WorldWideScience

Sample records for soil tillage water

  1. Mulch tillage for conserving soil water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulching is the practice of maintaining organic or inorganic materials on or applying them to the soil surface. It is an ancient practice, but through the years clean tillage that incorporated crop residues and also controlled weeds became the norm. Frequent and deep tillage often was promoted to co...

  2. Soil water retention as affected by tillage and residue management in semiarid Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bescansa, P.; Imaz, M.J.; Virto, I.; Enrique, A.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation tillage preserves soil water and this has been the main reason for its rapid dissemination in rainfed agriculture in semiarid climates. We determined the effects of conservation versus conventional tillage on available soil water capacity (AWC) and related properties at the end of 5

  3. Soil tillage, water erosion, and calcium, magnesium and organic carbon losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertol Ildegardis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil tillage influences water erosion, and consequently, losses of calcium, magnesium and organic carbon in surface runoff. Nutrients and organic carbon are transported by surface runoff in particulate form, adsorbed to soil colloids or soluble in water, depending on the soil tillage system. This study was carried out on an Inceptisol, representative of the Santa Catarina highlands, southern Brazil, between November 1999 and October 2001, under natural rainfall. The soil tillage treatments (no replications were: no-tillage (NT, minimum soil tillage with chiseling + disking (MT, and conventional soil tillage with plowing + two diskings (CT. The crop cycles sequence was soybean (Glycine max, oats (Avena sativa, beans (Phaseolus vulgaris and vetch (Vicia sativa. Conventional soil tillage treatment with plowing + two disking in the absence of crops (BS was also studied. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were determined in both water and sediments of the surface runoff, while organic carbon was measured only in sediments. Calcium and magnesium concentrations were greater in sediments than in surface runoff, while total losses of these elements were greater in surface runoff than in sediments. The greatest calcium and magnesium concentrations in surface runoff were obtained under CT, while in sediments the greatest concentration occurred under MT. Organic carbon concentration in sediments did not differ under the different soil tillage systems, and the greatest total loss was under CT system.

  4. Water erosion and soil water infiltration in different stages of corn development and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study evaluated soil and water losses, soil water infiltration and infiltration rate models in soil tillage systems and corn (Zea mays, L. development stages under simulated rainfall. The treatments were: cultivation along contour lines, cultivation down the slope and exposed soil. Soil losses and infiltration in each treatment were quantified for rains applied using a portable simulator, at 0, 30, 60 and 75 days after planting. Infiltration rates were estimated using the models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Horton and Philip. Based on the obtained results, the combination of effects between soil tillage system and corn development stages reduces soil and water losses. The contour tillage system promoted improvements in soil physical properties, favoring the reduction of erosion in 59.7% (water loss and 86.6% (soil loss at 75 days after planting, and the increase in the stable infiltration rate in 223.3%, compared with the exposed soil. Associated to soil cover, contour cultivation reduces soil and water losses, and the former is more influenced by management. Horton model is the most adequate to represent soil water infiltration rate under the evaluated conditions.

  5. Relating soil microbial activity to water content and tillage-induced differences in soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Petersen, Søren O

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have identified optima in soil water content for aerobic microbial activity, and this has been ascribed to a balance between gas and solute diffusivity as limiting processes. We investigated the role of soil structure, as created by different tillage practices (moldboard ploughing......, MP, or shallow tillage, ST), in regulating net nitrification, applied here as an index of aerobic microbial activity. Intact soil cores were collected at 0–4 and 14–18 cm depth from a fine sandy (SAND) and a loamy (LOAM) soil. The cores were drained to one of seven matric potentials ranging from − 15...... to − 1500 hPa and subjected to measurements of gas diffusivity prior to incubation at 20 °C for 31 days. Net nitrification was calculated from nitrate accumulation during incubation. The upper layer of ST and MP soil had similar physical properties in terms of bulk density, pore size distribution...

  6. Tillage for soil and water conservation in the semi-arid Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, W.

    1999-01-01

    Soil tillage is the manipulation of soil which is generally considered as necessary to obtain optimum growth conditions for a crop. In the same time the resulting modification of soil structure has serious implications for the behaviour of the soil to erosive forces by water and wind. In

  7. Relations between soil surface roughness, tortuosity, tillage treatments, rainfall intensity and soil and water losses from a red yellow latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Bramorski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil surface roughness increases water retention and infiltration, reduces the runoff volume and speed and influences soil losses by water erosion. Similarly to other parameters, soil roughness is affected by the tillage system and rainfall volume. Based on these assumptions, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tillage treatments on soil surface roughness (RR and tortuosity (T and to investigate the relationship with soil and water losses in a series of simulated rainfall events. The field study was carried out at the experimental station of EMBRAPA Southeastern Cattle Research Center in São Carlos (Fazenda Canchim, in São Paulo State, Brazil. Experimental plots of 33 m² were treated with two tillage practices in three replications, consisting of: untilled (no-tillage soil (NTS and conventionally tilled (plowing plus double disking soil (CTS. Three successive simulated rain tests were applied in 24 h intervals. The three tests consisted of a first rain of 30 mm/h, a second of 30 mm/h and a third rain of 70 mm/h. Immediately after tilling and each rain simulation test, the surface roughness was measured, using a laser profile meter. The tillage treatments induced significant changes in soil surface roughness and tortuosity, demonstrating the importance of the tillage system for the physical surface conditions, favoring water retention and infiltration in the soil. The increase in surface roughness by the tillage treatments was considerably greater than its reduction by rain action. The surface roughness and tortuosity had more influence on the soil volume lost by surface runoff than in the conventional treatment. Possibly, other variables influenced soil and water losses from the no-tillage treatments, e.g., soil type, declivity, slope length, among others not analyzed in this study.

  8. Conservation tillage, optimal water and organic nutrient supply enhance soil microbial activities during wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Singh, Geeta; Singh, Rana P.

    2011-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted on sandy loam soil at New Delhi, during 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of conservation tillage, irrigation regimes (sub-optimal, optimal and supra-optimal water regimes), and integrated nutrient management (INM) practices on soil biological parameters in wheat cultivation. The conservation tillage soils has shown significant (pbiofertilizer+25% Green Manure) has been used in combination with the conservation tillage and the optimum water supply. Study demonstrated that microbial activity could be regulated by tillage, water and nitrogen management in the soil in a sustainable manner. PMID:24031665

  9. Contribution of macroporosity to water flux of a soil under different tillage systems

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    Carlos Germán Soracco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the importance of the macroporosity for the water transport properties of soils, its quantitative assessment is a challenging task. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity (K at different soil water tensions and the quantification of water-conducting macropores (θM of a soil under different tillage systems could help understand the effects on the soil porous system and related hydraulic properties. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of Conventional Tillage (CT, Chisel Plow (CP and No Tillage (NT on θM and on K; and to quantify the contribution of macroporosity to total water flux in a loam soil. A tension disc infiltrometer was used at two soil water pressure heads (-5 cm, and 0 to infer θM and K, during fallow. Macroporosity was determined based on the flow contribution between 0 and -5 cm water potentials (K0, K5, respectively, according to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation. The K0 values were statistically higher for CT than for NT and CP. The K5 values did not differ statistically among treatments. The mean K values varied between 0.20 and 3.70 cm/h. For CT, θM was significantly greater than for CP and NT, following the same trend as K0. No differences in θM were detected between CP and NT. With CT, the formation of water-conducting macropores with persistence until post-harvest was possible, while under CP preparation, the water-conducting macropores were not persistent. These results support the idea that tillage affects the soil water movement mainly by the resulting water-conducting macropores. Future studies on tillage effects on water movement should focus on macroporosity.

  10. Water stability of soil aggregates in different systems of Chernozem tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Bartlová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of various agrotechnical measures on macrostructural changes in the ploughing layer and subsoil were studied within the period of 2008–2010. Soil macrostructure was evaluated on the base of water stability of soil aggregates. Altogether three variants of soil tillage were established, viz. ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m (Variant 1, deep soil loosening to the depth of 0.35–0.40 m (Variant 2, and shallow tillage to the depth of 0.15 m (Variant 3. Experiments were established on a field with Modal Chernozem in the locality Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou (maize-growing region, altitude of 210 m, average annual sum of precipitation 461 mm. In the first experimental year, winter rape was the cultivated crop and it was followed by winter wheat, maize and spring wheat in subsequent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of different methods of tillage on water stability of soil aggregates and on yields of individual crops. An overall analysis of results revealed a positive effect of cultivation without ploughing on water stability of soil aggregates. In the variant with ploughing was found out a statistically significant decrease of this stability. At the same time it was also found out that both minimum tillage and deep soil loosening showed a positive effect on yields of crops under study (above all of maize and winter wheat.

