WorldWideScience

Sample records for soilla sekae kaeyttoe

  1. Production of field biomass on the fields and mires and its utilization in energy production; Biomassan tuotanto pelloilla ja soilla sekae kaeyttoe energiantuotantoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mela, T.; Hoemmoe, L.; Suokangas, A. [Agricultural Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The research will be carried out as five sub-projects. The first sub-project `Breeding of reed canary grass and it`s nutrient balance` is concentrated in the development of new reed canary grass cultivars as well as new fertilization practices for non food production. In sub-project no. 2 `Cultivation of reed canary grass at the mire and the drying of peat production area` the evaporation potential of reed canary grass in connection with the drying of peat production area as well as the use of reed canary grass in purifying the runoff coming from the peat production areas was studied. In sub-project no. 3 `Development of a new efficient harvesting method and technology for straw biomass` various harvesting-transport chains based on different balers and choppers as well as economics of these chains were studied. The economics of the production-utilization chains were studied under the sub-project no. 4 `The economics of-reed canary grass and straw production- harvesting-transport-chains and their availability for bioenergy production`. The availability of reed canary grass and straw for energy production was studied by determining the amount of potential production area near the power plants capable of biomass combustion. In the sub-project no. 5 `Fuel and combustion properties of reed canary grass` the combustion quality of spring harvested reed canary grass turned out to be much better than the quality of autumn harvested grass. The full scale combustion experiments with efficiency and emission determinations were carried out at Kiuruvesi using the mixture of reed canary grass and wood chips (and bark) as a fuel

  2. Production of biomass on the fields and mires, and utilisation of it for energy production; Biomassan tuotanto pelloilla ja soilla sekae kaeyttoe energiantuotantoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mela, T.; Hoemmoe, L.; Partala, A. [Agricultural Research Center, Jokioinen (Finland)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The research will be carried out as five sub-projects. The first sub-project `Production and breeding of reed canary grass` the biomass production of the reed canary grass will be studied. The breeding material consists of 101 populations collected from various parts of the country in summer 1993, breeder`s lines obtained from Svaloef-Weibull Ab from Sweden (13 populations), and 7 reed canary grass species. A breeding field for reed canary grass was founded in summer 1994. The field was supplemented in the summer 1995. The first selection of the breeding material was made in 1995. The volume of the seed harvest, the germination capacity and development were studied with harvesting time study. Five different plantations were made for the nutrient cycling and nutrient balance of the reed canary grass at Jokioinen in the summer 1995. Two liming and nitrogen-fertilization test areas were made in Northern Ostrobothnia in 1994. The evaporation potential of reed canary grass was studied in connection with drying of a peat production field was studied in the sub-project no. 2, `Cultivation of energy plants at the mire, and the drying of peat production area`, during the summer 1995, and the biomass production using greenhouse-plantations founded in 1994. The plantations evaporated from carex peat bases during the inspection season depending on fertilization 171-450 mm of water, and from the Sphagnum peat base 105-160 mm of water. Average daily evaporations from Carex peat bases were 2.6 - 6.8 mm and from Sphagnum peat bases 1.6 - 2.4 mm

  3. Ką mums seka vaiko sukurta pasaka

    OpenAIRE

    Racėnaitė, Radvilė

    2007-01-01

    The review presents Nijolė Bražienė’s book "Ką Seka Vaiko Pasaka". The book is a methodical tool, examining the criteria for recognition and evaluation of the tales, written by the pupils of primary forms and presenting certain insights on the problems of life of the children, reflected in the texts of such tales. Pupils’ creations are also compared with folk tales, the similarities of and differences between the form, content and poetics are searched for. The author of the review expresses h...

  4. Saeteilyn kaeyttoe ja muu saeteilytoiminta. Vuosiraportti 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantanen, E.

    2000-05-01

    At the end of 1999, there were 1,753 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,054 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry of STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority listed 13,687 radiation sources and 278 radionuclide laboratories. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 7 448,000 GBq and export to 18,300 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 52,500 GBq. In the year 1999 there were 10,601 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,187 work sites. Of these employees, 21% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry (sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 4.7 Sv in 1999. During the year radon was monitored at 300 companies

  5. Research on use of bioenergy; Bioenergian kaeyttoe - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helynen, S

    1996-12-31

    Drying of biomass with hot gases and steam has been modelled in fixed and solid beds based on experimental results by VTT Energy. The pilot plant of bed mixing dryer at Kuusamo district heating power plant has tested successfully with peat, bark and saw dust by IVO. The dryer increases the overall thermal efficiency of the plant 10 - 15 %. An effective and dust free receiving station was designed for wood and peat fired power plants. Surplus time for unloading and sampling was decreased and fine dust control was improved. Development work of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel material was also launched. Suppression control of fires and explosions in storages were studied by means of experimental tests with international partners. Two concepts on pressurized piston feeder, needed for pressurized combustion and gasification concepts, have been designed by Foster Wheeler and IVO. Concepts were tested with different types of biomass. Feeders are ready for full-scale demonstration plants. Competitiveness of new small scale power plant concepts were compared to a conventional steam boiler and turbine concept. New concepts include atmospheric gasification with diesel engines, combustion of pulverized wood in a gas turbine and diesel engine using flash pyrolysis oil. New concepts have technical uncertaintities, but their possibilities to become competitive compared to conventional technology are promising

  6. Outsourcing services in electricity distribution network industry; Ostopalveluiden kaeyttoe verkkoliiketoiminnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminoff, A.; Lappetelaeinen, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Partanen, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)); Jaerventausta, P.; Trygg, P. (Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    This report examines purchased services in the electricity distribution industry. The report is specially directed to readers working in the industry or otherwise interested in it. This report is a result of a research study that was done in 2008 by VTT, Lappeenranta University of Technology and Tampere University of Technology. The authors are thankful for funders and companies that made this research possible and provided lot of information and knowledge. We appreciate the participants in the steering group as well as the companies and people who answered to questionnaires, gave interviews and took part in GDSSinnovation session. In the business of electricity distribution the usage of purchased services has been increasing during the past years and network companies have focused more on their core business processes. There are a couple of peaks in the number of new purchasing decisions in the middle of the 90s and in the beginning of 2000. The most popular purchased services are network construction and maintenance services. On the other hand, many network planning related activities are still done in-house by the network companies, and are considered their core business. There are some industry specific factors that affect to the decision on whether or not to buy the service outside the company and how to cooperate with the suppliers. For instance, many network companies are owned by municipalities and many service providers are owned by the network companies. The former issue may sometimes bring local politics into the decision-making of the network companies. The latter issue, in turn, has an impact on the relationship between the customer and the supplier, and the infra-organizational issues may sometimes complicate the service purchasing process. Electricity network companies also have natural monopoly positions in their operating areas. To prevent the abuse of monopoly positions, the network companies are subjected to economic regulation. This affects their goals setting, for instance, regarding the cost of network construction and operation and required level of service, and these goals also influence the service providers. operations. There are also some operative issues that are especially critical when considering the interfaces of the companies in this business, such as the role of information systems in the electricity distribution network sector. The report presents research results of purchasing services in general level and also at the more detailed level of 18 different activities. Purchasing decision is a sum of expected benefits and potential risks that may occur. The most popular goals besides cost savings are interests of focusing on core business and getting additional workforce. The biggest risks are related to functioning of service markets and breakdown of the critical information flows. Companies evaluated that they were satisfied or very satisfied of purchasing the service in around 90 percent of the cases. There was also just a minimal margin of cases where the goals have not been reached. Both the network companies and the service suppliers think that the purchasing competence has increased remarkably in the network companies. The companies usually start buying smaller entities and step by step move towards bigger turn key services. The strategic and operative decisions made in the network companies have straight effect to the performance of a service provider. Cooperation should be open to both directions. So far, the companies have purchased services that they have been used to doing by themselves and quite few completely new services have come to support the network business. In future, some megatrends will come to influence this business and there is a chance that new business possibilities will emerge. The most obvious drivers are the increasing requirements to improve the efficiency of electricity usage and the ability to deliver electricity in all circumstances. Climate change can cause more storms and extreme weather conditions. The industry of electricity distribution will also be affected by the definitions of policy. (orig.)

  7. Research on use of bioenergy; Bioenergian kaeyttoe - tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helynen, S.

    1995-12-31

    Drying of biomass with hot gases and steam has been modelled in fixed and solid beds based on experimental results by VTT Energy. The pilot plant of bed mixing dryer at Kuusamo district heating power plant has tested successfully with peat, bark and saw dust by IVO. The dryer increases the overall thermal efficiency of the plant 10 - 15 %. An effective and dust free receiving station was designed for wood and peat fired power plants. Surplus time for unloading and sampling was decreased and fine dust control was improved. Development work of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel material was also launched. Suppression control of fires and explosions in storages were studied by means of experimental tests with international partners. Two concepts on pressurized piston feeder, needed for pressurized combustion and gasification concepts, have been designed by Foster Wheeler and IVO. Concepts were tested with different types of biomass. Feeders are ready for full-scale demonstration plants. Competitiveness of new small scale power plant concepts were compared to a conventional steam boiler and turbine concept. New concepts include atmospheric gasification with diesel engines, combustion of pulverized wood in a gas turbine and diesel engine using flash pyrolysis oil. New concepts have technical uncertaintities, but their possibilities to become competitive compared to conventional technology are promising

  8. Research on use of bioenergy; Bioenergian kaeyttoe. Tutkimusalueen katsaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helynen, S [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aims of Bioenergy Research Programme have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small scale combustion concepts but 3 - 4 large scale demonstration projects (0,2 - 0,3 million toe/year per utilization concept) before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. Ignition and explosion properties of wood and agro biomasses and biomass-coal mixtures are determined in atmospheric and pressurized conditions by VTT Energy with Spanish, French, Dutch and German partners in JOULE-project. Explosion suppression systems have also been tested successfully in pressurized conditions up to 10 bar with British partners. Feasibility of reed canary grass for chemical pulp and fuel is evaluated in a large FAIR project. VTT Energy is responsible for pelletising of fuel fraction, combustion of pellets, gasification and combustion of pulverized fuel fraction. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel material was concentrated on a heavy-duty two-rotor crusher and a crushing screen by BMH Wood Technology. Primary and secondary crushing are needed for optimum particle size distribution. The system will be demonstrated in Sweden. Dry gas-cleaning methods for gasification-diesel power plants and for other atmospheric-pressure applications of biomass gasification are developed by VTT Energy. Catalytic gas-cleaning methods are tested for engine applications in PDU-scale. Removal of trace metals, chlorine and other harmful contaminants of CFB gasification is studied with regard to co-combustion of the product gas in PC boilers

  9. Sewage sludge utilisation and disposal alternatives and their comparison; Puhdistamolietteiden hyoedyntaemis- ja loppusijoitusvaihtoehdot sekae niiden vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatero, P.

