-infrared component. Sapphire/Pt/PZT structures reveal semiconductor properties (effective carrier concentration N/m* is up to 10 20 cm -3 , plasma minimum is located near 3000 cm -1 ). This effect can be related to the favourable influence of the platinum electrode on the charge carrier density at Pt/PZT contact and formation of the interfacial conductive layer

  8. Structural, optical and NO{sub 2} gas sensing properties of ZnMgO thin films prepared by the sol gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebil, W., E-mail: chbil.widad@live.fr [Unité de Service Commun de Recherche « High resolution X-ray diffractometer », Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019, Monastir (Tunisia); Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Boukadhaba, M.A. [Unité de Service Commun de Recherche « High resolution X-ray diffractometer », Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l’Environnement, 5019, Monastir (Tunisia); Laboratoire Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Département de Physique, Université de Monastir, Faculté des Sciences de Monastir, Avenue de l' environnement, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Madhi, I. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cédria, BP 95, 2050, Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); and others

    2017-01-15

    In this present work, ZnO and ZnMgO thin films prepared by a sol-gel process were deposited on glass substrates via spin coating technique. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the obtained films were investigated. X-ray diffraction study revealed that all layers exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure without any secondary phase segregation. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) depicts that the grains size of ours samples decreases as magnesium content increases. The absorption spectra obtained on ZnMgO thin films show a band gap tuning from 3.19 to 3.36 eV, which is also consistent with blue shifting of near-band edge PL emission, measured at low temperature. The incorporated amount of magnesium was calculated and confirmed by EDX. The gas sensing performances were tested in air containing NO{sub 2} for different operating temperatures. The experimental result exhibited that ZnMgO sensors shows a faster response and recovery time than the ZnO thin films. The resistivity and the sensor response as function of Mg content were also investigated.

  9. Sol-gel optical coatings for lasers: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floch, H.G.; Belleville, P.F.; Priotton, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Many manufacturers and users claim that optical coatings are best prepared by physical vapor deposition technology. Others believe that sol-gel technology is an effective and competitive alternative. This article, the first of three, emphasizes sol-gel thin-film history and relates it to high-power laser technology, chemistry of the sol-gel process, production of optical coatings and deposition techniques. The second and third articles describe the preparation and performance of antireflective and highly reflective sol-gel optical coatings, respectively, that have been developed for the 1.8-MJ/500-TW (351-nm) pulsed neodymium-glass laser. This powerful laser is to be used in France's Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. It will demonstrate, at the laboratory scale, ignition of deuterium-tritium fusion fuel

  10. TiO2 and SiC nanostructured films, organized CNT structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sized nanostructured TiO2 films through hydrolysis of titanium tetra-isopropoxide. (TTIP) [9 ... structured TiO2 as a photocatalyst is as follows [15]:. TiO2(ns) ... The deposited films were easily detached from the silica tube and subjected to. SEM.

  11. Sol-gel processes and materials. January 1970-August 1988 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-August 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning Sol-Gel processes and Sol-Gel derived materials and products. Selected patents include Sol-Gel compositions, ceramic and refractory materials, fabrication of silica glass, cataylsts and catalyst supports, nuclear fuels preparation, abrasives for grinding wheels, Sol-Gel production of microspheres, Sol-Gel thin films and coatings, photographic materials, and dental materials. (Contains 71 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  12. Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} films obtained by laser ablation and sol-gel for the reaction of oxygen liberation in alkaline medium; Peliculas de Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} obtenidas por ablacion laser y sol-gel para la reaccion de desprendimiento de oxigeno en medio alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez A, J.; Fernandez V, S. M.; Escobar A, L.; Jimenez B, J. [Departamento de Quimica, ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The laser ablation technique known as Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is used for obtaining thin films of TiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}, which was later modified with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} by PLD or by sol-gel technique. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet Vis and Raman spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy and energy analysis of the dispersed X-rays produced by Auger decay. The anatase phase with particles of nano metric size was obtained by depositing the titanium dioxide in argon atmosphere. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films obtained by PLD on the TiO{sub 2} showed the same morphology. The electrocatalytic activity of the films that were used as photo anodes for the reaction of oxygen liberation was carried out in the darkness, with environment light and the light emitted by a xenon lamp. The current density was higher for films of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2} obtained by PLD that for cobalt dioxide of mixed valence obtained by sol-gel. (Author)

  13. Preparation of Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films by Sonicated Sol-Gel Immersion Fabricated for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Saurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aligned ZnO Nanorod arrays are deposited on the Sn-doped ZnO thin film via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Sn-doped ZnO thin films were investigated. Results show that the Sn-doped ZnO thin films with small grain size (~20 nm, high average transmittance (96% in visible region, and good resistivity 7.7 × 102 Ω·cm are obtained for 2 at.% Sn doping concentration. The aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with large surface area were also obtained for 2 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin film. They were grown on sol-gel derived Sn-doped ZnO thin film, which acts as a seed layer, via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The grown aligned ZnO nanorod arrays show high transmittance at visible region. The fabricated dye-sensitised solar cell based on the 2.0 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin film with aligned ZnO nanorod arrays exhibits improved current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and conversion efficiency compared with the undoped ZnO and 1 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin films.

  14. The Preparation of TiO₂ Film by the Sol-Gel Method and Evaluation of Its Self-Cleaning Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Sun, Sijia; Deng, Tongrong; Ding, Hao; Chen, Wanting; Chen, Ying

    2018-03-19

    TiO₂ sol was produced by the sol-gel method through the hydrolysis and the aging of tetrabutyl titanate and the TiO₂ film was obtained by dipping and uniform lifting of the acid-treated and ultrasound-treated clean glass slides into the TiO₂ sol followed by aging, drying, and calcination. The effect of the hydrolysis control agents to the formed sol was researched and the crystalline state, the morphology, and the photocatalytic properties of the products after calcination were characterized. The structural morphology, the contact angles before and after illumination, and the self-cleaning properties of the TiO₂ film were characterized as well. The results showed that by using acetylacetone as the hydrolysis control agent, the formed TiO₂ sol had relatively high stability. The product after the calcination of the TiO₂ sol was of single anatase type with crystalline size of 18-20 nm and it could degrade nearly 100% of methylene blue after 90 min illumination. The formed TiO₂ film is compact, continuous, smooth, and had the properties of super-hydrophilicity (after 30 min illumination due to its contact angle decreasing from 21° to nearly 0°) and anti-fogging capability, which indicated its excellent self-cleaning property.

  15. Structural, vibrational, and gasochromic properties of porous WO sub 3 films templated with a sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Opara-Krasovec, U; Orel, B; Grdadolnik, J; Drazic, G

    2002-01-01

    The structure and the gasochromic properties of sol-gel-derived WO sub 3 films with a monoclinic structure (m-WO sub 3) were studied by focusing attention on the size of the monoclinic grains. The size of the m-WO sub 3 grains is modified by the addition of an organic-inorganic hybrid to the initial peroxopolytungstic acid (W-PTA) sols which are based on chemically bonded poly-(propylene glycol) to triethoxysilane end-capping groups (ICS-PPG). The results obtained with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) show that the heat treatment (500 sup o C) of WO sub 3 /ICS- IPG (0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mol%) composite films results in a change of their morphology, and nanodimensional pores are formed between the grains. High-resolution TEM (HRTEM) analysis revealed the presence of an amorphous phase on the outside of the m-WO sub 3 grains, whereas energy-dispersive x-ray spectra (EDXS) showed that this amorphous phase contained W and Si. Impregnation of the WO sub 3 /ICS-PPG film ...

  16. Polarization fatigue resistance of Ca-doped Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, T.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, C.; Dong, X.W.; Xia, Y.D.; Zhu, J.S.; Liu, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    The ferroelectric and polarization fatigue characteristics of Pb 1-x Ca x (Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PCZT) thin films prepared using the sol-gel method were studied. The Ca-doping slightly suppresses the ferroelectricity of Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) because of the quantum paraelectric behavior of CaTiO 3 . Compared with PZT thin films, the PCZT (x=0.2) thin films show enhanced fatigue resistance at room temperature, further emphasized by the almost fatigue-free behavior at 100 K. The temperature-dependent dc-conductivity suggests a decrease of the oxygen vacancy density by almost 20 times and a slightly declined activation energy U for oxygen vacancies, upon increasing of the Ca-doping content from 0.0 to 0.2. It is argued that the improved fatigue endurance is ascribed to the decreasing density of oxygen vacancies due to the Ca-doping, although the lowered activation energy of oxygen vacancies is unfavorable. (orig.)

  17. Room Temperature Tunable Multiferroic Properties in Sol-Gel-Derived Nanocrystalline Sr(Ti1−xFexO3−δ Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Guang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sr(Ti1−xFexO3−δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 thin films were grown on Si(100 substrates with LaNiO3 buffer-layer by a sol-gel process. Influence of Fe substitution concentration on the structural, ferroelectric, and magnetic properties, as well as the leakage current behaviors of the Sr(Ti1−xFexO3−δ thin films, were investigated by using the X-ray diffractometer (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, the ferroelectric test system, and the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. After substituting a small amount of Ti ion with Fe, highly enhanced ferroelectric properties were obtained successfully in SrTi0.9Ti0.1O3−δ thin films, with a double remanent polarization (2Pr of 1.56, 1.95, and 9.14 μC·cm−2, respectively, for the samples were annealed in air, oxygen, and nitrogen atmospheres. The leakage current densities of the Fe-doped SrTiO3 thin films are about 10−6–10−5 A·cm−2 at an applied electric field of 100 kV·cm−1, and the conduction mechanism of the thin film capacitors with various Fe concentrations has been analyzed. The ferromagnetic properties of the Sr(Ti1−xFexO3−δ thin films have been investigated, which can be correlated to the mixed valence ions and the effects of the grain boundary. The present results revealed the multiferroic nature of the Sr(Ti1−xFexO3−δ thin films. The effect of the annealing environment on the room temperature magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Sr(Ti0.9Fe0.1O3−δ thin films were also discussed in detail.

  18. Sol-gel bonding of silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, C.J.; Cassidy, D.J.; Triani, G.; Latella, B.A.; Mitchell, D.R.G.; Finnie, K.S.; Bartlett, J.R.; Woolfrey, J.L.; Collins, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Low temperature bonding of silicon wafers was achieved using sol-gel technology. The initial sol-gel chemistry of the coating solution was found to influence the mechanical properties of the resulting bonds. More precisely, the influence of parameters such as the alkoxide concentration, water-to-alkoxide molar ratio, pH, and solution aging on the final bond morphologies and interfacial fracture energy was studied. The thickness and density of the sol-gel coating were characterised using ellipsometry. The corresponding bonded specimens were investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy to monitor their chemical composition, infrared imaging to control bond integrity, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy to study their microstructure. Their interfacial fracture energy was measured using microindentation. An optimum water-to-alkoxide molar ratio of 10 and hydrolysis water at pH = 2 were found. Such conditions led to relatively dense films (> 90%), resulting in bonds with a fracture energy of 3.5 J/m 2 , significantly higher than those obtained using classical hydrophilic bonding (typically 1.5-2.5 J/m 2 ). Ageing of the coating solution was found to decrease the bond strength

  19. Modified voltammetric, impedimetric and optical behavior of polymer- assisted sol-gel MgFe2O4 nanostructured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhan, Z.; Ghodsi, F.E.; Mazloom, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Electrochemical properties of spinel PEG/PVP MgFe 2 O 4 thin films prepared by spin coating technique have been investigated. •PSD analysis indicated that spectral roughness of films decreased by polymer incorporation. •Optical calculations exhibited a blue shift on optical band gap by polymer addition. •CV curves revealed that ion storage capacitance of PEG/MgFe 2 O 4 is two times higher than MgFe 2 O 4 thin films. •EIS analysis confirmed that incorporation of appropriate amount of PEG reduced the charge transfer resistance. -- Abstract: The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on physical properties of sol-gel prepared magnesium ferrite (MF) thin films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the formation of cubic spinel magnesium ferrite for all samples. The surface morphology of films changed and average surface roughness decreased by polymer addition. The height-height correlation function and fractal dimension were evaluated using cube counting and triangulation methods from atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of MF thin films decreased by adding polymer while the band gap value increased from 2.24 to 2.72 eV. The PEG addition enhanced the electrochemical performance while PVP addition didn’t have significant effect on cyclic voltammetry (CV) of magnesium ferrite thin films. The sample with highest value of PEG showed the maximum specific capacitance (68.5 mF cm −2 ) and the smallest charge transfer resistance (565 Ω) among all samples.

  20. The effect of dual complexing agents of lactic and citric acids on the formation of sol-gel derived Ag–PbTiO3 percolative thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yanbo; Hu, Tao; Tang, Liwen; Weng, Wenjian; Han, Gaorong; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the formation of conductive particles to be nano-scale is important for achieving percolation effect in metal dispersed thin film composite to contribute extraordinary dielectric properties required for miniaturization of electronic devices. In this paper, lactic acid (LA) and citric acid (CA) were used as dual complexing agents to prepare a typical Ag nanoparticle dispersed PbTiO 3 (PTO) composite thin film by using a sol-gel method. The phase structure of the thin film and the coordination effect between complexing agent and metallic ions were investigated. It revealed that LA coordinated with Ti 4+ and Pb 2+ and CA coordinated with Ag + . Lead was fixed inside the gel network by LA and restricted to evaporate during heat treatment thus the pyrochlore phase was prevented from forming in the thin film. Ag + was coordinated by CA and the diffusion and thus aggregation of silver during gelation and annealing process were weakened. Silver nanoparticles dispersed in the PTO matrix formed with dual complexing agents of LA and CA introduced during the preparation process. The composite thin film of perfect perovskite phase with silver nanoparticles embedded was obtained at the molar ratio of LA/lead = 0.5 and CA/lead = 0.5. The dielectric constant of the thin film with silver nanoparticles is 5 times higher than that without silver nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Ag nanoparticle–PbTiO 3 percolative film with high dielectric property is prepared. • Evaporation of lead was prevented by coordinating Pb with lactic acid agent. • Dual complexing agents contribute block and pinning effects to form Ag nanoparticles

  1. Electrical characteristics and density of states of thin-film transistors based on sol-gel derived ZnO channel layers with different annealing temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Mirkhani, V.; Yapabandara, K.; Cheng, R.; Hernandez, G.; Khanal, M. P.; Sultan, M. S.; Uprety, S.; Shen, L.; Zou, S.; Xu, P.; Ellis, C. D.; Sellers, J. A.; Hamilton, M. C.; Niu, G.; Sk, M. H.; Park, M.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the fabrication and electrical characterization of bottom gate thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on a sol-gel derived ZnO channel layer. The effect of annealing of ZnO active channel layers on the electrical characteristics of the ZnO TFTs was systematically investigated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the crystal quality of the ZnO improves with increasing annealing temperature. Both the device turn-on voltage (Von) and threshold voltage (VT) shift to a positive voltage with increasing annealing temperature. As the annealing temperature is increased, both the subthreshold slope and the interfacial defect density (Dit) decrease. The field effect mobility (μFET) increases with annealing temperature, peaking at 800 °C and decreases upon further temperature increase. An improvement in transfer and output characteristics was observed with increasing annealing temperature. However, when the annealing temperature reaches 900 °C, the TFTs demonstrate a large degradation in both transfer and output characteristics, which is possibly produced by non-continuous coverage of the film. By using the temperature-dependent field effect measurements, the localized sub-gap density of states (DOSs) for ZnO TFTs with different annealing temperatures were determined. The DOSs for the subthreshold regime decrease with increasing annealing temperature from 600 °C to 800 °C and no substantial change was observed with further temperature increase to 900 °C.

  2. Sol-gel synthesis, characterization and optical properties of mercury-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited on ITO glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Sedrine, N.; Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    The Hg-doped and undoped nano-crystalline TiO{sub 2} films on ITO glass substrates surface and polycrystalline powders were prepared by sol-gel dip coating technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} were characterized by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The results indicated that the powder of TiO{sub 2}, doped with 5% Hg in room temperature was only composed of the anatase phase whereas in the undoped powder exhibits an amorphous phase were present. After heat treatments of thin films, titanium oxide starts to crystallize at the annealing temperature 400 {sup o}C. The average crystallite size of the undoped TiO{sub 2} films was about 8.17 nm and was increased with Hg-doping in the TiO{sub 2} films. Moreover, the grains distributed more uniform and the surface roughness was greater in the Hg-doped TiO{sub 2} films than in the undoped one. Refractive index and porosity were calculated from the measured transmittance spectrum. The values of the index of refraction are in the range (1.95-2.49) and the porosity is in the range (47-2.8). The coefficient of transmission varies from 60 to 90%. SE study was used to determine the annealing temperature effect on the optical properties in the wavelength range from 0.25 to 2 {mu}m and the optical gap of the Hg-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films.

  3. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  4. Tailoring the wettability of nanocrystalline TiO 2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiyu; Chen, Yan; Fan, Yuzun; Hu, Yong; Wu, Yuedong; Zhao, Ziqiang; Meng, Qingbo

    2012-01-01

    The water contact angle (WCA) of nanocrystalline TiO2 films was adjusted by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) modification and photocatalytic lithography. FAS modification made the surface hydrophobic with the WCA up to ∼156°, while ultraviolet (UV) irradiation changed surface to hydrophilic with the WCA down to ∼0°. Both the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity were enhanced by surface roughness. The wettability can be tailored by varying the concentration of FAS solution and soaking time, as well as the UV light intensity and irradiation time. Additionally, with the help of photomasks, hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns can be fabricated and manifested via area-selective deposition of polystyrene particles.

  5. Influence of Co doping on structural, optical and magnetic properties of BiFeO3 films deposited on quartz substrates by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Deng, Hongmei; Tian, Jianjun; Ren, Qing; Peng, Cheng; Huang, Zhipeng; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2013-03-01

    Multiferroic BiFe1-xCoxO3 (x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1) thin films have been prepared on quartz substrates using a sol-gel technique. X-ray diffraction data confirms that Co atoms have been successfully incorporated into the host lattice. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibits that the surface morphologies of BiFe0.97Co0.03O3 and BiFe0.95Co0.05O3 thin films become more compact and uniform. With increasing Co dopant, the position of A1-1 and E-4 modes shift towards the lower wavenumber indicates that Co doping induces structural distortion of BiFeO3. With increasing Co composition, the fundamental absorption edges of BiFe1-xCoxO3 films show red shift. Furthermore, transmittance spectra demonstrates that the optical band gap of BiFe1-xCoxO3 films decreases from 2.66 eV to 2.53 eV with the increase of Co from x = 0 to 0.1. At the wavelength of 720 nm, the refractive index decreases and the extinction coefficient increases with increasing the amount of Co. Optical properties reveal that Co doping in BiFeO3 provides preliminary research for optoelectronic devices and infrared detectors. Compared with BiFeO3 prepared under similar conditions, the remanent magnetization Mr of BiFe1-xCoxO3 (x = 0.03, 0.05, 0.1) thin films significantly enhanced, which provides potential applications in information storage.

  6. Photoelectrochemical performance of Mn-TiO{sub 2} thin films mounted on FTO prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.C.; Song, G.H. [National Central Univ., Taoyuan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lu, C.W. [Jen-Teh Junior College, Hou- Lung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Information Management; Tseng, C.J. [National Central Univ., Chung-Li, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cheng, K.W. [Chang Gung Univ., Tao-Yuan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Tin oxide (TiO{sub 2}) sol-gels with Mn{sup 2+} molar ratios ranging from 0 to 0.1 per cent were used to form nano-structured Mn(x)Ti(1-x)O(2) thin films. A layer-by-layer spincoating (LLSC) technique was used, in which 10 very thin and uniform coating layers of Mn(x)Ti(1-x)O(2) were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. Properties of the thin films were determined as a function of annealing temperature and molar ratio of the Mn{sup 2+} ions by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) and photoelectrochemical (PEC) measurements. The PEC measurements were obtained in a dry-type three-electrode cell consisting of sample, platinized and reference Ag/AgCl electrodes. The results revealed that the Mn(x)Ti(1-x)O(2) thin films have better structure and electrochemical characteristics when the annealing temperature is 550 degrees C. The TiO{sub 2} thin films with Mn{sup 2+} ions also had higher photocurrent than undoped TiO{sub 2}. The optimum Mn{sup 2+} loading in this study was found to be 0.1 ml per cent. The maximum photocurrent of Mn(0.1)Ti(0.9)O(2) thin films is about 0.68 mA/cm2 when the bias potential is 0.8 V (vs.Ag/AgCl).