  11. [Effects of rotational tillage during summer fallow on wheat field soil water regime and grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xian-qing; Wang, Wei; Han, Qing-fang; Jia, Zhi-kuan; Yan, Bo; Li, Yong-ping; Su, Qin

    2011-10-01

    In 2007-2010, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different rotational tillage practices during summer follow on the soil water regime and grain yield in a winter wheat field in Southern Ningxia arid area. Three treatments were installed, i.e., T1 (no-tillage in first year, subsoiling in second year, and no-tillage in third year), T2 (subsoiling in first year, notillage in second year, and subsoiling in third year), and CT (conventional tillage in the 3 years). Through the three years of the tillage practices, the soil water storage efficiency in treatments T1 and T2 was increased averagely by 15.2% and 26.5%, respectively, as compared to CT. In treatments T1 and T2, the potential rainfall use rate was higher, being 37.8% and 38.5%, respectively, and the rainfall use efficiency was increased averagely by 9.9% and 10.7%, respectively, as compared to CT. Rotational tillage during summer fallow could decrease the soil ineffective evaporation significantly, and save the soil water effectively in wheat growth season. At early growth stage, the water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer in treatments T1 and T2 was increased averagely by 6.8% and 9. 4%, as compared to CT; at jointing, heading, and filling stages, the water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer in treatments T1 and T2 had a significant increase, giving greater contribution to the wheat yield than the control. Different rotational tillage practices increased the water consumption by wheat, but in the meantime, increased the grain yield and water use efficiency. In treatments T1 and T2, the water consumption by wheat through the three years was increased averagely by 5.2% and 6.1%, whereas the grain yield and the water use efficiency were increased averagely by 9.9% and 10.6%, and by 4.5% and 4.3%, respectively, as compared to CT. Correlation analysis showed that in Southern Ningxia arid area, the soil water storage at sowing, jointing, heading, and filling stages, especially at heading stage, could

  12. Soil tillage conservation and its effect on erosion control, water management and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Dr.; Gus, Dr.; Bogdan, Dr.; Moraru, Dr.; Pop, Dr.; Clapa, Dr.; Pop, Drd.

    2009-04-01

    The energetic function of the soil expressed through the potential energy accumulated through humus, the biogeochemical function (the circuit of the nutrient elements) are significantly influenced by its hydrophysical function and especially by the state of the bedding- consolidation, soil capacity of retaining an optimal quantity of water, and then its gradual disponibility for plant consumption. The understanding of soil functions and management including nutrient production, stocking, filtering and transforming minerals, water , organic matter , gas circuit and furnishing breeding material, all make the basis of human activity, Earth's past, present and especially future. The minimum tillage soil systems - paraplow, chisel or rotary grape - are polyvalent alternatives for basic preparation, germination bed preparation and sowing, for fields and crops with moderate loose requirements being optimized technologies for: soil natural fertility activation and rationalization, reduction of erosion, increasing the accumulation capacity for water and realization of sowing in the optimal period. By continuously applying for 10 years the minimum tillage system in a crop rotation: corn - soy-bean - wheat - potato / rape, an improvement in physical, hydro-physical and biological properties of soil was observed, together with the rebuilt of structure and increase of water permeability of soil. The minimum tillage systems ensure an adequate aerial-hydrical regime for the biological activity intensity and for the nutrients solubility equilibrium. The vegetal material remaining at the soil surface or superficially incorporated has its contribution to intensifying the biological activity, being an important resource of organic matter. The minimum tillage systems rebuild the soil structure, improving the global drainage of soil which allows a rapid infiltration of water in soil. The result is a more productive soil, better protected against wind and water erosion and needing less

  13. Surface water ponding on clayey soils managed by conventional and conservation tillage in boreal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. ALAKUKKU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface water ponding and crop hampering due to soil wetness was monitored in order to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage practices and perennial grass cover on soil infiltrability for five years in situ in gently sloping clayey fields. Thirteen experimental areas, each having three experimental fields, were established in southern Finland. The fields belonged to: autumn mouldboard ploughing (AP, conservation tillage (CT and perennial grass in the crop rotation (PG. In the third year, direct drilled (DD fields were established in five areas. Excluding PG, mainly spring cereals were grown in the fields. Location and surface area of ponded water (in the spring and autumn as well as hampered crop growth (during June-July were determined in each field by using GPS devices and GIS programs. Surface water ponding or crop hampering occurred when the amount of rainfall was clearly greater than the long-term average. The mean of the relative area of the ponded surface water, indicating the risk of surface runoff, and hampered crop growth was larger in the CT fields than in the AP fields. The differences between means were, however, not statistically significant. Complementary soil physical measurements are required to investigate the reasons for the repeated surface water ponding.;

  14. Dynamics of soil organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon in relation to water erosion and tillage erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojun, Nie; Jianhui, Zhang; Zhengan, Su

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) are associated with soil erosion, yet there is a shortage of research concerning the relationship between soil erosion, SOC, and especially microbial biomass carbon (MBC). In this paper, we selected two typical slope landscapes including gentle and steep slopes from the Sichuan Basin, China, and used the (137)Cs technique to determine the effects of water erosion and tillage erosion on the dynamics of SOC and MBC. Soil samples for the determination of (137)Cs, SOC, MBC and soil particle-size fractions were collected on two types of contrasting hillslopes. (137)Cs data revealed that soil loss occurred at upper slope positions of the two landscapes and soil accumulation at the lower slope positions. Soil erosion rates as well as distribution patterns of the erosion is the major process of soil redistribution in the gentle slope landscape, while tillage erosion acts as the dominant process of soil redistribution in the steep slope landscape. In gentle slope landscapes, both SOC and MBC contents increased downslope and these distribution patterns were closely linked to soil redistribution rates. In steep slope landscapes, only SOC contents increased downslope, dependent on soil redistribution. It is noticeable that MBC/SOC ratios were significantly lower in gentle slope landscapes than in steep slope landscapes, implying that water erosion has a negative effect on the microbial biomass compared with tillage erosion. It is suggested that MBC dynamics are closely associated with soil redistribution by water erosion but independent of that by tillage erosion, while SOC dynamics are influenced by soil redistribution by both water erosion and tillage erosion.

  15. Dynamics of Soil Organic Carbon and Microbial Biomass Carbon in Relation to Water Erosion and Tillage Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojun, Nie; Jianhui, Zhang; Zhengan, Su

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) are associated with soil erosion, yet there is a shortage of research concerning the relationship between soil erosion, SOC, and especially microbial biomass carbon (MBC). In this paper, we selected two typical slope landscapes including gentle and steep slopes from the Sichuan Basin, China, and used the 137Cs technique to determine the effects of water erosion and tillage erosion on the dynamics of SOC and MBC. Soil samples for the determination of 137Cs, SOC, MBC and soil particle-size fractions were collected on two types of contrasting hillslopes. 137Cs data revealed that soil loss occurred at upper slope positions of the two landscapes and soil accumulation at the lower slope positions. Soil erosion rates as well as distribution patterns of the erosion is the major process of soil redistribution in the gentle slope landscape, while tillage erosion acts as the dominant process of soil redistribution in the steep slope landscape. In gentle slope landscapes, both SOC and MBC contents increased downslope and these distribution patterns were closely linked to soil redistribution rates. In steep slope landscapes, only SOC contents increased downslope, dependent on soil redistribution. It is noticeable that MBC/SOC ratios were significantly lower in gentle slope landscapes than in steep slope landscapes, implying that water erosion has a negative effect on the microbial biomass compared with tillage erosion. It is suggested that MBC dynamics are closely associated with soil redistribution by water erosion but independent of that by tillage erosion, while SOC dynamics are influenced by soil redistribution by both water erosion and tillage erosion. PMID:23717530

  16. Assessment of Micro-Basin Tillage as a Soil and Water Conservation Practice in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuanyuan; Ou, Yang; Yan, Baixing; Xu, Xiaohong; Rousseau, Alain N; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Micro-basin tillage is a soil and water conservation practice that requires building individual earth blocks along furrows. In this study, plot experiments were conducted to assess the efficiency of micro-basin tillage on sloping croplands between 2012 and 2013 (5°and 7°). The conceptual, optimal, block interval model was used to design micro-basins which are meant to capture the maximum amount of water per unit area. Results indicated that when compared to the up-down slope tillage, micro-basin tillage could increase soil water content and maize yield by about 45% and 17%, and reduce runoff, sediment and nutrients loads by about 63%, 96% and 86%, respectively. Meanwhile, micro-basin tillage could reduce the peak runoff rates and delay the initial runoff-yielding time. In addition, micro-basin tillage with the optimal block interval proved to be the best one among all treatments with different intervals. Compared with treatments of other block intervals, the optimal block interval treatments increased soil moisture by around 10% and reduced runoff rate by around 15%. In general, micro-basin tillage with optimal block interval represents an effective soil and water conservation practice for sloping farmland of the black soil region.