    2001-07-01

    Sludge production will presumably not decrease in future. At present agricultural use of sludge is unstable and landfilling will most probably be restricted in the following years. The objective of this thesis is to gather information on options for sludge treatment and utilisation and to compare these options in order to find the best possible solution for future alternatives of sludge utilisation. Finnish and international literature as well as Finnish and EU legislation have been reviewed. Furthermore the mentoring group of this thesis as well as other experts in Finland have been used as a source of information. Sludge contains not only plant nutrients and organic matter but also varying quantities of a number of more or less hazardous substances. The quality and quantity of sewage sludge are described and possible health and environmental risks caused by sewage sludge are pointed out. The legislation linked to sludge utilisation and its demands are also presented. The sludge processing methods reviewed are: thickening, lime stabilisation, aerobic digestion, anaerobic digestion, composting and mechanical and thermal drying. In addition, the positive and negative sides of the stabilisation processes are looked at in greater detail. Agricultural use, landscaping, forestry, landfill, incineration, sludge derived products and newer processing technologies are reviewed as sludge utilisation options. Their environmental impacts, positive and negative sides and practical feasibility are evaluated. Various treatment utilisation combinations are also compared. Furthermore a rough cost assessment is presented. The optimal utilisation alternative has to be chosen case by case. The best use of plant nutrients and valuable organic matter is obtained in agricultural use or in landscaping. In the present situation it is difficult to enhance the portion of agricultural use, and landscaping is restricted by a low demand on the market. Incineration is an expensive option and can therefore be considered mainly on larger plants. Before properly evaluating the suitability of newer technologies, more practical experience must be gathered. (orig.)

  10. Saeteilyn kaeyttoe ja muu saeteilytoiminta. Vuosiraportti 1999; Radiation usage and other radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantanen, E. [ed.

    2000-05-01

    At the end of 1999, there were 1,753 valid safety licenses in Finland for the use of radiation. In addition, there were 2,054 responsible parties for dental x-ray diagnostics. The registry of STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority listed 13,687 radiation sources and 278 radionuclide laboratories. The import of radioactive substances amounted to 7 448,000 GBq and export to 18,300 GBq. Short-lived radionuclides produced in Finland amounted to 52,500 GBq. In the year 1999 there were 10,601 workers monitored for radiation exposure at 1,187 work sites. Of these employees, 21% received an annual dose exceeding the recording level. The annual effective dose limit was not exceeded. The total dose recorded in the dose registry (sum of the individual dosemeter readings) was 4.7 Sv in 1999. During the year radon was monitored at 300 companies.

  11. Utilization of new materials in peat machines; Uusien materiaalien kaeyttoe turvekoneissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, M.; Poeyhoenen, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this three year research (1993-1995) was to study the suitability of new materials for different applications in peat production industry, exploiting the plastic and brush technologies, and surface coatings. The peat production machines will be intensified, lightened, made more firesafe, and ergonomical by using new materials (plastics, composites, compound metals and surface coatings). The research targets and materials were surveyed in 1993, the possibilities to construct an unsparkling miller were investigated, and low-friction materials, on which the peat glides easily, were sought in the beginning of the research. The unsparkling miller was studied and developed further in 1994 using plastic blades, the application of brushing technology in sod peat technology, and a ridger, equipped with horizontal brushes, for sod peat were studied, and the possibilities to lighten the construction of the collector-wagon using light materials was investigated. The tasks for 1995 were to study the brushing technology for peat production, the properties of the bristle, and the applications of new materials for milling and sieving of peat using laboratory tests. This work continued partly in 1996

  12. Pyrolysis oil production, properties, and utilization; Pyrolyysioeljyn valmistus, ominaisuudet ja kaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K; Oasmaa, A; Arpiainen, V; Kuoppala, E; Leppaemaeki, E; Solantausta, Y; Levander, J. VTT Energia

    1996-12-31

    The main tasks for 1995 were: design and assembling of experimental reactors, and physical and chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oils. A PDU-unit (20 kg/h) has been designed and it will be assembled in April 1996. A 1 kg/h pyrolyzer has been constructed with a hot-filtration system (a ceramic candle filter) and direct quenching with a hydrocarbon oil. The equipment has worked well. Pine saw dust has been used as a feed and a good-quality solids-free product oil has been obtained. In addition to this, a smaller (150 g/h) pyrolyzer has been bought from Canada (University of Waterloo). The small equipment will be used for example for catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapours. Chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil has been carried out 1995. Water extraction has been developed for a fractionation method. Pyrolysis oil samples produced from mixed hardwood, eucalyptus and straw have been employed. The objective of the study has been to develop a simple characterisation method for comparison of different pyrolysis oils. For example reactive compounds have been identified. Main analytical method for analysing the water-soluble fraction has been GC-MS. The research will be continued 1996. A literature review of chemical and physical characterization of pyrolysis oils has been published 1995. Testing of fuel oil analyses has been continued within the IEA pyrolysis project. VTT Energy is responsible for fuel oil analytical methods

  13. Pyrolysis oil production, properties, and utilization; Pyrolyysioeljyn valmistus, ominaisuudet ja kaeyttoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Kuoppala, E.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Solantausta, Y.; Levander, J. VTT Energia

    1995-12-31

    The main tasks for 1995 were: design and assembling of experimental reactors, and physical and chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oils. A PDU-unit (20 kg/h) has been designed and it will be assembled in April 1996. A 1 kg/h pyrolyzer has been constructed with a hot-filtration system (a ceramic candle filter) and direct quenching with a hydrocarbon oil. The equipment has worked well. Pine saw dust has been used as a feed and a good-quality solids-free product oil has been obtained. In addition to this, a smaller (150 g/h) pyrolyzer has been bought from Canada (University of Waterloo). The small equipment will be used for example for catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapours. Chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil has been carried out 1995. Water extraction has been developed for a fractionation method. Pyrolysis oil samples produced from mixed hardwood, eucalyptus and straw have been employed. The objective of the study has been to develop a simple characterisation method for comparison of different pyrolysis oils. For example reactive compounds have been identified. Main analytical method for analysing the water-soluble fraction has been GC-MS. The research will be continued 1996. A literature review of chemical and physical characterization of pyrolysis oils has been published 1995. Testing of fuel oil analyses has been continued within the IEA pyrolysis project. VTT Energy is responsible for fuel oil analytical methods

  14. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in Finland in 1997; Radioaktiivisten laeaekevalmisteiden kaeyttoe Suomessa vuonna 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, H

    1999-02-01

    A survey on the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostics and therapy has been made by STUK Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority in Finland. In 1997 the number of nuclear medicine examinations was 51 700 and that of the therapeutic treatments was 2 240. In 1994 the number of nuclear medicine examinations was 50 900 and that of therapeutic treatments was 2 150. The collective effective dose to the patients was 207 manSv and the mean effective dose to the population was 0.04 mSv per person. In 1994 the collective effective dose was 220 manSv. The numbers of nuclear medicine examinations and of therapeutic treatments have not changed much when compared to those in 1994. The collective effective dose has decreased. The main reason for that is the decreased use of the radionuclide {sup 131}I. (orig.) 4 refs.

  15. Outsourcing and the use of contractors in the nuclear power industry; Ulkoistaminen ja alihankkijoiden kaeyttoe ydinvoimateollisuudessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, J.; Reiman, T. [VTT Industrial Systems, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to produce an overview of outsourcing and the use of contractors in the nuclear power industry. Special attention was paid to the scope as well as drivers, objectives and constraints of outsourcing in the industry, applied models and practices, and experiences gained from the activity. In addition, the study was concerned with establishing how the licensees define and maintain their core competencies, and how outsourcing has impacted on nuclear safety. The study was based on a literature survey and a case study carried out at Olkiluoto nuclear power plant in Finland in 2003. Also other materials, such as interviews conducted in connection with other projects, were utilised when applicable. This report presents the main results of the study, tries to highlight some of the most important development trends in the industry, and comes up with future research needs. The topic has mainly been approached from the industry viewpoint with an emphasis on practical management challenges. (orig.)

  16. Small-scale production and utilization of wood fuels; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe - katsaus tutkimus- projekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S. [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the research on small-scale production of wood fuels was to promote the forest owners` own utilization and procurement of firewood. The profitability of firewood was improved by developing new farm-tractor mountable equipment and methods for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs for harvesting of first-thinning wood and other small-dimeter wood. Totally new solution for machine felling of small trees and chopwood production were developed to serial production level. Recyclable processing and delivery units were developed for delivery of chopwood. A calculation model for analysing the costs of small-scale production of firewood became ready. A guide on the development of heating-entrepreneur activities, serving the entrepreneurs, was published. The objective of the firewood utilization research was to reduce the technical barriers of the utilization of firewood in small-house and real-estate scales. The main aim was to reduce the flue-gas emissions. The emissions of the fireplaces were reduced by developing the construction of fireplaces, catalytic combustion and heating methods. An automatic stoker-burner was developed for real-estate scale and a boiler series was designed for biofuels

  17. Small-scale production and utilization of wood fuels; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe - katsaus tutkimus- projekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the research on small-scale production of wood fuels was to promote the forest owners` own utilization and procurement of firewood. The profitability of firewood was improved by developing new farm-tractor mountable equipment and methods for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs for harvesting of first-thinning wood and other small-dimeter wood. Totally new solution for machine felling of small trees and chopwood production were developed to serial production level. Recyclable processing and delivery units were developed for delivery of chopwood. A calculation model for analysing the costs of small-scale production of firewood became ready. A guide on the development of heating-entrepreneur activities, serving the entrepreneurs, was published. The objective of the firewood utilization research was to reduce the technical barriers of the utilization of firewood in small-house and real-estate scales. The main aim was to reduce the flue-gas emissions. The emissions of the fireplaces were reduced by developing the construction of fireplaces, catalytic combustion and heating methods. An automatic stoker-burner was developed for real-estate scale and a boiler series was designed for biofuels

  18. Utilization of new materials in peat machines; Uusien materiaalien kaeyttoe turvekoneissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, M.; Poeyhoenen, P.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this three year research (1993-1995) was to study the suitability of new materials for different applications in peat production industry, exploiting the plastic and brush technologies, and surface coatings. The peat production machines will be intensified, lightened, made more firesafe, and ergonomical by using new materials (plastics, composites, metals and surface coatings). The research targets and materials were surveyed, the possibilities to construct an unsparkling miller were investigated, and low-friction materials, on which the peat glides easily, were sought in the beginning of the research. The unsparkling miller was studied and developed further in 1994 using platic plates, the application of brushing technology in sod peat technology, and a ridger, equipped with horizontal brushes, for sod peat were studied, and the possibilities to lighten the construction of the collector-wagon using light materials was investigated. The tasks for 1995 were to study the brushing technology for peat production, the properties of the bristle, and the applications of new materials for milling and sewing of peat using laboratory tests. The brush-ridger tests were made in cooperation with the brush experts of the NIITP. A rotating brush harrower mixed and ruffled the milled layer. The brush-harrower seemed to be more effective than the spoon-harrower with the driving speed higher than 8 km/h. The power consumption of the brush varied in between 1.5 - 4 kW/m, when the rotation speed was 200-300 1/min, the milled layer load 44 mm and the deformation of the bristles 20 mm