  7. Impact of crystallisation processes on depth profile formation in sol-gel PbZr.sub.0·52./sub.Ti.sub.0·48./sub.O.sub.3./sub. thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aulika, I.; Mergen, S.; Bencan, A.; Zhang, Q.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kosec, M.; Kundzins, K.; Demarchi, D.; Civera, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2013), s. 53-58 ISSN 1743-6753 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA ČR GAP108/12/1941 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : compositional and optical gradien * PZT * spectroscopic ellipsometry * crystallisation proces * sol-gel * XRD * thin films * depth profile * spectroscopic elipsometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2013

  8. Surface engineering of artificial heart valve disks using nanostructured thin films deposited by chemical vapour deposition and sol-gel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M J; Robinson, G M; Ali, N; Kousar, Y; Mei, S; Gracio, J; Taylor, H; Ahmed, W

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) is widely used in manufacturing commercial artificial heart valve disks (HVD). Although PyC is commonly used in HVD, it is not the best material for this application since its blood compatibility is not ideal for prolonged clinical use. As a result thrombosis often occurs and the patients are required to take anti-coagulation drugs on a regular basis in order to minimize the formation of thrombosis. However, anti-coagulation therapy gives rise to some detrimental side effects in patients. Therefore, it is extremely urgent that newer and more technically advanced materials with better surface and bulk properties are developed. In this paper, we report the mechanical properties of PyC-HVD, i.e. strength, wear resistance and coefficient of friction. The strength of the material was assessed using Brinell indentation tests. Furthermore, wear resistance and coefficient of friction values were obtained from pin-on-disk testing. The micro-structural properties of PyC were characterized using XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM analysis. Also in this paper we report the preparation of freestanding nanocrystalline diamond films (FSND) using the time-modulated chemical vapour deposition (TMCVD) process. Furthermore, the sol-gel technique was used to uniformly coat PyC-HVD with dense, nanocrystalline-titanium oxide (nc-TiO2) coatings. The as-grown nc-TiO2 coatings were characterized for microstructure using SEM and XRD analysis.

  9. Preparation and corrosion resistance studies of nanometric sol-gel-based CeO2 film with a chromium-free pretreatment on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiyan; Li Qing; Chen Bo; Yang Xiaokui

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium alloy, although valuable, is reactive and requires protection before it can be applied in many fields. In this study, a novel protective environmental-friendly gradient coating was performed on AZ91D magnesium alloy by non-chromate surface treatments, which consisted of phytic acid chemical conversion coating and the sol-gel-based CeO 2 thin film. The surface morphologies, microstructure and composition of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The effects of the concentration, layers, temperature of heat treatment of CeO 2 sol on the anti-corrosion properties of the gradient coating for magnesium were also investigated. The results showed that the gradient coating was mainly composed of crystalline CeO 2 . According to the results of electrochemical tests, the corrosion resistance of AZ91D magnesium alloy was found to be greatly improved by means of this new environmental-friendly surface treatment.

  10. Effect of content silver and heat treatment temperature on morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ITO films by sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Majid; Dolati, Abolghasem

    2014-09-01

    Silver-doped indium tin oxide thin films were synthesized using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The influence of different silver-dopant contents and annealing temperature on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the films were characterized by means of four-point probe, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). XRD analysis confirmed the formation of cubic bixbyte structure of In2O3 with silver nanoparticles annealed at 350 °C. XPS analysis showed that divalent tin transformed to tetravalent tin through oxidization, and silver nanoparticles embedded into ITO matrix covered with silver oxide shell, resulting in high quality nanocomposite thin films. The embedment of polyvinylpyrrolidone inhibited the growth of silver nanoparticles and ITO annealed at 350 °C. Delafossite structure of tin-doped AgInO2 was found at higher annealing temperatures. XRD analysis and FESEM micrographs showed that the optimum temperature to prevent the formation of AgInO2 is 350 °C. The embedment of silver particles (5-10 nm) from reduction of silver ion in ITO thin films improved the electrical conductivity and optical transmittance of ITO nanolayers. The lowest stable sheet resistance of 1,952 Ω/Sq for a 321 nm thick and an average optical transmittance of 91.8 % in the visible region with a band gap of 3.43 eV were achieved for silver-doping content of 0.04 M.

  11. Meso-porous α-Fe2O3 thin films synthesized via the sol-gel process for light-driven water oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamd, Wael; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Sanchez, Clement; Cobo, Saioa; Fize, Jennifer; Artero, Vincent; Baldinozzi, Gianguido; Schwartz, Wilfrid; Reymermier, Maryse; Pereira, Alexandre; Fontecave, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This work reports a facile and cost-effective method for synthesizing photoactive α-Fe 2 O 3 films as well as their performances when used as photoanodes for water oxidation. Transparent α-Fe 2 O 3 meso-porous films were fabricated by template-directed sol-gel chemistry coupled with the dip-coating approach, followed by annealing at various temperatures from 350 degrees C to 750 degrees C in air. α-Fe 2 O 3 films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, XPS, FE-SEM and electrochemical measurements. The photoelectrochemical performance of α-Fe 2 O 3 photoanodes was characterized and optimized through the deposition of Co-based co-catalysts via different methods (impregnation, electro-deposition and photo-electro-deposition). Interestingly, the resulting hematite films heat-treated at relatively low temperature (500 degrees C), and therefore devoid of any extrinsic dopant, achieve light-driven water oxidation under near-to-neutral (pH = 8) aqueous conditions after decoration with a Co catalyst. The onset potential is 0.75 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), thus corresponding to 450 mV light-induced under potential, although modest photocurrent density values (40 μAcm -2 ) are obtained below 1.23 V vs. RHE. These new materials with a very large interfacial area in contact with the electrolyte and allowing for a high loading of water oxidation catalysts open new avenues for the optimization of photo-electrochemical water splitting. (authors)

  12. Electrochemical Behavior of TiO2 Nanoparticle Doped WO3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarna R. Bathe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin films by pulsed spray pyrolysis technique have been studied on fluorine tin doped (FTO and glass substrate. XRD shows amorphous nature for undoped and anatase phase of TiO2 having (101 plane for nanoparticle TiO2 doped WO3 thin film. SEM shows microfibrous reticulated porous network for WO3 with 600 nm fiber diameter and nanocrystalline having size 40 nm for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film. TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 thin film shows ~95% reversibility due to may be attributed to nanocrystalline nature of the film, which helpful for charge insertion and deinsertion process. The diffusion coefficient for TiO2 nanoparticle doped WO3 film is less than undoped WO3.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Sonocatalytic Activity of Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12 /TiO2 Film for the Degradation of Organic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The sonocatalytic degradation of organic dyes (C.I. 50040, C.I. Reactive Red 1, C.I. Acid Orange 7 catalysed by Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 films was studied. For the preparation of Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 films, the sol-gel coating process was used. The phase composition, morphology, precursor at different temperatures and emitting light properties of the calcined powders were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, absorption spectra and upconversion emission spectra. The X-ray diffraction of powder samples of Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 took on anatase mine peaks and upconversion luminous agent, respectively. Analysis of absorption spectra of amorphous Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 showed that doping N stretching vibration peak of water or hydroxyl adsorption, Co2+ ion had very strong absorption in 1.0–1.7 μm wavelength range, the transition luminescence of Er3+ ions was just on Co2+ ions absorption band. The emission spectrum indicated that Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 could launch green 500–560 nm and red 650–700 nm, 525, 550 and 660 nm peaks corresponding to 2H11/2, 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4H9/2 → 4I15/2 transition of Er3+. Doping Co and N enhanced the upconversion luminescence and absorption effect. Sonocatalytic degradation effect of organic dyes loading Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 was better when ultrasonic intensity was equal to 15 W cm–2. The degradation ratios of aqueous solutions of these three kinds of organic dyes by ultrasonic irradiation were obviously lower than by ultrasonic irradiation together with Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 films in the same conditions. Degradation kinetics of organic dyes by ultrasonic irradiation and by ultrasonic irradiation cooperating with Co/N/Er3+ : Y3Al5O12/TiO2 films followed the first-order reaction.

  14. Layer-by-Layer Formation of Block-Copolymer-Derived TiO2 for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Guldin, Stefan; Docampo, Pablo; Stefik, Morgan; Kamita, Gen; Wiesner, Ulrich; Snaith, Henry J.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2011-01-01

    Morphology control on the 10 nm length scale in mesoporous TiO 2 films is crucial for the manufacture of high-performance dye-sensitized solar cells. While the combination of block-copolymer self-assembly with sol-gel chemistry yields good results

  15. Visible light active Au:TiO2 nanocomposite photoanodes for water splitting: Sol-gel vs. sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseri, N.; Sangpour, P.; Moshfegh, A.Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, pure TiO 2 and Au:TiO 2 nanocomposite thin films are both synthesized using sol-gel and RF reactive co-sputtering methods. Physical and photoelectrochemical properties of the thin films deposited by each method are compared. The optical density spectra and scanning electron microscopy images of the Au:TiO 2 films reveal formation of gold nanoparticles in the all nanocomposite films synthesized by two methods. Moreover, the optical bandgap energy of the thin films decreases with addition of Au nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the presence of gold in metallic state and the formation of TiO 2 is stoichiometric. The photoelectrochemical properties of the TiO 2 and Au:TiO 2 thin films are characterized by using a compartment cell containing KOH solution as electrolyte. It is found that in the pure systems, TiO 2 sputtered films shows a higher photocurrent under visible light illumination while a reverse result is obtained for the Au:TiO 2 systems. In addition, photoirradiation on electrode/electrolyte (EE) and substrate/electrode (SE) interfaces for the sputtered samples reveals the EE illumination enhances the photoresponse of the layers as compared to SE case.

  16. Annealing of TiO2 Films Deposited on Si by Irradiating Nitrogen Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Katsuhiro; Yano, Yoshinori; Miyashita, Fumiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were deposited on Si at a temperature of 600 deg. C by an ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) method. The TiO2 films were annealed for 30 min in Ar at temperatures below 700 deg. C. The as-deposited TiO2 films had high permittivities such 200 εo and consisted of crystallites that were not preferentially oriented to the c-axis but had an expanded c-axis. On the annealed TiO2 films, permittivities became lower with increasing annealing temperature, and crystallites were oriented preferentially to the (110) plane

  17. Visible emission from Er-doped SnO2 thin films deposited by sol-gel Emissão no visível de filmes finos, depositados via sol-gel, de SnO2 dopados com Er

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Ravaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emission from Er-doped SnO2 thin film deposited via sol-gel by the dip coating technique is obtained in the range 500-700 nm with peak at 530 nm (green. Electron-hole generation in the tin dioxide matrix is used to promote the rare-earth ion excitation. Evaluation of crystallite dimensions through X-ray diffraction results leads to nanoscopic size, what could play a relevant role in the emission spectra. The electron-hole mechanism is also responsible for the excitation of the transition in the 1540 nm range in powders obtained from the same precursor solution of films. The thin film matrix presents a very useful shape for technological application, since it allows integration in optical devices and the application of electric fields to operate electroluminescent devices.Foi obtida emissão de filmes finos de SnO2 dopados com Er no intervalo 500-700 nm, com pico em 530 nm (verde. Esses filmes foram depositados pela técnica de molhamento via sol-gel. A geração de pares elétron-buraco na matriz de SnO2 é usada para promover a excitação do íon terra-rara. A avaliação do tamanho dos cristalitos por meio de resultados de difração de raios X indica dimensões nanoscópicas, o que pode ser relevante para a interpretação do espectro de emissão. O mecanismo de excitação elétron-buraco é também responsável pela excitação da transição no intervalo que inclui 1540 nm em pós obtidos da mesma solução precursora dos filmes. Filmes finos constituem um formato muito útil para aplicações tecnológicas, desde que permite integração em dispositivos ópticos e a aplicação de campos elétricos para operar dispositivos eletroluminescentes.

  18. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    goes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to .... Figure 6. Photodegradation of IGOR organic dye by a. bare TiO2 thin film and b. ... Meng L-J and Dos Santos M P 1993 Thin Solid Films 226 22.

  19. Inkjet-printed thin film radio-frequency capacitors based on sol-gel derived alumina dielectric ink

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret; Maller, Robert; Vaseem, Mohammad; McLachlan, Martyn A.; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    passive electronics. The ability to spatially pattern high quality Al2O3 thin films using, for example, inkjet printing would tremendously simplify the incumbent fabrication processes – significantly reducing cost and allowing for the development of large

  20. (0 0 2-oriented growth and morphologies of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Dongyun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc acetate was used as a starting material to prepare Zn-solutions from solvents and ligands with different boiling temperature. The ZnO thin films were prepared on Si(1 0 0 substrates by spin-coating method. The effect of baking temperature and boiling temperature of the solvents and ligands on their morphologies and orientation was investigated. The solvents and ligands with high boiling temperature were favorable for relaxation of mechanical stress to form the smooth ZnO thin films. As the solvents and ligands with low boiling temperature were used to prepare Zn-solutions, the prepared ZnO thin films showed (0 0 2 preferred orientation. As n-propanol, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-(methylaminoethanol and monoethanolamine were used to prepare Zn-solutions, highly (0 0 2-oriented ZnO thin films were formed by adjusting the baking temperature.

  1. TiO₂ sol-gel for formaldehyde photodegradation using polymeric support: photocatalysis efficiency versus material stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Monique S; Oliveira, Michel P; Waldman, Walter R; Sánchez, Benigno; Canela, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts supported on polymers are not frequently used in heterogeneous photocatalysis because of problems such as wettability and stability that affect photocatalysis conditions. In this work, we used polypropylene as support for TiO2 sol-gel to evaluate its stability and efficiency under UV radiation. We also tested the effect of the thermo-pressing PP/TiO2 system on the photocatalytic efficiency and stability under UV radiation. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM micrographs showed that the films of TiO2 sol-gel onto PP has approximately 1.0-μm thick and regular surface and the generation of polypropylene nanowires on hot-pressed samples. XRD showed the formation of TiO2 anatase on the surface of the films made by dip-coating. All photocatalysts were tested in decontaminating air-containing gaseous formaldehyde (70 ppmv) presenting degradation of the target compound to the limit of detection. The photocatalysts showed no deactivation during the entire period tested (30 h), and its reuse after washing showed better photocatalytic performance than on first use. The photocatalyst showed the best results were tested for 360 h with no observed deactivation. Aging studies showed that the film of TiO2 causes different effects on the photostability of composites, with stabilizing effect when exposed to most energetic UVC radiation (λmax = 254 nm) and degradative effects when exposed to UVA radiation (λmax = 365 nm).

  2. Electro-Caloric Properties of BT/PZT Multilayer Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Su; Lee, Sung-Gap; Kim, Kyeong-Min

    2018-09-01

    In this study, Barium Titanate (BT)/Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) multilayer thin films were fabricated by the spin-coating method on Pt (200 nm)/Ti (10 nm) SiO2 (100 nm)/P-Si (100) substrates using BaTiO3 and Pb(Zr0.90Ti0.10)O3 metal alkoxide solutions. The coating and heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All of BT/PZT multilayer thin films show X-ray diffraction patterns typical to a polycrystalline perovskite structure and a uniform and void free grain microstructure. The thickness of the BT and PZT film by one-cycle of drying/sintering was approximately 50 nm and all of the films consisted of fine grains with a flat surface morphology. The electrocaloric properties of BT/PZT thin films were investigated by indirect estimation. The results showed that the temperature change ΔT can be calculated as a function of temperature using Maxwell's relation; the temperature change reaches a maximum value of ~1.85 °C at 135 °C under an applied electric field of 260 kV/cm.

  3. Effects of stabilizer ratio on photoluminescence properties of sol-gel ZnO nano-structured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjouan, F.; Chelouche, A.; Touam, T.; Djouadi, D.; Khodja, S.; Tazerout, M.; Ouerdane, Y.; Hadjoub, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO thin films with different molar ratios of MEA to zinc acetate (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) have been deposited on glass substrates by a sol–gel dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the effect of MEA stabilizer ratio on structural, morphological, absorbance and emission properties of the ZnO thin films. Diffraction patterns have shown that all the films are polycrystalline and exhibit a wurtzite hexagonal structure. The c axis orientation has been enhanced with increasing stabilizer ratio. SEM micrographs have revealed that the morphology of the ZnO films depend on stabilizer ratio. The UV–visible absorption spectra have demonstrated that the optical absorption is affected by stabilizer ratio. The photoluminescence spectra have indicated one ultraviolet and two visible emission bands (green and red), while band intensities are found to be dependent on stabilizer ratio. ZnO thin films deposited at MEA ratio of 1.0 show the highest UV emission while the minimum UV emission intensity is observed in thin films deposited at ratio of 0.5 and the maximum green has been recorded for films deposited at MEA ratio of 2.0. - Highlight: • c axis orientation increases with increasing MEA ratio. • The increase of MEA ration from 0.5 to 1.0 enhances greatly the UV emission. • The larger I UV /I visible is obtained for the MEA to Zn ratio of 1:1. • The MEA ratio of 0.5 favors the formation of large density of V zn . • The MEA ratio of 2.0 increases the V o density

  4. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline porous TiO2/WO3 composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsay, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 materials possessing not only photocatalytic but also electrochromic properties have attracted many research and development interests. Though WO 3 exhibits excellent electrochromic properties, the much higher cost and water-sensitivity of WO 3 as compared with the TiO 2 may restrict the practical application of WO 3 materials. In the present study, the feasibility of preparing nanocrystalline porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite thin films was investigated. Precursors of sols TiO 2 and/or WO 3 and polystyrene microspheres were used to prepare nanocrystalline pure TiO 2 , WO 3 , and composite TiO 2 /WO 3 thin films by spin coating. The spin-coated thin films were amorphous and, after heat treating at a temperature of 500 o C, nanocrystalline TiO 2 , TiO 2 /WO 3 , and WO 3 thin films with or without pores were prepared successfully. The heat-treated thin films were colorless and coloration-bleaching phenomena can be observed during cyclic voltammetry tests. The heat-treated thin films exhibited good reversible electrochromic behavior while the porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite film exhibited improved electrochromic properties

  5. Elaboration and Characterization of TiO2 and Study of the Influence of The Number of Thin Films on the Methylene Blue Adsorption Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoui, Karima; Medjahed, Aicha; Hamici, Melia; Djamila, Abdi; Boudissa, Mokhtar

    2018-05-01

    Thin films of titanium oxide (TiO2) deposited on glass substrates were fabricated by using the sol-gel route. The realization of these thin layers was made using the dip-coating technique with a solution of titanium isopropoxyde as a precursor. The samples prepared with different numbers of deposited layers were annealed at 400 ° C for 2 hours. The main purposes of this work were investigations of both the effect of the number of thin TiO2 layers on the crystal structure of the anatase form first and, their ability to adsorb the solution of methylene blue in order to make colored filters from a photocatalytic process. The deposited titanium-oxide layers were characterized by using various techniques: namely, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The result obtained by using the XRD technique showed the appearance of an anatase phase, as was confirmed by using Raman spectroscopy. The AFM surface analysis allowed the surface topography to be characterized and the surface roughness to be measured, which increased with increasing number of layers. The UV-Visible spectra showed that the TiO2 films had a good transmittance varying from 65% to 95% according to the number of layers. The gap energy varied as a function of the number of deposited layers. The as deposited TiO2 layers were tested as a photocatalyst towards the adsorption of methylene blue dye. The results obtained during this study showed that the adsorption capacity varied according to the number of deposited thin layers and the exposing duration to ultraviolet (UV) light. The maximum absorption rate of the dye was obtained for the two-layer sample. Seventy-two hours of irradiation allowed the adsorption intensity of the dye to be maximized for two-layer films.

  6. Broad-band tunable visible emission of sol-gel derived SiBOC ceramic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakuscu, Aylin; Guider, Romain; Pavesi, Lorenzo; Soraru, Gian Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Strong broad band tunable visible emission of SiBOC ceramic films is reported and the results are compared with one of boron free SiOC ceramic films. The insertion of boron into the SiOC network is verified by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Optical properties are studied by photoluminescence and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy measurements. Boron addition causes a decrease in the emission intensity attributed to defect states and shifts the emission to the visible range at lower temperatures (800-900 o C) leading to a very broad tunable emission with high external quantum efficiency.

  7. Biocompatibility of sol-gel hydroxyapatite-titania composite and bilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidane, D.; Rammal, H.; Beljebbar, A.; Gangloff, S.C.; Chicot, D.; Velard, F.; Khireddine, H.

    2017-01-01

    Titania-Hydroxyapatite (TiO 2 /HAP) reinforced coatings are proposed to enhance the bioactivity and corrosion resistance of 316L stainless steel (316L SS). Herein, spin- and dip-coating sol-gel processes were investigated to construct two kinds of coatings: TiO 2 /HAP composite and TiO 2 /HAP bilayer. Physicochemical characterization highlighted the bioactivity response of the TiO 2 /HAP composite once incubated in physiological conditions for 7 days whereas the TiO 2 /HAP bilayer showed instability and dissolution. Biological analysis revealed a failure in human stem cells adhesion on TiO 2 /HAP bilayer whereas on TiO 2 /HAP composite the presence of polygonal shaped cells, possessing good behaviour attested a good biocompatibility of the composite coating. Finally, TiO 2 /HAP composite with hardness up to 0.6 GPa and elastic modulus up to 18 GPa, showed an increased corrosion resistance of 316L SS. In conclusion, the user-friendly sol-gel processes led to bioactive TiO 2 /HAP composite buildup suitable for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • 316L SS implant TiO 2 reinforced HAP coatings were investigated and compared. • TiO 2 /HAP composite had better structural features and biocompatible properties. • Improvement of 316L SS implants corrosion resistance. • TiO 2 /HAP composite mechanical properties close to bone tissue • Low cost and desired material for hard tissue applications

  8. Synthesis and optical characterization of C-SiO2 and C-NiO sol-gel composite films for use as selective solar absorbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makiwa, G

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a cheaper and environmentally friendly method to fabricate efficient spectrally selective solar absorber materials. The sol-gel technique was used to fabricate carbon-silica (C-SiO2) and carbon-nickel oxide (C-NiO) composite...