  17. Measurement of soil water content using TDR and the neutron probe in tillage experiments in semi-arid SW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, F.; Pelegrin, F.; Fernandez, J.E.; Murillo, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Some examples of soil water content measurements using Time Domain Reflectrometry (TDR) and the neutron probe are presented in this paper. The data are from experiments on water recharge and water conservation in the soil profile under different tillage methods. TDR is a useful technique with which to follow changes of soil water content in the top soil layers. Under sunflower, measurements showed differences in soil water content within and between the plant rows. Measurements with the neutron probe showed changes of soil water content profile down to a depth of 2 m. Soil water profile recharge and water depletion by the sunflower crop were established from measurements with both techniques. The combined use of TDR and neutron probe is very appropriate to establish the soil water balance in such experiments. (author)

  18. Energy efficiency and soil conservation in conventional, minimum tillage and no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Rusu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the capacity of a soil tillage system in soil conservation, in productivity and in energy efficiency. The minimum tillage and no-tillage systems represent good alternatives to the conventional (plough system of soil tillage, due to their conservation effects on soil and to the good production of crops (Maize, 96%-98% of conventional tillage for minimum tillage, and 99.8% of conventional tillage for no till; Soybeans, 103%-112% of conventional tillage for minimum tillage and 117% of conventional tillage for no till; Wheat, 93%-97% of conventional tillage for minimum tillage and 117% of conventional tillage for no till. The choice of the right soil tillage system for crops in rotation help reduce energy consumption, thus for maize: 97%-98% energy consumption of conventional tillage when using minimum tillage and 91% when using no-tillage; for soybeans: 98% energy consumption of conventional tillage when using minimum tillage and 93 when using no-tillage; for wheat: 97%-98% energy consumption of conventional tillage when using minimum tillage and 92% when using no-tillage. Energy efficiency is in relation to reductions in energy use, but also might include the efficiency and impact of the tillage system on the cultivated plant. For all crops in rotation, energy efficiency (energy produced from 1 MJ consumed was the best in no-tillage — 10.44 MJ ha−1 for maize, 6.49 MJ ha−1 for soybean, and 5.66 MJ ha−1 for wheat. An analysis of energy-efficiency in agricultural systems includes the energy consumed-energy produced-energy yield comparisons, but must be supplemented by soil energy efficiency, based on the conservative effect of the agricultural system. Only then will the agricultural system be sustainable, durable in agronomic, economic and ecological terms. The implementation of minimum and no-tillage soil systems has increased the organic matter content from 2% to 7.6% and water stable

  19. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  20. The influence of reduced tillage on water regime and nutrient leaching in a loamy soil

    OpenAIRE

    Baigys, Giedrius; Gaigalis, Kazimieras; Kutra, Ginutis

    2006-01-01

    The effect of tillage technologies and terms on soil moisture regime and nitrate leaching was studied in field trials carried out on 0.76-1.36-ha fields. The study site was arranged in Pikeliai village (Kėdainiai district). The soil prevailing in the study site is Endocalcari - Endohypogleic Cambisol, sandy light loam and sandy loam on deeper layers of sandy loam and sandy light loam. The arable horizon contains sandy light loam, which is characteristic of the soils prevailing in the Middle L...

  1. Effects of Long-term Conservation Tillage on Soil Nutrients in Sloping Fields in Regions Characterized by Water and Wind Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunjian; Cao, Xue; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weiyu; Feng, Yongzhong; Qiao, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation tillage is commonly used in regions affected by water and wind erosion. To understand the effects of conservation tillage on soil nutrients and yield, a long-term experiment was set up in a region affected by water and wind erosion on the Loess Plateau. The treatments used were traditional tillage (CK), no tillage (NT), straw mulching (SM), plastic-film mulching (PM), ridging and plastic-film mulching (RPM) and intercropping (In). Our results demonstrate that the available nutrients in soils subjected to non-traditional tillage treatments decreased during the first several years and then remained stable over the last several years of the experiment. The soil organic matter and total nitrogen content increased gradually over 6 years in all treatments except CK. The nutrient content of soils subjected to conservative tillage methods, such as NT and SM, were significantly higher than those in soils under the CK treatment. Straw mulching and film mulching effectively reduced an observed decrease in soybean yield. Over the final 6 years of the experiment, soybean yields followed the trend RPM > PM > SM > NT > CK > In. This trend has implications for controlling soil erosion and preventing non-point source pollution in sloping fields by sacrificing some food production.

  2. Effects of Long-term Conservation Tillage on Soil Nutrients in Sloping Fields in Regions Characterized by Water and Wind Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunjian; Cao, Xue; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Weiyu; Feng, Yongzhong; Qiao, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Conservation tillage is commonly used in regions affected by water and wind erosion. To understand the effects of conservation tillage on soil nutrients and yield, a long-term experiment was set up in a region affected by water and wind erosion on the Loess Plateau. The treatments used were traditional tillage (CK), no tillage (NT), straw mulching (SM), plastic-film mulching (PM), ridging and plastic-film mulching (RPM) and intercropping (In). Our results demonstrate that the available nutrients in soils subjected to non-traditional tillage treatments decreased during the first several years and then remained stable over the last several years of the experiment. The soil organic matter and total nitrogen content increased gradually over 6 years in all treatments except CK. The nutrient content of soils subjected to conservative tillage methods, such as NT and SM, were significantly higher than those in soils under the CK treatment. Straw mulching and film mulching effectively reduced an observed decrease in soybean yield. Over the final 6 years of the experiment, soybean yields followed the trend RPM > PM > SM > NT > CK > In. This trend has implications for controlling soil erosion and preventing non-point source pollution in sloping fields by sacrificing some food production.

  3. Effects of Tillage Methods on Some Soil Physical Properties, Growth and Yield of Water Melon in a Semi-Arid Region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An appropriate tillage method is necessary to create an optimum seed bed condition for optimum crop growth and yield. Two-year field experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effects of different tillage methods on the physical properties of sandy loam soil, growth and yield of water melon (Citrullus vulgaris in a semi-arid environment. The Tillage treatments were disc ploughing plus disc harrowing (DP+DH, double disc ploughing (DDP, double disc harrowing (DDH, disc ploughing (DP and disc harrowing (DH as minimum tillage (MT and zero tillage (ZT and direct drilling method (control. The watermelon seeds were Planted manually placing three (3 seeds per hole at an interval of 1.5m along the rows and 50cm between the rows at an average depth of 5cm. The treatments were laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications. Results showed that disc ploughing + disc harrowing (DP+DH was found to be more appropriate and profitable tillage method in improving soil physical properties and growth and yield of water melon in a sandy loam soil. Watermelon yield, fruit weight (FW, fruit length (FL, fruit diameter (FD and leaf area index (LAI were significantly influenced (P=0.05, but influence of tillage treatments were not significant on the number of fruit per plant (NFPP. A numerical value of 31.0t/ha, 26.0, 5.4kg, 29.0cm, and 33.8cm were recorded for maximum crop yield, NFPP, FW, FD and FL respectively in DP+DH-treated plots. For zero tillage (ZT treatment, maximum of crop yield and NFPP were 26.5t/ha and 20.0 respectively. Thus for enhanced growth and yield of watermelon, DP/DH would be more preferable. The orthodox method of zero tillage is out rightly discouraged

  4. Soil tillage and water infiltration in semi-arid Morocco: the role fo surface and sub-surface soil conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimanche, P.H.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    Production of cereals in a dryland farming system forms an important part of agricultural production in Morocco. Yield levels on the Saïs Plateau between Meknès and Fez in the semi-arid zone, however, remain low possibly because of sub-optimum water use due to inefficient tillage systems. A study

  5. Temperature and water pressure head effects on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite of isoxaflutole in a loamy soil under two tillage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alletto, Lionel; Benoit, Pierre; Bergheaud, Valerie; Coquet, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature and water pressure head on the degradation of the diketonitrile metabolite (DKN) of isoxaflutole during 84 d in samples collected in a loamy soil under conventional (CT) and conservation (MT) tillage systems. Soil temperature was the major factor controlling DKN degradation in the two tillage systems. The shortest half-lives (T 1/2 ) were measured in the seedbed samples under MT at 25 deg. C and -33 cm water pressure head. We found that mouldboard ploughing under CT was responsible for the spatial variability of herbicide degradation properties, whereas under MT herbicide degradation was associated to the vertical distribution of organic matter. - Tillage practices influence the spatial variability of diketonitrile degradation in soil and its sensitivity to pedoclimatic conditions

  6. [Priming Effects of Soil Moisture on Soil Respiration Under Different Tillage Practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liang, Ai-zhen; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Sheng-long; Sun, Bing-jie; Liu, Si-yi

    2016-03-15

    In the early stage of an incubation experiment, soil respiration has a sensitive response to different levels of soil moisture. To investigate the effects of soil moisture on soil respiration under different tillage practices, we designed an incubation trial using air-dried soil samples collected from tillage experiment station established on black soils in 2001. The tillage experiment consisted of no-tillage (NT), ridge tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (CT). According to field capacity (water-holding capacity, WHC), we set nine moisture levels including 30%, 60%, 90%, 120%, 150%, 180%, 210%, 240%, 270% WHC. During the 22-day short-term incubation, soil CO₂ emission was measured. In the early stage of incubation, the priming effects occurred under all tillage practices. There were positive correlations between soil respiration and soil moisture. In addition to drought and flood conditions, soil CO₂ fluxes followed the order of NT > RT > CT. We fitted the relationship between soil moisture and soil CO₂ fluxes under different tillage practices. In the range of 30%-270% WHC, soil CO₂ fluxes and soil moisture fitted a quadratic regression equation under NT, and linear regression equations under RT and CT. Under the conditions of 30%-210% WHC of both NT and RT, soil CO₂ fluxes and soil moisture were well fitted by the logarithmic equation with fitting coefficient R² = 0.966 and 0.956, respectively.