  19. High ash fuels for diesel engines II; Korkean tuhkapitoisuuden omaavan polttoaineen kaeyttoe dieselvoimaloissa II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrmen, E.; Vestergren, R.; Svahn, P. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Heavy fuel oils containing a large amount of ash, that is used in some geographically restricted areas, can cause problems with deposit formation and hot corrosion, leading to burned exhaust gas valves in some diesel engines. The Liekki 2 programs Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants I and II have been initiated to clarify the mechanisms of deposit formation, and start and propagation of hot corrosion. The aim is to get enough knowledge to enable the development of the Waertsilae diesel engines to be able to handle heavy fuel with a very high ash content. The chemistry, sintering, melting, and corrosiveness of deposits from different part of the diesel engine and on different exhaust valve materials, as well as the chemistry in different depths of the deposit have been investigated. Theories for the mechanisms mentioned above have been developed. Additives changing the sintering/melting point and physical properties of the formed deposits have been screened. Exhaust gas particle measurements have been performed when running on high ash fuel, both without deposit modifying fuel additive and with. The results have been used to verify the ABC (Aerosol Behaviour in Combustion) model, and the particle chemistry and morphology has been examined. Several tests, also high load endurance tests have been run in diesel engines with high ash fuels. (author)

  20. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Kenneth R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineering teams' value-creation for enterprises is slower than possible due to inefficiencies in communication, learning, common knowledge collaboration and leadership conduct. This dissertation outlines the surrounding people, process and technology dimensions for higher performing engineering teams. It describes a true experiment…

  1. Development of a machine combination for harvesting of small wood first thinnings; Yhdistelmaekoneen kehittaeminen pienpuun korjuuseen sekae ensi- harvennukseen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, P [Outokummun Metalli Oy, Outokumpu (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to build combined machine for the harvesting of the first thinning, which makes both harvesting and forwarding. Original purpose has been extended to concern also the harvesting head itself, which is connected to the base machine and which is able to perform cutting, delimbing and transportation. This method is only meant to be used to harvest energy wood. It should be developed the crown cutting method for this device. The basic idea of this harvesting head is usable, but technical solutions of functions should be reconstructed. The `guillotine-cutting` is usable. The diameter of cut stem should be 250-300 mm. In the future we will try to develop a device, which is able to make also delimbing if needed. This head is proper for first thinning harvesting. (orig.)

  2. Development of a machine combination for harvesting of small wood and first thinnings; Yhdistelmaekoneen kehittaeminen pienpuun korjuuseen sekae ensiharvennukseen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, P.; Kinnunen, K. [Outokummun Metalli Oy, Outokumpu (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the research was to develop a machine combination for harvesting of small wood, which carries out both the harvesting and forest haulage. The development was started in September 1995. The first prototype of the machine is ready. A Lokomo 910 forest tractor was acquired for the tests. The prototype has been mounted on the tractor, and the tests have been started in the beginning of March 1996. The reconstruction of the device will be made after the tests, as well as the description of different working praxis. Time consumption study and the analysis of it will be made after the equipment tests. The device consists of a grapple equipped with a guillotine cutting device mounted on the tractor. The actual felling is made stem by stem in the test phase. The stem can be forwarded directly into the load or it can be left aside, and new stems can be brought beside it and then all the stems can be taken together into load. The harvested stems can be processed easiest during the forwarding in the upward position, and they will be `felled` into the load space. Hence the space requirement is small so the damaging of the remaining trees can be minimized. The logging road is made driving backwards by felling the trees from the road to the sides of the road and by collecting the stems into load space while returning. The harvested stems will be transported undelimbed to the storage site there they can be processed with multi-function machine or chipped, after the thinning has been completed. The cutting device can be turned aside when using the loading grapple so the operation is similar to operation of an ordinary timber loader

  3. Development of a machine combination for harvesting of small wood and first thinnings; Yhdistelmaekoneen kehittaeminen pienpuun korjuuseen sekae ensiharvennukseen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, P; Kinnunen, K [Outokummun Metalli Oy, Outokumpu (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the research was to develop a machine combination for harvesting of small wood, which carries out both the harvesting and forest haulage. The development was started in September 1995. The first prototype of the machine is ready. A Lokomo 910 forest tractor was acquired for the tests. The prototype has been mounted on the tractor, and the tests have been started in the beginning of March 1996. The reconstruction of the device will be made after the tests, as well as the description of different working praxis. Time consumption study and the analysis of it will be made after the equipment tests. The device consists of a grapple equipped with a guillotine cutting device mounted on the tractor. The actual felling is made stem by stem in the test phase. The stem can be forwarded directly into the load or it can be left aside, and new stems can be brought beside it and then all the stems can be taken together into load. The harvested stems can be processed easiest during the forwarding in the upward position, and they will be `felled` into the load space. Hence the space requirement is small so the damaging of the remaining trees can be minimized. The logging road is made driving backwards by felling the trees from the road to the sides of the road and by collecting the stems into load space while returning. The harvested stems will be transported undelimbed to the storage site there they can be processed with multi-function machine or chipped, after the thinning has been completed. The cutting device can be turned aside when using the loading grapple so the operation is similar to operation of an ordinary timber loader

  4. Use of probabilistic safety assessment in supporting regulatory authority`s work; Todennaekoeisyyspohjaisen turvallisuusanalyysin kaeyttoe viranomaistyoen tukena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julin, A

    1995-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine possibilities to use probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) more effectively in regulatory control of nuclear power plants. The structure, results and evaluation methods of PSA along with the necessary equations and principles, which could be used in utilising level 1 PSA results in decision making, have been introduced. The presented examples describe the ways PSA has been utilised abroad and particularly in Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). The examples calculated in the study are based on the SPSA code and the PSA model of Olkiluoto nuclear power plant (TVO). The examples compare component safety classes versus safety importance and the risk of continued operation versus shutdown alternative in residual heat removal system failures. In addition to this allowed outage times, as calculated by PSA, were compared to allowed outage times according to technical specifications. The last 9 years operating experiences of TVO II was also examined by analysing the risk importance of significant component failures and operational disturbances. The analysis showed that the contribution of component failures and operational disturbances to the overall core damage risk during the studied time period was only 5 per cent. It appeared that the rare, significant initiating events provide the main contribution to the total cumulative risk. (57 refs., 22 figs., 17 tabs.).

  5. Chemical oxidation methods in the closure of paper mill water circulations; Hapetustekniikoiden kaeyttoe metsaeteollisuuden vesikiertojen sulkemisessa - EKT 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laari, A; Kallas, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland); Korhonen, S [Kuopio Univ. (Finland); Tuhkanen, T [Mikkelin Ammattikorkeakoulu, Mikkeli (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    When water circulations are closed some harmful compounds tend to accumulate in the circulation waters. These compounds include lipophilic extractives, like resin and fatty acids, triglycerides and sterols, but also other compounds, like lignins, lignans and sugars. Microbial growth will increase due to elevated organic concentrations. The purpose of this project is to find out the possibilities of the use of ozonation and wet oxidation in the treatment of paper mill water circulations. In chemical oxidation organic matter is destroyed in oxidation reactions. Especially lipophilic extractives are selectively oxidated by ozone. Chemical oxidation reactions are carried out in gas-liquid reactors, where ozone or oxygen are transferred from gas to liquid phase where the oxidation reactions happen. One target of the project is to estimate kinetic parameters for different groups of compounds on the basis of experimental data. Kinetic parameters are then used in modelling of reactors and in estimation of process costs. (orig.)

  6. Chemical oxidation methods in the closure of paper mill water circulations; Hapetustekniikoiden kaeyttoe metsaeteollisuuden vesikiertojen sulkemisessa - EKT 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laari, A.; Kallas, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland); Korhonen, S. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland); Tuhkanen, T. [Mikkelin Ammattikorkeakoulu, Mikkeli (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    When water circulations are closed some harmful compounds tend to accumulate in the circulation waters. These compounds include lipophilic extractives, like resin and fatty acids, triglycerides and sterols, but also other compounds, like lignins, lignans and sugars. Microbial growth will increase due to elevated organic concentrations. The purpose of this project is to find out the possibilities of the use of ozonation and wet oxidation in the treatment of paper mill water circulations. In chemical oxidation organic matter is destroyed in oxidation reactions. Especially lipophilic extractives are selectively oxidated by ozone. Chemical oxidation reactions are carried out in gas-liquid reactors, where ozone or oxygen are transferred from gas to liquid phase where the oxidation reactions happen. One target of the project is to estimate kinetic parameters for different groups of compounds on the basis of experimental data. Kinetic parameters are then used in modelling of reactors and in estimation of process costs. (orig.)

  7. Bioenergy Research Programme, Yearbook 1995. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma, vuosikirja 1995. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alakangas, E. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    Bioenergy Research Programme is one of the energy technology research programmes of the Technology Development Centre TEKES. The aim of the bioenergy Research Programme is to increase, by using technical research and development, the economically profitable and environmentally sound utilisation of bioenergy, to improve the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels, and to develop new competitive fuels and equipment related to bioenergy. The funding for 1995 was nearly 52 million FIM and the number of projects 66. The research area of biomass conversion consisted of 8 projects in 1995, and the research area of bioenergy utilization of 14 projects. The results of these projects carried out in 1995 are presented in this publication. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce more bio-oils and electric power as well as wood processing industry as at power plants than it is possible at present appliances. The conversion research was pointed at refining of the waste liquors of pulping industry and the extracts of them into fuel-oil and liquid engine fuels, on production of wood oil via flash pyrolysis, and on combustion tests. Other conversion studies dealt with production of fuel-grade ethanol. For utilization of agrobiomass in various forms of energy, a system study is introduced where special attention is how to use rapeseed oil unprocessed in heating boilers and diesel engines. The main aim of the research in bioenergy utilization is to create the technological potential for increasing the bioenergy use. The aim is further defined as to get into commercial phase 3-4 new techniques or methods and to start several demonstrations, which will have 0.2-0.3 million toe bioenergy utilization potential

  8. Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants II; Korkean tuhkapitoisuuden omaavan polttoaineen kaeyttoe dieselvoimaloissa II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestergren, R; Normen, E; Hellen, G [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland); and others

    1997-10-01

    Heavy fuel oils containing a large amount of ash are used in some geographically restricted areas. The ash components can cause problems with deposit formation and hot corrosion, leading to burned exhaust gas valves in some diesel engines. The LIEKKI 2 programs Use of high ash fuel in diesel power plants, Part I and II, have been initiated to clarify the mechanisms of deposit formation, and start and propagation of hot corrosion. The aim is to get enough knowledge to enable the development of the Waertsilae diesel engines to be able to handle heavy fuels with a very high ash content. The chemistry during combustion has been studied. The chemical and physical properties of the particles in the exhaust gas, of the deposits, and of exhaust valves have been investigated. Exhaust gas particle measurements have been performed when running on high ash fuel, both with and without deposit modifying fuel additive. Theories for the mechanisms mentioned above have been developed. On the practical side two long time field tests are going on, one with an ash/deposit modifying fuel additive (vanadium chemistry alteration), one with fuel water washing (sodium removal). Seven different reports have been written. (orig.)