  9. Resistividade do filme depositado via sol-gel e estado de oxidação do dopante Ce na matriz SnO2 Resistivity of the film deposited via sol-gel and oxidation state of Ce doping in SnO2 matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. A. Scalvi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Incorporação de Ce3+ ou Ce4+ em filmes finos de SnO2 depositados via sol-gel-dip-coating aumenta drasticamente a resistividade elétrica. No primeiro caso, temos comportamento aceitador do dopante, levando a matriz à alta compensação de carga. Por outro lado, para Ce4+, verifica-se aumento na largura da região de depleção do contorno de grão, resultando em maior espalhamento de elétrons. Medidas de caracterização elétrica sob pressão ambiente levam à barreiras de potencial mais altas do que as medidas sob vácuo, devido a adsorção de oxigênio na superfície das partículas. A presença de Ce3+ aumenta a transmitância no infravermelho, o que significa menor quantidade de elétrons livres. Dados de XANES confirmam que o tratamento térmico a 550 ºC dos filmes, ainda que promova oxidação parcial para Ce4+, preserva uma quantidade significativa (em torno de 60% no estado Ce3+. Espectroscopia Raman mostra a evolução dos modos de vibração intra-grãos de SnO2 com o aumento da temperatura de tratamento térmico.Incorporation of Ce3+ or Ce4+ in sol-gel dip-coating SnO2 thin films increases drastically its electrical resistivity. In the first case, it is due the acceptor-like nature of the doping ion, leading the matrix to high charge compensation. On the other hand, for Ce+4 doped samples, it is verified a broadening of the grain boundary depletion layer. Measurements under room pressure leads to higher intergrain potential barriers when compared to measurements carried out under vacuum conditions, due to oxygen adsorption at particles surface. The presence of Ce3+ increases the infrared transmittance, which means a lower free electron concentration. XANES data confirms that the thermal annealing at 550 ºC of thin films, although promotes oxidation to Ce4+, still keeps a significantly amount (about 60% of ions in the oxidation state Ce3+. Raman spectroscopy data show the evolution of the SnO2 bulk vibration modes with

  10. PL and EL characterizations of ZnO:Eu3+, Li+ films derived by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Daoqi; Zhang Junying; Yang Chun; Wang Tianmin

    2008-01-01

    ZnO:Eu 3+ , Li + films prepared by the dip-coating method were characterized by photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL). When the ZnO:Eu 3+ , Li + films were excited using UV light with energy corresponding to the band-to-band excitation of the host matrix, the PL spectra showed emissions from both ZnO and Eu 3+ ions, while their EL spectra showed emissions only from Eu 3+ ions, and no emission from ZnO could be detected. It is found that the EL emission intensity B is dependent on the applied voltage, B=B o exp(-bV -1/2 ). With increasing frequency, the EL intensity dramatically increases at lower frequencies ( 1000 Hz)

  11. Inkjet-printed thin film radio-frequency capacitors based on sol-gel derived alumina dielectric ink

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2017-05-03

    There has been significant interest in printing radio frequency passives, however the dissipation factor of printed dielectric materials has limited the quality factor achievable. Al2O3 is one of the best and widely implemented dielectrics for RF passive electronics. The ability to spatially pattern high quality Al2O3 thin films using, for example, inkjet printing would tremendously simplify the incumbent fabrication processes – significantly reducing cost and allowing for the development of large area electronics. To-date, particle based Al2O3 inks have been explored as dielectrics, although several drawbacks including nozzle clogging and grain boundary formation in the films hinder progress. In this work, a particle free Al2O3 ink is developed and demonstrated in RF capacitors. Fluid and jetting properties are explored, along with control of ink spreading and coffee ring suppression. The liquid ink is heated to 400 °C decomposing to smooth Al2O3 films ~120 nm thick, with roughness of <2 nm. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors, show high capacitance density >450 pF/mm2, and quality factors of ~200. The devices have high break down voltages, >25 V, with extremely low leakage currents, <2×10−9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm. The capacitors compare well with similar Al2O3 devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

  12. Excellent Passivation of p-Type Si Surface by Sol-Gel Al2O3 Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Qing, Xiao; Chun-Lan, Zhou; Xiao-Ning, Cao; Wen-Jing, Wang; Lei, Zhao; Hai-Ling, Li; Hong-Wei, Diao

    2009-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 films with a thickness of about 100 nm synthesized by spin coating and thermally treated are applied for field-induced surface passivation of p-type crystalline silicon. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance. An effective surface recombination velocity below 100 cm/s is obtained on 10Ω ·cm p-type c-Si wafers (Cz Si). A high density of negative fixed charges in the order of 10 12 cm −2 is detected in the Al 2 O 3 films and its impact on the level of surface passivation is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, a comparison between the surface passivation achieved for thermal SiO 2 and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiN x :H films on the same c-Si is presented. The high negative fixed charge density explains the excellent passivation of p-type c-Si by Al 2 O 3 . (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. The structural studies of aluminosilicate gels and thin films synthesized by the sol-gel method using different Al2O3 and SiO2 precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamczyk Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminosilicate materials were obtained by sol-gel method, using different Al2O3 and SiO2 precursors in order to prepare sols based on water and organic solvents. As SiO2 precursors, Aerosil 200TM and tetraethoxysilane TEOS: Si(OC2H54 were applied, while DisperalTM and aluminium secondary butoxide ATSB: Al(OC4H93 were used for Al2O3 ones. Bulk samples were obtained by heating gels at 500 °C, 850 °C and at 1150 °C in air, while thin films were synthesized on carbon, steel and alundum (representing porous ceramics substrates by the dip coating method. Thin films were annealed in air (steel and alundum and in argon (carbon at different temperatures, depending on the substrate type. The samples were synthesized as gels and coatings of the composition corresponding the that of 3Al2O3·2SiO2 mullite because of the specific valuable properties of this material. The structure of the annealed bulk samples and coatings was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy and XRD method (in standard and GID configurations. Additionally, the electron microscopy (SEM together with EDS microanalysis were applied to describe the morphology and the chemical composition of thin films. The analysis of FT-IR spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns of bulk samples revealed the presence of γ-Al2O3 and δ-Al2O3 phases, together with the small amount of SiO2 in the particulate samples. This observation was confirmed by the bands due to vibrations of Al–O bonds occurring in γ-Al2O3 and δ-Al2O3 structures, in the range of 400 to 900 cm−1. The same phases (γ-Al2O3 and δ-Al2O were observed in the deposited coatings, but the presence of particulate ones strongly depended on the type of Al2O3 and SiO2 precursor and on the heat treatment temperature. All thin films contained considerable amounts of amorphous phase.

  14. Intrinsic Photocatalytic Assessment of Reactively Sputtered TiO2 Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Driessen, Rick Theodorus; Driessen, Rick T.; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    Thin TiO2 films were prepared by DC magnetron reactive sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering, a transition from metallic Ti to TiO2 was identified by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The crystalline nature of the film developed during

  15. Respective efficiencies of nuclear collisions and electronic excitations for precipitating Ag clusters in sol-gel films

    CERN Document Server

    Pivin, J C

    2002-01-01

    The growth of silver clusters in co-sputtered SiO sub 2 :Ag films under irradiation with increasing fluences of 1.5 MeV He or 3 MeV Au ions is investigated by recording spectra of optical extinction. The analysis of surface plasmon resonances in these very small clusters on basis of Mie theory permits to estimate more precisely their mean size than TEM images. A linear increase of the mean cluster size with the energy deposited by ions in electronic excitations and little effect of collision cascades are observed. The growth kinetics is ascribed to a process of desorption/re-adsorption of Ag atoms at the surface of clusters.

  16. Preparation of anatase TiO2 thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Tsukada, Satoshi; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2006-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films with high photocatalytic activity have been prepared with deposition rates as high as 16 nm/min by a newly developed vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) method using sintered TiO 2 pellets as the source material. Highly transparent TiO 2 thin films prepared at substrate temperatures from room temperature to 400 deg. C exhibited photocatalytic activity, regardless whether oxygen (O 2 ) gas was introduced during the VAPE deposition. The highest photocatalytic activity and photo-induced hydrophilicity were obtained in anatase TiO 2 thin films prepared at 300 deg. C, which correlated to the best crystallinity of the films, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction. In addition, a transparent and conductive anatase TiO 2 thin film with a resistivity of 2.6 x 10 -1 Ω cm was prepared at a substrate temperature of 400 deg. C without the introduction of O 2 gas

  17. New infrared-assisted method for sol-gel derived ZnO:Ag thin films: Structural and bacterial inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Penguelly, Brenely; Morales-Ramírez, Ángel de Jesús; Rodríguez-Rosales, Miriam Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Nava, Celestino Odín; Carrera-Jota, María Luz

    2017-09-01

    A new sol-gel method, based on crystallization with Infrared heating, was developed to obtain ZnO:Ag thin films. The common sol, with zinc acetate as precursor and silver nitrate as doping source (1, 3 and 5 % molar), isopropanol and distilled water as solvents and monoethanolamine as stabilizer agent; was modified with Pluronic F127 and diethylene glycol as rheological agents, and with urea as fuel to produce enough energy to the combustion and to promote the crystallization process. Later, Corning glass-substrates were dipped into the sol at a constant speed of 3mms -1 . To provide the necessary energy for obtaining the hexagonal ZnO structure of the coatings during the drying and consolidation process, instead of using the common furnace heat-treatment, the films were heated by means of an infrared (IR) ceramic lamp (800W) for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 180 minutes, and the effect of this annealing method was analyzed. The structural properties were examined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), whereas morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The examination revealed a homogeneous distribution of particles with the characteristic pores of pluronic F127, and the coating roughness had an average value of 100nm by AFM. To evaluate the effect on the number of dipping cycles and the IR-treatment on the thickness, ellipsometry results for 1, 3 and 5 deposits were analyzed and showed increments of 780, 945 and 1082nm, respectively. Finally, to test of the antibacterial activity, instead of the common one-microorganism approach, environmental microorganisms that grow with expose of the broth to the ambient conditions were employed (microbial consortium), which is a real environmental condition. The biological test was carried out by kinetic growth inhibition (optical density) of heterotrophic bacteria in culture liquid media under conditions of light, light-dark and

  18. Nanoimprint lithography of light trapping patterns in sol-gel coatings for thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heijna, M.; Loffler, J.; Van Aken, B.B.; Soppe, W.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Borg, H.; Peeters, P. [OM and T, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    For thin-film silicon solar cells, light trapping schemes are of uppermost importance to harvest all available sunlight. Typically, randomly textured TCO front layers are used to scatter the light diffusively in p-i-n cells on glass. Here, we investigate methods to texture the back contact with both random and periodic textures, for use in n-i-p cells on opaque foil. We applied an electrically insulating SiOx-polymer coating on a stainless steel substrate, and textured this barrier layer by nanoimprint. On this barrier layer the back contact is deposited for further use in the solar cell stack. Replication of masters with various random and periodic patterns was tested, and, using scanning electron microscopy, replicas were found to compare well with the originals. Masters with U-grooves of various sub micrometer widths have been used to investigate the optimal dimensions of regular patterns for light trapping in the silicon layers. Angular reflection distributions were measured to evaluate the light scattering properties of both periodic and random patterns. Diffraction gratings show promising results in scattering the light to specific angles, enhancing the total internal reflection in the solar cell.

  19. Enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activity of WO3-surface modified TiO2 thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Mohammad; Drmosh, Qasem; Ahmed, Muhammad I.; Qamaruddin, Muhammad; Yamani, Zain H.

    2015-02-01

    Development of nanostructured photocatalysts for harnessing solar energy in energy-efficient and environmentally benign way remains an important area of research. Pure and WO3-surface modified thin films of TiO2 were prepared by magnetron sputtering on indium tin oxide glass, and photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic activities of these films were studied. TiO2 particles were <50 nm, while deposited WO3 particles were <20 nm in size. An enhancement in the photocurrent was observed when the TiO2 surface was modified WO3 nanoparticles. Effect of potential, WO3 amount, and radiations of different wavelengths on the photoelectrochemical activity of TiO2 electrodes was investigated. Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 and WO3-modified TiO2 for the decolorization of methyl orange was tested.

  20. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  1. Optical and Structural Characterization of ZnO/TiO2 Bilayer Thin Films Grown by Sol-Gel Spin Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareso, P. L.; Musfitasari; Juarlin, Eko

    2018-03-01

    Structural and optical properties of ZnO/TiO2 bilayers thin films have been investigated using x-ray diffraction (X-RD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical transmittance UV-Vis measurements. ZnO thin films were prepared by dissolving zinc acetate dehydrated into a solvent of ethanol and then added triethanolamin. In the case of TiO2 layers, tetraisoproxide was dissolved into ethanol and then added an acetate acid. The layer of ZnO was deposited first followed by TiO2 layer on a glass substrate using a spin coating technique. The ZnO/TiO2 bilayers were annealed at various temperatures from 300°C until 600°C for 60 minutes. The X-ray diffraction results show that there was an enhancement of the x-ray spectra as annealed temperature increased to 600°C in comparison to the samples that were annealed at 300°C. Based on the optical measurement of UV-Vis, the band gap energy of ZnO/TiO2 bilayer is around 3.2 eV at temperature of 300°C. This value is similar to the band gap energy of ZnO. SEM results show that there is no cluster in the surface of ZnO/TiO2 bilayer.

  2. Analyses of laser and furnace treated sol-gel coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JT; De Haas, M; Sudarshan, TS; Jeandin, M; Khor, KA

    1998-01-01

    Here we explore a new method that allows thin films to be made with almost any composition and degree of porosity by means of a combination of sol-gel and laser technology. Results are presented for furnace and laser treated TEOTI-(tetraethylorthotitanate as sol precursor) coated silicon samples.

  3. Microporous TiO2-WO3/TiO2 films with visible-light photocatalytic activity synthesized by micro arc oxidation and DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kee-Rong; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Yeh, Chung-Wei; Wu, Jiing-Kae

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple MAO is used to prepare porous WO 3 /TiO 2 layer on Ti sheet as a visible-light enabled catalyst. ► The photocatalytic activity of the WO 3 /TiO 2 is enhanced by sputtering over an N,C-TiO 2 layer. ► This is ascribed to the synergetic effect of hybrid sample prepared by two-step method. - Abstract: This study reports the preparation of microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 films with a high surface area using a two-step approach. A porous WO 3 /TiO 2 template was synthesized by oxidizing a titanium sheet using a micro arc oxidation (MAO) process. This sheet was subsequently overlaid with a visible light (Vis)-enabled TiO 2 (N,C-TiO 2 ) film, which was deposited by codoping nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) ions into a TiO 2 lattice using direct current magnetron sputtering. The resulting microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 film with a 0.38-μm-thick N,C-TiO 2 top-layer exhibited high photocatalytic activity in methylene blue (MB) degradation among samples under ultraviolet (UV) and Vis irradiation. This is attributable to the synergetic effect of two-step preparation method, which provides a highly porous microstructure and the well-crystallized N,C-TiO 2 top-layer. This is because a higher surface area with high crystallinity favors the adsorption of more MB molecules and more photocatalytic active areas. Thus, the microporous TiO 2 -WO 3 /TiO 2 film has promising applications in the photocatalytic degradation of dye solution under UV and Vis irradiation. These results imply that the microporous WO 3 /TiO 2 can be used as a template of hybrid electrode because it enables rapid fabrication.

  4. In-situ investigations of the photoluminescence properties of SiO2/TiO2 binary and Boron-SiO2/TiO2 ternary oxides prepared by the sol-gel method and their photocatalytic reactivity for the oxidative decomposition of trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong Youl Jung

    2003-01-01

    oxygen. It was found that the photocatalytic reactivity of TiO2-based photocatalysts for the decomposition of trichloroethylene was clearly associated with their relative quenching efficiencies of photoluminescence; photocatalyst showing high quenching efficiency exhibited a high photocatalytic reactivity.

  5. Imprinted sol-gel electrochemical sensor for the determination of benzylpenicillin based on Fe3O4/SiO2 multi-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosans nanocomposite film modified carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yufang; Li Jiaxing; Zhang Zhaohui; Zhang Huabin; Luo Lijuan; Yao Shouzhuo

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel imprinted sol-gel electrochemical sensor based on Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 -MWNTs-CTS nanocomposite film and a thin MIP film has been developed on a carbon electrode. Highlights: → A novel imprinted sol-gel electrochemical sensor based on Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 -MWNTs-CTS nanocomposites has been developed. → Fe 3 O 4 /SiO 2 -MWNTs-CTS nanocomposites act as 'electronic wires' to enhance the electron transfer. → The inherent specificity of the MIPs brings about highly selectivity. The imprinted sensor detects benzylpenicillin in real samples successfully. - Abstract: Herein, a novel imprinted sol-gel electrochemical sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) doped with chitosan film on a carbon electrode has been developed. Prior to doped, the MWNTs have been decorated with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles which have been coated uniformly with SiO 2 layer. The characterization of imprinted sensor has been carried out by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The performance of the proposed imprinted sensor has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. The imprinted sensor offers a fast response and sensitive benzylpenicillin quantification. The fabricated benzylpenicillin imprinted sensor exhibits a linear response from 5.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -3 mol L -1 with a detection limit of 1.5 x 10 -9 mol L -1 . For samples analysis, perfect recoveries of the imprinted sensor for benzylpenicillin indicated that the imprinted sensor was able to detect benzylpenicillin in real samples successfully.

  6. Optical Sensors for Biomolecules Using Nanoporous Sol-Gel Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jonathan; Zhou, Jing C.; Lan, Esther H.; Dunn, Bruce; Gillman, Patricia L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    An important consideration for space missions to Mars is the ability to detect biosignatures. Solid-state sensing elements for optical detection of biological entities are possible using sol-gel based biologically active materials. We have used these materials as optical sensing elements in a variety of bioassays, including immunoassays and enzyme assays. By immobilizing an appropriate biomolecule in the sol-gel sensing element, we have successfully detected analytes such as amino acids and hormones. In the case of the amino acid glutamate, the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase was the immobilized molecule, whereas in the case of the hormone cortisol, an anti-cortisol antibody was immobilized in the sensing element. In this previous work with immobilized enzymes and antibodies, excellent sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated in a variety of formats including bulk materials, thin films and fibers. We believe that the sol-gel approach is an attractive platform for bioastronautics sensing applications because of the ability to detect a wide range of entities such as amino acids, fatty acids, hopanes, porphyrins, etc. The sol-gel approach produces an optically transparent 3D silica matrix that forms around the biomolecule of interest, thus stabilizing its structure and functionality while allowing for optical detection. This encapsulation process protects the biomolecule and leads to a more "rugged" sensor. The nanoporous structure of the sol-gel matrix allows diffusion of small target molecules but keeps larger, biomolecules immobilized in the pores. We are currently developing these biologically active sol-gel materials into small portable devices for on-orbit cortisol detection

  7. Liquid phase deposition of WO3/TiO2 heterojunction films with high photoelectrocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Man; Yang, Changzhu; Pu, Wenhong; Tan, Yuanbin; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Jingdong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid phase deposition is developed for preparing WO 3 /TiO 2 heterojunction films. • TiO 2 film provides an excellent platform for WO 3 deposition. • WO 3 expands the absorption band edge of TiO 2 film to visible light region. • WO 3 /TiO 2 heterojunction film shows high photoelectrocatalytic activity. - ABSTRACT: The heterojunction films of WO 3 /TiO 2 were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) method via two-step processes. The scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated that flower-like WO 3 film was successfully deposited on TiO 2 film with the LPD processes. The TiO 2 film provided an excellent platform for WO 3 deposition while WO 3 obviously expanded the absorption of TiO 2 film to visible light. As the result, the heterojunction film of WO 3 /TiO 2 exhibited higher photocurrent response to visible light illumination than pure TiO 2 or WO 3 film. The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity of WO 3 /TiO 2 film was evaluated by degrading Rhodamin B (RhB) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the LPD WO 3 /TiO 2 film possessed high PEC activity for efficient removal of various refractory organic pollutants

  8. Neutron detector based on lithiated sol-gel glass

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, S; Miller, L F; Dai, S

    2002-01-01

    A neutron detector technology is demonstrated based on sup 6 Li/ sup 1 sup 0 B doped sol-gel glass. The detector is a sol-gel glass film coated silicon surface barrier detector (SBD). The ionized charged particles from (n, alpha) reactions in the sol-gel film enter the SBD and are counted. Data showing that gamma-ray pulse amplitudes interfere with identifying charged particles that exit the film layer with energies below the gamma-ray energy is presented. Experiments were performed showing the effect of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays on the SBD detector. The reaction product energies of the triton and alpha particles from sup 6 Li are significantly greater than the energies of the Compton electrons from high-energy gamma rays, allowing the measurement of neutrons in a high gamma background. The sol-gel radiation detection technology may be applicable to the characterization of transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel and to the monitoring of stored plutonium.