  7. Soil respiration in a long-term tillage treatment experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelybó, Györgyi; Birkás, Márta; Dencsö, Márton; Horel, Ágota; Kása, Ilona; Tóth, Eszter

    2016-04-01

    Regular soil CO2 efflux measurements have been carried out at Józsefmajor longterm tillage experimental site in 2014 and 2015 with static chamber technique in no-till and ploughing plots in seven spatial replicates. The trial was established in 2002 on a loamy chernozem soil at the experimental site of the Szent István University nearby the city Hatvan, northern Hungary. At the site sunflower (Helianthus A.) and wheat (Triticum A.) was grown in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Ancillary measurements carried out at the site included weather parameters, soil water content, soil temperature. The aim of the investigation was to detect the effect of soil disturbance and soil tillage treatments on soil CO2 emission in agricultural ecosystems. Soil respiration measurements were carried out every week during the vegetation period and campaign measurements were performed scheduled to tillage application. In this latter case, measurements were carried out 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and 7 days after tillage operation. Results showed that during the vegetation season in the majority of measurement occasions emission was higher in the no-till plots. These differences; however were not found to be statistically significant. Due to the short term effect of tillage treatment, emissions increased following tillage treatment in the ploughed plots. Soil water content was also examined as main driver of soil CO2 fluxes. Soil water content sharply decreases in the surface layer (5-10 cm depth) after tillage treatment indicating a fast drying due to soil disturbance. This effect slowly attenuated and eventually extincted in approx. two weeks. CO2 emission measurements were associated with high uncertainties as a result of the measurement technique. Our further aim is to reduce this uncertainty using independent measurement techniques on the field.

  8. [Effects of tillage and mulching on orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Hui; Liao, Yun-Cheng; Gao, Mao-Sheng; Yin, Rui-Jing

    2009-11-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage system (no-tillage, rotary tillage, and plow tillage) and mulching (straw mulch, sod mulch, and film mulch) on the orchard soil moisture content and temperature in Loess Plateau. Under different tillage system, the soil moisture content in 0-1 m layer differed significantly in May, with the sequence of no-tillage (14.28%) > rotary tillage (14.13%) > plow tillage (13.57%), but had less difference in September. Straw mulch induced significantly higher soil moisture content than sod mulch, film mulch, and no-mulch. Among the treatments tillage plus mulching, no-tillage plus straw mulch resulted in the greatest soil water storage. The average soil temperature at daytime was in order of film mulch > no-mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch, and the change range of soil temperature was no-mulch > film mulch > sod mulch > straw mulch. Soil water storage under different mulching treatments was not always negatively correlated with soil temperature, but depended on the water conservation effect and heat-preserved capacity of mulching material. Above all, the main conservation tillage system for the orchards in Loess Plateau would be no tillage plus straw mulch.

  9. Predicting soil workability and fragmentation in tillage: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obour, Peter Bilson; Lamandé, Mathieu; Edwards, Gareth T. C.

    2017-01-01

    . A reliable evaluation of soil workability implies a distinctive definition of the critical water content (wet and dry limits) for tillage. In this review, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the methods for determining soil workability, and the effects of soil properties and tillage systems on soil...... workability and fragmentation. The strengths and limitations of the different methods for evaluating the water content for soil workability, such as the plastic limit, soil water retention curve (SWRC), standard Proctor compaction test, field assessment, moisture-pressure-volume diagram, air permeability...... and drop-shatter tests are discussed. Our review reveals that there is limited information on the dry limit and the range of water content for soil workability for different textured soils. We identify the need for further research to evaluate soil workability on undisturbed soils using a combination...

  10. Soil Tillage Systems and Wheat Yield under Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieranna Servadio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of three different main preparatory tillage operations: ploughing at 0.4 m (P40 and 0.20 m (P20 depth and harrowing at 0.20 m depth (MT were investigated. The tillage operations were carried out at two different times, as the soil water content increased over time from rainfall: (low, 58% (LH and high, 80% (HH of field capacity. Results obtained from the soil monitoring carried out before and after tillage showed high values of soil strength in terms of Penetration resistance and shear strength particularly in deeper soil layers at lower water content. During tillage, fossil-fuel energy requirements for P40 LH and P20 LH were 25% and 35% higher, respectively, with respect to the HH treatments and tractor slip was very high (P40 LH = 32.4% with respect to the P40 HH treatment (16%. Soil water content significantly influenced tractor performance during soil ploughing at 0.40 m depth but no effect was observed for the MT treatment. The highly significant linear relations between grain yield and soil penetration resistance highlight how soil strength may be good indicator of soil productivity. We conclude that ploughing soil to a 0.20 m depth or harrowing soil to a 0.20 m depth is suitable for this type of soil under climate change scenarios.

  11. Soil phosphorus loss in tile drainage water from long-term conventional- and non-tillage soils of Ontario with and without compost addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T Q; Tan, C S; Wang, Y T; Ma, B L; Welacky, T

    2017-02-15

    Recent ascertainment of tile drainage a predominant pathway of soil phosphorus (P) loss, along with the rise in concentration of soluble P in the Lake Erie, has led to a need to re-examine the impacts of agricultural practices. A three-year on-farm study was conducted to assess P loss in tile drainage water under long-term conventional- (CT) and non-tillage (NT) as influenced by yard waste leaf compost (LC) application in a Brookston clay loam soil. The effects of LC addition on soil P loss in tile drainage water varied depending on P forms and tillage systems. Under CT, dissolved reactive P (DRP) loss with LC addition over the study period was 765g P ha -1 , 2.9 times higher than CT without LC application, due to both a 50% increase in tile drainage flow volume and a 165% increase in DRP concentration. Under NT, DRP loss in tile drainage water with LC addition was 1447gPha -1 , 5.3 times greater than that for NT without LC application; this was solely caused by a 564% increase in DRP concentration. However, particulate P loads in tile drainage water with LC application remained unchanged, relative to non-LC application, regardless of tillage systems. Consequently, LC addition led to an increase in total P loads in tile drainage water by 57 and 69% under CT and NT, respectively. The results indicate that LC application may become an environmental concern due to increased DRP loss, particularly under NT. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil tillage practices and crops rotations effects on yields and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology and Results: Three soil tillage practices in main plot (T1 = no tillage with direct sowing, T2 = minimum tillage by soil scarifying with IR12 tool and T3 = conventional tillage with animals drawn plough) were compared and combined to four crops rotation systems, in a split-plot experimental design. Soil chemical ...

  13. Using Water and Agrochemicals in the Soil, Crop and Vadose Environment (WAVE Model to Interpret Nitrogen Balance and Soil Water Reserve Under Different Tillage Managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Narjes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying models to interpret soil, water and plant relationships under different conditions enable us to study different management scenarios and then to determine the optimum option. The aim of this study was using Water and Agrochemicals in the soil, crop and Vadose Environment (WAVE model to predict water content, nitrogen balance and its components over a corn crop season under both conventional tillage (CT and direct seeding into mulch (DSM. In this study a corn crop was cultivated at the Irstea experimental station in Montpellier, France under both CT and DSM. Model input data were weather data, nitrogen content in both the soil and mulch at the beginning of the season, the amounts and the dates of irrigation and nitrogen application. The results show an appropriate agreement between measured and model simulations (nRMSE < 10%. Using model outputs, nitrogen balance and its components were compared with measured data in both systems. The amount of N leaching in validation period were 10 and 8 kgha–1 in CT and DSM plots, respectively; therefore, these results showed better performance of DSM in comparison with CT. Simulated nitrogen leaching from CT and DSM can help us to assess groundwater pollution risk caused by these two systems.