  9. Bioenergy research programme. Yearbook 1996. Utilization of bioenergy and biomass conversion; Bioenergian tutkimusohjelma. Vuosikirja 1996. Bioenergian kaeyttoe ja biomassan jalostus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikku, P [ed.

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. Research and development projects will also develop new economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and utilisation of biofuels. The total funding for 1996 was 27.3 million FIM and the number of projects 63. The number of projects concerning bioenergy use was 10 and biomass conversion 6. Results of the projects carried out in 1996 are presented in this publication. The aim of the bioenergy use is to develop and demonstrate at least 3-4 new equipment or methods for handling and use of biofuels. The equipment and/or methods should provide economically competitive and environmentally sound energy production. The second aim is to demonstrate 2-3 large-scale biofuel end-use technologies. Each of these should have a potential of 0.2- 0.3 million toe/a till the year 2000. The aims have been achieved in the field of fuel handling technologies and small-scale combustion concepts, but large-scale demonstration projects before the year 2000 seems to be a very challenging aim. The aim of the biomass conversion is to produce basic information on biomass conversion, to evaluate the quality of products, their usability, environmental effects of use as well as the total economy of the production. The objective of biomass conversion is to develop 2-3 new methods, which could be demonstrated, for the production and utilisation of liquefied, gasified and other converted biofuels. The production target is 0.2-0.3 million toe/a by the year 2000 at a competitive price level. The studies focused on the development of flash pyrolysis technology for biomass, and on the study of storage stability of imported wood oils and of their suitability for use in oil-fired boilers and diesel power plants

  10. Small-scale production and use of fuelwood of the Bioenergy research programme; Polttopuun pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe Bioenergian tutkimusohjelmassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryynaenen, S; Tuomi, S

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the research focusing on the small-scale production of fuelwood within the scope of the National Bioenergy research programme (1993-1998) under way in Finland is to promote the use of fuelwood. In addition to the Work Efficiency Institute (TTS-Institute), several manufacturers and organisations have participated in this work. New technology and work methods for the harvesting of fuelwood have been developed for application by the forest owners. Machines and devices intended for the harvesting and chopping into fuelwood of small-diameter trees have been developed to prototype and series production stages. Recyclable handling and distribution units have been developed for the purpose of distributing chopped fuelwood. A computer-based calculation model has been developed for calculating and analysing the costs of producing chipped and chopped fuelwood. A handbook serving the needs of entrepreneurs has been written on the basis of the results of a study focusing on heat entrepreneurship. The aim of the fuelwood use study, carried out under the leadership of VTT, was to eliminate technical obstacle to using fuelwood in detached houses and the category of small buildings. An other aim was to reduce emissions of the flue gases. This was achieved through the development of fireplace structures, catalyzer assisted combustion and heating methods. An automated stoker-assisted burner and a series of boilers designed for biofuels were developed for small buildings. (3 refs.)

  11. Small-scale production and utilisation of fuelwood. Review of research projects; Puupolttoaineen pientuotanto ja -kaeyttoe. Katsaus tutkimusprojekteihin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, S [Work Efficiency Inst., Rajamaeki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The goal in the small-scale production of wood fuels in the context of the Bioenergy research programme is to reduce production costs by 20 % when compared to the 1992 cost level. Also, new harvesting technology and new work methods will be developed for forest owners and small-entrepreneurs in the course of the research programme. The goal of the research work will be to improve the competitiveness of harvesting machines, devices and work chains when dealing with small-diameter trees and logging residues. The aim in the development of measuring methods and quality requirements for purchased fuelwood is to eliminate obstacles resulting from the ambiguities in the measuring and quality of fuelwood. The objective of the fuelwood utilisation research is to eliminate technical obstacles and to develop new action models for organising energy generation in the categories of building-specific and district heating. Also, marketing of the new action models to potential entrepreneurs and heating energy purchasers is an important part of the work. The main objective of the work on the development of fireplaces is to reduce fluegas emissions. The main subject of development of heating equipment designed for buildings is stoker burners for wet fuels (orig.)

  12. The effective and dust free receiving station and handling for the low calorific value solid fuels; Tehokas ja poelytoen seospolttoaineiden vastaanottoasema sekae kaesittely- ja kuljetinjaerjestelmae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojonen, O [Finntech Oy, Espoo (Finland); Jaervinen, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Use

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the project was to get higher automatization level and improve dust preventing in solid fuel receiving stations. There are two general types of receiving stations in the Finnish power plants: large unloading stations for the side tipping devices of trucks and small ones for the rear tipping devices of trucks. In the first ones the trucks empty their load (approx. 100 m{sup 3} loose bulk density) divided by hauling unit and trailer within few (5-10) minutes into a rectangular box, which depth is approx. 3 m. The discharging causes a strong counter current air and dust flow (20-40 m{sup 3}/s) upwards and the dust will easily spread out all over the station. In the second ones the discharging takes place from the rear of truck and trailer using loadspace conveyor of the vehicle within 20 minutes. The material falls on a (belt) conveyor, which is on the floor level. The problems in side tipping system are connected with dust and surplus time, which is needed for the preparation and completion of unloading and sampling. For the fine dust control has also been tested water spray (fog) nozzles and tried to utilise a settling chamber for the dust stream. Also the using the settling chamber equipped with air suction connections and cyclone separation may be effective. In the rear tipping system are also applied bag filters because of smaller air quantities. The rapid truck positioning and control in the receiving station is one of the presupposition for the fast and accurate unloading. This can be done using ultrasonic sensing methods. Also the ensuring of accurate discharging can be based on the modern technology. One of the basic things is the enlarging of video control (CCD -cameras)

  13. The effective and dust free receiving station and handling for the low calorific value solid fuels; Tehokas ja poelytoen seospolttoaineiden vastaanottoasema sekae kaesittely- ja kuljetinjaerjestelmae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojonen, O. [Finntech Oy, Espoo (Finland); Jaervinen, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Use

    1995-12-31

    The aim of the project was to get higher automatization level and improve dust preventing in solid fuel receiving stations. There are two general types of receiving stations in the Finnish power plants: large unloading stations for the side tipping devices of trucks and small ones for the rear tipping devices of trucks. In the first ones the trucks empty their load (approx. 100 m{sup 3} loose bulk density) divided by hauling unit and trailer within few (5-10) minutes into a rectangular box, which depth is approx. 3 m. The discharging causes a strong counter current air and dust flow (20-40 m{sup 3}/s) upwards and the dust will easily spread out all over the station. In the second ones the discharging takes place from the rear of truck and trailer using loadspace conveyor of the vehicle within 20 minutes. The material falls on a (belt) conveyor, which is on the floor level. The problems in side tipping system are connected with dust and surplus time, which is needed for the preparation and completion of unloading and sampling. For the fine dust control has also been tested water spray (fog) nozzles and tried to utilise a settling chamber for the dust stream. Also the using the settling chamber equipped with air suction connections and cyclone separation may be effective. In the rear tipping system are also applied bag filters because of smaller air quantities. The rapid truck positioning and control in the receiving station is one of the presupposition for the fast and accurate unloading. This can be done using ultrasonic sensing methods. Also the ensuring of accurate discharging can be based on the modern technology. One of the basic things is the enlarging of video control (CCD -cameras)

  14. Review of psychological consequences of nuclear accidents and empirical study on peoples reactions to radiation protection activities in an imagined situation.; Katsaus ydinonnettomuuksien psykologisiin seurauksiin sekae empiirinen tutkimus saeteilysuojelutoimenpiteiden vaikutuksista kaeyttaeytymiseen kuvitteelisessa tilanteessa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haukkala, A; Eraenen, L [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Psychology

    1994-10-01

    The report consist of two parts: a review of studies on psychological consequences of nuclear and radiation accidents in population and an empirical study of peoples reactions to protection actions in an event of hypothetical accident. Review is based on research results from two nuclear reactor accidents (Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986) and a radiation accident in Goiania, Brazil 1987. (53 refs, 2 figs.,7 tabs.).

  15. Food waste prevention - effects on greenhouse gas emissions and costs for waste producers and actions to reduce waste volume; Elintarvikejaetteen synnyn ehkaeisy. Vaikutukset kasvihuonekaasupaeaestoeihin ja jaetteen tuottajan kohtaamiin kustannuksiin sekae keinoja maeaeraen vaehentaemiseen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerioja, N.; Anderson, R. [HSY, Helsinki (Finland); Heino, E.; Rasi, S. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Jokioinen (Finland)

    2012-07-01

    Wasted food causes a lot of environmental effects during its life cycle. These effects are unnecessary if the generated waste could have been avoided. In addition, the wasted food causes redundant costs for the waste producers. The objective of this study is to assess, on the basis of existing studies, how much it is possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and costs for waste producers in the HSY area by means of food waste prevention. The waste producers considered in this study are households, public sector, retail and other private sector. Additionally, concrete measures to prevent bio-waste are studied. The impacts of food waste prevention are assessed by defining the CO{sub 2}-eq- emissions per one food waste kilogram in three different life cycle phases: the early phase (from primary production to retail), the usage phase (from retail to the end user's waste bin) and waste treatment. The costs that waste producers face include purchase costs, usage phase costs (e.g. cooking and storing) and waste fees. Moreover, the total effects of food waste prevention are analyzed in a case study which includes two different cases in the year 2020: the base case and the prevention case. In the base case, the food waste volume is growing, among other things, concurrently with the population, while in the prevention case the food and bio-waste prevention is improved in such a way that the amount of food waste is 30% lower than in 2009. According to the results, one kg of food waste causes 2.9- 5.2 kg CO{sub 2}-eq- emissions during its life cycle depending on the sector. The variation results mainly from different waste compositions in the different sectors. The majority of the emissions are generated during the early phase of the life cycle. Correspondingly, one kg of food waste causes a cost of euro 3.60-8.90 for the waste producer depending on the sector. On average, two thirds of the costs result from purchases, but there is a great deal of variation between the waste producers. According to the results of the case study, there will be 68 000 tonnes less food waste generated in the prevention case than in the base case in 2020: 32 500 tonnes less in households, 8 500 in public sector, 18 000 in retail and 9 000 in other private sector. There will also be 300 000 tonnes less CO{sub 2}-eq- emissions in 2020 due to food waste prevention, which on average corresponds to an annual reduction of approximately 27 000 t CO{sub 2}-eq. In addition, the waste producers save almost euro 400 million in 2020, expressed in real value year 2010. In conclusion, food waste prevention decreases global warming and saves money for the waste producers. Achieving the target of the prevention case, however, requires concrete actions from the society and waste producers themselves. (orig.)

  16. Combustion control and model based optimization. Modeling of combustion process and development of supporting control systems for plant operation; Palamisprosessin saeaetoe ja mallipohjainen optimointi; Voimalaitoksen polttoprosessin mallitus ja saeaetoe sekae operoinnin tukiohjelmien kehitys ja testaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortela, U.; Mononen, J.; Leppaekoski, K.; Hiltunen, J.; Jouppila, M.; Karppinen, R. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Systems Engineering Lab.