  9. Surface Properties of Photocatalytic Nano-Crystalline Titania Films and Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Jensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    In this work two immobilizations techniques of TiO2 onto glass were investigated; deposition of previously made titania powder (PMTP) and a sol-gel method. The titania powder used in this work was Degussa P25, Hombikat UV100 and a powder prepared in our laboratory SC134. The prepared TiO2 films w...

  10. Antimicrobial and Barrier Properties of Bovine Gelatin Films Reinforced by Nano TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nassiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nano titanium dioxide incorporation were investigated on the water vaporpermeability, oxygen permeability, and antimicrobial properties of bovine gelatin films. The nano TiO2 (TiO2-N was homogenized by sonication and incorporated into bovine gelatin solutions at different concentrations(e.g. 1, 2, 3, and 5% w/w of dried gelatin. The permeability of the films to water vapor and oxygen wassignificantly decreased by incorporating of low concentration TiO2-N to gelatin solutions. TiO2-N gelatin filmsshowed an excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Theseproperties suggest that TiO2-N has the potential as filler in gelatin-based films for using as an active packagingmaterials in pharmaceutical and food packaging industries.

  11. Electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer film via sol-gel technology and multi-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosan functional layer for sensitive determination of quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yukun; Fang, Guozhen; Liu, Guiyang; Pan, Mingfei; Wang, Xiaomin; Kong, Lingjie; He, Xinlei; Wang, Shuo

    2013-09-15

    Quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (QCA) is difficult to measure since only trace levels are present in commercial meat products. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and selective molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for QCA determination was successfully constructed by combination of a novel modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The GCE was fabricated via stepwise modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)-chitosan (CS) functional composite and a sol-gel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film on the surface. MWNTs-CS composite was used to enhance the electron transfer rate and expand electrode surface area, and consequently amplify QCA reduction electrochemical response. The imprinted mechanism and experimental parameters affecting the performance of MIP film were discussed in detail. The resulting MIP/sol-gel/MWNTs-CS/GCE was characterized using various electrochemical methods involving cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and DPV. The sensor using MIP/sol-gel/MWNTs-CS/GCE as working electrode showed a linear current response to the target QCA concentration in the wide range from 2.0×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-3)molL(-1) with a low detection limit of 4.4×10(-7)molL(-1) (S/N=3). The established sensor with excellent reproductivity and stability was applied to evaluate commercial pork products. At five concentration levels, the recoveries and standard deviations were calculated as 93.5-98.6% and 1.7-3.3%, respectively, suggesting the proposed sensor is promising for the accurate quantification of QCA at trace levels in meat samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis of TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and its applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    structure of the titanium oxide species in the TiO2-doped SiO2 composite films and the photocatalytic reactiv- ity in order to ... gaku D-max γA diffractometer with graphite mono- chromized ... FT–IR absorption spectra of TiO2-doped SiO2 com-.

  13. Study and Prospects of Sol-gel Method for Solar Energy Thin Films%溶胶-凝胶法制备太阳能薄膜的研究及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马芳; 马洪芳; 王艺涵; 丁严广

    2011-01-01

    The reaction mechanism and process of the method are introduced in the paper. The solar photovoltaic/thermal transfer principle, classification of solar thin films and the latest research have been introduced emphatically, which prove that solar thin films prepared by sol-gel has a high conversion rate. And the development trends and application prospects of the solar thin films prepared by sol-gel method are pointed out, too.%介绍了溶胶-凝胶法的反应机理、工艺过程,着重介绍了太阳能光电/光热转换的原理、薄膜的分类以及最新研究现状,指出采用溶胶-凝胶法可获得高效率太阳能薄膜,并展望了溶胶-凝胶法在太阳能薄膜制备方面的发展趋势及应用前景.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of TiO2 Nanoparticle-Coated Film for Potential Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Othman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent uses of titanium dioxide (TiO2 have involved various applications which include the food industry. This study aims to develop TiO2 nanoparticle-coated film for potential food packaging applications due to the photocatalytic antimicrobial property of TiO2. The TiO2 nanoparticles with varying concentrations (0–0.11 g/ 100 mL organic solvent were coated on food packaging film, particularly low density polyethylene (LDPE film. The antimicrobial activity of the films was investigated by their capability to inactivate Escherichia coli (E. coli in an actual food packaging application test under various conditions, including types of light (fluorescent and ultraviolet (UV and the length of time the film was exposed to light (one–three days. The antimicrobial activity of the TiO2 nanoparticle-coated films exposed under both types of lighting was found to increase with an increase in the TiO2 nanoparticle concentration and the light exposure time. It was also found that the antimicrobial activity of the films exposed under UV light was higher than that under fluorescent light. The developed film has the potential to be used as a food packaging film that can extend the shelf life, maintain the quality, and assure the safety of food.

  15. Effect of chemisorbed surface species on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticulate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yaan; Yang Wensheng; Chen Yongmei; Du Hui; Yue, Polock

    2004-01-01

    TiO 2 sols prepared in acidic and basic medium were deposited into films by a spin coating method. Photodegradation experiments showed that photocatalytic activity of the films prepared from acidic sol was much higher than that from basic sol. It is identified that there are more chemisorbed species of CO 2 on the surface of the TiO 2 films from the basic sol than on the surface of the TiO 2 films from the acidic sol. The chemisorbed species of CO 2 reduce the concentration of active species such as hydroxyl group and bridging oxygen on surface of the TiO 2 film and contribute to the formation of surface electron traps in the band gap which are detrimental to charge separation, thus lowering the photocatalytic activity

  16. Biocompatibility and Surface Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Huerta, Francisco; Cervantes, Blanca; González, Octavio; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Vega, Rosario; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    We present the study of the biocompatibility and surface properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. These films are deposited on a quartz substrate at room temperature and annealed with different temperatures (100, 300, 500, 800 and 1100 °C). The biocompatibility of the TiO2 thin films is analyzed using primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of Wistar rats, whose neurons are incubated on the TiO2 thin films and on a control substrate during 18 to 24 h. These neurons are activated by electrical stimuli and its ionic currents and action potential activity recorded. Through X-ray diffraction (XRD), the surface of TiO2 thin films showed a good quality, homogeneity and roughness. The XRD results showed the anatase to rutile phase transition in TiO2 thin films at temperatures between 500 and 1100 °C. This phase had a grain size from 15 to 38 nm, which allowed a suitable structural and crystal phase stability of the TiO2 thin films for low and high temperature. The biocompatibility experiments of these films indicated that they were appropriated for culture of living neurons which displayed normal electrical behavior. PMID:28788667

  17. Production and Characterization of (004) Oriented Single Anatase TiO2 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atay, Ferhunde; Akyuz, Idris; Cergel, Muge Soyleyici; Erdogan, Banu

    2018-02-01

    Highly (004) oriented anatase TiO2 films have been successfully obtained by an inexpensive ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique at low substrate temperatures and without additional annealing. X-ray diffraction analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the structural, optical and surface properties of the films. By using the less reported TiCl4 solution, the optical band gap values falling into the visible region (between 2.70 eV and 2.92 eV) have been obtained for all films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry technique has been used to determine the dispersive refractive index and extinction coefficient of TiO2 films. Possible electrical conduction mechanisms in TiO2 films have been examined using temperature dependent conductivity measurements in the temperature range of 78-300 K. At room temperature, electrical resistivity values of TiO2 films change between 1.68 × 104 Ω cm and 5.88 × 104 Ω cm. Considering the analyzed parameters with respect to substrate temperature, this work refers to the properties of anatase TiO2 films that are strongly correlated to the growth direction, namely (004). As a result, (004) oriented anatase TiO2 films with appropriate optical band gap values are promising materials for technological applications, especially for photocatalysts.

  18. Fast Processing of Sol-Gel TCO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Rem, M.; Arfsten, N.; Buskens, P.P.

    2016-01-01

    TCOs are usually deposited using sputtering or chemical vapor deposition, which have a yield of typically 50-75%. The sol gel method does not need low pressure and can be done with a high precursor yield in the range of 90 – 100%. Sol gel enables also the TCO function as a planarization or

  19. TiO2-BASED Composite Films for the Photodegradation of Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Guan, Ling-Xiao; Feng, Ji-Jun; Li, Fang; Yao, Ming-Ming

    2015-02-01

    The spread of the antibiotic oxytetracycline (OTC) has been thought as a threat to the safety of drinking water. In this paper, the photocatalytic activity of the nanocrystalline Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 composite film for the degradation of OTC was studied. The films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and UV-Vis diffraction reflectance absorption spectra (DRS). The FE-SEM results indicated that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film was composed of smaller nanoparticles compared to pure TiO2 or TiO2-SiO2 film. The BET surface area results showed that the specific surface area of the pure TiO2, TiO2-SiO2 and Ca2+/Fe3+ co-doped TiO2-SiO2 is 118.3 m2g-1, 294.3 m2g-1 and 393.7 m2g-1, respectively. The DRS and PL spectra revealed that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film had strong visible light adsorption and diminished electrons/holes recombination. Experimental results showed that the Fe/Ca co-doped TiO2-SiO2 film is effective in the degradation of OTC under both UV and visible light irradiation.

  20. The properties of transparent TiO2 films for Schottky photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this data, the properties of transparent TiO2 film for Schottky photodetector are presented for the research article, entitled as “High-performing transparent photodetectors based on Schottky contacts” (Patel et al., 2017 [1]. The transparent photoelectric device was demonstrated by using various Schottky metals, such as Cu, Mo and Ni. This article mainly shows the optical transmittance of the Ni-transparent Schottky photodetector, analyzed by the energy dispersive spectroscopy and interfacial TEM images for transparency to observe the interface between NiO and TiO2 film. The observation and analyses clearly show that no pinhole formation in the TiO2 film by Ni diffusion. The rapid thermal process is an effective way to form the quality TiO2 film formation without degradation, such as pinholes (Qiu et al., 2015 [2]. This thermal process may apply to form functional metal oxide layers for solar cells and photodetectors.

  1. SAXS Studies of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Polymer Electrolytes and in Nanostructured Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Bernstorff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymer electrolytes as nanostructured materials are very attractive components for batteries and opto-electronic devices. (PEO8ZnCl2 polymer electrolytes were prepared from PEO and ZnCl2. The nanocomposites (PEO8ZnCl2/TiO2 themselves contained TiO2 nanograins. In this work, the influence of the TiO2 nanograins on the morphology and ionic conductivity of the nanocomposite was systematically studied by transmission small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS simultaneously recorded with wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC at the synchrotron ELETTRA. Films containing nanosized grains of titanium dioxide (TiO2 are widely used in the research of optical and photovoltaic devices. The TiO2 films, prepared by chemical vapor deposition and e-beam epitaxy, were annealed in hydrogen atmospheres in the temperature range between 20 °C and 900 °C in order to study anatase-rutile phase transition at 740 °C. Also, grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS spectra for each TiO2 film were measured in reflection geometry at different grazing incident angles. Environmentally friendly galvanic cells, as well as solar cells of the second generation, are to be constructed with TiO2 film as working electrode, and nanocomposite polymer as electrolyte.

  2. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx

  3. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Phosphate-Based Glasses for Hydrophilic Enamel Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Sung; Ryu, Bong-ki

    2017-01-01

    In this study, quaternary phosphate-based sol-gel derived glasses were synthesized from a P 2 O 5 -CaO-Na 2 O-TiO 2 system with a high TiO 2 content of up to 50 mol%. The sol-gel method was chosen because incorporating a high percentage of titanium into a phosphate network via traditional melt-quench methods is non-trivial. The structure and thermal properties of the obtained stabilized sol-gel glasses were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The XRD results confirmed the amorphous nature of all of the stabilized sol–gel derived glasses. The FTIR results revealed that added TiO 2 enters the network as (TiO 6 ), which likely acts as a modifier oxide. Consequently, the number of terminal oxygen atoms increases, leading to an increase in the number of P-OH bonds. In addition, DSC results confirmed a decrease in glass transition and crystallization temperatures with increasing TiO 2 content. This is the first report of a sol-gel synthesis strategy combined with enameling to prepare glass at low processing temperatures and the first use of such a system for both hydrophilic and chemical resistance purposes.

  4. Étude des matrices sol-gel en film mince par détection de molécule unique en champ large : diffusion moléculaire et agrégation photo-induite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutarelli, D.; Débarre, A.; Jaffiol, R.; Julien, C.; Richard, A.; Tchénio, P.; Chaput, F.; Boilot, J. P.

    2004-11-01

    La fluorescence de molécules de colorant dans des matrices sol-gel en film mince a été étudiée par détection de molécule unique. Outre les phénomènes de photo-blanchiment et de clignotement, un processus de photo-agrégation a été observé. Ce phénomène, dont la dynamique dépend de la présence d'oxygène, de l'intensité du laser d'excitation et de la température, montre l'existence de deux classes de molécules dans l'échantillon. Des molécules immobiles et d'autres qui diffusent. L'analyse de la dynamique d'agrégation permettra de dégager certaines caractéristiques du mécanisme de photo-agrégation et d'appréhender le rôle joué par la matrice sol-gel dans ce processus.

  5. Enhanced electrochromic properties of TiO2 nanoporous film prepared based on an assistance of polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shunjian; Luo, Xiaorui; Xiao, Zonghu; Luo, Yongping; Zhong, Wei; Ou, Hui; Li, Yinshuai

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was employed as pore-forming agent to prepare TiO2 nanoporous film based on spin-coating a TiO2 nanoparticle mixed paste on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The electrochromic and optical properties of the obtained TiO2 film were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the PEG in the mixed paste endows the TiO2 film with well-developed porous structure and improves the uniformity of the TiO2 film, which are helpful for the rapid intercalation and extraction of lithium ions within the TiO2 film and the strengthening of the diffuse reflection of visible light in the TiO2 film. As a result, the TiO2 film derived from the mixed paste with PEG displays higher electrochemical activity and more excellent electrochromic performances compared with the TiO2 film derived from the mixed paste without PEG. The switching times of coloration/bleaching are respectively 10.16/5.65 and 12.77/6.13 s for the TiO2 films with PEG and without PEG. The maximum value of the optical contrast of the TiO2 film with PEG is 21.2% while that of the optical contrast of the TiO2 film without PEG is 14.9%. Furthermore, the TiO2 film with PEG has better stability of the colored state than the TiO2 film without PEG.

  6. Hybrid titanium dioxide/PS-b-PEO block copolymer nanocomposites based on sol-gel synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J; Tercjak, A; Garcia, I; Peponi, L; Mondragon, I

    2008-01-01

    The poly(styrene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) amphiphilic block copolymer, with two different molecular weights, has been used as a structure directing agent for generating nanocomposites of TiO 2 /SEO via the sol-gel process. SEO amphiphilic block copolymers are designed with a hydrophilic PEO-block which can interact with inorganic molecules, as well as a hydrophobic PS-block which builds the matrix. The addition of different amounts of sol-gel provokes strong variations in the self-assembled morphology of TiO 2 /SEO nanocomposites with respect to the neat block copolymer. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), TiO 2 /PEO-block micelles get closer, forming well-ordered spherical domains, in which TiO 2 nanoparticles constitute the core surrounded by a corona of PEO-blocks. Moreover, for 20 vol% sol-gel the generated morphology changes to a hexagonally ordered structure for both block copolymers. The cylindrical structure of these nanocomposites has been confirmed by the two-dimensional Fourier transform power spectrum of the corresponding AFM height images. Affinity between titanium dioxide precursor and PEO-block of SEO allows us to generate hybrid inorganic/organic nanocomposites, which retain the optical properties of TiO 2 , as evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy

  7. Polymer Photovoltaic Cell Using TiO2/G-PEDOT Nanocomplex Film as Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. X. Xie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using TiO2/G-PEDOT (PEDOT/PSS doped with glycerol nanocomplex film as a substitute for metal electrode in organic photovoltaic cell is described. Indium tin oxide (ITO worked as cathode and TiO2/G-PEDOT nanocomplex works as anode. The thickness of TiO2 layer in nanocomplex greatly affects the act of this nonmetallic electrode of the device. To enhance its performance, this inverted organic photovoltaic cell uses another TiO2 layer as electron selective layer contacted to ITO coated glass substrates. All films made by solution processing techniques are coated on the transparent substrate (glass with a conducting film ITO. The efficiency of this solar cell is compared with the conventional device using Al as electrode.

  8. Preparation and studies of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sol-gel scintillating films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Ramirez, A. de J, E-mail: amoralesra@ipn.m [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada (CICATA) Unidad Altamira Instituto Politecnico Nacional Km. 14.5 Carr. Tampico-Puerto Industrial, C.P. 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-Instituto Politecnico Nacional UPALM C.P. 07738, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia Murillo, A.; Carrillo Romo, F. de J [Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-Instituto Politecnico Nacional UPALM C.P. 07738, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez Salgado, J. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, CP 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Le Luyer, C. [LPCML, CNRS-UMR 5620/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1/69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Chadeyron, G.; Boyer, D. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, CNRS-UMR 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 Ave des Landais F 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Moreno Palmerin, J. [Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-Instituto Politecnico Nacional UPALM C.P. 07738, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-30

    Eu{sup 3+} (2.5 at.%) and Tb{sup 3+} (0.005-0.01 at.%) co-doped gadolinium and yttrium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powders and films have been prepared using the sol-gel process. High density and optical quality thin films were prepared with the dip-coating technique. Gadolinium (III) 2,4-pentadionate and yttrium (III) 2,4-pentadionate were used as precursors, and europium and terbium in their nitrate forms were used as doping agents. Chemical and structural analyses (infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy) were conducted on both sol-gel precursor powders and dip-coated films. The morphology of thin films heat-treated at 700 {sup o}C was studied by means of atomic force microscopy. It was shown that the highly dense and very smooth films had a root mean roughness (RMS) of 2 nm {+-} 0.2 (A = 0.0075 Tb{sup 3+}) and 24 nm {+-} 3.0 (B = 0.01 Tb{sup 3+}). After treatment at 700 {sup o}C, the crystallized films were in the cubic phase and presented a polycrystalline structure made up of randomly oriented crystallites with grain sizes varying from 20 to 60 nm. The X-ray induced emission spectra of Eu{sup 3+}- and Tb{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders showed that Tb{sup 3+} contents of 0.005, 0.0075 and 0.01 at.% affected their optical properties. Lower Tb{sup 3+} concentrations (down to 0.005 at.%) in both systems enhanced the light yield.

  9. Electrophoretic deposition of sol-gel-derived ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Crooks, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the physical, optical, and chemical characteristics of electrophoretically and dip-coated sol-gel ceramic films are compared. The results indicate that electrophoresis may allow a higher level of control over the chemistry and structure of ceramic coatings than dip-coating techniques. For example, controlled-thickness sol-gel coatings can be prepared by adjusting the deposition time or voltage. Additionally, electrophoretic coatings can be prepared in a four-component alumino-borosilicate sol display interesting optical characteristics. For example, the ellipsometrically-measured refractive indices of electrophoretic coatings are higher than the refractive indices of dip-coated films cast from identical sols, and they are also higher than any of the individual sol components. This result suggests that there are physical and/or chemical differences between films prepared by dip-coating and electrophoresis

  10. Study on Gas Sensing Performance of TiO2 Screen Printed Thick Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. DIGHAVKAR

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thick films were prepared on alumina substrate by using screen printing technique. After preparation, the films were fired at temperature range 600 -1000 ºC for two hour. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the film samples were performed by means of several techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction techniques. We explore the various gases to study the sensing performance of the TiO2 thick films. The maximum response was reported to film fired at 800 0C for LPG gas at 350 0C operating temperature.

