WorldWideScience

Sample records for soil treatment technologies

  1. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-01-01

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage

  2. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-08-04

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

  3. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  4. Fixed capital investments for the uranium soils integrated demonstration soil treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Stewart, R.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the United States required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was formed to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium contaminated soils. The USID Program has five major tasks in developing and demonstrating these technologies. Each must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies developed by the USID Program. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  5. Fixed capital investments for the uranium soils integrated demonstration soil treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the United States required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was formed to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium contaminated soils. The USID Program has five major tasks in developing and demonstrating these technologies. Each must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies developed by the USID Program. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives

  6. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Technology evaluation and screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Donaldson, T.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Morrissey, C.M.; Harris, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Ports) is located approximately 70 miles south of Columbus in southern Ohio. Among the several waste management units on the facility, the X-231B unit consists of two adjacent oil biodegradation plots. The plots encompass ∼ 0.8 acres and were reportedly used from 1976 to 1983 for the treatment and disposal of waste oils and degreasing solvents, some containing uranium-235 and technetium-99. The X-231B unit is a regulated solid waste management unit (SWMU) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The X-231B unit is also a designated SWMU located within Quadrant I of the site as defined in an ongoing RCRA Facilities Investigation and Corrective Measures Study (RFI/CMS). Before implementing one or more Technology Demonstration Project must be completed. The principal goal of this project was to elect and successfully demonstrate one ore more technologies for effective treatment of the contaminated soils associated with the X-231B unit at PORTS. The project was divided into two major phases. Phase 1 involved a technology evaluation and screening process. The second phase (i.e., Phase 2) was to involve field demonstration, testing and evaluation of the technology(s) selected during Phase 1. This report presents the methods, results, and conclusions of the technology evaluation and screening portion of the project

  7. Thermal Treatment of Hydrocarbon-Impacted Soils: A Review of Technology Innovation for Sustainable Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia E. Vidonish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal treatment technologies hold an important niche in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and sediments due to their ability to quickly and reliably meet cleanup standards. However, sustained high temperature can be energy intensive and can damage soil properties. Despite the broad applicability and prevalence of thermal remediation, little work has been done to improve the environmental compatibility and sustainability of these technologies. We review several common thermal treatment technologies for hydrocarbon-contaminated soils, assess their potential environmental impacts, and propose frameworks for sustainable and low-impact deployment based on a holistic consideration of energy and water requirements, ecosystem ecology, and soil science. There is no universally appropriate thermal treatment technology. Rather, the appropriate choice depends on the contamination scenario (including the type of hydrocarbons present and on site-specific considerations such as soil properties, water availability, and the heat sensitivity of contaminated soils. Overall, the convergence of treatment process engineering with soil science, ecosystem ecology, and plant biology research is essential to fill critical knowledge gaps and improve both the removal efficiency and sustainability of thermal technologies.

  8. Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.

    1995-09-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives

  9. Development and deployment of a chemical extraction treatment technology for uranium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The remediation of contaminated soils is a major contributor to the cost of the environmental restoration effort at DOE sites previously employed in the DOE weapons production complex. At the RMI Decommissioning Project (RMIDP) in Ashtabula, Ohio, soil remediation by traditional ship and bury methods comprised over $44 million of the $164 million decommission baseline budget. The RMIDP has developed and is preparing to deploy a chemical treatment technology for washing uranium contaminated soil. Soil washing provides a significant volume reduction alternative to transportation and burial or on-site disposal when all life cycle costs of burial are considered. Soil washing at the RMIDP is projected to save the DOE over $13 million in direct remediation costs of the 40,000 tons of uranium contaminated soil, and $12 million in indirect project savings through schedule reduction. From August 1996 through February 1997, the RMIDP performed Process Definitive Testing (PDT) to validate initial screening study findings regarding the viability of soil washing. PDT defined the operating process parameter requirements for the soil washing carbonate leaching system, and provided valuable design data to be used in production plant design. A 2 ton per batch soil washing plant was designed, constructed, and operated in a 6 month period. Over 68 tons of soil were processed to provide operating data at a scale close to production scale. The data derived from pilot operations proved the technical viability of carbonate leaching on RMI soil and provided sufficient plant operating data to allow a cost-benefit assessment of soil washing to be performed. The RMIDP soil washing production facility design is complete and the facility was started up in April 1999

  10. An Exploration of Mercury Soils Treatment Technologies for the Y-12 Plant - 13217

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrapp, John; Julius, Jonathon; Browning, Debbie; Kane, Michael; Whaley, Katherine; Estes, Chuck; Witzeman, John

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of areas at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that have been contaminated with mercury due to historical mercury use and storage. Remediation of these areas is expected to generate large volumes of waste that are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristically hazardous. These soils will require treatment to meet RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) prior to disposal. URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) performed a feasibility assessment to evaluate on-site and off-site options for the treatment and disposal of mercury-contaminated soil from the Y-12 Site. The focus of the feasibility assessment was on treatment for disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. A two-phase approach was used in the evaluation process of treatment technologies. Phase 1 involved the selection of three vendors to perform treatability studies using their stabilization treatment technology on actual Y-12 soil. Phase II involved a team of waste management specialists performing an in-depth literature review of all available treatment technologies for treating mercury contaminated soil using the following evaluation criteria: effectiveness, feasibility of implementation, and cost. The result of the treatability study and the literature review revealed several viable on-site and off-site treatment options. This paper presents the methodology used by the team in the evaluation of technologies especially as related to EMWMF waste acceptance criteria, the results of the physical treatability studies, and a regulatory analysis for obtaining regulator approval for the treatment/disposal at the EMWMF. (authors)

  11. An Exploration of Mercury Soils Treatment Technologies for the Y-12 Plant - 13217

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrapp, John [UCOR, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Julius, Jonathon [DOE Oak Ridge (United States); Browning, Debbie [Strata-G, LLC, 2027 Castaic Lane, Knoxville, TN, 37932 (United States); Kane, Michael [RSI, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Whaley, Katherine [RSI, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Estes, Chuck [EnergySolutions, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Witzeman, John [RSI, P.O. Box 4699, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    There are a number of areas at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that have been contaminated with mercury due to historical mercury use and storage. Remediation of these areas is expected to generate large volumes of waste that are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristically hazardous. These soils will require treatment to meet RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) prior to disposal. URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) performed a feasibility assessment to evaluate on-site and off-site options for the treatment and disposal of mercury-contaminated soil from the Y-12 Site. The focus of the feasibility assessment was on treatment for disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. A two-phase approach was used in the evaluation process of treatment technologies. Phase 1 involved the selection of three vendors to perform treatability studies using their stabilization treatment technology on actual Y-12 soil. Phase II involved a team of waste management specialists performing an in-depth literature review of all available treatment technologies for treating mercury contaminated soil using the following evaluation criteria: effectiveness, feasibility of implementation, and cost. The result of the treatability study and the literature review revealed several viable on-site and off-site treatment options. This paper presents the methodology used by the team in the evaluation of technologies especially as related to EMWMF waste acceptance criteria, the results of the physical treatability studies, and a regulatory analysis for obtaining regulator approval for the treatment/disposal at the EMWMF. (authors)

  12. Soil washing technology evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suer, A.

    1995-04-01

    Environmental Restoration Engineering (ERE) continues to review innovative, efficient, and cost effective technologies for SRS soil and/or groundwater remediation. As part of this effort, this technical evaluation provides review and the latest information on the technology for SRS soil remediation. Additional technology evaluation reports will be issued periodically to update these reports. The purpose of this report is to review the soil washing technology and its potential application to SRS soil remediation. To assess whether the Soil Washing technology is a viable option for SRS soil remediation, it is necessary to review the technology/process, technology advantages/limitations, performance, applications, and cost analysis

  13. Integrated monitoring technologies for the management of a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment (SAT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Alexandros; Kallioras, Andreas; Kofakis, Petros; Bumberger, Jan; Schmidt, Felix; Athanasiou, Georgios; Uzunoglou, Nikolaos; Amditis, Angelos; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater has an important role to play in water reuse as treated wastewater effluent can be infiltrated into the ground for aquifer recharge. As the effluent moves through the soil and the aquifer, it undergoes significant quality improvements through physical, chemical, and biological processes in the underground environment. Collectively, these processes and the water quality improvement obtained are called soil-aquifer-treatment (SAT) or geopurification. The pilot site of Lavrion Technological & Cultural Park (LTCP) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), involves the employment of plot infiltration basins at experimental scale, which will be using waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, and hence acting as a Soil-Aquifer-Treatment, SAT, system. Τhe LTCP site will be employed as a pilot SAT system complemented by new technological developments, which will be providing continuous monitoring of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of infiltrating groundwater through all hydrologic zones (i.e. surface, unsaturated and saturated zone). This will be achieved by the development and installation of an integrated system of prototype sensing technologies, installed on-site, and offering a continuous evaluation of the performance of the SAT system. An integrated approach of the performance evaluation of any operating SAT system should aim at parallel monitoring of all hydrologic zones, proving the sustainability of all involved water quality treatment processes within unsaturated and saturated zone. Hence a prototype system of Time and Frequency Domain Reflectometry (TDR & FDR) sensors is developed and will be installed, in order to achieve continuous quantitative monitoring of the unsaturated zone through the entire soil column down to significant depths below the SAT basin. Additionally, the system contains two different radar-based sensing systems that will be offering (i) identification of preferential

  14. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON AND HEAVY-METAL- CONTAMINATED SOIL - INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The batch steam distillation and metal extraction treatment process is a two-stage system that treats soils contaminated with organics and inorganics. This system uses conventional, readily available process equipment, and does not produce hazardous combustion products. Hazar...

  15. Technology evaluation report: Biotrol Soil Washing System for treatment of a wood-preserving site. Volume 2, Part B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.; Evans, J.; Kitaplioglu, O.; McPherson, J.

    1991-12-01

    The SITE Program demonstration of one configuration of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS) was conducted to obtain reliable performance and cost data that can be used to evaluate the potential applicability of the technology as a remediation alternative for sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. The BSWS treatment train used in the study consists of three technologies: a soil washer; an aqueous treatment system; and a slurry bio-reactor. The demonstration was carried out at the MacGillis and Gibbs Superfund site in New Brighton, MN. The report analyzes the results from the SITE demonstration. It includes discussion of the operation of the three separate treatment technologies (SW, SBR, and BATS) evaluated in the test and provides flow diagrams, a summary of the sampling and analytical programs, an economic analysis, and a quality assurance/quality control evaluation of the data. Conclusions were reached concerning the technology's suitability for use in remediations involving both similar and different materials at other sites

  16. The effect of different treatment technologies on the fate of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons after the application of residual municipal wastewater solids to soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-application of residual wastewater solids is an important environmental source of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Treatment technologies exist that can reduce ARG levels in residual solids prior to land-application, but the effect of these technologies on ARG levels in soil following land-a...

  17. Zebrafish and clean water technology: assessing soil bioretention as a protective treatment for toxic urban runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, J K; Davis, J W; Incardona, J P; Stark, J D; Anulacion, B F; Scholz, N L

    2014-12-01

    Urban stormwater contains a complex mixture of contaminants that can be acutely toxic to aquatic biota. Green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) is a set of evolving technologies intended to reduce impacts on natural systems by slowing and filtering runoff. The extent to which GSI methods work as intended is usually assessed in terms of water quantity (hydrology) and quality (chemistry). Biological indicators of GSI effectiveness have received less attention, despite an overarching goal of protecting the health of aquatic species. Here we use the zebrafish (Danio rerio) experimental model to evaluate bioinfiltration as a relatively inexpensive technology for treating runoff from an urban highway with dense motor vehicle traffic. Zebrafish embryos exposed to untreated runoff (48-96h; six storm events) displayed an array of developmental abnormalities, including delayed hatching, reduced growth, pericardial edema, microphthalmia (small eyes), and reduced swim bladder inflation. Three of the six storms were acutely lethal, and sublethal toxicity was evident across all storms, even when stormwater was diluted by as much as 95% in clean water. As anticipated from exposure to cardiotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), untreated runoff also caused heart failure, as indicated by circulatory stasis, pericardial edema, and looping defects. Bioretention treatment dramatically improved stormwater quality and reversed nearly all forms of developmental toxicity. The zebrafish model therefore provides a versatile experimental platform for rapidly assessing GSI effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary screening of alternative technologies to incineration for treatment of chemical-agent-contaminated soil, Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Rosenblatt, D.H.; Smits, M.P.; Wilkey, P.L.; Ballou, S.W.

    1995-12-01

    In support of the U.S. Army`s efforts to determine the best technologies for remediation of soils, water, and structures contaminated with pesticides and chemical agents, Argonne National Laboratory has reviewed technologies for treating soils contaminated with mustard, lewisite, sarin, o-ethyl s-(2- (diisopropylamino)ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX), and their breakdown products. This report focuses on assessing alternatives to incineration for dealing with these contaminants. For each technology, a brief description is provided, its suitability and constraints on its use are identified, and its overall applicability for treating the agents of concern is summarized. Technologies that merit further investigation are identified.

  19. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  20. Remediation technologies for treatment of PAH contaminated soil and strategies to enhance process efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J.; Alcantara, M. T.; Pazos, M.; Longo, M. A.; Sanroman, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    The presence of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils poses a potential threat to human health. The removal of these contaminants presents a challenge to scientists and engineers. PAHs are characterized by their palpable hydrophobic nature. Consequently, these species tend to be adsorbed on solid particulates, especially on the organic fraction of the solids. (Author)

  1. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC appendices. Volume 6. Appendix VI-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils dated September 1994 contains LEFPC Appendices, Volume 6, Appendix VI - X. These appendices cover the following areas: chain of custody, miscellaneous process calculations (residence time and orifice plate calculations), waste management (mercury and radiation confirmatory testing before and after final verification run), health and safety (training, respirator fit test and radiation work permits), and transportation (soil receipt documentation)

  2. Groundbreaking technology: in-situ anaerobic bioremediation for treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation is a technique often used to cleanse contaminated soil and groundwater. 'Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation' is a phrase with distinct terms all having relevance in the application of this technique. 'Anaerobic' implies the absence of dissolved oxygen, while 'in-situ' simply means that the environmental cleansing occurs with out removing, displacing, or significantly disturbing the specimen or surrounding area. 'Bioremediation' is a term used to describe the biological use of microbes or plants to detoxify the environment. In order to properly implement this complex process, one must have an understanding of microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, metabolic processes, and structure and function of natural microbial communities. (author)

  3. Groundbreaking technology: in-situ anaerobic bioremediation for treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation is a technique often used to cleanse contaminated soil and groundwater. 'Anaerobic in-situ bioremediation' is a phrase with distinct terms all having relevance in the application of this technique. Anaerobic implies the absence of dissolved oxygen, while 'in-situ' simply means that the environmental cleansing occurs with out removing, displacing, or significantly disturbing the specimen or surrounding area. 'Bioremediation' is a term used to describe the biological use of microbes or plants to detoxify the environment. In order to properly implement this complex process, one must have an understanding of microbiology, biochemistry, genetics, metabolic processes, and structure and function of natural microbial communities. (author)

  4. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere.

  5. Soil and Sediment remediation, mechanisms, technologies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Malina, G.; Tabak, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    Technologies for the treatment of soils and sediments in-situ (landfarming, bioscreens, bioventing, nutrient injection, phytoremediation) and ex-situ (landfarming, bio-heap treatment, soil suspension reactor) will be discussed. The microbiological, process technological and socio-economical aspects

  6. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs.

  7. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils: LEFPC appendices, volume 1, appendix I-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document contains Appendix I-IV for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. Included are calibration records; quality assurance; soils characterization; pilot scale trial runs

  8. Soil treatment engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivica, Kisic; Zeljka, Zgorelec; Aleksandra, Percin

    2017-10-01

    Soil is loose skin of the Earth, located between the lithosphere and atmosphere, which originated from parent material under the influence of pedogenetic processes. As a conditionally renewable natural resource, soil has a decisive influence on sustainable development of global economy, especially on sustainable agriculture and environmental protection. In recent decades, a growing interest prevails for non-production soil functions, primarily those relating to environmental protection. It especially refers to protection of natural resources whose quality depends directly on soil and soil management. Soil contamination is one of the most dangerous forms of soil degradation with the consequences that are reflected in virtually the entire biosphere, primarily at heterotrophic organisms, and also at mankind as a food consumer. Contamination is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensity of agrochemical usage. It is typically caused by industrial activity, agricultural chemicals or improper disposal of waste. The negative effects caused by pollution are undeniable: reduced agricultural productivity, polluted water sources and raw materials for food are only a few of the effects of soil degradation, while almost all human diseases (excluding AIDS) may be partly related to the transport of contaminants, in the food chain or the air, to the final recipients - people, plants and animals. The remediation of contaminated soil is a relatively new scientific field which is strongly developing in the last 30 years and becoming a more important subject. In order to achieve quality remediation of contaminated soil it is very important to conduct an inventory as accurately as possible, that is, to determine the current state of soil contamination.

  9. Technologies 1995: environment and wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-03-01

    From new technical or scientific developments, new products launching, and markets evolutions, this catalog gives informations selection on research and development projects, new fabrication processes, activities and plants strategies, licences or technology transfers opportunities. The covered fields are: atmospheric pollution controls, water and liquid wastes treatment, polluted soils treatments, noise and odors treatments, municipal and industrial wastes treatments (metal, plastic, paper, glass), clean materials and technologies, radioactive wastes, and european cooperation programs. (A.B.)

  10. Soil aquifer treatment using advanced primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Saroj K.

    2011-08-01

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent (PE) is an attractive option for wastewater treatment and reuse in many developing countries with no or minimal wastewater treatment. One of the main limitations of SAT of PE is rapid clogging of the infiltration basin due to high suspended solid concentrations. Some pre-treatment of PE before infiltration is likely to reduce this limitation, improve performance of SAT and help to implement this technology effectively. The effects of three pre-treatment options namely sedimentation (SED), coagulation (COAG) and horizontal roughing filtration (HRF) on SAT were analyzed by conducting laboratory-scale batch and soil column experiments. The sedimentation and coagulation pre-treatments led to less head loss development and reduction of clogging effect. The head loss development in soil column using PE + COAG and PE + SED was reduced by 85 and 72%, respectively, compared to PE alone without any pretreatment. The overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of pre-treatments and soil column collectively were 34, 44, 51 and 43.5% for PE without any pre-treatment, PE + SED, PE+ COAG and PE + HRF, respectively. Coagulation pre-treatment of PE was found to be the most effective option in terms of suspended solids, DOC and nitrogen removal. Sedimentation pre-treatment of PE could be attractive where land is relatively less expensive for the construction of sedimentation basins. © IWA Publishing 2011.

  11. VOCs in Arid soils: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds In Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) focuses on technologies to clean up volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soil and groundwater at arid sites. The initial host site is the 200 West Area at DOE's Hanford site in southeastern Washington state. The primary VOC contaminant is carbon tetrachloride, in association with heavy metals and radionuclides. An estimated 580--920 metric tons of carbon tetrachloride were disposed of between 1955 and 1973, resulting in extensive soil and groundwater contamination. The VOC-Arid ID schedule has been divided into three phases of implementation. The phased approach provides for: rapid transfer of technologies to the Environmental Restoration (EM-40) programs once demonstrated; logical progression in the complexity of demonstrations based on improved understanding of the VOC problem; and leveraging of the host site EM-40 activities to reduce the overall cost of the demonstrations. During FY92 and FY93, the primary technology demonstrations within the ID were leveraged with an ongoing expedited response action at the Hanford 200 West Area, which is directed at vapor extraction of VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. Demonstration efforts are underway in the areas of subsurface characterization including: drilling and access improvements, off-gas and borehole monitoring of vadose zone VOC concentrations to aid in soil vapor extraction performance evaluation, and treatment of VOC-contaminated off-gas. These current demonstration efforts constitute Phase 1 of the ID and, because of the ongoing vadose zone ERA, can result in immediate transfer of successful technologies to EM-40

  12. Typology and nomenclature proposal for technological soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzano, A.; Huelmo, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a nomenclature and photographs proposal to be used in the technological soil profile description with the purpose of differentiate them from the natural soil profile. Each technological profile description identifies the power and constitutive elements. In two locations of Montevideo city is possible to see the soil contact with the geological unit where it has developed. Geomorpholocally it corresponds to the flood plains of streams and creeks

  13. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  14. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  16. Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

  17. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  18. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  19. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  20. APPLICATION, PERFORMANCE, AND COSTS OF BIOTREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical review of biological treatment processes for remediation of contaminated soils is presented. The focus of the review is on documented cost and performance of biological treatment technologies demonstrated at full- or field-scale. Some of the data were generated b...

  1. Biological technologies for the remediation of co-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shujing; Zeng, Guangming; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chang; Dai, Juan; Liang, Jie; Yu, Jiangfang; Ren, Xiaoya; Yi, Huan; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Chen

    2017-12-01

    Compound contamination in soil, caused by unreasonable waste disposal, has attracted increasing attention on a global scale, particularly since multiple heavy metals and/or organic pollutants are entering natural ecosystem through human activities, causing an enormous threat. The remediation of co-contaminated soil is more complicated and difficult than that of single contamination, due to the disparate remediation pathways utilized for different types of pollutants. Several modern remediation technologies have been developed for the treatment of co-contaminated soil. Biological remediation technologies, as the eco-friendly methods, have received widespread concern due to soil improvement besides remediation. This review summarizes the application of biological technologies, which contains microbial technologies (function microbial remediation and composting or compost addition), biochar, phytoremediation technologies, genetic engineering technologies and biochemical technologies, for the remediation of co-contaminated soil with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Mechanisms of these technologies and their remediation efficiencies are also reviewed. Based on this study, this review also identifies the future research required in this field.

  2. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. -- Highlights: • The alternative and advancement in extraction agents to remove PAHs from soil using soil washing technology is summarised. • The soil regulations for PAH level in various countries are summarized for reference to researchers. • The concentration levels of PAHs in soil at present and the need for soil remediation is presented. -- The efficiency of the extraction agent plays a significant role in soil washing of PAH-contaminated soil

  3. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION - SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF PCP AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - SELMA, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technolgy Evaluation Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of contaminated soil The STC immobilization technology uses a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stabilize and ...

  4. New technologies in soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, C.L.

    1994-05-01

    If it's not clean, you don't pay.'' That's what Bill Packer, CEO of Seaview Thermal Systems (Seaview, Blue Bell, Pa.) told his first customer when they signed a $27-million contract for the remediation of contaminated soil located at a former town gas plant site at Paterson, N.J. For more than a 100 years, the Public Service Electric and Gas Co. (PSE G), and its predecessors, manufactured methane gas from coal and oil in Paterson on the banks of the Passaic River. Now, under orders from the state to clean up the abandoned, 13-acre site, PSE G has contracted with Seaview. The process Seaview uses -- HT-6 high-temperature thermal desorption -- heats up polluted dirt or other solids up to 2,000 F in a nitrogen atmosphere, and recovers the pollutants for recycling. According to Seaview, in hazardous waste sites with soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or heavy metals, the result is: soil that is 99.99% free of organics and ready to be backfilled, clean water that can be used to remoisturize the soil before backfilling, and oil ready for recycling.

  5. Frozen soil barrier technology. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The technology of using refrigeration to freeze soils has been employed in large-scale engineering projects for a number of years. This technology bonds soils to give load-bearing strength during construction; to seal tunnels, mine shafts, and other subsurface structures against flooding from groundwater; and to stabilize soils during excavation. Examples of modern applications include several large subway, highway, and water supply tunnels. Ground freezing to form subsurface frozen soil barriers is an innovative technology designed to contain hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soils and groundwater. Frozen soil barriers that provide complete containment (open-quotes Vclose quotesconfiguration) are formed by drilling and installing refrigerant piping (on 8-ft centers) horizontally at approximately 45 degrees angles for sides and vertically for ends and then recirculating an environmentally safe refrigerant solution through the piping to freeze the soil porewater. Freeze plants are used to keep the containment structure at subfreezing temperatures. A full-scale containment structure was demonstrated from May 12 to October 10, 1994, at a nonhazardous site on SEG property on Gallaher Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  6. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary, March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    A recent Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study identified 59 waste sites at 14 DOE facilities across the nation that exhibit radionuclide contamination in excess of established limits. The rapid and efficient characterization of these sites, and the potentially contaminated regions that surround them represents a technological challenge with no existing solution. In particular, the past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of surface and subsurface soils. Such contamination commonly occurs within waste burial sites, cribs, pond bottom sediments and soils surrounding waste tanks or uranium scrap, ore, tailings, and slag heaps. The objective of the Uranium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop optimal remediation methods for soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium (U), at DOE sites. It is examining all phases involved in an actual cleanup, including all regulatory and permitting requirements, to expedite selection and implementation of the best technologies that show immediate and long-term effectiveness specific to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and applicable to other radionuclide contaminated DOE sites. The demonstration provides for technical performance evaluations and comparisons of different developmental technologies at FEMP sites, based on cost-effectiveness, risk-reduction effectiveness, technology effectiveness, and regulatory and public acceptability. Technology groups being evaluated include physical and chemical contaminant separations, in situ remediation, real-time characterization and monitoring, precise excavation, site restoration, secondary waste treatment, and soil waste stabilization

  7. Biosol Project: development of a new technology for the treatment of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. bio-remediation by means of the addition of a biomass material (part one)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The general mission of the project is to contribute to the development of new technologies based on the bio-remediation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. It is pretended to develop a bio-remediation technology based on the use 'on site' of a biomass material with absorbent properties that allows to reduce time and costs of treatment of contaminated soils by hydrocarbons in comparison with other current technologies. The biomass must be biodegradable and to act as a bio-stimulator of the endogenous microbial population, which is the responsible of the degradation of the pollutants contained in the soil. Another objective to achieve is that the new technology has to be able to decontaminate soils over the maximum thresholds of concentration reached by similar technologies of bio-remediation (50.000 ppm), in order to obtain that the technique could be competitive in comparison with other techniques more conventional based on chemical or physical treatments, and more aggressive from an ecological point of view (for example: chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The amount and quality of published scientific works also demonstrate that still there are many points to investigate until understanding perfectly how the microorganisms interact with the different phases and compounds that conforms the porous matrix of the soil. In this sense IAP emphasizes the necessity to have a previous study of characterization for any contaminated soil that it wants to be treated by means of technologies based on the bio-remediation. In a similar line, it emphasizes the studies about bio-remediation presented in the 8. Consoil (May of 2003). The works presented in this forum put in evidence the necessity of arrange pilot experiences of application that allow to advance in the development of new technologies applicable to similar scales to the real ones. Also the bio-remediation based on the bio-stimulation of the endogenous microbial populations by means of the addition of

  8. A review of treatment technologies for MTBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.

    1995-01-01

    Available treatment technologies for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) contamination in soil, groundwater, and recovered groundwater are reviewed and assessed. MTBE contamination is becoming an important issue due to the increasing prevalence and regulation of this gasoline additive. In addition, MTBE is more soluble and more mobile in groundwater than most hydrocarbons, so it is usually the first gasoline constituent to reach sensitive receptors. Treatment of MTBE is complicated by its Henry's constant, which is lower than most other gasoline constituents. Furthermore, evidence of biodegradability of MTBE is mixed, and MTBE does not degrade rapidly abiotically. Groundwater pumping is usually employed to contain and collect MTBE-contaminated groundwater, often successfully because of its high aqueous solubility. Air sparging/soil vapor extraction is also successfully employed to treat MTBE, but its effectiveness is reduced by the low Henry's constant of MTBE. Sparging and other aerobic bioremediation approaches are hampered by the poor biodegradability of MTBE. Oxidation technologies, such as ozone injection, hold promise for rapid in situ remediation of MTBE. Treatment of recovered groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also problematic. MTBE adsorbs poorly to granular activated carbon; advanced oxidation processes are effective on MTBE, but entail high capital and operating costs; bioreactors are of questionable effectiveness on MTBE. Air stripping is usually the most cost-effective treatment technology for MTBE so long as the off gas from the air stripper can be discharged without treatment. However, off gas treatment is expensive, so groundwater is sometimes heated to reduce the requirement for stripping air

  9. Arsenic Treatment Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s research for the new Arsenic Rule focused on the development and evaluation of innovative methods and cost-effective technologies for improving the assessment and control of arsenic contamination.

  10. Remediation of contaminated soil using heap leach mining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, D.A.; Aamodt, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is evaluating the systems technology for heap treatment of excavated soils to remove and treat hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes. This new technology would be an extrapolation of current heap leach mining technology. The candidate wastes for treatment are those organic or inorganic (including radioactive) compounds that will chemically, physically, or biologically react with selected reagents. The project would start with bench-scale testing, followed by pilot-scale testing, and eventually by field-scale testing. Various reagents would be tried in various combinations and sequences to obtain and optimize the desired treatment results. The field-scale testing would be preceded by site characterization, process design, and equipment selection. The final step in this project is to transfer the systems technology to the private sector, probably to the mining industry. 6 refs., 1 fig

  11. Biological treatment of contaminated soils under saline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muerhy, A.; Baugh, K.D.; Bumgardner, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory simulation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of land treatment as a remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil treatment associated with the closure of an oil field waste disposal site. The constituents of concern in soils at the site were oil and grease (2-4%), polynuclear aromatics (PAHs) and volatile organics. In addition to the contaminants, the soils were saline. This paper reports that the treatability study results demonstrated that biodegradation of the hydrocarbon contaminants in the saline soil was enhanced by the addition of a commercially available, hydrocarbon-degrading, microbial culture tolerant of high salt concentrations. Contaminant removal by land treatment, including the biodegradation of the PAHs, was enhanced utilizing microbial augmentation in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant addition. The simulation study demonstrated that land treatment achieved the necessary removal of oil and grease. PAHs and VOCs for site closure

  12. Treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils by in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil site remediation objectives call for the destruction, removal, and/or immobilization of contaminant species. Destruction is applicable to hazardous compounds (e.g., hazardous organics such as PCBs; hazardous inorganics such as cyanide); however, it is not applicable to hazardous elements such as the heavy metals. Removal and/or immobilization are typical objectives for heavy metal contaminants present in soil. Many technologies have been developed specifically to meet these needs. One such technology is In Situ Vitrification (ISV), an innovative mobile, onsite, in situ solids remediation technology that has been available on a commercial basis for about two years. ISV holds potential for the safe and permanent treatment/remediation of previously disposed or current process solids waste (e.g., soil, sludge, sediment, tailings) contaminated with hazardous chemical and/or radioactive materials. This paper focuses on the application of ISV to heavy metal-contaminated soils

  13. Thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubier, T.W.; Bilello. C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal treatment is a cost-effective treatment method for removing chemicals from contaminated soils. However, detailed applicability studies are lacking. The goals of this paper are to (1) present the results of a thermal treatment study and (2) discuss the specific elements which must be evaluated prior to determining whether thermal treatment is a feasible option for a remediation project. Results of data collected during a pilot study involving thermal treatment of petroleum contaminated soils at a Marine Terminal are presented. The pilot study consisted of thermally treating the C8 through C40 + (gasoline, kerosene, diesel, motor oil, bunker fuel, etc.) hydrocarbon contaminated soils at treatment temperatures ranging from 250 degrees Fahrenheit (degree F) up to 550 degrees F. The low-temperature thermal treatment unit consisted of a rotary kiln with a temperature capacity of approximately 600 degrees F, a baghouse, and a catalytic oxidizer. The soil was monitored for concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds before and after treatment. The results of the pilot study were used to determine if thermal treatment technology is a cost-efficient and effective option of remediating the estimated 300,000 tons of petroleum contaminated soil to acceptable cleanup levels. The low-temperature thermal treatment pilot study was effective in desorbing the short chain hydrocarbons (gasoline and diesel) but was not effective in desorbing the long-chain petroleum hydrocarbons, such as motor oils and bunker fuels, from the soil. This was primarily due to the boiling points of motor oil and bunker fuels which were higher than the temperature capacity of the pilot study treatment equipment. Additional factors that influenced the effectiveness of the desorption process included configuration of the treatment equipment, soil moisture content, soil particle size, and type and concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons

  14. HYDROPONICS TECHNOLOGY TO GROW PLANTS WITHOUT SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Shishkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of hydroponics for growing plants without soil has been developed, where the many advantages are: the high technological performance; reduce of expenses; economy in watering and fertilizers due to lack of drainage system and extra engineering needed for solution circulation; reduce of exploitations expenses due to lack of soil tilling. There is also no problem concerning the root rots that are typical for all methods of growing plants without soil. This allows growing the plants with large root volume and prolonged period of vegetation. Efficiency of this system  has been proven by multi-year experiments. It was shown  that  vegetable crop  such as cucumber,  the root system of which is very sensible to oxygen deficiency, well grew, developed and gave fruits on the vegetation tray.

  15. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    Manure is a valuable fertiliser since it contains nutrients that are crucial for crop growth. Furthermore soil quality might be maintained or improved by the use of manure instead of mineral fertiliser, due to the presence of organic matter in manure. On the other hand, emissions to the environment...... occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...

  16. Treatment of chromium contaminated soil using bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanti, Ipung Fitri; Putri, Tesya Paramita; Kurniawan, Setyo Budi

    2017-11-01

    Chromium contamination in soil occurs due to the disposal of chromium industrial wastewater or sludge that excess the quality standard. Chromium concentration in soil is ranged between 1 to 300 mg/kg while the maximum health standard is 2.5 mg/kg. Bioremediation is one of technology that could be used for remediating heavy metal contamination in soil. Bacteria have an ability to remove heavy metal from soil. One bacteria species that capable to remove chromium from soil is Bacillus subtilis. The aim of this research was to know the chromium removal percentage in contaminated soil by Bacillus subtilis. Artificial chromium contaminated soil was used by mixing 425gram sand and chromium trichloride solution. Concentration of chromium added into the spiked soil were 50, 75, and 100 mg/L. During 14 days, pH, soil temperature and soil moisture were tested. Initial and final number of bacterial colony and chromium concentration analysed. The result showed that the highest percentage of chromium removal was 11% at a chromium concentration of 75 mg/L

  17. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  18. Six phase soil heating. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    Six Phase Soil Heating (SPSH) was developed to remediate soils contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. SPSH is designed to enhance the removal of contaminates from the subsurface during soil vapor extraction. The innovation combines an emerging technology, six-phase electric heating, with a baseline technology, soil vapor extraction, to produce a more efficient in situ remediation systems for difficult soil and/or contaminate applications. This document describes the technology and reports on field demonstrations conducted at Savannah River and the Hanford Reservation

  19. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port ...

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on distribution systems provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pipe for distribution systems, types…

  1. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittle, J.K.; Pamukcu, S.

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium

  2. Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States); Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-04-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium.

  3. Immobilization of radioactive strontium in contaminated soils by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Ammons, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of in situ phosphate- and metal- (calcium, aluminum, and iron) solution treatment for 90 Sr immobilization was investigated. Batch and column experiments were performed to find optimum conditions for coprecipitation of 90 Sr with Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphate compounds in contaminated soils. Separate columns were packed with artificially 85 Sr-contaminated acid soil as well as 90 Sr-contaminated soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation. After metal-phosphate treatment, the columns were then leached successively with either tapwater or 0.001 M CaCl 2 solution. Most of the 85 Sr coprecipitated with the metal phosphate compounds. Immobilization of 85 Sr and 90 Sr was affected by such factors as solution pH, metal and phosphate concentration, metal-to-phosphate ratio, and soil characteristics. Equilibration time after treatments also affected 85 Sr immobilization. Many technology aspects still need to be investigated before field applications are feasible, but these experiments indicate that phosphate-based in situ immobilization should prevent groundwater contamination and will be useful as a treatment technology for 90 Sr-contaminated sites. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  5. Fate of triclocarban during soil aquifer treatment: Soil column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K

    2010-04-01

    There are current concerns about the presence of persistent chemicals in recharge water used in soil aquifer treatment systems. Triclocarban (TCC) has been reported as a persistent, high production volume chemical with the potential to bioaccumulate in the environment. It is also known to have adverse effects such as toxicity and suspected endocrine disruption. This study was carried out to study the fate of TCC in soil aquifer treatment (SAT) through laboratory simulations in a soil column. The system performance was evaluated with regards to TCC influent concentration, sand (column) depth, and residence time. Results obtained confirmed the ability of SAT to reduce TCC concentrations in wastewater. Sorption and biodegradation were responsible for TCC removal, the latter mechanism however being unsustainable. The removal efficiency was found to be dependent on concentration and decreased over time and increased with column depth. Within the duration of the experimental run, TCC negatively impacted on treatment performance through a reduction in COD removals observed in the column. © IWA Publishing 2010.

  6. Hybrid technologies for the remediation of Diesel fuel polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, M.; Alcantara, M.T.; Rosales, E.; Sanroman, M.A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Diesel fuel may be released into soil due to anthropogenic activities, such as accidental spills or leaks in underground storage tanks or pipelines. Since diesel fuel is mainly composed of hydrophobic organic compounds, it has low water solubility. Therefore, treating contaminated areas with conventional techniques is difficult. In this study, electrokinetic treatment of soil contaminated with diesel fuel was carried out. Two different hybrid approaches to pollutant removal were tested. A surfactant was used as a processing fluid during electrokinetic treatment to increase desorption and the solubility of diesel fuel. Additionally, a hybrid technology combining a Fenton reaction and electrokinetic remediation (EK-Fenton) was tested in an attempt to generate favorable in situ degradation of pollutants. The efficiency of each treatment was determined based on diesel fuel removal. After 30 days of treatment, the highest removal of diesel fuel was found to be achieved with the EK-Fenton process. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS AT THE NEVADA TEST SITE (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Hoeffner

    2003-12-31

    The Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL) was contracted by the National Energy Technology Center to evaluate technologies that might be used to reduce the volume of plutonium-contaminated soil at the Nevada Test Site. The project has been systematically approached. A thorough review and summary was completed for: (1) The NTS soil geological, geochemical and physical characteristics; (2) The characteristics and chemical form of the plutonium that is in these soils; (3) Previous volume reduction technologies that have been attempted on the NTS soils; (4) Vendors with technology that may be applicable; and (5) Related needs at other DOE sites. Soils from the Nevada Test Site were collected and delivered to the CETL. Soils were characterized for Pu-239/240, Am-241 and gross alpha. In addition, wet sieving and the subsequent characterization were performed on soils before and after attrition scrubbing to determine the particle size distribution and the distribution of Pu-239/240 and gross alpha as a function of particle size. Sequential extraction was performed on untreated soil to provide information about how tightly bound the plutonium was to the soil. Magnetic separation was performed to determine if this could be useful as part of a treatment approach. Using the information obtained from these reviews, three vendors were selected to demonstration their volume reduction technologies at the CETL. Two of the three technologies, bioremediation and soil washing, met the performance criteria. Both were able to significantly reduce the concentration plutonium in the soil from around 1100 pCi/g to 200 pCi/g or less with a volume reduction of around 95%, well over the target 70%. These results are especially encouraging because they indicate significant improvement over that obtained in these earlier pilot and field studies. Additional studies are recommended.

  8. Soil Aquifer Treatment: Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under

  9. Soil Aquifer Treatment : Assessment and Applicability of Primary Effluent Reuse in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abel, C.D.T.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis showed that soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is an effective polishing technology for reuse of primary effluent. The study experimentally revealed relatively high removal of suspended solids, bulk organic matter, nutrients, pharmaceutically active compounds and pathogens indicators under

  10. Oxidation technologies for groundwater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeks, R.E.; Smith, L.P.; Perry, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Xerox Corporation has pilot tested three UV/Oxidation processes for the treatment of contaminated groundwater containing chlorinated and non-chlorinated organic solvents. The technologies pilot tested included the ULTROX system developed by ULTROX International, the perox-pure process of Peroxidation Systems, Inc. and the Rayox process by Solarchem Environmental Systems. The three processes use a combination of ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize organic solvents in water. The ULTROX system includes ozone as part of the treatment. Data gathered during pilot testing demonstrated that these processes are effective in the destruction of organic contaminants in groundwater. These results are discussed in regard to applicability to the groundwater remediation at the Xerox Facilities in Webster and Blauvelt, New York

  11. Enzymatic activities in a semiarid soil amended with different soil treatment: Soil quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso González, Paloma; Elbl, Jakub; Dvořáčková, Helena; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose

    2017-04-01

    The use of soil quality indicators may be an effective approach to assess the positive effect of the organic amendment as good restoration methods. Relying on the natural fertility of the soil, the most commonly chemical and physical parameters used to evaluate soil quality are depend to the soil biological parameters. The measurement of soil basal respiration and the mineralization of organic matter are commonly accepted as a key indicator for measuring changes to soil quality. Thus, the simultaneous measurement of various enzymes seems to be useful to evaluate soil biochemical activity and related processes. In this line, Dehydrogenase activity is widely used in evaluating the metabolic activity of soil microorganisms and to evaluate the effects caused by the addition of organic amendments. Variations in phosphatase activity, apart from indicating changes in the quantity and quality of soil phosphorated substrates, are also good indicators of soil biological status. This study assesses the effect of five soil amendments as restoration techniques for semiarid Mediterrenean ecosystems. The goal is to interpret the status of biological and chemical parameters in each treatment as soil quality indicators in degraded forests. The main objectives were to: i) analyze the effect of various organic amendments on the enzimatic activity of soil; ii) analyze the effect of the amendments on soil respiration; iii) assess the effect of these parameters on the soil chemical properties which are indicative of soil healthy; and iv) evaluated form the land management point of view which amendment could result a effective method to restore Mediterranean degraded areas. An experimental paired-plot layout was established in southern of Spain (homogeneous slope gradient: 7.5%; aspect: N170). Five amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching; mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers; sewage

  12. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  13. profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    study was to estimate the profitability of application of SLM in the form of soil erosion control technologies by ... of the costs and benefits associated with utilisation of a new technology is as one of the major obstacles to farmers adopting improved technologies. Similarly ..... acceptable financial returns despite increases in.

  14. Physical/chemical treatment of mixed waste soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Alperin, E.S.; Fox, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the results and findings of the demonstration testing of a physical/chemical treatment technology for mixed wastes. The principal objective of the tests was to demonstrate the capability of the low temperature thermal separation (LTTS) technology for rendering PCB-contaminated mixed waste soils as nonhazardous and acceptable for low level radioactive waste disposal. The demonstration testing of this technology was a jointly-conducted project by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems) Waste Management Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and IT Corporation. This pilot-scale demonstration program testing of IT's thermal separator technology in Oak Ridge was conducted as part of the DOE Model Program. This program has private industry, regulators, and universities helping to solve DOE waste management problems. Information gained from the DOE Model is shared with the participating organizations, other federal agencies, and regulatory agencies. The following represent the most significant findings from these demonstration tests: Thermal separation effectively separated PCB contamination from a mixed waste to enable the treated soil to be managed as low level radioactive waste. At the same operating conditions, mercury contamination of 0.8 ppM was reduced to less than 0.1 ppM. The majority of uranium and technetium in the waste feeds oil remained in the treated soil. Radionuclide concentration in cyclone solids is due to carry-over of entrained particles in the exit gas and not due to volatilization/condensation. Thermal separation also effectively treated all identified semi-volatile contaminants in the waste soil to below detection limits with the exception of di-n-butylphthalate in one of the two runs. 4 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  15. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  16. BABCOCK & WILCOX CYCLONE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Babcock & Wilcox 6 million Btu/hr pilot cyclone furnace was successfully used in a 2-yr Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Emerging Technology project to melt and vitrify an EPA Synthetic Soil Matrix (SSM) spiked with 7,000 ppm lead, 1,000 ppm cadmium, and 1,5...

  17. Profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of farmer awareness of costs and benefits associated with the use of sustainable land management (SLM) technologies is one of the major constraints to technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to estimate the profitability of application of SLM in the form of soil erosion control ...

  18. Soil ecology and agricultural technology; An integrated approach towards improved soil management for sustainable farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulleman, Mirjam; Pérès, Guénola; Crittenden, Stephen; Heddadj, Djilali; Sukkel, Wijnand

    2014-05-01

    Intensive arable food production systems are in need of smart solutions that combine ecological knowledge and farm technology to maximize yields while protecting natural resources. The huge diversity of soil organisms and their interactions is of crucial importance for soil functions and ecosystem services, such as organic matter incorporation and break down, nutrient mineralization, soil structure formation, water regulation and disease and pest control. Soil management decisions that take into account the soil biodiversity and associated functions are thus essential to (i) maintain soil productivity in the long term, (ii) reduce the dependency on external inputs and non-renewables such as fossil fuels, and (iii) make agroecosystems more resilient against biotic and abiotic stresses. Organic farming systems and reduced tillage systems are two approaches that aim to increase soil biodiversity and general soil quality, through improved management of organic matter but differ in their emphasis on the use of chemical inputs for crop protection or soil disturbance, respectively. In North-western Europe experience with and knowledge of reduced tillage systems is still scarce, both in conventional and organic farming. Our study targeted both conventional and organic farming and aimed at 1) documenting reduced tillage practices within different agroecological contexts in NW Europe; 2) evaluating the effects of reduced tillage systems on soil biodiversity and soil ecosystem services; 3) increase understanding of agroecological factors that determine trade-offs between different ecosystem services. Earthworm species and nematode taxa were selected as indicator organisms to be studied for their known response to soil management and effects on soil functions. Additionally, soil organic matter, physical soil parameters and processes, and crop yields have been measured across multiple sites. Data have been collected over several cropping seasons in long term field experiments

  19. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Fujun; Peng, Changsheng; Hou, Deyi; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  20. Citric acid facilitated thermal treatment: An innovative method for the remediation of mercury contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fujun [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Peng, Changsheng [The Key Lab of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Hou, Deyi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Wu, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Fasheng [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gu, Qingbao, E-mail: guqb@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Hg content was reduced to <1.5 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C with citric acid. • The treated soil retained most of its original soil physicochemical properties. • Proton provided by citric acid facilitates thermal removal of mercury. • This thermal treatment method is expected to reduce energy input by 35%. - Abstract: Thermal treatment is a promising technology for the remediation of mercury contaminated soils, but it often requires high energy input at heating temperatures above 600 °C, and the treated soil is not suitable for agricultural reuse. The present study developed a novel method for the thermal treatment of mercury contaminated soils with the facilitation of citric acid (CA). A CA/Hg molar ratio of 15 was adopted as the optimum dosage. The mercury concentration in soils was successfully reduced from 134 mg/kg to 1.1 mg/kg when treated at 400 °C for 60 min and the treated soil retained most of its original soil physiochemical properties. During the treatment process, CA was found to provide an acidic environment which enhanced the volatilization of mercury. This method is expected to reduce energy input by 35% comparing to the traditional thermal treatment method, and lead to agricultural soil reuse, thus providing a greener and more sustainable remediation method for treating mercury contaminated soil in future engineering applications.