    1997-10-01

    The aims of the project are to develop the combustion control strategies and to minimize the flue gas emissions. The common goal of the studies has been the reduction of flue gas emissions by using advanced control and optimization methods. The behaviour of different kind of boilers and fuels has been modelled using experimental data from fullscale plants, such as a 42 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler, 23 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler and a 300 MW circulating fluidized bed boiler. Many of the individual observations and modelled correlations between control variables and flue gas emissions have lead to operation instructions and/or re-organized control schemes which help to control total emissions. The most part of this knowledge can be formed to the standard IF- THEN - type rules which contain some uncertainty or fuzziness. Rule-based instruction system for the reduction of flue gas emissions is under work. (orig.)

  17. CO{sub 2} emissions trading. A study on the conditions and necessities for starting national emissions trading; CO{sub 2} -paeaestoekauppa. Selvitys kansallisen paeaestoekaupan kaeyttoeoenoton edellytyksistae sekae siinae huomioitavista seikoista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeaettae, K.

    2000-02-01

    This study analyses the applicability of emissions trading as a means of steering climate policy. Attention is paid to limiting carbon dioxide emissions in particular at national level. The model used in the implementation of national CO{sub 2} emissions trading are the emissions trading schemes applied in the United States, especially the trading in sulphur dioxide allowances, included in their Acid Rain Programme. All schemes applied until now are studied in order to specify what kinds of hindrances there could be to the well-functioning of emissions trading and also to map out what kinds of institutional innovations have been developed in practice to improve emissions trading. This study excludes the joint implementation procedure and the clean development mechanism. In fact, international control related to climate policy has been left to minor attention in other respects, too. In addition to the subjects mentioned above, this study also describes the terminological and legal framework within which emissions trading is to be practised. In this connection, it has been considered necessary to deal with technical legislative details, since, as it has been stated in relation to emissions trading, 'the devil is likely to be in details'. Thus this study discusses, among others, issues pertaining to the construing of. the criterion for an emission quota, i.e. what is actually traded in emissions trading, how the emission quotas and rights can be used (e.g. the emission deposit and emission derivatives), what kinds of provisions should be laid down on eligibility to emissions trading or on who can participate in emissions trading, what should be the validity period of an emission right, what would be the most appropriate way to organise the administrative control of emissions trading, and what kinds of sanctions should be laid down for infringements related to emissions trading. This study has been carried out by examining mainly U.S. literature on this subject and by making avail of the interviews of representatives of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and of the material obtained from them. This study has been completed in spring 1998. (orig.)

  18. Application of the MASSAHAKE-method for birch whole tree chips and for the production of raw material for mechanical pulp production; MASSAHAKE-menetelmaen soveltaminen koivulle sekae mekaanisen massan raaka-ainetuotantoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, M.; Seppaenen, V.; Nikala, L.

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of this project for the year 1995 were: (1) To develop the grinding process in order to decrease the wood losses in grinder, (2) To find the connection between the initial values in the process and the quality of the pulp chips, (3) To find out the behaviour of chips from mixed tree species in the MASSAHAKE process, (4) To find out the amount of knots in the pulp chips from the MASSAHAKE-process and (5) To find out the critical factors in big fuel stock made of the fuel fraction from the MASSAHAKE-process. The research with grinder was made with five different types of grinder plates. One of the blade sets was used as a reference where all the other sets were compared. In the second task a relationship between three most important initial values and the quality of pulp chips was determined. These values were: the feeding capacity of the whole tree chips to the process, the sensitivity of the optical sorter and the pixel size of bark to be removed in optical sorter. Based on the research and analysis results a linear model describing the process was made. In the third task the behaviour of mixed tree chips in the process was examined and also some full scale pulping experiments were done. Comparing the knot content of the pulp chips both from MASSAHAKE-process and normal pulp chip process a significant difference was noticed. The pulp chips from MASSAHAKE-system contained only 1/3 of the knots in normal de-barking+chipping pulp chip line. With decreased knot content a 1-3 % increase in digester capacity could be reached. Finally in fuel fraction storing research a significant dry material loss was determined

  19. Application of the MASSAHAKE-method for birch whole tree chips and for the production of raw material for mechanical pulp production; MASSAHAKE-menetelmaen soveltaminen koivulle sekae mekaanisen massan raaka-ainetuotantoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, M; Seppaenen, V; Nikala, L

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of this project for the year 1995 were: (1) To develop the grinding process in order to decrease the wood losses in grinder, (2) To find the connection between the initial values in the process and the quality of the pulp chips, (3) To find out the behaviour of chips from mixed tree species in the MASSAHAKE process, (4) To find out the amount of knots in the pulp chips from the MASSAHAKE-process and (5) To find out the critical factors in big fuel stock made of the fuel fraction from the MASSAHAKE-process. The research with grinder was made with five different types of grinder plates. One of the blade sets was used as a reference where all the other sets were compared. In the second task a relationship between three most important initial values and the quality of pulp chips was determined. These values were: the feeding capacity of the whole tree chips to the process, the sensitivity of the optical sorter and the pixel size of bark to be removed in optical sorter. Based on the research and analysis results a linear model describing the process was made. In the third task the behaviour of mixed tree chips in the process was examined and also some full scale pulping experiments were done. Comparing the knot content of the pulp chips both from MASSAHAKE-process and normal pulp chip process a significant difference was noticed. The pulp chips from MASSAHAKE-system contained only 1/3 of the knots in normal de-barking+chipping pulp chip line. With decreased knot content a 1-3 % increase in digester capacity could be reached. Finally in fuel fraction storing research a significant dry material loss was determined

  20. The use of secondary energy for the drying of forest industry sludges - instead of destroying sludges to produce net energy; Jaetelaempoejen kaeyttoe metsaeteollisuuslietteiden kuivauksessa - lietteiden haevittaemisestae nettoenergian tuottamiseen - KLY 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkonen, P [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The amount of waste water sludges in chemical forest industry was in 1995/1996 about 400 000 t dry solid matter and 70 % of these substances were incinerated mainly in the bark boilers. The rest were landfilled. Bio-, primary- and DlP-sludges and concentrate from debarking plant were dried with two laboratory scale layer dryers and pilot scale drum dryer. Bark, saw dust and peat were used as reference materials. Saw dust dried fastest and primary sludge slowest but the differences in the drying time between the dried materials were not large. The final moisture content could be 50 % and for example flue gases could be used as drying medium. Typical surface area of layer dryer needed to dry 40 000 t sludge from the moisture of 75 % to the moisture of 50 % could be 150 m{sup 2} and the value of investment could be 3-4 million FIM. Next step could be drying of sludges in pilot scale using some factories as references to get an idea of the real drying costs. (orig.)

  1. The use of secondary energy for the drying of forest industry sludges - instead of destroying sludges to produce net energy; Jaetelaempoejen kaeyttoe metsaeteollisuuslietteiden kuivauksessa - lietteiden haevittaemisestae nettoenergian tuottamiseen - KLY 01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirkonen, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The amount of waste water sludges in chemical forest industry was in 1995/1996 about 400 000 t dry solid matter and 70 % of these substances were incinerated mainly in the bark boilers. The rest were landfilled. Bio-, primary- and DlP-sludges and concentrate from debarking plant were dried with two laboratory scale layer dryers and pilot scale drum dryer. Bark, saw dust and peat were used as reference materials. Saw dust dried fastest and primary sludge slowest but the differences in the drying time between the dried materials were not large. The final moisture content could be 50 % and for example flue gases could be used as drying medium. Typical surface area of layer dryer needed to dry 40 000 t sludge from the moisture of 75 % to the moisture of 50 % could be 150 m{sup 2} and the value of investment could be 3-4 million FIM. Next step could be drying of sludges in pilot scale using some factories as references to get an idea of the real drying costs. (orig.)

  2. Dancers as experts of body consciousness – in search of optimal methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Niia

    2016-01-01

    Kehotietoisuuden tutkimuskenttä on poikkitieteellinen. Sen tutkimuskohdetta on käsitteellistetty useilla eri tavoilla. Tutkimusasetelmissa vertaillaan usein kontrolliryhmää ja kehollisuuden asiantuntijoita, kuten tanssijoita, tai sellaisia psykiatrisia ryhmiä, joilla esiintyy kehollisia poikkeamia. Kehotietoisuutta on tutkittu sekä behavioraalisin ja itsearviointimenetelmin että aivokuvantamalla. Joillain menetelmillä on tutkittu vain kehollisuuden asiantuntijoita, mutta ei psykiatris...

  3. Utililization of water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. This study was conducted to investigate the level of water resources utilization for small scale irrigation agriculture and to examine the food security of households of Seka woreda. A sample of two hundred-ten households were taken using stratified random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were ...

  4. Ohjaamisen ja opettamisen välimaastossa

    OpenAIRE

    Vesalainen, Anne-Maria

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan ohjaamisen ja opettamisen suhdetta opiskelijaryhmälähtöisessä musiikkiteatterin valmistumisprosessissa. Taidepedagogiikan näkemykset soveltuvat sekä ohjaamiselle että opettamiselle. Keskeistä ovat opiskelijalähtöisyys ja konstruktivistinen oppimiskäsitys Opettaja tai ohjaaja auttaa opiskelijan luovuutta ja oppimista. Opinnäytetyössä tarkastellaan Seurakuntaopiston Artistiluokkien (2010 ja 2011) musiikkiteatteriesitysten Stalkatut elämät (20...

  5. Kroonisesta unettomuudesta kärsivien palautuminen : tarkastelussa työterveyshuollon Unen taito- ryhmä

    OpenAIRE

    Punsár, Taavi

    2017-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoitus oli selvittää kroonisesta unettomuudesta kärsivien palautuminen sekä heidän kokemuksia työssä ja elämäntilanteessa olevista palautumista estävistä, haittaavista tai edistävistä tekijöistä. Jokapäiväinen aktiivinen toiminta aiheuttaa palautumisen tarpeen. Voimavaroja kuluttava ja lisäävä toiminta tulisi olla tasapainossa. Keskimäärin palautumista on riittävästi, kun sitä on noin kolmasosa vuorokaudesta. Suuri osa palautumisesta tapahtuu unijak...

  6. Suomalaisen ääniteteollisuuden keskittyminen : syklisyysteoria kotimaisessa tuotannossa

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Kandidaatintutkielmassani tarkastelen Richard Petersonin ja David Bergerin (1975) klassisen ääniteteollisuuden syklisyyttä koskevan teorian esiintymistä ja soveltamista suomalaisessa ääniteteollisuudessa. Teorian olennainen osuus kuvaa ääniteteollisuuden keskittymistä syklisesti vuoroin isoille ja pienille levy-­‐ yhtiöille, ja se määrittää siten monikansallisten suurten toimijoiden ja riippumattomien pienyhtiöiden välisiä suhteita sekä vaikuttaa samalla tuotannon monipuolis...