  11. TiO2 thin-films on polymer substrates and their photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae-Hun; Han, Yang-Su; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-01-01

    We have developed dip-coating process for TiO 2 -thin film on polymer substrates (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene polymer: ABS, polystyrene: PS). At first, a monodispersed and transparent TiO 2 nano-sol solution was prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of titanium iso-propoxide in the presence of acetylacetone and nitric acid catalyst at 80 deg. C. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of the dried particles are indicative of crystalline TiO 2 with anatase-type structure. According to the XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, the mean particle size was estimated to be ca. 5 nm. The transparent thin films on ABS and PS substrates were fabricated by dip-coating process by changing the processing variables, such as the number of dip-coating and TiO 2 concentration in nano-sol solution. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis for the thin film samples reveals that the acetylacetone-modified TiO 2 nano-sol particles are effective for enhancing the interfacial adherence between films and polymeric substrates compared to the unmodified one. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) on the TiO 2 thin-films has also been systematically investigated

  12. Multi-Layered TiO2 Films towards Enhancement of Escherichia coli Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorachon Yoriya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline TiO2 has shown its great photocatalytic properties in bacterial inactivation. This work presents a design fabrication of low-cost, layered TiO2 films assembled reactors and a study of their performance for a better understanding to elucidate the photocatalytic effect on inactivation of E. coli in water. The ability to reduce the number of bacteria in water samples for the layered TiO2 composing reactors has been investigated as a function of time, while varying the parameters of light sources, initial concentration of bacteria, and ratios of TiO2 film area and volume of water. Herein, the layered TiO2 films have been fabricated on the glass plates by thermal spray coating prior to screen printing, allowing a good adhesion of the films. Surface topology and crystallographic phase of TiO2 for the screen-printed active layer have been characterized, resulting in the ratio of anatase:rutile being 80:20. Under exposure to sunlight and a given condition employed in this study, the optimized film area:water volume of 1:2.62 has shown a significant ability to reduce the E. coli cells in water samples. The ratio of surface area of photocatalytic active base to volume of water medium is believed to play a predominant role facilitating the cells inactivation. The kinetic rate of inactivation and its behavior are also described in terms of adsorption of reaction species at different contact times.

  13. Sol-gel processes and materials. November 1971-October 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for November 1971-October 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning sol-gel processes and sol-gel derived materials and products. Selected patents include sol-gel compositions, ceramic and refractory materials, fabrication of silica glass, sol-gel thin films and coatings, transparent inorganic oxide glass, luminescent quartz glass, cataylsts and catalyst supports, nuclear fuels preparation, abrasives for grinding wheels, sol-gel production of microspheres, alumina composites, photographic materials, and dental materials. (This updated bibliography contains 120 citations, 12 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  14. Sol-gel processes and materials. January 1970-August 1989 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning Sol-Gel processes and Sol-Gel derived materials and products. Selected patents include Sol-Gel compositions, ceramic and refractory materials, fabrication of silica glass, Sol-Gel thin films and coatings, transparent inorganic oxide glass, luminescent quartz glass, cataylsts and catalyst supports, nuclear fuels preparation, abrasives for grinding wheels, Sol-Gel production of microspheres, alumina composites, photographic materials, and dental materials. (This updated bibliography contains 108 citations, 37 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  15. Sol-gel technology for biomedical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podbielska, H.; Ulatowska-Jarza, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sol-gel derived silica possess many promising features, including low-temperature preparation procedure, porosity, chemical and physical stability. Applications exploiting porous materials to encapsulate sensor molecules, enzymes and many other compounds, are developing rapidly. In this paper some potential applications, with emphasis on biomedical and environmental ones, are reviewed. The material preparation procedure is described and practical remarks on silica-based sol-gels are included. It is reported that sol-gels with entrapped various molecules may be used in construction of implants and coatings with bioactive properties. It is shown how to exploit the sol-gel production route for construction of sol-gel coated fiberoptic applicators for laser therapy. The applications of bioactive materials are discussed, as well. It is demonstrated that it is possible to immobilize photosensitive compounds in sol-gel matrix without loosing their photoactivity. Some examples of sol-gel based biosensors are demonstrated, as well, showing their potential for detecting various gases, toxic substances, acidity, humidity, enzymes and biologically active agents. (authors)

  16. Nitrogen and europium doped TiO2 anodized films with applications in photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Choong-Soo; Choi, Jinwook; Jeong, Yongsoo; Lee, Oh Yeon; Oh, Han-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Micro-arc oxidation method is a useful process for mesoporous titanium dioxide films. In order to improve the photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 film, N-Eu co-doped titania catalyst was synthesized by micro-arc oxidation in the H 2 SO 4 /Eu(NO 3 ) 3 mixture solution. The specific surface area and the roughness of the anodic titania film fabricated in the H 2 SO 4 /Eu(NO 3 ) 3 electrolyte, were increased compared to that of the anodic TiO 2 film prepared in H 2 SO 4 solution. The absorbance response of N-Eu titania film shows a higher adsorption onset toward visible light region, and the incorporated N and Eu ions during anodization as a dopant in the anodic TiO 2 film significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity for dye degradation. After dye decomposition test for 3 h, dye removal rates for the anodic TiO 2 film were 60.7% and 90.1% for the N-Eu doped titania film. The improvement of the photocatalytic activity was ascribed to the synergistic effects of the surface enlargement and the new electronic state of the TiO 2 band gap by N and Eu co-doping.

  17. A chemical route to room-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathan, Habib M.; Kim, Woo Young; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    A lot of methods are developed for the deposition of TiO 2 thin films; however, in each of these methods as-deposited films are amorphous and need further heat treatment at high temperature. In the present article, a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method was used for the preparation of TiO 2 thin films. We investigated nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films using CBD at room temperature onto glass and ITO coated glass substrate. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques. The chemically synthesized films were nanocrystalline and composed of crystal grains of 2-3 nm

  18. Single-Nanoparticle Photoelectrochemistry at a Nanoparticulate TiO2 -Filmed Ultramicroelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yue-Yi; Ma, Hui; Ma, Wei; Long, Yi-Tao; Tian, He

    2018-03-26

    An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical method for achieving real-time detection of single nanoparticle collision events is presented. Using a micrometer-thick nanoparticulate TiO 2 -filmed Au ultra-microelectrode (TiO 2 @Au UME), a sub-millisecond photocurrent transient was observed for an individual N719-tagged TiO 2 (N719@TiO 2 ) nanoparticle and is due to the instantaneous collision process. Owing to a trap-limited electron diffusion process as the rate-limiting step, a random three-dimensional diffusion model was developed to simulate electron transport dynamics in TiO 2 film. The combination of theoretical simulation and high-resolution photocurrent measurement allow electron-transfer information of a single N719@TiO 2 nanoparticle to be quantified at single-molecule accuracy and the electron diffusivity and the electron-collection efficiency of TiO 2 @Au UME to be estimated. This method provides a test for studies of photoinduced electron transfer at the single-nanoparticle level. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Dip coating of sol-gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, P. R.; Hurd, A. J.; Brinker, C. J.

    Dip coating is the primary means of depositing sol-gel films for precision optical coatings. Sols are typically multicomponent systems consisting of an inorganic phase dispersed in a solvent mixture, with each component differing in volatility and surface tension. This, together with slow coating speeds (less than 1cm/s), makes analysis of the coating process complicated; unlike most high-speed coating methods, solvent evaporation, evolving rheology, and surface tension gradients alter significantly the fluid mechanics of the deposition stage. These phenomena were studied with computer-aided predictions of the flow and species transport fields. The underlying theory involves mass, momentum, and species transport on a domain of unknown shape, with models and constitutive equations for vapor-liquid equilibria and surface tension. Due accounting is made for the unknown position of the free surface, which locates according to the capillary hydrodynamic forces and solvent loss by evaporation. Predictions of the effects of mass transfer, hydrodynamics, and surface tension gradients on final film thickness are compared with ellipsometry measurements of film thickness on a laboratory pilot coater. Although quantitative agreement is still lacking, both experiment and theory reveal that the film profile near the drying line takes on a parabolic shape.

  20. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rafieian Boroujeni, Damon; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Savenije, Tom; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to

  1. Nanostructured sol-gel coatings doped with cerium nitrate as pre-treatments for AA2024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludkevich, M.L.; Serra, R.; Montemor, M.F.; Yasakau, K.A.; Salvado, I.M. Miranda; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured hybrid sol-gel coatings doped with cerium ions were investigated in the present work as pre-treatments for the AA2024-T3 alloy. The sol-gel films have been synthesized from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) precursors. Additionally the hybrid sol was doped with zirconia nanoparticles prepared from hydrolyzed tetra-n-propoxyzirconium (TPOZ). Cerium nitrate, as corrosion inhibitor, was added into the hybrid matrix or into the oxide nanoparticles. The chemical composition and the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films were studied by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy), respectively. The evolution of the corrosion protection properties of the sol-gel films was studied by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), which can provide quantitative information on the role of the different pre-treatments. Different equivalent circuits, for different stages of the corrosion processes, were used in order to model the coating degradation. The models were supported by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) measurements. The results show that the sol-gel films containing zirconia nanoparticles present improved barrier properties. Doping the hybrid nanostructured sol-gel coatings with cerium nitrate leads to additional improvement of the corrosion protection. The zirconia particles present in the sol-gel matrix seem to act as nanoreservoirs providing a prolonged release of cerium ions. The nanostructured sol-gel films doped with cerium nitrate can be proposed as a potential candidate for substitution of the chromate pre-treatments for AA2024-T3

  2. Sol-Gel Production; Proceedings of the First International Conference on Application and Commercialization of Sol-Gel Processing Held in Saarbruecken, Germany on 24-25 May 1993

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmidt, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    ...; Sol-Gel Coatings on Large Glass Substrates for Multilayer Interference Systems; A SiO2-ZrO2 Gel Film doped with Organic Pigments Made by the Sol-Gel Method for Contrast Enhancement of Color Picture Tubes...

  3. Drug loading of nanoporous TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon, Arturo A; Cantu, Michael; Chava, Kalpana; Agrawal, C Mauli; Feldman, Marc D; Johnson, Dave; Patel, Devang; Marton, Denes; Shi, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The loading of therapeutic amounts of drug on a nanoporous TiO 2 surface is described. This novel drug-loading scheme on a biocompatible surface, when employed on medical implants, will benefit patients who require the deployment of drug-eluting implants. Anticoagulants, analgesics and antibiotics can be considered on the associated implants for drug delivery during the time of maximal pain or risk for patients undergoing orthopedic procedures. Therefore, this scheme will maximize the chances of patient recovery. (communication)

  4. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Preetam; Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.

    2014-04-01

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO2 doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO2 doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO2 doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement.

  5. Rutile TiO2 thin films grown by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnarsson, B.; Magnus, F.; Tryggvason, T.K.; Ingason, A.S.; Leosson, K.; Olafsson, S.; Gudmundsson, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Thin TiO 2 films were grown on Si(001) substrates by reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) at temperatures ranging from 300 to 700 °C. Optical and structural properties of films were compared both before and after post-annealing using scanning electron microscopy, low angle X-ray reflection (XRR), grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both dcMS- and HiPIMS-grown films reveal polycrystalline rutile TiO 2 , even prior to post-annealing. The HiPIMS-grown films exhibit significantly larger grains compared to that of dcMC-grown films, approaching 100% of the film thickness for films grown at 700 °C. In addition, the XRR surface roughness of HiPIMS-grown films was significantly lower than that of dcMS-grown films over the whole temperature range 300–700 °C. Dispersion curves could only be obtained for the HiPIMS-grown films, which were shown to have a refractive index in the range of 2.7–2.85 at 500 nm. The results show that thin, rutile TiO 2 films, with high refractive index, can be obtained by HiPIMS at relatively low growth temperatures, without post-annealing. Furthermore, these films are smoother and show better optical characteristics than their dcMS-grown counterparts. - Highlights: • We demonstrate growth of rutile TiO 2 on Si (111) by high power impulse magnetron sputtering. • The films exhibit significantly larger grains than dc magnetron sputtered films • TiO 2 films with high refractive index are obtained without post-growth annealing

  6. Improving the scratch resistance of sol-gel metal oxide coatings cured at 250 C through use of thermogenerated amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langanke, J.; Arfsten, N.; Buskens, P.; Habets, R.; Klankermayer, J.; Leitner, W.

    2013-01-01

    Scratch resistant sol-gel metal oxide coatings typically require a thermal post-treatment step (curing process) at temperatures between 400 and 700 C. In this report, we demonstrate that the in situ generation of amines within sol-gel films facilitates the preparation of scratch resistant metal

  7. The influence of TiO2 particle size and conductivity of the CuCrO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    38

    Keywords: Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells, Sol-Gel method, TiO2 nanoparticle, .... at 2.0 by dropwise addition of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid with vigorous stirring. The ... The TiO2 pastes were prepared by Pechini-type sol-gel method [26, 27].

  8. Raman spectra of TiO2 thin films deposited electrochemically and by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishiyanu, S.; Vartic, V.; Shishiyanu, T.; Stratan, Gh.; Rusu, E.; Zarrelli, M.; Giordano, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our experimental results concerning the fabrication of TiO 2 thin films by spray pyrolysis and electrochemical deposition method onto different substrates - Corning glass, Si and optical fibers. The surface morphology of the TiO 2 thin films have been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy. Raman shift spectra measurements have been done for the optical characterization of the fabricated titania thin films. The post-growth rapid photothermal processing (RPP) at temperatures of 100-800 degrees Celsius for 1-3 min have been applied. Our experimental results prove that by the application of post-growth RPP is possible to essentially improve the crystallinity of the deposited TiO 2 films. (authors)

  9. The TiO2 Refraction Film for CsI Scintillator

    OpenAIRE

    C. C. Chen; C. W. Hun; C. J. Wang; C. Y. Chen; J. S. Lin; K. J. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Cesium iodide (CsI) melt was injected into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and was solidified to CsI column. The controllable AAO channel size (10~500 nm) can makes CsI column size from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. In order to have a shorter light irradiate from each singe CsI column top to bottom the AAO template was coated a TiO2 nano-film. The TiO2 film acts a refraction film and makes X-ray has a shorter irradiation path in the CsI crystal making a stronger the photo-electron signal. Wh...

  10. Effect of ion nitriding on the crystal structure of 3 mol% Y2O3-doped ZrO2 thin-films prepared by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, A.L.; Diaz-Parralejo, A.; Borrero-Lopez, O.; Guiberteau, F.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ion nitriding on the crystal structure of 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 -doped ZrO 2 (3YSZ) thin-films prepared by the sol-gel method. For this purpose, we used X-ray diffractometry to determine the crystalline phases, the lattice parameters, the crystal sizes, and the lattice microstrains, and glow discharge-optical emission spectroscopy to obtain the depth profiles of the elemental chemical composition. We found that nitrogen atoms substitute oxygen atoms in the 3YSZ crystal, thus leading to the formation of unsaturated-substitutional solid solutions with reduced lattice parameters and Zr 0.94 Y 0.06 O 1.72 N 0.17 stoichiometric formula. We also found that ion nitriding does not affect the grain size, but does generate lattice microstrains due to the increase in point defects in the crystalline lattice

  11. Preparation of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 thin films on Pt/RuO2 double electrode by a new sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Kim, C.; Oh, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin film on Pt/RuO 2 double electrode was successfully prepared by using new alkoxide endash alkanolamine, sol-gel method. It was observed that the use of Pt/RuO 2 double electrode reduced leakage current, resulting in a marked improvement in the leakage characteristics and more reliable capacitors. Typical P-E hysteresis behavior was observed even at low applied voltage of 5 V, manifesting greatly improved remanance and coercivity. Fatigue and breakdown characteristic, measured at 5 V, showed stable behavior and no degradation in polarization was observed up to 10 11 cycles.copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  12. Studies of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxylsilane and bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane sol-gel coating on copper and aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Sing; Lu, Weijie; Wang, Yu; Tran, Tuan

    2009-09-01

    Bis(trimethoxysilyl)ethane (BTMSE) and (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) have been used as precursors to prepare sol-gels and hybrid sol-gel under acidic condition. From the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data on MPTMS sol-gel coated aluminum and copper, it has been shown that the silane film is covalently bonded to Al surface through the interfacial condensation. There is no evidence of bonding interaction between the thiol group and the Cu. The recorded reflection adsorption IR (RAIR) spectrum has provided evidence that the coating BTMSE film covalently interacts with Al. Vibrational assignments have been suggested for pure BTMSE, BTMSE sol-gel, BTMSE xerogel, and BTMSE coated Al panel based on the group frequencies and the variation of frequencies with the sample treatment conditions. The progression of condensation reaction has been observed from the IR spectra of the BTMSE sol-gel and the sol-gel coated film after the treatments at different temperatures with different lengths of time. The corrosion protection of the sol-gel coated Al and Cu has been characterized in NaCl solutions by cyclic voltammetric, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy methods. All these electrochemical measurements indicate that the sol-gel coated metals have better corrosion protection than the corresponding uncoated metals.

  13. One-step sol-gel imprint lithography for guided-mode resonance structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin; Liu, Longju; Johnson, Michael; C Hillier, Andrew; Lu, Meng

    2016-03-04

    Guided-mode resonance (GMR) structures consisting of sub-wavelength periodic gratings are capable of producing narrow-linewidth optical resonances. This paper describes a sol-gel-based imprint lithography method for the fabrication of submicron 1D and 2D GMR structures. This method utilizes a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold to fabricate the grating coupler and waveguide for a GMR device using a sol-gel thin film in a single step. An organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel film was selected as the imprint material because of its relatively high refractive index. The optical responses of several sol-gel GMR devices were characterized, and the experimental results were in good agreement with the results of electromagnetic simulations. The influence of processing parameters was investigated in order to determine how finely the spectral response and resonant wavelength of the GMR devices could be tuned. As an example potential application, refractometric sensing experiments were performed using a 1D sol-gel device. The results demonstrated a refractive index sensitivity of 50 nm/refractive index unit. This one-step fabrication process offers a simple, rapid, and low-cost means of fabricating GMR structures. We anticipate that this method can be valuable in the development of various GMR-based devices as it can readily enable the fabrication of complex shapes and allow the doping of optically active materials into sol-gel thin film.

  14. Novel hybrid sol-gel coatings for corrosion protection of AZ31B magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamaka, S.V.; Montemor, M.F.; Galio, A.F.; Zheludkevich, M.L.; Trindade, C.; Dick, L.F.; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims to develop and study new anticorrosion films for AZ31B magnesium alloy based on the sol-gel coating approach. Hybrid organic-inorganic sols were synthesized by copolymerization of epoxy-siloxane and titanium or zirconium alkoxides. Tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphate was also used as additive to confer additional corrosion protection to magnesium-based alloy. A sol-gel coating, about 5-μm thick, shows good adhesion to the metal substrate and prevents corrosion attack in 0.005 M NaCl solution for 2 weeks. The sol-gel coating system doped with tris(trimethylsilyl)-phosphate revealed improved corrosion protection of the magnesium alloy due to formation of hydrolytically stable Mg-O-P chemical bonds. The structure and the thickness of the sol-gel film were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behaviour of AZ31B substrates pre-treated with the sol-gel derived hybrid coatings was tested by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The chemical composition of the silylphosphate-containing sol-gel film at different depths was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with depth profiling

  15. Strength of interactions between immobilized dye molecules and sol-gel matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Fanya; Schoenleber, Monika; Mansour, Rolan; Bastani, Behnam; Fielden, Peter; Goddard, Nicholas J

    2011-02-21

    In this paper we present a new theory to re-examine the immobilization technique of dye doped sol-gel films, define the strength and types of possible bonds between the immobilized molecule and sol-gel glass, and show that the immobilized molecule is not free inside the pores as was previously thought. Immobilizing three different pH sensitive dyes with different size and functional groups inside the same sol-gel films revealed important information about the nature of the interaction between the doped molecule and the sol-gel matrix. The samples were characterized by means of ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), mercury porosimetry (MP), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((29)Si NMR) and field-emission environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM-FEG). It was found that the doped molecule itself has a great effect on the strength and types of the bonds. A number of factors were identified, such as number and types of the functional groups, overall charge, size, pK(a) and number of the silanol groups which surround the immobilized molecule. These results were confirmed by the successful immobilization of bromocresol green (BCG) after a completely polymerized sol-gel was made. The sol-gel consisted of 50% tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 50% methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) (w/w). Moreover, the effect of the immobilized molecule on the structure of the sol-gel was studied by means of a leaky waveguide (LW) mode for doped films made before and after polymerization of the sol-gel.

  16. Sn4+-Doped TiO2 Nanorod Array Film with Enhanced Visible Light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    61

    specific surface area of flat film than nano-powder would lead to the decrease of its .... doped TiO2 NAFs were acquired with EDS spectrometer fitted on the microscopy. ... The morphologies of films were obtained by the SEM measurement.