  14. Water pressure head and temperature impact on isoxaflutole degradation in crop residues and loamy surface soil under conventional and conservation tillage management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alletto, Lionel; Coquet, Yves; Bergheaud, Valérie; Benoit, Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory incubations were performed in order to evaluate the dissipation of the proherbicide isoxaflutole in seedbed layer soil samples from conventional and conservation tillage systems and in maize and oat residues left at the soil surface under conservation tillage. The effects of temperature and water pressure head on radiolabelled isoxaflutole degradation were studied for each sample for 21d. Mineralisation of isoxaflutole was low for all samples and ranged from 0.0% to 0.9% of applied (14)C in soil samples and from 0.0% to 2.4% of applied (14)C in residue samples. In soil samples, degradation half-life of isoxaflutole ranged from 9 to 26h, with significantly higher values under conservation tillage. In residue samples, degradation half-life ranged from 3 to 31h, with significantly higher values in maize residues, despite a higher mineralisation and bound residue formation than in oat residues. Whatever the sample, most of the applied (14)C remained extractable during the experiment and, after 21d, less than 15% of applied (14)C were unextractable. This extractable fraction was composed of diketonitrile, benzoic acid derivative and several unidentified metabolites, with one of them accounting for more than 17% of applied (14)C. This study showed that tillage system design, including crop residues management, could help reducing the environmental impacts of isoxaflutole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of one-time inversion tillage on soil physical properties after long-term reduced tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhwald, Michael; Augustin, Katja; Duttmann, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The positive effects of reduced tillage on soil stability and on various soil functions such as infiltrability or saturated hydraulic conductivity are known in general. However, long-term employment of conservation tillage can increase weed pressure, damage by mice and soil compaction. Thus, the application of one-time inversion tillage (occasional or strategic tillage) is customarily used as a method for overcoming these drawbacks. Hitherto, the effects of one-time inversion tillage on soil physical properties have not been investigated. This study focuses on analysing whether the improved soil physical properties derived by long-term reduced tillage remain after one-time inversion tillage by mouldboard plough. The study was carried out in a 5.5 ha field in the southern part of Lower Saxony, Germany. Since 1996, this field has been subdivided into three plots, one managed conventionally by using a mouldboard plough (CT), while in the others a chisel plough (RT1) and a disk harrow (RT2) were employed. In October 2014, the entire field was ploughed by mouldboard plough to a depth of 30 cm. During the following year, four field studies were conducted to analyse the effects of this one-time inversion tillage on volumetric soil water content, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate. Additionally, penetration resistance measurements taken across the entire field were interpolated by kriging to analyse the spatial distribution of soil characteristics. The surveys of RT1 and RT2 were compared with CT and with analyses conducted before the one-time inversion tillage. This study shows that positive effects of long-term conservation tillage on several soil physical characteristics still remain after one-time mouldboard ploughing. Throughout the entire cropping season, the topsoil tilled under former conservation tillage practices revealed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values of saturated hydraulic conductivities and infiltration rates compared

  16. Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Bogdan, Ileana; Ioan Pop, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Soil tillage system and its intensity modify by direct and indirect action soil temperature, moisture, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance and soil structural condition. Minimum tillage and no-tillage application reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first years of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. All this physicochemical changes affect soil biology and soil respiration. Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil respiration is one measure of biological activity and decomposition. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant and fertilizer. Our research follows the effects of the three tillage systems: conventional system, minimum tillage and no-tillage on soil respiration and finally on soil organic carbon on rotation soybean - wheat - maize, obtained on an Argic Faeoziom from the Somes Plateau, Romania. To quantify the change in soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest). Soil monitoring system of CO2 and O2 included gradient method, made by using a new generation of sensors capable of measuring CO2 concentration in-situ and quasi-instantaneous in gaseous phase. At surface soil respiration is made by using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. These areas were was our research presents a medium multi annual temperature of 8.20C medium of multi annual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: i). Conventional system: reversible plough (22-25 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); ii). Minimum tillage system: paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); iii). No-tillage. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three

  17. Evaluation of a model framework to estimate soil and soil organic carbon redistribution by water and tillage using 137Cs in two U.S. Midwest agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuguang; Schumacher, Joseph A.; Schumacher, Thomas E.; Kaspar, Thomas C.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Napton, Darrell; Jaynes, Dan B.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated lands in the U.S. Midwest have been affected by soil erosion, causing soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution in the landscape and other environmental and agricultural problems. The importance of SOC redistribution on soil productivity and crop yield, however, is still uncertain. In this study, we used a model framework, which includes the Unit Stream Power-based Erosion Deposition (USPED) and the Tillage Erosion Prediction (TEP) models, to understand the soil and SOC redistribution caused by water and tillage erosion in two agricultural fields in the U.S. Midwest. This model framework was evaluated for different digital elevation model (DEM) spatial resolutions (10-m, 24-m, 30-m, and 56-m) and topographic exponents (m = 1.0–1.6 and n = 1.0–1.3) using soil redistribution rates from 137Cs measurements. The results showed that the aggregated 24-m DEM, m = 1.4 and n = 1.0 for rill erosion, and m = 1.0 and n = 1.0 for sheet erosion, provided the best fit with the observation data at both sites. Moreover, estimated average SOC redistributions were 1.3 ± 9.8 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 1 and 3.6 ± 14.3 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 2. Spatial distribution patterns showed SOC loss (negative values) in the eroded areas and SOC gain (positive value) in the deposition areas. This study demonstrated the importance of the spatial resolution and the topographic exponents to estimate and map soil redistribution and the SOC dynamics throughout the landscape, helping to identify places where erosion and deposition from water and tillage are occurring at high rates. Additional research is needed to improve the application of the model framework for use in local and regional studies where rainfall erosivity and cover management factors vary. Therefore, using this model framework can help to improve the information about the spatial distribution of soil erosion across agricultural landscapes and to gain a better understanding of SOC

  18. Tillage system affects microbiological properties of soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; Avilés, M.; Perea, F.

    2012-04-01

    Soil tillage significantly affects organic carbon accumulation, microbial biomass, and subsequently enzymatic activity in surface soil. Microbial activity in soil is a crucial parameter contributing to soil functioning, and thus a basic quality factor for soil. Since enzymes remain soil after excretion by living or disintegrating cells, shifts in their activities reflect long-term fluctuations in microbial biomass. In order to study the effects of no-till on biochemical and microbiological properties in comparison to conventional tillage in a representative soil from South Spain, an experiment was conducted since 1982 on the experimental farm of the Institute of Agriculture and Fisheries Research of Andalusia (IFAPA) in Carmona, SW Spain (37o24'07''N, 5o35'10''W). The soil at the experimental site was a very fine, montomorillonitic, thermic Chromic Haploxerert (Soil Survey Staff, 2010). A randomized complete block design involving three replications and the following two tillage treatments was performed: (i) Conventional tillage, which involved mouldboard plowing to a depth of 50 cm in the summer (once every three years), followed by field cultivation to a depth of 15 cm before sowing; crop residues being burnt, (ii) No tillage, which involved controlling weeds before sowing by spraying glyphosate and sowing directly into the crop residue from the previous year by using a planter with double-disk openers. For all tillage treatments, the crop rotation (annual crops) consisted of winter wheat, sunflower, and legumes (pea, chickpea, or faba bean, depending on the year), which were grown under rainfed conditions. Enzymatic activities (ß-glucosidase, dehydrogenase, aryl-sulphatase, acid phosphatase, and urease), soil microbial biomass by total viable cells number by acridine orange direct count, the density of cultivable groups of bacteria and fungi by dilution plating on semi-selective media, the physiological profiles of the microbial communities by BiologR, and the

  19. Indicadores da condição hídrica do solo com soja em plantio direto e preparo convencional Indicators of soil water condition for soy bean under no-tillage and conventional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieta G. Martorano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Indicadores da condição hídrica do solo foram avaliados em um experimento de campo, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brasil. Utilizou-se um Argissolo Vermelho Distrófico típico, utilizado durante oito anos em sistema plantio direto e preparo convencional. A cultivar de soja Fepagro Rs(-10, foi semeada em 20/11/2003, com 0,40 m entre fileiras e 300 mil plantas por hectare, em tratamentos irrigados e não irrigados. Variáveis do sistema solo-planta-atmosfera foram monitoradas e a ênfase neste trabalho visou aos períodos secos; monitoraram-se, também, variações no potencial matricial da água no solo, entre 0,075 e 1,20 m de profundidade. Verificou-se que o tempo de secagem do solo foi mais prolongado nas parcelas sob plantio direto indicando, em períodos de secagem, potenciais matriciais menos negativos, menores temperaturas máximas e menor amplitude térmica que em preparo convencional; também, a altura de plantas e o índice de área foliar apontaram que maiores estoques de água em plantio direto podem reduzir efeitos do déficit hídrico em soja cultivada neste sistema de manejo. Esses indicadores reforçam a importância da análise integrada de respostas das culturas em um enfoque sistêmico de manejo de solo e água.Soil water condition indicators were assessed in a field experiment conducted in Eldorado do Sul, Brazil. The Paleudult soil of the experimental area has been managed during eight years under no-tillage and conventional tillage. Soy bean cultivar Fepagro Rs(-10 was sown on November 20, 2003, with 0.40 m of row spacing and 300,000 plants ha-1, with and without irrigation. Variables of soil, plant and atmosphere were monitored with emphasis during drought periods. Variations of the matrix water potential were monitored from 0.075 to 1.20 m of soil depth. A regular delay was observed in the soil drying process in no-tilled plots, in particular during drought periods, indicating higher water storage in no-tillage than in