  7. Videopelikerronnan potentiaali ja mahdollisuudet : interaktiivinen tarinankerronta videopeleissa

    OpenAIRE

    Koljonen, Topi

    2015-01-01

    Tarkastelen opinnäytetyössäni tarinavetoisten videopelien interaktiivista tarinankerrontaa ja nostan esille sen potentiaalin. Videopeleillä ja peleillä tarkoitetaan tässä opinnäytetyössä pelejä, joiden pelaamiseen tarvitaan käyttäjäänsä reagoiva käyttöliittymä sekä näyttöpääte. Vertailemalla peli- ja elokuvakerrontaa esitän tarinankerronnallisen kehittämisehdotuksen siitä, kuinka videopeleissä on mahdollista kertoa tietynlaisia tarinoita muita formaatteja paremmin....

  8. Transformation from bpmn to wf model of document management system workflows

    OpenAIRE

    Kisly, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Darbe yra nagrinėjami du paplitę darbo sekų modeliai – BPMN ir Windows Workflow Foundation (WF), bei tiriama, kaip BPMN darbo sekas transformuoti į WF vykdymo modelį. BPMN ir WF yra iš esmės skirtingos kalbos ir pagrindinė transformavimo problema yra susijusi su nestruktūrizuotų ciklų eliminavimu, t.y. jų konvertavimu į proceso atžvilgiu ekvivalenčias struktūrizuotas konstrukcijas. Darbe pasirinktas žinomas algoritmas, skirtas panašioms ciklinėms konstrukcijoms transformuoti naudojant tęstinu...

  9. Työtoverisuhteiden läheisyyden merkitys työorganisaatioon sitoutumisessa

    OpenAIRE

    Korpela, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Tämän tutkielman tavoitteena on kuvailla työtoverisuhteiden läheisyyttä sekä työorganisaatioon sitoutumista ja selittää työtoverisuhteiden läheisyyden merkitystä sitoutumisen kannalta. Työpaikan vuorovaikutussuhteiden aiempi tutkimus painottuu pääasiassa esimiesten ja alaisten välisiin suhteisiin, ja työorganisaatioon sitoutumisen tutkimus on melko rikkonaista. Tutkimuskirjallisuudessa on esitetty jopa ristiriitaisia tuloksia sitoutumiseen liittyen eikä yhteyttä työtoveris...

  10. Videopelien kosmeettisista virtuaalihyödykkeistä koettu arvo

    OpenAIRE

    Lahti, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Videopeleistä on tullut vakiintunut osa viihdeteollisuutta ja kulutuskulttuuria sekä yleinen osa ihmisten päivittäistä elämää. Tänä päivänä virtuaalihyödykkeiden kuluttaminen on merkittävä videopelaamisen osa-alue. Virtuaalihyödykkeistä on tullut yksi suurimmista online-kulutuksen kohteista pelaajille ja niiden myymisestä tärkein ansaintamalli pelikehittäjille. Virtuaalihyödykkeiden myynnin räjähtänyt kasvu on osoittanut, että pelaajilla on tarve kerätä, luoda, esi...

  11. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1998). Volume 75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Reuben [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    1998-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April–June 1998, includes a report on a recent series of experiments, performed by A. Babushkin, M. Guardalben, R. Keck, and W. Seka, that demonstrate a new scheme for converting the infrared light of OMEGA to the third harmonic in the ultraviolet over a bandwidth that is significantly wider than has been previously attainable. This innovative scheme, employing a second tripling crystal in addition to the doubler-tripler pair currently in use, was proposed by D. Eimerl at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and adapted to the OMEGA system by S. Craxton and S. Oskoui, a recent participant in LLE’s Summer High-School Research Program. Wider bandwidths on OMEGA will allow the use of broadband beam smoothing with faster smoothing times than have been employed until now.

  12. LLE Review Quarterly Report (July-September 1998). Volume 76

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Reuben [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    1998-09-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period July-September 1998, includes reports on two of the newest subsystems in the OMEGA laser facility. A. V. Okishev, M. D. Skeldon, and W. Seka have developed a highly stable, diode-pumped Nd:YLF master oscillator for the OMEGA laser system. This new master oscillator produces either single-frequency Q-switched pulses or cw radiation for the OMEGA pulse-shaping system. The switch-over between these two regimes requires no laser realignment. The new master oscillator is completely computer controlled and has been operating continuously in OMEGA for six months without operator intervention. A. Babushkin, W. Bittle, S. A. Letzring, M. D. Skeldon, and W. Seka have designed a negative-feedback–controlled regenerative amplifier that has been part of the OMEGA laser system for the past two years. The negative feedback makes the energy output of the regenerative amplifier stable and insensitive to the variations in pulse energy. This amplifier’s long-term output energy stability is the highest ever demonstrated for a millijoule-level laser system, either flashlamp pumped or diode pumped. Other articles in this volume are titled: Transcient Bandwidth Analysis of Photoconductive Microwave Switches Implemented in the OMEGA Pulse-Shaping System; Simulations of Near-Field Intensity Modulations in High-Intensity Laser Beams due to Self- and Cross-Phase Modulation Between Orthogonally Polarized Laser Beams Emerging from a Diamond-Turned KDP Wedge; X-Ray Radiographic System Used to Measure the Evolution of Broadband Imprint in Laser-Driven Planar Targets; Collisionless Damping of Localized Plasma Waves in Laser-Produces Plasmas and Application to Stimulated Raman Scattering in Filaments; LLE's Summer High School Research Program; FY98 Laser Facility Report; and, National Laser Users' Facilty News.

  13. Measurements of laser-imprinting sensitivity to relative beam mistiming in planar plastic foils driven by multiple overlapping laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Goncharov, V.N.; Boehly, T.R.; Delettrez, J.A.; Li, D.Y.; Marozas, J.A.; Maximov, A.V.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    In a direct-drive, inertial confinement fusion implosion, a spherical target is irradiated by a large number of overlapped laser beams. Imprinting of laser modulations depends on the relative arrival time of laser beams and their angles of incidence. This dependence was measured in planar plastic targets using six overlapping beams on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. One of the beams (the imprint beam) had a special phase plate that produced two-dimensional modulations on the target, easily distinguishable from the features imprinted by the other five drive beams. The timing of the imprint beam was varied with respect to the drive beams to study imprinting sensitivity to beam mistiming. Shifting the imprint beam to arrive before the other beams significantly increased the imprint efficiency. The results are in very good agreement with the model predictions

  14. Vardarbība multfilmās un pirmsskolas vecuma bērnu interpersonālā agresivitāte

    OpenAIRE

    Tesnova, Irēna

    2008-01-01

    Izstrādātā maģistra darba nosaukums ir VARDARBĪBA MULTFILMĀS UN PIRMSSKOLAS VECUMA BĒRNU INTERPERSONĀLĀ AGRESIVITĀTE. Darba aktualitāte- masu saziņas līdzekļu efekti un potenciālās īslaicīgās un ilglaicīgās sekas socializācijas kontekstā. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt multfilmu saturu un bērnu reakcijas. Teorētiskajā sadaļā ietverta A.Banduras sociālā iemācīšanās teorija un sociāli kognitīvais modelis, kuru piedāvā masu informācijas tehnoloģija- televīzija- kā vēstījuma avots. Aplūkota mul...

  15. MCDonalds mārketinga komunikācijas analīze : Latvija-Īrija

    OpenAIRE

    Kazakova, Nataļja

    2010-01-01

    Diplomdarba tēma; pētāmās problēmas apraksts: McDonalds pielietoto mārketinga komunikāciju analīze Latvijā un Īrijā; pētījuma veikšanas laikā daudzus uzņēmumus šajās valstīs (un īpaši Latvijā) skar ekonomiskās krīzes sekas, tāpēc ir nepieciešami aplūkot tādu uzņēmumu pieredzi, kas veiksmīgi darbojas starptautiskajā tirgū ilglaicīgi. Atslēgas vārdi: McDonalds, mārketinga komunikācijas, reklāma, preces virzīšana tirgū, e-mārketings, sabiedriskās attiecības, tiešā pārdošana, personiskā apkalp...

  16. LLE Review Quarterly Report (October-December 2001). Volume 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, William R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2001-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October-December 2001, features “Time-Integrated Light Images of OMEGA Implosions” by P. Morley and W. Seka (p. 1). E. Kowaluk initiated this project for aesthetic rather than scientific reasons when he began taking visible light photographs of imploding OMEGA targets. These beautiful images are used to communicate LLE’s mission to the general public. A closer examination of the images revealed a one-to-one correspondence between the bright spots in the image and each of the 60 laser beams. The intensity of the bright spots has been related to refraction and absorption in the plasma surrounding the imploding target. These photographs are now proving to be the basis of a new laser-plasma interaction diagnostic. Other articles in this volume are titled the following: Analytical Model of Nonlinear, Single-Mode, Classical Rayleigh-Taylor Instability at Arbitrary Atwood Numbers; A High-Pass Phase Plate Design for OMEGA and the NIF; Advanced Tritium Recovery System; Establishing Links Between Single Gold Nanoparticles Buried Inside SiO2 Thin Film and 351-nm Pulsed-Laser-Damage Morphology; Resistive Switching Dynamics in Current-Biased Y-Ba-Cu-O Microbridges Excited by Nanosecond Electrical Pulses; and, Properties of Amorphous Carbon Films.

  17. Globalizācijas procesu ietekme uz sociālā tīkla facebook.com lietotāju motivāciju

    OpenAIRE

    Krastiņa, Elīna

    2010-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir „Globalizācijas ietekme uz sociālā tīkla facebook.com lietotāju motivāciju”. Tā mērķis ir aplūkot globālo sociālo tīklu facebook.com kā globalizācijas izpausmju piemēru un izpētīt tā lietotāju motivāciju - vai un cik lielā mērā to ietekmē globalizācijas procesi un to izraisītās blakusparādības. Darba ietvaros apskatītas vairākas pieejas globalizācijas jēdziena skaidrojumam, kā arī apskatītas globalizācijas ietekmes un sekas – kultūras globalizācija, kosmopolītisms u. c...