  1. [Recent advance in solidification/stabilization technology for the remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Han-zhou; Chen, Tong-bin; Jin, Meng-gui; Lei, Mei; Liu, Cheng-wu; Zu, Wen-pu; Huang, Li-mi

    2011-03-01

    Remediation of heavy metals-contaminated soil is still a difficulty and a hotspot of international research projects. At present, the technologies commonly adopted for the remediation of contaminated sites mainly include excavation, solidification/stabilization (S/S), soil washing, soil vapor extraction (SVE), thermal treatment, and bioremediation. Based on the S/S technical guidelines of Unite State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and United Kingdom Environment Agency (EA) and the domestic and foreign patents, this paper introduced the concepts of S/S and its development status at home and abroad, and discussed its future development directions. Solidification refers to a process that binds contaminated media with a reagent, changing the media's physical properties via increasing its compressive strength, decreasing its permeability, and encapsulating the contaminants to form a solid material. Stabilization refers to the process that involves a chemical reaction which reduces the leachability of a waste, chemically immobilizes the waste and reduces its solubility, making the waste become less harmful or less mobile. S/S technology includes cement solidification, lime pozzolanic solidification, plastic materials stabilization, vitrification, and regent-based stabilization. Stabilization (or immobilization) treatment processes convert contaminants to less mobile forms through chemical or thermal interactions. In stabilization technology, the aim of adding agents is to change the soil physical and chemical properties through pH control technology, redox potential technology, precipitation techniques, adsorption technology, and ion-exchange technology that change the existing forms of heavy metals in soil, and thus, reduce the heavy metals bioavailability and mobility. This review also discussed the S/S evaluation methods, highlighted the need to enhance S/S technology in the molecular bonding, soil polymers, and formulation of China's S/S technical guidelines.

  2. Basic Aspects of Deep Soil Mixing Technology Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Alexandra A.; Rybak, Jarosław; Stefaniuk, Damian; Zajączkowski, Przemysław

    2017-10-01

    Improving a soil is a process of increasing its physical/mechanical properties without changing its natural structure. Improvement of soil subbase is reached by means of the knitted materials, or other methods when strong connection between soil particles is established. The method of DSM (Deep Soil Mixing) columns has been invented in Japan in 1970s. The main reason of designing cement-soil columns is to improve properties of local soils (such as strength and stiffness) by mixing them with various cementing materials. Cement and calcium are the most commonly used binders. However new research undertaken worldwide proves that apart from these materials, also gypsum or fly ashes can also be successfully implemented. As the Deep Soil Mixing is still being under development, anticipating mechanical properties of columns in particular soils and the usage of cementing materials in formed columns is very difficult and often inappropriate to predict. That is why a research is carried out in order to find out what binders and mixing technology should be used. The paper presents several remarks on the testing procedures related to quality and capacity control of Deep Soil Mixing columns. Soil improvement methods, their advantages and limitations are briefly described. The authors analyse the suitability of selected testing methods on subsequent stages of design and execution of special foundations works. Chosen examples from engineering practice form the basis for recommendations for the control procedures. Presented case studies concerning testing the on capacity field samples and laboratory procedures on various categories of soil-cement samples were picked from R&D and consulting works offered by Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Special emphasis is paid to climate conditions which may affect the availability of performing and controlling of DSM techniques in polar zones, with a special regard to sample curing.

  3. Revamping of entisol soil physical characteristics with compost treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumono; Loka, S. P.; Nasution, D. L. S.

    2018-02-01

    Physical characteristic of Entisol soil is an important factor for the growth of plant. The aim of this research was to know the effect of compost application on physical characteristics of Entisol soil. The research method used was experimental method with 6 (six) treatments and 3 replications of which K1 = 10 kg Entisol soil without compost, K2 = 9 Kg Entisol soil with 1 kg compost, K3 = 8 kg Entisol soil with 2 kg compost, K4 = 7 kg Entisol soilwith3 kg compost, K5 = 6 kg Entisol soil with 4 kg compost and K6 = 5 kg Entisol soil with 5 kg compost. The observed parameters were soil texture, soil organic matter, soil thickness, porosity, soil pore size, soil permeability and water availability. The results showed that the Entisol soil texture was loamy sand texture, the value of soil organic matter ranged from 0.74% to 4.69%, soil thickness ranged from 13.83 to 20.16 cm, porosity ranged from16% to 37%, soil pore size ranged from 2.859 to 5.493 µm, permeability ranged from 1.24 to 5.64 cm/hour and water availability ranged from 6.67% to 9.12% by each treatment.

  4. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  5. Environmental Evaluation of Soil Salinity with Various Watering Technologies Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitkaziev, Adeubay; Shilibek, Kenzhegali; Fakhrudenova, Idiya; Salybayev, Satybaldy; Zhaparova, Sayagul; Duisenbayeva, Saule; Bayazitova, Zulfia; Aliya, Maimakova; Seitkazieva, Karlygash; Aubakirov, Hamit

    2018-01-01

      The purpose of this study is to develop mathematical tools for evaluating the level of environmental safety of various watering technologies. A set of indicators, was developed with regard to the natural factors, the nature of the man-induced load, degradation type, and characteristics of the disruption of humification conditions. Thermal and physical characteristics of the soil, the state of its surface, and meteorological factors, including air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, solar radiation, etc. were studied with a view to determining the heat and air exchange in the soil. An environmental evaluation of the methods for saline land development was conducted with regard to the heat and moisture supply. This tool can be used to determine the level of environmental safety of soil salinization during the environmental evaluation of the investigation of soil salinity with various watering technologies.

  6. Radionuclide containment in soil by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Francis, C.W.; Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    Radionuclide transport from a contaminant source to groundwater and surface water is a common problem faced by most US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Containment of the radionuclide plume, including strontium-90 and uranium, is possible using phosphate treatment as a chemical stabilizer. Such a chemical process occurs in soils under natural environmental conditions. Therefore, the concept of phosphate amendment for radiostrontium and uranium immobilization is already a proven principle. In this presentation, results of bench-scale experiments and the concept of a field-scale demonstration are discussed. The phosphate treatment is possible at the source or near the advancing contaminant plume. Cleanup is still the ideal concept; however, containment through stabilization is a more practical and costeffective concept that should be examined by DOE Environmental Restoration programs

  7. [Effects of gravel mulch technology on soil erosion resistance and plant growth of river flinty slope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Xie, San-Tao; Ruan, Ai-Dong; Bian, Xun-Wen

    2008-03-01

    Aiming at the technical difficulties such as the stability and water balance in the ecological rehabilitation of river flinty slope, a gravel mulch technology was proposed, with the effects of different gravel mulch treatments on the soil anti-erosion capacity, soil water retention property, and plant growth investigated by anti-erosion and pot experiments. The results showed that mulching with the gravels 1.5-2 cm in size could obviously enhance the soil anti-erosion capacity, soil water retention property and plant biomass, but no obvious differences were observed between the mulch thickness of 5 cm and 8 cm. It was indicated that mulching with the gravels 1.5-2 cm in size and 5 cm in thickness was an effective and economical technology for the ecological rehabilitation of river flinty slope.

  8. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the removal and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microorganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microorganisms cultures. The other factors that influence the efficiency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and concentration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioremediation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This technology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its derivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and transformer oil.

  9. Innovative technology summary report: compact subsurface soil investigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The compact subsurface soil investigation system is a mobile soil sampler used to obtain soil samples, including from below concrete floors, such as under fuel storage basins. If soils under buildings can be sampled and analyzed to document that the soil is not contaminated and thus can remain in place, the concrete structure over it may also be left in place or only partially removed. Taking soil samples through a concrete floor, often in inaccessible or congested locations, required rugged, portable equipment, such as the improved technology tested, the Geoprobe Model 540M soil sampler that is mounted on a hand cart. The traditional (baseline) technology used a comparable probe mounted on a full-size, 1-ton capacity, diesel-powered truck. The truck was not easily able to access all areas, because of its greater size and weight. In two sample holes from below the fuel storage basin at C-Reactor, the Geoprobe Model 540M was able to penetrate to the full sampling target depth of 3.3 m (10 ft). In the other three locations the sampler was stopped at lesser depths because of large stones. The Geoprobe 540M reduced schedule time and reduced costs by approximately 50% versus the baseline technology. For sampling at a congested fuel storage basin at five locations, the improved technology cost $7,300, whereas the baseline technology would have cost $13,000. As an extension of this demonstration, cost savings and schedule acceleration can be expected to increase commensurate with structure complexity/congestion and the number of samples required

  10. Deployable Wastewater Treatment Technology Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coppola, Edward

    2002-01-01

    .... The goal of AFRL/MLQD is for the deployable wastewater treatment system to be integrated into a waste treatment system that will treat both solid and aqueous waste. The US Army (TARDEC) and the Air Force (AAC/WMO...

  11. Laser technologies of ceramics treatment (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, E.M.; Voronezhtsev, Yu.I.; Gol'dade, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Publications on the laser technologies of ceramic coating production, ceramics treatment and ceramics manufacture are analyzed for the past 5 years. Features of production processes utilizing the interaction of laser radiation with ceramics and other substances which form the ceramics as a result of such interaction are considered. Possible ways of improving laser technologies of ceramics treatment are outlined

  12. The Effect of Mulching Technology to Enhance the Diversity of Soil Macroinvertebrates in Sengon-based Agroforestry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil macroinvertebrate are strongly influenced by environmental factors. The change of agronomic technology may affect their role in maintaining soil fertility and crop production. The aims of this study was to know the effect of technology of mulching to enhance diversity of soil macroinvertebrate in sengon-based agroforestry system. Field experiment was arranged in randomized block design with treatment i.e: with and without organic matter mulching. Sweet potato used as tested intercrop. Collection of soil macroinvertebrate was carried out using a hand sorting and pit-fall trap methods. Result of the study showed that application of maize residue as mulch enhanced diversity index of surface and deep soil macroinvertebrate, i.e: 0.215 and 0.214 (by 44% and 73% respectively compared no mulching. Organic mulching technology can support diversity of beneficial soil macroinvertebrates.

  13. Selection of innovative technologies for the remediation of soils contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steude, J.; Tucker, B.

    1991-01-01

    The remediation of sites containing radioactive and mixed wastes is in a period of rapid growth. The state of the art of remediation is progressing to handle the shortcomings of conventional pump and treat or disposal technologies. The objective of this paper is to review the status of selected innovative technologies which treat soils contaminated with radioactive and mixed waste. Technologies are generally classified as innovative if they are fully developed, but lack sufficient cost or performance data for comparison with conventional technologies. The Environmental Protection Agency recommends inclusion of innovative technologies in the RI/FS screening process if there is reason to believe that they would offer advantages in performance, implementability, cost, etc. This paper serves as a compilation of the pertinent information necessary to gain an overview of the selected innovative technologies to aid in the RI/F'S screening process. The innovative technologies selected for evaluation are listed below. Bioremediation, although innovative, was not included due to the combination of the vast amount of literature on this subject and the limited scope of this project. 1. Soil washing and flushing; 2. Low temperature thermal treatment; 3. Electrokinetics; 4. Infrared incineration; 5. Ultrasound; 6. In situ vitrification; 7. Soil vapor extraction; 8. Plasma torch slagging; 9. In situ hot air/steam extraction; 10. Cyclone reactor treatment; 11. In situ radio frequency; 12. Vegetative radionuclide uptake; and 13. In situ soil heating. The information provided on each technology includes a technical description, status, summary of results including types of contaminants and soils treated, technical effectiveness, feasibility and estimated cost

  14. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  15. Nitrate removal by electro-bioremediation technology in Korean soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Lee, Hyun-Goo; Ha, Tae-Hyun; Bae, Jeong-Hyo

    2009-01-01

    The nitrate concentration of surface has become a serious concern in agricultural industry through out the world. In the present study, nitrate was removed in the soil by employing electro-bioremediation, a hybrid technology of bioremediation and electrokinetics. The abundance of Bacillus spp. as nitrate reducing bacteria were isolated and identified from the soil sample collected from a greenhouse at Jinju City of Gyengsangnamdo, South Korea. The nitrate reducing bacterial species were identified by 16 s RNA sequencing technique. The efficiency of bacterial isolates on nitrate removal in broth was tested. The experiment was conducted in an electrokinetic (EK) cell by applying 20 V across the electrodes. The nitrate reducing bacteria (Bacillus spp.) were inoculated in the soil for nitrate removal process by the addition of necessary nutrient. The influence of nitrate reducers on electrokinetic process was also studied. The concentration of nitrate at anodic area of soil was higher when compared to cathode in electrokinetic system, while adding bacteria in EK (EK + bio) system, the nitrate concentration was almost nil in all the area of soil. The bacteria supplies electron from organic degradation (humic substances) and enhances NO 3 - reduction (denitrification). Experimental results showed that the electro-bio kinetic process viz. electroosmosis and physiological activity of bacteria reduced nitrate in soil environment effectively. Involvement of Bacillus spp. on nitrification was controlled by electrokinetics at cathode area by reduction of ammonium ions to nitrogen gas. The excellence of the combined electro-bio kinetics technology on nitrate removal is discussed.

  16. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  17. SILICATE TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION'S SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SOILS - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Applications Analysis Report evaluates the solidification/stabilization treatment process of Silicate Technology Corporation (STC) for the on-site treatment of hazardous waste. The STC immobilization technology utilizes a proprietary product (FMS Silicate) to chemically stab...

  18. Electronic Nose Technology to Measure Soil Microbial Activity and Classify Soil Metabolic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio De Cesare; Elena Di Mattia; Simone Pantalei; Emiliano Zampetti; Vittorio Vinciguerra; Antonella Macagnano

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (E-nose) is a sensing technology that has been widely used to monitor environments in the last decade. In the present study, the capability of an E-nose, in combination with biochemical and microbiological techniques, of both detecting the microbial activity and estimating the metabolic status of soil ecosystems, was tested by measuring on one side respiration, enzyme activities and growth of bacteria in natural but simplified soil ecosystems over 23 days of incubation thr...

  19. profitability of soil erosion control technologies in eastern uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    study was to estimate the profitability of application of SLM in the form of soil erosion control technologies by communities in the highlands of eastern Uganda; a hot spot for this land degradation agent. A survey was conducted using 240 farmers in the highlands of eastern Uganda. The findings from Partial Budget Analysis.

  20. Soils and food security | Nortcliff | Nigerian Journal of Technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A threat impacting on food security strongly in Africa is nutrient mining where insufficient nutrients are returned to the soil after crop production. The impacts of global change on food security and the potential impacts of global markets for food and land are also briefly discussed. Nigerian Journal of Technological Research ...

  1. Grey water treatment by the slanted soil system with unsorted soil media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Ken; Tanaka, Erina; Suzuki, Laís Yuko; Hijikata, Nowaki; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Ito, Ryusei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of unsorted soil media in the slanted soil treatment system, in terms of removal efficiency in suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) and Escherichia coli, and lifetime until clogging occurs. Unsorted soil performed longer lifetime until clogging than sorted fine soil. Removal of SS, COD, and LAS also performed same or better level in unsorted soil than fine soil. As reaction coefficients of COD and LAS were described as a function of the hydraulic loading rate, we can design a slanted soil system according to the expected hydraulic loading rate and the targeted level of COD or LAS in effluent. Regarding bacteria removal, unsorted soil performed sufficient reduction of E. coli for 5 weeks; however, the removal process occurred throughout all four chambers, while that of fine soil occurred in one to two chambers.

  2. Treatment technology for organic radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Shon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In this report, various alternative technologies to the incineration for the treatment of radioactive organic wastes were described and reviewed, fallen into two groups of low temperature technologies and high temperature technologies. These technologies have the advantages of low volume gaseous emission, few or no dioxin generation, and operation at low enough temperature that radionuclides are not volatilized. Delphi chemical oxidation, mediated electrochemical oxidation, and photolytic ultraviolet oxidation appear to be the most promising low temperature oxidation process and steam reforming and supercritical water oxidation in the high temperature technologies. 52 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  3. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cang Long; Zhou Dongmei; Wang Quanying; Wu Danya

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm -1 of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P < 0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  4. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cang Long [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhou Dongmei, E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Wang Quanying; Wu Danya [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-12-30

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm{sup -1} of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P < 0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  5. Coal conversion wastewater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fedorak, P.M. (University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1988-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the major components of coal conversion wastewaters, and their deleterious impact on the environment, particularly in natural water systems, is well documented. Phenols, at higher concentrations, have been shown to inhibit the activity of anaerobic bacteria used to degrade organic compounds. This study examines combined treatment requirements for an authentic, high strength phenolic coal conversion wastewater using both batch and semi- continuous anaerobic methanogenic bioassays. Solvent extraction pretreatment and in situ addition of activated carbon during anaerobic treatment were also examined, and proved effective in removing phenol. 61 refs., 34 tabs., 30 figs., 7 append.

  6. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framework Directive more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advanced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment......, which includes technical, economical and environmental aspects. The technical and economical assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, membrane bioreactor (MBR) and UV in combination...... and three advanced treatment methods; sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment is the most advantageous advanced treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms...

  7. Sustainability assessment of advanced wastewater treatment technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høibye, Linda; Clauson-Kaas, Jes; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of the EU Water Framwork Directive, more focus is now on discharges of hazardous substances from wastewater treatment plants and sewers. Thus, many municipalities in Denmark may have to adopt to future advenced treatment technologies. This paper describes a holistic assessment......, which includes technical, economic and environmental aspects. The technical and economic assessment is performed on 5 advanced treatment technologies: sand filtration, ozone treatment, UV exclusively for disinfection of pathogenic microorganisms, Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), and UV in combination...... and three advanced treatment methods: sand filtration, ozone treatment and MBR. The technical and economic assessment showed that UV solely for disinfection purposes or ozone treatment are the most advantageous advanved treatment methods if the demands are restricted to pathogenic microorganisms. In terms...

  8. A software tool for soil clean-up technology selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranes, S.; Gonzalez-Valencia, E.; Lodolo, A.; Miertus, S.

    2002-01-01

    Soil remediation is a difficult, time-consuming and expensive operation. A variety of mature and emerging soil remediation technologies is available and future trends in remediation will include continued competition among environmental service companies and technology developers, which will definitely result in further increase in the clean-up options. Consequently, the demand has enhanced developing decision support tools that could help the decision makers to select the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site, before the costly remedial actions are taken. Therefore, a software tool for soil clean-up technology selection is currently being developed with the aim of closely working with human decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess the available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the best remedial options is based on technical, financial, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all involved parties to determine their relative importance for a particular project. (author)

  9. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  10. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  11. Solar based water treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Hyder, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    In developing countries, the quality of drinking water is so poor that reports of 80% diseases from water-related causes is no surprise (Tebbet, 90). Frequently, there are reports in press of outbreak of epidemics in cities due to the unhygienic drinking-water. The state of affairs in the rural areas can be well imagined, where majority of the people live with no piped water. This paper describes the solar-based methods of removing organic pollutants from waste-water (also called Advanced Oxidation Technologies) and solar desalination. Experimental results of a simple solar water-sterilization technique have been discussed, along with suggestions to enhance the performance of this technique. (author)

  12. Technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies using ORWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, G.; Eriksson, O.; Frostell, B.

    2005-01-01

    A technology assessment of thermal treatment technologies for wastes was performed in the form of scenarios of chains of technologies. The Swedish assessment tool, ORWARE, was used for the assessment. The scenarios of chains of thermal technologies assessed were gasification with catalytic combustion, gasification with flame combustion, incineration and landfilling. The landfilling scenario was used as a reference for comparison. The technologies were assessed from ecological and economic points of view. The results are presented in terms of global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, consumption of primary energy carriers and welfare costs. From the simulations, gasification followed by catalytic combustion with energy recovery in a combined cycle appeared to be the most competitive technology from an ecological point of view. On the other hand, this alternative was more expensive than incineration. A sensitivity analysis was done regarding electricity prices to show which technology wins at what value of the unit price of electricity (SEK/kW h). Within this study, it was possible to make a comparison both between a combined cycle and a Rankine cycle (a system pair) and at the same time between flame combustion and catalytic combustion (a technology pair). To use gasification just as a treatment technology is not more appealing than incineration, but the possibility of combining gasification with a combined cycle is attractive in terms of electricity production. This research was done in connection with an empirical R and D work on both gasification of waste and catalytic combustion of the gasified waste at the Division of Chemical Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden

  13. PROTECTION OF YIELD AND SOIL: NEW MULCHING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Sorokina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable ecovio® plastic films for mulching is a solution of BASF engineering.It offers the excellent mechanical properties, and it is completely destructedas polymer is to be fully composted. Without recycling this covering plastic filmis entirely digested by soil microorganisms. The only thing is to do after harvestingis to bury scraps of plastics into the soil to start the process of biodigestion. Development of ecovio® solution opens new page for wide use of this technology in agriculture. The usage of biodegradable plastic films has shown the good results in plant nursery gardens, vegetable and grape growing.

  14. Assisted reproductive technology treatment outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naasan, M

    2012-05-01

    Information on the outcomes of ART treatments in Ireland is not readily available to Irish practitioners. The data for hospital affiliated clinics has been made available for many years and is included in the hospital reports. We present a 10-year analysis of the Irish ART results voluntarily reported by six out of seven IVF clinics. The data was collected from published ESHRE reports and from results (2007-8) not yet published. Data collected included: number of clinics and ART cycles, female age, clinical and multiple pregnancy rates and treatment complications. The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 31.7% for IVF and 29.8% for ICSI. The proportion of singleton, twin and triplet deliveries for IVF and ICSI combined was 75%, 23.35% and 1.64%. The rate of ovarian hyperstimulation was 0.8%. ART practice in Ireland is safe, effective and responsible. Financial and societal savings could result from the introduction of state funded IVF with compulsory eSET where recommended.

  15. In situ treatment of VOCs by recirculation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Webb, O.F.; Ally, M.R.; Sanford, W.E.; Kearl, P.M.; Zutman, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    The project described herein was conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify processes and technologies developed in Germany that appeared to have near-term potential for enhancing the cleanup of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soil and groundwater at DOE sites. Members of the ORNL research team identified and evaluated selected German technologies developed at or in association with the University of Karlsruhe (UoK) for in situ treatment of VOC contaminated soils and groundwater. Project activities included contacts with researchers within three departments of the UoK (i.e., Applied Geology, Hydromechanics, and Soil and Foundation Engineering) during fall 1991 and subsequent visits to UoK and private industry collaborators during February 1992. Subsequent analyses consisted of engineering computations, groundwater flow modeling, and treatment process modeling. As a result of these project efforts, two processes were identified as having near-term potential for DOE: (1) the vacuum vaporizer well/groundwater recirculation well and (2) the porous pipe/horizontal well. This document was prepared to summarize the methods and results of the assessment activities completed during the initial year of the project. The project is still ongoing, so not all facets of the effort are completely described in this document. Recommendations for laboratory and field experiments are provided

  16. Applications analysis report: Silicate technology corporation's solidification/stabilization technology for organic and inorganic contaminants in soils. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, E.

    1992-12-01

    The STC demonstration was conducted under EPA's Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program in November, 1990, at the Selma Pressure Treating (SPT) wood preserving site in Selma, California. The SPT site was contaminated with both organics, predominantly pentachlorophenol (PCP), inorganics, mainly arsenic, chromium, and copper. Extensive sampling and analyses were performed on the waste both before and after treatment to compare physical, chemical, and leaching characteristics of raw and treated wastes. STC's contaminated soil treatment process was evaluated based on contaminant mobility measured by numerous leaching tests, structural integrity of the solidified material, measured by physical and engineering tests and morphological examinations; and economic analysis, using cost information supplied by STC and the results of the SITE demonstration, the vendor's design and test data, and other laboratory and field applications of the technology. It discusses the advantages, disadvantages, and limitations, as well as estimated costs of the technology

  17. Evaluation of soil conservation technologies from the perspective of selected physical soil properties and infiltration capacity of the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dumbrovský

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different technologies of soil cultivation (conventional and minimization in terms of physical properties and water regime of soils, where infiltration of surface water is a major component of subsurface water. Soil physical properties (the current humidity, reduced bulk density, porosity, water retention capacity of soil, pore distribution and soil aeration is determined from soil samples taken from the organic horizon according to standard methodology. To observe the infiltration characteristics of surface layers of topsoil, the drench method (double ring infiltrometers was used. For the evaluation of field measurements of infiltration, empirical and physically derived equations by Kostiakov and Philip and the three-parameter Philip-type equation were used. The Philip three-parameter equation provides physical based parameters near the theoretical values, a good estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and sorptivity C1. The parameter S of Philip’s equation describes the real value of the sorptivity of the soil. Experimental research work on the experimental plots H. Meziříčko proceeded in the years 2005–2008.

  18. Soil respiration in a long-term tillage treatment experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelybó, Györgyi; Birkás, Márta; Dencsö, Márton; Horel, Ágota; Kása, Ilona; Tóth, Eszter

    2016-04-01

    Regular soil CO2 efflux measurements have been carried out at Józsefmajor longterm tillage experimental site in 2014 and 2015 with static chamber technique in no-till and ploughing plots in seven spatial replicates. The trial was established in 2002 on a loamy chernozem soil at the experimental site of the Szent István University nearby the city Hatvan, northern Hungary. At the site sunflower (Helianthus A.) and wheat (Triticum A.) was grown in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Ancillary measurements carried out at the site included weather parameters, soil water content, soil temperature. The aim of the investigation was to detect the effect of soil disturbance and soil tillage treatments on soil CO2 emission in agricultural ecosystems. Soil respiration measurements were carried out every week during the vegetation period and campaign measurements were performed scheduled to tillage application. In this latter case, measurements were carried out 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and 7 days after tillage operation. Results showed that during the vegetation season in the majority of measurement occasions emission was higher in the no-till plots. These differences; however were not found to be statistically significant. Due to the short term effect of tillage treatment, emissions increased following tillage treatment in the ploughed plots. Soil water content was also examined as main driver of soil CO2 fluxes. Soil water content sharply decreases in the surface layer (5-10 cm depth) after tillage treatment indicating a fast drying due to soil disturbance. This effect slowly attenuated and eventually extincted in approx. two weeks. CO2 emission measurements were associated with high uncertainties as a result of the measurement technique. Our further aim is to reduce this uncertainty using independent measurement techniques on the field.

  19. Biological treatment of oil-contaminated soils in bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmann, R.; Lotter, S.; Heerenklage, J.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, biological soil treatment is practiced in most cases by using the window technique, where more and more the process takes place inhouse. This paper reports that biological soil treatment in closed reactors is more frequently considered. The reactors are more costly to run and should be used in those cases where the window technique is not satisfactory. Closed reactor treatment is appropriate when; higher standards are needed for the emission control of the volatile components; some organics are difficult to degrade; soil with a higher clay content must be treated; and naturally occurring biological processes must be enhanced. To operate biological soil treatment under optimum conditions and to discover the treatment limits, the specific factors of influence have to be determined in advance by using a series of laboratory-scale experiments

  20. Development of Plasma Vitrification Technology for Contaminated Soil at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielpinski, A.L.; Marra, J.C.; Rogers, V.; Schumacher, R.F.; Etheridge, J.; Kirkland, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) of the United States Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development is developing treatment technologies for a wide variety of materials containing mixed low-level waste, i.e., having low levels of radioactivity along with hazardous constituents. Vitrification is a promising treatment technology for many of these wastes, including contaminated soil such as that found at the Savannah River Site. Proof-of-principle tests were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of both ex-situ and in-situ vitrification of contaminated soil by means of a plasma torch. A mixture of 89 percent as-excavated Savannah River Site sandy clay loam with 11 percent lime addition was tested. Vitrification of a mixture of this feed, in a 10 in. diameter crucible with a non-transferred arc plasma torch at a nominal 160 kW, was successful. The process produced homogeneous glass (albeit with local compositional variations), surrounded by a skull of incompletely reacted feed. Characterization of the resultant product durability using the Product Consistency Test showed elemental leaching well below the Environmental Assessment glass (which is often used as a minimum standard of glass acceptability in high-level waste glass assessment) for both the glass and the skull regions. Future tests should include doping the soil with hazardous constituents to enable further verification of the wasteform integrity via the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure. In-situ operation was mimicked in the test crucible by segregating the lime additive from the soil within the crucible. Making full use of the available torch maneuvering capabilities (which would likely exceed those of a torch used in-situ) failed to produce a homogeneous melt. Therefore, intimate mechanical mixture of the additive with the soil appears crucial to the success of SRS soil vitrification, and must be included in design considerations for in-situ operation

  1. Selection of technologies for municipal wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodríguez Miranda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In water environmental planning in watersheds should contain aspects for the decontamination of receiving water body, therefore the selection of the treatment plants municipal wastewater in developing countries, you should consider aspects of the typical composition raw wastewater pollutant removal efficiency by technology, performance indicators for technology, environmental aspects of localization and spatial localization strategy. This methodology is built on the basis of technical, economic and environmental attributes, such as a tool for decision making future investments in treatment plants municipal wastewater with multidisciplinary elements.

  2. Minimizing the Health Risks from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils by Using Electric Field-Based Treatment for Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aura Istrate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the assessment of human health risk from soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs due to crude oil pollution, with a particular focus on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH group of carcinogenic and toxic substances. Given that the measured risk for human health exceeded the accepted level, the study considered an electrochemical remediation method. The laboratory-scale experiments were conducted by using an electric field-based treatment as a possible solution for the remediation of contaminated soil. After 20 days of treatment, while the voltage applied was 15 V (specific voltage of 1 V/cm, the hydrocarbon content was significantly reduced. The parameters measured to determine the overall remediation efficiency were pH, redox potential, ionic strength, soil characteristics, voltage gradient, and zeta potential. The remediation degree observed during the experiments was around 50% for TPHs and 46% for PAHs. The applied remediation method resulted in significant removal efficiency of the tested contaminants from the soil. Consequently, the human health risk assessment for the new degree of contaminants in the soil was achieved. This data demonstrated to what extent the application of the remediation applied technology ensured an acceptable risk under the same exposure conditions for the industrial workers.

  3. Thermopiles - a new thermal desorption technology for recycling highly organic contaminated soils down to natural levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemers, J.; Cardot, J.; Falcinelli, U.; Zwaan, H.

    2005-01-01

    The Thermopile R technology, developed by Deep Green, provides an implementation system allowing to treat hydrocarbon and PAH contaminated materials down to natural levels or down to levels where they are treatable with a traditional thermal desorption unit, in a controlled batch system. The materials are indirectly heated while a substantial part of the energy is reused to heat the pile of soil. The system differs from most of the indirect thermal desorption systems by its very high energetic efficiency as well as its ability to be set -up remotely. The system does not face preferential path problems, since the heating medium is only conduction, which is very indifferent with regard to soil type (clay, sand, silt, etc.). That property is critical to an in-depth clean-up with a batch system. Other systems, based on heat, are mostly sending heat vectors (gases, hot air, steam, etc.) through the soil, which implies preferential paths, which are the main cause for not completely cleaning the soil with most batch technologies (down to natural levels). The soil to treat is placed in a pile or in a modular container in which perforated steel pipes are installed along a hexagonal pattern. During treatment those pipes are heated by hot gases (about 600 deg. C) coming from the afterburner. Consequently the soil reaches the contaminant's desorption temperature. The desorbed pollutants are then drawn by convection and diffusion into the heating pipes via the perforations. Once in the pipes the desorbed gases are mixed with the heating gases. They are sucked by the ID fan and sent to the afterburner. The hydrocarbons in gaseous phase are then oxidized in the afterburner. In this manner, they provide a part of the energy needed to heat the soil itself. The pilot unit is also equipped with a purge that allows the evacuation of a part of the gases circulating in the system; Different additional gas treatments can be applied as required by the type of contaminants and the

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Cross-Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on cross connections provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on cross connections terminology and control devices. For each…

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Chemistry/Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chemistry/bacteriology provides instructional materials for twelve competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: waterborne diseases, water sampling…

  6. Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

  7. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  8. Field assessment of treatment efficacy by three methods of phosphoric acid application in lead-contaminated urban soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, John; Mosby, David

    2006-07-31

    In situ soil treatment using phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) may be an effective remedial technology for immobilizing soil Pb and reducing Pb risk to human health and ecosystem. The treatment efficacy of three H(3)PO(4) application methods was assessed in a smelter-contaminated urban soil located in the Jasper County Superfund Site, Missouri. Soil, with an average of 3529 mg Pb kg(-1) and in the 2- by 4-m plot size, was treated with H(3)PO(4) at a rate of 10 g P kg(-1) in four replicates by each of three methods: rototilling; surface application; pressure injection. Three soil cores, 2.5-cm diameter and 30-cm long, were taken from each plot before and 90 days after treatment and analyzed for soluble P, bioaccessible Pb and solid-Pb speciation. Applications of H(3)PO(4) induced the heterogeneity of soluble P in soil, with the highest concentrations in the surface. Three application methods mixed the H(3)PO(4) more effectively in the horizontals than the verticals of treated soil zone. The H(3)PO(4) applications significantly reduced Pb bioaccessibility in the soil, which was influenced by the concentrations of soil soluble P and solid-Pb species. The risk reductions of soil Pb were achieved by formation of pyromorphites or pyromorphite-like minerals. The rototilling appears to be the most effective treatment method in context of the homogeneity of soluble P and the reduction of Pb bioaccessibility in treated soil.

  9. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation - Demonstration Bulletin: In-Situ Soil Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In-situ stabilization technology immobilizes organics and inorganic compounds in wet or dry soils by using reagents (additives) to polymerize with the soils and sludges producing a cement-like mass. Two basic components of this technology are the Geo-Con/DSM Deep Soil Mixing Sy...

  10. VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria

  11. A treatment of expansive soil using different additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestun J. Nareeman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that govern the expansion behavior of soil. The primary factors are a change in water contentand the amount and type of clay size particles in the soil. Other important factors affecting the expansion behavior include the typeof soil (natural or fill, condition of the soil in terms of dry density and moisture content, magnitude of the surcharge pressure,and amount of no expansive material such as gravel or cobble size particles.In this paper, a swelling soil from the site Hamamuk earth dam, which is located in Koya town north of Iraq, is treated by fourtypes of additives; cement, steel fibers, gasoline fuel and injection by cement grout.The treatment of the expansive soil with 5 % of cement or steel fibers or the injection with cement grout revealed a betterimprovement while 4 % of gasoline oil is sufficient to reveal the optimum treatment by this material. The angle of internal friction is notaffected by the treatment while the cohesion between particles is slightly affected by these additives due to a change in the adhesionbetween the additive and soil particles.

  12. Innovative technologies for the treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Anderson, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    The treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes incur significant costs for Department of Energy (DOE) installations. These wastes must be managed under strict environmental controls and regulations to prevent the possibility of migration of hazardous materials to the biosphere. Through the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program, the DOE is seeking to develop innovative ways of improving current treatment technologies to eliminate the hazardous components of wastes, reduce waste management costs, and minimize the volume requiring disposal as hazardous or mixed waste. Sponsored projects progress from research and development to field demonstration. Among the innovative technologies under development are supercritical water oxidation of hazardous chemicals, microwave-assisted destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbons, paramagnetic separation of metals from waste, detoxification and reclamation of waste acid, nitrate destruction through calcination, treatment/disposal of reactive metals, and methodologies for encapsulation. Technologies at a demonstration phase include detoxification of mixed waste sludge, microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil, and the remediation process for a hydrocarbon spill. 14 refs

  13. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  14. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Treatment: Conceptual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    associated with Army industrial )perations. Activities that contributed to soil contaminatioa included equipment rebuilding and repair, munitions maiufacturing...Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio 45268 (undated). 2. Personal communication with Dennis Hotaling , Technical...been used in several chemical industry installations to treat metal bearing wastewaters. NaBH 4 is a strong reducing agent which can reduce many metal

  15. EVALUATION OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION AS A BEST DEMONSTRATED AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project involved the evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology as a BDAT for contaminated soil. Three binding agents were used on four different synthetically contaminated soils. Performance evaluation data included unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and the T...

  16. A perspective of hazardous waste and mixed waste treatment technology at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, J.L.; Venkatesh, S.; Bailey, L.L.; Langton, C.A.; Hay, M.S.; Stevens, C.B.; Carroll, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment technologies for the preparation and treatment of heavy metal mixed wastes, contaminated soils, and mixed mercury wastes are being considered at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a DOE nuclear material processing facility operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The proposed treatment technologies to be included at the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Treatment Building at SRS are based on the regulatory requirements, projected waste volumes, existing technology, cost effectiveness, and project schedule. Waste sorting and size reduction are the initial step in the treatment process. After sorting/size reduction the wastes would go to the next applicable treatment module. For solid heavy metal mixed wastes the proposed treatment is macroencapsulation using a thermoplastic polymer. This process reduces the leachability of hazardous constituents from the waste and allows easy verification of the coating integrity. Stabilization and solidification in a cement matrix will treat a wide variety of wastes (i.e. soils, decontamination water). Some pretreatments may be required (i.e. Ph adjustment) before stabilization. Other pretreatments such as soil washing can reduce the amount of waste to be stabilized. Radioactive contaminated mercury waste at the SRS comes in numerous forms (i.e. process equipment, soils, and lab waste) with the required treatment of high mercury wastes being roasting/retorting and recovery. Any unrecyclable radioactive contaminated elemental mercury would be amalgamated, utilizing a batch system, before disposal

  17. Soil and air temperature and biomass after residue treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.B. Fowler; J.D. Helvey

    1981-01-01

    Air temperature at 0.5 m and soil temperature at 0.01 m were measured during May and early June after forest harvest on four residue treatment sites and a control. Broadcast burning or burning in piles increased daily accumulation of heat in air while scattered chips and scarified and cleared treatments were equal to the control (broadcast, untreated slash). During mid...

  18. Cellulose nanomaterials in water treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles-François; Wiesner, Mark R

    2015-05-05

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials' potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials' beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization.

  19. Cellulose Nanomaterials in Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Alexis Wells; de Lannoy, Charles François; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are naturally occurring with unique structural, mechanical and optical properties. While the paper and packaging, automotive, personal care, construction, and textiles industries have recognized cellulose nanomaterials’ potential, we suggest cellulose nanomaterials have great untapped potential in water treatment technologies. In this review, we gather evidence of cellulose nanomaterials’ beneficial role in environmental remediation and membranes for water filtration, including their high surface area-to-volume ratio, low environmental impact, high strength, functionalizability, and sustainability. We make direct comparison between cellulose nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in terms of physical and chemical properties, production costs, use and disposal in order to show the potential of cellulose nanomaterials as a sustainable replacement for CNTs in water treatment technologies. Finally, we comment on the need for improved communication and collaboration across the myriad industries invested in cellulose nanomaterials production and development to achieve an efficient means to commercialization. PMID:25837659

  20. ENDOSCOPIC TECHNOLOGIES IN EARLY RECTAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Samsonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.

  1. Potential of hybrid sensing technology to monitor soil ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    To study and monitor environments, a plethora of sensors in last decades have been proposed and claimed to be as the most specific, sensitive, reliable, durable, affordable or whatever. However, they rarely take into account probable interactions of compounds of interest with other substances (i.e. molecules, matrices, surfaces, etc.) occurring in the environments where the analytes are present (although some corrections due to a few interfering compounds have been sometimes carried out), then, generating misinterpretations of results (e.g. overestimation or underestimation) or incorrect evaluation of effects (e.g. about toxicity and disease diagnoses). Another quite rare evaluation in the detection of analytes in environments concerns the partition of substances of interest into different phases, as well as adsorption/desorption and absorption/release events, thus often leading to misinterpretations of results. That issue is of outmost importance in complex multiphasic environments, such as soil, where these phenomena commonly occur. An improvement in sensor applications to environmental monitoring, as concerns the competition and interference of other compounds in measurements, has been the development of electronic noses. The electronic nose (E-nose) is a sensing technology, where the presence of arrays of several suitable but unspecific sensors for volatiles and gases can deal with this problem, since the different features of sensors, despite overlapping responses to different compounds, are then evaluated in post-measurement data processing analyses (namely multivariate analyses) and integrated into a chemical image reproducing the fingerprint of the sample headspace or atmosphere (i.e. the odour), such as occurs in the olfactory system of mammalians. E-noses in the last decade have been extensively used to monitor volatile and gaseous analytes and odours in several contexts and environments. In the last 5 years, a very few groups have applied this technology

  2. Results of thermal desorption treatability studies on soils from wood treatment sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shealy, S.E.; Lin, W.C. [IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States); Richards, M.K. [EPA, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Culp, J. [EA Engineering, San Pedro, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Thermal desorption is one of the most effective technologies for treatment of soils or wastes containing organic contaminants. This includes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol and dioxins/furans that are the typical contaminants of concern at wood treatment sites. This paper summarizes the results of bench-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on soils from two wood treatment sites. The testing identified the time-temperature combination needed for contaminant removal and provided data on the composition of the treatment residuals from the thermal treatment process. This study included testing in static trays and in a small bench-scale rotary kiln. The static tray tests are a bench-scale method of readily evaluating the effect of various target temperatures and residence times on contaminant removal. These tests use 40--50 grams, of soil, which is aliquoted into a tray and placed into a muffle furnace at a pre-determined time and temperature. These tests are used to identify effective treatment conditions. The Rotary Thermal Apparatus (RTA) is also a bench-scale device that is used to treat 1 to 1.5 kilograms of soil in an indirectly heated rotary tube. This device simulates the heat and mass transfer in rotary kiln. The RTA is a batch device and can be purged with nitrogen, oxygen or other gases to simulate the atmosphere of various thermal treatment processes.

  3. Advances in treatment methods for uranium contaminated soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Water and soil contaminated with actinides, such as uranium and plutonium, are an environmental concern at most U.S. Department of Energy sites, as well as other locations in the world. Remediation actions are on going at many sites, and plans for cleanup are underway at other locations. This paper will review work underway at Clemson University in the area of treatment and remediation of soil and water contaminated with actinide elements. (author)

  4. Transport of Pathogen Surrogates in Soil Treatment Units: Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Segmented mesocosms (n = 3 packed with sand, sandy loam or clay loam soil were used to determine the effect of soil texture and depth on transport of two septic tank effluent (STE-borne microbial pathogen surrogates—green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli (GFPE and MS-2 coliphage—in soil treatment units. HYDRUS 2D/3D software was used to model the transport of these microbes from the infiltrative surface. Mesocosms were spiked with GFPE and MS-2 coliphage at 105 cfu/mL STE and 105–106 pfu/mL STE, respectively. In all soils, removal rates were >99.99% at 25 cm. The transport simulation compared (1 optimization; and (2 trial-and-error modeling approaches. Only slight differences between the transport parameters were observed between these approaches. Treating both the die-off rates and attachment/detachment rates as variables resulted in an overall better model fit, particularly for the tailing phase of the experiments. Independent of the fitting procedure, attachment rates computed by the model were higher in sandy and sandy loam soils than clay, which was attributed to unsaturated flow conditions at lower water content in the coarser-textured soils. Early breakthrough of the bacteria and virus indicated the presence of preferential flow in the system in the structured clay loam soil, resulting in faster movement of water and microbes through the soil relative to a conservative tracer (bromide.

  5. Site-Specific Technical Report for the Evaluation of Thermatrix GS Series Flameless Thermal Oxidizer for Off-Gas Treatment of Soil Vapors with Volatile Organic Compounds at the Source Area Reduction System, Former Lowry Air Force Base, Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archabal, Steven

    1998-01-01

    The Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence (AFCEE) has sponsored an ongoing program to promote the use of cost-effective soil vapor treatment technologies in conjunction with soil vapor extraction (SVE...

  6. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Imitation Biological Treatment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang; Chen, Jun; Wu, Ke; Zhou, Zhongkai; Cheng, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the treatment methods of heavy metal pollution in soils were analyzed, the existence and transformation of heavy metals in soil were explored, and the mechanism of heavy metal absorption by plants was studied. It was concluded that the main form of plants absorb heavy metals in the soil is exchangeable. The main mechanism was that the plant cell wall can form complex with heavy metals, so that heavy metals fixed on the cell wall, and through the selective absorption of plasma membrane into the plant body. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of the adsorbed material was analyzed. According to the results of some researchers, it was found that the mechanism of adsorption of heavy metals was similar to that of plants. According to this, using adsorbent material as the main material, Imitate the principle of plant absorption of heavy metals in the soil to removing heavy metals in the soil at one-time and can be separated from the soil after adsorption to achieve permanent removal of heavy metals in the soil was feasibility.

  7. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen.

  8. Onsite Greywater Treatment using Pilot Scale Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor-ul-Haq Rajput

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology, hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed, Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solids, pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen. Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8

  9. Screw pyrolysis technology for sewage sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi Morgano, Marco; Leibold, Hans; Richter, Frank; Stapf, Dieter; Seifert, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    Sewage sludge quantities have grown continuously since the introduction of the European Directive (UWWTD 91/271/EEC) relating to the treatment of urban wastewater. In the present, most of the sewage sludge is combusted in single fuels incineration plants or is co-fired in waste incineration or coal power plants. The combustion of sewage sludge is a proven technology. Other treatments, such as fluidized bed gasification, were successfully adopted to produce suitable syngas for power production. Besides, the number of large wastewater treatment plants is relatively small compared to the local rural ones. Moreover, alternative technologies are arising with the main target of nutrients recovery, with a special focus on phosphorus. The aforementioned issues, i.e. the small scale (below 1MW) and the nutrients recovery, suggest that pyrolysis in screw reactors may become an attractive alternative technology for sewage sludge conversion, recovery and recycling. In this work, about 100kg of dried sewage sludge from a plant in Germany were processed at the newly developed STYX Reactor, at KIT. The reactor combines the advantages of screw reactors with the high temperature filtration, in order to produce particle and ash free vapors and condensates, respectively. Experiments were carried out at temperatures between 350°C and 500°C. The yield of the char decreased from 66.7wt.% to 53.0wt.%. The same trend was obtained for the energy yield, while the maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 13.4wt.% was obtained at 500°C. Besides mercury, the metals and the other minerals were completely retained in the char. Nitrogen and sulfur migrated from the solid to the condensate and to the gas, respectively. Based on the energy balance, a new concept for the decentral production of char as well as heat and power in an externally fired micro gas turbine showed a cogeneration efficiency up to about 40%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Phenotype Microarray technology to soil microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that soil microorganisms are extremely diverse and only a small fraction has been successfully cultured in the laboratory. Furthermore, addressing the functionality of genomes is one of the most important and challenging tasks of today's biology. In particular the ability to link genotypes to corresponding phenotypes is of interest in the reconstruction and biotechnological manipulation of metabolic pathways. High-throughput culture in micro wells provides a method for rapid screening of a wide variety of growth conditions and commercially available plates contain a large number of substrates, nutrient sources, and inhibitors, which can provide an assessment of the phenotype of an organism. Thus, over the last years, Phenotype Microarray (PM) technology has been used to address many specific issues related to the metabolic functionality of microorganisms. However, computational tools that could directly link PM data with the gene(s) of interest followed by the extraction of information on gene-phenotype correlation are still missing. Here potential applications of phenotype arrays to soil microorganisms, use of the plates in stress response studies and for assessment of phenotype of environmental communities are described. Considerations and challenges in data interpretation and visualization, including data normalization, statistics, and curve fitting are also discussed. In particular, here we present DuctApe, a suite that allows the analysis of both genomic sequences and PM data, to find metabolic differences among PM experiments and to correlate them with KEGG pathways and gene presence/absence patterns.

  11. Reduction Potato s hydric soil erosion using space technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, E.; Rios, V.; Zelaya, D.; Rios, E.; Lepen, F.; Padilla, P.; Soria, F.

    The potato's crop has an econ omic importance in Tucuman's agricultural PBI (Gross Product Income) because its rank is fourth(4°). Production's potato area is a breakable agro system; its geographic location is in Pedemonte's agro-ecological region so is essential to handle hydric erosion. Therefore, the aim of this work is improve crop's potato irrigation management through satellite information merge with farm's practices. The space technology consented to obtain Digital Model Soil using both unique differential and dual frequency GPS signals and total station. The irrigation practices were carried out due to irrigation management (FAO) and satellite imagine software (ENVI). Preliminary results of this experience allowed to follow the crop's growing through multitemporal study; reprogramming farm's irrigation practices intended for manage reduction hydric erosion and heighten economically its productivity for the next period

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL AND CONSTRUCTIVE MEASURES OF FIGHT WITH DEFECTS AND DAMAGES OF DAMS MADE FROM SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyeva E. V.