  17. The influence of metal interlayers on the structural and optical properties of nano-crystalline TiO 2 films

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yong

    2012-03-01

    TiO 2-M-TiO 2 (M = W, Co and Ag) multilayer films have been deposited on glass substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering, then annealed in air for 2 h at 500°C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the films have been studied using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. The TiO 2-W-TiO 2 and TiO 2-Co-TiO 2 films showed crystalline phases, whereas the TiO 2-Ag-TiO 2 films remained in the amorphous state. The crystallization temperature for the TiO 2-M-TiO 2 films decreased significantly compared with pure TiO 2 film deposited on quartz. Detailed analysis of the Raman spectra suggested that the crystallization of TiO 2-M-TiO 2 films was associated with the large structural deformation imposed by the oxidation of intermediate metal layers. Moreover, the optical band gap of the films narrowed due to the appearance of impurity levels as the metal ions migrated into the TiO 2 matrix. These results indicate that the insertion of intermediate metal layers provides a feasible access to improve the structural and optical properties of anatase TiO 2 films, leading to promising applications in the field of photocatalysis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation of Photocatalysis and Photoluminescence Effect in Relation to the Surface Properties of TiO2:Tb Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Wojcieszak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper structural, optical, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 and TiO2:(2.6 at. % Tb thin films have been compared. Thin films were prepared by high-energy reactive magnetron sputtering process, which enables obtaining highly nanocrystalline rutile structure of deposited films. Crystallites sizes were 8.7 nm and 6.6 nm for TiO2 and TiO2:Tb, respectively. Surface of prepared thin films was homogenous with small roughness of ca. 7.2 and 2.1 nm in case of TiO2 and TiO2:Tb samples, respectively. Optical properties measurements have shown that the incorporation of Tb into TiO2 matrix has not changed significantly the thin films transparency. It also enables obtaining photoluminescence effect in wide range from 350 to 800 nm, what is unique phenomenon in case of TiO2 with rutile structure. Moreover, it has been found that the incorporation of 2.6 at. % of Tb has increased the photocatalytic activity more than two times as compared to undoped TiO2. Additionally, for the first time in the current state of the art, the relationship between photoluminescence effect, photocatalytic activity, and surface properties of TiO2:Tb thin films has been theoretically explained.

  19. Magnetic and structural study of Cu-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.E. Rodriguez; Golmar, F.; Cabrera, A.F.; Errico, L.; Navarro, A.M. Mudarra; Renteria, M.; Sanchez, F.H.; Duhalde, S.

    2007-01-01

    Transparent pure and Cu-doped (2.5, 5 and 10 at.%) anatase TiO 2 thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition technique on LaAlO 3 substrates. The samples were structurally characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were measured using a SQUID. All films have a FM-like behaviour. In the case of the Cu-doped samples, the magnetic cycles are almost independent of the Cu concentration. Cu atoms are forming CuO and/or substituting Ti in TiO 2 . The thermal treatment in air promotes the CuO segregation. Since CuO is antiferromagnetic, the magnetic signals present in the films could be assigned to Cu substitutionally replacing cations in TiO 2

  20. Physics properties of TiO_2 films produced by dip-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teloeken, A.C.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Tabarelli, A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    The use of titanium dioxide (TiO_2) as a photocatalyst to produce hydrogen has been of great interest because of their chemical stability, low cost and non-toxicity. TiO_2 occurs in three different crystal forms: rutile, anatase and brokita. Among these, the anatase phase generally exhibits the best photocatalytic behavior, while the rutile phase is the most stable. Among the various techniques of deposition, dip-coating technique produces films with good photocatalytic properties, using simple and inexpensive equipment. In this work TiO_2 films were obtained by dip-coating. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, profilometry, contact angle measurements and photocurrent. The microstructure and physical properties were evaluated in relation of the temperature and the addition of an additive. (author)

  1. Pt Catalyst Supported within TiO2 Mesoporous Films for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dekang; Zhang, Bingyan; Bai, Jie; Zhang, Yibo; Wittstock, Gunther; Wang, Mingkui; Shen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dispersed Pt nanoparticles into mesoporous TiO 2 thin films are fabricated by a facile electrochemical deposition method as electro-catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction. The mesoporous TiO 2 thin films coated on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by screen printing allow a facile transport of reactants and products. The structural properties of the resulted Pt/TiO 2 electrode are evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry measurements are performed to study the electrochemical properties of the Pt/TiO 2 electrode. Further study demonstrates the stability of the Pt catalyst supported within TiO 2 mesoporous films for the oxygen reduction reaction

  2. QCM gas sensor characterization of ALD-grown very thin TiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, S.; Georgieva, V.; Vergov, L.; Szilágyi, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents a technology for preparation and characterization of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films suitable for gas sensor applications. Applying atomic layer deposition (ALD), very thin TiO2 films were deposited on quartz resonators, and their gas sensing properties were studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method. The TiO2 thin films were grown using Ti(iOPr)4 and water as precursors. The surface of the films was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) used for a composition study. The research was focused on the gas-sensing properties of the films. Films of 10-nm thickness were deposited on quartz resonators with Au electrodes and the QCMs were used to build highly sensitive gas sensors, which were tested for detecting NO2. Although very thin, these ALD-grown TiO2 films were sensitive to NO2 already at room temperature and could register as low concentrations as 50 ppm, while the sorption was fully reversible, and the sensors could be fully recovered. With the technology presented, the manufacturing of gas sensors is simple, fast and cost-effective, and suitable for energy-effective portable equipment for real-time environmental monitoring of NO2.

  3. Asymmetric photoelectric property of transparent TiO2 nanotube films loaded with Au nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hui; Liang, Wei; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Wanggang; Zhou, Diaoyu; Wen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly transparent films of TiO 2 nanotube arrays were directly fabricated on FTO glasses. • Semitransparent TNT-Au composite films were obtained and exhibited excellent photoelectrocatalytic ability. • Back-side of TNT-Au composite films was firstly irradiated and tested to compare with front-side of films. - Abstract: Semitransparent composite films of Au loaded TiO 2 nanotubes (TNT-Au) were prepared by sputtering Au nanoparticles on highly transparent TiO 2 nanotubes films, which were fabricated directly on FTO glasses by anodizing the Ti film sputtered on the FTO glasses. Compared with pure TNT films, the prepared TNT-Au films possessed excellent absorption ability and high photocurrent response and improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. It could be concluded that Au nanoparticles played important roles in improving the photoelectrochemical performance of TNT-Au films. Moreover, in this work, both sides of TNT-Au films were researched and compared owing to theirs semitransparency. It was firstly found that the photoelectric activity of TNT-Au composite films with back-side illumination was obviously superior to front-side illumination.

  4. Reversible conversion between AgCl and Ag in AgCl-doped RSiO{sub 3/2}-TiO{sub 2} films prepared by a sol-gel technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Go, E-mail: gokawamura@ee.tut.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tsurumi, Yuuki [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Sakai, Mototsugu; Inoue, Mitsuteru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Matsuda, Atsunori [Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {center_dot} The reversible redox behavior between AgCl and Ag in RSiO{sub 3/2}-TiO{sub 2} film is studied. {center_dot} TiO{sub 2} component induces Cl to remain in the film after conversion of AgCl to Ag. {center_dot} The survival of Cl is essential for reconversion of Ag to AgCl. {center_dot} The film shows potential to be applied as rewritable holographic material. - Abstract: The reversible redox behavior exhibited by AgCl-doped organosilsesquioxane-titania gel films is studied. Films prepared by the sol-gel method show reversible color changes with blue laser irradiation and subsequent heat treatment, which is based on the formation of Ag and AgCl nanoparticles, respectively. Two-beam interference exposure experiments reveal that the films have potential to be applied as rewritable holographic materials. A large titania content is essential for the conversion of Ag to AgCl because it induces the Cl to remain near the Ag nanoparticles during blue laser irradiation, allowing the Cl to react with neighboring Ag nanoparticles to reform AgCl upon subsequent heat treatment.

  5. Crystallization and electrical characteristics of ferroelectric Bi{sub 3.15}Nd{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} thin films prepared by a sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Y. [Department of Physics, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Lu, C.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)], E-mail: chaojing_lu@yahoo.com; Qi, Y.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Zhou, Y.H. [Department of Physics, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

    2008-07-01

    Ferroelectric Bi{sub 3.15}Nd{sub 0.85}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BNdT) thin films were deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using a sol-gel process and Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} was used as one of starting materials. Upon heating the major weight loss of the wet films occurred below 320 deg. C and nitrogen was almost completely removed at 650 deg. C. The films began to crystallize around 520 deg. C. The films annealed at 750 deg. C contain grains of 50-100 nm in diameter. The BNdT film capacitors with Pt top electrodes exhibited well-saturated hysteresis loops with a remanent polarization (2P{sub r}) of 57.4 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and a coercive field of 108.3 kV/cm. The Pt/BNdT/Pt capacitors did not show any significant fatigue up to 6x10{sup 10} read/write switching cycles, and the retained charges remained nearly constant up to 10{sup 4} s after applying a writing pulse. The leakage current density of the BNdT films is less than 5x10{sup -8} A/cm{sup 2} under a low external field below 73 kV/cm.

  6. Fabrication of doped TiO2 nanotube array films with enhanced photo-catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peighambardoust, Naeimeh-Sadat; Khameneh-asl, Shahin; Khademi, Adib

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the N and Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube array film prepared by treating TiO2 nanotube array film with ammonia solution and anodizing in Fe(NO3)3 solution respectively. This method avoided the use of hazardous ammonia gas, or laborious ion implantation process. N and Fe-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were prepared by electrochemical anodization process in 0.5 wt % HF aqueous solution. The anodization was performed at the conditions of 20 V and 20 min, Followed by a wet immersion in NH3.H2O (1M) for N-doping for 2 hr and annealing post-treatment at 450 °C. The morphology and structure of the nanotube films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and EDX. UV-vis. illumination test were done to observe photo-enhanced catalysis. The effect of different annealing temperature on the structure and photo-absorption property of the TiO2-TNTs was investigated. The results showed that N-TNTs nanotubes exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared whit the Fe-doped and pure TNTs, because doping N promoted the separation of the photogenerated electrons and holes.

  7. TiO2 and Cu/TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 and copper (Cu doped titanium oxide (Cu/TiO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Titanium chloride (TiCl4 and copper acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O were used as source of Ti and Cu. The doping concentration of Cu was varied from 1-10 wt. %. The X-ray diffraction studies show that TiO2 thin films are tetragonal structure and Cu/TiO2 thin films implies CuO has present with monoclinic structure. The optical properties of the TiO2 thin films have been investigated as a function of Cu-doping level. The optical transmission of the thin films was found to increase from 88 % to 94 % with the addition of Cu up to 8 % and then decreases for higher percentage of Cu doping. The optical band gap (Eg for pure TiO2 thin film is found to be 3.40 eV. Due to Cu doping, the band gap is shifted to lower energies and then increases further with increasing the concentration of Cu. The refractive index of the TiO2 thin films is found to be 2.58 and the variation of refractive index is observed due to Cu doped. The room temperature resistivity of the films decreases with increasing Cu doping and is found to be 27.50 - 23.76 W·cm. It is evident from the present study that the Cu doping promoted the thin film morphology and thereby it is aspect for various applications.

  8. Charge transfer in photorechargeable composite films of TiO2 and polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiyama, Teruaki; Sasabe, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Kenta; Horie, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    A photorechargeable battery (PRB) is a photovoltaic device having an energy storage function in a single cell. The photoactive electrode of PRB is a bilayer film consisting of bare porous TiO2 and a TiO2-polyaniline (PANi) mixture that work as a photovoltaic current generator and an electrochemical energy storage by ion dedoping, respectively. To study the charge transfer between TiO2 and PANi, the photorechargeable quantum efficiency QE ([electron count on discharge]/[incident photon count on photocharge]) was measured by varying the thickness LS of the TiO2-PANi mixture. The quantum efficiency QEuv for UV photons had a maximum of ˜7% at LS ˜ 7 µm. The time constant τTP for the charge transfer was about 10-1 s, which was longer ten times or more than the lifetime of excited electrons within TiO2. These facts reveal that the main rate-limiting factor in the photocharging process is the charge transfer between TiO2 and PANi.

  9. Origin of visible-light sensitivity in N-doped TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshitaka; Morikawa, Takeshi; Ohwaki, Takeshi; Taga, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    We report on visible-light sensitivity in N-doped TiO 2 (TiO 2 :N) films that were deposited on n + -GaN/Al 2 O 3 substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering and subsequently crystallized by annealing at 550 deg. C in flowing N 2 gas. The N-doping concentration was ∼8.8%, as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. From transmission electron microscopic observations and optical absorption measurements, yellow-colored TiO 2 :N samples showed an enhanced granular structure and strong absorption in the visible-light region. Photoelectron spectroscopy in air measurements showed a noticeable decrease in ionization energy of TiO 2 by the N doping. Deep-level optical spectroscopy measurements revealed two characteristic deep levels located at ∼1.18 and ∼2.48 eV below the conduction band. The 1.18 eV level is probably attributable to the O vacancy state and can be active as an efficient generation-recombination center. The pronounced 2.48 eV band is newly introduced by the N doping and contributes to band-gap narrowing of TiO 2 by mixing with the O 2p valence band. Therefore, this localized intraband is probably one origin of visible-light sensitivity in TiO 2 :N

  10. Synthesis of lithium doped zinc oxide by sol gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meziane, K; Elhichou, A; Elhamidi, A; Almaggoussi, A; CHHIBA, M

    2016-01-01

    Li-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by sol-gel method and deposed on glass substrate using spin coating technique. The effects of Li on structural and optical properties were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveals that Li incorporation leads to the great improvement of the crystalline quality of ZnO thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that nanowires are aligned nearly perpendicular to the substrate plane and are affected significantly by Li incorporation. The optical transmission of the films was higher than 80% in the visible region. It is found that the optical gap and the refractive index remain practically constant. (paper)

  11. Modification of physicochemical and thermal properties of starch films by incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleyaei, Seyed Amir; Zahedi, Younes; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Moayedi, Ali Akbar

    2016-08-01

    In this research, potato starch and TiO2 nanoparticles (0.5, 1 and 2wt%) films were developed. Influences of different concentrations of TiO2 on the functional properties of nanocomposite films (water-related properties, mechanical characteristics, and UV transmittance) were investigated. XRD, FTIR, and DSC analyses were used to characterize the morphology and thermal properties of the films. The results revealed that TiO2 nanoparticles dramatically decreased the values of water-related properties (water vapor permeability: 11-34%; water solubility: 1.88-9.26%; moisture uptake: 2.15-11.18%). Incorporation of TiO2 led to a slight increment of contact angle and tensile strength, and a decrease in elongation at break of the films. TiO2 successfully blocked more than 90% of UV light, while opacity and white index of the films were enhanced. Glass transition temperature and melting point of the films were positively affected by the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles. The result of XRD study exhibited that due to a limited agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles, the mean crystal size of TiO2 increased. Formation of new hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of starch and nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. In conclusion, TiO2 nanoparticles improved the functional properties of potato starch film and extended the potential for food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Functionalizable Sol-Gel Silica Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorek, Jolanta; Babiarczuk, Bartosz; Kaleta, Jerzy; Jones, Walis; Krzak, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Corrosion is constantly a major problem of the world economy in the field of metal products, metal processing and other areas that utilise metals. Previously used compounds utilizing hexavalent chromium were amongst the most effective materials for corrosion protection but regulations have been recently introduced that forbid their use. Consequently, there is a huge drive by engineers, technologists and scientists from different disciplines focused on searching a new, more effective and environmentally-friendly means of corrosion protection. One novel group of materials with the potential to solve metal protection problems are sol-gel thin films, which are increasingly interesting as mitigation corrosion barriers. These environmentally-friendly and easy-to-obtain coatings have the promise to be an effective alternative to hexavalent chromium compounds using for anti-corrosion industrial coatings. In this review the authors present a range of different solutions for slow down the corrosion processes of metallic substrates by using the oxides and doped oxides obtained by the sol-gel method. Examples of techniques used to the sol-gel coating examinations, in terms of anti-corrosion protection, are also presented. PMID:29373540

  13. Functionalizable Sol-Gel Silica Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Gąsiorek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is constantly a major problem of the world economy in the field of metal products, metal processing and other areas that utilise metals. Previously used compounds utilizing hexavalent chromium were amongst the most effective materials for corrosion protection but regulations have been recently introduced that forbid their use. Consequently, there is a huge drive by engineers, technologists and scientists from different disciplines focused on searching a new, more effective and environmentally-friendly means of corrosion protection. One novel group of materials with the potential to solve metal protection problems are sol-gel thin films, which are increasingly interesting as mitigation corrosion barriers. These environmentally-friendly and easy-to-obtain coatings have the promise to be an effective alternative to hexavalent chromium compounds using for anti-corrosion industrial coatings. In this review the authors present a range of different solutions for slow down the corrosion processes of metallic substrates by using the oxides and doped oxides obtained by the sol-gel method. Examples of techniques used to the sol-gel coating examinations, in terms of anti-corrosion protection, are also presented.

  14. Functionalizable Sol-Gel Silica Coatings for Corrosion Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorek, Jolanta; Szczurek, Anna; Babiarczuk, Bartosz; Kaleta, Jerzy; Jones, Walis; Krzak, Justyna

    2018-01-26

    Corrosion is constantly a major problem of the world economy in the field of metal products, metal processing and other areas that utilise metals. Previously used compounds utilizing hexavalent chromium were amongst the most effective materials for corrosion protection but regulations have been recently introduced that forbid their use. Consequently, there is a huge drive by engineers, technologists and scientists from different disciplines focused on searching a new, more effective and environmentally-friendly means of corrosion protection. One novel group of materials with the potential to solve metal protection problems are sol-gel thin films, which are increasingly interesting as mitigation corrosion barriers. These environmentally-friendly and easy-to-obtain coatings have the promise to be an effective alternative to hexavalent chromium compounds using for anti-corrosion industrial coatings. In this review the authors present a range of different solutions for slow down the corrosion processes of metallic substrates by using the oxides and doped oxides obtained by the sol-gel method. Examples of techniques used to the sol-gel coating examinations, in terms of anti-corrosion protection, are also presented.

  15. Structural and vibrational investigations of Nb-doped TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyanga, E.; Gibaud, A.; Daniel, P.; Sangaa, D.; Sevjidsuren, G.; Altantsog, P.; Beuvier, T.; Lee, Chih Hao; Balagurov, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied the evolutions of structure for TiO 2 thin film as changes with Nb doping and temperatures. • Up to 800 °C, the grain size of Nb 0.1 Ti 0.9 O 2 is smaller than for pure TiO 2 because doped Nb hinders the growth of the TiO 2 grains. • There was no formation of the rutile phase at high temperature. • Nb doped TiO 2 films have high electron densities at 400–700 °C. • Nb dope extends the absorbance spectra of TiO 2 which leads to the band gap reduce. - Abstract: Acid-catalyzed sol–gel and spin-coating methods were used to prepare Nb-doped TiO 2 thin film. In this work, we studied the effect of niobium doping on the structure, surface, and absorption properties of TiO 2 by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectometry (XRR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy at various annealing temperatures. EDX spectra show that the Nb:Ti atomic ratios of the niobium-doped titania films are in good agreement with the nominal values (5 and 10%). XPS results suggest that charge compensation is achieved by the formation of Ti vacancies. Specific niobium phases are not observed, thus confirming that niobium is well incorporated into the titania crystal lattice. Thin films are amorphous at room temperature and the formation of anatase phase appeared at an annealing temperature close to 400 °C. The rutile phase was not observed even at 900 °C (XRD and Raman spectroscopy). Grain sizes and electron densities increased when the temperature was raised. Nb-doped films have higher electron densities and lower grain sizes due to niobium doping. Grain size inhibition can be explained by lattice stress induced by the incorporation of larger Nb 5+ ions into the lattice. The band gap energy of indirect transition of the TiO 2 thin films was calculated to be about 3.03 eV. After niobium doping, it decreased to 2.40 eV

  16. Bioorganically doped sol-gel materials containing amyloglucosidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad-Oros Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG from Aspergillus niger was encapsulated in various matrices derived from tetraethoxysilane, methyltriethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane and vinyltriacetoxysilane by different methods of immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was prepared by entrapment in two steps, in one-step and entrapment/deposition, respectively. The activities of the immobilized AMG were assayed and compared with that of the native enzyme. The effects of the organosilaneprecursors and their molar ratios, the immobilization method, the inorganic support (white ceramic, red ceramic, purolite, alumina, TiO2, celite, zeolite and enzyme loading upon the immobilized enzyme activity were tested. The efficiency of the sol-gel biocomposites can be improved through combination of the fundamental immobilization techniques and selection of the precursors.

  17. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide: Development in microgravity by the sol gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Debsikdar, J. C.; Beam, T.

    1983-01-01

    The sol-gel process for the preparation of homogeneous gels in three binary oxide systems was investigated. The glass forming ability of certain compositions in the selected oxide systems (SiO-GeO2, GeO2-PbO, and SiO2-TiO2) were studied based on their potential importance in the design of optical waveguide at longer wavelengths.