  20. Soil Tillage Conservation and its Effect on Soil Properties Bioremediation and Sustained Production of Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Muresan, Liliana; Andriuca, Valentina; Cojocaru, Olesea

    2017-04-01

    Soil Tillage Conservation (STC) is considered major components of agricultural technology for soil conservation strategies and part of Sustainable Agriculture (SA). Human action upon soil by tillage determines important morphological, physical-chemical and biological changes, with different intensities and evaluative directions. Nowadays, internationally is unanimous accepted the fact that global climatic changes are the results of human intervention in the bio-geo-chemical water and material cycle, and the sequestration of carbon in soil is considered an important intervention to limit these changes. STC involves reducing the number of tillage's (minimum tillage) to direct sowing (no-tillage) and plant debris remains at the soil surface in the ratio of at least 30%. Plant debris left on the soil surface or superficial incorporated contributes to increased biological activity and is an important source of carbon sequestration. STC restore soil structure and improve overall soil drainage, allowing more rapid infiltration of water into soil. The result is a soil bioremediation, more productive, better protected against wind and water erosion and requires less fuel for preparing the germinative bed. Carbon sequestration in soil is net advantageous, improving the productivity and sustainability. We present the influence of conventional plough tillage system on soil, water and organic matter conservation in comparison with an alternative minimum tillage (paraplow, chisel plow and rotary harrow) and no-tillage system. The application of STC increased the organic matter content 0.8 to 22.1% and water stabile aggregate content from 1.3 to 13.6%, in the 0-30 cm depth, as compared to the conventional system. For the organic matter content and the wet aggregate stability, the statistical analysis of the data showed, increasing positive significance of STC. While the soil fertility and the wet aggregate stability were initially low, the effect of conservation practices on the

  1. The Effect on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Kazım

    2016-04-01

    The Effects on Soil Erosion of Different Tillage Applications Kazım Gür1, Kazim Çarman2 and Wim M.Cornelis3 1Bahri Daǧdaş International Agricultural Research Instıtute, 42020 Konya, Turkey 2Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Machinery, University of Selçuk, 42031 Konya, Turkey 3Department of Soil Management, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 653 Coupure Links, 9000 Gent, Belgium Traditional soil cultivation systems, with excessive and inappropriate soil tillage, will generally lead to soil degradation and loss of soil by wind erosion. Continuous reduced tillage and no-till maintaining soil cover with plant residues called Conservation Agriculture that is considered as effective in reducing erosion. There exist a wide variety of practices using different tools that comply with reduced tillage principles. However, few studies have compared the effect of several of such tools in reducing wind erosion and related soil and surface properties. We therefore measured sediment transport rates over bare soil surfaces (but with under stubbles of wheat, Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to three tillage practices using two pulling type machines and one type of power takeoff movable machines and generated with a portable field wind tunnel. At 10 ms-1, sediment transport rates varied from 107 to 573 gm-1h-1, and from 176 to 768 gm-1h-1 at 13 ms-1. The lowest transport rates were observed for N(no-tillage) and the highest for Rr(L-type rototiller). After tillage, surface roughness, mean weighted diameter, wind erodible fraction, mechanical stability and soil water content were measured as well and varied from 5.0 to 15.9%, 6.9 to 13.8 mm, 14.3 to 29.7%, 79.5 to 93.4% and 8.6 to 15.1%, respectively, with again N is being the most successful practice. In terms of conservation soil tillage technique, it can be said that the applications compared with each other; direct sowing machine is more appropriate and cause to the less erosion.

  2. Evaporação da água na superfície do solo em sistemas de plantio direto e preparo convencional Soil surface water evaporation under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genei Antonio Dalmago

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos quantificar a evaporação da água na superfície do solo, em plantio direto e em preparo convencional, e avaliar o uso de microlisímetros de pesagem para medir esse processo. As medições foram feitas em campo, nos verões de 2001/2002, 2002/2003 e 2004/2005, em experimentos irrigados e não irrigados. Utilizaram-se delineamentos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro repetições, cujos tratamentos consistiram de sistemas de manejo do solo – plantio direto e preparo convencional –, e a presença ou ausência de cultivo de milho. Mediu-se a evaporação diária durante períodos de secagem do solo, entre precipitações ou irrigações consecutivas. Em experimentos sem irrigação, a evaporação acumulada foi maior sob plantio direto, na maioria dos períodos de medição, independentemente da presença da lavoura de milho. Nos experimentos com irrigação, a evaporação não apresentou diferenças regulares entre sistemas de manejo de solo. Normalmente, no início dos períodos de medição, com dois a cinco dias de secagem do solo, a evaporação foi maior em solo sob preparo convencional, tendo-se tornado maior em plantio direto, no restante do período de secagem. O emprego de microlisímetros de pesagem é eficiente para medir a evaporação na superfície do solo.This work aimed to quantify the evaporation of water on the soil surface under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems, and to evaluate the microlysimeters use to measure this process. Measurements were performed in the field, during the summers of 2001/2002, 2002/2003 and 2004/2005, in experiments with and without irrigation. Completely randomized designs were used, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of no-tillage and conventional soil tillage systems, in the presence or absence of corn cultivation. Evaporation was measured daily, during drying periods between precipitations and consecutive irrigations. Without

  3. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    , penetration resistance, and visual evaluation of soil structure (VESS). In the laboratory, aggregate strength, water-stable aggregates (WSA), and clay dispersibility were measured. The analyzed chemical and biological properties included soil organic C (SOC), total N, microbial biomass C, labile P and K...... benefit of using a combination of cover crops and direct drilling to produce a better soil friability. The usefulness of the VESS method for soil structural evaluation was supported by the high positive correlation of MWD with VESS scores.......Optimal use of management systems including tillage and winter cover crops is recommended to improve soil quality and sustain agricultural production. The effects on soil properties of three tillage systems (as main plot) including direct drilling (D), harrowing to a depth of 8 to 10 cm (H...

  4. Soil organic carbon sequestration and tillage systems in Mediterranean environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Di Bene, Claudia; Marchetti, Alessandro; Farina, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Soil carbon sequestration is of special interest in Mediterranean areas, where rainfed cropping systems are prevalent, inputs of organic matter to soils are low and mostly rely on crop residues, while losses are high due to climatic and anthropic factors such as intensive and non-conservative farming practices. The adoption of reduced or no tillage systems, characterized by a lower soil disturbance in comparison with conventional tillage, has proved to be positively effective on soil organic carbon (SOC) conservation and other physical and chemical processes, parameters or functions, e.g. erosion, compaction, ion retention and exchange, buffering capacity, water retention and aggregate stability. Moreover, soil biological and biochemical processes are usually improved by the reduction of tillage intensity. The work deals with some results available in the scientific literature, and related to field experiment on arable crops performed in Italy, Greece, Morocco and Spain. Data were organized in a dataset containing the main environmental parameters (altitude, temperature, rainfall), soil tillage system information (conventional, minimum and no-tillage), soil parameters (bulk density, pH, particle size distribution and texture), crop type, rotation, management and length of the experiment in years, initial SOCi and final SOCf stocks. Sampling sites are located between 33° 00' and 43° 32' latitude N, 2-860 m a.s.l., with mean annual temperature and rainfall in the range 10.9-19.6° C and 355-900 mm. SOC data, expressed in t C ha-1, have been evaluated both in terms of Carbon Sequestration Rate, given by [(SOCf-SOCi)/length in years], and as percentage change in comparison with the initial value [(SOCf-SOCi)/SOCi*100]. Data variability due to the different environmental, soil and crop management conditions that influence SOC sequestration and losses will be examined.

  5. Simulation of Tillage Systems Impact on Soil Biophysical Properties Using the SALUS Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Sartori

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable land management has been defined as the management system that allows for production, while minimizing risk, maintaining quality of soil and water. Tillage systems can significantly decrease soil carbon storage and influence the soil environment of a crop. Crop growth models can be useful tools in evaluating the impact of different tillage systems on soil biophysical properties and on the growth and final yield of the crops. The objectives of this paper were i to illustrate the SALUS model and its tillage component; ii to evaluate the effects of different tillage systems on water infiltration and time to ponding, iii to simulate the effect of tillage systems on some soil biophysical properties. The SALUS (System Approach to Land Use Sustainability model is designed to simulate continuous crop, soil, water and nutrient conditions under different tillage and crop residues management strategies for multiple years. Predictions of changes in surface residue, bulk density, runoff, drainage and evaporation were consistent with expected behaviours of these parameters as described in the literature. The experiment to estimate the time to ponding curve under different tillage system confirmed the theory and showed the beneficial effects of the residue on soil surface with respect to water infiltration. It also showed that the no-tillage system is a more appropriate system to adopt in areas characterized by high intensity rainfall.