    2013-01-01

    In the article we have proposed the technology of repair works using improved soil mixture sifting the rubble and ash using soil mixture installation and without it. For prevention of occurrence of defects and damages we have offered an antifiltration device in the form of screen and core from compacted obliquely pulled layers of impermeable soil

  13. WATER MICROPOLLUTANTS: CLASSIFICATION AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Patiño

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the different kinds of emerging contaminants, their origin and use, and their presence in the Spanish waters, both in surface and groundwater. Micropollutants are compounds of different origin and chemical nature which had been unnoticed (due to their low concentration and don’t have specific regulation. They are divided into six major groups, and many of them behave as endocrine disruptors causing large negative effects on human health and environment. They are in waters because the waste water treatment plants are not designed for their removal, so they are being discharged. Different alternatives for their removal are discussed - physico- chemical, biological and hybrid treatment technologies -. Among the physicochemical process, the advance oxidation processes (AOPs are very promising.

  14. Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu

  15. Overview of a large-scale bioremediation soil treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stechmann, R.

    1991-01-01

    How long does it take to remediate 290,000 yd 3 of impacted soil containing an average total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 3,000 ppm? Approximately 15 months from start to end of treatment using bioremediation. Mittelhauser was retained by the seller of the property (a major oil company) as technical manager to supervise remediation of a 45-ac parcel in the Los Angeles basin. Mittelhauser completed site characterization, negotiated clean-up levels with the regulatory agencies, and prepared the remedial action plan (RAP) with which the treatment approach was approved and permitted. The RAP outlined the excavation, treatment, and recompaction procedures for the impacted soil resulting from leakage of bunker fuel oil from a large surface impoundment. The impacted soil was treated on site in unline Land Treatment Units (LTUs) in 18-in.-thick lifts. Due to space restraints, multiple lifts site. The native microbial population was cultivated using soil stabilization mixing equipment with the application of water and agricultural grade fertilizers. Costs on this multimillion dollar project are broken down as follows: general contractor cost (47%), bioremediation subcontractor cost (35%), site characterization (10%), technical management (7%), analytical services (3%), RAP preparation and permitting (1%), and civil engineering subcontractor cost (1%). Start-up of field work could have been severely impacted by the existence of Red Fox habitation. The foxes were successfully relocated prior to start of field work

  16. A novel phytoremediation technology shown to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons from soils in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.D.; Yu, X.M.; Gerhardt, K.; Glick, B.; Greenberg, B [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2009-04-01

    This article described a newly developed, advanced microbe-enhanced phytoremediation system that can be used to remediate lands polluted by hydrocarbons, salts and metals. The technology uses 3 complementary processes to achieve effective remediation of strongly bound persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from soil. The remediation process involves physical soil treatment, photochemical photooxidation, microbial remediation and growth of plants treated with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPR-enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS) alleviates plant stress and increases biodegradation activities, thereby accelerating plant growth in the presence of POPs or poor soils. The PEPS has been used successfully to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from impacted soils in situ at several sites across Canada. Studies have shown that the PHCs are degraded in the rhizosphere. This article also presented a summary of the work conducted at 3 sites in Alberta. It took only 2 years to remediate the 3 sites to levels required for site closure under Alberta Tier 1 guidelines. It was concluded that PEPS is equally effective for total PHC and Fraction 3 CCME hydrocarbons. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Fate and transport of carbamazepine in soil aquifer treatment (SAT) infiltration basin soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arye, Gilboa; Dror, Ishai; Berkowitz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The transport and fate of the pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) were investigated in the Dan Region Reclamation Project (SHAFDAN), Tel-Aviv, Israel. Soil samples were taken from seven subsections of soil profiles (150 cm) in infiltration basins of a soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. The transport characteristics were studied from the release dynamics of soil-resident CBZ and, subsequently, from applying a pulse input of wastewater containing CBZ. In addition, a monitoring study was performed to evaluate the fate of CBZ after the SAT. Results of this study indicate adsorption, and consequently retardation, in CBZ transport through the top soil layer (0-5 cm) and to a lesser extent in the second layer (5-25 cm), but not in deeper soil layers (25-150 cm). The soluble and adsorbed fractions of CBZ obtained from the two upper soil layers comprised 45% of the total CBZ content in the entire soil profile. This behavior correlated to the higher organic matter content observed in the upper soil layers (0-25 cm). It is therefore deduced that when accounting for the full flow path of CBZ through the vadose zone to the groundwater region, the overall transport of CBZ in the SAT system is essentially conservative. The monitoring study revealed that the average concentration of CBZ decreased from 1094 ± 166 ng L⁻¹ in the recharged wastewater to 560 ± 175 ng L⁻¹ after the SAT. This reduction is explained by dilution of the recharged wastewater with resident groundwater, which may occur as it flows to active reclamation wells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phosphate Treatment of Lead-Contaminated Soil: Effects on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality threats associated with using phosphate-based amendments to remediate Pb-contaminated soils are a concern, particularly in riparian areas. This study investigated the effects of P application rates to a Pb-contaminated alluvial soil on Pb and P loss via surface water runoff, Pb accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb; Kentucky 31), and Pb speciation. An alluvial soil was treated with triple superphosphate at P to Pb molar ratios of 0:1(control), 4:1, 8:1, and 16:1. After a 6- mo reaction period, rainfall simulation (RFS) studies were conducted, followed by tall fescue establishment and a second set of RFS studies (1 yr after treatment). Results from the first RFS (unvegetated) demonstrated that the total Pb and P concentrations in the effluents of 8:1 and 16:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) treatment levels were significantly greater (p 55%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy data showed that pyromorphite [Pb5(PO4)3OH,Cl,F] abundance ranged from 0% (control) to 32% (16:1 P:Pb; 1 yr after treatment) of the total soil Pb. Although P treatment stimulated pyromorphite formation, pyromorphite abundance was comparable between the P-treated soils. These findings suggest that a 4:1 (P:Pb molar ratio) P treatment may be a sufficient means of reducing Pb bioavailability while minimizing concerns related to P loss in an alluvial setting. The purpose of the current research was to examine the feasability of using phosphate based ammend

  19. Removal of heavy metals from kaolin using an upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-Y.; Huang, X.-J.; Kao, Jimmy C.M.; Stabnikova, Olena

    2006-01-01

    An upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology was proposed to remove heavy metals from contaminated kaolin. Unlike conventional electrokinetic treatment that uses boreholes or trenches for horizontal migration of heavy metals, the UESR technology, applying vertical non-uniform electric fields, caused upward transportation of heavy metals to the top surface of the treated soil. The effects of current density, treatment duration, cell diameter, and different cathode chamber influent (distilled water or 0.01 M nitric acid) were studied. The removal efficiencies of heavy metals positively correlated to current density and treatment duration. Higher heavy metals removal efficiency was observed for the reactor cell with smaller diameter. A substantial amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the nearest to cathode 2 cm layer of kaolin when distilled water was continuously supplied to the cathode chamber. Heavy metals accumulated in this layer of kaolin can be easily excavated and disposed off. The main part of the removed heavy metals was dissolved in cathode chamber influent and moved away with cathode chamber effluent when 0.01 M nitric acid was used, instead of distilled water. Energy saving treatment by UESR technology with highest metal removal efficiencies was provided by two regimes: (1) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 mm, duration of 18 days, and constant voltage of 3.5 V (19.7 kWh/m 3 of kaolin) and (2) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 cm, duration of 6 days, and constant current density of 0.191 mA/cm 2 (19.1 kWh/m 3 of kaolin)

  20. [Factors affecting activation and transference of soil colloidal phosphorus and related analysis technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liang, Xin-qiang; Fu, Chao-dong; Zhu, Si-rui; Zhang, Yi-xiang; Ji, Yuan-jing

    2015-04-01

    Colloids play a key role in the transference process of phosphorus (P) in soil. Activation and transference of soil colloidal phosphorus have great effect on soil P pool and the surrounding water quality. This paper summarized the current studies on soil colloidal P, discussing the effects of the various factors (e. g., soil physical and chemical properties, fertilization, rainfall and soil amendments) on the transference of soil colloidal P. Some advanced analysis technologies (e.g., flow field-flow fractionation, transmission electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, X-ray absorption near-edge structure and nuclear magnetic resonance) and methods of reducing soil colloidal P were also involved. This review would provide important information on the mechanism of soil colloidal P transference.

  1. Allelopatic potential of weeds under the minimalization of soil treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Mazirov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of water-dispersible phenol substances in rhizosphere both of annual and perennial species of weeds (Cirsium arvense, Sonchus arvensis increases under soil treatment minimalization. The higher content of phenol substances of researched weeds is defined in rhizosphere of Common Couch (Agropyrum repens. The absence of intensive anthropogenic treatment of plowing layer which accumulates the significant mass of weed’s roots in the cause of much more higher allelopathic potential of some species’ of weeds. The high level of saturation by weeds in agrophytocoenosis under non-tillage soil treatment is defines the competitiveness between certain sepsis’ of weeds, especially, at the beginning of the vegetation. In this case, increasing the secretion of phenol substances is one of the physiological screenings of such competitiveness.

  2. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  3. Vitrification technologies for Weldon Spring raffinate sludges and contaminated soils: Phase I report: Development of alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.; Oma, K.H.; Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    This engineering evaluation was conducted to evaluate vitrification technologies for remediation of raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soils at the Weldon Spring site in St. Charles County, Missouri. Two technologies were evaluated: in situ vitrification (ISV) and the joule-heated ceramic melter (JHCM). Both technologies would be effective at the Weldon Spring site. For ISV, there are two processing options for each type of waste: vitrify the waste in place, or move the waste to a staging area and then vitrify. The total time required to vitrify raffinate sludges, quarry refuse, and contaminated soil is estimated at 5 to 6 years, with operating costs of $65.7M for staged operations or $110M for in-place treatment. This estimate does not include costs for excavation and transportation of wastes to the staging location. Additional tests are recommended to provide a more in-depth evaluation of the processing options and costs. For the JHCM process, about 6.5 years would be required to vitrify the three waste types. Total operating costs are estimated to be $73M if the glass is produced in granular form, and $97M if the glass is cast into canisters. Costs for the excavation and transportation of wastes are beyond the scope of this study and are not included in the estimates. Additional tests are also recommended to better define technical issues and costs. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  4. AN OVERVIEW OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Ramona SURDU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water-resource management key issues include the re-use of wastewater for drinkingwater supply or for industrial or agriculture purposes. In this context, the organic contaminants effects in sewage water entering theenvironment have gained more attention. The studies carried out for these contaminants varied widely, as a function of the substances: pesticides, pharmaceuticalsand diagnostic contrast products, personal care products,antibiotics and so on. Most of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are not really designed totreat these type of compounds and an important part of emerging compounds may enter the aquatic environment via sewage effluents.This study gives an overview of the research concerning the technological steps that must be achieved in WWTP’s, in order to reduce at maximum theoccurrence oforganic substances in effluents.

  5. Application of Geographical Information Systems Technology in Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was increase in available phosphorous upslope compared to downslope, steady decrease in aluminum and hydrogen downslope, while areas closer to the river have less acidic cations. The soil pH ranged from 4.67 ↔ 5.62. Surface soils comprised more of organic carbon content than subsurface soils which ...

  6. Bioremediation of pesticides in surface soil treatment unit using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The manufacturing and use of pesticides has been rising tremendously in India. The waste generated by the pesticide industry has become an environmental problem due to the present insufficient and ineffective waste treatment technology involving physico-chemical and biological treatment. The available data indicates ...

  7. Treatment technology of laundry liquid waste in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijima, Takeshi

    1999-01-01

    The current status of laundry facilities, generation amount and characteristics of laundry drain, and treatment technologies, have been discussed in this paper. Though a number of technologies have been and applied for laundry treatment, the search for more economical and reliable technologies continues in Japan. 5 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Sorption of lead by settling pond soils after reclamation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Verónica; Forján, Rubén; Vega, Flora A.; Andrade, Luisa; Covelo, Emma F.

    2013-04-01

    The reclamation of degraded soils adding waste amendments can add significant concentrations of Pb. Because of this, it is important to know the sorption capacity of Pb by the soils where wastes with high concentrations of this metal are applied. To determine the sorption capacity of Pb by mine soils, before and after reclamation treatments, four different sites were selected at a settling pond mine zone: an untreated one as the control sample (B1), a vegetated one with pines for 21 years (B2v), a vegetated with eucalyptus for 6 years (B3v) and an amended with sewage sludges and paper mill residues for 5 months (B4w). All soils had one horizon except B4w, where twice were sampled (B4Aw and B4Bw). The B4Bw is considered analogous of the control soil. To evaluate the sorption capacity by the soils, sorption isotherms were constructed using single-metal solutions of Pb2+ nitrates (0.03, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol L-1) containing 0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte (Vega et al., 2009). The overall capacity of the soil to sorb Pb was evaluated as the slope Kr (Vega et al., 2008). The obtained results show that the sorption isotherm of Pb by control soil (B1) and its analogous (B4Bw) are of L-type curve, whereas the sorption isotherms of the treated soils (B2v, B3v and B4Aw) are of H-type curve (Giles et al., 1974). The most of the obtained isotherms do not fit with the models of Langmuir or Freundlich, therefore sorption capacity was evaluated by Kr parameter. According to the obtained Kr parameter, B1 and B4Bw have the lowest Pb sorption capacity (Kr = 0.480 and 0.556, respectively), which increased two times after recently waste amending (B4Aw; Kr = 0.998). The vegetated sites (B2v and B3v) also have higher sorption capacity than B1, but lower than B4Aw (Kr = 0.692 and 0.725, respectively). The highest sorption capacity of Pb by the amended soil is due to its characteristics such as high pH and organic carbon content. This is corroborated by the significantly

  9. Solid waste treatment by microwave irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid Nasir Ani; Arshad Adam Salema

    2010-01-01

    Strict legislative laws both nationally and internationally have enforced the waste management expertise to develop new technologies with regard to waste treatment facilities. This is because the waste is directly linked to human development, technologically, socially and environmentally. In present research work, solid (oil palm biomass and scrap tire) wastes were subjected to microwave irradiation system. Since these wastes are found abundantly locally as well as in surrounding areas of Malaysia. The aim of the present work was to investigate the pyrolysis behavior of oil palm biomass and scrap tires under microwave radiation. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis process was used to produce pyrolysis-oil by mixing waste materials with suitable microwave absorber at different ratio. A modified domestic microwave system with maximum power of 1000 W and 2450 MHz frequency was used. The results showed that the ratio of biomass to microwave absorber plays a significant role on the yield of bio-oil. Temperature profiles revealed the heating characteristics of the waste materials. Generation of heat within the material under microwave is so instantaneous that it takes few seconds to reach high temperature which otherwise is difficult to achieve in conventional systems. Hence, the time and energy consumption of process is significantly reduced by using microwaves irradiation technique. This leads to a lower process cost. Pyrolysis oil from scrap tires showed high heating values. Bio-oil from oil palm biomass showed lower viscosity due to presence of water content and compounds such as phenol, aldehyde and others were detected through FT-IR analysis. Biomass char image analysis showed porous nature when treated with microwave technique however it showed large cracks when treated with conventional electrical furnace. Overall, the results revealed that the waste can be treated efficiently, effectively and environmentally by using new microwave irradiation technique. (author)

  10. Review in Strengthening Technology for Phytoremediation of Soil Contaminated by Heavy Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chishan; Zhang, Xingfeng; Deng, Yang

    2017-07-01

    In view of current problems of phytoremediation technology, this paper summarizes research progress for phytoremediation technology of heavy metal contaminated soil. When the efficiency of phytoremediation may not meet the demand in practice of contaminated soil or water. Effective measures should be taken to improve the plant uptake and translocation. This paper focuses on strengthening technology mechanism, which can not only increase the biomass of plant and hyperaccumulators, but also enhance the tolerance and resistance to heavy metals, and application effect of phytoremediation, including agronomic methods, earthworm bioremediation and chemical induction technology. In the end of paper, deficiencies of each methods also be discussed, methods of strengthening technology for phytoremediation need further research.

  11. EVALUATION OF VADOSE ZONE TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO IMMOBILIZE TECHNETIUM-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN, S.W.

    2006-03-15

    The Hanford Site End State Vision document (DOE/RL-2003-59) states: ''There should be an aggressive plan to develop technology for remediation of the contamination that could get to the groundwater (particularly the technetium [{sup 99}Tc])''. In addition, there is strong support from the public and regulatory agencies for the above statement, with emphasis on investigation of treatment alternatives. In July 2004, PNNL completed a preliminary evaluation of remediation technologies with respect to their effectiveness and implementability for immobilization of {sup 99}Tc beneath the BC Cribs in the 200 West Area (Truex, 2004). As a result of this evaluation, PNNL recommended treatability testing of in situ soil desiccation, because it has the least uncertainty of those technologies evaluated in July 2004 (Treatability Test Outline, September 30, 2004). In 2005, DOE-RL and Fluor Hanford convened an independent technical panel to review alternative remediation technologies, including desiccation, at a three-day workshop in Richland, Washington. The panel was composed of experts in vadose-zone transport, infiltration control, hydrology, geochemistry, environmental engineering, and geology. Their backgrounds include employment in academia, government laboratories, industry, and consulting. Their review, presented in this document, is based upon written reports from Hanford, oral presentations from Hanford staff, and each panel members' years of experience in their particular field of expertise. The purpose of this report is to document the panel's evaluation of various treatment alternatives with potential for minimizing contaminant migration in the deep vadose zone at the Department of Energy Hanford Site. The panel was tasked with assessing the most viable and practical approach and making recommendations for testing. The evaluation of vadose-zone treatment alternatives was conducted to be broadly applicable at a variety of locations at

  12. Membrane technologies for liquid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.

    1998-01-01

    At Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) the membrane method for purification of radioactive wastes applied such processes as ultrafiltration (UF), 'seeded' ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO) was developed. On the basis of the results obtained in laboratory experiments the pilot plant for radioactive effluents treatment was built. The plant was composed of UF unit (AMICON H 26P30 capillary module) and two RO units (NITTO NTR 739 HF S-4 spiral wound LPRO modules). The capacity of the pilot plant was up to 200 L/h and the specific activity of wastes purified in the system - below 10 4 Bq/L. Decontamination factor for entire system is higher than 5 x10 3 . Another possibility for radioactive wastes treatment is membrane distillation (MD), non-isothermal process employing hydrophobic polymer membrane, which is developed at INCT now. Preliminary tests with liquid radwaste were carried out on laboratory unit with permeation test-cell holding flat sheet membrane. As a hydrophobic barrier membranes made of two polymers were used: polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polypropylene (PP). The process was arranged in direct contact membrane distillation configuration. The permeate condensed directly in the cold stream (distilled water) and retentate was enriched in radionuclides. The further experiments carried out with capillary module BFMF 06-30-33 (Euro-Sep Ltd.) with polypropylene capillaries, diameter 0.33 mm and cut off 0.6 μm proved previous results. A pilot plant employing GORE-TEX membrane distillation was constructed. The plant can clean the low-level radioactive wastes from nuclear centre, at a throughput about 0.05 m 3 /h

  13. BIOREMEDIATION - TECHNOLOGY FOR DECONTAMINATION OF SOILS POLLUTED WITH PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Ramona PECINGINĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of soil with petroleum hydrocarbons prevents unfolding processes ofwater infiltration in soil, its circulation and the exchanges of the gaseous substances with theatmosphere. The biodegradation speed of the pollutants by the microorganisms is influenced ofsome factors: nutrients, soil type, humidity, temperature, pH, the type and the metabolism of themicroorganisms. The spill of the crude oil in the soil results in numerical growth of bacteriapopulations, with a concomitant reduction in their diversity, respectively with the predominantspecies that degrade hydrocarbons to simpler compounds, determining their gradualdisappearance.

  14. TECHNOLOGIES FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Gabriela POPA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological methods for remediation of soils is based on the degradation of pollutants due to activity of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi. Effectiveness of biological decontamination of soils depends on the following factors: biodegradation of pollutants, type of microorganisms used, choice of oxidant and nutrient and subject to clean up environmental characteristics. Ex situ techniques for bioremediation of soils polluted are: composting (static / mechanical agitation, land farming and biopiles. Techniques in situ bioremediation of soils polluted are: bioventingul, biospargingul and biostimulation – bioaugumentarea.

  15. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soil from service stations. Evaluation of biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puustinen, J.; Jorgensen, K.S.; Strandberg, T.; Suortti, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Biological treatment of contaminated soil has received much attention during the last decade. Microbes are known to be able to degrade many oil hydrocarbons. However, research is needed to ensure that new technologies are implemented in a safe and reliable way under Finnish climatic conditions. The main points of interest are the rate of the degradation as well as the survival and efficiency of microbial inoculants possibly introduced during the treatment. During 1993 the biotreatability of oil-contaminated soil from service stations was investigated in cooperation with the Finnish Petroleum Federation. The goal of this field-scale study was to test how fast lubrication oil can be composted during one Finnish summer season and to find out whether microbial inoculants would enhance the degradation rate. The soil was excavated from three different service stations in the Helsinki metropolitan area and was transported to a controlled composting area. The soil was sieved and compost piles, also called biopiles, were constructed on the site. Bark chips were used as the bulking agent and nutrients and lime were added to enhance the biological activity. Two different commercial bacterial inoculants were added to two of the piles. The piles were turned by a tractor-drawn screw-type mixer at two to four weeks interval. Between the mixings, the piles were covered with tarpaulins to prevent evaporation and potential excessive wetting. Several microbiological parameters were determined during the test period as well as the temperature and mineral oil content

  16. Steam-treatment-based soil remediation promotes heat-tolerant, potentially pathogenic microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Bender, Mikkel; Ekelund, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    soil, at a depth of about 40 cm, reached a temperature c. 45°C higher than untreated soil. The soil was examined prior to, during, and 6, 12, 14, 20 and 31 months after treatment. Numbers of bacteria cultivable at 42°C increased significantly in subsurface soil. Similarly, substrate utilization...

  17. Technologies for increasing carbon storage in soil to mitigate climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmore, A.P.; Kirk, G.J.D.; Rawlins, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    Means to enhance storage of carbon in soil or avoid its loss from soil are discussed and examined from the viewpoint of policy. In particular, technologies that have until now received little attention are assessed. The main means by which soil carbon might be increased are first listed. These are the following: (i) increasing the rate of input of organic matter; (ii) decreasing the rate of its decomposition by biological or chemical means; (iii) increasing the rate of its stabilization by ph...

  18. Evaluation of Bioaugmentation with Entrapped Degrading Cells as a Soil Remediation Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil augmentation with microbial degraders immobilized on carriers is evaluated as a potential remediation technology using a mathematical model that includes degradation within spatially distributed carriers and diffusion or advectiondispersion as contaminant mass transfer mechanisms. The total...... degraders have low intrinsic degradation rates and that only limited carrier to soil volume ratios are practically feasible, bioaugmented soils are characterized by low effective degradation ratesandcanbeconsidered fully mixed. A simple exponential model is then sufficient to predict biodegradation...

  19. Net sulfur mineralization potential in Swedish arable soils in relation to long-term treatment history and soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kristin; Nilsson, S Ingvar; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    accumulated net S mineralization (SAccMin) and a number of soil physical and chemical properties were determined. Treatments and soil differences in SAccMin, as well as correlations with soil variables, were tested with single and multivariate analyses. Long-term FYM application resulted in a significantly (p......The long-term treatment effect (since 1957-1966) of farmyard manure (FYM) application compared with crop residue incorporation was investigated in five soils (sandy loam to silty clay) with regards to the net sulfur (S) mineralization potential. An open incubation technique was used to determine...... = 0.012) higher net S mineralization potential, although total amounts of C, N, and S were not significantly (p soils within this treatment. The measured soil variables were not significantly correlated...

  20. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  1. Phosphorus in soil treatment systems: accumulation and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveborn, David; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Elmefors, Elin; Yu, Lin; Eriksson, Ann-Kristin; Ljung, Emelie; Renman, Gunno

    2014-11-01

    Septic tanks with subsequent soil treatment systems (STS) are a common treatment technique for domestic wastewater in rural areas. Phosphorus (P) leakage from such systems may pose a risk to water quality (especially if they are located relatively close to surface waters). In this study, six STS in Sweden (11-28 years old) were examined. Samples taken from the unsaturated subsoil beneath the distribution pipes were investigated by means of batch and column experiments, and accumulated phosphorus were characterized through X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis. At all sites the wastewater had clearly influenced the soil. This was observed through decreased pH, increased amounts of oxalate extractable metals and at some sites altered P sorption properties. The amount of accumulated P in the STS were found to be between 0.32 and 0.87 kg m(-3), which in most cases was just a fraction of the estimated P load (<30%). Column studies revealed that high P concentrations (up to 6 mg L(-1)) were leached from the material when deionized water was applied. However, the response to deionized water varied between the sites. As evidenced by XANES analysis, aluminium phosphates or P adsorbed to aluminium (hydr)oxides, as well as organically bound P, were important sinks for P. Generally soils with a high content of oxalate-extractable Al were also less vulnerable to P leakage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergent Imaging and Geospatial Technologies for Soil Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGloria, Stephen D.; Beaudette, Dylan E.; Irons, James R.; Libohova, Zamir; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Owens, Phillip R.; Schoeneberger, Philip J.; West, Larry T.; Wysocki, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Soil survey investigations and inventories form the scientific basis for a wide spectrum of agronomic and environmental management programs. Soil data and information help formulate resource conservation policies of federal, state, and local governments that seek to sustain our agricultural production system while enhancing environmental quality on both public and private lands. The dual challenges of increasing agricultural production and ensuring environmental integrity require electronically available soil inventory data with both spatial and attribute quality. Meeting this societal need in part depends on development and evaluation of new methods for updating and maintaining soil inventories for sophisticated applications, and implementing an effective framework to conceptualize and communicate tacit knowledge from soil scientists to numerous stakeholders.

  3. Effects of Comprehensive Technologies on the Improvement of Acidified Vineyard Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongguo; Wang, Qiunan; Xu, Feng; Jin, Jun; Wang, Guoyu; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-01-01

    Soil acidification is an important factor that restricts the yield and quality of fruits. In this study, the comprehensive improving technologies were applied on the vineyards in which the soil pH is below 5.5. The technologies include application of soil conditioner, organic fertilizer and bacterial manure, and growth of green manure and natural grass. The results show that the comprehensive improving technologies can raise the pH of 0-15 cm soil layer by 0.5-0.8 unit and the pH of 15-30 cm soil layer by 0.3-0.6 unit. The soil bulk densities are decreased by 0.77-10.42%. The contents of organic matter, total N, available P and K in the soils are all increased. Therefore, the soil fertilities are improved. The yields of grape fruits are increased by 12.77-14.94%, and the contents of soluble solid in the grapes are raised by 7.01-9.55%, by the comprehensive measure of seaweed liquid silicon plus sheep manure plus growth of green manure. The comprehensive measure of soil conditioner Naduoli No. 1 plus bacterial manure plus natural grass increases the yields of grape by 7.67%, raises the content of soluble solid in the grape by 8.6%. But the effect of the comprehensive measure of unslaked lime plus sheep manure plus growth of green manure is not clear.

  4. The potential impact on the biodegradation of organic pollutants from composting technology for soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoya; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Wang, Jingjing; Wan, Jia; Wang, Jiajia; Deng, Yaocheng; Liu, Yani; Peng, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Large numbers of organic pollutants (OPs), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and petroleum, are discharged into soil, posing a huge threat to natural environment. Traditional chemical and physical remediation technologies are either incompetent or expensive, and may cause secondary pollution. The technology of soil composting or use of compost as soil amendment can utilize quantities of active microbes to degrade OPs with the help of available nutrients in the compost matrix. It is highly cost-effective for soil remediation. On the one hand, compost incorporated into contaminated soil is capable of increasing the organic matter content, which improves the soil environment and stimulates the metabolically activity of microbial community. On the other hand, the organic matter in composts would increase the adsorption of OPs and affect their bioavailability, leading to decreased fraction available for microorganism-mediated degradation. Some advanced instrumental analytical approaches developed in recent years may be adopted to expound this process. Therefore, the study on bioavailability of OPs in soil is extremely important for the application of composting technology. This work will discuss the changes of physical and chemical properties of contaminated soils and the bioavailability of OPs by the adsorption of composting matrix. The characteristics of OPs, types and compositions of compost amendments, soil/compost ratio and compost distribution influence the bioavailability of OPs. In addition, the impact of composting factors (composting temperature, co-substrates and exogenous microorganisms) on the removal and bioavailability of OPs is also studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvement of Base and Soil Construction Quality by Using Intelligent Compaction Technology : Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Intelligent Compaction (IC) technique is a fast-developing technology for base and soil compaction quality control. Proof-rolling subgrades and bases using IC rollers upon completion of compaction can identify the less stiff spots and significantly i...

  6. The rapid measurement of soil carbon stock using near-infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumo, B. H.; Sukartono; Bustan

    2018-03-01

    As a soil pool stores carbon (C) three times higher than an atmospheric pool, the depletion of C stock in the soil will significantly increase the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, causing global warming. However, the monitoring or measurement of soil C stock using conventional procedures is time-consuming and expensive. So it requires a rapid and non-destructive technique that is simple and does not need chemical substances. This research is aimed at testing whether near-infrared (NIR) technology is able to rapidly measure C stock in the soil. Soil samples were collected from an agricultural land at the sub-district of Kayangan, North Lombok, Indonesia. The coordinates of the samples were recorded. Parts of the samples were analyzed using conventional procedure (Walkley and Black) and some other parts were scanned using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for soil spectral collection. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) was used to develop models from soil C data measured by conventional analysis and from spectral data scanned by NIRS. The best model was moderately successful to measure soil C stock in the study area in North Lombok. This indicates that the NIR technology can be further used to monitor the change of soil C stock in the soil.

  7. Overview of established and emerging treatment technologies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at wood preserving facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearon, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The contamination of soil and groundwater by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is common to wood preserving facilities and manufactured gas plants. Since the inception of RCRA and CERCLA, much attention has been focused upon the remediation of both active and defunct wood preserving facilities. The experiences gleaned from the use of proven technologies, and more importantly, the lessons being learned in the trials of emerging technologies on creosote-derived PAH clean-ups at wood preserving sites, should have direct bearing on the clean-up of similar contaminants at MGP sites. In this paper, a review of several remedial actions using waste removal/disposal, on-site incineration, and bioremediation will be presented. Additionally, emerging technologies for the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil and water will be reviewed. Lastly, recent information on risk assessment results for creosote sites and treated PAH waste will be discussed

  8. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Natsis, M.E. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)); Walker, J.S. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  9. Soil washing as a potential remediation technology for contaminated DOE sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Natsis, M.E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Walker, J.S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Frequently detected contaminants at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites include radionuclides, heavy metals, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Remediation of these sites requires application of several technologies used in concert with each other, because no single technology is universally applicable. Special situations, such as mixed waste, generally require innovative technology development. This paper, however, focuses on contaminated soils, for which soil washing and vitrification technologies appear to have wide ranging application potential. Because the volumes of contaminated soils around the DOE complex are so large, soil washing can offer a potentially inexpensive way to effect remediation or to attain waste volume reduction. As costs for disposal of low-level and mixed wastes continue to rise, it is likely that volume-reduction techniques and in-situ containment techniques will become increasingly important. This paper reviews the status of the soil washing technology, examines the systems that are currently available, and discusses the potential application of this technology to some DOE sites, with a focus on radionuclide contamination and, primarily, uranium-contaminated soils

  10. Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bramorski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR and tortuosity (T and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage soil (NTS and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking soil (CTS. Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity, demonstrating the importance of the tillage system for the physical surface conditions, favoring water retention and infiltration in the soil. The increase in surface roughness by the tillage treatments was considerably greater than its reduction by rain action. The surface roughness and tortuosity had more influence on the soil volume lost by surface runoff than in the conventional treatment. Possibly, other variables influenced soil and water losses from the no-tillage treatments, e.g., soil type, declivity, slope length, among others not analyzed in this study.

  11. Assessment of technologies for the remediation of oil-contaminated soil resulting from exploded oil wells and burning oil fires in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Awadhi, N.M.; Abdal, M.S.; Briskey, E.J.; Williamson, K.

    1992-01-01

    Large quantities of Kuwait desert soils have been contaminated by oil-lakes and by serial deposition of particulates and non-combusted petroleum products. The oil content of these soils must be reduced substantially in order to restore the potential of Kuwait's land for plant and animal production and to guard against long-term adverse implications to human health. Extensive world-wide research and development for the treatment of soils contaminated with hazardous wastes have results in a number of different types of technologies that might be used to remediate soils in Kuwait. These types of technologies, include incineration, thermal volatilization and steam leaching (oil recovery) and direct bioremediation, amongst others. The dimensions and technical aspects of the problem will be presented and applicable technology will be reviewed

  12. The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and Acid leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosim-Affandi; Umar-Sarip; Alwi, Guswita; Sri-Sudaryanto

    2000-01-01

    The treatments of soil Rirang by floatation and acid leaching has been carried out to increase high uranium concentrates of materials, separating associated economical minerals and to reduce the gangue minerals which bothering at chemical processing. The physical treatment has been done by ore preparation and floatation using oleic acid and p ine oil , 20 % of pulp at pH 9, condition time at 5 minutes and collections of float fraction was 10 minutes. The chemical processing has been done by dynamic leaching using H 2 SO 4 100 kg/ton, MnO 2 20 kg/ton, 50 % of solid with ore size - 65 mesh, temperature at 80 o C and time of leaching was 8 hours. The result of experiments is as follows : Physical treatment by floatation shown that the concentrates of U increased at sink fraction by (1.5 - 2) times against feed sample for all the samples, and in the float fraction the recovery of molybdenite separation is 58 - 81 % and rare earths is 57 - 80 %. The result of dynamic leaching is 76 - 91 %, and recovery uranium increasing from 81.02 % (mixture samples soil before floatation) to 91.16 % ( mixture samples of float fraction)

  13. Assessing the removal potential of soil-aquifer treatment system (soil column) for endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizani, Mokhtar; Kato, Hideaki; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2011-06-01

    Soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) of wastewater is an increasingly valued practice for replenishing aquifers due to ease of operation and low maintenance needs and therefore low cost. In this study, we investigated the fate of endotoxins through laboratory-scale SAT soil columns over a four month period. The effluent of rapid sand filtration was run through the columns under gravity flow conditions. Four SAT columns were packed with four different filter materials (fine sand, medium sand, coarse sand and very coarse sand). The effluent of rapid sand filtration (average dissolved organic carbon (DOC) = 4 mg l(-1) and average endotoxin concentration = 4 EU ml(-1)) was collected from a domestic wastewater treatment plant in Sapporo, Japan. DOC removal ranged from 12.5% to greater than 22.5% during the study, with DOC levels averaging 3.1 and 3.5 mg l(-1) for the SAT columns packed with different soils. Endotoxin transformation exhibited different profiles, depending on the time and soil type. Reduction in endotoxin concentration averaged 64.3% and was as high as 86.7% across the soil columns 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. While DOC removal was gradual, the reductions in endotoxin levels were rather rapid and most of the removal was achieved in the top layers. Soil with a larger grain size had lower efficiency in removing endotoxin. Tests were performed to evaluate the transformation of organic matter showing endotoxicity and to determine the mechanisms responsible for changes in the structural and size properties of dissolved organic matter (OM) during SAT. Dissolved OM was fractionated using Sep-Pack C18 Cartridges into hydrophobic and hydrophilic fractions. Dialysis tubes with different molecular weight cut-offs were used to perform size fractions of OM showing endotoxicity. Evaluation of the transformation of organic matter showing endotoxicity during SAT indicated that both hydrophobic and large molecules were reduced. Moreover, experimental findings showed that

  14. Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K

    2011-05-01

    A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphate, using high strength artificial wastewater. The removal rates were determined under a combination of constant hydraulic loading rates (HLR) and variable COD concentrations as well as variable HLR under a constant COD. Within the range of COD concentrations considered (42 mg L-1-135 mg L-1) it was found that at fixed hydraulic loading rate, a decrease in the influent concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total nitrogen and phosphate improved their removal efficiencies. At the high COD concentrations applied residence times influenced the redox conditions in the soil column. Long residence times were detrimental to the removal process for COD, BOD and DOC as anoxic processes and sulphate reduction played an important role as electron acceptors. It was found that total COD mass loading within the range of 911 mg d-1-1780 mg d-1 applied as low COD wastewater infiltrated coupled with short residence times would provide better effluent quality than the same mass applied as a COD with higher concentration at long residence times. The opposite was true for organic nitrogen where relatively high concentrations coupled with long residence time gave better removal efficiency. © 2011.

  15. Advanced Soil Moisture Network Technologies; Developments in Collecting in situ Measurements for Remote Sensing Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Silva, A. R. D.; Akbar, R.; Clewley, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator (SoilSCAPE) wireless sensor network has been developed to support Calibration and Validation activities (Cal/Val) for large scale soil moisture remote sensing missions (SMAP and AirMOSS). The technology developed here also readily supports small scale hydrological studies by providing sub-kilometer widespread soil moisture observations. An extensive collection of semi-sparse sensor clusters deployed throughout north-central California and southern Arizona provide near real time soil moisture measurements. Such a wireless network architecture, compared to conventional single points measurement profiles, allows for significant and expanded soil moisture sampling. The work presented here aims at discussing and highlighting novel and new technology developments which increase in situ soil moisture measurements' accuracy, reliability, and robustness with reduced data delivery latency. High efficiency and low maintenance custom hardware have been developed and in-field performance has been demonstrated for a period of three years. The SoilSCAPE technology incorporates (a) intelligent sensing to prevent erroneous measurement reporting, (b) on-board short term memory for data redundancy, (c) adaptive scheduling and sampling capabilities to enhance energy efficiency. A rapid streamlined data delivery architecture openly provides distribution of in situ measurements to SMAP and AirMOSS cal/val activities and other interested parties.

  16. Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

    2004-01-01

    An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under

  17. Research advances in treatment technology of radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Zhang Ye

    2010-01-01

    Traditional treatment technologies on radioactive wastewater such as flocculating sedimentation, ion exchange, evaporation concentration and adsorption method at home and abroad are reviewed, and the latest research progress such as membrane method, biological treatment, magnetic-molecules method, inert curing method and permeable reactive (zero-valent iron) barriers technology are introduced. (authors)

  18. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. SUMMARY REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-01-01

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem

  19. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION. FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology

  20. Assessment of the feasibility of anaerobic composting for treatment of perchlorate - contaminated soils in a war zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objectives of this study were to determine the perchlorate concentrations in surface soils and assess feasibility of anaerobic bioremediation in full-scale for perchlorate-contaminated soils in a war zone. Materials and Methods: Fifteen samples of surface soil were collected using a composite sampling method in the study area. The soil samples, after extraction and preparation, were analyzed by ion chromatography. Anaerobic composting technique (soil excavation, mixing with manure, transfer into treatment cell and cover with a 6-mil high-density polyethylene liner considered to cleanup perchlorate-contaminated soil in a war zone. Results: The concentration of perchlorate in the soil surface samples ranged from 3 to 107.9 mg/kg, which is more than State advisory levels for residential and protection of domestic groundwater use pathway. This study indicates that technologies, skills, experience, raw materials (manure, lands, and machinery needed for implementation of full-scale composting, are available in the study area. Conclusions: Based on the results, anaerobic composting technique could be considered as a feasible, viable and cost-effective alternative for perchlorate bioremediation in the study area. According to the available of techniques and skills, successful experiences of anaerobic composting in other countries, and potential of study area, The application of anaerobic composting is technically feasible and can be use for perchlorate contaminated soil cleanup in a zone war.

  1. Remediation in Situ of Hydrocarbons by Combined Treatment in a Contaminated Alluvial Soil due to an Accidental Spill of LNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination represents an environmental issue which has become extremely important in the last decades due to the diffusion of industrial activities. Accidents during transport of dangerous materials and fuels may cause severe pollution. The present paper describes the criteria of the actions which were operated to remediate the potential risk and observed negative effects on groundwater and soil originating from an accidental spill of diesel fuel from a tank truck. With the aim to evaluate the quality of the involved environmental matrices in the “emergency” phase, in the following “safety” operation and during the remediation action, a specific survey on hydrocarbons, light and heavy, was carried out in the sand deposits soil. Elaboration of collected data allows us to observe the movement of pollutants in the unsaturated soil. The remediation action was finalized to improve the groundwater and soil quality. The former was treated by a so called “pump and treat” system coupled with air sparging. A train of three different technologies was applied to the unsaturated soil in a sequential process: soil vapour extraction, bioventing and enhanced bioremediation. Results showed that the application of sequential remediation treatments allowed us to obtain a state of quality in unsaturated soil and groundwater as required by Italian law.

  2. Sensing technologies to measure metabolic activities in soil and assess its health conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    (olfactory fingerprint) typical of the analysed air sample. Due to these features, we decided to apply such a sensing technology to the analyses of soil atmospheres, because several processes in soil, both abiotic and biotic, result in gas and/or volatile production and the dynamics of such releases may also be affected by several additional environmental factors, such as soil moisture, temperature, gas exchange rates with outer atmosphere, adsorption/desorption processes, etc. Then, the analysis of soil atmosphere may provide information about global soil conditions (e.g. soil quality and health), according to a holistic approach, where several factors are contemporarily taken into account. At the same time, the use of such a technology, if adequately trained on purpose, can supply information about a single or a pool of processes sharing similar features, which occur in soil over a certain period of time and mostly affecting soil atmosphere. According to these premises and hypotheses, we demonstrated that EN is an useful technology to measure soil microbial activity, through its correlation to specific metabolic activities occurring in soil (i.e. global and specific respiration and some enzyme activities), but also soil microbial biomass. On the basis of such evidences, we also were able to use this technology to assess the quality and health conditions of soil ecosystems in terms of metabolic indices previously identified, according to some metabolic parameters and biomass quantification of microbial populations. In other studies, we also applied EN technology, despite using a different set of sensors in the array, to analyse the atmosphere of soil ecosystems in order to assess their environmental conditions after contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (i.e. semivolatile - SVOCs - organic pollutants). In this case, EN technology resulted capable of distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated soils, according to the differences in a list of

  3. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning.

  4. Mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents details about the technology development programs of the Department of Energy. In this document, waste characterization, thermal treatment processes, non-thermal treatment processes, effluent monitors and controls, development of on-site innovative technologies, and DOE business opportunities are applied to environmental restoration. The focus areas for research are: contaminant plume containment and remediation; mixed waste characterization, treatment, and disposal; high-level waste tank remediation; landfill stabilization; and decontamination and decommissioning

  5. Multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) for optimal locations of Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaratos, P; Kallioras, A; Pizpikis, Th; Vasileiou, E; Ilia, I; Pliakas, F

    2017-12-15

    Managed Aquifer Recharge is a wide-spread well-established groundwater engineering method which is largely seen as sound and sustainable solution to water scarcity hydrologically sensitive areas, such as the Circum Mediterranean. The process of site selection for the installation of a MAR facility is of paramount importance for the feasibility and effectiveness of the project itself, especially when the facility will include the use of waters of impaired quality as a recharge source, as in the case of Soil-Aquifer-Treatment systems. The main objective of this study is to present the developed framework of a multi-criteria Decision Support System (DSS) that integrates within a dynamic platform the main groundwater engineering parameters associated with MAR applications together with the general geographical features which determine the effectiveness of such a project. The proposed system will provide an advanced coupled DSS-GIS tool capable of handling local MAR-related issues -such as hydrogeology, topography, soil, climate etc., and spatially distributed variables -such as societal, economic, administrative, legislative etc., with special reference to Soil-Aquifer-Treatment technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Amendment of arsenic and chromium polluted soil from wood preservation by iron residues from water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov; Petersen, L. R.; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , mostly in the deepest samplers. This is likely due to the formation of a pseudo-gley because of precipitation surplus. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium contaminated soil using WTR is a promising method but the transformation of ferrihydrite in soil proves a concern in case of waterlogged soils......An iron-rich water treatment residue (WTR) consisting mainly of ferrihydrite was used for immobilization of arsenic and chromium in a soil contaminated by wood preservatives. A leaching batch experiment was conducted using two soils, a highly contaminated soil (1033mgkg−1 As and 371mgkg−1 Cr......) and slightly contaminated soil (225mgkg−1 As and 27mgkg−1 Cr). Compared to an untreated reference soil, amendment with 5% WTR reduced leaching in the highly contaminated soil by 91% for Cr and 98% for As. No aging effect was observed after 103d. In a small field experiment, soil was mixed with 2.5% WTR in situ...

  7. Biological treatment processes for PCB contaminated soil at a site in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, M.; Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D.; Mohn, W.; Reimer, K.; Parsons, D.; Patel, T.; Daugulis, A.

    2002-01-01

    SAIC Canada is conducting a study under the direction of a joint research and development contract between Public Works and Government Services Canada and Environment Canada to examine the biological options for treating PCB contaminated soil found at a containment cell at a former U.S. Military Base near Stephenville, Newfoundland. In particular, the study examines the feasibility of using indigenous microbes for the degradation of PCBs. The first phase of the study involved the testing of the microbes in a bioreactor. The second phase, currently underway, involves a complete evaluation of possible microbes for PCB degradation. It also involves further study into the biological process options for the site. Suitable indigenous and non-indigenous microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation are being identified and evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and economics of microbial treatment in a conventional bioreactor is being evaluated. The conventional bioreactor used in this study is the two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using a biopile process. Results thus far will be used to help Public Works and Government Services Canada to choose the most appropriate remedial technology. Preliminary results suggest that the use of soil classification could reduce the volume of soil requiring treatment. The soil in the containment cell contains microorganisms that could grow in isolation on biphenyl, naphthalene and potentially Aroclor 1254. Isolated native microbes were inoculated in the TPPB for growth. The TPPB was also run successfully under anaerobic conditions. Future work will involve lab-scale evaluation of microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation using both indigenous and non-indigenous microbes. The next phase of study may also involve field-scale demonstration of treatment methods. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  9. Effects of aluminium water treatment residuals, used as a soil amendment to control phosphorus mobility in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulén, Barbro; Etana, Ararso; Lindström, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from agricultural soils is a serious environmental concern. Application of aluminium water treatment residuals (Al-WTRs) at a rate of 20 Mg ha(-1) to clay soils from central Sweden significantly increased mean topsoil P sorption index (PSI) from 4.6 to 5.5 μmol kg(-1) soil. Mean degree of P saturation in ammonium lactate extract (DPS-AL) significantly decreased from 17 to 13%, as did plant-available P (P-AL). Concentrations of dissolved reactive P (DRP) decreased by 10-85% in leaching water with Al-WTR treatments after exposure of topsoil lysimeters to simulated rain. Soil aggregate stability (AgS) for 15 test soils rarely improved. Three soils (clay loam, silty loam and loam sand) were tested in greenhouse pot experiments. Aluminium-WTR application of 15 or 30 ton ha(-1) to loam sand and a clay loam with P-AL values of 80-100 mg kg(-1) soil significantly increased growth of Italian ryegrass when fertilised with P but did not significantly affect growth of spring barley on any soil. Al-WTR should only be applied to soils with high P fertility where improved crop production is not required.

  10. Land degradation and adoption of soil conservation technologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... farm size and percentage of crop loss. The major problem identified by the farmers is the high cost of suitable soil conservation methods. Keywords: land degradation; perception and adoption; conservation practices; simultaneous probit model. Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences Vol 3(1) 2005: 1-8 ...