  18. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  19. LLE Review Quarterly Report July-September 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering July-September 2000, begins with an article by T. R. Boehly, V. N. Goncharov, O. Gotchev, J. P. Knauer, D. D. Meyerhofer, D. Oron, S. P. Regan, Y. Srebro, W. Seka, D. Shvarts, S. Skupsky, and V.A. Smalyuk, who describe measurements of the effect of beam smoothing and pulse shape on imprinting. (Imprinting is defined as the imposition of pressure perturbations on the target by spatial variations in the laser intensity.) A principal result is the observation of reduced levels of imprint with the higher beam smoothing afforded by 1-THz smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD). Additional highlights of research presented in this issue are: (1) P. W. McKenty, V. N. Goncharov, R. P. J. Town, S. Skupsky, R. Betti, and R. L. McCrory describe calculations of directly driven ignition capsule performance on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The authors detail how the various contributors to implosion disruption (laser imprint, power imbalance, and target roughness) affect target performance and final gain. The conclusions are obtained by examining the simulated target evolution with the two-dimensional hydrodynamics computer code ORCHID. (2) D. D. Meyerhofer, J. A. Delettrez, R. Epstein, V. Yu. Glebov, V. N. Goncharov, R. L. Keck, R. L. McCrory, P. W. McKenty, F. J. Marshall, P. B. Radha, S. P. Regan, S. Roberts, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, V. A. Smalyuk, C. Sorce, C. Stoeckl, J. M. Soures, R. P. J. Town, B. Yaakobi, J. D. Zuegel, J. Frenje, C. K. L1,R. D. Petrasso, F. Seguin, K. Fletcher, S. Padalino, C. Freeman, N. Izumi, R. Lerche, T. W. Phillips, and T. C. Sangster describe the results of a series of direct-drive implosions of gas-fusion-fuel-filled plastic shells performed on the OMEGA laser system. The experiments include those performed with 1-THZ SSD and high-quality power balance. (3) V. Yu. Glebov, D. D. Meyerhofer, C. Stoeckl, and J. D. Zuegel describe the technique of measuring secondary neutron yield (DT neutron yield from D

  20. Productivity of semi-domesticated reindeer in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilpo Kojola

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a twofold increase in the density of reindeer in Finland from 1974 to 1987, meat production per reindeer increased during this period. This was possible due to calf harvesting and supplemental feeding. Results from multiple regression models indicated that calf harvesting influenced both per unit area and per capita production more than supplemental feeding. Correlation between meat production and animal density decreased with increased supplemental feeding. Traditionally, southern and central herds of reindeer fed mainly on arboreal lichens in late winter; however, due to large-scale logging, woodlands rich of arboreal lichens had been greatly reduced. Economic carrying capacity of the winter range apparently has been exceeded in the south; a heavy crash in the number of reindeer is likely if supplemental feeding ceases. In northern herds, intensive calf harvesting enabled satisfactory yield without supplemental feeding. In northern herds, yield increased mainly per unit area (i.e. by increases in herd size; in the south yield per reindeer increased.Lithantuotantoon vaikuttavat tekijat Suomen poron-hoidossa.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmd: Huolimatta Suomessa vuosien 1974 ja 1987 valilla tapahtuneesta porotiheyden kaksinkertaistumisesta, lihantuotto poroa kohti kasvoi jakson aikana. Tama johtui oletettavasti vasateurastuksesta ja lisaruokinnasta. Monimu-uttujaregressiomallien tulosten perusteella vasateurastuksella nayttaisi olevan lisaruokintaa suurempi vaikutus seka poroa etta pinta-alaa kohti laskettuun tuottoon. Ruokinnan tehostuessa pienentyi lihantuoton ja porotiheyden valinen riippuvuus. Etelaosan ja keskiosan porot syovat perinteisesti puussa kasvavia jakalia kevattalvella. Hakkuista johtuen luppometsien osuus on suuresti vahentynyt. Talvilaidunten ekonomien kantokyky on ilmeisesti ylitetty etela- ja keski-osassa; syva romahdus poromaarissa on todennakoista, jos ruokinta lopetettaisiin. Pohjoisosassa voima-perainen vasate

  1. New black liquor combustion characteristics III; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Forssen, M.; Backman, R.; Enestam, S.; Lauren, T.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The main purposes in this work is to: 1. Compare black liquor combustion characterization results to recovery boiler experiences. 2. Study the mechanisms of sodium release in black liquor combustion In the first part results from black liquor combustion characterization tests developed by Aabo Akademi University will be compared to experiences at four Finnish kraft recovery boilers. When comparing the laboratory data to the compiled field data emphasis will be put on the behavior of the black liquor during burning, the release of sodium and potassium, the melting behavior of the deposits and the NO and SO{sub 2} emissions. The main purpose in the second part of the work is to study the release mechanisms of sodium from black liquor char during combustion. Sodium is mainly released from the char by the mechanism where the molten sodiumcarbonate reacts with the char carbon. The study is divided into four subtasks and is performed mainly by conducting experiments in laboratory scale devices: (1) Sodium release during char reactions is studied for different liquors by analyzing the amount of sodium remaining in char after different holding times in a hot inert atmosphere. (2) A DTA/TGA apparatus is used to study in isothermal conditions the char reactions on prepyrolyzed char. (3) The effect of the form of sodium on the sodium release during char reactions. Black liquors added with different sodium salts (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}S sekae NaCl) are used in experiments as in subtask 1. (4) Sodium release during combustion (2-5 % O{sub 2}) of single black liquor particles

  2. LLE Review Quarterly Report October - December 2011. Volume 129

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvydky, Alex [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics

    2011-12-01

    This volume of LLE Review, covering October–December 2011, features “Crossed-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive Implosions” by I. V. Igumenshchev, W. Seka, D. H. Edgell, D. T. Michel, D. H. Froula, R. S. Craxton, R. Follett, J. H. Kelly, T. Z. Kosc, J. F. Myatt, T. C. Sangster, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and C. Stoeckl (LLE); V. N. Goncharov and A. V. Maximov (LLE and Department of Mechanical Engineering, U. of Rochester); L. Divol and P. Michel (LLNL); and R. L. McCrory and D. D. Meyerhofer (LLE and Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, U. of Rochester). In this article (p. 1), direct-drive–implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1995)] have shown discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicates the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10% to 20%. The authors attribute this degradation in laser coupling to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET)— which is electromagnetically seeded—low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  3. Upscaling ecotourism in Kisumu city and its environs: Local community perspective Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Odhiambo HAYOMBE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kenya’s quest to be among the top ten long-haul tourist destinations globally require strategic focus as envisaged in Kenya’s Vision 2030. Ecotourism is emerging as an alternative development path that can enhance environmental conservation, promote preservation of cultural heritage as well as provide an alternative source of sustainable livelihood. Alternative livelihood in ecotourism provides a sustainable development path for Kisumu City and its environs. However, sustainability in ecotourism transformation is a concern; that is how to motivate the local community to participate in this venture? This study discerns these significant sustainability factors as perceived by the local community. The objective of the study was to discern the local community’s perception on significant sustainability factors for ecotourism transformation. And the research questions: What is the local community’s perception on significant sustainability factors for ecotourism transformation? This research design used both qualitative and quantitative research. The qualitative research design focused on site specific analysis of ecotourism sites of Dunga (Kisumu, Miyandhe (Bondo and Seka (Kendu Bay. The quantitative research entailed data collection administered through questionnaire in eco-tourism outlets represented by 10 Beach Management Units (BMU selected through purposive sampling. Principal Component Analysis was used to discern the significant sustainability factors for ecotourism transformation. A total of 28 items converted into variables were subjected against 326 respondents in the PCA analysis. The results indicated a total of seven (7 significant sustainability factors: First factor was willingness to participate in ecotourism ventures; second Factor was upscale ecotourism initiatives in the neighborhood; third factor was women and youth empowerment; fourth factor was youth and women employment in the neighborhood; fifth Factor: Natural Artifact

  4. Afrikaner Christianity and the concept of empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Oliver

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Not many Protestant countries in the world have been as influenced by faith as South Africa. Although South Africa was never officially a Christian country, politics, economic development, social life and the culture of the �rainbow nation� was either moulded on, or influenced by, the Calvinistic Christianity that came to the country along with the European merchants. The privileged position of Christianity ended in 1994 when South Africa became a neutral state with guaranteed religious freedom for all. Although more than 80 per cent of the population claim that they are Christians, it seems as if the word is not meant any more as a religion with a value system and moral obligations, but only as a convenient label. The reason behind the contrast between theory and practice must be investigated. One possible reason could be found in the traditional Afrikaans-speaking churches� participation of, and contribution to, the �empire� concept. The responsibility of the individual to practise his or her faith was taken over by the power of the state and church.Bokriste bja Maafrikanere le kgopolo ya mmu�o wo maatlaGa se dinaga t�e nt�i t�a Protestante mo lefaseng t�e di huedit�wego ke tumelo go swana le ka fao naga ya Afrika-Borwa e huedit�wego ke tumelo ka gona. Le ge Afrika-Borwa e sa ka ya ba naga ya Sekriste semmu�o, dipolitiki, tlhabollo ya t�a ekonomi, bophelo bja leago le set�o sa �set�haba sa molalatladi�, se ka ba se bopegile godimo ga, goba se huedit�we ke Bokriste bja Secalvine bjo bo tlilego le bagwebi ba Yuropa. Maemo a go phagama ao a bego a filwe tumelo ya Sekriste a fedile ka ngwaga wa 1994 ge Afrika-Borwa e eba naga ya kemelathoko ya go fa bohle tokologo ya bodumedi. Le ge diphesente t�a go feta 80 t�a set�haba di ipit�a Bakriste, go bonala nke lent�u leo ga le sa �omi�wa go hlalo�a tumelo ye e nago le meetlo le maitshwaro a it�eng a setho, eup�a le no �omi�wa e le seka sa go

  5. Fibre composition and enzyme activities in six muscles of the Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K-H. Kiessling

    1983-05-01

    . sternocephalicus. Fiiberien identifioitiin kaytettiin kahta histokemiallista menetelmaa, ensimmainen perustui myosin ATPase aktiivisuuksiin preinkubaation jalkeen pH 4,3:ssa ja 4,6:ssa ja toinen oksidatiiviseen kapasiteettiin mitattuna NADH dehydrogenase aktiivisuutena. Nama kaksi menetelmaa antoivat hienoisen eron, mutta antaa aihetta yleiseen johtopaatokseen, etta niista kolmesta fiiberityypista (I, II A ja II B tyyppi II B fiiberit, jotka ovat nopeasti supistavia, glycolyyttisia, koostuvat suunnilleen 40 - 60 % (keskimaarin 50 % lihaksista. Tyyppi I fiiberit, jotka ovat hitaasti supistavia, oksidatiivisia, tekee 30 % lihaksen kokonaismaarasta niissa kahdessa niskalihaksessa, mutta vain 20 % tai vahemman muissa. Kolmas tyyppi, II A, joka on nopeasti supistava, oxidatiivinen, glycolyyttinen, tekee vain 20 % niskalihasten maarasta, mutta niin paljon kuin 40 % M. longissimus dorsi.sta. Oksidatiivinen kapasiteetti on lapeensa korkea. Tama patee myoskin kapasiteettiin oksidoida rasvahappoa, vaikkakin saavuttaa vain puolet aktiivisuudesta aikaisemmista loydoista Huippuvuorten poroissa (Kiessling ja Kiessling, 1983. Lactate dehydrogenase aktiivisuus on verrattain alhainen kaikissa lihaksissa. Korkea respiraatioketju aktiiviteetti ja rasvahappo oksidaatio seka alhainen lactate dehydrogenase aktiivisuudet eivat sovi laisinkaan hyvin yhteen korkea sisaltoisten tyyppi II B fiiberien kanssa lihaksissa. Tama korkea II B sisaltoinen on myoskin odottamaton huomioonottaen poron aktiivisuus kayttaytymisen. Aivan erilainen tehtava tyyppi II B fiibereille, traditionaaliseen verrattuna, on siksi keskusteltu.