  6. Tillage and water management for riceland productivity in acid sulfate soils of the Mekong delta, Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    1997-01-01

    Acid sulfate soils are characterized by low pH and high concentrations of aluminum, sulfate, iron and hydrogen sulfide. Removal of at least part of these substances is a prerequisite for land use, at least in severely acid soils. In this study, the effectiveness of harrowing and flushing with

  7. Conservation Tillage Impacts on Soil Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hake, K.

    2012-04-01

    As recent as the 1970's in University lecture halls cotton production was vilified for being "hard on the soil". This stigma is still perpetuated today in the popular press, deserving a close scrutiny of its origin and its reality as soil quality is an essential but unappreciated component of cotton's unique tolerance to heat and drought. The objective of expanding food, feed and fiber production to meet the global demand, during forecast climate disruption requires that scientists improve both the above and below ground components of agriculture. The latter has been termed the "final frontier" for its inaccessibility and complexity. The shift to conservation tillage in the U.S.A. over the previous three decades has been dramatic in multiple crops. Cotton and its major rotation crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) can be grown for multiple years without tillage using herbicides instead to control weeds. Although pesticide resistant insects and weeds (especially to Bt proteins and glyphosate) are a threat to Integrated Pest Management and conservation tillage that need vigilance and proactive management, the role of modern production tools in meeting agricultural objectives to feed and clothe the world is huge. The impact of these tools on soil quality will be reviewed. In addition ongoing research efforts to create production practices to further improve soil quality and meet the growing challenges of heat and drought will be reviewed.

  8. Effect of Tillage and Mulch Combination on Soil Physical Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tillage method and mulching on selected soil physical properties and performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) was studied in rainforest zone of South West Nigeria. Treatments were 4 x 2 factorial combination of tillage methods (zero tillage, manual clearing, heap, ridge), 12t/ha dry plant residue mulch, and ...

  9. Tillage erosion and its effect on soil properties and crop yield in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckrath, G; Djurhuus, J; Quine, T A; Van Oost, K; Govers, G; Zhang, Y

    2005-01-01

    Tillage erosion had been identified as a major process of soil redistribution on sloping arable land. The objectives of our study were to investigate the extent of tillage erosion and its effect on soil quality and productivity under Danish conditions. Soil samples were collected to a 0.45-m depth on a regular grid from a 1.9-ha site and analyzed for 137Cs inventories, as a measure of soil redistribution, soil texture, soil organic carbon (SOC) contents, and phosphorus (P) contents. Grain yield was determined at the same sampling points. Substantial soil redistribution had occurred during the past decades, mainly due to tillage. Average tillage erosion rates of 2.7 kg m(-2) yr(-1) occurred on the shoulderslopes, while deposition amounted to 1.2 kg m(-2) yr(-1) on foot- and toeslopes. The pattern of soil redistribution could not be explained by water erosion. Soil organic carbon and P contents in soil profiles increased from the shoulder- toward the toeslopes. Tillage translocation rates were strongly correlated with SOC contents, A-horizon depth, and P contents. Thus, tillage erosion had led to truncated soils on shoulderslopes and deep, colluvial soils on the foot- and toeslopes, substantially affecting within-field variability of soil properties. We concluded that tillage erosion has important implications for SOC dynamics on hummocky land and increases the risk for nutrient losses by overland flow and leaching. Despite the occurrence of deep soils across the study area, evidence suggested that crop productivity was affected by tillage-induced soil redistribution. However, tillage erosion effects on crop yield were confounded by topography-yield relationships.

  10. Fertilizer placement and tillage effects on phosphorus leaching in fine-textured soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adoption of no-tillage in agricultural watersheds has resulted in substantial reductions in sediment and particulate phosphorus (P) delivery to surface waters. No-tillage, however, may result in increased losses of dissolved P in tile-drained landscapes due to the accumulation of P in surface soil l...

  11. Soil Failure Crescent Radii Measurement for Draft in Tillage Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field clay loam and sandy loam soils were tilled with a chisel shaped tine at different tillage geometries. Soil cracks and the extent of their propagations in the front and to the sides of the tillage tool were observed and measured. These measurements provided the failure crescent radii and the soil furrow geometry used in ...

  12. Conservation tillage impacts on soil, crop and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiu Abolanle Busari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to match food production with increasing world population through identification of sustainable land management strategies. However, the struggle to achieve food security should be carried out keeping in mind the soil where the crops are grown and the environment in which the living things survive. Conservation agriculture (CA, practising agriculture in such a way so as to cause minimum damage to the environment, is being advocated at a large scale world-wide. Conservation tillage, the most important aspect of CA, is thought to take care of the soil health, plant growth and the environment. This paper aims to review the work done on conservation tillage in different agro-ecological regions so as to understand its impact from the perspectives of the soil, the crop and the environment. Research reports have identified several benefits of conservation tillage over conventional tillage (CT with respect to soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as crop yields. Not less than 25% of the greenhouse gas effluxes to the atmosphere are attributed to agriculture. Processes of climate change mitigation and adaptation found zero tillage (ZT to be the most environmental friendly among different tillage techniques. Therefore, conservation tillage involving ZT and minimum tillage which has potential to break the surface compact zone in soil with reduced soil disturbance offers to lead to a better soil environment and crop yield with minimal impact on the environment. Keywords: Atmosphere, Greenhouse gases, Conservation tillage, Sustainable crop yield

  13. Effect of tillage practices on least limiting water range in Northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Meharban S.; Chawla, Karitika

    2017-04-01

    Tillage practices affect mechanical and hydrological characteristics of soil and subsequently the least limiting water range. This quality indicator under the wheat-maize system of northwest India has not been studied yet. The treatments included four tillage modes, namely conventional tillage, no-tillage without residue, no-tillage with residue, and deep tillage as well as three irrigation regimes based on the irrigation water and pan evaporation ratio i.e. 1.2, 0.9, and 0.6. The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with three replications. At the end of cropping system, the mean least limiting water range (m3 m-3) was found to be highest in deep tillage (0.26) and lowest in notillage without residue (0.15). The field capacity was a limiting factor for the upper range of the least limiting water range beyond soil bulk density 1.41 Mg m-3 and after that 10% air filled porosity played a major role. However, for the lower range, the permanent wilting point was a critical factor beyond soil bulk density 1.50 Mg m-3 and thereafter, the penetration resistance at 2 MPa becomes a limiting factor. Thus, deep tillage under compaction and no-tillage with residue under water stress is appropriate practice for achieving maximum crop and water productivity.

  14. Tillage and manure effect on soil physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tillage and liquid manure applications on some physical and chemical properties and also on the carbon and nitrogen mineralization potential from a meadow soil. Our results indicated that tillage and manure applications had no effect on the concentration of Cu, Mn, total N and organic C in the 0 - 15 cm layer of soil after ...

  15. Conservation and conventional tillage effects on soil properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four conservation tillage practices and two conventional tillage practices were evaluated for two years to determine their effects on soil properties (moisture content, bulk density, porosity, shear strength, cone index), weed control, germination, growth and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril). The soil was sandy loam ...

  16. Tillage and manure effect on soil microbial biomass and respiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of both tillage and liquid pig manure application on soil microbial biomass, enzyme activities and microbial respiration in a meadow soil. The results obtained did not show any significant effect of tillage and manure on microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) ...

  17. Tillage System and Cover Crop Effects on Soil Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2014-01-01

    in the spring of 2012 before cultivation. Soil water retention and air permeability were measured for matric potentials ranging from −1 to −30 kPa. Gas diffusivity was measured at −10 kPa. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was also used to characterize soil pore characteristics. At the 4- to 8- and 18- to 27-cm...... depths, pore characteristics did not differ significantly among tillage treatments. At the 12- to 16-cm depth, negative effects of reduced tillage (D and H) were recorded for total porosity and air-filled porosity at −10 kPa (that is, >30-μm pores). Generally, the use of a cover crop increased air......-filled porosity at −10 kPa, air permeability, and pore organization and reduced the value of blocked air porosity at all depths for all tillage treatments. Our results show that the cover crop created continuous macropores and in this way improved the conditions for water and gas transport and root growth...