  11. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment, Applied Technology Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Lauerhass; Vince C. Maio; S. Kenneth Merrill; Arlin L. Olson; Keith J. Perry

    2003-06-01

    Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates treatment of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of sodium-bearing waste by December 31, 2012. Applied technology activities are required to provide the data necessary to complete conceptual design of four identified alternative processes and to select the preferred alternative. To provide a technically defensible path forward for the selection of a treatment process and for the collection of needed data, an applied technology plan is required. This document presents that plan, identifying key elements of the decision process and the steps necessary to obtain the required data in support of both the decision and the conceptual design. The Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Applied Technology Plan has been prepared to provide a description/roadmap of the treatment alternative selection process. The plan details the results of risk analyzes and the resulting prioritized uncertainties. It presents a high-level flow diagram governing the technology decision process, as well as detailed roadmaps for each technology. The roadmaps describe the technical steps necessary in obtaining data to quantify and reduce the technical uncertainties associated with each alternative treatment process. This plan also describes the final products that will be delivered to the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office in support of the office's selection of the final treatment technology.

  13. Construction of disturbed and intact soil blocks to develop percolating soil based treatment systems for dirty water from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, S K E; Chadwick, D R; Headon, D M

    2002-03-01

    Intact soil blocks with a surface area of 1.8 x 1.6 m, 1.0 m deep, were excavated in a coarse sandy loam. The sides of the soil blocks were supported with plywood before using hydraulic rams to force a steel cutting plate beneath them. Disturbed soil blocks of the same depth as the intact blocks were also established. Experiments were conducted to determine purification efficiencies for biological oxygen demand (BOD), molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP), nitrate and ammonium-N after the application of dirty water. A preliminary experiment is described where a low application of dirty water was applied to the soil blocks, 2 mm day(-1). In addition, a chloride tracer was conducted for the duration of the experiment. Disturbed soil had a purification efficiency for BOD of 99% compared to 96% from intact soil (Pammonium-N were 100 and 99%, respectively, for the intact and disturbed soils. Nitrate-N concentration increased in leachate from both treatments reaching maximum concentrations of 15 and 8 mg l(-1) from disturbed and intact soils, respectively. Chloride traces for each soil block followed similar patterns with 47 and 51% loss from disturbed and intact soils, respectively.

  14. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  15. Sustainable stabilization of sulfate-bearing soils with expansive soil-rubber technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The beneficial use of scrap tire rubber mixed with expansive soils is of interest to civil engineering : applications since the swell percent and the swell pressure can be potentially reduced with no deleterious : effect to the shear strength of the ...

  16. Treatment of plutonium contaminated soil/sediment from the Mound site using the ACT*DE*CONSM process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, M.C.; Swift, N.A.; North, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The removal and/or treatment of contaminated soil is a major problem facing the US DOE. The EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies site in Miamisburg, Ohio, has an estimated 1.5 million cubic feet of soils from past disposal and waste burial practices awaiting remediation from plutonium contamination. This amount includes sediment from the Miami-Erie Canal that was contaminated in 1969 following a pipe- rupture accident. Conventional soil washing techniques that use particle separation would generate too large a waste volume to be economically feasible. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed for the cleanup. The ACT*DE*CON process was developed by SELENTEC for washing soils to selectively dissolve and remove heavy metals and radionuclides. ACT*DE*CON chemically dissolves and removes heavy metals and radionuclides from soils and sediments into an aqueous medium. The ACT*DE*CON process uses oxidative carbonate/chelant chemistry to dissolve the contaminant from the sediment and hold the contaminant in solution. The objective of recent work was to document the proves conditions necessary to achieve the Mound-site and regulatory-cleanup goals using the ACT*DE*CON technology

  17. Feasibility Of Coupling Permeable Bio-Barriers And Electrokinetics For The Treatment Of Diesel Hydrocarbons Polluted Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez, Esperanza Mena; Jiménez, Cristina Sáez; Camacho, José Villaseñor; Rodrigo, Manuel A.Rodrigo; Cañizares, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrokinetics and a biobarrier were combined to remediate of a diesel polluted soil. • pH gradients did not affect the biobarrier activity located in soil central position. • Microorganisms were partially detached from the biobarrier and moved across the soil. • An anionic surfactant helped the contact between pollutant and microorganisms. • A 39% of the diesel biodegradable fraction was homogeneously removed across the soil. - Abstract: In this study, the remediation of a diesel hydrocarbon-polluted clay soil using an electrochemical-biological combined technology is assessed. The polluted soil was subjected to an electrokinetic (EK) treatment with a biological permeable reactive barrier. A lab-scale electrochemical cell for soil treatment was used. The biological barrier placed in the soil was a biofilm reactor previously adapted for diesel degradation. A batch experiment of 336 h was conducted in a synthetic clay soil spiked with 10 g·kg −1 of diesel and a constant voltage gradient of 1.0 V cm −1 . Sodium dodecyl sulphate was used as an anionic surfactant in the cathodic well to allow for hydrocarbon emulsification during the treatment. At the end of the experiment, extreme pH values were observed near the electrodes. However, the pH remained constant at approximately 7.7 in the central biobarrier zone, which allowed for biological processes. Biological growth was observed in the biobarrier, and a part of the biofilm was detached and transported through the soil in both directions. Furthermore, the surfactant was transported across the soil due to electromigration and electroosmosis, which resulted in diesel emulsification. The combination of biological and EK phenomena finally resulted in a homogenous hydrocarbon removal of approximately 27% in the polluted soil, which indicated a 39% removal of the diesel biodegradable fraction. Due to the electroosmotic flow and the biological degradation, some of the water, surfactant and

  18. A comparison of technologies for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid , Sana; Shahid , Muhammad; Niazi , Nabeel Khan; Murtaza , Behzad; Bibi , Irshad; Dumat , Camille

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Soil contamination with persistent and potentially (eco)toxic heavy metal(loid)s is ubiquitous around the globe. Concentration of these heavy metal(loid)s in soil has increased drastically over the last three decades, thus posing risk to the environment and human health. Some technologies have long been in use to remediate the hazardous heavy metal(loid)s. Conventional remediation methods for heavy metal(loid)s are generally based on physical, chemical and biological a...

  19. Towards successful bioaugmentation with entrapped cells as a soil remediation technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Dechesne, Arnaud; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Soil remediation technologies are proposed that rely on inoculation with degrading microorganisms entrapped in protective carriers. A mathematical model developed to model entrapped cell bioaugmentation describes the 3-D diffusion-driven mass transfer of benzoate, and its mineralization by Pseudo...... but is restricted in dry conditions, as confirmed by performing cell counts. This highlights the potential of entrapped cells when they act as seeds for soil colonization....

  20. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application.

  1. Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of technological treatments on bacterial communities in tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) as determined by 16S rDNA fingerprinting using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE)

  2. Technology and the Future of Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research via smartphone app is already a reality. The BRIGHTEN study was remarkable because it used technology to both deliver treatment ... and Human Services) Mobile Medical Applications : Information from the ... its role in mobile medical applications Research and Clinical Trials ...

  3. Making medical treatments resilient to technological disruptions in telemedicine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larburu Rubio, Nekane; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Telemedicine depends on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support remote treatment of patients. This dependency requires the telemedicine system design to be resilient for ICT performance degradation or subsystem failures. Nevertheless, using telemedicine systems create a dependency

  4. AGROPHYSICAL ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGICAL LOAD REGULATION ON SOIL COVER IN THE MODERN AGROLANDSCAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barvinskyi A.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern agricultural landuseof researched Tetiivskyi-Boguslavskyi nature-agricultural district of Kyiv region is characterized by high technological loading on the soil covering, associated with the transformation of lands structure and sowing areas of crops under the influence of market situations. The high level of technological loading on land resources causes the development of degradation processes, and as a result – reduced lands productivity. The main reasons are: unbalanced development of the productive forces and exhausting exploitation of land resources, producers ignoring of environmental imperatives, technical, technological and organizational backwardness of agricultural production; embryonic nature of ecological and economical mechanism of land use and realization of land protection measures, the lack of perfect legal framework of regulating and management of resource- ecological security at national, regional and local levels. Increasing of anthropogeneous pressure on soil (excessive soil tillage in agricultural landscapes, ecologically unsustainable use of agricultural chemicals, high intensity of heavy agricultural machinery, etc. leads to increase of degradation processes almost on the all area of arable land (Medvedev, 1994. So important is the continuous monitoring of agrophysical condition of soils and development of scientific and practical foundations of optimizing the physical parameters of fertility. The environmentally unbalanced application of anthropogeneous factors results in agrophysical degradation of arable lands, what is displaied in top soil overcompaction.Experimentally found that depending on how the agricultural land use equilibrium bulk density of the gray forest soils varies between 1,35-1,58 g/cm3, dark-gray forest soils - 1,36-1,44, podzolized chernozem - 1,26-1,33, typical chernozem- 1,09-1,18 g/cm3, that indicating the imbalance of soil-physical factors, a significant deviation from the requirements of

  5. Evaluation of Water Quality Renovation by Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Boving, T.; Morales, I.; DeLuca, J.; Amador, J.

    2013-12-01

    25% of US households utilize onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for wastewater management. Advanced technologies were designed to overcome the inadequate wastewater treatment by conventional OWTS in critical shallow water table areas, such as coastal zones, in order to protect ground water quality. In addition to the septic tank and soil drainfield that comprise a conventional OWTS, advanced systems claim improved water renovation with the addition of sand filtration, timed dosing controls, and shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. We determined water quality renovation functions under current water table and temperature conditions, in anticipation of an experiment to measure OWTS response to a climate change scenario of 30-cm increase in water table elevation and 4C temperature increase. Replicate (n=3) intact soil mesocosms were used to evaluate the effectiveness of drainfields with a conventional wastewater delivery (pipe-and-stone) compared to two types of pressurized, shallow narrow drainfield. Results under steady state conditions indicate complete removal of fecal coliform bacteria, phosphorus and BOD by all soil-based systems. By contrast, removal of total nitrogen inputs was 16% in conventional and 11% for both advanced drainfields. Effluent waters maintained a steady state pH between 3.2 - 3.7 for all technologies. Average DO readings were 2.9mg/L for conventional drainfield effluent and 4.6mg/L for advanced, showing the expected oxygen uptake with shallow placement of the infiltrative zone. The conventional OWTS is outperforming the advanced with respect to nitrogen removal, but renovating wastewater equivalently for all other contaminants of concern. The results of this study are expected to facilitate development of future OWTS regulation and planning guidelines, particularly in coastal zones and in the face of a changing climate.

  6. Occurrence and treatment of arsenic in groundwater and soil in northern Mexico and southwestern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Lucy Mar; Gutiérrez, Mélida; Alarcón-Herrera, Maria Teresa; Villalba, Maria de Lourdes; Deng, Shuguang

    2011-04-01

    This review focuses on the occurrence and treatment of arsenic (As) in the arid region of northern Mexico (states of Chihuahua and Coahuila) and bordering states of the southwestern US (New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas), an area known for having high As concentrations. Information assembled and assessed includes the content and probable source of As in water, soil, and sediments and treatment methods that have been applied in the area. High As concentrations were found mainly in groundwater, their source being mostly from natural origin related to volcanic processes with significant anthropogenic contributions near mining and smelting of ores containing arsenic. The affinity of As for solid phases in alkaline conditions common to arid areas precludes it from being present in surface waters, accumulating instead in sediments and shifting its threat to its potential remobilization in reservoir sediments and irrigation waterways. Factors such as oxidation and pH that affect the mobility of As in the subsurface environment are mentioned. Independent of socio-demographic variables, nutritional status, and levels of blood lead, cognitive development in children is being affected when exposed to As. Treatments known to effectively reduce As content to safe drinking water levels as well as those that are capable of reducing As content in soils are discussed. Besides conventional methods, emergent technologies, such as phytoremediation, offer a viable solution to As contamination in drinking water. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advanced oxidation technologies : photocatalytic treatment of wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.

    1997-01-01

    7.1. Summary and conclusions

    The last two decennia have shown a growing interest in the photocatalytic treatment of wastewater, and more and more research has been carried out into the various aspects of photocatalysis, varying from highly fundamental aspects to practical application. However, despite all this research, there is still much to investigate. Suggested photocatalytic mechanisms, such as those for oxidation by hydroxyl radicals and for oxidation at the surface of photocata...

  8. Water treatment technology for produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szép, Angéla; Kohlheb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of produced water are generated during oil and gas production. Produced water, as it is known in the oil industry, is briny fluid trapped in the rock of oil reservoirs. The objective of this study was to test produced waters from a Montana USA oilfield using a mobile station to design a plant to cost efficiently treat the produced water for agricultural irrigation. We used combined physical and chemical treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. This mobile station consists of three stages: pretreatments, membrane filtration and post treatment. Two spiral-wound membrane units were employed and the rejections of various constituents were examined. The performance of two membranes, 20 kDa weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafiltration and a polyamide-composite reverse osmosis membrane was investigated. The mobile station effectively decreased conductivity by 98%, COD by 100% and the SAR by 2.15 mgeqv(0.5) in the produced water tested in this study. Cost analysis showed that the treatment cost of produced water is less expensive than to dispose of it by injection and this treated water may be of great value in water-poor regions. We can conclude that the mobile station provided a viable and cost-effective result to beneficial use of produced water.

  9. Effects of animal wastes treatments of diesel polluted soils on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    utilizing microbial counts and oil degradation in diesel-polluted soil was investigated. Heavily and moderately polluted soil samples were amended with different grades (200, 400 and 600 g) of organic nutrient supplements (poultry waste, pig waste ...

  10. Attenuation of bulk organic matter, nutrients (N and P), and pathogen indicators during soil passage: Effect of temperature and redox conditions in simulated soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    KAUST Repository

    Abel, Chol D T

    2012-07-22

    Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) is a costeffective natural wastewater treatment and reuse technology. It is an environmentally friendly technology that does not require chemical usage and is applicable to both developing and developed countries. However, the presence of organic matter, nutrients, and pathogens poses a major health threat to the population exposed to partially treated wastewater or reclaimed water through SAT. Laboratory-based soil column and batch experiments simulating SAT were conducted to examine the influence of temperature variation and oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions on removal of bulk organic matter, nutrients, and indicator microorganisms using primary effluent. While an average dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal of 17.7 % was achieved in soil columns at 5 °C, removal at higher temperatures increased by 10 % increments with increase in temperature by 5 °C over the range of 15 to 25 °C. Furthermore, soil column and batch experiments conducted under different redox conditions revealed higher DOC removal in aerobic (oxic) experiments compared to anoxic experiments. Aerobic soil columns exhibited DOC removal 15 % higher than that achieved in the anoxic columns, while aerobic batch showed DOC removal 7.8 % higher than the corresponding anoxic batch experiments. Ammonium-nitrogen removal greater than 99 % was observed at 20 and 25 °C, while 89.7 % was removed at 15 °C, but the removal substantially decreased to 8.8 % at 5 °C. While ammonium-nitrogen was attenuated by 99.9 % in aerobic batch reactors carried out at room temperature, anoxic experiments under similar conditions revealed 12.1 % ammonium-nitrogen reduction, corresponding to increase in nitrate-nitrogen and decrease in sulfate concentration. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012.

  11. A Model to Predict Nitrogen Losses in Advanced Soil-Based Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, I.; Cooper, J.; Loomis, G.; Kalen, D.; Amador, J.; Boving, T. B.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the non-point source Nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds are considered environmental pollutants because they deplete the oxygen availability in water bodies and produce eutrophication. The objective of this study was to simulate the fate and transport of Nitrogen in OWTS. The commercially-available 2D/3D HYDRUS software was used to develop a transport and fate model. Experimental data from a laboratory meso-cosm study included the soil moisture content, NH4 and NO3- data. That data set was used to calibrate the model. Three types of OWTS were simulated: (1) pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (SND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. To better understand the nitrogen removal mechanism and the performance of OWTS technologies, replicate (n = 3) intact soil mesocosms were used with 15N-labelled nitrogen inputs. As a result, it was estimated that N removal by denitrification was predominant in P&S. However, it is suggested that N was removed by nitrification in SND and GEO. The calibrated model was used to estimate Nitrogen fluxes for both conventional and advanced OWTS. Also, the model predicted the N losses from nitrification and denitrification in all OWTS. These findings help to provide practitioners with guidelines to estimate N removal efficiencies for OWTS, and predict N loads and spatial distribution for identifying non-point sources.

  12. Effects of soil treatment with abattoir effluent on morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of abattoir wastewater treated soil on morphological and biochemical profiles of cowpea seedlings (Vigna unguiculata) grown in gasoline polluted soil was studied. Percentage germination, shoot length, root length and leaf area of cowpea seedlings grown in gasoline treated soil decreased significantly (P ...

  13. Ecotoxicological impact of two soil remediation treatments in Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rede, Diana; Santos, Lúcia H M L M; Ramos, Sandra; Oliva-Teles, Filipe; Antão, Cristina; Sousa, Susana R; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been identified as environmental emerging pollutants and are present in different compartments, including soils. Chemical remediation showed to be a good and suitable approach for soil remediation, though the knowledge in their impact for terrestrial organisms is still limited. Therefore, in this work, two different chemical remediation treatments (Fenton oxidation and nanoremediation) were applied to a soil contaminated with an environmental representative concentration of ibuprofen (3 ng g(-1)). The phytotoxic impact of a traditional soil remediation treatment (Fenton oxidation) and of a new and more sustainable approach for soil remediation (nanoremediation using green nano-scale zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVIs)) was evaluated in Lactuca sativa seeds. Percentage of seed germination, root elongation, shoot length and leaf length were considered as endpoints to assess the possible acute phytotoxicity of the soil remediation treatments as well as of the ibuprofen contaminated soil. Both chemical remediation treatments showed to have a negative impact in the germination and development of lettuce seeds, exhibiting a reduction up to 45% in the percentage of seed germination and a decrease around 80% in root elongation comparatively to the contaminated soil. These results indicate that chemical soil remediation treatments could be more prejudicial for terrestrial organisms than contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Leveraging technology to enhance addiction treatment and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Technology such as the Internet and mobile phones offers considerable promise for affecting the assessment, prevention, and treatment of and recovery from substance use disorders. Technology may enable entirely new models of behavioral health care within and outside of formal systems of care. This article reviews the promise of technology-based therapeutic tools for affecting the quality and reach of addiction treatment and recovery support systems, as well as the empirical support to date for this approach. Potential models for implementing technology-based interventions targeting substance use disorders are described. Opportunities to optimize the effectiveness and impact of technology-based interventions targeting addiction and recovery, along with outstanding research needs, are discussed.

  15. A soil biotechnology system for wastewater treatment: technical, hygiene, environmental LCA and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Sheetal Jaisingh; Chakravarthy, Yogita; Singh, Anju; Chubilleau, Caroline; Starkl, Markus; Bawa, Itee

    2017-05-01

    Soil biotechnology (SBT) is a green engineering approach for wastewater treatment and recycling. Five SBT units located in the Mumbai region were under consideration of which holistic assessment of two SBT plants was carried out considering its technical, environmental and economic aspects and was compared with published research of other three. LCA has been done to evaluate the environmental impacts of construction and operation phase of SBT. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) removal of more than 90% can be achieved using this technology. Also, the nutrient removal proficiency (nitrate, nitrite, ammoniacal nitrogen, TKN, total nitrogen and phosphates) of this technique is good. On the other hand, SBT has low annual operation and maintenance cost, comparable to land-based systems and lower than conventional or advanced technologies. From the life cycle impact assessment, the main contributors for overall impact from the plant were identified as electricity consumption, discharges of COD, P-PO 4 3- and N-NH 4 + and disposal of sludge. The construction phase was found to have significantly more impact than the operation phase of the plant. This study suggests plant I is not relatively as efficient enough regarding sanitation. SBT provides several benefits over other conventional technologies for wastewater treatment. It is based on a bio-conversion process and is practically maintenance free. It does not produce any odorous bio-sludge and consumes the least energy.

  16. Novel treatment technologies for PFAS compounds: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Darlington, Ramona; Benotti, Mark; Deeb, Rula; Hawley, Elisabeth

    2017-12-15

    Perfluorinated compounds such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently drawn great attention due to their wide distribution in aquatic environments. The understanding of the physicochemical properties and fate and transport of PFAs in groundwater is still limited. Preliminary studies indicate that these compounds can readily bioaccumulate and pose human and animal health concerns. Due to their physicochemical properties, PFOS and PFOA are water soluble, nonvolatile and persistent in the environment, which is a cause of concern related to their treatment with conventional remediation technologies. Extraction with inefficient carbon adsorption is one of the most common treatment technologies for remediation of PFOS- or PFOA-impacted groundwater. Several other innovative and promising technologies, including sonochemistry, bioremediation and photolysis, have been tested for their effectiveness in removal of perfluorinated compounds. This paper provides a baseline for understanding research needs to better develop treatment technologies for PFOA and PFOS in groundwater. Frontiers for improving the state of practice for PFOA and PFOS treatment include the development of more cost-effective ex situ treatment methods and the development and demonstration of promising in situ treatment technologies at the pilot and full scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil Carbon Accumulation and CO2 Flux in Experimental Restoration Plots, Southern Iceland: Comparing Soil Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence H. Tanner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental plots were established on severely eroded land surfaces in Iceland in 1999 to study the rates and limits of soil carbon sequestration during restoration and succession. The carbon content in the upper 10 cm of soils increased substantially during the initial eight years in all plots for which the treatments included both fertilizer and seeding with grasses, concomitant with the increase in vegetative cover. In the following five years, however, the soil carbon accumulation rates declined to negligible for most treatments and the carbon content in soils mainly remained relatively constant. We suggest that burial of vegetated surfaces by aeolian drift and nutrient limitation inhibited productivity and carbon sequestration in most plots. Only plots seeded with lupine demonstrated continued long-term soil carbon accumulation and soil CO2 flux rates significantly higher than background levels. This demonstrates that lupine was the sole treatment that resulted in vegetation capable of sustained growth independent of nutrient availability and resistant to disruption by aeolian processes.

  18. Cost comparison of laboratory methods and four field screening technologies for uranium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.

    1994-01-01

    To address the problem of characterizing uranium-contaminated surface soil at federal facilities, the Department of Energy has the development of four uranium field screening technologies, under the direction of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program. These four technologies include: a long-range alpha detector a beta scintillation detector, an in situ gamma detector, and a mobile laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP/AES) laboratory. As part of the performance assessment for these field screening technologies, cost estimates for the development and operation of each technology were created. A cost study was conducted to compare three of the USID field screening technologies to the use of traditional field surveying equipment to adequately characterize surface soils of a one-acre site. The results indicate that the use of traditional equipment costs more than the in situ gamma detector, but less than the beta scintillation detector and LRAD. The use of traditional field surveying equipment results in cost savings of 4% and 34% over the use of the beta scintillation and LRAD technologies, respectively. A study of single-point surface soil sampling and laboratory analysis costs was also conducted. Operational costs of the mobile LA-ICP/AES laboratory were compared with operational costs of traditional sampling and analysis, which consists of collecting soil samples and conducting analysis in a radiochemical laboratory. The cost study indicates that the use of the mobile LA-ICP/AES laboratory results in cost savings of 23% and 40% over traditional field sampling and laboratory analysis conducted by characterization groups at two DOE facilities

  19. Adoption of Technology-Enhanced Treatments: Conceptual and Practical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T; Jones, Deborah J

    2017-09-01

    As the efficacy of technology-enhanced mental health service delivery models (i.e., supportive or adjunctive technological tools) are examined, we must inform and guide clinician decision-making regarding acceptance and, in turn, uptake. Accordingly, this review aims to move beyond traditional discussions of geographic barriers by integrating, reconciling, and extending literatures on dissemination and implementation, as well as technology uptake, in order to anticipate and address organizational and clinician barriers to adoption of technology-enhancements. Specifically, a five-stage model is proposed to address organizational readiness for and clinician acceptance of technology-enhancements to evidence-based treatments, as well as the relevance of current adoption strategies for technology-enhanced services. Our aim is to provide a guiding framework for future research and practice.

  20. Development of clean soil technology using coals as oily/tarry contaminant removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.; Carson, D.; Ignasiak, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Clean Soil Process for the treatment of oil/tar contaminated soils has been developed. The mechanics, of the clean-up process that utilizes coal as a cleaning medium is described. The experience and results obtained in the batch-scale testing as well as in the 250 kg/hr continuous facility have been applied for a conceptual design of a 200 t/day mobile plant

  1. "Green technology": Bio-stimulation by an electric field for textile reactive dye contaminated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Sivasankar; Santhanam, Manikandan; Selvaraj, Subbulakshmi; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu; Pandian, Kannan; Pazos, Marta

    2018-05-15

    The aim of the study is to degrade pollutants as well as to increase the fertility of agricultural soil by starch enhancing electrokinetic (EKA) and electro-bio-stimulation (EBS) processes. Starch solution was used as an anolyte and voltage gradient was about 0.5V/cm. The influence of bacterial mediated process was evaluated in real contaminated farming soil followed by pilot scale experiment. The in-situ formation of β-cyclodextrin from starch in the treatments had also influence on the significant removal of the pollutants from the farming soil. The conductivity of the soil was effectively reduced from 15.5dS/m to 1.5dS/m which corroborates well with the agricultural norms. The bio-stimulation was confirmed by the increase of the phosphorus content in the treated soil. Finally, phytotoxicity assays demonstrated the viability of the developed technique for soil remediation because plant germination percentage was higher in the treated soil in comparison to untreated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Innovative waste treatment and conditioning technologies at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide Member States with information on the most innovative technologies and strategies used in waste treatment and conditioning. At present, some of those technologies and strategies might not be widely implemented at nuclear power plants (NPP), but they have an important potential for their use as part of the long range NPP, utility, or national strategy. Thus, the target audience is those decision makers at the national and organizational level responsible for selecting waste processing technologies and strategies over a period of three to ten years. Countries and individual nuclear plants have limited financial resources which can be applied toward radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning). They are challenged to determine which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs. This publication reduces the selection of processes for wastes generated by nuclear power plants to those technologies and strategies which are considered innovative. The report further identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies. The technologies and strategies identified have been evaluated to differentiate between (1) predominant technologies (those that are widely practiced in multiple countries or a large number of nuclear plants), and (2) innovative technologies (those which are not so widely used but are considered to offer benefits which make them suitable for broader application across the industry). Those which fall into the second category are the primary focus of this report. Many IAEA publications address the technical aspects of treatment and conditioning for radioactive wastes, covering research, technological advances, and safety issues. These studies and reports primarily target the research and technical staff of a

  3. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals with an emphasis on immobilization technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan Nejad, Zahra; Jung, Myung Chae; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2017-04-26

    The major frequent contaminants in soil are heavy metals which may be responsible for detrimental health effects. The remediation of heavy metals in contaminated soils is considered as one of the most complicated tasks. Among different technologies, in situ immobilization of metals has received a great deal of attention and turned out to be a promising solution for soil remediation. In this review, remediation methods for removal of heavy metals in soil are explored with an emphasis on the in situ immobilization technique of metal(loid)s. Besides, the immobilization technique in contaminated soils is evaluated through the manipulation of the bioavailability of heavy metals using a range of soil amendment conditions. This technique is expected to efficiently alleviate the risk of groundwater contamination, plant uptake, and exposure to other living organisms. The efficacy of several amendments (e.g., red mud, biochar, phosphate rock) has been examined to emphasize the need for the simultaneous measurement of leaching and the phytoavailability of heavy metals. In addition, some amendments that are used in this technique are inexpensive and readily available in large quantities because they have been derived from bio-products or industrial by-products (e.g., biochar, red mud, and steel slag). Among different amendments, iron-rich compounds and biochars show high efficiency to remediate multi-metal contaminated soils. Thereupon, immobilization technique can be considered a preferable option as it is inexpensive and easily applicable to large quantities of contaminants derived from various sources.

  4. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.; Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P.; Johnson, D.O.

    1997-01-01

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10 -8 to 10 -1 cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems

  5. Application of spent fuel treatment technology to plutonium immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Ackerman, J.P.; Gay, E.C., Johnson, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the electrometallurgical treatment technology being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is to convert certain spent nuclear fuels into waste forms that are suitable for disposal in a geological repository for nuclear waste. The spent fuels of interest are those that cannot be safely stored for a long time in their current condition, and those that cannot be qualified for repository disposal. This paper explores the possibility of applying this electrometallurgical treatment technology to immobilization of surplus fissile materials, primarily plutonium. Immobilization of surplus fissile materials by electrometallurgical treatment could be done in the same facilities, at the same time. and in the same equipment as the proposed treatment of the present inventory of spent nuclear fuel. The cost and schedule savings of this simultaneous treatment scheme would be significant

  6. [Research Progress in Technology of Using Soil Micro-organisms to Generate Electricity and Its Potential Applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huan; Xue, Hong-jing; Jiang, Yun-bin; Zhong, Wen-hui

    2015-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells ( microbial fuel cells, MFCs) are devices in which micro-organisms convert chemical energy into electrical power. Soil has electrogenic bacteria and organic substrates, thus can generate electrical current in MFCs. Soil MFCs can be operated and applied to real-time and continuously monitor soil pollution, remove soil pollutants and to reduce methane emitted from flooded rice paddy, without energy consumption and the application of chemical reagents to the soil. Instead, the operation of soil MFCs generates small amount of electrical power. Therefore, soil MFCs are useful in the development of environment-friendly technology for monitoring and remediating soil pollution, which have potential value for applications in the domain of environmental science and engineering. However, much of advanced technology hasn't been applied into soil MFCs since the studies on soil MFCs was not started until recently. This paper summarized the research progress in related to soil MFCs combining with the frontier of MFCs technology, and brought forward the possible direction in studies on soil MFCs.

  7. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil

  8. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil.

  9. The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L.; Wright, Melanie C.; Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches

  10. Novel Technology for Phenol Wastewater Treatment Using Electrochemical Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncheng Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various electrochemical approaches to save energy, mostly by means of equipment improvement coupled with other water treatment technologies. Replacement of DC power with pulse power, modified reactor coupled with photocatalysis can decrease cost. But more or less additional input is developed, or infrastructure has to be replaced. In this paper, an N-Step electrochemical reactor, based on stage reaction modeling, is put forward. On the basis of not changing equipment investment and by adjustment of the operating current density at different levels, power consumption decreases. This model develops a foundation of electrochemical water treatment technology for the engineering application.

  11. Highly Polluted Wastewaters Treatment by Improved Dissolved Air Flotation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moga, I. C.; Covaliu, C. I.; Matache, M. G.; Doroftei, B. I.

    2017-06-01

    Numerous investigations are oriented towards the development of new wastewater treatment technologies, having high efficiencies for removing even low concentrations of pollutants found in water. These efforts were determined by the destroyer impact of the pollutants to the environment and human’s health. For this reason this paper presents our study concerning an improved dissolved air flotation technology for wastewater treatment. There is described a dissolved air flotation (DAF) installation composed by two equipments: pressurized capsule and lamellar settling. Also, there are presented some advantages of using nanoparticles as flotation collectors.

  12. Biological treatment of saline-alkali soil by Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Shuochao; Wang, Qing; Bao, Xinhua; Li, Ming; Wang, Zijian

    2016-09-02

    The western area of the Jilin province, a typical seasonal frost region, is located in the southern Songnen plain of China. Significantly salinized soils are widely distributed on the Songnen plain in western Jilin. Soil salinization can cause degradation of cultivated land and grass, which threatens the human environment. To investigate the treatment of saline-alkali soil, a laboratory test was conducted to evaluate the ability of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to improve the performance of saline-alkali soil in western Jilin. The results showed that sulfur-oxidizing bacteria treatment was suitable for the soil from pH 7.5 to 8, and 50 ml thiobacillusthiooxidans showed the best improvement to the saline-alkali soil.

  13. Chemical dispersants and pre-treatments to determine clay in soils with different mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil physical properties, including the clay content, is of utmost importance for agriculture. The behavior of apparently similar soils can differ in intrinsic characteristics determined by different formation processes and nature of the parent material. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of separate or combined pre-treatments, dispersion methods and chemical dispersant agents to determine clay in some soil classes, selected according to their mineralogy. Two Brazilian Oxisols, two Alfisols and one Mollisol with contrasting mineralogy were selected. Different treatments were applied: chemical substances as dispersants (lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and hexametaphosphate; pre-treatment with dithionite, ammonium oxalate, and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate organic matter; and coarse sand as abrasive and ultrasound, to test their mechanical action. The conclusion was drawn that different treatments must be applied to determine clay, in view of the soil mineralogy. Lithium hydroxide was not efficient to disperse low-CEC electropositive soils and very efficient in dispersing high-CEC electronegative soils. The use of coarse sand as an abrasive increased the clay content of all soils and in all treatments in which dispersion occurred, with or without the use of chemical dispersants. The efficiency of coarse sand is not the same for all soil classes.

  14. Radiation processing technology for industrial waste water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Radiation sterilization technology, cross-linked polymers and curing, food and environmental applications of the radiation is widely used for many years. At the same time, drinking water and wastewater treatment are the part of the radiation technology applications. For this purpose, drinking water and wastewater treatment plants in various countries has been established. In this project, gamma / electron beam radiation treatment is intended to be used for the treatment of alkaloid, textiles and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) wastewater. In this regard, the chemical characterization of wastewater, the interaction with radiation, biological treatment and determination of toxicological properties are the laboratory studies milestones. After laboratory studies, the establishment of a pilot scale treatment plant has been planned. Within the framework of the project a series of dye used in textile industry were examined. Besides the irradiation, the changes in treatment efficiency were investigated by using of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the irradiation. Same working methods were implemented in the wastewater treatment of Bolvadin Opium Alkaloid Factory as well. In addition to chemical analysis in this study, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment process also have been applied. Standard reference materials has been used for the marine sediment study contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls.

  15. A review of accelerated carbonation technology in the treatment of cement-based materials and sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Bertos, M.; Simons, S.J.R.; Hills, C.D.; Carey, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Moist calcium silicate minerals are known to readily react with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The reaction products can cause rapid hardening and result in the production of monolithic materials. Today, accelerated carbonation is a developing technology, which may have potential for the treatment of wastes and contaminated soils and for the sequestration of CO 2 , an important greenhouse gas. This paper reviews recent developments in this emerging technology and provides information on the parameters that control the process. The effects of the accelerated carbonation reaction on the solid phase are discussed and future potential applications of this technology are also considered

  16. Novel technology for hydrothermal treatment of NPP evaporator concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, Valentin; Dobrzhansky, Vitaly; Marinin, Dmitry; Sergienko, Valentin; Shmatko, Sergey

    2007-01-01

    A novel technology was developed for treatment of evaporator concentrates produced as a result of operation of evaporation devices comprising the main component of special water purification systems of nuclear power plants (NPP). The developed technology includes a hydrothermal (T=250-300 deg. C and P=80-120 bar) processing of evaporator concentrates in oxidation medium in order to destruct stable organic complexes of cobalt radionuclides and remove these radionuclides by oxide materials formed during such a processing. The cesium radionuclides contained in evaporator concentrates are removed by a conventional method-through application of one of the developed composite sorbents with ferrocyanides of transition metals used as active agents. Extensive laboratory studies of the processes occurring in evaporator concentrates under hydrothermal conditions were performed. It was shown that hydrothermal oxidation of evaporator concentrates has a number of advantages as compared to traditional oxidation methods (ozonization, photo-catalytic, electrochemical and plasma oxidation). A laboratory installation was built for the flow-type hydrothermal oxidation of NPP evaporator concentrates. The obtained experimental results showed good prospects for the developed method application. On the basis of the results obtained, a pilot installation of productivity up to 15 l/hour was developed and built in order to work out the technology of evaporator concentrates hydrothermal treatment. The pilot tests of the hydrothermal technology for evaporator concentrates hydrothermal treatment were performed for 6 months in 2006 at the 1. reactor unit of the Novovoronezhskaya NPP (Voronezh Region, Russia). Optimal technological regimes were determined, and estimations of the economic soundness of the technology were made. The advantages of the presented technology in terms of management of concentrated liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) at nuclear cycle facilities, as compared to other methods

  17. Using phytoremediation technologies to upgrade waste water treatment in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Peter; Navarro-Aviñó, Juan; Azaizeh, Hassan; Goldhirsh, Avi Golan; DiGregorio, Simona; Komives, Tamas; Langergraber, Günter; Lenz, Anton; Maestri, Elena; Memon, Abdul R; Ranalli, Alfonso; Sebastiani, Luca; Smrcek, Stanislav; Vanek, Tomas; Vuilleumier, Stephane; Wissing, Frieder

    2007-11-01

    One of the burning problems of our industrial society is the high consumption of water and the high demand for clean drinking water. Numerous approaches have been taken to reduce water consumption, but in the long run it seems only possible to recycle waste water into high quality water. It seems timely to discuss alternative water remediation technologies that are fit for industrial as well as less developed countries to ensure a high quality of drinking water throughout Europe. The present paper discusses a range of phytoremediation technologies to be applied in a modular approach to integrate and improve the performance of existing wastewater treatment, especially towards the emerging micro pollutants, i.e. organic chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This topic is of global relevance for the EU. Existing technologies for waste water treatment do not sufficiently address increasing pollution situation, especially with the growing use of organic pollutants in the private household and health sector. Although some crude chemical approaches exist, such as advanced oxidation steps, most waste water treatment plants will not be able to adopt them. The same is true for membrane technologies. Incredible progress has been made during recent years, thus providing us with membranes of longevity and stability and, at the same time, high filtration capacity. However, these systems are expensive and delicate in operation, so that the majority of communities will not be able to afford them. Combinations of different phytoremediation technologies seem to be most promising to solve this burning problem. To quantify the occurrence and the distribution of micropollutants, to evaluate their effects, and to prevent them from passing through wastewater collection and treatment systems into rivers, lakes and ground water bodies represents an urgent task for applied environmental sciences in the coming years. Public acceptance of green technologies is generally higher than that of

  18. Riverbank filtration: an efficient and economical water treatment technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo uribe, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Riverbank Filtration (RBF) is a water treatment technology that consists of extracting water from rivers by pumping wells located in the adjacent alluvial aquifer. During the underground passage, a series of physical, chemical, and biological processes take place, improving the quality of the surface water, substituting or reducing conventional drinking water treatment. Despite its extensive use in Europe and its emerging use in the United States, there are no scientific publications related ...

  19. Modification of Wastewater Treatment Technology at Cottonseed Oil Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Alshabab Mary Shick; Andrianova Maria; Alsalloum Dergham

    2016-01-01

    Wastewaters from cottonseed oil producing plant in Syria were studied in laboratory experiments. Aim of the study was to suggest modification of wastewater treatment technology in order to increase its efficiency. Concentration of pollutants in wastewaters was controlled by measurement of COD. According to the results of experiments it was suggested to decrease significantly (8-20 times) dosages of reagents (acidifier, coagulant, flocculant) in several actual stages of treatment (acidificatio...

  20. Evaluating the technical aspects of mixed waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1992-10-01

    This report discusses treatment of mixed wastes which is thought to be more complicated than treatment of either hazardous or radioactive wastes. In fact, the treatment itself is no more complicated: however, the regulations that define acceptability of the final waste disposal system are significantly more entangled, and sometimes in apparent conflict. This session explores the factors that influence the choice of waste treatment technologies, and expands on some of the limitations to their application. The objective of the presentation is to describe the technical factors that influence potential treatment processes and the ramifications associated with particular selections (for example, the generation of secondary waste streams). These collectively provide a framework for making informed treatment process selections

  1. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  2. Sulfur flow in a soil-plant system-effects of long-term treatment history and soil properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Kristin; Eriksen, Jørgen; Nilsson, Ingvar

    2010-01-01

    deficiency, reduced biomass production and lower total S uptake by the rye grass. The isotopic measurements revealed that more than two thirds of the plant S was derived from non-labeled soil organic S, even in the + S treatment, and that all organic S pools (physically unprotected/protected and residual...

  3. Influence of attrition scrubbing, ultrasonic treatment, and oxidant additions on uranium removal from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timpson, M.E.; Elless, M.P.; Francis, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration Project being conducted by the US Department of Energy, bench-scale investigations of selective leaching of uranium from soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project site in Ohio were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Two soils (storage pad soil and incinerator soil), representing the major contaminant sources at the site, were extracted using carbonate- and citric acid-based lixiviants. Physical and chemical processes were used in combination with the two extractants to increase the rate of uranium release from these soils. Attrition scrubbing and ultrasonic dispersion were the two physical processes utilized. Potassium permanganate was used as an oxidizing agent to transform tetravalent uranium to the hexavalent state. Hexavalent uranium is easily complexed in solution by the carbonate radical. Attrition scrubbing increased the rate of uranium release from both soils when compared with rotary shaking. At equivalent extraction times and solids loadings, however, attrition scrubbing proved effective only on the incinerator soil. Ultrasonic treatments on the incinerator soil removed 71% of the uranium contamination in a single extraction. Multiple extractions of the same sample removed up to 90% of the uranium. Additions of potassium permanganate to the carbonate extractant resulted in significant changes in the extractability of uranium from the incinerator soil but had no effect on the storage pad soil

  4. Adapting UASB technology for sewage treatment in Palestine and Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.A.; Zeeman, G.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    High rate anaerobic technologies offer cost-effective solutions for "sewage" treatment in the temperate climate of Palestine and Jordan. However, local sewage characteristics demand amendments to the conventional UASB reactor design. A solution is found in a parallel operating digester unit that

  5. Application of phycoremediation technology in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phycoremediation is the use of algae for the removal or biotransformation of pollutants from wastewater. Employing this technology in the treatment of industrial effluents presents an alternative to the current practice of using conventional methods, including physical and chemical methods. In the present study, the effluent ...

  6. Hadron-therapy: applications of accelerator technologies to tumour treatments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    In the second part the technologies of dose delivery are described emphasising the main challenges of modern radiotherapy, in particular the treatment of moving organs. In this framework the properties of the beams produced by conventional accelerators (cyclotrons and synchrotrons) are compared with the ones due to two novel approaches based on fast cycling machines, as FFAGs and cyclinacs.

  7. Removing hydrocarbons from soil more cost effectively than other conventional thermal technologies is now further enhanced when you can create viable recycling alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLean, B.B.F.; Harper, C.H. [CHH Consulting, Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The need for quick and accurate land remediation technology has become an important issue, as regulations and public opinion have placed pressure on industry leaders to find environmentally benign and less invasive solutions for handling and processing hazardous waste streams. This paper described the merging of two distinct and proven technologies used to remove and recover valuable liquids from the soil. The remaining soil can then be made into an environmentally friendly construction product. The technologies included the Earth Brick Press Model TB250 developed by Earth Brick International and the KAB-1000 PTDU thermal desorption unit developed by Terra-Tech Remediation. The thermal desorption process puts heated air into soil faster than conventional thermal treatment methods. A water wash process affects the chemistry of the remaining liquids and enhances the ability to reuse and recycle them. The Earth Brick Press takes the soils and additives and creates benign bricks. The blending of these two technologies has the potential to address cost, speed and future liability issues. The paper provided information on the project permits and licensing; product registration; and operational issues such as characteristics of the target soil; course versus fine soils; moisture levels; distribution of hydrocarbon content; and co-contaminant levels. The paper also discussed the technical support team, including inventors and partners; consultants and business development team; and third party consultants. It was concluded that the economic benefits of blending the two technologies may be enhanced by the benefit of positive public perceptions and the ability to give back to society. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Multi-Criteria Sustainability Assessment of Urban Sludge Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Da; Xi, Beidou; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    to determine the weights of the criteria for sustainability assessment, and extension theory was used to prioritize the alternative technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge and grade their sustainability performances. An illustrative case including three technologies (compositing, incineration......This study aims at developing a sustainability assessment framework for assessing the technologies for the treatment of urban sewage sludge based on the logarithmic fuzzy preference programming based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (LFPPFAHP) and extension theory. LFPPFAHP was employed......, and resource utilization) was studied by the proposed method, and compositing, incineration, and resource utilization are recognized as "Moderately Sustainable", "Not Sustainable", and "Highly Sustainable", respectively. The sustainability sequence in the descending order is resource utilization, compositing...

  9. Process, engineering and design aspects of contaminated soil bioremediation. Pt. 1 In situ treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Fraja Frangipane, E.; Andreottola, G.; Tatano, F.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper is an up-to-date overview of contaminated soil bioremediation techniques, which are analyzed in detail with regard to main process, engineering and design aspects. General biochemical/kinetic aspects of bioremediation of contaminated soil, and in situ treatments, are discussed in this part one

  10. Response of Soil Bulk Density and Mineral Nitrogen to Harvesting and Cultural Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minyi Zhou; Mason C. Carter; Thomas J. Dean

    1998-01-01

    The interactive effects of harvest intensity, site preparation, and fertilization on soil compaction and nitrogen mineralization were examined in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stand growing on a sandy, well-drained soil in eastern Texas. The experimental design was 2 by 2 by 2 factorial, consisting of two harvesting treatments (mechanical whole-...

  11. Economic analysis of anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments for tomato production in southwest and north Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The approach of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) in Florida, a method for pre-plant soil treatment, consists of combining the application of the molasses (C source) with the application of composted poultry litter (CPL) as an organic amendment. However, CPL is not always available locally and is...

  12. SOILS AS NATURAL REACTORS FOR SWINE WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bautista

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of soils to mineralize organic matter depends on their individual characteristics; when waste waters are added to them their organic matter content (OM, cationic exchange capacity (CEC and percentage of clay (PC are altered. Pedotransfer functions (PTF enable certain processes to be determined from easily measured soil properties. The aims of this study were i to generate PTF to estimate the retention and mineralisation of dissolved organic matter (DOM present in swine wastewater (SWW based on measurements of OM, CEC and PC and ii to identify the soils most suited to acting as natural reactors for treating SWW, using multicriteria analysis. Samples were taken from ten soils (epipedons or superficial samples to measure the retention of dissolved organic matter (RDOM in 30 cm high soil columns, making three applications of SWW. In addition, an experiment was carried out in pots to measure the effect of SWW on soil carbon evolution (SCE and the potential anaerobic nitrogen mineralisation (PANM. Multiple regressions were made using soil OM (%, CEC (cmol+ kg-1 and PC (% as independent variables and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, SCE and PANM as dependent variables. The PFT found were RDOM = 41.5 + (2.8*CEC – (0.81*PC – (3.5*OM  r= 0.81; SCE =  542.3 + (20.1*OM + (4.6*CEC – (2.7*PC r= 0.96; PANM = -8.4 + (3.45*OM + (1.12*PC – (2.20*CEC r= 0.88. The most suitable soils for acting as natural reactors of SWW were the Luvisol LVct and an unclassified EPI-1. Â

  13. The Influence of Different Technologies of Soil Processing on Infiltration Properties of Soil in the Cambisols Area of the Opava District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dumbrovský

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the contribution is the evaluation of the influence of the conventional tillage and reduced tillage technology of soil processing on the infiltration properties of the soil in the Větřkovice area. Field experimental work at the area was carried out in the years 2013–2015 on Cambisol district medium-heavy clayey soil. The research was conducted on sloping erosion-endangered blocks of arable land sown with spring barley. The areas were chosen each year in the way that one of the experimental areas was handled by conventional tillage technologies and the other by reduced tillage technologies. Intact soil samples were taken into Kopecký’s cylinders in the three landscape positions, at a depth of 10 cm (representing topsoil and 30 cm (representing subsoil. The cumulative infiltration was measured using a mini-disc infiltrometer near the consumption points. The Zhang method (1997, which provides an estimate of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(h, was used for the evaluation of the infiltration tests of the mini-disc infiltrometer. The soil profile processed by conventional tillage showed a higher degree of compaction. The bulk density was between 1.10–1.67 g.cm-3, compared to the land processed by the reduced tillage technology, where the values were between 0.80–1.29 g.cm-3. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity values were about one‑third higher within the reduced tillage technology soil processing.