  18. Influences of the iron ion (Fe{sup 3+})-doping on structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Naceur, J. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria); Bousbih, F.; Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films doping of various iron ion (Fe{sup 3+}) concentrations were deposited on silicon (Si) (100) and quartz substrates by sol-gel Spin Coating technique followed by a thermal treatment at 600 deg. C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties, as a function of the doping, have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). XRD and Raman analyzes of our thin films show that the crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} thin films comprised only the anatase TiO{sub 2}, but the crystallinity decreased when the Fe{sup 3+} content increased from 0% to 20%. During the Fe{sup 3+} addition to 20%, the phase of TiO{sub 2} thin film still maintained the amorphous state. The grain size calculated from XRD patterns varies from 29.3 to 22.6 nm. The complex index and the optical band gap (E{sub g}) of the films were determined by the spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis. We have found that the optical band gap decreased with an increasing Fe{sup 3+} content.

  19. A simple approach of fabricating thermoelectric γ-NaxCoO2 and superconductive Nax(H2O)yCoO2-δ films using the sol-gel spin-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chia-Jyi; Nayak, Pradipta K.; Chen, Yong-Zhi

    2009-01-01

    We report a simple approach of fabricating thermoelectric γ-Na x CoO 2 film with the c-axis orientation using the sol-gel spin-coating method. The inferred sodium content is x = 0.65 according to the correlation between the c-axis lattice constant and x. Temperature dependence of both the resistivity and thermopower resembles that of the γ-Na 0.68 CoO 2 film grown by the reactive solid-phase epitaxy. The fitted thermopower data show that the bandwidth of γ-Na x CoO 2 is found to be ∼ 101 meV, being close to the quasi-particle band (70-100 meV) derived from an angle-resolved photoemission study of γ-Na 0.7 CoO 2 . These results enable the possibility of low-cost fabrication of γ-Na x CoO 2 -based thermoelectric film devices. Furthermore, we have also topotactically transformed the of γ-Na x CoO 2 film to a superconducting Na x (H 2 O) y CoO 2-δ film with T c,onset = 4.12 K.

  20. Diamond nucleation by carbon transport from buried nanodiamond TiO.sub.2./sub. sol-gel composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daenen, M.; Zhang, L.; Erni, R.; Williams, O.A.; Hardy, A.; Van Bael, M.K.; Wagner, P.; Haenen, K.; Nesládek, Miloš; van Tendeloo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2009), s. 670-673 ISSN 0935-9648 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : diamond nucleation * nanodiamond * TiO 2 sol-gel omposites Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.379, year: 2009

  1. Characterization of TiO2 Thin Films on Glass Substrate Growth Using DC Sputtering Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Santoso; Tjipto Sujitno; Sayono

    2002-01-01

    It has been fabricated and characterization a TiO 2 thin films deposited on glass substrate using DC sputtering technique. Fabrication of TiO 2 thin films were carried out at electrode voltage 4 kV, sputtering current 5 mA, vacuum pressure 5 x 10 -4 torr, deposition time 150 minutes, and temperature of the substrate were varied from 150 -350 o C, while as a gas sputter was argon. The results was tested their micro structure using SEM, and crystal structure using XRD and found that the crystal structure of TiO 2 powder before deposited on glass substrate was rutile and anatase with orientation (110) and (200) for anatase and (100) and (111) rutile structure. While the crystal structure which deposited at temperature 150 o C and deposition time 2.5 hours was anatase with orientation (001) and (200). (author)

  2. Synthesis of Titania-Silica Materials by Sol-Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia F. S. Lenza

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work TiO2-SiO2 glasses containing as much as 20 mol % of TiO2 were prepared via sol-gel process using titanium and silicon alkoxides, in the presence of chlorine, in the form of titanium tetrachloride or HCl. The gels were heat-treated until 800 °C. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to understand the structural properties of TiO2-SiO2 oxides calcined at different temperatures and to evaluate the homogeneity of these materials. The degree of the compactness of the silica network is inferred from the frequency of the asymmetric stretching vibrations of Si-O-Si bonds. Formation of Si-O-Ti bridges, as monitored by the intensity of characteristic 945 cm-1 ¾ 960 cm-1 vibration, is particularly prominent if the method of basic two-step prehydrolysis of silicon alkoxide, addition of titanium alkoxide and completion of hydrolysis was used.

  3. Room temperature growth of nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Preetam; Kaur, Davinder

    2010-01-01

    We report, the structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films grown on glass substrate by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The influence of sputtering power and pressure over crystallinity and surface morphology of the films were investigated. It was observed that increase in sputtering power activates the TiO 2 film growth from relative lower surface free energy to higher surface free energy. XRD pattern revealed the change in preferred orientation from (1 0 1) to (0 0 4) with increase in sputtering power, which is accounted for different surface energy associated with different planes. Microstructure of the films also changes from cauliflower type to columnar type structures with increase in sputtering power. FESEM images of films grown at low pressure and low sputtering power showed typical cauliflower like structure. The optical measurement revealed the systematic variation of the optical constants with deposition parameters. The films are highly transparent with transmission higher than 90% with sharp ultraviolet cut off. The transmittance of these films was found to be influenced by the surface roughness and film thickness. The optical band gap was found to decrease with increase in the sputtering power and pressure. The refractive index of the films was found to vary in the range of 2.50-2.24 with increase in sputtering pressure or sputtering power, resulting in the possibility of producing TiO 2 films for device applications with different refractive index, by changing the deposition parameters.

  4. Influence of substrate temperature and silver-doping on the structural and optical properties of TiO_2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Evaporation of titanium together with activated oxygen is used to grow TiO_2 films and simultaneously with silver to grow Ag–TiO_2 films (5 at.% Ag) onto sapphire substrates at three different substrate temperatures: − 190, 30, and 200 °C. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope investigations. The properties of TiO_2 films varied with the substrate temperature. Amorphous, transparent TiO_2 films were grown at − 190 °C and opaque, polycrystalline films at 200 °C, respectively. Surprisingly, at room temperature black, amorphous TiO_2 films are obtained which transform at 350 °C into a mixture of the anatase and brookite polymorph. In the amorphous state of the TiO_2 films a predefined rutile arrangement is suggested by Raman investigations, and the contraction of the lattice constant c of anatase phases (tetragonal, space group I 4_1/amd) depending on the substrate temperature is experimentally observed. The silver-doped TiO_2 films deposited at − 190 and 30 °C contain Ag-particles with 2 nm in size inside the TiO_2 matrix, which after annealing segregate under increasing particle sizes. The silver-doping stabilizes the anatase polymorph and yields to reduced titanium species in the films especially during deposition at 30 °C. The Ag–TiO_2 films deposited at − 190 °C are transparent up to 350 °C. In the undoped as well as silver-doped TiO_2 films the rutile polymorph is directly formed at 200 °C as main phase. - Highlights: • At room temperature black, amorphous TiO_2 films are obtained. • A predefined rutile arrangement is suggested in amorphous TiO_2 films. • Annealed TiO_2 films crystallize to a mixture of the anatase and brookite polymorph. • In TiO_2 and Ag-doped TiO_2 films the rutile polymorph is directly formed at 200 °C. • Ag-doped TiO_2 films stabilize the anatase polymorph and reduced titanium

  5. Microwave characteristics of sol-gel based Ag-doped (Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})TiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Kim, Cheolbok [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Senior, David E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universidad Tecnológica de Bolívar Cartagena, 130011 Colombia (Colombia); Kim, Dongsu [Packaging Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Gyeonggi-do, 463-816 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong-Kyu, E-mail: ykyoon@ece.ufl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Dielectric Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films with a different concentration of Ag-dopant of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 5 mol % have been prepared using an alkoxide-based sol-gel method on a Pt(111)/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate and their surface morphology and crystallinity have been examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. An on-chip metal-insulator-metal capacitor has been fabricated with the prepared thin film ferroelectric sample. Concentric coplanar electrodes are used for high frequency electrical characterization with a vector network analyzer and a probe station. The SEM images show that increasing Ag doping concentration leads to a decrease in grain size. XRD reveals that the fabricated films show good BST crystallinity for all the concentration while a doping concentration of 5 mol % starts to show an Ag peak, implying a metallic phase. Improved microwave dielectric loss properties of the BST thin films are observed in a low Ag doping level. Especially, BST with an Ag doping concentration of 1 mol % shows the best properties with a dielectric constant of 269.3, a quality factor of 48.1, a tunability at the electric field of 100 kV/cm of 41.2 %, a leakage-current density of 1.045 × 10{sup −7}A/cm{sup 2} at an electric field of 100 kV/cm and a figure of merit (defined by tunability (%) divided by tan δ (%)) of 19.59 under a dc bias voltage of 10 V at 1 GHz. - Highlights: • High quality Ag-doped Ba{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}TiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films were derived by the sol-gel method. • Doped Ag replaced the A site ions in the ABO{sub 3} type structure. • Doped Ag helped lower leakage current by filling oxygen vacancies, which is a leakage path. • Microwave characteristics of low dielectric loss and good tunability were confirmed. • Great potential is envisioned for low loss tunable microwave applications.

  6. Microstructure, electrical and optical characteristics of Mg(Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95})O{sub 3} thin films grown on Si substrate by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Ching-Fang, E-mail: cftseng@nuu.edu.tw; Chen, Wen-Shiush; Lee, Chih-Wen

    2011-05-31

    Optical properties and microstructures of Mg(Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95})O{sub 3} thin films prepared by sol-gel method on n-type Si(100) substrates at different annealing temperatures have been investigated. The surface structural and morphological characteristics analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) were found to be sensitive to the deposition conditions, such as annealing temperature (600-800 deg. C). The optical transmittance spectra of the Mg(Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95})O{sub 3} thin films were measured by using UV-visible recording spectro-photometer. The diffraction pattern showed that the deposited films exhibited a polycrystalline microstructure. All films exhibited Mg(Zr{sub 0.05}Ti{sub 0.95})O{sub 3} peaks orientation perpendicular to the substrate surface and the grain size with the increase in the annealing temperature. The dependence of the microstructure and dielectric characteristics on annealing temperature was also investigated.

  7. Sol-Gel Synthesis and Characterization of Ba1-xGdxTiO3+δ Thin Films on SiO2/Si Substrates Using Spin-Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Chin TEH

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ba1-xGdxTiO3+δ, at x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, (BGT thin films have been fabricated on SiO2/Si substrate using Sol-Gel method. The microstructure and surface morphology of the fabricated films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The XRD results show that the fabricated films are crystalline with perovskite structure. There is a shifting of the preferred peak at 31.5o to a higher angle as the doping ratio increases suggesting a distortion lattice exists in the films, which could be due to the substitution of Gd3+ ions into Ba-site. The decreasing of lattice constants confirms the substitution of Gd3+ in BaTiO3 lattice structure. The microstrain and dislocation density are found to be increased with the increase of Gd3+ doping, which attributed to the reduction of lattice volume that due to the ionic size mismatch effect. The AFM results show decreasing trend in both average grain size and roughness parameters. Therefore, the microstructure and surface morphology of BGT samples is strongly dependent on the Gd3+ doping concentration that mainly due to the difference ionic radius substitution.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.13954

  8. THE THICKNESS DEPENDENCE OF OXYGEN PERMEABILITY IN SOL-GEL DERIVED CGO-COFE2O4 THIN FILMS ON POROUS CERAMIC SUBSTRATES: A SPUTTERED BLOCKING LAYER FOR THICKNESS CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K

    2009-01-08

    Mixed conductive oxides are a topic of interest for applications in oxygen separation membranes as well as use in producing hydrogen fuel through the partial oxidation of methane. The oxygen flux through the membrane is governed both by the oxygen ionic conductivity as well as the material's electronic conductivity; composite membranes like Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} (CGO)-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) use gadolinium doped ceria oxides as the ionic conducting material combined with cobalt iron spinel which serves as the electronic conductor. In this study we employ {approx} 50 nm sputtered CeO{sub 2} layers on the surface of porous CGO ceramic substrates which serve as solution 'blocking' layers during the thin film fabrication process facilitating the control of film thickness. Films with thickness of {approx} 2 and 4 microns were prepared by depositing 40 and 95 separate sol-gel layers respectively. Oxygen flux measurements indicated that the permeation increased with decreasing membrane thickness; thin film membrane with thickness on the micron level showed flux values an order of magnitude greater (0.03 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2} s) at 800 C as compared to 1mm thick bulk ceramic membranes (0.003 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}).

  9. Sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupanski, M.D.; Lucena, M.P.P.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been established as the calcium phosphate based compound with most applications in the biological field. Among the numerous techniques for synthesis of HAp, the sol-gel processing route affords great control over purity and formed phases using low processing temperatures. In addition, the sol-gel approach offers an option for homogeneous HAp coating on metal substrates, as well as the ability to generate nanocrystalline powders. In this work, the sol-gel synthesis of HAp was investigated employing triethyl phosphate and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate as phosphorous and calcium precursors, respectively. The aging effect on phase composition and powder morphology of the final product was studied in terms of temperature and aging time. The powders were studied by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size distribution by laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  10. Studying Structural, Optical, Electrical, and Sensing Properties of Nanocrystalline SnO2:Cu Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for CO Gas Sensor Application at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jawad, Selma M. H.; Elttayf, Abdulhussain K.; Saber, Amel S.

    Nanocrystalline SnO2 and SnO2:Cu thin films derived from SnCl2ṡ2H2O precursors have been prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The deposited film was 300±20nm thick and the films were annealed in air at 500∘C for 1h. Structural, optical and sensing properties of the films were studied under different preparation conditions, such as Cu-doping concentration of 2%, 4% and 6wt.%. X-ray diffraction studies show the polycrystalline nature with tetragonal rutile structure of SnO2 and Cu:SnO2 thin films. The films have highly preferred orientation along (110). The crystallite size of the prepared samples reduced with increasing Cu-doping concentrations and the addition of Cu as dopants changed the structural properties of the thin films. Surface morphology was determined through scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results show that the particle size decreased as doping concentration increased. The films have moderate optical transmission (up to 82.4% at 800nm), and the transmittance, absorption coefficient and energy gap at different Cu-doping concentration were measured and calculated. Results show that Cu-doping decreased the transmittance and energy gap whereas it increased the absorption coefficient. Two peaks were noted with Cu-doping concentration of 0-6wt.%; the first peak was positioned exactly at 320nm ultraviolet emission and the second was positioned at 430-480nm. Moreover, emission bands were noticed in the photoluminescence spectra of Cu:SnO2. The electrical properties of SnO2 films include DC electrical conductivity, showing that the films have two activation energies, namely, Ea1 and Ea2, which increase as Cu-doping concentration increases. Cudoped nanocrystalline SnO2 gas-sensing material has better sensitivity to CO gas compared with pure SnO2.

  11. Structural study of TiO2-based transparent conducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitosugi, T.; Yamada, N.; Nakao, S.; Hatabayashi, K.; Shimada, T.; Hasegawa, T.

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated microscopic structures of sputter and pulsed laser deposited (PLD) anatase Nb-doped TiO 2 transparent conducting films, and discuss what causes the degradation of resistivity in sputter-deposited films. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope and polarized optical microscope images show inhomogeneous intragrain structures and small grains of ∼10 μm in sputter-deposited films. From comparison with PLD films, these results suggest that homogeneous film growth is the important factor to obtain highly conducting sputter-deposited film

  12. Transparent nanostructured Fe-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by ultrasonic assisted spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnezhad, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh, Ghader; Ghasemian, Naser; Hosseinzadeh, Reza; Homayoun Keihan, Amir

    2018-05-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2 thin films with high transparency were deposited on glass substrate through ultrasonic-assisted spray pyrolysis technique and were used in the visible light photocatalytic degradation of MB dye. The resulting thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy techniques. Based on Raman spectroscopy results, both of the TiO2 and Fe-doped TiO2 films have anatase crystal structure, however, because of the insertion of Fe in the structure of TiO2 some point defects and oxygen vacancies are formed in the Fe-doped TiO2 thin film. Presence of Fe in the structure of TiO2 decreases the band gap energy of TiO2 and also reduces the electron–hole recombination rate. Decreasing of the electron–hole recombination rate and band gap energy result in the enhancement of the visible light photocatalytic activity of the Fe-doped TiO2 thin film.

  13. Morphological study of electrophoretically deposited TiO2 film for DSSC application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alkesh B.; Patel, K. D.; Soni, S. S.; Sonigara, K. K.

    2018-05-01

    In the immerging field of eco-friendly and low cost photovoltaic devices, dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) [1] has been investigated as promising alternative to the conventional silicon-based solar cells. In the DSSC device, photoanode is crucial component that take charge of holding sensitizer on it and inject the electrons from the sensitizer to current collector. Nanoporous TiO2 is the most relevant candidate for the preparation of photoanode in DSSCs. Surface properties, morphology, porosity and thickness of TiO2 film as well as preparation technique determine the performance of device. In the present work we have report the study of an effect of nanoporous anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) film thickness on DSSC performance. Photoanode TiO2 (P25) film was deposited on conducting substrate by electrophoresis technique (EPD) and film thickness was controlled during deposition by applying different current density for a constant time interval. Thickness and surface morphology of prepared films was studied by SEM and transmittance analysis. The same set of photoanode was utilized in DSSC devices using metal free organic dye sensitizer to evaluate the photovoltaic performance. Devices were characterized through Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristic, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and open circuit voltage decay curves. Dependency of device performance corresponding to TiO2 film thickness is investigated through the lifetime kinetics of electron charge transfer mechanism trough impedance fitting. It is concluded that appropriate thickness along with uniformity and porosity are required to align the dye molecules to respond efficiently the incident light photons.

  14. ALD TiO2 thin film as dielectric for Al/p-Si Schottky diode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Electrical analysis of Al/p-Si Schottky diode with titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film was performed at ..... This work was partially supported by The Management Unit of Scientific Research Project of Bozok University and Hitit. University.

  15. Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Spray pyrolysis techniques; TiO2 thin films; hydrogen gas response. 1. Introduction ... tion is necessary during the production, storage and use of hydrogen. It is also ..... ient, and 'green': it may be used to large scale industrial application for ...

  16. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A transparent, high purity titanium dioxide thin film composed of densely packed nanometer sized grains has been successfully deposited on a glass substrate at 30°C from an aqueous solution of TiO2–HF with the addition of boric acid as a scavenger by liquid phase deposition technique. From X-ray diffraction ...

  17. Low-temperature sputtering of crystalline TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musil, J.; Herman, D.; Sicha, J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the investigation of reactive magnetron sputtering of transparent, crystalline titanium dioxide films. The aim of this investigation is to determine a minimum substrate surface temperature T surf necessary to form crystalline TiO 2 films with anatase structure. Films were prepared by dc pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering using a dual magnetron operating in bipolar mode and equipped with Ti(99.5) and ceramic Ti 5 O 9 targets. The films were deposited on unheated glass substrates and their structure was characterized by x-ray diffraction and surface morphology by atomic force microscopy. Special attention is devoted to the measurement of T surf using thermostrips pasted to the glass substrate. It was found that (1) T surf is considerably higher (approximately by 100 deg. C or more) than the substrate temperature T s measured by the thermocouple incorporated into the substrate holder and (2) T surf strongly depends on the substrate-to-target distance d s-t , the magnetron target power loading, and the thermal conductivity of the target and its cooling. The main result of this study is the finding that (1) the crystallization of sputtered TiO 2 films depends not only on T surf but also on the total pressure p T of sputtering gas (Ar+O 2 ), partial pressure of oxygen p O 2 , the film deposition rate a D , and the film thickness h (2) crystalline TiO 2 films with well developed anatase structure can be formed at T surf =160 deg. C and low values of a D ≅5 nm/min (3) the crystalline structure of TiO 2 film gradually changes from (i) anatase through (ii) anatase+rutile mixture, and (iii) pure rutile to x-ray amorphous structure at T surf =160 deg. C and p T =0.75 Pa when p O 2 decreases and a D increases above 5 nm/min, and (4) crystallinity of the TiO 2 films decreases with decreasing h and T surf . Interrelationships between the structure of TiO 2 film, its roughness, T surf , and a D are discussed in detail. Trends of next development are

  18. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  19. Nanoimprinted distributed feedback lasers comprising TiO2 thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Smith, Cameron; Leung, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Design guidelines for optimizing the sensing performance of nanoimprinted second order distributed feedback dye lasers are presented. The guidelines are verified by experiments and simulations. The lasers, fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography into Pyrromethene doped Ormocomp thin films on glass......, have their sensor sensitivity enhanced by a factor of up to five via the evaporation of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) waveguiding layer. The influence of the TiO2 layer thickness on the device sensitivity is analyzed with a simple model that accurately predicts experimentally measured wavelength shifts...