  6. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    å bekostning av vanninnholdet. Omsetningen av vann var lav vinterstid (desember - april, varierende mellom 30.8 ± 5.2 og 43.6 ± 13.5 ml.d-1.kg-1, men økte nesten fire ganger i løpet av sommeren (juni - august til et maksimum på 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1.kg-1 i august. Det ble funnet positive korrelasjoner mellom vannomsetning og forinntak og mellom vannomsetning og omgivelsestemperatur. Sistnevnte korrelasjon kan muligens skyldes en tilfeldig sammenheng mellom forinntak og omgivelsestemperatur.Vuodenaikaiset muutokset poron ruumiin kokonaisvesimååråsså, ruumiin koostumuksessa ja vesiaineenvaihdunnassa.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Ruumiin kokonaisvesimaåråå ja vesiaineenvaihduntaa mitattiin eri vuodenaikoina 3 norjalaisella porolla kåyttåmållå apuna tritioitua vetta (Holleman et al. 1982. Ruumiin kokonaisvesimåarå (prosenttia ruumiinpainosta lisåantyi syksyllå ja talvella lokakuun 59.1±1.5%:sta 72.5±2.0%:i huhtikuussa. Kåyttåmållå Pacen ja Rathbunin (1945 ruumiin kokonaisrasvapitoisuude laskukaavaa (rasva % = 100 - vesi %/0.732 huomattiin tamån vesimåårån lisaåntymis johtuvan samanaikaisesta rasvapitoisuuden våhenemisesta. Rasvapitoisuus laski lokakuun maksimiarvosta 18.9±2.6% ruumiinpainosta huhtikuun minimiarvoon, joka oli 0.9±2.7% ruumiinpainosta. Kesållå rasvapitoisuus lisåantyi puolestaan vesipitoisuuden kustannuksella. Talvella jåkålåravinnolla (joulu-huhtikuussa veden kaytto vaihteli vålilla 30.8±5.2 ja 43.6±13.5 ml vrk-1kg-1 mutta se kohosi melkein nelinkertaisesti kesalla (keså-elokuussa maksimiarvoonsa 117.7+5.9 ml vrk-1 kg-1 elokuussa. Veden kåyton ja ravinnon oton seka veden kåyton jaympåriston lampotilan vålilla oli positiivinen korrelaatio. Viimeksi mainittu korrelaatio voi johtua våliaikaisesta riippuvuudesta ravinnonoton ja ympåriston låmpotilan vålillå.

  7. LLE Review 114 (January-March 2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuegel, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering January-March 2008, features 'Cryogenic Targets: Current Status and Future Development', by D. R. Harding, D. H. Edgell, M. D. Wittman, L. M. Elasky, S. J. Verbridge, A. J. Weaver, L. D. Lund, W. Seka, W. T. Shmayda, R. T. Janezic, M. J. Shoup III, M. Moore, R. Junquist, and A. V. Okishev. In this article (p. 57), the authors report on the status of layering cryogenic DT and D 2 targets at LLE for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. This critical effort achieves the important milestone of routinely providing cryogenic DT targets that meet the 1.0-(micro)m (rms) OMEGA ice-quality-surface specification. The best D 2 -ice layers produced so far (rms roughness of 1.1 (micro)m) are approaching the quality typically achieved in DT targets. Efforts to improve the consistency of this process are reported along with investigations supporting the National Ignition Campaign studying issues relevant to indirect-drive and direct-drive cryogenic targets. Additional highlights of recent research presented in this issue include the following: (1) an improved laser speckle smoothing scheme that augments the current NIF 1-D SSD system by using multiple-FM modulators (MultiFM 1-D SSD) (p. 73). With a judicious choice of modulator frequencies, MultiFM 1-D SSD smoothes resonances produced at the higher spatial frequencies and can attain similar or even faster smoothing rates compared to the baseline NIF 2-D SSD system. DRACO simulations have shown that MultiFM 1-D SSD beam smoothing is sufficient for the direct-drive-ignition targets and pulse shapes analyzed thus far, and may even allow reducing the bandwidth enough to eliminate the need for dual-tripler frequency conversion on the NIF. (2) describes a time-gated, monoenergetic proton radiography that provides unique measurements of implosion dynamics of spherical targets in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) (p. 81). Radiographs obtained at different implosion times, from

  8. Peran Tradisi Lisan Iko-Iko Berbasis Sastra Melayu dalam Penguatan Komunitas Etnis Bajo

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    I Ketut Suardika

    2016-12-01

    mencerminkan sastra Melayu, sehingga persebaran Etnis Bajo dengan sastra iko-iko ikut menyebarkan  Budaya Melayu ke Asia Tenggara, yang kelak menjaeli perekat  persatuan Nusantara  dan Asia Tenggara. Generasi muda Bajo seka­ rang  kurang tertarik  mewarisi iko-iko  yang memiliki  banyak  versi dan judul kisah, maka untuk. menjaga kelestariannya, perlu pendokumentasian dan transliterasi  untuk selanjutnya  eliterbitkan menjadi buku dan artikel ilmiah. Bajonese  is a malay culture  based community  which lives in group and spread  on many costal  and rural areas in Indonesia  and Southeast  Asia. They are known as sea people or Sea ethnic in West Malaysia  and Bajaunese in East Malaysia,  Brunei Darussalam and Philippine. Despite the naming difference; depending on where they live geographically, they have a common culture particularly  concerning  knowledge inheri­ tance  process,  values,  and skill  to preserve  the community    through  perpetuating oral  tradition  iko-iko, nauya, and pantun. Some studies found that the bajonese is originally from  Melaka strait and then scattered in various Malay archipelago  (Malaysia, Indonesia,  Brunai Darussalam  and Philippine   as a result of the arrival ofthe Portuguese imperialism in the year of the seizing ofMalacca 1511. As one the core communi­ ties in Melaka Kingdom, the Bajonese fought against the Portuguese Imperialism. Even after the kingdom were surrounded, they carried on fighting around the coastal areas. Settlement  patterns that are semi nomadic as traditional fishermen, resulting in a development of  original learning system. One of the teaching media used is iko-iko (heroism story. It is an endangered tradition as only elderly who are over 50 years old who can tell the stcries. Iko-iko literature tradition plays an important role to convey messages of moral and spirit of fighting which is narrated orally for generations. The story is about heroism which is sung during voyage and as

  9. Blood composition of the reindeer. I. Haematology

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    Mauri Nieminen

    1981-05-01

    -51%, white blood cell count (6-10 x 109/l, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (3-21 mm/hour and serum iron (23-54 micromol/l of free-grazing adult hind were highest in summer and autumn and decreased during winter. The lowest means were measured for the starved hinds in early spring. High body weight and blood haematological values were measured for the hinds fed on silage and molasses in winter.Poron veri. I. HematologiaAbstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Puolivilli poro on marehtija, joka on hyvin sopeutunut pohjoisen ympariston suuriin vuodenaikaismuutoksiin. Koska poro on tarkea hyotyelain, jonka veren koostumuksesta tiedetaan ian, vuodenajan, vasonnan ja ravitsemustilan suhteen varsin vahin, tutkittiin tyossa 578 poron hematologiaa. Verinaytteet otettiin poron kaulalaskimosta 10 eri paliskunnassa vasamerkinnan yhteydessa kesalla ja syys- ja talvierotuksissa vuosina 1973-79. Vastasyntyneen vasan veren punasolumaara (8xl012/l hemoglobiinipitoisuus (108 g/1 punasolujen tilavuus osuus (35%, valkosolumaara (6x109/l ja seerumin rautapitoisuus (26 micromol/1 olivat alhaiset ja saavuttivat aikuiset tasonsa syksylla 5kk:n iassa(keskimaarin 11 x 1012/1, 182 g/1, 51%, 9x109/l, 44 micromol/1. Seeruminkokonaisbilirubiinipitoisuus pysyi suhteellisen vakiona ja Bi2-vitamiini korkeana syntyman jalkeen. Bilirubiinipitoisuus osoittaa suhteellisen vahaisti sikiokauden punasolujen hajoamista. Aikuisen vaatimen punasolun keskitilavuus (E-MVC oli 49 fl ja pyorean punasolun lapimitta 5.5 /xm ja paksuus 1.5 /j,m. Sirppisoluja ei havaittu. Punansolujen alkava hemolyysi vastasi 0.71% NaCl-liuosta ja taydellinen hemolyysi 0.37% NaCl-liuosta. Neutrofiilisten, eosiniofiilisten seka lymfosyyttien ja monosyyttien suhteelliset osuudet olivat 52, 5, 2, 42 ja 2%. Vaikka vasonta tapahtuu ilman nakyvaa verenvuotoa, kantavien vaadinten ruumiinpaino, punasolumaara, hemoglobiinipitoisuus, punasolujen tilavuusosuus ja seerumin rautapitoisuus laskivat imetyksen alkuvaiheessa ja syntynyt anemia johtui mahdollisesti

  10. Structure and annual increase in a population of West Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus

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    Henning Thing

    1982-05-01

    elainta kussakin. Useiden satojen elainten ryhmittymia nahdaan vain kesaaikana hyttyshairioiden yhteydessa. On selva vuosittaisrytmi keskiokokoisissa tokissa siten, etta niissa tapahtuu tasaista nousua keskitalvella 1,4 elainta tokkaa kohti saavuttaen huippupisteen vasomisajan jalkeen tuskin 25 elainta tokkaa kohti. Susien puute seka alueen huonojen loppuunkuluneiden ravintovarojen takia elaimilla kaikkina vuoden aikoina on hyvin pieni laumasuuruus muiden maiden peurakantaan verrattuna. Suunnilleen 50% kannasta on vuoneloja ja vuonelovaatimia (2 v +, kun taas 2-vuotiaita ja sita vanhempia uroksia on vain 10%. Uroksien osuus kannassa osoittaa selvaa vahennysta selektiivisen metsastyksen ja luonnollisen talvikuolleisuuden aiheuttamana. Kiima on heti elainten syysvaelluksen jalkeen sisamaan kesalaitumilta rannikkojen laheisia talvialueita kohti. Talvilaidunmaiden rajoitetuista ravintomahdollisuuksista huolimatta on vasominen runsaslukuista. Tama johtuu todennakoisesti erittain hyvista laidunmaista, joita loytyy alinomaa sisamaan alueella ennen vasomisaikaa ja koko kesakauden. Kesakuun vasomisessa kanta lisaantyy uusilla yksiloilla jopa 40%, mutta kahden ensimmaisen elinkuukauden jalkeen on vasojen lukumaara vahentynyt 17 - 18 %. Suuren taantumisen syyna on erikoisesti E. colibakteerien aiheuttama kulkutautimainen niveltulehdus. Vasojen kuolleisuus syyskuusta toukokuuhun on vain noin 2 - 3 %, siten etta vuoisittainen keskimaarainen lisays on n. 15%. Kun siihen otetaan muiden ikaluokkien keskimaaraisen kuolleisuuden ylaraja, tekee kannan lisays metsastyskauden alussa elokuussa ainoastaan 10%. Ensimmaisena elinvuotena on kuolleisuus samaa suuruutta (60% kuin useimmilla peurakannoilla muilla pohjoisilla alueilla (Kuv. 7. Kuitenkin Sisimiut-kannassa vasojen vahentyminen tapahtuu melkein yksinomaa kolmen ensimmaisen kuukauden kuluessa vasomisen jalkeen, kun taas vasakuolleisuus muissa peurakannoissa on tasaisemmin jakautunut kaikkien kahdentoista kuukauden osalle.