  14. Comparing effects of tillage treatments performed with animal traction on soil physical properties and soil electrical resistivity: preliminary experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Tomillo Aitor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil Compaction results from compressive forces applied to compressible soil by machinery wheels, combined with tillage operations. Draft animal‐pulled equipment may also cause soil compaction, but a huge gap exists on experimental data to adequately assess their impacts and, actually, animal traction is an option seen with increasing potential to contribute to sustainable agriculture, especially in mountain areas. This study was conducted to assess the impacts on soil compaction of tillage operations with motor tractor and draft animals. In a farm plot (Vale de Frades, NE Portugal treatments were applied in sub‐plots (30 m × 3 m, consisting in a two way tillage with tractor (T, a pair of cows (C and a pair of donkeys (D. Undisturbed soil samples (120 were taken before and after operations for bulk density (BD and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks. The relative changes in BD observed after tillage in the 0-0.05 m soil depth increased after operations in all treatments. The increase was higher in the tractor sub-plot (15% than in those where animal traction was used (8%. Before operation Ks class was rapid and fast in all samples, and after operation this value was reduced to 33% in T, whereas it reached 83% in C. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT was useful as a tool to identify the alterations caused by tillage operations on soil physical status. These preliminary results confirm the potential of animal traction as an option for mountain agri‐environments, yet it requires much wider research to soundly ground its assets.

  15. Biological control and management of the detoxication wastewater treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalova Yana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Detoxication technologies require the combination of theoretical and practical knowledge of xenobiotic biodegradation, wastewater treatment technologies, and management rules. The purpose of this complicated combination is to propose specialized strategies for detoxication, based on lab- and pilot-scale modeling. These strategies include preliminary created algorithms for preventing the risk of water pollution and sediments. The technologies and algorithms are essentially important outcome, applied in the textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, woodtreating, and oiltreating industries. In this paper four rehabilitation technologies for pretreatment of water contaminated by pentachlorophenol (PCP have been developed in the frame of the European and Bulgarian National projects. Emphasize is put on the biological systems and their potential of detoxication management. The light and transmission electron microscopy of the reconstructed activated sludges the microbial, kinetic and enzymological indicators are presented and approved as critical points in the biocontrol.

  16. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  17. Passive treatment technology cleans up colorado mining waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morea, S.; Olsen, R. (Camp Dresser and McKee Inc., Denver, CO (United States)); Wildeman, T. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States))

    1990-12-01

    This article describes the performance of a module designed to treat acid mine drainage from an mining tunnel. The site is one of the many abandoned mineral mines in Colorado. At optimum conditions passive treatment removed up to 98% of the zinc, 99% of the copper, 94% of the lead, and 86% of the iron in the mine drainage. It also increased pH from 3.0 to a value greater than 6.5. This treatment meets the need for a low cost operating and maintenance system. Because of the success of the pilot plant, the project team has obtained a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program grant from the EPA to continue operating the pilot plant for two additional years and to prepare the first design manual on passive treatment technology.

  18. ON-SITE TREATMENT OF CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL SLUDGES AND CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is presented for quantitative evaluation of treatment potential for creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) wood treating contaminants in soil systems. The study was conducted in three phases: 1) characterization, (2) treatability screening and (3) field evaluation. Data...

  19. Improving Childhood Obesity Treatment Using New Technologies: The ETIOBE System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano

    2011-03-04

    Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an "obesogenic environment" are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals.

  20. Sodium-bearing Waste Treatment Technology Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Barnes; Arlin L. Olson; Dean D. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Sodium-bearing waste (SBW) disposition is one of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operation Office’s (NE-ID) and State of Idaho’s top priorities at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL has been working over the past several years to identify a treatment technology that meets NE-ID and regulatory treatment requirements, including consideration of stakeholder input. Many studies, including the High-Level Waste and Facilities Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), have resulted in the identification of five treatment alternatives that form a short list of perhaps the most appropriate technologies for the DOE to select from. The alternatives are (a) calcination with maximum achievable control technology (MACT) upgrade, (b) steam reforming, (c) cesium ion exchange (CsIX) with immobilization, (d) direct evaporation, and (e) vitrification. Each alternative has undergone some degree of applied technical development and preliminary process design over the past four years. This report presents a summary of the applied technology and process design activities performed through February 2004. The SBW issue and the five alternatives are described in Sections 2 and 3, respectively. Details of preliminary process design activities for three of the alternatives (steam reforming, CsIX, and direct evaporation) are presented in three appendices. A recent feasibility study provides the details for calcination. There have been no recent activities performed with regard to vitrification; that section summarizes and references previous work.

  1. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology

  2. Sorption mechanisms of sulfamethazine to soil humin and its subfractions after sequential treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Shen, X.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, H.; Chen, W.; Wang, H.; Koelmans, A.A.; Cornelissen, G.; Tao, S.; Wang, X.

    2017-01-01

    Sorption mechanisms of an antibiotic sulfamethazine (SMT) to humin (HM) isolated from a peat soil and its subfractions after sequential treatments were examined. The treatments of HM included removal of ash, O-alkyl carbon, lipid, and lignin components. The HF/HCl de-ashing treatment removed a large

  3. DOE's Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration Program accelerating the implementation of innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, M.

    1995-01-01

    A program to help accelerate the adoption and implementation of new and innovative remediation technologies has been initiated by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program Office (EM40). Developed as a Public-Private Partnership program in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Technology Innovation Office (TIO) and coordinated by Sandia National Laboratories, the Innovative Treatment Remediation Demonstration (ITRD) Program attempts to reduce many of the classic barriers to the use of new technologies by involving government, industry, and regulatory agencies in the assessment, implementation, and validation of innovative technologies. In this program, DOE facilities work cooperatively with EPA, industry, national laboratories, and state and federal regulatory agencies to establish remediation demonstrations using applicable innovative technologies at their sites. Selected innovative technologies are used to remediate small, one to two acre, sites to generate the full-scale and real-world operating, treatment performance, and cost data needed to validate these technologies and gain acceptance by industry and regulatory agencies, thus accelerating their use nationwide. Each ITRD project developed at a DOE site is designed to address a typical soil or groundwater contamination issue facing both DOE and industry. This includes sites with volatile organic compound (VOC), semi-VOC, heavy metal, explosive residue, and complex or multiple constituent contamination. Projects are presently underway at three DOE facilities, while additional projects are under consideration for initiation in FY96 at several additional DOE sites. A brief overview of the ITRD Program, program plans, and the status and progress of existing ITRD projects are reviewed in this paper

  4. Evaluation of innovative arsenic treatment technologies :the arsenic water technology partnership vendors forums summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; McConnell, Paul E.; Kirby, Carolyn (Comforce Technical Services, Inc.)

    2006-09-01

    The lowering of the drinking water standard (MCL) for arsenic from 50 {micro}g/L to 10 {micro}g/L in January 2006 could lead to significant increases in the cost of water for many rural systems throughout the United States. The Arsenic Water Technology Partnership (AWTP), a collaborative effort of Sandia National Laboratories, the Awwa Research Foundation (AwwaRF) and WERC: A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development, was formed to address this problem by developing and testing novel treatment technologies that could potentially reduce the costs of arsenic treatment. As a member of the AWTP, Sandia National Laboratories evaluated cutting-edge commercial products in three annual Arsenic Treatment Technology Vendors Forums held during the annual New Mexico Environmental Health Conferences (NMEHC) in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The Forums were comprised of two parts. At the first session, open to all conference attendees, commercial developers of innovative treatment technologies gave 15-minute talks that described project histories demonstrating the effectiveness of their products. During the second part, these same technologies were evaluated and ranked in closed sessions by independent technical experts for possible use in pilot-scale field demonstrations being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. The results of the evaluations including numerical rankings of the products, links to company websites and copies of presentations made by the representatives of the companies are posted on the project website at http://www.sandia.gov/water/arsenic.htm. This report summarizes the contents of the website by providing brief descriptions of the technologies represented at the Forums and the results of the evaluations.

  5. Secondary wastes and treatment of effluents from leaching of uranium from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ally, M.R.; Wilson, J.H.; Francis, C.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Feed Materials and Production Center at Fernald, Ohio has over two million cubic meters of soil contaminated with Uranium which must be cleaned. Soil characterization studies show that Uranium is unevenly distributed between the clay, sand and silt fractions. This paper examines the option of using leaching agents to remove Uranium from the soil and the treatment of secondary wastes. Results of the effects of various leachants in removing Uranium and the complications of co-leaching minerals/organic matter that are important for maintaining soil integrity and structure shall be discussed. Candidate leachants must remove the Uranium level below 35pCi/g of soil and produce a secondary waste that is amenable to on-site treatment at reasonable cost

  6. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  7. Expansion reduction of clayey soils through Surcharge application and Lime Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. López-Lara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Expansive clayey soils produce heaving and cracking of floor slabs and walls. Expansive soils owe their characteristics to the presence of swelling clay minerals. This soil expands and contracts due to changes in the moisture content of the soil. In this study the surcharge required to counteract soil expansion was measured in natural expansive soils (untreated soils and lime treated soils starting at 19.61 kPa (2 Ton/m2 and continuing with increments of 19.61 kPa. Additionaly in lime treated soils the amount of lime was determined under different surcharges in order to reduce the expansion. The test results indicated that the surcharges applied to untreated soils were not proportional to the decrease of expansion which is probably due to the increase of soil density. In fact, only the initial surcharge of 19.61 kPa significantly decreased the expansion. According to the results, the soil expansion was considerably reduced (1.54% with the surcharge of 78.45 kPa, therefore this surcharge can be considered as the Swelling pressure. On the other hand the soil tested (high compressibility clay was stabilized with 6% of lime (without surcharges which was determined with the lowest value of liquid limit and plastic index as well as expansion test. After the application of surcharges and lime treatment to expansive soil, the surcharges of 39.22 kPa and 58.84 kPa decreased expansion and increased their resistance. This was concluded by similar low values of expansion (without settlements under both surcharges of each treated soil tested (2, 4 and 6% of lime. It can be concluded that the surcharge contributed to the decrease of soil expansion due to the decrease of the amount of lime required (6% without surcharge. So, 4% of lime was enough for the surcharge of 19.61 kPa and 2% of lime required the surcharge minimum of 39.22 kPa. This shows that the surcharge of a house on expansive soil reduces soil expansion and therefore reduces costs of any

  8. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project. Volume 3, Waste treatment technologies (Draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  9. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Brown, C.H.; Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M.; Kan, T.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste

  10. Treatment technology analysis for mixed waste containers and debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrke, R.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brown, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Langton, C.A.; Askew, N.M. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Kan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schwinkendorf, W.E. [BDM Federal, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    A team was assembled to develop technology needs and strategies for treatment of mixed waste debris and empty containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of applying the Debris and Empty Container Rules to these wastes. These rules issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) apply only to the hazardous component of mixed debris. Hazardous debris that is subjected to regulations under the Atomic Energy Act because of its radioactivity (i.e., mixed debris) is also subject to the debris treatment standards. The issue of treating debris per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) at the same time or in conjunction with decontamination of the radioactive contamination was also addressed. Resolution of this issue requires policy development by DOE Headquarters of de minimis concentrations for radioactivity and release of material to Subtitle D landfills or into the commercial sector. The task team recommends that, since alternate treatment technologies (for the hazardous component) are Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT): (1) funding should focus on demonstration, testing, and evaluation of BDAT on mixed debris, (2) funding should also consider verification of alternative treatments for the decontamination of radioactive debris, and (3) DOE should establish criteria for the recycle/reuse or disposal of treated and decontaminated mixed debris as municipal waste.

  11. Response of soil microbiota to selected herbicide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslycky, E B

    1977-04-01

    Recommended concentrations of paraquat alone and its combination with each of linuron, diuron, atrazine, simazine, and simazine plus diuron exerted little effect on total populations of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi in Fox sandy loam under laboratory and simulated field conditions in 66 and 77 days, respectively. Respiration of the total microbiota in soil suspension was afeected by the combinations as well as individual herbicides in various concentrations. Yet, the inhibition of the O2 uptake by any of these herbicides, including some extreme concentrations, was not permanent, indicating adaptation, or suppression of specific organisms. Only linuron in concentrations up to 20 microng/ml stimulated respiration of the soil.

  12. Remediation of soil contaminated with pesticides by treatment with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Janilson Silva

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of empty plastic packaging of pesticides can be an environmental concern mainly by soil contamination. Nowadays, Brazil figures in third place among the leading world pesticide markets. An understanding of the processes that affect the transport and fate of pesticides is crucial to assess their potential for contamination of soil and groundwater, and to develop efficient and cost-effective site management and soil remediation strategies. Due to its impact on soil remediation has made sorption a major topic of research on soil-pesticide interactions. The main objective of this study is the evaluation of the pesticides transferring from contaminated mixture of commercial polymeric packing of high-density polyethylene, HDPE, used in agriculture to soil and their removal by gamma irradiation. Two soil samples of argyles compositions and media composition were exposed to a mixture of commercial polymeric packing contaminated with the pesticides methomyl, dimethoate, carbofuran, methidathion, triazine, thiophos, atrazine, ametryne, endosulfan, chloropyrifos, thriazophos and trifluralin. The pesticides leaching from packaging to soil was homogeneous considering a experimental research. The radiation treatment presented high efficiency on removal pesticides from both soil, but it depends on the physical-chemical characteristics of the contaminated soil. The higher efficiency was obtained in soils with higher organic material and humidity. The higher efficiency was obtained for the medium texture soil, with 20 kGy all present pesticides were removed in all layers. In the case of argyles texture soil, it was necessary a 30 kGy to remove the totality of present pesticides. (author)

  13. Removal of organic wastewater contaminants in septic systems using advanced treatment technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, J.D.; Bahr, J.M.; Hedman, C.J.; Hemming, J.D.C.; Barman, M.A.E.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants (OWCs) in ground water and surface-water bodies has raised concerns about the possible ecological impacts of these compounds on nontarget organisms. On-site wastewater treatment systems represent a potentially significant route of entry for organic contaminants to the environment. In this study, effluent samples were collected and analyzed from conventional septic systems and from systems using advanced treatment technologies. Six of 13 target compounds were detected in effluent from at least one septic system. Caffeine, paraxanthine, and acetaminophen were the most frequently detected compounds, and estrogenic activity was detected in 14 of 15 systems. The OWC concentrations were significantly lower in effluent after sand filtration (p treatment (p advanced treatment. In general, concentrations in conventional systems were comparable to those measured in previous studies of municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent, and concentrations in systems after advanced treatment were comparable to previously measured concentrations in WWTP effluent. These data indicate that septic systems using advanced treatment can reduce OWCs in treated effluent to similar concentrations as municipal WWTPs. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  14. The physical effect of biological and chemical treatments on water repellent soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary-Anne; Mathes, Falko; McGrath, Gavan; Loke, Meng Heng; Murphy, Daniel; Leopold, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Water repellence in soils is a naturally occurring phenomenon caused by long-chain hydrophobic organic molecules that affect millions of hectares of agricultural land in Australia. Breakdown of the hydrophobicity in soils has been attributed to both biological and chemical interactions, it being unclear which is the primary contributor. We employed a novel approach investigating the ability of bio-chemical treatments to breakdown the physical effects of water repellence using 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The experiment consisted of sterile soil with a hydrophilic, heat treated outer section that framed a 4 cm3 severely hydrophobic inclusion. Treatments included wax-degrading microbes, a surfactant, the combination of the two, as well as controls, all on sterile and non-sterile hydrophobic soil. The experiment used 3D, borehole ERT to measure the electric resistivity in the soil after wetting. Electric resistivities were converted to volumetric water contents allowing determination of in-situ time-lapse water contents. On all treatments, over time, there was a visible decrease in the definition of the boundary between the water repellent core and the wetting soil, with the treatment defining the pattern and speed of wetting. We observed the wetting of the surfactant treated soil with a fast, stable wetting front. Return of repellence after drying had varied outcomes for the controls, both sterile and non-sterile, with some tests returning with severe water repellence while others with no repellence, the repellence more likely to return at the lower depth. The drying of soils with the surfactant treatment showed that there was a return of repellence on all depths of excavation and these ranged from low to severe repellence. The aim of this experiment is to a better understand the hydrological impacts of the mechanisms responsible for the breakdown of water-repellent soils through how they affect the pattern and longevity of the breakdown.

  15. Selection of the surface water treatment technology - a full-scale technological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruss, Alina

    2015-01-01

    A technological investigation was carried out over a period of 2 years to evaluate surface water treatment technology. The study was performed in Poland, in three stages. From November 2011 to July 2012, for the first stage, flow tests with a capacity of 0.1-1.5 m³/h were performed simultaneously in three types of technical installations differing by coagulation modules. The outcome of the first stage was the choice of the technology for further investigation. The second stage was performed between September 2012 and March 2013 on a full-scale water treatment plant. Three large technical installations, operated in parallel, were analysed: coagulation with sludge flotation, micro-sand ballasted coagulation with sedimentation, coagulation with sedimentation and sludge recirculation. The capacity of the installations ranged from 10 to 40 m³/h. The third stage was also performed in a full-scale water treatment plant and was aimed at optimising the selected technology. This article presents the results of the second stage of the full-scale investigation. The critical treatment process, for the analysed water, was the coagulation in an acidic environment (6.5 < pH < 7.0) carried out in a system with rapid mixing, a flocculation chamber, preliminary separation of coagulation products, and removal of residual suspended solids through filtration.

  16. A novel way to rapidly monitor microplastics in soil by hyperspectral imaging technology and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Jiajia; Zhao, Junbo; Liu, Lifen; Zhang, Yituo; Wang, Xue; Wu, Fengchang

    2018-03-16

    Hyperspectral imaging technology has been investigated as a possible way to detect microplastics contamination in soil directly and efficiently in this study. Hyperspectral images with wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm were obtained from soil samples containing different materials including microplastics, fresh leaves, wilted leaves, rocks and dry branches. Supervised classification algorithms such as support vector machine (SVM), mahalanobis distance (MD) and maximum likelihood (ML) algorithms were used to identify microplastics from the other materials in hyperspectral images. To investigate the effect of particle size and color, white polyethylene (PE) and black PE particles extracted from soil with two different particle size ranges (1-5 mm and 0.5-1 mm) were studied in this work. The results showed that SVM was the most applicable method for detecting white PE in soil, with the precision of 84% and 77% for PE particles in size ranges of 1-5 mm and 0.5-1 mm respectively. The precision of black PE detection achieved by SVM were 58% and 76% for particles of 1-5 mm and 0.5-1 mm respectively. Six kinds of household polymers including drink bottle, bottle cap, rubber, packing bag, clothes hanger and plastic clip were used to validate the developed method, and the classification precision of polymers were obtained from 79% to 100% and 86%-99% for microplastics particle 1-5 mm and 0.5-1 mm respectively. The results indicate that hyperspectral imaging technology is a potential technique to determine and visualize the microplastics with particle size from 0.5 to 5 mm on soil surface directly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the first...... and last eating disorder diagnosis before, during, and after ART treatment, and evaluates differences in obstetric outcomes between women with and without a severe eating disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospital-diagnosed eating disorders among 42 915 women in the Danish National ART cohort (DANAC......), registered during 1994-2009 in the mandatory Psychiatric Central Research Register, were compared with a non-eating disorder ART cohort of 42 644 women and an age-matched background population of 215 290 women without a history of ART treatment for the main outcome measures prevalence of eating disorders...

  18. Short- and medium-term effects of fuel reduction mulch treatments on soil nitrogen availability in Colorado conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. C. Rhoades; M. A. Battaglia; M. E. Rocca; M. G. Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical fuel reduction treatments have been implemented on millions of hectares of western North American forests. The redistribution of standing forest biomass to the soil surface by mulching treatments has no ecological analog, and this practice may alter soil processes and forest productivity. We evaluated the effects of mulch addition on soil nitrogen...

  19. Rapid Measurement of Soil Carbon in Rice Paddy Field of Lombok Island Indonesia Using Near Infrared Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumo, B. H.; Sukartono, S.; Bustan, B.

    2018-02-01

    Measuring soil organic carbon (C) using conventional analysis is tedious procedure, time consuming and expensive. It is needed simple procedure which is cheap and saves time. Near infrared technology offers rapid procedure as it works based on the soil spectral reflectance and without any chemicals. The aim of this research is to test whether this technology able to rapidly measure soil organic C in rice paddy field. Soil samples were collected from rice paddy field of Lombok Island Indonesia, and the coordinates of the samples were recorded. Parts of the samples were analysed using conventional analysis (Walkley and Black) and some other parts were scanned using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for soil spectral collection. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) Models were developed using data of soil C analysed using conventional analysis and data from soil spectral reflectance. The models were moderately successful to measure soil C in rice paddy field of Lombok Island. This shows that the NIR technology can be further used to monitor the C change in rice paddy soil.

  20. Assessing the Biophysical Impact and Financial Viability of Soil Management Technologies Under Variable Climate in Cabo Verde Drylands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptista, Isaurinda; Irvine, Brian; Fleskens, Luuk; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen

    2016-01-01

    Field trials have demonstrated the potential of soil conservation technologies but have also shown significant spatial-temporal yield variability. This study considers the Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment - Desertification Mitigation Cost-Effectiveness modelling approach to capture a

  1. Tailoring conservation agriculture technologies to West Africa semi-arid zones: Building on traditional local practices for soil restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmar, R.; Bationo, B.A.; Lamso, N.D.; Guéro, Y.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Low inherent fertility of tropical soils and degradation, nutrient deficiency and water stress are the key factors that hamper rainfed agriculture in semi-arid West Africa. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is currently promoted in the region as a technology to reduce soil degradation, mitigate the

  2. New technologies in the treatment of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by insufficient production of insulin, a hormone needed for proper control of blood glucose levels. People with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood glucose throughout the day using a glucose meter or a continuous glucose monitor, calculate...... how much insulin is needed to maintain normal blood glucose levels, and administer the insulin dose by pen injection or insulin pump infusion into the subcutaneous tissue. In recent years, several new technologies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes have been developed. This PhD thesis covers two...... studies of the effects of commercially available technologies--sensor-augmented pump therapy and automated insulin bolus calculators--when used in clinical practice. Both studies demonstrated that these technologies have the potential to improve diabetes care. In addition, two in-clinic studies related...

  3. Assessing Landscape-Scale Soil Moisture Distribution Using Auxiliary Sensing Technologies and Multivariate Geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, C.; Castrignanò, A.; Mueller, T.; Zourarakis, D.; Zhu, J.

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess soil moisture to develop strategies to better manage its availability and use. At the landscape scale, soil moisture distribution derives from an integration of hydrologic, pedologic and geomorphic processes that cause soil moisture variability (SMV) to be time, space, and scale-dependent. Traditional methods to assess SMV at this scale are often costly, labor intensive, and invasive, which can lead to inadequate sampling density and spatial coverage. Fusing traditional sampling techniques with georeferenced auxiliary sensing technologies, such as geoelectric sensing and LiDAR, provide an alternative approach. Because geoelectric and LiDAR measurements are sensitive to soil properties and terrain features that affect soil moisture variation, they are often employed as auxiliary measures to support less dense direct sampling. Georeferenced proximal sensing acquires rapid, real-time, high resolution data over large spatial extents that is enriched with spatial, temporal and scale-dependent information. Data fusion becomes important when proximal sensing is used in tandem with more sparse direct sampling. Multicollocated factorial cokriging (MFC) is one technique of multivariate geostatistics to fuse multiple data sources collected at different sampling scales to study the spatial characteristics of environmental properties. With MFC sparse soil observations are supported by more densely sampled auxiliary attributes to produce more consistent spatial descriptions of scale-dependent parameters affecting SMV. This study uses high resolution geoelectric and LiDAR data as auxiliary measures to support direct soil sampling (n=127) over a 40 hectare Central Kentucky (USA) landscape. Shallow and deep apparent electrical resistivity (ERa) were measured using a Veris 3100 in tandem with soil moisture sampling on three separate dates with ascending soil moisture contents ranging from plant wilting point to field capacity. Terrain features were produced

  4. Psychodynamic treatment, training, and supervision using internet-based technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkin, Ralph; Fishkin, Lana; Leli, Ubaldo; Katz, Barbara; Snyder, Elise

    2011-01-01

    For several years, the China American Psychoanalytic Alliance (CAPA) has provided treatment, training, and supervision to Chinese mental health professionals over the Internet. The lack of Chinese analysts and mentors has created an intense demand for psychodynamic psychotherapy training and treatment that CAPA is addressing using Skype™ and other distance communication technologies. This article describes the project, its history, scope, and activities, and the experiences of CAPA teachers and clinicians in exploring and developing the usefulness and power of this very new teaching method. Some particular characteristics of Chinese culture have become apparent as a result of the teaching experience. Aspects of the transference and countertransference that are shaped by the virtual nature of the technology are discussed, using case material. Our hope is that, in helping to train our Chinese students in psychodynamic psychotherapy, they will go on to train future generations of clinicians. This model of teaching and training could also be applied in other underserved areas.

  5. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development's VOC's in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry

  6. Final Report on Testing of Off-Gas Treatment Technologies for Abatement of Atmospheric Emissions of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarosch, T.R.; Haselow, J.S.; Rossabi, J.; Burdick, S.A.; Raymond, R.; Young, J.E.; Lombard, K.H.

    1995-01-23

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the program for off-gas treatment of atmospheric emissions of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs), in particular trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE). This program was funded through the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development`s VOC`s in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VNID). The off-gas treatment program was initiated after testing of in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells was completed (Looney et al., 1991). That successful test expectedly produced atmospheric emissions of CVOCs that were unabated. It was decided after that test that an off-gas treatment is an integral portion of remediation of CVOC contamination in groundwater and soil but also because several technologies were being developed across the United States to mitigate CVOC emissions. A single platform for testing off-gas treatment technologies would facilitate cost effective evaluation of the emerging technologies. Another motivation for the program is that many CVOCs will be regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and are already regulated by many state regulatory programs. Additionally, compounds such as TCE and PCE are pervasive subsurface environmental contaminants, and, as a result, a small improvement in terms of abatement efficiency or cost will significantly reduce CVOC discharges to the environment as well as costs to United States government and industry.

  7. A catalogue of treatment and technologies for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunselaar, Laurel M; Quispel-Janssen, Josine M M F; Neefjes, Jacques J C; Baas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive fatal malignancy with a prognosis that has not significantly improved in the last decades. This review summarizes the current state of treatment and the various attempts that are made to improve overall survival for patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. It also discusses technologies and protocols to test new and hopefully more effective compounds in a more individualized manner. These developments are expected to improve the prognosis for this group of patients.

  8. Ex situ treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil using biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Ana Belén; Paradelo, Remigio; Rubinos, David; Devesa-Rey, Rosa; Cruz, José Manuel; Barral, María Teresa

    2011-09-14

    The utilization of biosurfactants for the bioremediation of contaminated soil is not yet well established, because of the high production cost of biosurfactants. Consequently, it is interesting to look for new biosurfactants that can be produced at a large scale, and it can be employed for the bioremediation of contaminated sites. In this work, biosurfactants from Lactobacillus pentosus growing in hemicellulosic sugars solutions, with a similar composition of sugars found in trimming vine shoot hydrolysates, were employed in the bioremediation of soil contaminated with octane. It was observed that the presence of biosurfactant from L. pentosus accelerated the biodegradation of octane in soil. After 15 days of treatment, biosurfactants from L. pentosus reduced the concentration of octane in the soil to 58.6 and 62.8%, for soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of hydrocarbon, respectively, whereas after 30 days of treatment, 76% of octane in soil was biodegraded in both cases. In the absence of biosurfactant and after 15 days of incubation, only 1.2 and 24% of octane was biodegraded in soil charged with 700 and 70,000 mg/kg of octane, respectively. Thus, the use of biosurfactants from L. pentosus, as part of a well-designed bioremediation process, can provide mechanisms to mobilize the target contaminants from the soil surface to make them more available to the microbial population.

  9. Delignification and Enhanced Gas Release from Soil Containing Lignocellulose by Treatment with Bacterial Lignin Degraders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Goran M M; Duran-Pena, Maria Jesus; Rahmanpour, Rahman; Sapsford, Devin; Bugg, Timothy D H

    2017-04-10

    The aim of the study was to isolate bacterial lignin-degrading bacteria from municipal solid waste soil, and to investigate whether they could be used to delignify lignocellulose-containing soil, and enhance methane release. A set of 20 bacterial lignin degraders, including 11 new isolates from municipal solid waste soil, were tested for delignification and phenol release in soil containing 1% pine lignocellulose. A group of 7 strains were then tested for enhancement of gas release from soil containing 1% lignocellulose in small-scale column tests. Using an aerobic pre-treatment, aerobic strains such as Pseudomonas putida showed enhanced gas release from the treated sample, but four bacterial isolates showed 5-10 fold enhancement in gas release in an in situ experiment under microanaerobic conditions: Agrobacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Comamonas testosteroni, and Enterobacter sp.. The results show that facultative anaerobic bacterial lignin degraders found in landfill soil can be used for in situ delignification and enhanced gas release in soil containing lignocellulose. The study demonstrates the feasibility of using an in situ bacterial treatment to enhance gas release and resource recovery from landfill soil containing lignocellulosic waste. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Current trends in endodontic practice: emergency treatments and technological armamentarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michelle; Winkler, Johnathon; Hartwell, Gary; Stewart, Jeffrey; Caine, Rufus

    2009-01-01

    The current clinical practice of endodontics includes the utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. The last comprehensive survey that compared treatment modalities used in endodontic practices was conducted in 1990. The purpose of the current survey was to determine the frequency with which these new endodontic technologies and materials are being used in endodontic practices today. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to the 636 active diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics with current e-mail addresses. Two hundred thirty-two diplomates responded for a response rate of 35%. Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used intracanal medicament for all cases diagnosed with necrotic pulps. Ibuprofen was the most frequently prescribed medication for pain, and penicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic when an active infection was present. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are still incorporating hand files in some fashion during the cleansing and shaping phase of treatment. Lateral condensation and continuous wave were the most common methods used for obturation. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 72.5% of the respondents, whereas 45.3% reported using the microscope greater than 75% of the patient treatment. Ultrasonics was used by 97.8% of the respondents. It appears from the results that new endodontic technology is currently being used in the endodontic offices of those who responded to the survey.

  11. Heavy metals in a degraded soil treated with sludge from water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Sandra Tereza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of water treatment sludge (WTS to degraded soil is an alternative for both residue disposal and degraded soil reclaim. This study evaluated effects of the application of water treatment sludge to a Typic Hapludox soil degraded by tin mining in the National Forest of Jamari, State of Rondonia, Brazil, on the content of heavy metals. A completely randomized experimental design with five treatments was used: control (n = 4; chemical control, which received only liming (n = 4; and rates D100, D150 and D200, which corresponded to 100, 150 and 200 mg of N-sludge kg-1 soil (n = 20, respectively. Thirty days after liming, period in which soil moisture was kept at 70% of the retention capacity, soil samples were taken and analyzed for total and extractable Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr. The application of WTS increased heavy-metal contents in the degraded soil. Although heavy metals were below their respective critical limits, sludge application onto degraded areas may cause hazardous environmental impact and thus must be monitored.

  12. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E; Siegrist, Robert L; Barber, Larry B; Meyer, Michael T

    2010-02-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. Copyright 2009 SETAC.

  13. Fate of trace organic compounds during vadose zone soil treatment in an onsite wastewater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    During onsite wastewater treatment, trace organic compounds are often present in the effluents applied to subsurface soils for advanced treatment during vadose zone percolation and groundwater recharge. The fate of the endocrine-disrupting surfactant metabolites 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate (NP1EO), and 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate (NP1EC), metal-chelating agents ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), antimicrobial agent triclosan, stimulant caffeine, and antibiotic sulfamethoxazole during transport through an unsaturated sandy loam soil was studied at a field-scale test site. To assess the effects of effluent quality and hydraulic loading rate (HLR) on compound fate in the soil profile, two effluents (septic tank or textile biofilter) were applied at two design HLRs (2 or 8 cm/d). Chemical concentrations were determined in the two effluents and soil pore water at 60, 120, and 240 cm below the soil infiltrative surface. Concentrations of trace organic compounds in septic tank effluent were reduced by more than 90% during transport through 240 cm (often within 60 cm) of soil, likely due to sorption and biotransformation. However, the concentration of NP increased with depth in the shallow soil profile. Additional treatment of anaerobic septic tank effluent with an aerobic textile biofilter reduced effluent concentrations of many compounds, but generally did not affect any changes in pore water concentrations. The soil profile receiving septic tank effluent (vs. textile biofilter effluent) generally had greater percent removal efficiencies. EDTA, NP, NP1EC, and sulfamethoxazole were measured in soil pore water, indicating the ability of some trace organic compounds to reach shallow groundwater. Risk is highly dependent on the degree of further treatment in the saturated zone and the types and proximity of uses for the receiving groundwater environment. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  14. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO 2 emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  15. A State-of-the-Art Review on Soil Reinforcement Technology Using Natural Plant Fiber Materials: Past Findings, Present Trends and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowthaman, Sivakumar; Nakashima, Kazunori; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2018-04-04

    Incorporating sustainable materials into geotechnical applications increases day by day due to the consideration of impacts on healthy geo-environment and future generations. The environmental issues associated with conventional synthetic materials such as cement, plastic-composites, steel and ashes necessitate alternative approaches in geotechnical engineering. Recently, natural fiber materials in place of synthetic material have gained momentum as an emulating soil-reinforcement technique in sustainable geotechnics. However, the natural fibers are innately different from such synthetic material whereas behavior of fiber-reinforced soil is influenced not only by physical-mechanical properties but also by biochemical properties. In the present review, the applicability of natural plant fibers as oriented distributed fiber-reinforced soil (ODFS) and randomly distributed fiber-reinforced soil (RDFS) are extensively discussed and emphasized the inspiration of RDFS based on the emerging trend. Review also attempts to explore the importance of biochemical composition of natural-fibers on the performance in subsoil reinforced conditions. The treatment methods which enhances the behavior and lifetime of fibers, are also presented. While outlining the current potential of fiber reinforcement technology, some key research gaps have been highlighted at their importance. Finally, the review briefly documents the future direction of the fiber reinforcement technology by associating bio-mediated technological line.

  16. Cost–benefit calculation of phytoremediation technology for heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiaoming; Lei, Mei, E-mail: leim@igsnrr.ac.cn; Chen, Tongbin

    2016-09-01

    Heavy-metal pollution of soil is a serious issue worldwide, particularly in China. Soil remediation is one of the most difficult management issues for municipal and state agencies because of its high cost. A two-year phytoremediation project for soil contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, and lead was implemented to determine the essential parameters for soil remediation. Results showed highly efficient heavy metal removal. Costs and benefits of this project were calculated. The total cost of phytoremediation was US$75,375.2/hm{sup 2} or US$37.7/m{sup 3}, with initial capital and operational costs accounting for 46.02% and 53.98%, respectively. The costs of infrastructures (i.e., roads, bridges, and culverts) and fertilizer were the highest, mainly because of slow economic development and serious contamination. The cost of phytoremediation was lower than the reported values of other remediation technologies. Improving the mechanization level of phytoremediation and accurately predicting or preventing unforeseen situations were suggested for further cost reduction. Considering the loss caused by environmental pollution, the benefits of phytoremediation will offset the project costs in less than seven years. - Highlights: • A two-year phytoremediation project was introduced. • Costs and benefits of a phytoremediation project were calculated. • Costs of phytoremediation project can be offset by benefits in 7 years.

  17. Cost–benefit calculation of phytoremediation technology for heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Xiaoming; Lei, Mei; Chen, Tongbin

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-metal pollution of soil is a serious issue worldwide, particularly in China. Soil remediation is one of the most difficult management issues for municipal and state agencies because of its high cost. A two-year phytoremediation project for soil contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, and lead was implemented to determine the essential parameters for soil remediation. Results showed highly efficient heavy metal removal. Costs and benefits of this project were calculated. The total cost of phytoremediation was US$75,375.2/hm 2 or US$37.7/m 3 , with initial capital and operational costs accounting for 46.02% and 53.98%, respectively. The costs of infrastructures (i.e., roads, bridges, and culverts) and fertilizer were the highest, mainly because of slow economic development and serious contamination. The cost of phytoremediation was lower than the reported values of other remediation technologies. Improving the mechanization level of phytoremediation and accurately predicting or preventing unforeseen situations were suggested for further cost reduction. Considering the loss caused by environmental pollution, the benefits of phytoremediation will offset the project costs in less than seven years. - Highlights: • A two-year phytoremediation project was introduced. • Costs and benefits of a phytoremediation project were calculated. • Costs of phytoremediation project can be offset by benefits in 7 years.

  18. Cost-benefit calculation of phytoremediation technology for heavy-metal-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoming; Lei, Mei; Chen, Tongbin

    2016-09-01

    Heavy-metal pollution of soil is a serious issue worldwide, particularly in China. Soil remediation is one of the most difficult management issues for municipal and state agencies because of its high cost. A two-year phytoremediation project for soil contaminated with arsenic, cadmium, and lead was implemented to determine the essential parameters for soil remediation. Results showed highly efficient heavy metal removal. Costs and benefits of this project were calculated. The total cost of phytoremediation was US$75,375.2/hm(2) or US$37.7/m(3), with initial capital and operational costs accounting for 46.02% and 53.98%, respectively. The costs of infrastructures (i.e., roads, bridges, and culverts) and fertilizer were the highest, mainly because of slow economic development and serious contamination. The cost of phytoremediation was lower than the reported values of other remediation technologies. Improving the mechanization level of phytoremediation and accurately predicting or preventing unforeseen situations were suggested for further cost reduction. Considering the loss caused by environmental pollution, the benefits of phytoremediation will offset the project costs in less than seven years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of technological treatments on bovine lactoferrin: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Indira; Pérez, María Dolores; Conesa, Celia; Calvo, Miguel; Sánchez, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional protein that exerts important activities in the neonate through its presence in milk, and also in other external mucosas, acting as a defense protein of innate immunity. The addition of bovine LF to infant formula and also to other functional products and cosmetics has increased during the last decades. Consequently, it is essential to know the effect that the technological processes, necessary to elaborate those products, have on LF activity. In this study, we have revised the effect of classical treatments on lactoferrin structure and activity, such as heat treatment or drying, and also of emerging technologies, like high pressure or pulsed electric field. The results of the studies included in this review indicate that LF stability is dependent on its level of iron-saturation and on the characteristics of the treatment media. Furthermore, the studies revised here reveal that the non-thermal treatments are interesting alternatives to the traditional ones, as they protect better the structure and activity of lactoferrin. It is also clear the need for research on LF encapsulation by different ways, to protect its properties before it reaches the intestine. All this knowledge would allow designing processes less harmful for LF, thus maintaining all its functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Innovative Treatment Technologies for Natural Waters and Wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, Amy E.

    2011-07-01

    The research described in this report focused on the development of novel membrane contactor processes (in particular, forward osmosis (FO), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), and membrane distillation (MD)) in low energy desalination and wastewater treatment applications and in renewable energy generation. FO and MD are recently gaining national and international attention as viable, economic alternatives for removal of both established and emerging contaminants from natural and process waters; PRO is gaining worldwide attention as a viable source of renewable energy. The interrelationship of energy and water are at the core of this study. Energy and water are inextricably bound; energy usage and production must be considered when evaluating any water treatment process for practical application. Both FO and MD offer the potential for substantial energy and resource savings over conventional treatment processes and PRO offers the potential for renewable energy or energy offsets in desalination. Combination of these novel technologies with each other, with existing technologies (e.g., reverse osmosis (RO)), and with existing renewable energy sources (e.g., salinity gradient solar ponds) may enable much less expensive water production and also potable water production in remote or distributed locations. Two inter-related projects were carried out in this investigation. One focused on membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and PRO for renewable energy generation; the other focused on MD driven by a salinity gradient solar pond.

  1. Bioremediation treatment of MTBE and ETBE in contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissara Reungsang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Three Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE degradative consortia were isolated from gasoline-contaminated soil namely: mKMS, mKGS1 and mKGS2. These consortia were tested for the ability to degrade Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE at the concentration of 100 mg/L and to degrade a mixture of MTBE and ETBE in the Nutrient Broth (NB media at the concentration of 50 mg/L each. The results showed that mKGS1 was the best degraders in which 74% of MTBE, 25% of ETBE and 16% of MTBE and 23% of ETBE in the mixture were degraded, within 30 days. mKGS1 was then further used in the bioaugmentation and biostimulation experiments. Degradation of MTBE increased from 34% to 61% after 70 days when mKGS1 was amended in soil mixed with the combination of MTBE and ETBE (at 50 mg/L each. However, mKGS1 did not significantly help the ETBE degradation when it was amended in soil (biostimulation technique. One percent glucose significantly stimulated the degradation of MTBE by the indigenous microorganisms. The presence of mKGS1 and an addition of 1% glucose as extra carbon source improved the degradation of MTBE, from 42 to 51%, suggesting mKGS1 played an important role in the degradation of MTBE.

  2. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and small communities using ground-water supplies. Presently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAC), diffused-bubble aeration, and packed-tower aeration. In order to obtain data on these treatment alternatives for small communities water supplies, a field evaluation study was conducted on these three processes as well as on several modifications to aeration of water in storage tanks considered to be low cost/low technology alternatives. The paper presents the results of these field studies conducted at a small mobile home park in rural New Hampshire. The conclusion of the study was that the selection of the appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water depends primarily upon: (1) precent removal of process; (2) capital operating and maintenance costs; (3) safety (radiation); and (4) raw water quality (Fe, Mn, bacteria and organics)

  3. Effect of different treatments on 85Sr plant uptake in various soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koblinger-Bokori, E.; Szerbin, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the recent years radioecological studies are concentrated on the investigation of restoration possibilities of contaminated ecosystems. These studies are aimed to develop methods for decreasing the bioavailability of the radionuclides released to the environment. Radionuclides of long half-lives, such as 90 Sr and 137 Cs, are of special importance from the point of human health, since these nuclides can enter the human body via the food-chain and increase the radiation burden for many years. 90 Sr and 137 Cs contamination of the environment may occur as a result of atmospheric releases during nuclear accidents. For instance, considerable amounts were released to the atmosphere during the Chernobyl reactor accident. In the presented study strontium plant uptake from different types of soil was investigated. To avoid the difficulties related to 90 Sr determination, the gamma-emitting strontium isotope 85 Sr is used at the experiments (no isotopic effect takes place). The plant selected is yellow leguminous bean. Most typical Hungarian soils (leached Ramann brown forest soil, alluvial soil, chernozem-light sandy soil and calcareous chernozem soil) were selected for the experiments carried out under laboratory conditions. Results are presented in relation to major soil characteristics. Effects of two different treatments: lime and organic matter fertilizations on plant uptake are given. The highest uptake was found in bean grown on leached Ramann brown forest soil, whereas the lowest value was measured in the plant grown in calcareous chernozem soil. Organic fertilization significantly reduced the uptake of radiostrontium in all investigated types of soil. The largest factor of reduction was found to be as high as 3.5. Lime fertilization was less effective. Our study clearly demonstrates that carefully selected post-accident treatments (e.g. organic fertilization following strontium contamination) can significantly reduce the environmental consequences of

  4. Classificação tecnológica de solos e resíduos industriais, com e sem tratamento térmico, para fins rodoviários Technological classification of soils and industrial residues with and without thermal treatment for forest road pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2003-10-01

    permeability, were studied for application in forest road pavement. Three soil samples of (ETA, NV and VS representative of Viçosa-MG occurrences were used. Wood-tar was used 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6% and lime and cement mixture.The addition of wood-tar reduced the Atterberg values significantly. It was concluded that wood-tar improved the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the soils, for some treatments without, however, reaching however, the patterns of mechanical resistance demanded by DNER sub-base layers of flexible pavements. Regarding the mixtures soil-lime-wood tar and soil-cement-wood tar, substantial improvement was verified in the mechanical resistance parameters in relation to the soils, mainly due to the action of lime and cement. This action was found to be stronger for the wood tar in some treatments, leading to a higher mechanical resistance than that of the mixtures soil-lime and soil-cement. Wood tar caused a decrease in mixture permeability in relation to the soil up to 10 times. Wood tar was found to be an important stabilizer only for some forest road pavement conditions, involving soil type, and wood tar type and level, suggesting that studies on this area should present a regional characteristic.

  5. Conditions and technologies of biological wastewater treatment in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, G M; Bakos, V; Jobbágy, A

    2012-01-01

    A survey has been carried out involving 55 Hungarian wastewater treatment plants in order to evaluate the wastewater quality, the applied technologies and the resultant problems. Characteristically the treatment temperature is very wide-ranging from less than 10 °C to higher than 26 °C. Influent quality proved to be very variable regarding both the organic matter (typical COD concentration range 600-1,200 mg l(-1)) and the nitrogen content (typical NH(4)-N concentration range 40-80 mg l(-1)). As a consequence, significant differences have been found in the carbon availability for denitrification from site to site. Forty two percent of the influents proved to lack an appropriate carbon source. As a consequence of carbon deficiency as well as technologies designed and/or operated with non-efficient denitrification, rising sludge in the secondary clarifiers typically occurs especially in summer. In case studies, application of intermittent aeration, low DO reactors, biofilters and anammox processes have been evaluated, as different biological nitrogen removal technologies. With low carbon source availability, favoring denitrification over enhanced biological phosphorus removal has led to an improved nitrogen removal.

  6. Treatment of landfill leachate by using lateritic soil as a natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafalni; Lim, Han Khim; Ismail, Norli; Abustan, Ismail; Murshed, Mohamad Fared; Ahmad, Anees

    2012-12-15

    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of a suspension of PCB contaminated soil using iron nanoparticles and electric current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comes, Helena I.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are an important environmental problem due to the persistence of these synthetic aromatic compounds and to the lack of a cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology. Recently, a new experimental setup has been proposed...... using electrodialytic remediation and iron nanoparticles. The current work compares the performance of this new setup (A) with conventional electrokinetics (setup B). An historically contaminated soil with an initial PCB concentration of 258 mu g kg-1 was treated during 5, 10, 20 and 45 d using...... gradient when compared with the traditional setup (B). Energy and nZVI costs for a full-scale reactor are estimated at 72 (sic) for each cubic meter of PCB contaminated soil treated on-site, making this technology competitive when compared with average off-site incineration (885 (sic) m-3) or landfilling...

  8. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  9. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaoyi, E-mail: yangxiaoyi@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Thermal Energy Engineering, BeiHang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  10. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  11. Research trends in electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianlong; Wang, Juan; Wang, Qunhui; Meng, Huimin; Wang, Lihong

    2017-03-01

    It is difficult to completely degrade wastewater containing refractory pollutants without secondary pollution by biological treatment, as well as physical-chemical process. Therefore, electrochemical technology has attracted much attention for its environmental compatibility, high removal efficiency, and potential cost effectiveness, especially on the industrial wastewater treatment. An effective bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Core Collection database was conducted to evaluate electrochemical technology for water and wastewater treatment related research from 1994 to 2013. The amount of publications significantly increased in the last two decades. Journal of the Electrochemical Society published the most articles in this field with a top h-index of 90, taking 5.8 % of all, followed by Electrochimica Acta and Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry. The researchers focused on categories of chemistry, electrochemistry, and materials science. China and Chinese Academy of Sciences were the most productive country and institution, respectively, while the USA, with the most international collaborative articles and highest h-index of 130, was the major collaborator with 15 other countries in top 20 most productive countries. Moreover, based on the analysis of author keywords, title, abstract, and `KeyWords Plus', a new method named "word cluster analysis" was successfully applied to trace the research hotspot. Nowadays, researchers mainly focused on novel anodic electrode, especially on its physiochemical and electrochemical properties.