  20. Effect of concentrations of plasticizers on the sol-gel properties developed from alkoxides precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunst, Sandra Raquel; Longhi, Marielen; Zini, Lucas Pandolphi [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (CCET/UCS), Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia; Beltrami, Lilian Vanessa Rossa; Boniatti, Rosiana; Cardoso, Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio; Vega, Maria Rita Ortega; Malfatti, Célia de Fraga, E-mail: lvrossa@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (LAPEC/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Corrosão

    2017-07-01

    Coatings developed through sol-gel method is presented as an interesting replacement to chromium coating. Sol-gel method present advantages as high purity and excellent distribution of the components. The objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize a film obtained by sol-gel route. The film was prepared with 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl) methacrylate (TMSPMA), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and cerium nitrate, using water and ethanol as solvents. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) plasticizer was added at four different concentrations. The sol was characterized by techniques of viscosity, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed that tetrafunctional alkoxides condensation was retarded by the plasticizer, forming a compact film. The film with 20 g.L-1 of PEG showed the best electrochemical behavior. (author)

  1. Effect of concentrations of plasticizers on the sol-gel properties developed from alkoxides precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Raquel Kunst

    Full Text Available Abstract Coatings developed through sol-gel method is presented as an interesting replacement to chromium coating. Sol-gel method present advantages as high purity and excellent distribution of the components. The objective of this work is to synthesize and characterize a film obtained by sol-gel route. The film was prepared with 3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (TMSPMA, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and cerium nitrate, using water and ethanol as solvents. Polyethyleneglycol (PEG plasticizer was added at four different concentrations. The sol was characterized by techniques of viscosity, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The results showed that tetrafunctional alkoxides condensation was retarded by the plasticizer, forming a compact film. The film with 20 g.L-1 of PEG showed the best electrochemical behavior.

  2. Preparation of YBa2Cu3O7-x superconducting solutions and films from alkoxide-based precursors using sol-gel method and investigation of their chemical reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutlu, Ibrahim Halil; Acun, Hediye; Celik, Erdal; Turkmen, Hasan

    2007-01-01

    In the development of coated superconductors sol-gel technique has been widely used as an effective processing method, especially in making long-length wires and tapes. However, one drawback associated with the deposition of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and Gd 2 O 3 buffer layer on Ni tape is the adhesion characteristic at interfaces YBCO-Gd 2 O 3 and Gd 2 O 3 -NiO and NiO-Ni substrate. In this paper, two strategies for adhesion enhancement of multilayered ceramic oxide coatings on Ni substrate were proposed: (1) formation of chemical bonds through surface condensation reactions, and development of ceramic networks through diffusion of alkoxide precursors. The current research has focused on the fabrication and adhesion of YBCO coatings on buffered Ni substrate using nine solutions prepared from Y, Ba and Cu alkoxides, solvent and chelating agent. Only two of YBCO solutions were successfully obtained while the rest of them were unsuccessful. Among these solutions we scrutinized chemical reaction mechanisms of a successful and an unsuccessful solution for comparison. How the chemical bonds and solubility were affected by the acids, base and solvents used in the solutions was demonstrated. It was shown that pH of the solution, homogeneity of the solution and gelation, steric affect of the chemicals in sol-gel solutions are significant issues to obtain high quality superconducting YBCO thin films. In addition, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to analyze phase structure of YBCO and compare results of chemical reactions obtained by a chemdraw programme. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies was carried out to examine microstructures of YBCO films produced from alkoxide precursors, solvent, chelating agent and modifying liquid chemical materials such as triethanolamine or ammonium hydroxide. It was found to be YBCO, Gd 2 O 3 , NiO and Ni phases in YBCO/Gd 2 O 3 /Ni sample from XRD analysis. That the solution prepared by using triethanolamine provided the best film quality and

  3. Photolithographically Patterned TiO2 Films for Electrolyte-Gated Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valitova, Irina; Kumar, Prajwal; Meng, Xiang; Soavi, Francesca; Santato, Clara; Cicoira, Fabio

    2016-06-15

    Metal oxides constitute a class of materials whose properties cover the entire range from insulators to semiconductors to metals. Most metal oxides are abundant and accessible at moderate cost. Metal oxides are widely investigated as channel materials in transistors, including electrolyte-gated transistors, where the charge carrier density can be modulated by orders of magnitude upon application of relatively low electrical bias (2 V). Electrolyte gating offers the opportunity to envisage new applications in flexible and printed electronics as well as to improve our current understanding of fundamental processes in electronic materials, e.g. insulator/metal transitions. In this work, we employ photolithographically patterned TiO2 films as channels for electrolyte-gated transistors. TiO2 stands out for its biocompatibility and wide use in sensing, electrochromics, photovoltaics and photocatalysis. We fabricated TiO2 electrolyte-gated transistors using an original unconventional parylene-based patterning technique. By using a combination of electrochemical and charge carrier transport measurements we demonstrated that patterning improves the performance of electrolyte-gated TiO2 transistors with respect to their unpatterned counterparts. Patterned electrolyte-gated (EG) TiO2 transistors show threshold voltages of about 0.9 V, ON/OFF ratios as high as 1 × 10(5), and electron mobility above 1 cm(2)/(V s).

  4. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Cervantes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1 cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO2 thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS surface roughness of TiO2 films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM results showed that the TiO2 films’ thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290–310 nm. Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO2 thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO2 thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO2 thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO2 films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO2 thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO2 thin films in biomedical science.

  5. Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 Thin Films on CHO-K1 Cells in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Blanca; López-Huerta, Francisco; Vega, Rosario; Hernández-Torres, Julián; García-González, Leandro; Salceda, Emilio; Herrera-May, Agustín L.; Soto, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells was evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. The TiO2 thin films were deposited using direct current magnetron sputtering. These films were post-deposition annealed at different temperatures (300, 500 and 800 °C) toward the anatase to rutile phase transformation. The root-mean-square (RMS) surface roughness of TiO2 films went from 2.8 to 8.08 nm when the annealing temperature was increased from 300 to 800 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results showed that the TiO2 films’ thickness values fell within the nanometer range (290–310 nm). Based on the results of the tetrazolium dye and trypan blue assays, we found that TiO2 thin films showed no cytotoxicity after the aforementioned culture times at which cell viability was greater than 98%. Independently of the annealing temperature of the TiO2 thin films, the number of CHO-K1 cells on the control substrate and on all TiO2 thin films was greater after 48 or 72 h than it was after 24 h; the highest cell survival rate was observed in TiO2 films annealed at 800 °C. These results indicate that TiO2 thin films do not affect mitochondrial function and proliferation of CHO-K1 cells, and back up the use of TiO2 thin films in biomedical science. PMID:28773740

  6. Synthesis of photosensitive nanograined TiO2 thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, U.M.; Gurav, K.V.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Lokhande, C.D.

    2009-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO 2 thin films are deposited by simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate from aqueous solution. The as-deposited films are heat treated at 673 K for 2 h in air. The change in structural, morphological and optical properties are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The results show that the SILAR method allows the formation of anatase, nanocrystalline, and porous TiO 2 thin films. The heat-treated film showed conversion efficiency of 0.047% in photoelectrochemical cell with 1 M NaOH electrolyte.

  7. Nano structured TiO2 thin films by polymeric precursor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, Daniel Grando; Giraldi, Tania Regina; Leite, Edson Roberto; Varela, Jose Arana; Longo, Elson

    2008-01-01

    This work focuses in optimizing setup for obtaining TiO 2 thin films by polymeric precursor route due to its advantages on stoichiometric and morphological control. Precursor stoichiometry, synthesis pH, solids concentration and rotation speed at deposition were optimized evaluating thin films morphology and thickness. Thermogravimetry and NMR were applied for precursor's characterization and AFM, XRD and ellipsometry for thin films evaluation. Results showed successful attainment of homogeneous nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 thin films with outstanding control over morphological characteristics, mean grain size of 17 nm, packing densities between 57 and 75%, estimated surface areas of 90 m 2 /g and monolayers thickness within 20 and 128 nm. (author)

  8. Processing, adhesion and electrical properties of silicon steel having non-oriented grains coated with silica and alumina sol-gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, D.C.L.; Orefice, R.L.; Vasconcelos, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon steels having non-oriented grains are usually coated with a series of inorganic or organic films to be used in electrical applications. However, the commercially available coatings have several disadvantages that include poor adhesion to the substrates, low values of electrical resistance and degradation at higher temperatures. In this work, silica and alumina sol-gel films were deposited onto silicon steel in order to evaluate the possibility of replacing the commercially available coatings by these sol-gel derived materials. Silica and alumina sol-gel coatings were prepared by dipping silicon steel samples into hydrolyzed silicon or aluminum alkoxides. Samples coated with sol-gel films were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Adhesion between silicon steel and sol-gel films was measured by using several standard adhesion tests. Electrical properties were evaluated by the Franklin method. Results showed that homogeneous sol-gel films can be deposited onto silicon steel. Thicknesses of the films could be easily managed by altering the speed of deposition. The structure of the films could also be tailored by introducing additives, such as nitric acid and N,N-dimethyl formamide. Adhesion tests revealed a high level of adhesion between coatings and metal. The Franklin test showed that sol-gel films can produce coated samples with electrical resistances suitable for electrical applications. Electrical properties of the coated samples could also be manipulated by altering the structure of the sol-gel films or by changing the thickness of them

  9. Undoped TiO2 and nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition on planar and architectured surfaces for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Liang; Soum-Glaude, Adurey; Volpi, Fabien; Salvo, Luc; Berthomé, Grégory; Coindeau, Stéphane; Mantoux, Arnaud; Boichot, Raphaël; Lay, Sabine; Brizé, Virginie; Blanquet, Elisabeth; Giusti, Gaël; Bellet, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and nitrogen doped TiO 2 thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition on planar substrates. Deposition on 3D-architecture substrates made of metallic foams was also investigated to propose architectured photovoltaic stack fabrication. All the films were deposited at 265 °C and nitrogen incorporation was achieved by using titanium isopropoxide, NH 3 and/or N 2 O as precursors. The maximum nitrogen incorporation level obtained in this study was 2.9 at. %, resulting in films exhibiting a resistivity of 115 Ω cm (+/−10 Ω cm) combined with an average total transmittance of 60% in the 400–1000 nm wavelength range. Eventually, TiO 2 thin films were deposited on the 3D metallic foam template

  10. Decolorization of dyeing wastewater in continuous photoreactors using tio2 coated glass tube media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutaporn Chanathaworn

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with a decolorization development of malachite green (MG dyeing wastewater using TiO2 thin films coated glass tube media in photoreactor. The TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by three methods: TTIP sol-gel, TiO2 powder-modified sol, and TiO2 powder suspension coating on raschig ring glass tube media and was investigated crystallinity phase by SEM, XRD, and AFM. Degradation kinetics of the dyeing wastewater by photocatalytic was carried out under UV light irradiation. The Langmuir first-order model provided the best fit to the experimental data. The catalyst prepared by powder suspension technique and coated on glass tube had given the highest of decolorization kinetics and efficiency. Continuous photoreactor packed with the TiO2 coating media was designed and proven to be the high effectiveness for MG dyeing degradation and stable throughout the recyclability test. The light intensity, dye solution flow rate, and TiO2 loading were the most important parameters that response to decolorization efficiency. The optimum condition of photo decolorization of MG dye solution can be obtained from RSM model. Effectiveness of the synthesized TiO2 thin films using suspension technique and the continuous photoreactor design were obtained with a great potential to be proven for wastewater treatment at industrial scale.

  11. Sol-gel derived bioactive coating on zirconia: Effect on flexural strength and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahramian, Khalil; Leminen, Heidi; Meretoja, Ville; Linderbäck, Paula; Kangasniemi, Ilkka; Lassila, Lippo; Abdulmajeed, Aous; Närhi, Timo

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sol-gel derived bioactive coatings on the biaxial flexural strength and fibroblast proliferation of zirconia, aimed to be used as an implant abutment material. Yttrium stabilized zirconia disc-shaped specimens were cut, ground, sintered, and finally cleansed ultrasonically in each of acetone and ethanol for 5 minutes. Three experimental groups (n = 15) were fabricated, zirconia with sol-gel derived titania (TiO 2 ) coating, zirconia with sol-gel derived zirconia (ZrO 2 ) coating, and non-coated zirconia as a control. The surfaces of the specimens were analyzed through images taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a non-contact tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to record the surface topography and roughness of the coated specimens. Biaxial flexural strength values were determined using the piston-on-three ball technique. Human gingival fibroblast proliferation on the surface of the specimens was evaluated using AlamarBlue assay™. Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Additionally, the biaxial flexural strength data was also statistically analyzed with the Weibull distribution. The biaxial flexural strength of zirconia specimens was unaffected (p > 0.05). Weibull modulus of TiO 2 coated and ZrO 2 coated groups (5.7 and 5.4, respectively) were lower than the control (8.0). Specimens coated with ZrO 2 showed significantly lower fibroblast proliferation compared to other groups (p sol-gel derived coatings have no influence on the flexural strength of zirconia. ZrO 2 coated specimens showed significantly lower cell proliferation after 12 days than TiO 2 coated or non-coated control. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2401-2407, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sol-Gel Synthesis Of Aluminoborosilicate Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Jeffrey; Leiser, Daniel; Selvaduray, Guna

    1992-01-01

    Application of sol-gel process to synthesis of aluminoborosilicate powders shows potential for control of microstructures of materials. Development of materials having enhanced processing characteristics prove advantageous in extending high-temperature endurance of fibrous refractory composite insulation made from ceramic fibers.

  13. Sol-Gel Derived Hafnia Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jay D.; Stackpoole, Mairead; Blum, Yigal; Sacks, Michael; Ellerby, Don; Johnson, Sylvia M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiras (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Sol-gel derived hafnia coatings are being developed to provide an oxidation protection layer on ultra-high temperature ceramics for potential use in turbine engines (ultra-efficient engine technology being developed by NASA). Coatings using hafnia sol hafnia filler particles will be discussed along with sol synthesis and characterization.

  14. Fluorescence metrology of silica sol-gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have developed a new method for measuring in-situ the growth of the nanometre-size silica particles which lead to the formation of sol-gel glasses. This technique is based on the decay of fluorescence polarisation anisotropy due to Brownian rotation of dye molecules bound to the particles. Results to date give near ...

  15. Screen-printable sol-gel enzyme-containing carbon inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Pamidi, P V; Park, D S

    1996-08-01

    Enzymes usually cannot withstand the high-temperature curing associated with the thick-film fabrication process and require a separate immobilization step in connection with the production of single-use biosensors. We report on the development of sol-gel-derived enzyme-containing carbon inks that display compatibility with the screen-printing process. Such coupling of sol-gel and thick-film technologies offers a one-step fabrication of disposable enzyme electrodes, as it obviates the need for thermal curing. The enzyme-containing sol-gel carbon ink, prepared by dispersing the biocatalyst, along with the graphite powder and a binder, within the sol-gel precursors, is cured very rapidly (10 min) at low temperature (4 °C). The influence of the ink preparation conditions is explored, and the sensor performance is evaluated in connection with the incorporation of glucose oxidase or horseradish peroxidase. The resulting strips are stable for at least 3 months. Such sol-gel-derived carbon inks should serve as hosts for other heat-sensitive biomaterials in connection with the microfabrication of various thick-film biosensors.

  16. Photoactive TiO2 Films Formation by Drain Coating for Endosulfan Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Tapia-Orozco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation process in which a photoactive catalyst, such as TiO2, is attached to a support to produce free radical species known as reactive oxygen species (ROS that can be used to break down toxic organic compounds. In this study, the draining time, annealing temperature, and draining/annealing cycles for TiO2 films grown by the drain coating method were evaluated using a 23 factorial experimental design to determine the photoactivity of the films via endosulfan degradation. The TiO2 films prepared with a large number of draining/annealing cycles at high temperatures enhanced (P>0.05 endosulfan degradation and superoxide radical generation after 30 minutes of illumination with UV light. We demonstrated a negative correlation (R2=0.69; P>0.01 between endosulfan degradation and superoxide radical generation. The endosulfan degradation rates were the highest at 30 minutes with the F6 film. In addition, films prepared using conditions F1, F4, and F8 underwent an adsorption/desorption process. The kinetic reaction constants, Kapp (min−1, were 0.0101, 0.0080, 0.0055, 0.0048, and 0.0035 for F6, F2, F5, F3, and F1, respectively. The endosulfan metabolites alcohol, ether, and lactone were detected and quantified at varying levels in all photocatalytic assays.

  17. Fabrication of TiO2/PU Superhydrophobic Film by Nanoparticle Assisted Cast Micromolding Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zheng, Jianyong; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Lotus-like surfaces have attracted great attentions in recent years for their wide applications in water repellency, anti-fog and self-cleaning. This paper introduced a novel process, nanoparticle assisted cast micromolding, to create polymer film with superhydrophobic surface. Briefly, waterborne polyurethane (WPU) sol and nano TiO2/WPU sol were each cast onto the featured surfaces of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps replicated from fresh lotus leaves. After being dried and peeled off from the stamps, PU and TiO2/WPU replica films were created respectively. To the former, only high hydrophobic property was observed with static water contact angle (WCA) at 142.5 degrees. While to the later, superhydrophobic property was obtained with WCA more than 150 degrees and slide angle less than 3 degrees. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging showed that the PU replica film only had the micro-papillas and the TiO2/PU replica film not only had micro papillas but also had a large number of nano structures distributed on and between the micro-papillas. Such nano and micro hierarchical structures were very similar with those on the natural lotus leaf surface, thus was the main reason for causing superhydrophobic property. Although an elastic PDMS stamp from lotus leaf was used in herein process, hard molds may also be used in theory. This study supplied an alternative technique for large scale production of polymeric films with superhydrophobic.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating techniques onto commercial glass substrates as a route for obtaining active GRadient-INdex materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Varela, Ana I. [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Castro, Yolanda, E-mail: castro@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Durán, Alicia [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); De Beule, Pieter A.A. [Applied Nano-Optics Laboratory, International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga 4715-330 (Portugal); Flores-Arias, María T. [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Bao-Varela, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.bao@usc.es [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain)

    2015-05-29

    In this work, SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films doped with erbium were prepared by dip-coating sol-gel process onto commercial glass substrates. The surface morphology of the films was characterized using atomic force microscopy, while thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and porosity of the films were determined by ellipsometric measurements in a wavelength region of 400-1000 nm. Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. The proof of principle presented in this paper is applicable to systems of different nature by tailoring the sol-gel precursors in such a way that active GRadient-INdex media described by a complex, parabolic-like refractive index distribution for beam shaping purposes is obtained. - Highlights: • Sol-gel route for preparation of active GRadient-INdex materials is proposed. • SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films doped with erbium were prepared by dipping onto commercial glasses. • Morphological and optical characterization of the samples was performed. • Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. • Refractive index diminishes with dopant content; the contrary occurs for porosity.

  19. Photocathodic Protection of 304 Stainless Steel by Bi2S3/TiO2 Nanotube Films Under Visible Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Wang, Xiutong; Wei, Qinyi; Hou, Baorong

    2017-12-01

    We report the preparation of TiO 2 nanotubes coupled with a narrow bandgap semiconductor, i.e., Bi 2 S 3 , to improve the photocathodic protection property of TiO 2 for metals under visible light. Bi 2 S 3 /TiO 2 nanotube films were successfully synthesized using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The morphology and structure of the composite films were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded to analyze the optical absorption property of the composite films. In addition, the influence of Bi 2 S 3 deposition cycles on the photoelectrochemical and photocathodic protection properties of the composite films was also studied. Results revealed that the heterostructure comprised crystalline anatase TiO 2 and orthorhombic Bi 2 S 3 and exhibited a high visible light response. The photocurrent density of Bi 2 S 3 /TiO 2 was significantly higher than that of pure TiO 2 under visible light. The sensitization of Bi 2 S 3 enhanced the separation efficiency of the photogenerated charges and photocathodic protection properties of TiO 2 . The Bi 2 S 3 /TiO 2 nanotubes prepared by SILAR deposition with 20 cycles exhibited the optimal photogenerated cathodic protection performance on the 304 stainless steel under visible light.

  20. Photocathodic Protection of 304 Stainless Steel by Bi2S3/TiO2 Nanotube Films Under Visible Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Wang, Xiutong; Wei, Qinyi; Hou, Baorong

    2017-01-01

    We report the preparation of TiO2 nanotubes coupled with a narrow bandgap semiconductor, i.e., Bi2S3, to improve the photocathodic protection property of TiO2 for metals under visible light. Bi2S3/TiO2 nanotube films were successfully synthesized using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The morphology and structure of the composite films were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra were recorded to analyze the optical absorption property of the composite films. In addition, the influence of Bi2S3 deposition cycles on the photoelectrochemical and photocathodic protection properties of the composite films was also studied. Results revealed that the heterostructure comprised crystalline anatase TiO2 and orthorhombic Bi2S3 and exhibited a high visible light response. The photocurrent density of Bi2S3/TiO2 was significantly higher than that of pure TiO2 under visible light. The sensitization of Bi2S3 enhanced the separation efficiency of the photogenerated charges and photocathodic protection properties of TiO2. The Bi2S3/TiO2 nanotubes prepared by SILAR deposition with 20 cycles exhibited the optimal photogenerated cathodic protection performance on the 304 stainless steel under visible light.