  12. Onsite greywater treatment using pilot scale grow technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed), Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solids), pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen). Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8. (author)

  13. Radiation-beam technologies of structural materials treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    Considered in the paper are the most advanced and prospective radiation-beam technologies (RBT) for treatment of structural materials, as applied to modifying the structural-phase state in the surface layers of half-finished products and articles with the purpose to improve their service properties. Ion-beam, plasma, and ion-plasma, as well as the technologies based on the use of concentrated fluxes of energy, generated by laser radiation, high-power pulsed electron and ion beams, and high-temperature pulsed plasma fluxes are analysed. As applied to improvement of the corrosion and erosion resistance, breaking strength, friction and wear resistance, and crack resistance, the directions of the choice and the use of RBT have been considered for changes of the surface layer state by applying covers and films, and by a change of the surface topography (relief), surface structure and defects, and the element composition and phase state of materials [ru

  14. Dynamic immobilization of simulated radionuclide 133Cs in soil by thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byeong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Although direct radiation induced health impacts were considered benign, soil contamination with 137 Cs, due to its long-term radiological impact (30 years half-life) and its high biological availability is of a major concern in Japan in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster. Therefore 137 Cs reduction and immobilization in contaminated soil are recognized as important problems to be solved using suitable and effective technologies. One such thermal treatment/vitrification with nanometallic Ca/CaO amendments is a promising treatment for the ultimate immobilization of simulated radionuclide 133 Cs in soil, showing low leachability and zero evaporation. Immobilization efficiencies were 88%, 95% and 96% when the 133 Cs soil was treated at 1200 °C with activated carbon, fly ash and nanometallic Ca/CaO additives. In addition, the combination of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash (1:1) enhanced the immobilization efficiency to 99%, while no evaporation of 133 Cs was observed. At lower temperatures (800 °C) the leachable fraction of Cs was only 6% (94% immobilization). Through the SEM–EDS analysis, decrease in the amount of Cs mass percent detectable on soil particle surface was observed after soil vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA. The 133 Cs soil was subjected to vitrified with nCa/CaO + FA peaks related to Ca, crystalline phases (CaCO 3 /Ca(OH) 2 ), wollastonite, pollucite and hematite appeared in addition to quartz, kaolinite and bentonite, which probably indicates that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials includes Ca-associated complexes. Thus, the thermal treatment with the addition of nanometallic Ca/CaO and fly ash may be considered potentially applicable for the remediation of radioactive Cs contaminated soil at zero evaporation, relatively at low temperature. - Graphical abstract: SEM–EDS element maps of 133 Cs contaminated soil before and after thermal treatment at 1200 °C with different addictives. Color intensity for Cs is from 0

  15. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  17. Introduction of Microbial Biopolymers in Soil Treatment for Future Environmentally-Friendly and Sustainable Geotechnical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatment and improvement is commonly performed in the field of geotechnical engineering. Methods and materials to achieve this such as soil stabilization and mixing with cementitious binders have been utilized in engineered soil applications since the beginning of human civilization. Demand for environment-friendly and sustainable alternatives is currently rising. Since cement, the most commonly applied and effective soil treatment material, is responsible for heavy greenhouse gas emissions, alternatives such as geosynthetics, chemical polymers, geopolymers, microbial induction, and biopolymers are being actively studied. This study provides an overall review of the recent applications of biopolymers in geotechnical engineering. Biopolymers are microbially induced polymers that are high-tensile, innocuous, and eco-friendly. Soil–biopolymer interactions and related soil strengthening mechanisms are discussed in the context of recent experimental and microscopic studies. In addition, the economic feasibility of biopolymer implementation in the field is analyzed in comparison to ordinary cement, from environmental perspectives. Findings from this study demonstrate that biopolymers have strong potential to replace cement as a soil treatment material within the context of environment-friendly construction and development. Moreover, continuing research is suggested to ensure performance in terms of practical implementation, reliability, and durability of in situ biopolymer applications for geotechnical engineering purposes.

  18. Social Media and Mobile Technology for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Coughlin, Steven S.; Lyons, Elizabeth J.

    2018-01-01

    OVERVIEW Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:28561647

  19. Social Media and Mobile Technology for Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Coughlin, Steven S; Lyons, Elizabeth J

    2017-01-01

    Given the number of lives affected by cancer and the great potential for optimizing well-being via lifestyle changes, patients, providers, health care systems, advocacy groups, and entrepreneurs are looking to digital solutions to enhance patient care and broaden prevention efforts. Thousands of health-oriented mobile websites and apps have been developed, with a majority focused upon lifestyle behaviors (e.g., exercise, diet, smoking). In this review, we consider the use and potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention, cancer treatment, and survivorship. We identify key principles in research and practice, summarize prior reviews, and highlight notable case studies and patient resources. Further, with the potential for scaled delivery and broad reach, we consider application of social media and mHealth technologies in low-resource settings. With clear advantages for reach, social media and mHealth technologies offer the ability to scale and engage entire populations at low cost, develop supportive social networks, connect patients and providers, encourage adherence with cancer care, and collect vast quantities of data for advancing cancer research. Development efforts have been rapid and numerous, yet evaluation of intervention effects on behavior change and health outcomes are sorely needed, and regulation around data security issues is notably lacking. Attention to broader audiences is also needed, with targeted development for culturally diverse groups and non-English speakers. Further investment in research to build the evidence base and identify best practices will help delineate and actualize the potential of social media and mHealth technologies for cancer prevention and treatment.

  20. Technology needs for tomorrow's treatment and diagnosis of macular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubrane, Gisèle

    2008-02-01

    Retinal imaging is the basis of macular disease's diagnosis. Currently available technologies in clinical practice are fluorescein and indocyanin green (ICG) angiographies, in addition to optical coherence tomography (OCT), which is an in vivo "histology-like" cross-sectional images of the retina. Recent developments in the field of OCT imaging include Spectral-Domain OCT. However OCT remains a static view of the macula with no direct link with dynamic observation obtained by angiographies. Adaptative optics is an encouraging perspective for fundus analysis in the future, and could be linked to OCT or angiographies. Treatments of macular disease have exploded these past few years. Pharmacologic inhibition of angiogenesis represents a novel approach in the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in eyes with age-related macular degeneration. The major action explored is the direct inhibition of the protein VEGF with antibody-like products. New anti-VEGF drugs are in development aiming at the VEGF receptors or synthesis of VEGF. But various components of the neovascular cascade, including growth factor expression, extracellular matrix modulation, integrin inhibition represent potential targets for modulation with drugs. Intra-vitreal injections are nowadays the main route of administration for these new treatments but they are potentially responsible of side effects such as endophtalmitis. Development of other routes of treatment would require new formulation of used drugs. The improvement of retinal imaging leads to a better understanding of macular disease mechanisms and will help to develop new routes and targets of treatment.

  1. Phosphorus runoff from waste water treatment biosolids and poultry litter applied to agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John W; Coale, Frank J; Sims, J Thomas; Shober, Amy L

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the properties of organic phosphorus (P) sources, particularly those that undergo treatment to reduce soluble P, can affect soil P solubility and P transport in surface runoff. This 2-yr field study investigated soil P solubility and runoff P losses from two agricultural soils in the Mid-Atlantic region after land application of biosolids derived from different waste water treatment processes and poultry litter. Phosphorus speciation in the biosolids and poultry litter differed due to treatment processes and significantly altered soil P solubility and dissolved reactive P (DRP) and bioavailable P (FeO-P) concentrations in surface runoff. Runoff total P (TP) concentrations were closely related to sediment transport. Initial runoff DRP and FeO-P concentrations varied among the different biosolids and poultry litter applied. Over time, as sediment transport declined and DRP concentrations became an increasingly important component of runoff FeO-P and TP, total runoff P was more strongly influenced by the type of biosolids applied. Throughout the study, application of lime-stabilized biosolids and poultry litter increased concentrations of soil-soluble P, readily desorbable P, and soil P saturation, resulting in increased DRP and FeO-P concentrations in runoff. Land application of biosolids generated from waste water treatment processes that used amendments to reduce P solubility (e.g., FeCl(3)) did not increase soil P saturation and reduced the potential for DRP and FeO-P transport in surface runoff. These results illustrate the importance of waste water treatment plant process and determination of specific P source coefficients to account for differential P availability among organic P sources.

  2. New technologies in the treatment of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by insufficient production of insulin, a hormone needed for proper control of blood glucose levels. People with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood glucose throughout the day using a glucose meter or a continuous glucose monitor, calculate...... how much insulin is needed to maintain normal blood glucose levels, and administer the insulin dose by pen injection or insulin pump infusion into the subcutaneous tissue. In recent years, several new technologies for the treatment of type 1 diabetes have been developed. This PhD thesis covers two...

  3. Survival and growth of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa l.) inoculated with an am fungus (Glomus intraradices) in contaminated soils treated with two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norini, M.P.; Beguiristain, Th.; Leyval, C.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of persistent and toxic soil pollutants that are of major public concern due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic property. Phyto-remediation is the use of plants and their associated microorganisms for remediation of polluted soils. Phyto-remediation could be used in conjunction with other remediation technologies to reduce the contamination to safe levels and maintain or restore soil physico-chemical and biological properties. Most plant species form mycorrhizas with symbiotic fungi. It was shown that AM fungi enhance survival and plant growth in PAH contaminated soils. Mycorrhizal fungi also enhance the biotransformation or biodegradation of PAH, although the effect differed between soils. A rhizosphere and myco-rhizosphere gradient of PAH concentrations was observed, with decreased PAH concentration with decreased distance to roots. Different microbial communities were found in the rhizosphere of AM and non-mycorrhizal plants in comparison to bulk soil, suggesting that AM could affect PAH degradation by changing microbial communities. We investigated the effect of mycorrhizal fungi and nutrients on the ability of alfalfa to grow on soil contaminated with PAHs before and after two remediation treatments. We used soil from an industrial site (Homecourt, North East part of France) highly contaminated with PAH (2000 mg kg -1 ), which has been partially treated by two different remediation technologies (bio-pile and thermal desorption). The bio-pile treatment consisted of piling the contaminated soil with stimulation of aerobic microbial activity by aeration and addition of nutrient solution, and reduced PAH concentration to around 300 mg kg-1. With the thermal desorption treatment the soil was heated to around 500 deg. C so that PAH vaporized and were separated from the soil. The residual PAH concentration in soil was 40 mg kg -1 . Treated and non-treated contaminated soil was planted with alfalfa (Medicago

  4. Final report for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    IT Corporation (IT) was contracted by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to perform a pilot-scale demonstration of the effectiveness of thermal desorption as a remedial technology for removing mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) floodplain soil. Previous laboratory studies by Energy Systems suggested that this technology could reduce mercury to very low levels. This pilot-scale demonstration study was initiated to verify on an engineering scale the performance of thermal desorption. This report includes the details of the demonstration study, including descriptions of experimental equipment and procedures, test conditions, sampling and analysis, quality assurance (QA), detailed test results, and an engineering assessment of a conceptual full-scale treatment facility. The specific project tasks addressed in this report were performed between October 1993 and June 1994. These tasks include soil receipt, preparation, and characterization; prepilot (bench-scale) desorption tests; front-end materials handling tests; pilot tests; back-end materials handling tests; residuals treatment; and engineering scale-up assessment.

  5. The effects of H2SO4 and (NH42SO4 treatments on the chemistry of soil drainage water and pine seedlings in forest soil microcosms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Stutter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment comparing effects of sulphuric acid and reduced N deposition on soil water quality and on chemical and physical growth indicators for forest ecosystems is described. Six H2SO4 and (NH42SO4 treatment loads, from 0 – 44 and 0 – 25 kmolc ha-1 yr-1, respectively, were applied to outdoor microcosms of Pinus sylvestris seedlings in 3 acid to intermediate upland soils (calc-silicate, quartzite and granite for 2 years. Different soil types responded similarly to H2SO4 loads, resulting in decreased leachate pH, but differently to reduced N inputs. In microcosms of calc-silicate soil, nitrification of NH4 resulted in lower pH and higher cation leaching than in acid treatments. By contrast, in quartzite and granite soils, (NH42SO4 promoted direct cation leaching, although leachate pH increased. The results highlighted the importance of soil composition on the nature of the cations leached, the SO4 adsorption capacities and microbial N transformations. Greater seedling growth on calc-silicate soils under both treatment types was related to sustained nutrient availability. Reductions in foliar P and Mg with higher N treatments were observed for seedlings in the calc-silicate soil. There were few treatment effects on quartzite and granite microcosm tree seedlings since P limitation precluded seedling growth responses to treatments. Hence, any benefits of N deposition to seedlings on quartzite and granite soils appeared limited by availability of co-nutrients, exacerbated by rapid depletion of soil exchangeable base cations. Keywords: acidification, manipulation, nitrogen, ammonium, deposition, soil, drainage, pine, microcosms, forest

  6. REVIEW OF EXISTING LCA STUDIES ON WASTE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    importance of the different life cycle stages and the individual impact categories in the total impact from the waste water treatment, and the degree to which micropollutants, pathogens and whole effluent toxicity have been included in earlier studies. The results show that more than 30 different WWTT (and......The EU research project “NEPTUNE” is related to the EU Water Framework Directive and focused on the development of new waste water treatment technologies (WWTT) for municipal waste water. The sustainability of these WWTTs is going to be assessed by the use of life cycle assessment (LCA). New life...... cycle impact assessment methods on pathogens, whole effluent toxicity and micropollutants will be developed within the project. As part of this work a review of more than 20 previous LCA studies on WWTTs has been done and the findings are summarised on this poster. The review is focused on the relative...

  7. The technology of layer-specific rotary soil cultivation for forest crops and equipment for its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlovskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Influence of existing methods and technologies of soil processing for forest crops on establishment and growth of cultivated tree species was studied. It was found that furrow plough processing of soil can interfere with the cultivated trees’ ecological peculiarities, because the furrow floor, where trees are planted, often constitutes the lower part of the turf or the upper part of the ashen-gray layers having unfavorable water-physical conditions and decreased crop-producing power. Whenever conifer trees grow on the bottom of a furrow excavated in medium and heavy clay loam, their growth is significantly decreased and accompanied by remarkable changes in morphology. Processing of shallow humus thickness soil with multiple cutter results in mixing of A0, A1 and A2 (ashen-gray layers. Consequently, the processed horizon obtains a lower amount of fertile substances than the vegetable soil on non-processed places. An apparatus for graded soil tillage, its construction, working principle and usage technology are described. The major peculiarity of the device consists in the ability not to crumbl the soil, but to shake down vegetable earth cut by subsurface plow from beneath. The technology involves removing roots and grass outside cultivated land, so that it cannot be then overgrown with weeds. It was found that exploitation of the device improves soil pulverization quality, enhances percentage of separates less than 10 mm and 10–50 mm, decreases content of the separate larger than 50 mm, and reduced specific energy output almost three-fold. Vertical displacement of control particles while soil processing with common cutter machines and the suggested device was studied. Establishment and growth of Siberian pine was determined in experimental productive cultures at different planting technologies. It was shown that under the suggested technology, forest plants furrow sowing can be done while soil processing, so that making nurseries becomes

  8. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombi, E.; Stevens, D.P.; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  9. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: enzo.lombi@unisa.edu.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  10. Adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment: a meta-analysis, interviews, and focus groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horsch, C.; Lancee, J.; Beun, R.J.; Neerincx, M.A.; Brinkman, W.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective: Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated

  11. Soil and water conservation on Central American hillsides: if more technologies is the answer, what is the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Hellin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to lead to increased water scarcity in the coming decades and to changes in patterns of precipitation. The result will be more short-term crop failures and long-term production declines. Improved soil management is key to climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts. There is growing interest in the promotion of climate smart agricultural practices. Many of these are the same practices that were promoted in the 1980s and 1990s under the guise of soil and water conservation. Farmer non-adoption of soil conservation technologies was rife and suggests that different approaches are needed today. Much can be learnt from these past endeavors to ensure that current efforts are better designed and implemented. We use the example of Central America to highlight some of these lessons and suggest alternative ways forward. Technology per se is not the limiting factor; many suitable technologies and practices are extant. What is required is a more nuanced approach to soil conservation efforts. There is a need to focus less on capturing soil once it has been eroded, via the use of cross-slope soil conservation practices, and more on improving soil quality of the soil that remains through improved soil cover. It is also critical to understand farming systems as a whole i.e. the full range of interlinked activities and the multiplicity of goals that farm households pursue. Furthermore, it is important to engage farmers as active players in conservation efforts rather than passive adopters of technologies, and to adopt a board value chain approach and engage a plethora of value chain actors (researchers, extension agents, equipment manufacturers, input suppliers, farmers, traders, and processors in an agricultural innovation system.

  12. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using vegetation--A technology transfer project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, M.K.; Schwab, A.P.; Govindaraju, R.S.; Chen, Z.

    1994-01-01

    A common environmental problem associated with the pumping and refining of crude oil is the disposal of petroleum sludge. Unfortunately, the biodegradation fate of more recalcitrant and potentially toxic contaminants, such as the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs), is rapid at first but declines quickly. Biodegradation of these compounds is limited by their strong adsorption potential and low solubility. Recent research has suggested that vegetation may play an important role in the biodegradation of toxic organic chemicals, such as PNAs, in soil. The establishment of vegetation on hazardous waste sites may be an economic, effective, low maintenance approach to waste remediation and stabilization. Completed greenhouse studies have indicated that vegetative remediation is a feasible method for clean-up of surface soil contaminated with petroleum products. However, a field demonstration is needed to exhibit this new technology to the industrial community. In this project, several petroleum contaminated field sites will be chosen in collaboration with three industrial partners. These sites will be thoroughly characterized for chemical properties, physical properties, and initial PNA concentrations. A variety of plant species will be established on the sites, including warm and cool season grasses and alfalfa. Soil analyses for the target compounds over time will allow them to assess the efficiency and applicability of this remediation method

  13. Innovative fossil fuel fired vitrification technology for soil remediation. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Vortec has successfully completed Phase 1 of the ``Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation`` program. The Combustion and Melting System (CMS) has processed 7000 pounds of material representative of contaminated soil that is found at DOE sites. The soil was spiked with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals surrogates, an organic contaminant, and a surrogate radionuclide. The samples taken during the tests confirmed that virtually all of the radionuclide was retained in the glass and that it did not leach to the environment-as confirmed by both ANS 16.1 and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The organic contaminant, anthracene, was destroyed during the test with a Destruction and Removal Efficiency (DRE) of at least 99.99%. RCRA metal surrogates, that were in the vitrified product, were retained and did not leach to the environment as confirmed by the TCLP testing. Semi-volatile RCRA metal surrogates were captured by the Air Pollution Control (APC) system, and data on the amount of metal oxide particulate and the chemical composition of the particulate were established for use in the Phase 2 APC subsystem design.

  14. Land Application of Wastes: An Educational Program. Soil as a Treatment Medium - Module 3, Objectives, Script and Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, W. W.; And Others

    This module examines the basic properties of soil which have an influence on the success of land treatment of wastes. These relevant properties include soil texture, soil structure, permeability, infiltration, available water capacity, and cation exchange capacity. Biological, chemical and physical mechanisms work to remove and renovate wastes…

  15. Technologies for diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, J.P.

    1998-02-09

    From October 1994 to June 1997, a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were funded through LDRD to develop and integrate technologies for diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke. The project was summarized in a Science and Technology Review article `Brain Attack` that appeared in June 1997 and again in the Center for Healthcare Technologies Report (UCRL-LR-124761). This article is the best overview of the project, epidemiology of stroke and technical progress. Most of the technical progress has been documented in conference papers and presentations and refereed journal articles. Additional technical publication can be expected as our remaining patent applications progress through the US Patent and Trademark Office. The purpose of this report is to provide an appropriate introduction and organization to the numerous publications so that interested readers can quickly find information. Because there is no documentation for the history of this project, this report provides a summary. It also provides the final status report for the LDRD funding.

  16. Risk-Based Approach for Thermal Treatment of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocârţă D. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the actual context of limited soil resources and the significant degree of environmental pollution, public administrations and authorities are interested in restoring contaminated sites paying attention to the impact of these soils on human health. This paper aims to present the efficiency of the the incineration as a method for treatment of the contaminated soils t based on human health risk assessment. Through various experimentations, the following metals have been studied: Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Co, Cd, Hg, As and Be. The most important and interesting results concerning both thermal treatment removal efficiency and associated human health risk assessments were achieved concerning Cd, Pb and Ni contaminants. The behavior of Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb and Nickel (Ni concentrations from heavy metals incineration soil has been analyzed for three incineration temperatures (600°C, 800°C and 1000°C and two resident times of soil within the incineration reactor (30 min. and 60 min.. In this case, the level of contaminants in the treated soil can be reduced but not enough to ensure an acceptable risk for human health.

  17. The Impact of magnetic water treatment on salt distribution in a large unsaturated soil column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zlotopolski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of saline water for crop production leads to soil salinization. Magnetically-treated water (MTW has been used for many years and has shown promise in leaching some ions from soil. At the same time, results have been inconsistent and somewhat controversial. In this study, we used large unsaturated columns (diameter 15 cm and length 90 cm to determine: 1 salt distributions at depths of up to 90 cm after adding magnetically-treated, saline water to soil; 2 whether MTW could reduce the rate of accumulation of salts (measured by EC in soil, and; 3 whether MTW could increase the leaching effect of soluble salts below root zones compared to control. The soil tested had a lower salt content compared to the water, a real-world scenario often faced when farmers elect to switch from higher-cost municipal water sources to ground water sources that have a higher saline content. Results indicated that the rate of salt accumulation was greater in the control group at the 30–60 cm depth. At the same time, the salt content at the 90 cm depth was greater in the MTW column. The results have shown that MTW changes the distribution of salts between soil layers reducing their content in the upper layers which are more important for agriculture. Keywords: Magnetic water treatment, Agriculture, Soil, Irrigation water

  18. Seizure reporting technologies for epilepsy treatment: A review of clinical information needs and supporting technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Jonathan; Khuwatsamrit, Thanin; Askew, Brittain; Ehrenberg, Joshua Andrew; Helmers, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    This review surveys current seizure detection and classification technologies as they relate to aiding clinical decision-making during epilepsy treatment. Interviews and data collected from neurologists and a literature review highlighted a strong need for better distinguishing between patients exhibiting generalized and partial seizure types as well as achieving more accurate seizure counts. This information is critical for enabling neurologists to select the correct class of antiepileptic drugs (AED) for their patients and evaluating AED efficiency during long-term treatment. In our questionnaire, 100% of neurologists reported they would like to have video from patients prior to selecting an AED during an initial consultation. Presently, only 30% have access to video. In our technology review we identified that only a subset of available technologies surpassed patient self-reporting performance due to high false positive rates. Inertial seizure detection devices coupled with video capture for recording seizures at night could stand to address collecting seizure counts that are more accurate than current patient self-reporting during day and night time use. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The impact of technology diffusion on treatment for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeck, Florian R; Kaufman, Samuel R; Jacobs, Bruce L; Zhang, Yun; Weizer, Alon Z; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Gilbert, Scott M; Strope, Seth A; Hollenbeck, Brent K

    2013-12-01

    The use of local therapy for prostate cancer may increase because of the perceived advantages of new technologies such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and robotic prostatectomy. To examine the association of market-level technological capacity with receipt of local therapy. Retrospective cohort. Patients with localized prostate cancer who were diagnosed between 2003 and 2007 (n=59,043) from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. We measured the capacity for delivering treatment with new technology as the number of providers offering robotic prostatectomy or IMRT per population in a market (hospital referral region). The association of this measure with receipt of prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or observation was examined with multinomial logistic regression. For each 1000 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 174 underwent prostatectomy, 490 radiotherapy, and 336 were observed. Markets with high robotic prostatectomy capacity had higher use of prostatectomy (146 vs. 118 per 1000 men, P=0.008) but a trend toward decreased use of radiotherapy (574 vs. 601 per 1000 men, P=0.068), resulting in a stable rate of local therapy. High versus low IMRT capacity did not significantly impact the use of prostatectomy (129 vs. 129 per 1000 men, P=0.947) and radiotherapy (594 vs. 585 per 1000 men, P=0.579). Although there was a small shift from radiotherapy to prostatectomy in markets with high robotic prostatectomy capacity, increased capacity for both robotic prostatectomy and IMRT did not change the overall rate of local therapy. Our findings temper concerns that the new technology spurs additional therapy of prostate cancer.

  20. An overview of environmental pollution status and waste treatment technology used in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, T.; Qureshi, R.M.; Ahmad, S.; Sajjad, M.I.; Mashiatullah, A.; Shah, Z.

    1998-01-01

    There is little pollution consciousness in Pakistan. Rapid growth in population and unplanned disposal of untreated industrial, agricultural and domestic wastes has caused severe pollution problems in air, soil, drinking water and coastal marine water environments. To date, no systematic approach is being used in the domestic and industrial sectors for continuous processing and decontamination of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes prior to disposal. The two large industrial and population centers namely, the cities of Karachi and Islamabad, use small scale wastewater treatment facilities consisting of trickling filters and activated sludge process, respectively. Presently, no accelerator is being used in Pakistan for decontamination of hospital, industrial or domestic wastes. However, the prospects of Radiation Technology for waste treatment are well realized and a 250 keV ion accelerator has been developed at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) for research, development and training purposes. The main emphasis is now to locally design and fabricate user dedicated electron beam machines for radiation curing and decontamination of domestic, industrial and hospital wastes

  1. [Application of three-dimensional digital technology in the diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y X

    2016-06-01

    Three-dimensional(3D)digital technology has been widely used in the field of orthodontics in clinical examination, diagnosis, treatment and curative effect evaluation. 3D digital technology greatly improves the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment, and provides effective means for personalized orthodontic treatment. This review focuses on the application of 3D digital technology in the field of orthodontics.

  2. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  3. EFFECTS OF SOIL TREATMENT BY COAL MINING CARBONIFEROUS WASTE SLUDGE IN MAIZE GROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mujačić

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The multifuncional role and importance of organic matter in soil is widely known. It is also known that the organic matter in soil is subjected to microbiological-biochemical processes of transformation, which includes synthesis of humus as well as it’s decomposition -mineralization. Mineralization means transformation-decomposition of organic matter by microbiological processes to mineral products; plant nutrients and water + CO2 as starting and ending component of photosyntesis. Nutrients are partly plant available with fertilizing effect, partly lost from the soil - leaching in ground water, causing it’s eutrophication, but CO2 in atmosphere participates in greenhouse effect. Practically, mineralization means decreasing of organic matter content in soil and soil degradation [1,4]. In natural ecosystems (phytocenoses natural forests and meadows, it is almost a balanced between inflow and consumption of organic matter, while the cultural and anthropogenic soils agrobiocenosis in general, this relationship is disturbed that there is a disproportion between the inflow and loss [1,4]. Therefore, various materials that contains organic material (waste, various flotation, sludge, etc. are often used with more or less success. One of such materials, as well as the potential fertilizer, is carboniferous lake sludge like waste of coal mining sedimented at the bottom of the lake in huge quantities, which is the subject of our reasearch. The research were conducted to determine its fertilizing efects and value for repairing of physical and chemical properties of soil. The research refered to: -- Laboratory analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of the carboniferous sludge samples, -- Analysis of soil of the experimental field -- Research on heavy metals concentration in soil of the experimental farm and in carboniferous sludge, and Research of fertilizing effects of sludge, comparative mineral fertilizer and farmyard manure treatment by

  4. Implementation monitoring temperature, humidity and mositure soil based on wireless sensor network for e-agriculture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarudin, A.; Ghozali, A. L.; Hasyim, A.; Effendi, A.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesian agriculture has great potensial for development. Agriculture a lot yet based on data collection for soil or plant, data soil can use for analys soil fertility. We propose e-agriculture system for monitoring soil. This system can monitoring soil status. Monitoring system based on wireless sensor mote that sensing soil status. Sensor monitoring utilize soil moisture, humidity and temperature. System monitoring design with mote based on microcontroler and xbee connection. Data sensing send to gateway with star topology with one gateway. Gateway utilize with mini personal computer and connect to xbee cordinator mode. On gateway, gateway include apache server for store data based on My-SQL. System web base with YII framework. System done implementation and can show soil status real time. Result the system can connection other mote 40 meters and mote lifetime 7 hours and minimum voltage 7 volt. The system can help famer for monitoring soil and farmer can making decision for treatment soil based on data. It can improve the quality in agricultural production and would decrease the management and farming costs.

  5. Soil microarthropods are only weakly impacted after 13 years of repeated drought treatment in wet and dry heathland soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Sørensen, Jesper G.; Schmidt, Inger Kappel

    2013-01-01

    and temperature. This approach provided an opportunity to study biological responses on a local (within sites) and regional scale. Warming treatments increasing night time temperature (0.3–1 °C higher than ambient at 5 cm soil depth) had no detectable effects on the microarthropod communities. Increased intensity...... and frequency of drought had only weak persistent effects on springtail species composition, but practically no effect on major mite groups (Oribatida, Prostigmata or Mesostigmata) suggesting that ecosystem functions of microarthropods may only be transiently impacted by repeated spring or summer drought....

  6. The assessment of soil conservation technologies for sustainable agricultural production. Report of the FAO/IAEA consultants meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The assessment of soil conservation technologies for sustainable agricultural production' was held in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from May 28-30, 2001. The consultants' presentations reviewed recent advances in the use of fallout radionuclides to measure soil erosion as well as approaches and technologies applied for soil conservation worldwide. Also, activities and experiences of FAO and UNEP in the field of land degradation, soil conservation and related issues were presented. Based on the information provided by the Scientific Secretary, a full project proposal was prepared during the second part of the Consultants' Meeting. The consultants also provided recommendations on the formulation and implementation of a future CRP on the subject

  7. Silent Discharge Plasma Technology for the Treatment of Air Toxics and Other Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, Louis A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chase, Peter J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gross, Michael P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-09-21

    Under this CRADA, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and High Mesa Technologies, Inc. (HMT) carried out a joint project on the development of the silent discharge plasma (SDP) technology for the treatment of hazardous air pollutants and other hazardous or toxic chemicals. The project had two major components: a technology-demonstration part and a scale-up and commercialization part. In the first part, a small-scale, mobile SDP plasma processor, which was being developed under a CRADA with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) was the mobile equipment was modified for higher capacity service and employed for an innovative remediation technologies demonstration on soil-vapor extraction off-gases at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, CA. The performance of the SDP system for the variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) encountered at the McClellan site was sufficiently promising to the project HMT and LANL worked together to formulate a scale-up strategy and commercialization/manufacturing plan, and to design a prototype scaled-up SDP unit. HMT and LANL are now in the final stages of completing a licensing agreement for the technology and HMT is in the process of raising funds to engineer and manufacture commercial prototype SDP equipment focused on stack-gas emissions control and environmental remediation. HMT, in collaboration with another Northern New Mexico business, Coyote Aerospace, has also been successful in receiving a Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) award from the Army Research Office to develop, design, and construct a small non-thermal plasma reactor for laboratory studies ("Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor for Control of Fugitive Emissions of Toxic Gases")

  8. Improvement of Hydraulic and Water Quality Renovation Functions by Intermittent Aeration of Soil Treatment Areas in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Kalen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We tested intermittent aeration of the soil treatment area (STA of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS for its ability to restore and maintain STA hydraulic flow and improve the water quality functions of conventional OWTS. Evaluation was conducted on hydraulically-failed conventional OWTS at three state-owned medical group homes in Washington County, RI, USA. Testing was conducted in two phases, with Phase I (before intermittent soil aeration (ISA comprising the first 6 months of the study, and Phase II (during ISA the remaining 7 months. Intermittent soil aeration restored STA hydraulic function in all three systems despite a marked reduction in the STA total infiltrative surface. Soil pore water was collected from 30 and 90 cm below the STA during both phases and analyzed for standard wastewater parameters. Although the STA infiltrative surface was reduced—and the contaminant load per unit of area increased—after installation of the ISA system, no differences were observed between phases in concentration of total N, NO3, total P, or dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Apparent removal rates—which do not account for dilution or differences in infiltrative area—for total N, total P, and DOC remained the same or improved during Phase II relative to the pre-operation phase. Furthermore, intermittent soil aeration enhanced actual removal rates —which do account for dilution and differences in infiltrative area. The effects of ISA on actual removal of contaminants from STE increased with increasing hydraulic load—a counterintuitive phenomenon, but one that has been previously observed in laboratory studies. The results of our study suggest that intermittent soil aeration can restore and maintain hydraulic flow in the STA and enhance carbon and nutrient removal in conventional OWTS.

  9. Effect of different treatments on 110m Ag plant uptake in various soil types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szerbin, P.; Koblinger-Bokori, E.

    1996-01-01

    110m Ag contamination may occur as a result of atmospheric release either during normal operation of nuclear power plants or in accidental circumstances. The gamma peaks of 110m Ag and radiocaesium are very close, and not every laboratory could make distinction between them. Therefore very few references are available on 110m Ag environmental behaviour and plant uptake. In the present study plant uptake of 110m Ag from four different types of soil was investigated, and the results are presented in relation to major soil characteristics. In addition, effects of two different treatments (phosphate and organic matter fertilizations) are determined in each type of soil. Our study clearly demonstrates that a carefully selected post-accident treatment can significantly reduce the environmental consequences of radioactive releases. Methods to be developed on bases of such studies could be used for remedial actions of agricultural lands polluted with radioactive substances

  10. Soil treatment by vibroflottation – Application to protection structures of DjenDjen port, Jijel, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHELALFA HOUSSAM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatment by vibroflotation is a recent technique for improving soil with poor geo-mechanical properties. In addition, this treatment minimizes the risk of liquefaction and the instability of the caisson. This work allows us to establish a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a real vibroflotation test, based on our model and our hypothesis of modeling this mechanism in finite elements. On the other hand, the work consists in making a two-dimensional numerical study of the stability of the caisson carried out on the treated soil, in order to verify its influence on the stability of the structure. The calculation results will be compared with in-situ measurements to validate the numerical model.

  11. Efficacy of Single Dose Anthelminthic Treatment against Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ascaris lumbricoides was the commonest STH encountered. The cure rate 4 weeks after the treatment of STH infection was lowest in Trichuris trichiura cases. At week 8 and week 16 there was a 100% cure rate for all the cases with STH infection. The egg reduction rate at weeks 8 and 16 was 100% for all the STH infection ...

  12. Novel technology in the treatment of acne scars: The matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Despite the many advances, scarring, particularly acne or pimple scarring, does not have a satisfactory treatment. A new armamentarium in this field is this recently devised matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology, which utilizes radiofrequency emission in the treatment of acne scars. Aims : To evaluate the efficiency of the new matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology in patients with acne scars of varying sizes. Settings and Design : A prospective study of 30 randomly selected patients with acne scars was carried out. Materials and Methods : Thirty healthy patients with different types of acne scars - ice pick, box and rolling type - were randomly selected. The scars were either shallow or deep, varied in size from 2 to 20 mm and ranged in number from 10 to 50. These patients were first treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and local exfoliating agents (topical tretinoin 0.025% and then subjected to matrix-tunable radiofrequency technology. Each scar was treated at intervals of 1 month. A maximum of four such sittings were carried out. Patients were followed-up every 15 days. Results were noted at the end of 2 months and 6 months. Improvement was assessed by using the visual analog scale (VAS at 2 months and 6 months, and results were noted in terms of percentage improvement of the whole face by calculating an average of percentage improvement on the basis of interviews of the patient and his/her accompanying relatives. The visual analog scaling was performed by means of high-resolution digital photographs taken at the baseline and at each subsequent visit. Results : The VAS improvement in scars ranged from 10 to 50% at the end of 2 months to 20 to 70% at the end of 6 months. Of the 30 patients of acne scars, the cosmetic result was excellent (>60% improvement in four, good (35-60% improvement in 18 and moderate to poor (<35% improvement in eight. A few patients reported burning sensation and a mild sunburn-like sensation for

  13. Overland flow generation mechanisms affected by topsoil treatment: Application to soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Paloma, Hueso; Juan Francisco, Martinez-Murillo; Damian, Ruiz-Sinoga Jose; Hanoch, Lavee

    2015-04-01

    Hortonian overland-flow is responsible for significant amounts of soil loss in Mediterranean geomorphological systems. Restoring the native vegetation is the most effective way to control runoff and sediment yield. During the seeding and plant establishment, vegetation cover may be better sustained if soil is amended with an external source. Four amendments were applied in an experimental set of plots: straw mulching (SM); mulch with chipped branches of Aleppo Pine (Pinus halepensis L.) (PM); TerraCotten hydroabsobent polymers (HP); sewage sludge (RU); and control (C). Plots were afforested following the same spatial pattern, and amendments were mixed with the soil at the rate 10 Mg ha-1. This research demonstrates the role played by the treatments in overland flow generation mechanism (runoff, overland flow and soil moisture along the soil profile). The general overland flow characteristics showed that in the C plots the average overland flow was 8.0 ± 22.0 l per event, and the HP plots produced a similar mean value (8.1 ± 20.1 l). The average overland flow per event was significantly less for soil amended with SM, PM or RU (2.7 ± 8.3 l; 1.3 ± 3.5 l and 2.2 ± 5.9 l, respectively). There was a similar trend with respect to the maximum overland flow. The mean sediment yield per event was relatively high in the C and HP plots (8.6 ± 27.8 kg and 14.8 ± 43.4 kg, respectively), while significantly lower values were registered in the SM, PM and RU plots (0.4 ± 1.0 kg; 0.2 ± 0.3 kg and 0.2 ± 0.3 kg, respectively). Very similar trends were found for the maximum sediment yield. Regarding to the soil moisture values, there was a difference in the trends between the C and HP plots and the SM, PM and RU plots. In the C and HP plots the general trend was for a decrease in soil moisture downward through the soil profile, while in the SM, PM and RU plots the soil moisture remained relatively constant or increased, except for the RU treatment in which the soil moisture

  14. Nitrate reductase, arginine deaminase, urease and dehydrogenase activities in natural soil (ridges with forest) and in cotton soil after acetamiprid treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep K; Kumar, Sunil

    2008-03-01

    Soil enzymes are indicators of microbial activities in soil and are often considered as an indicator of soil health and fertility. They are very sensitive to the agricultural practices, pH of the soil, nutrients, inhibitors and weather conditions. To understand the effect of an insecticide, acetamiprid (IUPAC Name: (E)-N1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl) methyl]-N2-cyano-N1-methyl acetamidine) on different soil enzyme activities, the experiments were conducted for three consecutive years (2003--2005) at control and cotton experimental fields of Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) and natural area (ridges with forest) in Delhi. The combined results for all three years were presented here to understand the impact of acetamiprid on soil enzyme activities. Acetamiprid was applied three times in one crop season after 41, 48 and 73 days of sowing, to control the pest. Soil of treated fields was analyzed for insecticide residues immediately after first insecticide treatment and thereafter at definite period. The residues of acetamiprid in experimental soil was varied from 0.30+/-0.13 to 22.67+/-0.2 microg g(-1)d.wt. soil, during the crop period of 2003. The insecticide residues for 2004 ranged between 0.59+/-0.38 and 13.42+/-0.71 microg g(-1)d.wt. soil and for 2005 it ranged between 0.48+/-0.22 and 19.81+/-0.33 microg g(-1)d.wt. soil. An average half life of acetamiprid in our treated field was 11.2+/-1.7 days for all three years. Similarly, the soil from natural area and control were also tested for insecticide residues. No detectable insecticide residues had been found. Soil from three localities i.e. natural, control and experimental fields were tested for different enzyme activities. Nitrate reductase, arginine deaminase, urease and dehydrogenase activities were high in natural soil in comparison to control soil and insecticide treated soil in all three experimental years. At the same time, nitrate reductase activity was all time low in acetamiprid treated soil

  15. In situ treatment of soil contaminated with PAHs and phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.; Dev, H.; Chang, J.; Houthoofd, J.

    1992-01-01

    The wood preserving industry uses more pesticides than any other industry worldwide. The major chemicals used are creosote, pentachlorophenol, and CCA (copper, chrome and arsenate). It is reported that between 415 to 550 creosoting operations within the United States consume approximately 454,000 metric tons of creosote annually. When properly used and disposed off, creosote does not appear to significantly threaten human health. However, due to improper disposal and spillage at old facilities, creosote and other wood preserving chemicals have found their way into surface soils. Active wood preserving sites generate an estimated 840 to 1530 dry metric tons of hazardous contaminated sludge annually, which is classified as KOOL. Creosote, obtained from coal tar, contains a large number of chemical components. The three main families of compounds represented in creosote are: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenolic, and heterocyclic compounds. Creosote is composed of approximately 85% PAHs, 10% phenolic compounds and 5% heterocyclic compounds. There are approximately a total of 17 PAHs present in creosote. The four most prominent compounds belonging to the PAH family are naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. These four compounds represent approximately 52% of the total PAHs present in creosote. There are approximately 12 different phenolic compounds present in creosote among which phenol is the most abundant, representing 20% of the total phenolics. In addition, the various isomers of cresol represent about 20% and pentachlorophenol (PCP) represents 10% of the total phenolics. There are approximately 13 different heterocyclic compounds are the most abundant, representing approximately 70% of the total heterocyclics. All of these compounds possess toxic properties and some of them, for example, PCP, when subjected to high temperature environments are suspected precursors in the formation of dioxins

  16. Micro-electrolysis technology for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Yue-Feng; Li, Wei

    2003-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the role of micro-electrolysis in removing chromaticity and COD and improving the biodegradability of wastewater from pharmaceutical, dye-printing and papermaking plants. Results showed that the use of micro-electrolysis technology could remove more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD and greatly improved the biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater. Lower initial pH could be advantageous to the removal of chromaticity. A retention time of 30 minutes was recommended for the process design of micro-electrolysis. For the use of micro-electrolysis in treatment of dye-printing wastewater, the removal rates of both chromaticity and COD were increased from neutral condition to acid condition for disperse blue wastewater; more than 90% of chromaticity and more than 50% of COD could be removed in neutral condition for vital red wastewater.

  17. Drug delivery systems: Advanced technologies potentially applicable in personalized treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Jorge F; Ferreira, Paula C; Alves, Patricia; Cordeiro, Rosemeyre; Fonseca, Ana C; Góis, Joana R; Gil, Maria H

    2010-03-01

    Advanced drug delivery systems (DDS) present indubitable benefits for drug administration. Over the past three decades, new approaches have been suggested for the development of novel carriers for drug delivery. In this review, we describe general concepts and emerging research in this field based on multidisciplinary approaches aimed at creating personalized treatment for a broad range of highly prevalent diseases (e.g., cancer and diabetes). This review is composed of two parts. The first part provides an overview on currently available drug delivery technologies including a brief history on the development of these systems and some of the research strategies applied. The second part provides information about the most advanced drug delivery devices using stimuli-responsive polymers. Their synthesis using controlled-living radical polymerization strategy is described. In a near future it is predictable the appearance of new effective tailor-made DDS, resulting from knowledge of different interdisciplinary sciences, in a perspective of creating personalized medical solutions.

  18. Treatment of organic waste using thermal plasma pyrolysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tang, L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the principles of thermal plasma pyrolysis processes and discusses recent research activities about organic waste treatment using thermal plasma pyrolysis technology. Different kinds of organic wastes, varying from plastic and used tires to agricultural residue and medical waste, have been subjected to thermal plasma pyrolysis tests in laboratory and pilot scale projects. Plasma pyrolysis of organic waste usually gives two product streams: a combustible gas having a calorific value in the range of 4-9 MJ/Nm 3 and a carbonaceous residue. Pyrolysis conditions as well as some technical measures such as the quenching process and steam reforming have significant influences on the properties of these pyrolysis products. Research results indicated that thermal plasma pyrolysis may be a useful way of waste management for energy and material recovery

  19. Impact of periodic selective mebendazole treatment on soil-transmitted helminth infections in Cuban schoolchildren.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, S.D.; Vereecken, K.; van der Laan, K.; Campos Ponce, M.; Junco Diaz, R.; Nunez, F.A.; Rojas Rivero, L.; Bonet Gorbea, M.; Polman, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole on soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Cuban schoolchildren. Methods: We followed up a cohort of 268 STH-positive schoolchildren, aged 5-14 years at baseline, at six-month intervals for two years and

  20. Mesquite removal and mulching treatment impacts on herbage production and selected soil chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Pease; Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2003-01-01

    Determining the effects of mesquite (Prosopis velutina) overstory removal, posttreatment control of sprouting, and mulching treatments on herbage production (standing biomass) and selected soil chemical properties on the Santa Rita Experimental Range were the objectives of this study. Mesquite control consisted of complete overstory removals with and without the...

  1. Collection of papers related to treatment of contaminated soil and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of papers on soil and water treatment includes papers on removal of heavy metals, steam stripping, enhanced oxidation processes, microfiltration, oil spills, testing of sorbents, water/oil separation, air stripping, removal of volatile organics, solvent extraction, and removal of arsenic from groundwater. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 6 papers from this compilation

  2. Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns as affected by inoculant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekman, W.E.; Heijnen, C.E.; Trevors, J.T.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns was measured as affected by the inoculant treatment. Bacterial cells were introduced into the topsoil of columns, either encapsulated in alginate beads of different types or mixed with bentonite clay in concentrations

  3. Integrated monitoring and assessment of soil restoration treatments in the Lake Tahoe Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, M E; Schnurrenberger, C; Arst, R; Hogan, M P

    2009-03-01

    Revegetation and soil restoration efforts, often associated with erosion control measures on disturbed soils, are rarely monitored or otherwise evaluated in terms of improved hydrologic, much less, ecologic function and longer term sustainability. As in many watersheds, sediment is a key parameter of concern in the Tahoe Basin, particularly fine sediments less than about ten microns. Numerous erosion control measures deployed in the Basin during the past several decades have under-performed, or simply failed after a few years and new soil restoration methods of erosion control are under investigation. We outline a comprehensive, integrated field-based evaluation and assessment of the hydrologic function associated with these soil restoration methods with the hypothesis that restoration of sustainable function will result in longer term erosion control benefits than that currently achieved with more commonly used surface treatment methods (e.g. straw/mulch covers and hydroseeding). The monitoring includes cover-point and ocular assessments of plant cover, species type and diversity; soil sampling for nutrient status; rainfall simulation measurement of infiltration and runoff rates; cone penetrometer measurements of soil compaction and thickness of mulch layer depths. Through multi-year hydrologic and vegetation monitoring at ten sites and 120 plots, we illustrate the results obtained from the integrated monitoring program and describe how it might guide future restoration efforts and monitoring assessments.

  4. Ceramics Vitreous China Produced by Utilizing Sediment Soil from Water Supply Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangrakdiskul Ubolrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to generating the abundant of sediment soil, it makes the high burden of disposal cost to the metropolitan waterworks authority. Enhancing the value of sediment soil has been explored. This research aims to utilize the sediment soil, wastes of water supply treatment process for producing ceramics vitreous china. In this experiment, five types of raw materials are exploited, namely, sediment soil, ball clay, kaolin, feldspar and silica sand. The formulas have been divided into two groups. Sediment soil has been used as substituted material in ball clay for the first group, and substituted in kaolin for the second group. The specimens of each formula are formed by uniaxial pressing at 100 bar of size 50×100×7 mm. Then they have been sintered at two different temperatures, 1200°C and 1250°C, with heating rate 400° C/ hr and soaking for 30 minutes. The result reveals that the suitable formula for ceramics vitreous china is No. 2_4 of Group 2 with sintering temperature 1250°C. Its mixture consists of 0% kaolin, 35% ball clay, 30% feldspar, 20% silica sand and 15% sediment soil. The properties of this formula are 9.4% shrinkage, 9.39 MPa of bending strength, 6.34×10−6/K coefficient of thermal expansion, and 0.66% water absorption.

  5. Evaluation of soil characterization technologies using a stochastic, value-of-information approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has initiated an integrated demonstration program to develop and compare new technologies for the characterization of uranium-contaminated soils. As part of this effort, a performance-assessment task was funded in February, 1993 to evaluate the field tested technologies. Performance assessment can be cleaned as the analysis that evaluates a system's, or technology's, ability to meet the criteria specified for performance. Four new technologies were field tested at the Fernald Environmental Management Restoration Co. in Ohio. In the next section, the goals of this performance assessment task are discussed. The following section discusses issues that must be resolved if the goals are to be successfully met. The author concludes with a discussion of the potential benefits to performance assessment of the approach taken. This paper is intended to be the first of a series of documentation that describes the work. Also in this proceedings is a paper on the field demonstration at the Fernald site and a description of the technologies (Tidwell et al, 1993) and a paper on the application of advanced geostatistical techniques (Rautman, 1993). The overall approach is to simply demonstrate the applicability of concepts that are well described in the literature but are not routinely applied to problems in environmental remediation, restoration, and waste management. The basic geostatistical concepts are documented in Clark (1979) and in Issaks and Srivastava (1989). Advanced concepts and applications, along with software, are discussed in Deutsch and Journel (1992). Integration of geostatistical modeling with a decision-analytic framework is discussed in Freeze et al (1992). Information-theoretic and probabilistic concepts are borrowed from the work of Shannon (1948), Jaynes (1957), and Harr (1987). The author sees the task as one of introducing and applying robust methodologies with demonstrated applicability in other fields to the problem at hand

  6. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM Evaluation of Soil Amendment Technologies at the Crooksville/RosevillePottery Area of Concern Rocky Mountain Remediation ServicesEnvirobond™ Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    RMRS developed the Envirobond™ process to treat heavy metals in soil.This phosphate-based technology consists of a proprietary powder and solution that binds with metals in contaminated waste. RMRS claims that the Envirobond™ process converts metal contaminants from their leach...

  7. Biochar-based water treatment systems as a potential low-cost and sustainable technology for clean water provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Chaukura, Nhamo; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Mukome, Fungai N D

    2017-07-15

    Approximately 600 million people lack access to safe drinking water, hence achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 (Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030) calls for rapid translation of recent research into practical and frugal solutions within the remaining 13 years. Biochars, with excellent capacity to remove several contaminants from aqueous solutions, constitute an untapped technology for drinking water treatment. Biochar water treatment has several potential merits compared to existing low-cost methods (i.e., sand filtration, boiling, solar disinfection, chlorination): (1) biochar is a low-cost and renewable adsorbent made using readily available biomaterials and skills, making it appropriate for low-income communities; (2) existing methods predominantly remove pathogens, but biochars remove chemical, biological and physical contaminants; (3) biochars maintain organoleptic properties of water, while existing methods generate carcinogenic by-products (e.g., chlorination) and/or increase concentrations of chemical contaminants (e.g., boiling). Biochars have co-benefits including provision of clean energy for household heating and cooking, and soil application of spent biochar improves soil quality and crop yields. Integrating biochar into the water and sanitation system transforms linear material flows into looped material cycles, consistent with terra preta sanitation. Lack of design information on biochar water treatment, and environmental and public health risks constrain the biochar technology. Seven hypotheses for future research are highlighted under three themes: (1) design and optimization of biochar water treatment; (2) ecotoxicology and human health risks associated with contaminant transfer along the biochar-soil-food-human pathway, and (3) life cycle analyses of carbon and energy footprints of biochar water treatment systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Treatment of tannery wastewater by infiltration percolation: chromium removal and speciation in soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiglyene, S; Jaouad, A; Mandi, L

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper was, on one hand, to study the treatment of raw tannery effluent by infiltration percolation system and, on the other hand, to determine the distribution and speciation of chromium in the used soil. The system pilot consisted of columns filled to 15 cm of gravel and 60 cm of soil (88% of sand). The columns irrigated by raw tannery wastewater with a daily hydraulic load of 5 cm per day (approximately 10 L every day). The water flowed vertically through the soil. The speciation of Cr was investigated by using selective five steps sequential extraction method. The results indicated that the pH of the treated wastewater increases by three units in comparison to the raw wastewater. The electrical conductivity of the effluent increases also after treatment. Over the whole experimental period, results revealed significant performances of infiltration percolation system for organic load reduction. The mean elimination rate was 74% for total COD. In addition, there was a significant accumulation of organic carbon (62%) in the surface strata for the system. The total chromium undergoes an overall removal of 98%. After seven months of experiment, the results indicated that the whole retention of Cr occurring in the surface horizon of the soil (69%). Furthermore, the speciation study of Cr in the soil revealed that the oxidizable fraction is the most represented 55%. The reducible and residual phases represent 17.5% and 18.5%, respectively. The carbonate fraction presented 9% while exchangeable fraction presented only 0.02%.

  9. Effect of different treatments on {sup 85}Sr plant uptake in various soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koblinger-Bokori, E.; Szerbin, P. [' Frederic Joliot-Curie' National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    2000-05-01

    In the recent years radioecological studies are concentrated on the investigation of restoration possibilities of contaminated ecosystems. These studies are aimed to develop methods for decreasing the bioavailability of the radionuclides released to the environment. Radionuclides of long half-lives, such as {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, are of special importance from the point of human health, since these nuclides can enter the human body via the food-chain and increase the radiation burden for many years. {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs contamination of the environment may occur as a result of atmospheric releases during nuclear accidents. For instance, considerable amounts were released to the atmosphere during the Chernobyl reactor accident. In the presented study strontium plant uptake from different types of soil was investigated. To avoid the difficulties related to {sup 90}Sr determination, the gamma-emitting strontium isotope {sup 85}Sr is used at the experiments (no isotopic effect takes place). The plant selected is yellow leguminous bean. Most typical Hungarian soils (leached Ramann brown forest soil, alluvial soil, chernozem-light sandy soil and calcareous chernozem soil) were selected for the experiments carried out under laboratory conditions. Results are presented in relation to major soil characteristics. Effects of two different treatments: lime and organic matter fertilizations on plant uptake are given. The highest uptake was found in bean grown on leached Ramann brown forest soil, whereas the lowest value was measured in the plant grown in calcareous chernozem soil. Organic fertilization significantly reduced the uptake of radiostrontium in all investigated types of soil. The largest factor of reduction was found to be as high as 3.5. Lime fertilization was less effective. Our study clearly demonstrates that carefully selected post-accident treatments (e.g. organic fertilization following strontium contamination) can significantly reduce the

  10. Determinants of Farmers' Adoption of Improved Soil Conservation Technology in a Middle Mountain Watershed of Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Krishna R.; Sitaula, Bishal K.; Nyborg, Ingrid L. P.; Paudel, Giridhari S.

    2008-08-01

    This study explores different socio-economic and institutional factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology (ISCT) on Bari land (Rainfed outward sloping terraces) in the Middle Mountain region of Central Nepal. Structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussion methods were applied to collect the necessary information from farm households. The logistic regression model predicted seven factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the study area including years of schooling of the household head, caste of the respondent, land holding size of the Bari land, cash crop vegetable farming, family member occupation in off farm sector, membership of the Conservation and Development Groups, and use of credit. The study showed that technology dissemination through multi-sectoral type community based local groups is a good option to enhance the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the Middle Mountain farming systems in Nepal. Planners and policy makers should formulate appropriate policies and programs considering the farmers’ interest, capacity, and limitation in promoting improved soil conservation technology for greater acceptance and adoption by the farmers.

  11. The development and testing of technologies for the remediation of mercury-contaminated soils, Task 7.52. Topical report, December 1992--December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepan, D.J.; Fraley, R.H.; Charlton, D.S.

    1994-02-01

    The release of elemental mercury into the environment from manometers that are used in the measurement of natural gas flow through pipelines has created a potentially serious problem for the gas industry. Regulations, particularly the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), have had a major impact on gas companies dealing with mercury-contaminated soils. After the May 8, 1993, LDR deadline extension, gas companies were required to treat mercury-contaminated soils by designated methods to specified levels prior to disposal in landfills. In addition, gas companies must comply with various state regulations that are often more stringent than the LDR. The gas industry is concerned that the LDRs do not allow enough viable options for dealing with their mercury-related problems. The US Environmental Protection Agency has specified the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) as thermal roasting or retorting. However, the Agency recognizes that treatment of certain wastes to the LDR standards may not always be achievable and that the BDAT used to set the standard may be inappropriate. Therefore, a Treatability Variance Process for remedial actions was established (40 Code of Federal Regulations 268.44) for the evaluation of alternative remedial technologies. This report presents evaluations of demonstrations for three different remedial technologies: a pilot-scale portable thermal treatment process, a pilot-scale physical separation process in conjunction with chemical leaching, and a bench-scale chemical leaching process

  12. Probabilistic comparison of alternative characterization technologies at the Fernald Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; McGraw, M.A.; Istok, J.D.; Sigda, J.M.; Kaplan, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of four alternative characterization technologies proposed for use in characterization of surficial uranium contamination in soil at the Incinerator and Drum Baling Areas at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in southwestern Ohio has been evaluated using a probabilistic, risk-based decision-analysis methodology. The basis of comparison is to minimize a computed total cost for environmental cleanup. This total-cost-based approach provides a framework for evaluating the trade-offs among remedial investigation, the remedial design, and the risk of regulatory penalties. The approach explicitly recognizes the value of information provided by remedial investigation; additional measurements are only valuable to the extent that the information they provide reduces total cost

  13. Innovative technology of radwaste treatment for new applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhitonov, Y.; Kolobov, E.; Orlov, A.; Kelley, D.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste products are created during many stages of the nuclear power cycle. Liquid waste is generated from the ore extraction process through to nuclear power plant decommissioning. Effective treatment of waste from the initial stage to the final stage has been a challenge for nuclear nations. This is particularly true for the more complex waste streams with organic, acid, alkaline, aqueous and metallic compositions. Today the nuclear community is keenly aware of safeguards that are necessary to protect and secure liquid waste. Innovative technologies are being developed to solidify these waste streams, to provide methods for safe transport and disposal, and to lessen the risk of accidents. With wide diversity of liquid compositions and activity levels, it is important to note that many of these products cannot be treated with existing, commonly used techniques. Additionally, as new generators of waste are designed and utilized, there is a need to consider new and safer methods for the treatment of waste. One solution to this problem is to apply proven, low cost polymers to absorb liquid compositions soon after production. The polymers may be combined to create a formula specifically designed to permanently solidify a waste stream in a simple one-step process. Principal advantages for using high tech polymers for treatment are high chemical and radiation stability after solidification without leaching. The purpose of the presented research is to: - determine the optimum bonding ratio for the complex waste stream; - evaluate the immobilization and stability process from polymer solidification after gamma irradiation (Cobalt 60 source). Conditions of the experiments and the test results are analyzed and evaluated in this paper. (author)

  14. EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC TREATMENT OF IRRIGATION WATER ON THE QUALITY OF SOIL: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Yadollahpour1 , Samaneh Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective: In recent years, positive effects of magnetized water treatment have been shown on growth processes and the development of plant tissues through a change in the soil content. The objective of the current study is to review the effects of magnetized water on the quality of soil. Method: The databases of Scopus (1980-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), Web of Sciences (1980-2016), and Google Scholar (1980-2016) were searched to find the published studies with the keywords of "m...

  15. The Effect of Restoration Treatments on the Spatial Variability of Soil Processes under Longleaf Pine Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Hiers

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 characterize tree-based spatial patterning of soil properties and understory vegetation in frequently burned (“reference state” and fire-suppressed longleaf pine forests; and (2 determine how restoration treatments affected patterning. To attain these objectives, we used an experimental manipulation of management types implemented 15 years ago in Florida. We randomly located six mature longleaf pine trees in one reference and four restoration treatments (i.e., burn, control, herbicide, and mechanical, for a total of 36 trees. In addition to the original treatments and as part of a monitoring program, all plots were subjected to several prescribed fires during these 15 years. Under each tree, we sampled mineral soil and understory vegetation at 1 m, 2 m, 3 m and 4 m (vegetation only away from the tree. At these sites, soil carbon and nitrogen were higher near the trunk while graminoids, forbs and saw palmetto covers showed an opposite trend. Our results confirmed that longleaf pine trees affect the spatial patterning of soil and understory vegetation, and this patterning was mostly limited to the restoration sites. We suggest frequent burning as a probable cause for a lack of spatial structure in the “reference state”. We attribute the presence of spatial patterning in the restoration sites to accumulation of organic materials near the base of mature trees.

  16. Reduction of genotoxicity of a creosote-contaminated soil after fungal treatment determined by the Tradescantia-micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud-Grasset, S; Baud-Grasset, F; Bifulco, J M; Meier, J R; Ma, T H

    1993-10-01

    The fungal degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in a contaminated soil from a hazardous waste site was evaluated in a pilot-scale study. As some PAH are known to be mutagens, the Tradescantia-micronucleus test (TRAD-MCN) was selected to evaluate the genotoxicity of the soil before and after fungal treatment. The genotoxicity test was conducted with Tradescantia clone 4430. Cuttings were exposed for 30 h to different dilutions of soil extracts from the PAH-contaminated soil before and after fungal treatment. Soil extracts before fungal treatment exhibited a relatively strong genotoxic effect in the meiotic pollen mother cells even at a 1% concentration, and the highest concentration without significant effect was 0.25%. After fungal treatment, the depletion of selected PAH was associated with a reduction of the soil genotoxicity. The 2% concentration of the extract from the fungal-treated soil showed genotoxic effects comparable to the 1% soil extract without fungal treatment. These results indicate that the Trad-MCN test has a potential utility for evaluating the efficiency of bioremediation of genotoxic soil contaminants.

  17. Stabilization of arsenic and chromium polluted soils using water treatment residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sanne Skov

    or other sorbents. Iron water treatment residues mainly consist of ferrihydrite, an oxidized iron oxy-hydroxide with a high reactivity and a large specific surface area with a high capacity for adsorption. Iron water treatment residues (Fe-WTR) are a by-product from treatment of groundwater to drinking...... in the leachate from an amended, slightly polluted soil (255 mg/kg As and 27 mg/kg Cr) did not at any time exceed 50 μg/L, which means that the soil can be reused for construction e.g. roads and baffle walls as described by the Danish Reuse Act. Ageing of ferrihydrite, the main constituent of Fe...

  18. Neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soil dust and associated parent soil in fields with a history of seed treatment use on crops in southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limay-Rios, Victor; Forero, Luis Gabriel; Xue, Yingen; Smith, Jocelyn; Baute, Tracey; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2016-02-01

    Using neonicotinoid insecticides as seed treatments is a common practice in field crop production. Exposure of nontarget organisms to neonicotinoids present in various environmental matrices is debated. In the present study, concentrations of neonicotinoid residues were measured in the top 5 cm of soil and overlying soil surface dust before planting in 25 commercial fields with a history of neonicotinoid seed treatment use in southwestern Ontario in 2013 and 2014 using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The mean total concentrations were 3.05 ng/g and 47.84 ng/g in 2013 and 5.59 ng/g and 71.17 ng/g in 2014 for parent soil and soil surface dust, respectively. When surface and parent soil residues were compared the mean concentration in surface dust was 15.6-fold and 12.7-fold higher than that in parent soil in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Pooled over years, the surface dust to parent soil ratio was 13.7, with mean concentrations of 4.36 ng/g and 59.86 ng/g for parent soil and surface dust, respectively. The present study's results will contribute important knowledge about the role these residues may play in the overall risk assessment currently under way for the source, transport, and impact of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in a maize ecosystem. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of bioventing (BV and soil vapor extraction (SVE appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5% of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.

  20. Technological advances in the surgical treatment of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Robert E; McDougal, Margaret E

    2013-08-01

    Technological innovations have driven the advancement of the surgical treatment of movement disorders, from the invention of the stereotactic frame to the adaptation of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Along these lines, this review will describe recent advances in inserting neuromodulation modalities, including DBS, to the target, and in the delivery of therapy at the target. Recent radiological advances are altering the way that DBS leads are targeted and inserted, by refining the ability to visualize the subcortical targets using high-field strength magnetic resonance imaging and other innovations, such as diffusion tensor imaging, and the development of novel targeting devices enabling purely anatomical implantations without the need for neurophysiological monitoring. New portable computed tomography scanners also are facilitating lead implantation without monitoring, as well as improving radiological verification of DBS lead location. Advances in neurophysiological mapping include efforts to develop automatic target verification algorithms, and probabilistic maps to guide target selection. The delivery of therapy at the target is being improved by the development of the next generation of internal pulse generators (IPGs). These include constant current devices that mitigate the variability introduced by impedance changes of the stimulated tissue and, in the near future, devices that deliver novel stimulation patterns with improved efficiency. Closed-loop adaptive IPGs are being tested, which may tailor stimulation to ongoing changes in the nervous system, reflected in biomarkers continuously recorded by the devices. Finer-grained DBS leads, in conjunction with new IPGs and advanced programming tools, may offer improved outcomes via current steering algorithms. Finally, even thermocoagulation-essentially replaced by DBS-is being advanced by new minimally-invasive approaches that may improve this therapy for selected patients in whom it may be preferred. Functional

  1. Water and air ozone treatment as an alternative sanitizing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, M; Giovannangeli, F; Rotunno, S; Trombetta, C M; Montomoli, E

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of ozone (aqueous and gaseous) treatment as an alternative sanitizing technology to common conventional disinfectants in reducing the microbial contamination of both water and air. Ozone was added for 20 minutes to a well-defined volume of water and air by the system named "Ozonomatic ® ". The effectiveness of ozonation was determined by counting CFU/ m3 or ml of bacteria present in samples of air or water collected before (T 0 ) and after (T 1 ) the addition of ozone and comparing the microbial load of different bacteria present in ozonized and nonozonized samples. When the ozonisation equipment was located at 30 cm from the surface of the water in the bath tub in which the bacteria investigated were inoculated, the treatment was able to reduce the total microbial load present in the aerosol by 70.4% at a temperature of 36°C for 48 hours. Conversely, at 22°C for 5 days, only a modest decrease (9.1%) was observed. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were completely eliminated. A 93.9% reduction was observed for Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Streptococcus faecalis (25.9%). The addition of ozone to water was able to almost eliminate Staphylococcus aureus (98.9% reduction) and also to exert a strong impact on Legionella pneumophila (87.5% reduction). Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a decrease of 64.2% and 57.4%, respectively. Conversely, only a 26.4% reduction was observed for the bacterium Escherichia coli. This study showed that the addition of ozone in the air exerted a modest reduction on microbial load at 36°C, whereas no effect was observed at 22°C. Aqueous and gaseous ozone treatments were effective against microbial contaminants, reducing the CFU of the microorganisms studied. These results confirm the efficacy of the ozone disinfection treatment of both water and air; particularly, it constitutes an extremely promising alternative, allowing the possibility to reuse contaminated water.

  2. Carbon Footprint Analyses of Mainstream Wastewater Treatment Technologies under Different Sludge Treatment Scenarios in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Chai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanization and infrastructure investment, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Chinese cities are putting increased pressure on energy consumption and exacerbating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. A carbon footprint is provided as a tool to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and identify opportunities to reduce climate change impacts. This study examined three mainstream wastewater treatment technologies: Anaerobic–Anoxic–Oxic (A–A–O, Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR and Oxygen Ditch, considering four different sludge treatment alternatives for small-to-medium-sized WWTPs. Following the life cycle approach, process design data and emission factors were used by the model to calculate the carbon footprint. Results found that direct emissions of CO2 and N2O, and indirect emissions of electricity use, are significant contributors to the carbon footprint. Although sludge anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery could significantly contribute to emission reduction, it was less beneficial for Oxygen Ditch than the other two treatment technologies due to its low sludge production. The influence of choosing “high risk” or “low risk” N2O emission factors on the carbon footprint was also investigated in this study. Oxygen Ditch was assessed as “low risk” of N2O emissions while SBR was “high risk”. The carbon footprint of A–A–O with sludge anaerobic digestion and energy recovery was more resilient to changes of N2O emission factors and control of N2O emissions, though process design parameters (i.e., effluent total nitrogen (TN concentration, mixed-liquor recycle (MLR rates and solids retention time (SRT and operation conditions (i.e., nitrite concentration are critical for reducing carbon footprint of SBR. Analyses of carbon footprints suggested that aerobic treatment of sludge not only favors the generation of large amounts of CO2, but also the emissions of N2O, so the rationale of reducing aerobic treatment and

  3. Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota; Hypocreales) Treatments Targeting Olive Fly in the Soil for Sustainable Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Meelad; Alba-Ramírez, Carmen; Garrido Jurado, Inmaculada; Mateu, Jordi; Raya Díaz, Silvia; Valverde-García, Pablo; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    Soil treatments with Metarhizium brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain conducted in both Northern and Southern Spain reduced the olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae ) population density emerging from the soil during spring up to 70% in treated plots compared with controls. A model to determine the influence of rainfall on the conidial wash into different soil types was developed, with most of the conidia retained at the first 5 cm, regardless of soil type, with relative percentages of conidia recovered ranging between 56 and 95%. Furthermore, the possible effect of UV-B exposure time on the pathogenicity of this strain against B. oleae adults coming from surviving preimaginals and carrying conidia from the soil at adult emergence was also evaluated. The UV-B irradiance has no significant effect on M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su pathogenicity with B. oleae adult mortalities of 93, 90, 79, and 77% after 0, 2, 4, and 6 of UV-B irradiance exposure, respectively. In a next step for the use of these M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Sun soil treatments within a B. oleae IPM strategy, its possible effect of on the B. oleae cosmopolitan parasitoid Psyttalia concolor , its compatibility with the herbicide oxyfluorfen 24% commonly used in olive orchards and the possible presence of the fungus in the olive oil resulting from olives previously placed in contact with the fungus were investigated. Only the highest conidial concentration (1 × 10 8 conidia ml - ) caused significant P. concolor adult mortality (22%) with enduing mycosis in 13% of the cadavers. There were no fungal propagules in olive oil samples resulting from olives previously contaminated by EAMa 01/58-Su conidia. Finally, the strain was demonstrated to be compatible with herbicide since the soil application of the fungus reduced the B. oleae population density up to 50% even when it was mixed with the herbicide in the same tank. The fungal inoculum reached basal levels 4 months after treatments (1.6 × 10 3 conidia g soil -1 ). These results

  4. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology: Task 1 -- Evaluation of treatment zone formation options. Topical report, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, S.H.; Landis, R.C.; Griffith, R.J.; Schultz, D.S. [Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Quinton, G.E. [E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report presents the results of evaluations by E.I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc. of treatment zone and electrode emplacement alternatives for use in the integrated treatment process. Specifically, the scope of this study was limited to vertical configuration emplacements. Several promising alternatives were identified ranging from approaches involving standard excavation techniques to relatively specialized geotechnical construction methods which could be modified for the treatment zone emplacement purpose. Information developed in this report is designed to help the user select the most promising emplacement method(s) for a given site on the basis of (1) depth of emplacement, and (2) restrictions on handling excavated soils. Advantages, disadvantages, and estimated costs are identified for each alternative, and possible bases for improvement and cost reduction through further development are described.

  5. Numerical Simulation Of The Treatment Of Soil Swelling Using Grid Geocell Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Mohammed Y.; Al-Omari, Raid R.; Ali, Haifaa A.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a method for the treatment of the swelling of expansive soil is numerically simulated. The method is simply based on the embedment of a geogrid (or a geomesh) in the soil. The geogrid is extended continuously inside the volume of the soil where the swell is needed to be controlled and orientated towards the direction of the swell. Soils with different swelling potentials are employed: bentonite base-Na and bentonite base-Ca samples in addition to kaolinite mixed with bentonite. A numerical analysis was carried out by the finite element method to study the swelling soil's behavior and investigate the distribution of the stresses and pore water pressures around the geocells beneath the shallow footings. The ABAQUS computer program was used as a finite element tool, and the soil is represented by the modified Drucker-Prager/cap model. The geogrid surrounding the geocell is assumed to be a linear elastic material throughout the analysis. The soil properties used in the modeling were experimentally obtained. It is concluded that the degree of saturation and the matric suction (the negative pore water pressure) decrease as the angle of friction of the geocell column material increases due to the activity of the sand fill in the dissipation of the pore water pressure and the acceleration of the drainage through its function as a drain. When the plasticity index and the active depth (the active zone is considered to be equal to the overall depth of the clay model) increase, the axial movement (swelling movement) and matric suction, as a result of the increase in the axial forces, vary between this maximum value at the top of the layer and the minimum value in the last third of the active depth and then return to a consolidation at the end of the depth layer.

  6. MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM; PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATED MINE WASTE YARD SOILS, JOPLIN, MISSOURI NPL SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Project 22-Phosphate Stabilization of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Mine Waste Yard Soils. Mining, milling, and smelting of ores near Joplin, Missouri, have resulted in heavy metal contamination of the area. The Joplin s...

  7. [Stabilization Treatment of Pb and Zn in Contaminated Soils and Mechanism Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-qiang; Li, Xiao-mingi; Chen, Can; Chen, Xun-feng; Zhong, Yu; Zhong, Zhen-yu; Wan, Yong; Wang, Yan

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the combined application of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, quick lime and potassium chloride was used to immobilize the Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. The efficiency of the process was evaluated through leaching tests and Tessier sequential extraction procedure. The mechanism of stabilization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to reveal the mechanism of stabilization. The results showed that the stabilizing efficiency of Pb contaminated soils was above 80% and the leaching concentrations of Pb, Zn were far below the threshold when the ratio of exogenous P and soil (mol · mol⁻¹) was 2:1-4: 1, the dosing ratio of CaO was 0.1%-0.5% ( mass fraction) and the dosage of potassium chloride was 0.02-0. 04 mol. Meanwhile, Pb and Zn in soil were transformed from the exchangeable fraction into residual fraction, which implied that the migration of Pb, Zn in soil could be confined by the stabilization treatment. XRD and SEM analysis revealed that Ca-P-Pb precipitation, lead orthophosphate [PbHP0₄, Pb₃ (PO₄)₂], pyromorphite (Pb-PO₄-Cl/OH) and mixed heavy metal deposits (Fe-PO₄- Ca-Pb-Zn-OH) could be formed after solidification/stabilization in which Pb and Zn could be wrapped up to form a solidified composition and to prevent leaching.

  8. 75 FR 62844 - Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... state of device systems for autonomous systems for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, the challenges in...] Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical Development of the Artificial Pancreas (an... a public workshop entitled ``Innovations in Technology for the Treatment of Diabetes: Clinical...

  9. A new separation and treatment method for soil and groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchens, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination by organic compounds is a widespread environmental pollution problem. In many cases, contaminated soil is excavated and transported to a landfill or is incinerated to remove contaminants. These remediation practices are expensive, environmentally disruptive, require extensive permitting, and only move contamination from one location to another. Onsite and in situ treatment techniques offer a safer, more cost-effective, and permanent solution. Many soil and groundwater contaminants are highly volatile, enabling the use of methods such as in situ vacuum extraction and air injection for their removal. However, these methods are often difficult to use because of slow volatilization rates and the lack of effective methods to treat the extracted hazardous material. This Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program focuses on developing an in situ soil and groundwater remediation technique that is effective against volatile as well as nonvolatile compounds and that will shorten treatment times. The technique forms the basis of a new catalytic process to degrade extracted contaminants onsite. Key hardware elements on which the new technique is based have been proven in preliminary research. The method has a high potential for public and regulatory acceptance because of its low environment impact

  10. Innovative silvicultural treatments to enhance soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Salerni, Elena; Mori, Paolo; Bruschini, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. This was a preparatory step to the reintroduction of broadleaf trees, such as oaks and beech trees, and thus the reestablishment of mixed forest. A series of thinning activities were planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. Many stands, however, remain unthinned, which over time, has weakened the trees in the plantations. Alternative forms of regeneration have been and are being tested to improve the natural and artificial establishment of indigenous species. Thinning, however, remains the most common and one of the most successful regeneration methods used in pine forests. The project's main objective is to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance the level of biodiversity in the soil of black pine stands. In particular, the project aims to evaluate the effects of selective thinning on soil biodiversity on young black pine stands. These effects will be compared to traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) and to areas of forest where silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting) are not carried out.

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF AQUAFIX AND SAPS PASSIVE MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AT SUMMITVILLE MINE SITE, INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency evaluated two passive water treatment (PWT) technologies for metals removal from acid mine drainage (AMD) at the Summitville Mine Superfund Site in southern Colorado...

  12. Treatment technology of low concentration uranium-bearing wastewater and its research progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Guangzhi; Xu Lechang

    2007-01-01

    With growth of the discharged uranium-bearing wastewater capacity, a low cost and effective treatment technology is required to avoid transferring and diffusion of the radioactive nuclides. On the basis of analyses of the source and characteristics of the low-concentration uranium-bearing wastewater, the conventional treatment technologies, such as, flocculating settling, ion exchange, concentration, adsorption, and some innovatory technologies, such as, membrane, microorganism, phytoremediation and zero-valent iron technology are introduced. (authors)

  13. Electrochemical Processes for In-Situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 01/31/2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chin-Pao

    2001-05-31

    This project will study electrochemical processes for the in situ treatment of soils contaminated by mixed wastes, i.e., organic and inorganic. Soil samples collected form selected DOE waste sites will be characterized for specific organic and metal contaminants and hydraulic permeability. The soil samples are then subject to desorption experiments under various physical-chemical conditions such as pH and the presence of surfactants. Batch electro-osmosis experiments will be conducted to study the transport of contaminants in the soil-water systems. Organic contaminants that are released from the soil substrate will be treated by an advanced oxidation process, i.e., electron-Fantan. Finally, laboratory reactor integrating the elector-osmosis and elector-Fantan processes will be used to study the treatment of contaminated soil in situ.

  14. Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota; Hypocreales Treatments Targeting Olive Fly in the Soil for Sustainable Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meelad Yousef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatments with Metarhizium brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain conducted in both Northern and Southern Spain reduced the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae population density emerging from the soil during spring up to 70% in treated plots compared with controls. A model to determine the influence of rainfall on the conidial wash into different soil types was developed, with most of the conidia retained at the first 5 cm, regardless of soil type, with relative percentages of conidia recovered ranging between 56 and 95%. Furthermore, the possible effect of UV-B exposure time on the pathogenicity of this strain against B. oleae adults coming from surviving preimaginals and carrying conidia from the soil at adult emergence was also evaluated. The UV-B irradiance has no significant effect on M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su pathogenicity with B. oleae adult mortalities of 93, 90, 79, and 77% after 0, 2, 4, and 6 of UV-B irradiance exposure, respectively. In a next step for the use of these M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Sun soil treatments within a B. oleae IPM strategy, its possible effect of on the B. oleae cosmopolitan parasitoid Psyttalia concolor, its compatibility with the herbicide oxyfluorfen 24% commonly used in olive orchards and the possible presence of the fungus in the olive oil resulting from olives previously placed in contact with the fungus were investigated. Only the highest conidial concentration (1 × 108 conidia ml− caused significant P. concolor adult mortality (22% with enduing mycosis in 13% of the cadavers. There were no fungal propagules in olive oil samples resulting from olives previously contaminated by EAMa 01/58-Su conidia. Finally, the strain was demonstrated to be compatible with herbicide since the soil application of the fungus reduced the B. oleae population density up to 50% even when it was mixed with the herbicide in the same tank. The fungal inoculum reached basal levels 4 months after treatments (1.6 × 103 conidia g soil−1

  15. Critical assessment of the available technologies for sanitation of contaminated soil and their limits of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, M.; Glaeser, E.

    1993-01-01

    Sanitation of polluted land comprises safety measures and soil purification measures. Soil purification can take place either in situ, or on-site or off-site after digging up the contaminated soil. In-situ processes are soil deaeration, groundwater purification and biological methods. Soil deaeration is suited for volatile pollutants in the unsaturated zone of loose soils, while groundwater purification is commonly applied for water-soluble pollutants in the saturated zone of soils with a high k f value. On-site or off-site purification of contaminated soils can take place by thermal processes, by soil washing, by microorganisms, or by physical processes. Thermal processes have the widest range of applications; they are suited for most soils polluted with mostly organic pollutants, and the residual contamination is lowest. Soil washing is limited to sandy and noncohesive soils and for emulsifiable or elutable pollutants. Biological on-site and off-line methods are limited to biodegradable pollutants which are not in phase. Loosening agents may be added in order to overcome geotechnical limitations. Physical purification of soils is limited to specific applications e.g. removal of volatile hydrocarbons. (orig.) [de

  16. Changes to soil water content and biomass yield under combined maize and maize-weed vegetation with different fertilization treatments in loam soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehoczky Éva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Especially during early developmental stages, competition with weeds can reduce crop growth and have a serious effect on productivity. Here, the effects of interactions between soil water content (SWC, nutrient availability, and competition from weeds on early stage crop growth were investigated, to better understand this problem. Field experiments were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using long-term study plots on loam soil in Hungary. Plots of maize (Zea mays L. and a weed-maize combination were exposed to five fertilization treatments. SWC was observed along the 0–80 cm depth soil profile and harvested aboveground biomass (HAB was measured.

  17. Assessment of soil ecosystem in degraded areas of vineyards after organic treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Silvia; D'Errico, Giada; Gagnarli, Elena; Simoni, Sauro; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; D'Avino, Lorenzo; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Valboa, Giuseppe; Castaldini, Maurizio; Elio Agnelli, Alessandro; Fantappiè, Maria; Lorenzetti, Romina; Priori, Simone; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2017-04-01

    (2013), in order to gather data on decomposition rate and litter stabilisation by using commercially available tea bags as standardised test kits. The extraction of nematodes and microarthropods were performed by the Bermann method and the Berlese-Tullgren selector, respectively. The biological soil quality was evaluated by the Maturity Index of nematodes (MI) and Biological Soil Quality index of microarthropods (QBSar). The results from soil sampling before restoring showed significantly lower values of SOC and TN in degraded areas, but no significant differences between degraded and non-degraded areas for enzymes, QBSar, nematode abundance and MI. Fontodi farm, under organic management since many years, showed significantly higher abundance of microarthropods, nematodes and enzymes than San Disdagio farm. The application of restoration techniques in 2016 showed a significant increase of TOC and TN only under compost addition treatment. As regards microarthropod communities, all the treatments showed a sensible increase in abundance and the conservation of high QBSar values. All the treatments increased the fungal feeder activity of nematodes and decreased the number of plant parasitic nematodes taxa. The major pest of grapes, the virus-vector Xiphinema index (Longidoridae), disappeared in the treated plots, whereas it remained in the control plots.

  18. Testing for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems: Identification of Technologies for Effluent Treatment in Test Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Key steps to ensure identification of relevant effluent treatment technologies for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) testing include the following. 1. Review of...

  19. Availability and Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Technology: Background and Issue Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Technology, Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies (CleanBallast) System and Greenship Sedinox® Ballast Water Management System. Note that the only...Cape Town - 4 2000+ MEPC 53/2/16 RWO GmbH Marine Water Technology, Veolia Water Solutions & Technologies (CleanBallast!) Filtration...Availability and Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Technology: Background and Issue Paper June 2010 Ryan Albert1, Rich

  20. Bioremediation and thermal treatment for soil recycling, a new business approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, A.; Gillenwater, T.; Dodge, L.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum-contaminated soils (PCS) from the clean-up of underground storage tanks (UST) or refinery operations are usually treated on-site or hauled to a solid waste landfill for disposal. On-site remediation of PCS is fairly common and cost-effective for many large and medium sized projects, and has been a major remedial business in the last several years. For small jobs, though, it is generally easier to truck the soil off-site for disposal. This is because on-site remediation usually requires (1) permitting for the site, (2) mobilization and de-mobilization of the equipment and setup, (3) space for on-site storage and operation, and (4) adequate treatment time to do an on-site clean up project. The combination of these requirements may make on-site remediation cost prohibitive. More and more states are requiring treatment of PCS prior to landfilling because of the potential for the organic contaminants to leach out and contaminate the surrounding groundwater. Thus, it is expected that there will be a great demand for treatment and recycling of PCS versus land disposal for soils requiring off-site disposal

  1. TREATABILITY STUDY REPORT OF GREEN MOUNTAIN LABORATORIES, INC.'S BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS, TREATMENT OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS, AT BEEDE WASTE OIL/CASH ENERGY SUPERFUND SITE, PLAISTOW, NEW HAMPSHIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1998, Green Mountain Laboratories, Inc. (GML) and the USEPA agreed to carry out a Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) project to evaluate the effectiveness of GML's Bioremediation Process for the treatment of PCB contaminated soils at the Beede Waste Oil/Cash Ene...

  2. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands one year after selective silvicultural treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Landi, Silvia; Bianchetto, Elisa; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wild fires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this silvicultural treatment was to re-establish the pine as a first cover and pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil and flora biodiversity and under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera) and flora. The microbial (bacteria and fungi) diversity was assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (microbiota) approaches whereas QBS (Soil Biological Quality) index and diversity indexes were determined for mesofauna and other organisms, respectively, including flora. The overall results highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning, and revealed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. Even though silvicultural treatments provided no significant differences at floristic level, microbial and mesofaunal parameters revealed to be differently affected by treatments. In particular, little but significant

  3. Decision support tools for evaluation and selection of technologies for soil remediation and disposal of halogenated waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifi, O.; Zinovyev, S.; Lodolo, A.; Vranes, S.; Miertus, S. [ICS-UNIDO, Trieste (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    One of the most justified demands in abating the pollution created by polychlorinated substances is the remediation of contaminated sites, mainly soil remediation, which is also the most complex technical task in removing pollution because of the necessity to process huge quantities of matrix and to account for numerous side factors. The commercial technologies are usually based on rather direct and simplified but also secure processes, which often approach remediation in a general way, where different types of pollutants can be decontaminated at the same time by each technology. A number of different soil remediation technologies are nowadays available and the continuous competition among environmental service companies and technology developers generates a further increase in the clean-up options. The demand for decision support tools that could help decision makers in selecting the most appropriate technology for the specific contaminated site has consequently increased. These decision support tools (DST) are designed to help decision makers (site owners, local community representatives, environmentalists, regulators, etc.) to assess available technologies and preliminarily select the preferred remedial options. The analysis for the identification of the most suitable options in the DST is based on technical, economic, environmental, and social criteria. These criteria are ranked by all parties involved in the decision process to determine their relative importance for a particular remediation project. The aim of the present paper is to present the new approach for building decision support tool to evaluate different technologies for remediation and disposal of halogenated waste.

  4. Industrial technology transfer of the food irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivinski, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    While the Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (WHO-FAO-IAEA) concluded that all foods, irradiated up to a dose of 10 kGy is safe for human consumption from the toxicologic view point, the US FDA intends to clear food irradiated up to a dose of 1 kGy and has cleared spices up to 10 kGy. The various possible applications of food irradiation are discussed and so is the food irradiation project of the US DOE and its objectives. The main item on the DOE program is the treatment of pork meat, infested with Trichinella Spiralis, at doses of 0.3 kGy, and the diverse aspects of the research program are described. It was demonstrated experimentally that only 0.2 kGy is necessary for inactivation of the first generation of larvae, whereas inhibition of the second generation of larvae, encysted within the muscles requires a dose of 0.1 kGy. However, for complete inactivation a dose of 0.3 kGy was found necessary. The overall feasibility of pork meat irradiation is being studied, including estimation of consumer reaction. In expectation of FDA clearance of irradiated pork meat, further economic feasibility studies and a demonstration scale irradiation facility are planned. The radiation disinfestation of fruits for quarantine purposes is also discussed, presenting results obtained by the USDA with respect to pomela, infested with fruit flies, and the possible replacement of EDB looks feasible to the US authorities. A transportable Cs 137 irradiator for demonstration purposes has been designed and will be applied to different products. The possible application of irradiation to algae, produced in sewage processing plants, is considered with the aim of producing a high protein cattle feed. US AID and US DOE are jointly investigating the possible application of this technology in developing countries which export their products to the USA

  5. A soil technological study on effectuating and maintaining adequate playing conditions of grass sports fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van A.L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Playing conditions of grass sports fields have been studied focusing on top layer soil strength meeting the requirements of usage. In a field investigation a reproducible soil strength criterion was found from firmness appraisals and simultaneous measurements of soil strength. From

  6. Effect of site treatments on soil temperature and moisture and oak and pine growth and nutrient concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Jr. Ponder

    2003-01-01

    Five years after planting, measurements of soil moisture and temperature, leaf nutrient concentrations and growth, were compared for plots of northern red oak, white oak, and shortleaf pine for treatment combinations that included two levels each of harvesting intensity (organic matter removal), site disturbance (soil compaction), and weed control (control of the...

  7. Mixed Waste Integrated Program interim evaluation report on thermal treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; DeWitt, L.M.; Wollerman, A.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) is one of several US Department of Energy (DOE) integrated programs established to organize and coordinate throughout the DOE complex the development of technologies for treatment of specific waste categories. The goal of the MWIP is to develop and deploy appropriate technologies for -the treatment of DOE mixed low-level and alpha-contaminated wastes in order to bring all affected DOE installations and projects into compliance with environmental laws. Evaluation of treatment technologies by the MWIP will focus on meeting waste form performance requirements for disposal. Thermal treatment technologies were an early emphasis for the MWIP because thermal treatment is indicated (or mandated) for many of the hazardous constituents in DOE mixed waste and because these technologies have been widely investigated for these applications. An advisory group, the Thermal Treatment Working Group (TTWG), was formed during the program's infancy to assist the MWIP in evaluating and prioritizing thermal treatment technologies suitable for development. The results of the overall evaluation scoring indicate that the four highest-rated technologies were rotary kilns, slagging kilns, electric-arc furnaces, and plasma-arc furnaces. The four highest-rated technologies were all judged to be applicable on five of the six waste streams and are the only technologies in the evaluation with this distinction. Conclusions as to the superiority of one technology over others are not valid based on this preliminary study, although some general conclusions can be drawn

  8. The local heat treatment equipment and technology of the pipelines welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol'kov, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The principal methods and equipment for local treatment of the pipe-lines weld joints in different industry branches is described. Recommendations about heat treatment equipment and technology application are given

  9. Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)

  10. Recovery of Microsclerotia of Verticilium dahliae from Soil as Subjected to Various Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loekas Soesanto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various conditions on the survival of microsclerotia of Verticilium dahliae Kleb. was studied using three sources of field-collected potato stems densely covered with naturally-formed microsclerotia. Microsclerotia were found to survive for up 2 years in potato stems not incorporated in soil. The effects of temperature, pF, including weekly variations in temperature and or pF, and various modes of incorporating potato stem tissue on the survival of microsclerotia for up to 1 year in a sandy unsterilised soil was also studied for different microsclerotia sources. Inoculum source had no signicant effect. Remarkably few microslcerotia were recovered one day after the start of experiments varying between 5.5 and 31%. Recovery remained at this level or even decreased for another month and for several treatments, also after 3 and 6 months. Only after 3 to 12 months, recovery increased to values up to 5 times higher than that of one day after start of the experiment, but recoveries did not exceed the number of microsclerotia initially incorporated into the soil. Changes in recovery may be due to variation in the level of soil mycostasis which is affected by rate of nutrient exudation from microsclerotia. Key words: survival, microsclerotia, Verticillium dahliae

  11. Hanford stakeholder participation in evaluating innovative technologies: VOC product line, Passive soil vapor extraction using borehole flux tunable hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.; McCabe, G.; Niesen, K.; Serie, P.

    1995-05-01

    A three-phased stakeholder participation program was conducted to support the Volatile Organic Compounds Arid Site Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The US DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD) sponsored and directed the VOC-Arid ID. Its purpose was to develop and demonstrate new technologies for remediating VOC contamination in soil and ground water. The integrated demonstration, hosted by the Hanford site in Washington State, is being transitioned into the Department of Energy's (DOE) Plume Focus Area. The Plume Focus Area has the same basic objectives as the ID, but is broader in scope and is a team effort with technology developers and technology users. The objective is to demonstrate a promising technology once, and if results warrant deploy it broadly across the DOE complex and in private sector applications

  12. Soil and phosphorus accretion rates in sub-tropical wetlands: Everglades Stormwater Treatment Areas as a case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhomia, R K; Inglett, P W; Reddy, K R

    2015-11-15

    Wetlands are known to serve as sinks for particulate matter and associated nutrients and contaminants. Consequently rate of soil accretion is critical for continued performance of wetlands to provide ecosystem services including water quality improvement and reduce excess contaminant loads into downstream waters. Here we demonstrate a new technique to determine rate of soil accretion in selected subtropical treatment wetlands located in southern USA. We also report changes in soil accretion rates and subsequent phosphorus (P) removal efficiency with increasing operational history of these treatment wetlands. Utilizing discernible signatures preserved within the soil depth profiles, 'change points' (CP) that corresponded to specific events in the life history of a wetland were determined. The CP was observed as an abrupt transition in the physico-chemical properties of soil as a manifestation of prevailing historical conditions (e.g. startup of treatment wetlands in this case). Vertical depth of CP from the soil surface was equivalent to the depth of recently accreted soil (RAS) and used for soil accretion rate calculations. Annual soil and P accretion rates determined using CP technique (CPT) in studied wetlands ranged from 1.0±0.3 to 1.7±0.8 cm yr(-1) and 1.3±0.6 to 3.3±2 g m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. There was no difference in RAS depth between emergent and submerged aquatic vegetation communities found at the study location. Our results showed that soil and P accretion rates leveled off after 10 yr of treatment wetlands' operation. On comparison, soil accretion rates and RAS depth determined by CPT were commensurate with that measured by other techniques. CPT can be easily used where a reliable record of wetland establishment date or some significant alteration/perturbation is available. This technique offers a relatively simple alternative to determine vertical accretion rates in free-water surface wetlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Investigation of an innovative technology for oil-field brine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskovic, D.; Dalmacija, B.; Hain, Z.; Karlovic, E.; Maric, S.; Uzelac, N. (Inst. of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, V. Vlahovica 2 (YU))

    1989-01-01

    Various aspects of an innovative technology for oil field brine treatment were investigated on a laboratory scale. The both free and dispersed oily matter were separated by gravitation and sedimentation. Apart from the physico-chemical oil removal process, special attention was paid to different variants of improved microbiological treatment: dilution with fresh water and application of powdered activated carbon (PAC). Advanced treatment was carried out on granular biological activated carbon (GBAC). A technological scheme for complete treatment was proposed. (author).

  14. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  15. Emerging desalination technologies for water treatment: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Arun; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a review of emerging desalination technologies is presented. Several technologies for desalination of municipal and industrial wastewater have been proposed and evaluated, but only certain technologies have been commercialized or are close to commercialization. This review consists of membrane-based, thermal-based and alternative technologies. Membranes based on incorporation of nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes or graphene-based ones show promise as innovative desalination technologies with superior performance in terms of water permeability and salt rejection. However, only nanocomposite membranes have been commercialized while others are still under fundamental developmental stages. Among the thermal-based technologies, membrane distillation and adsorption desalination show the most promise for enhanced performance with the availability of a waste heat source. Several alternative technologies have also been developed recently; those based on capacitive deionization have shown considerable improvements in their salt removal capacity and feed water recovery. In the same category, microbial desalination cells have been shown to desalinate high salinity water without any external energy source, but to date, scale up of the process has not been methodically evaluated. In this paper, advantages and drawbacks of each technology is discussed along with a comparison of performance, water quality and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Applying Nitrogen Site-Specifically Using Soil Electrical Conductivity Maps and Precision Agriculture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Lund

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil texture varies significantly within many agricultural fields. The physical properties of soil, such as soil texture, have a direct effect on water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, crop yield, production capability, and nitrogen (N loss variations within a field. In short, mobile nutrients are used, lost, and stored differently as soil textures vary. A uniform application of N to varying soils results in a wide range of N availability to the crop. N applied in excess of crop usage results in a waste of the grower’s input expense, a potential negative effect on the environment, and in some crops a reduction of crop quality, yield, and harvestability. Inadequate N levels represent a lost opportunity for crop yield and profit. The global positioning system (GPS-referenced mapping of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC has been shown to serve as an effective proxy for soil texture and other soil properties. Soils with a high clay content conduct more electricity than coarser textured soils, which results in higher EC values. This paper will describe the EC mapping process and provide case studies of site-specific N applications based on EC maps. Results of these case studies suggest that N can be managed site-specifically using a variety of management practices, including soil sampling, variable yield goals, and cropping history.

  17. Applying nitrogen site-specifically using soil electrical conductivity maps and precision agriculture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E D; Wolcott, M C; Hanson, G P

    2001-10-16

    Soil texture varies significantly within many agricultural fields. The physical properties of soil, such as soil texture, have a direct effect on water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, crop yield, production capability, and nitrogen (N) loss variations within a field. In short, mobile nutrients are used, lost, and stored differently as soil textures vary. A uniform application of N to varying soils results in a wide range of N availability to the crop. N applied in excess of crop usage results in a waste of the grower"s input expense, a potential negative effect on the environment, and in some crops a reduction of crop quality, yield, and harvestability. Inadequate N levels represent a lost opportunity for crop yield and profit. The global positioning system (GPS)-referenced mapping of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC) has been shown to serve as an effective proxy for soil texture and other soil properties. Soils with a high clay content conduct more electricity than coarser textured soils, which results in higher EC values. This paper will describe the EC mapping process and provide case studies of site-specific N applications based on EC maps. Results of these case studies suggest that N can be managed site-specifically using a variety of management practices, including soil sampling, variable yield goals, and cropping history.

  18. Resilience of soil microbial and nematode communities after biofumigant treatment with defatted seed meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Landi, Silvia; Curto, Giovanna; Elisabetta, Dallavalle; Infantino, Alessandro; Colzi, Claudia; d'Errico, Giada; Roversi, Pio Federico; D'Avino, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The use of alternative biocidal compounds to replace chemical pesticides after the Directive 2009/128/EC has raised renewed interest in the biofumigation technique. In particular, the defatted seed meals (DSM) derived from brassicaceae plant tissues with high glucosinolate content represent an efficient practice to control soil-born plant pathogens and pests that can be applied in synergy to catch crop green manures. For a wider and safer application of this technique, the impacts on non-target soil microorganisms and free-living nematodes have to be investigated in more depth. In this pot-scale experiment a naturally nematode-infected soil was amended with a glucosinolate-containing DSM from Brassica carinata (CAR), a non-glucosinolate-containing DSM from sunflower (SUN) and the metham-sodium fumigant (VAP). Tomato plants were transplanted and checked for the presence of pests and/or pathogens and plant vigour. The response of soil microbial communities was assessed through 454-pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rRNA genes, whereas nematode indices were applied to assess their community structure 0, 10, 32 and 62 days after the treatments. Significant shifts were observed among both bacterial and fungal communities, whereas various changes of nematode communities occurred depending on the nematode family. Similar changes initially occurred in both bacterial and fungal community structure in response to DSM and VAP amendments, but after 62 days fungal communities were more strongly shaped by VAP fumigation than bacteria. The non-biofumigant SUN treatment added organic matter into the soil inducing significant changes in microbial communities, but it was not effective against M. incognita root infestation. Although the free-living nematode structure was negatively influenced by all treatments, B. carinata DMS proved the best compromise between efficiency to control M. incognita and environmental impact. These results confirmed the

  19. Treatment of Radioactive Contaminated Soil and Concrete Wastes Using the Regulatory Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Shon, J. S.; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Bae, S. M.; Hong, D. S.; Ji, Y. Y.; Lee, B. C

    2008-11-15

    In the radioactive waste storage facilities at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejoen, there are thousands drums of radioactive contaminated soil and concrete wastes. The soil and concrete wastes were generated in 1988 during the decommissioning process of the research reactor and the attached radioactive waste treatment facility which were located in Seoul. The wastes were transported to Daejeon and have been stored since then. At the generation time, the radioactive contamination of the wastes was very low, and the radionuclides in the wastes was Co-60 and Cs-137. As the wastes have been stored for more than 20 years, the radioactivity concentration of the wastes has been decayed to become very extremely low. The wastes are needed to be treated because they take up large spaces at the storage facility. Also by treating the wastes, final disposal cost can be saved. So, the regulatory clearance was considered as a treatment method for the soil and concrete wastes with extremely low radioactivity concentration.

  20. Novel technologies for reverse osmosis concentrate treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sung Hee; Tansel, Berrin

    2015-03-01

    Global water shortages due to droughts and population growth have created increasing interest in water reuse and recycling and, concomitantly, development of effective water treatment processes. Pressured membrane processes, in particular reverse osmosis, have been adopted in water treatment industries and utilities despite the relatively high operational cost and energy consumption. However, emerging contaminants are present in reverse osmosis concentrate in higher concentrations than in the feed water, and have created challenges for treatment of the concentrate. Further, standards and guidelines for assessment and treatment of newly identified contaminants are currently lacking. Research is needed regarding the treatment and disposal of emerging contaminants of concern in reverse osmosis concentrate, in order to develop cost-effective methods for minimizing potential impacts on public health and the environment. This paper reviews treatment options for concentrate from membrane processes. Barriers to emerging treatment options are discussed and novel treatment processes are evaluated based on a literature review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 78 FR 53789 - Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental... Sciences Research, will host a Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment... day are required to call ONDCP's Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health...

  2. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  3. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS

  4. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND REHABILITATION TREATMENT OF DYSURIA AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Markosyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the latest neurophysiological technologies for the recognition and treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination and erection in a group of patients operated on for prostate cancer (PC. Acicular electromyography of pelvic floor muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation of micturition and erectile centers has been put into practice to examine this category of patients. The basic neurophysiological parameters of the muscles examined (cortical and segmental evoked motor response the latency, central motor conduction time (CMCT, and motor unit potential (MUP amplitude and duration were estimated. To develop a normative base, the neurophysiological features of the pelvic floor were studied in healthy volunteers (n = 12 who formed a control group. Examinations were made in 17 patients who had undergone operations for PC at Moscow hospitals 3 to 18 months before, such as retropubic prostatectomy (n = 11 and transurethral resection plus high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation (n = 6. Spontaneous urination was absent in 4 (23.5% of cases; urinary incontinence was observed in 6 (35.2% patients. The study group patients were found to have significant disorders of corticospinal tract conduction and those of perineal muscle contraction as potential fibrillation and positive pointed waves, as well as considerable CMCM prolongation and MUP polyphasia. Denervation alterations in PC patients after surgery and delayed reinnervation processes, nerve control recovery are determined by not only the surgery itself, but also by the features of the course of the underlying cancer process. Pelvic floor muscle studies indicated that HIFU was a very traumatic treatment for PC due to the fact that physical exposure spread outside the prostate to the neuromuscular structures. The denervation alterations detected in the pelvic floor muscles became essential in the elaboration of adequate treatment policy. The use of agents improving the

  5. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND REHABILITATION TREATMENT OF DYSURIA AFTER SURGICAL TREATMENT FOR PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Markosyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the latest neurophysiological technologies for the recognition and treatment of neurogenic disorders of urination and erection in a group of patients operated on for prostate cancer (PC. Acicular electromyography of pelvic floor muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation of micturition and erectile centers has been put into practice to examine this category of patients. The basic neurophysiological parameters of the muscles examined (cortical and segmental evoked motor response the latency, central motor conduction time (CMCT, and motor unit potential (MUP amplitude and duration were estimated. To develop a normative base, the neurophysiological features of the pelvic floor were studied in healthy volunteers (n = 12 who formed a control group. Examinations were made in 17 patients who had undergone operations for PC at Moscow hospitals 3 to 18 months before, such as retropubic prostatectomy (n = 11 and transurethral resection plus high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation (n = 6. Spontaneous urination was absent in 4 (23.5% of cases; urinary incontinence was observed in 6 (35.2% patients. The study group patients were found to have significant disorders of corticospinal tract conduction and those of perineal muscle contraction as potential fibrillation and positive pointed waves, as well as considerable CMCM prolongation and MUP polyphasia. Denervation alterations in PC patients after surgery and delayed reinnervation processes, nerve control recovery are determined by not only the surgery itself, but also by the features of the course of the underlying cancer process. Pelvic floor muscle studies indicated that HIFU was a very traumatic treatment for PC due to the fact that physical exposure spread outside the prostate to the neuromuscular structures. The denervation alterations detected in the pelvic floor muscles became essential in the elaboration of adequate treatment policy. The use of agents improving the

  6. The use of rainfall simulations to assess land degradation and soil erosion produced by an SLM technology, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J.; Coelho, C.; Carvalho, T.; Oliveira, E.; Valente, S.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fires represent the main threat to sustainable forest management in Portugal. During the last fifty years, a massive depopulation took place at rural areas, developing a landscape more prone to fire. The expansion of forest and shrubland into former agricultural areas, as well as, the rapid regeneration of vegetation after fire in some areas, highlighted the need to implement several measures to protect forest and rural areas against fires. Mação municipality suffered massive fires in 2003 and 2005, where more than 70% of the municipality area has been burnt. The implementation of a forest fire prevention and mitigation technology as well as the vegetation regeneration rate was assessed at this location, under the framework of DESIRE project1. Forest is the dominant land use at Mação municipality, consisting of Pinus pinaster, with some Eucalyptus globulus and residual oak forest and shrubland. An important part was burned recently and gave way to regeneration of stands and shrubs. In 2009, the municipality started to implement an SLM (Sustainable Land Management) technology, Primary Strips Network System for Fuel Management (RPFGC). This technology is integrated in the National System to Prevent and Protect Forest against Fires and it is defined by the National Forest Authority (AFN). The RPFGC are linear strips, strategically located in areas where total or partial removal of the forest biomass is possible. This technology contributes to prevent the occurrence and spread of large forest fires and to reduce their consequences for the environment, people, infrastructures, etc . However, the removal of vegetation tends to expose bare soil to the erosive effects of rainfall. Rainfall simulations were used to assess erosive processes, such as runoff and sediment loss, in three types of land cover: pine, eucalyptus and shrubland. The results from rainfall simulations on areas inside the RPFGC showed higher results for all studied parameters, while whether or

  7. Use of nanofiltration membrane technology for ceramic industry wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moliner-Salvador, R.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A study has been undertaken of an advanced wastewater treatment approach using polymer nanofiltration membranes, in an attempt to obtain water of sufficient quality to allow it to be reused in the same production process or, alternatively, to be discharged without any problems. The study has initially focused on the removal of organic matter (reduction of COD and the most representative ions present in the wastewater, such as Na+, Mg2+, Cl- y SO42-. In a first part of the study, with a view to optimising the experimental phase, a simulation has been performed of the nanofiltration process using the NanoFlux software. Among other things, the simulation allows the most suitable membranes to be selected as a function of the permeate flow rate and desired level of retention in the substances to be removed. The subsequent experimentation was carried out in a laboratory tangential filtration system that works with flat membranes. It was found that retention values of about 90% were obtained for the studied substances, with a good permeate flow rate, using low operating pressures. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the studied technology and its potential as a treatment for improving ceramic industry wastewater quality.

    Este estudio ha sido emprendido con el fin de acercar la nanofiltración a través de membranas poliméricas al tratamiento de las aguas residuales industriales de la industria cerámica, esperando obtener un agua con la suficiente calidad como para ser reutilizada en el propio proceso productivo o, alternativamente, poder verterla. El estudio se ha centrado en la eliminación de materia orgánica (reducción de D.Q.O y algunos iones presentes en las aguas residuales, tales como Na+, Mg2+, Cl- y SO42-. En primer lugar, se ha realizado una simulación del proceso de nanofiltración usando el software Nano

  8. Use of Computer and Mobile Technologies in the Treatment of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Judith A; Wright, Jesse; Siegle, Greg J; Howland, Robert H; Kepler, Britney B

    2017-06-01

    Major depression (MDD) is a common and disabling disorder. Research has shown that most people with MDD receive either no treatment or inadequate treatment. Computer and mobile technologies may offer solutions for the delivery of therapies to untreated or inadequately treated individuals with MDD. The authors review currently available technologies and research aimed at relieving symptoms of MDD. These technologies include computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy (CCBT), web-based self-help, Internet self-help support groups, mobile psychotherapeutic interventions (i.e., mobile applications or apps), technology enhanced exercise, and biosensing technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma-chemical technology of treatment of halogen-containing waste including polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, E. E.; Malkov, Yu. P.; Stepanov, S. G.; Troshchinenko, G. A.; Zasypkin, I. M.

    2010-12-01

    We consider the developed plasma-chemical technology of halogen-containing substances treatment. The paper contains the experimental plant schematic and the positive results obtained after the treatment of tetrafluoromethane, ozone-damaging freon 12, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), the waste containing fluoride and chloride organics. The technology is proposed for industrial application.

  10. Biological in situ treatment of soil contaminated with petroleum - Laboratory scale simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvall, B.

    1997-06-01

    Laboratory scale simulations of biological in situ treatment of soil contaminated with petroleum compounds have been made in order to get a practical concept in the general case. The work was divided into seven distinct parts. Characterisation, leaching tests and introductory microbiological investigations were followed by experiments in suspended phases and in situ simulations of solid phase reactors. For the suspensions, ratios L/S 3/1 and shaking for a couple of hours were enough to detach organic compounds in colloid or dissolved form. When testing for a time of one month anaerobic environment and cold temperatures of 4 centigrade as well gave acceptable reductions of the actual pollution levels. The range of variation in the soil tests performed showed that at least triple samples are needed to get satisfactory statistical reliability. It was shown that adequate experimental controls demand very high concentrations of e.g. sodium azide when dealing with soil samples. For triple samples in suspended phase without inoculation the weight ratios of oxygen consumption/biological degradation of aliphatic compounds were 2.41 to 2.96. For the complex overall reduction no exact rate constants could be found. The reduction of hydrocarbons were in the interval 27 to 95 % in suspension tests. Solid phase simulations with maximum water saturation showed the highest degree of reduction of hydrocarbons when using dissolved peroxide of hydrogen as electron acceptor while the effect of an active sludge reactor in series was little - reductions of aliphatic compounds were between 21 and 33 % and of aromatic compounds between 32 and 65 %. The influence of different contents of water was greater than adding inoculum or shaking the soil at different intervals in the unsaturated cylinders. The starting level of hydrocarbons was 2400 mg/kg dry weight soil and the end analyses were made after 100 days. The reduction was between 32 and 80 %. 82 refs

  11. Advances in the psychosocial treatment of addiction: the role of technology in the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Lisa A; Dallery, Jesse

    2012-06-01

    The clinical community has a growing array of psychosocial interventions with a strong evidence base available for the treatment of SUDs. Considerable opportunity exists for leveraging technology in the delivery of evidence-based interventions to promote widespread reach and impact of evidence-based care. Data from this line of research to date are promising, and underscore the potential public health impact of technology-based therapeutic tools. To fully realize the potential of technology-delivered interventions, several areas of inquiry remain important. First, scientifically sound strategies should be explored to ensure technology-based interventions are optimally designed to produce maximal behavior change. Second, efficient and effective methods should be identified to integrate technology-based interventions into systems of care in a manner that is most responsive to the needs of individual users. Third, payment, privacy, and regulatory systems should be refined and extended to go beyond electronic medical records and telehealth/distance care models, and support the deployment of technology-based systems to enhance the quality, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of care. Fourth, the mechanisms underlying behavior change derived from technology-based treatments should be explicated, including new mechanisms that may be tapped via novel, technology-based tools. Such work will be critical in isolating mechanisms that are useful in predicting treatment response, and in ensuring that key ingredients are present in technology-based interventions as they are made widely available.

  12. Microbial population shift caused by sulfamethoxazole in engineered-Soil Aquifer Treatment (e-SAT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrashetti, Ashwinkumar P; Jadeja, Niti B; Gandhi, Deepa; Juwarkar, Asha A; Sharma, Abhinav; Kapley, Atya; Pandey, R A

    2017-06-01

    The engineered-Soil Aquifer Treatment (e-SAT) system was exploited for the biological degradation of Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) which is known to bio-accumulate in the environment. The fate of SMX in soil column was studied through laboratory simulation for a period of 90 days. About 20 ppm SMX concentration could be removed in four consecutive cycles in e-SAT. To understand the microbial community change and biological degradation of SMX in e-SAT system, metagenomic analysis was performed for the soil samples before (A-EBD) and after SMX exposure (B-EBD) in the e-SAT. Four bacterial phyla were found to be present in both the samples, with sample B-EBD showing increased abundance for Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and decreased Proteobacterial abundance compared to A-EBD. The unclassified bacteria were found to be abundant in B-EBD compared to A-EBD. At class level, classes such as Bacilli, Negativicutes, Deltaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidia emerged in sample B-EBD owing to SMX treatment, while Burkholderiales and Nitrosomonadales appeared to be dominant at order level after SMX treatment. Furthermore, in response to SMX treatment, the family Nitrosomonadaceae appeared to be dominant. Pseudomonas was the most dominating bacterial genus in A-EBD whereas Cupriavidus dominated in sample B-EBD. Additionally, the sulfur oxidizing bacteria were enriched in the B-EBD sample, signifying efficient electron transfer and hence organic molecule degradation in the e-SAT system. Results of this study offer new insights into understanding of microbial community shift during the biodegradation of SMX.

  13. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.

    1997-01-01

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates

  14. Effect of soiling and sunlight exposure on the performance ratio of photovoltaic technologies in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrejola, Elias; Antonanzas, Javier; Ayala, Paulo; Salgado, Marcelo; Ramírez-Sagner, Gonzalo; Cortés, Cristian; Pino, Alan; Escobar, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance ratio of PV panels decays daily between 0.13% and 0.56% under soiling. • PV panel degradation is 1.29% for poly, 1.74% for mono and 2.77% for thin film. • An annual weather-corrected performance ratio of 75% is calculated. • A critical cleaning period of 45 days is proposed, no matter cleaning and energy prices. - Abstract: The performance, yearly degradation, and annual yield of photovoltaic systems have been studied in outdoor exposure for two years period 2014–2015 in Santiago, capital of Chile. Photovoltaic panels performance degrades daily in a rate between −0.13% and −0.56% under soiling in highly polluted Santiago, Chile. Yearly degradation of the arrays system was found to be in the order of 1.29% for the polycrystalline array, 1.74% for the monocrystalline array, and 2.77% for the thin film system array. The annual production yield reached 1419–1373 kW h/kWp for Poly, 1459–1444 kW h/kWp for Mono, and 1248–1236 kW h/kWp for TF, in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The annual in-plane irradiation measured reached 1981.3 kW h/m 2 and 1943.2 kW h/m 2 , for 2014 and 2015, respectively. A weather-corrected performance ratio is presented showing a yearly performance ratio of around 75% for all technologies. Monthly cleaning and random rain fall have shown positive effects as primarily solutions. Furthermore, we studied the optimal strategies of cleaning for different energy prices and we defined a critical cleaning period of 45 days for a real case, independent on cleaning cost and energy prices. This work contains novel results for the Chilean capital city and can be applied to future installations in the area and serve as further insights for the development of solar energy in Chile.

  15. Using Soil Conservation Strategies in the Development of Learning Activities for the Students of Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariya Kanchanwong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were 1 to study nutrient content in soil samples taken from Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology Campus, 2 to study the social factors, economic factors and technological factors the effect on soil conservation of Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology students, 3 the development of soil conservation activities Learning package efficiency of 80/80, 4 to Study and to compare the knowledge, attitudes and skills regarding soil conservation of students of Roi - Et College of Agriculture and Technology. The student activities package of learning soil conservation was enrolled by 40 people in its club. These people were selected by purposive sampling. The instruments were used in this research as follows; 1 scientific analysis, 2 social questionnaire on economic and technological factors affecting soil conservation, 3 test of knowledge about soil conservation, 4 test of attitudes about soil conservation, 5 test of skill about soil conservation. The experimental research was designed to use students as key informants. The statistics analysis was used in the research as follows: frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, test results, assumptions which included a dependent t-test statistical at the significance level of 0.05. The results of the study were as follows: 1 The study found that the amount of soil nutrient content (N: P: K around cultivated plants in an area of converted agriculture land have the significance: Soil checks collected in plots from soil containing morning glory, chrysanthemums, marigolds, corn and cassava, and had neutral pH. 2 The results of the analysis determing the factors that affected the conservation of soil found economic factors were at a high level Social factors and technology factors were moderate thus leading the approach that has come to create of learning activities package in soil conservation. 3 The results showed that the efficiency of the manual was 83

  16. Proceedings of Soil Decon '93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document

  17. Proceedings of Soil Decon `93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document.

  18. Competitive sorption and desorption behavior for three fluoroquinolone antibiotics in a wastewater treatment wetland soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkle, Jeremy L; Lattao, Charisma; White, John R; Cook, Robert L

    2010-09-01

    Significant amounts of pharmaceuticals are discharged into the environment through wastewater effluent. Sorption has been shown to be a significant aqueous removal pathway for many of these compounds. Competition between ciprofloxacin (CIP), ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin (NOR) and their sorption to, and desorption from, a surrogate Louisiana wastewater treatment wetland soil were investigated to gain insight into the fate and transport of the pollutants within wastewater treatment wetlands. This study was undertaken in the context of a treatment wetland that continuously receives pharmaceuticals. Therefore it is important to understand the total capacity of this soil to sorb these compounds. Sorption to this treatment wetland soil was found to provide a major and potentially long-term removal pathway for these antibiotics from wastewater. LogK(F) values for all three compounds were between 4.09 and 3.90 for sorption and 4.24 and 4.05 microg(1-1/)(n)(cm(3))(1/)(n)g(-1) for desorption. The compounds were sorbed in amounts ranging from 60% to 90% for high and low loading, respectively. The majority of the compounds were sorbed to the soil within the first 20h, indicating that treatment wetland may not need long retention times (weeks to months) in order to remove these compounds. Sorption K(D) values for competition (20 ppm of each compound for 60 ppm of total fluoroquinolones) ranged from 2300 to 3800 cm(3)g(-1) which is between both the 20 (4300-5800 cm(3)g(-1)) and 60 (1300-3000 cm(3)g(-1)) ppm single compound K(D) values, indicating that there is competition between these three compound for sorption sites. Sorption and desorption data (single component and mixture) collectively provide the following evidence: (1) NOR and, to a lesser extent, CIP outcompete OFL for sorption sites, (2) OFL sorbes to its share of "quality" sorption sites, and (3) competition only occurs for lesser "quality" binding sites. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- excavation -- storage technology -- safety analysis and review statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the state-of-the-art of excavation technology as related to environmental remediation applications. A further purpose is to determine which of the excavation technologies reviewed could be used by the US Corp of Engineers in remediating contaminated soil to be excavated in the near future for construction of a new Lock and Dam at Winfield, WV. The study is designed to identify excavation methodologies and equipment which can be used at any environmental remediation site but more specifically at the Winfield site on the Kanawha River in Putnam County, West Virginia. A technical approach was determined whereby a functional analysis was prepared to determine the functions to be conducted during the excavation phase of the remediation operations. A number of excavation technologies were identified from the literature. A set of screening criteria was developed that would examine the utility and ranking of the technologies with respect to the operations that needed to be conducted at the Winfield site. These criteria were performance, reliability, implementability, environmental safety, public health, and legal and regulatory compliance. The Loose Bulk excavation technology was ranked as the best technology applicable to the Winfield site. The literature was also examined to determine the success of various methods of controlling fugitive dust. Depending upon any changes in the results of chemical analyses, or prior remediation of the VOCs from the vadose zone, consideration should be given to testing a new ''Pneumatic Excavator'' which removes the VOCs liberated during the excavation process as they outgas from the soil. This equipment however would not be needed on locations with low levels of VOC emissions

  20. Assessment of technologies for hazardous waste site remediation: Non-treatment technologies and pilot scale facility implementation -- excavation -- storage technology -- safety analysis and review statement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, H.R.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Koperna, G.J. Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the state-of-the-art of excavation technology as related to environmental remediation applications. A further purpose is to determine which of the excavation technologies reviewed could be used by the US Corp of Engineers in remediating contaminated soil to be excavated in the near future for construction of a new Lock and Dam at Winfield, WV. The study is designed to identify excavation methodologies and equipment which can be used at any environmental remediation site but more specifically at the Winfield site on the Kanawha River in Putnam County, West Virginia. A technical approach was determined whereby a functional analysis was prepared to determine the functions to be conducted during the excavation phase of the remediation operations. A number of excavation technologies were identified from the literature. A set of screening criteria was developed that would examine the utility and ranking of the technologies with respect to the operations that needed to be conducted at the Winfield site. These criteria were performance, reliability, implementability, environmental safety, public health, and legal and regulatory compliance. The Loose Bulk excavation technology was ranked as the best technology applicable to the Winfield site. The literature was also examined to determine the success of various methods of controlling fugitive dust. Depending upon any changes in the results of chemical analyses, or prior remediation of the VOCs from the vadose zone, consideration should be given to testing a new ``Pneumatic Excavator`` which removes the VOCs liberated during the excavation process as they outgas from the soil. This equipment however would not be needed on locations with low levels of VOC emissions.

  1. Nanoscale zero-valent iron: Future prospects for an emerging water treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, R.A.; Scott, T.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Contemporary knowledge of nano-Fe 0 synthesis, modification and toxicity is reviewed. ► Discrepancies in the literature are highlighted with regard to testing parameters. ► Compared to “real-systems” nano-Fe 0 performance has been largely overestimated. ► A universal testing procedure and reactivity scale are suggested to effectively compare future nano-Fe 0 materials. - Abstract: For the past 15 years, nanoscale metallic iron (nZVI) has been investigated as a new tool for the treatment of contaminated water and soil. The technology has reached commercial status in many countries worldwide, however is yet to gain universal acceptance. This review summarises our contemporary knowledge of nZVI aqueous corrosion, manufacture and deployment, along with methods to enhance particle reactivity, stability and subsurface mobility. Reasons for a lack of universal acceptance are also explored. Key factors include: concerns over the long-term fate, transformation and ecotoxicity of nZVI in environmental systems and, a lack of comparable studies for different nZVI materials and deployment strategies. It is highlighted that few investigations to date have examined systems directly analogous to the chemistry, biology and architecture of the terrestrial environment. Such emerging studies have highlighted new concerns, including the prospect for remobilisation of heavy metals and radionuclides over extended periods. The fundamental importance of being able to accurately predict the long-term physical, chemical and biological fate of contaminated sites following nZVI treatment is emphasised and, as part of this, a universal empirical testing framework for nZVI is suggested.

  2. Oxidation by Fenton's reagent combined with biological treatment applied to a creosote-comtaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, C; Alessandri, R; Aunola, T; Cortina, J L; Gamisans, X; Tuhkanen, T

    2009-07-30

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using Fenton oxidation to remove sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged soil samples with creosote oil from a wood preserving site. The optimal dosage of reagents was determined by a statistical method, the central composite rotatable experimental design. The maximum PAH removal was 80% with a molar ratio of oxidant/catalyst equal to 90:1. In general low molecular weight PAHs (3 rings) were degraded more efficiently than higher molecular weight PAHs (4 and 5 rings). The hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetic was studied in the presence of KH(2)PO(4) as stabilizer. The kinetic data were fitted to a simple model, the pseudo-first-order which describes the hydrogen peroxide decomposition. The PAH kinetic degradation was also studied, and demonstrated that non-stabilized hydrogen peroxide was consumed in less than 30 min, whilst PAH removal continued for up to 24h. In a second part of the work, a combined chemical and biological treatment of the soil was carried out and shown to be dependent on the pre-oxidation step. Different reagent doses (H(2)O(2):Fe) were used (10, 20, 40, 60:1) in the pre-treatment step. An excess of hydrogen peroxide resulted in a poor biological removal, thus the optimal molar ratio of H(2)O(2):Fe for the combined process was 20:1. The combined treatment resulted in a maximum total PAH removal of 75% with a 30% increase in removal due to the biodegradation step. The sample with highest PAH removal in the pre-oxidation step led to no further increase in removal by biological treatment. This suggests that the more aggressive chemical pre-oxidation does not favour biological treatment. The physico-chemical properties of the pollutants were an important factor in the PAH removal as they influenced chemical, biological and combined treatments.

  3. Study of electroflotation method for treatment of wastewater from washing soil contaminated by heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel de Oliveira da Mota

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroflotation method (EFM for treatment of synthetic solutions simulating wastewater from washing soil contaminated by drilling fluids from oil wells was investigated in this paper. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of the operating conditions on the removal of lead, barium and zinc from solutions containing 15 mg dm−3 for each metal representing a typical concentration of wastewater generated in the washing soil in this treatment. The experimental results showed that it is possible to remove these heavy metals by electrocoagulation/electroflotation (ECF attaining 97% of removal using stainless steel mesh electrodes with a power consumption of 14 kWh m−3. The optimal conditions of treatment were sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in a molar ratio 3:1, current density around 350 A m−2, ionic strength 3.2 × 10−3 M, pH = 10.0 and 20 min of ECF. This study newly indicated that the proposed method is adequate to simultaneously treat the common heavy metals found in the drilling fluids oil wells.

  4. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Heat treatment of wood is an effective method to improve the dimensional stability and durability against biodegradation. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of European Hophornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia Scop.) wood were examined. Samples obtained ...

  5. Hong kong chemical waste treatment facilities: a technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuwang, Chu [Enviropace Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    1993-12-31

    The effective management of chemical and industrial wastes represents one of the most pressing environmental problems confronting the Hong Kong community. In 1990, the Hong Kong government contracted Enviropace Limited for the design, construction and operation of a Chemical Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment and disposal processes, their integration and management are the subject of discussion in this paper

  6. The effects of heat treatment on physical and technological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... elasticity in bending, Janka-hardness (cross-section, parallel and perpendicular to grain), impact bending strength, tensile strength perpendicular to grain and surface roughness values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Increase in temperature and duration further.

  7. Development of high-level radioactive waste treatment and conversion technologies 'Dry decontamination technology development for highly radioactive contaminants'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, K. W.; Won, H. J.; Jung, C. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2001-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Dry Decontamination Technology Development for Highly Radioactive Contaminants'. 1.Contaminant Characteristics Analysis of Domestic Nuclear Fuel Cycle Projects(NFCP) and Applicability Study of the Unit Dry-Decontamination Techniques A. Classification of contaminated equipments and characteristics analysis of contaminants B. Applicability study of the unit dry-decontamination techniques 2.Performance Evaluation of Unit Dry Decontamination Technique A. PFC decontamination technique B. CO2 decontamination technique C. Plasma decontamination technique 3.Development of Residual Radiation Assessment Methodology for High Radioactive Facility Decontamination A. Development of radioactive nuclide diffusion model on highly radioactive facility structure B. Obtainment of the procedure for assessment of residual radiation dose 4.Establishment of the Design Concept of Dry Decontamination Process Equipment Applicable to Highly Radioactive Contaminants 5.TRIGA soil unit decontamination technology development A. Development of soil washing and flushing technologies B. Development of electrokinetic soil decontamination technology.

  8. Emerging Technologies in the Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa and Ethics: Sufferers' Accounts of Treatment Strategies and Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alina

    2017-09-01

    New neural models for anorexia nervosa (AN) are emerging as a result of increased research on the neurobiology of AN, and these offer a rationale for the development of new treatment technologies such as neuromodulation. The emergence of such treatment technologies raises new ethical questions; however these have been little discussed for AN. In this article, I take an empirical approach and explore how young women who suffer from AN perceive treatment technologies in light of the concept of authenticity. Interview data showed that participants in this study did not seem to unconditionally adhere to treatment modalities that only imply laborious self-work, such as therapy. The data also showed that they were willing to accept new treatment possibilities such as pharmacological or brain-directed treatment strategies, which they view as having potential instrumental value in coping with certain symptoms of the illness. However, such modalities can pose threats to patients' authenticity, especially with regard to self-discovery. I argue that, in a context where there is an increased interest in brain-directed treatment strategies for AN, studies should continue to explore the ethical and psychological impact of such treatment technologies on individuals.

  9. Operation technology of air treatment system in nuclear facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Chun, Y B; Hwong, Y H; Lee, H K; Min, D K; Park, K J; Uom, S H; Yang, S Y

    2001-01-01

    Effective operation techniques were reviewed on the air treatment system to protect the personnel in nuclear facilities from the contamination of radio-active particles and to keep the environment clear. Nuclear air treatment system consisted of the ventilation and filtering system was characterized by some test. Measurement of air velocity of blowing/exhaust fan in the ventilation system, leak tests of HEPA filters in the filtering, and measurement of pressure difference between the areas defined by radiation level were conducted. The results acquired form the measurements were reflected directly for the operation of air treatment. In the abnormal state of virus parts of devices composted of the system, the repairing method, maintenance and performance test were also employed in operating effectively the air treatment system. These measuring results and techniques can be available to the operation of air treatment system of PIEF as well as the other nuclear facilities in KAERI.

  10. Soil pollution and its treatment; Contaminacion de suelos y su saneamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coloma, J.

    1994-12-31

    Soil Pollution has not been paid the necessary attention, partly because its imperceptibility to our eyes. The opposite to water and air pollution, usually more notorious. In this paper pollution sources and pathways will be described, as well as remediation techniques. These could be classified in two groups: the ones that are based in the immobilisation and control of pollutants, and the ones based in the treatment and regeneration of the polluted area. Usually the first group is the most economical thus being the most used. (Author)

  11. Antisoiling technology: Theories of surface soiling and performance of antisoiling surface coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Willis, P. B.

    1984-11-01

    Physical examination of surfaces undergoing natural outdoor soiling suggests that soil matter accumulates in up to three distinct layers. The first layer involves strong chemical attachment or strong chemisorption of soil matter on the primary surface. The second layer is physical, consisting of a highly organized arrangement of soil creating a gradation in surface energy from a high associated with the energetic first layer to the lowest possible state on the outer surfce of the second layer. The lowest possible energy state is dictated by the physical nature of the regional atmospheric soiling materials. These first two layers are resistant to removal by rain. The third layer constitutes a settling of loose soil matter, accumulating in dry periods and being removed during rainy periods. Theories and evidence suggest that surfaces that should be naturally resistant to the formation of the first two-resistant layers should be hard, smooth, hydrophobic, free of first-period elements, and have the lowest possible surface energy. These characteristics, evolving as requirements for low-soiling surfaces, suggest that surfaces or surface coatings should be of fluorocarbon chemistry. Evidence for the three-soil-layer concept, and data on the positive performance of candidate fluorocarbon coatings on glass and transparent plastic films after 28 months of outdoor exposure, are presented.

  12. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  13. Long-term nitrogen behavior under treated wastewater infiltration basins in a soil-aquifer treatment (SAT) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, Omer; Arye, Gilboa

    2018-05-01

    The long term behavior of total nitrogen and its components was investigated in a soil aquifer treatment system of the Dan Region Reclamation Project (Shafdan), Tel-Aviv, Israel. Use is made of the previous 40 years' secondary data for the main nitrogen components (ammonium, nitrate and organic nitrogen) in recharged effluent and observation wells located inside an infiltration basin. The wells were drilled to 106 and 67 m, both in a similar position within the basin. The transport characteristics of each nitrogen component were evaluated based on chloride travel-time, calculated by a cross-correlation between its concentration in the recharge effluent and the observation wells. Changes in the source of recharge effluent, wastewater treatment technology and recharge regime were found to be the main factors affecting turnover in total nitrogen and its components. During aerobic operation of the infiltration basins, most organic nitrogen and ammonium will be converted to nitrate. Total nitrogen removal in the upper part of the aquifer was found to be 47-63% by denitrification and absorption, and overall removal, including the lower part of the aquifer, was 49-83%. To maintain the aerobic operation of the infiltration fields, the total nitrogen load should remain below 10 mg/L. Above this limit, ammonium and organic nitrogen will be displaced into the aquifer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Drinking water treatment technologies in Europe: State of the art - vulnerabilities - research needs

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Hoek, J.P.; Bertelkamp, C.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Singhal, N.

    2012-01-01

    Eureau is the European Federation of National Associations of Water and Wastewater Services. At the request of Eureau Commission 1, dealing with drinking water, a survey was made focusing on raw drinking water sources and drinking water treatment technologies applied in Europe. Raw water sources concerned groundwater, surface water, surface water with artificial recharge and river bank filtration. Treatment schemes concerned no treatment, conventional treatment, advanced treatment and convent...

  15. Autoclave treatment of pig manure does not reduce the risk of transmission and transfer of tetracycline resistance genes in soil: successive determinations with soil column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yijun; Gu, Xian; Hao, Yangyang; Hu, Jian

    2016-03-01

    The increasing use of antibiotics, especially tetracycline, in livestock feed adversely affects animal health and ecological integrity. Therefore, approaches to decrease this risk are urgently needed. High temperatures facilitate antibiotic degradation; whether this reduces transmission risk and transfer of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRBs) and tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in soil remains unknown. Successive experiments with soil columns evaluated the effects of autoclaving pig manure (APM) on soil TRB populations and TRGs over time at different soil depths. The data showed sharp increases in TRB populations and TRGs in each subsoil layer of PM (non-APM) and APM treatments within 30 days, indicating that TRBs and TRGs transferred rapidly. The level of TRBs in the upper soil layers was approximately 15-fold higher than in subsoils. TRBs were not dependent on PM and APM levels, especially in the late phase. Nevertheless, higher levels of APM led to rapid expansion of TRBs as compared to PM. Moreover, temporal changes in TRB frequencies in total culturable bacteria (TCBs) were similar to TRBs, indicating that the impact of PM or APM on TRBs was more obvious than for TCBs. TRBs were hypothesized to depend on the numbers of TRGs and indigenous recipient bacteria. In the plough layer, five TRGs (tetB, tetG, tetM, tetW, and tetB/P) existed in each treatment within 150 days. Selective pressure of TC may not be a necessary condition for the transfer and persistence of TRGs in soil. High temperatures might reduce TRBs in PM, which had minimal impact on the transmission and transfer of TRGs in soil. Identifying alternatives to decrease TRG transmission remains a major challenge.

  16. Mass Balance, Beneficial Use Products, and Cost Comparisons of Four Sediment Treatment Technologies Near Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Corporation) X Base catalyzed decomposition (BCD)/thermal desorption (Batelle)) X Fluidized bed thermal treatment (Biosafe) X Manufactured soil X...Dryer, kiln, granulator , grinder, secondary combustion, heat recovery, generators, lime baghouses, carbon baghouses Dryer, glass furnace...quench tank, grinder, heat exchangers, packed tower scrubber, particulate collector, carbon bed Mixers, flotation, collision chambers, cavitation

  17. Identification and assessment of site treatment plan implementation opportunities for emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.A. [Sandia National Labs., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in response to the 1992 Federal Facility Compliance Act, has prepared Site Treatment Plans (STP) for the approximately 2,000 waste streams identified within its mixed waste inventory Concurrently, emerging mixed waste treatment technologies are in final development. This paper defines a three-phase process to identify and assess implementation opportunities for these emerging technologies within the STP. It highlights the first phase, functional matching of expected treatment capabilities with proposed treatment requirements. Matches are based on treatment type, regulated contaminant and waste matrix type, for both capabilities and requirements. Results identify specific waste streams and volumes that could be treated by each emerging technology. A study for Plasma Hearth Process, Delphi DETOX{sup sm}, Supercritical Water Oxidation and Vitrification shows that about 200,000 ml of DOE`s mixed waste inventory can potentially be treated by one or more of these emerging technologies. Actual implementations are small fractions of the treatable inventory. Differences between potential and actual implementations must be minimized to accrue optimum benefit from implementation of emerging or alternative treatment technologies. Functional matching is the first phase in identifying and quantifying benefits, addressing technology system and treatment issues, and providing, in part, the basis for STP implementation decisions. DOE, through EM`s Office of Technology Development, has funded this work.

  18. Treatment of Y-12 storm sewer sediments and DARA soils by thermal desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Shealy, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    The 1992 Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) listed a number of mixed wastes, subject to land disposal restrictions (LDR), for which no treatment method had been identified, and required DOE to develop strategies for treatment and ultimate disposal of those wastes. This paper presents the results of a program to demonstrate that thermal desorption can remove both organics and mercury from two mixed wastes from the DOE Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first waste, the Y-12 Storm Sewer Sediments (SSSs) was a sediment generated from upgrades to the plant storm sewer system. This material contained over 4 percent mercury, 2 percent uranium and 350 mg/kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Leachable mercury exceeded toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and LDR criteria. The second waste, the Disposal Area Remedial Action (DARA) Soils, are contaminated with uranium, mercury and PCBs. This treatability study included bench-scale testing of a thermal desorption process. Results of the testing showed that, for the SSSs, total mercury could be reduced to 120 mg/kg by treatment at 600 degrees C, which is at the high end of the temperature range for typical thermal desorption systems. Leachable TCLP mercury was less than 50 μg/L and PCBs were below 2 mg/kg. Treatment of the DARA Soils at 450 degrees C for 10 minutes resulted in residual PCBs of 0.6 to 3.0 mg/kg. This is too high (goal < 2mg/kg) and higher treatment temperatures are needed. The testing also provided information on the characteristics and quantities of residuals from the thermal desorption process

  19. The impact of advanced wastewater treatment technologies and wastewater strength on the energy consumption of large wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Timothy

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process often requiring the use of advanced treatment technologies. Stricter effluent standards have resulted in an increase in the number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with advanced treatment over time. Accordingly, associated energy consumption has also increased. Concerns about lowering operating costs for WWTPs and reducing associated greenhouse gas generation present an incentive to investigate energy use in WWTPs. This research investigated the impact of wastewater strength and the introduction of advanced treatment technologies, to replace traditional technologies on energy use to treat wastewater in WWTPs. Major unit processes were designed for a 100 MGD plant and variables controlling energy were identified and used to compute energy consumption. Except for primary clarification and plate and frame press dewatering, energy consumption computed using fundamental equations are within values in the literature. Results show that energy consumption for dissolved air flotation thickeners, centrifuges, gravity thickeners, and aeration basins are heavily influence by wastewater strength. Secondary treatment and tertiary treatment require a significant amount of energy. Secondary treatment requires 104 times the energy of preliminary treatment, 17 times the energy of solids processing, and 2.5 times the energy of tertiary treatment. Secondary treatment requires 41 times the energy of preliminary treatment, and 7 times the energy of solids processing. The results of this research provide a means of estimating energy consumption in the design and operation phase of a WWTP. By using the fundamental equations and methodology presented, alternative technologies can be compared or targeted for future energy savings implementation. Limitations of the methodology include design assumptions having to be made carefully, as well as assumptions of motor and equipment efficiencies.

  20. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY OF MODERNIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna; Kulakov Artem Alekseevich

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the biological treatment of wastewater associated with removal of nitrogen. Results of laboratory experiments that involve nitrification and denitrification are also presented and analyzed in the paper. Discharges of inadequately treated and untreated wastewater have a negative impact on the aquatic ecosystem. The biological treatment of the wastewater that includes denitrification is strongly influenced by external factors. They need thorough research at t...

  2. Enzyme pretreatment of fats, oil and grease from restaurant waste to prolong septic soil treatment system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Younsuk; Safferman, Steven I; Ostahowski, Jeff; Herold, Tom; Panter, Ronald

    2017-01-02

    When a fast-food restaurant's wastewater containing fats, oil and grease (FOG) is discharged into a collection system, it builds up over time and clogs pipes. Similarly, when such wastewater flows into a septic soil treatment system, it adheres to the surface of inlet pipes, gravel/distribution media and soil, restricting the flow and eventually clogging the septic soil treatment system. In this study, an enzymatic pretreatment system was tested on wastewater from a fast-food restaurant to determine its effectiveness in preventing septic soil treatment system clogging. This system used aeration equipment, baffles and a one-time inoculum that excretes enzymes to reduce the molecular weight and number of double bonds associated with FOG. FOG containing triglycerides having lower molecular weights and fewer double bonds are less sticky. The enzymatic pretreatment system was found to cause these changes as verified by measuring the types of triglycerides (compounds in FOG) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. A unique bench-scale septic soil treatment system (soil trench) was also used. Each contained six soil moisture sensors to enable the determination of moisture saturation trends among the five tested conditions: sanitary wastewater only, a combination of sanitary and kitchen wastewater, enzymatically pretreated sanitary and kitchen wastewater, kitchen wastewater, and enzymatically pretreated kitchen wastewater. For all influent types, a significant amount of FOG and other pollutants were removed, regardless of the initial concentrations. Moisture sensor readings showed differences among the tested conditions, indicating that septic soil treatment system clogging was delayed. Inspection of the influent pipe and gravel at the end of testing verified these differences as did the measurements of volatile solids.

  3. Recent advances of ultraviolet light technologies in water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traksel, D.; Vinnicombe, D.A.

    2001-05-01

    UV light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, situated between X-rays and visible light, with a wavelength between 100 and 400 nm. The UV spectrum is split into a number of bands; each band is used in specific applications. UV-C and parts of UV-B band are used for disinfection purposes (between 200 and 315 nm). Vacuum UV is associated with the oxidation of organic carbon. UV disinfection technology has been around for a long time, but major advances have been made only in the last few decades. These advances include lamp manufacture technology with respect to output, wavelength spread and operating life, configuration design and monitoring. The use of specialized medium pressure lamps, as well as the combination of medium pressure and low pressure lamps has shown a number of advantages. (orig.)

  4. Where can cone penetrometer technology be applied? Development of a map of Europe regarding the soil penetrability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Matthias; van Ree, Derk; Leven, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, significant efforts have been invested in the development of push-in technology for site characterization and monitoring for geotechnical and environmental purposes and have especially been undertaken in the Netherlands and Germany. These technologies provide the opportunity for faster, cheaper, and collection of more reliable subsurface data. However, to maximize the technology both from a development and implementation point of view, it is necessary to have an overview of the areas suitable for the application of this type of technology. Such an overview is missing and cannot simply be read from existing maps and material. This paper describes the development of a map showing the feasibility or applicability of Direct Push/Cone Penetrometer Technology (DPT/CPT) in Europe which depends on the subsurface and its extremely varying properties throughout Europe. Subsurface penetrability is dependent on a range of factors that have not been mapped directly or can easily be inferred from existing databases, especially the maximum depth reachable would be of interest. Among others, it mainly depends on the geology, the soil mechanical properties, the type of equipment used as well as soil-forming processes. This study starts by looking at d