  18. Effects of soil tillage on the energy budget of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casa, R.; Cascio, B. lo

    1997-01-01

    The different terms of the energy budget were measured by the Bowen ratio method on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown on a conventional tillage and a direct drilling system. The differences found in the energy budgets varied according to the degree of fractional ground cover and of soil water availability. Soil heat flux was greater for the direct drilling treatment, although soil heating was slower as compared to the conventional tillage. Comparisons for well watered and dry conditions revealed that the conventional tillage system used as latent heat a fraction of net radiation greater than the direct drilling treatment only in well watered conditions. In dry conditions the differences in latent heat fluxes and canopy resistances between the two tillage systems were smaller [it

  19. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of conservation vs. conventional tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Katharina H. E.; Ghafoor, Abdul; Haddaway, Neal R.; Bolinder, Martin A.; Kätterer, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Soil tillage has been associated with many negative impacts on soil quality, especially a reduction in soil organic carbon (SOC). The benefits of no tillage (NT) on topsoil SOC concentrations have been demonstrated in several reviews, but the effect of reduced tillage (RT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) that usually involves soil inversion through moldboard ploughing is still unclear. Moreover, the effect of tillage on total SOC stocks including deeper layers is still a matter of considerable debate, because the assessment depends on many factors such as depth and method of measurement, cropping systems, soil type, climatic conditions, and length of the experiments used for the analysis. From a recently published systematic map database consisting of 735 long-term field experiments (≥ 10 years) within the boreal and temperate climate zones (Haddaway et al. 2015; Environmental Evidence 4:23), we selected all tillage studies (about 80) reporting SOC concentrations along with dry soil bulk density and conducted a systematic review. SOC stocks were calculated considering both fixed soil depths and by using the concept of equivalent soil mass. A meta-analysis was used to determine the influence of environmental, management, and soil-related factors regarding their prediction potential on SOC stock changes between the tillage categories NT, RT, and CT. C concentrations and stocks to a certain depth were generally highest under NT, intermediate under RT, and lowest under CT. However, this effect was mainly limited to the first 15 cm and disappeared or was even reversed in deeper layers, especially when adjusting soil depth according to the equivalent soil mineral mass. Our study highlights the impact of tillage-induced changes in soil bulk density between treatments and shows that neglecting the principles of equivalent soil mass leads to overestimation of SOC stocks for by conservation tillage practices.

  20. Tillage and manure effect on soil physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    , Quebec, Canada, G1K 7P4. Accepted 21 September, 2009 ..... Furthermore, both tillage and manure influence soil organic matter dynamics and quality. REFERENCES. Anderson JPE (1982). Soil respiration.. In Page AL ed. Methods of ...

  1. Tillage and vegetative barrier effects on soil conservation and short-term economic benefits in the Central Kenya highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guto, S.N.; Pypers, P.; Vanlauwe, B.; Ridder, de N.; Giller, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Minimum tillage and vegetative barriers can conserve soil and water resources in the steep-sloping highlands of East Africa but there has been little adoption by smallholder farmers. Soil conservation efficiency and short-term economic benefits provided by tillage and vegetative barriers were

  2. The effects of forward speed and depth of conservation tillage on soil bulk density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahmoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, production techniques and equipment have been developed for conservation of tillage systems that have been adopted by many farmers. With proper management, overall yield averages for conventional and reduced tillage systems are nearly identical. Sometimes, field operations can be combined by connecting two or more implements. Combined operations reduce both fuel consumption, and time and labor requirements by eliminating at least one individual trip over the field. Light tillage, spraying, or fertilizing operations can be combined with either primary or secondary tillage or planting operations. Tillage helps seed growth and germination through providing appropriate conditions for soil to absorb sufficient temperature and humidity. Moreover, it helps easier development of root through reducing soil penetration resistance. Tillage is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. With the application of agricultural operations, we can save substantial amounts of fuel, time and energy consumption. Conservation tillage loosens the soil without turning, but by remaining the plant left overs, stems and roots. Bulk density reflects the soil’s ability to function for structural support, water and solute movement, and soil aeration. Bulk densities above thresholds indicate impaired function. Bulk density is also used to convert between weight and volume of soil. It is used to express soil physical, chemical and biological measurements on a volumetric basis for soil quality assessment and comparisons between management systems. This increases the validity of comparisons by removing the error associated with differences in soil density at the time of sampling. The aim of conservation tillage is to fix the soil structure. This investigation was carried out considering the advantages of conservation tillage and less scientific research works on imported conservation tillage devices and those which are made inside the country

  3. Effect of various tillage practices on soil properties and maize growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate tillage practices are vital for good tilth that is pre-requisite for aggregate formation, soil aeration, better root development and plant growth. A field experiment of maize was carried out at the experimental site of Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam during two consecutive growing seasons 2009 and 2010. A randomized complete block design with three treatment conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and no tillage (NT) was used in the study. Significant differences between tillage treatments were observed in the soil properties, growth and root development of plants. The NT treatment retained higher soil water contents (15.8 and 16.0%) measured at 0-20 cm depth during 2009 and 2010, respectively. Likewise, the soil bulk density (1.4 and 1.4 cm-3) was higher at this depth consequently; it resulted in greater soil strength (81 N m-2 and 79 N m-2) during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The negative and significant correlations were recorded between root dry weight and soil strengths. On the other hand, positive and significant relationship of root dry weight with mean total dry matter production and LAI was observed. Moreover, the root development related observations were significantly enhanced under CT as compared to RT and NT treatments. The results indicate that conventional tillage improve maize growth and root development by improving soil properties. (author)

  4. Tillage effects on soil. Physical properties and sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physical properties and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) yield under convectional tillage (CT) and zero-tillage (Z,TJ. was monitored for 3 consecutive years in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria (SGSZN). While bulk density of CT increased slightly over the years, significant decrease of 12 and 8% were ...

  5. Tillage and manure effect on soil physical and chemical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of tillage and liquid manure applications on some physical and chemical properties and also on the carbon and nitrogen mineralization potential from a meadow soil. Our results indicated that tillage and manure applications had no effect on the concentration of Cu, Mn, total ...

  6. Impact of tillage erosion on water erosion in a hilly landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Zhang, J H; Zhang, Z H; Jia, L Z

    2016-05-01

    Little has been known of the interaction between tillage erosion and water erosion, while the two erosion processes was independently studied. Can tillage-induced soil redistribution lead to exaggerated (or retarded) runoff flow and sediment concentrations in steeply sloping fields? A series of simulated tillage and artificial rainfall events were applied to rectangular runoff plots (2m×8m) with a slope of 15° to examine the impacts of tillage erosion intensities on water erosion in the Yangtze Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Mean flow velocity, effective/critical shear stress, and soil erodibility factor K were calculated to analyze the differences in hydrodynamic characteristics induced by tillage. Our experimental results suggest that mean runoff rates were 2.26, 1.19, and 0.65Lmin(-1) and that mean soil detachment rates were 1.53, 1.01, and 0.61gm(-2)min(-1) during the 70-min simulated rainfall events for 52-, 31-, and 10-year tillage, respectively. A significant difference (Pwater losses tended to increase with increasing tillage intensity. A significant difference in mean flow velocity occurred near the upper and lower slope boundaries of the field, while significant differences (Perosion increases soil erodibility and delivers the soil for water erosion in sloping fields, accelerating water erosion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effect of Tillage on Soil Properties and Yield of Sorghum ( Sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    season 2005 and lateseason 2006 on an Alfisol of southwest Nigeria to assess the effect of five tillage methods on soil properties and yield of sorghum. The tillage treatments were zero tillage, manual clearing, ploughing, ploughing plus ...

  8. Manure and tillage use in remediation of eroded land and impacts on soil chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikha, Maysoon M; Benjamin, Joseph G; Vigil, Merle F; Poss, David J

    2017-01-01

    Soil loss through wind and water erosion is an ongoing problem in semiarid regions. A thin layer of top soil loss over a hectare of cropland could be corresponding to tons of productive soil loss per hectare. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of beef feedlot manure, tillage and legume grass mixtures on changes in soil quality and nutrient components. The study was initiated in 2006 on an eroded site near Akron, Colorado, on a Norka-Colby very-fine sandy loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, Aridic, Argiustolls). Tillage treatments were no-tillage, shallow tillage (sweeps operations with V-blade) and deep tillage (DT; moldboard plow operations). In one set of plots, DT was implemented biannually (DT-2); and in another set the DT was done once at the initiation of the experiment in 2006. Amendments consisted of beef manure and urea (46-0-0), N fertilizer. Both amendments were added at low and high rates. A control treatment, with no fertilizer or manure added, was included with no-tillage and shallow tillage only. Six years of manure addition and tillage significantly altered soil chemical properties compared with fertilizer and grass legume mixtures. Across all the tillage treatments, at the 0-30 cm depth, soil pH from 2006 to 2012, was reduced 1.8 fold with high-manure compared with high-fertilizer treatment. Soil EC, Na, and SAR increased by 2.7 fold while soil P increase by 3.5 fold with high-manure treatment compared with low-manure from 2006 to 2012 across all the tillage treatments at the surface 0-30 cm. Soil organic carbon associated with high-manure was 71% higher than low-manure and 230% higher than high-fertilizer treatments in the 0-60 cm depth. Similar patterns were observed with soil total N. Overall, manure amendments greatly improved the soil nutrient status on this eroded site. However, the legume grass mixtures showed little effect on improving soils chemical properties. The micronutrients supplied by manure improved the soil

  9. Tillage-induced short-term soil organic matter turnover and respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sebastian Rainer; Leinweber, Peter; Jurasinski, Gerald; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-09-01

    Tillage induces decomposition and mineralisation of soil organic matter (SOM) by the disruption of macroaggregates and may increase soil CO2 efflux by respiration, but these processes are not well understood at the molecular level. We sampled three treatments (mineral fertiliser: MF; biogas digestate: BD; unfertilised control: CL) of a Stagnic Luvisol a few hours before and directly after tillage as well as 4 days later from a harvested maize field in northern Germany and investigated these samples by means of pyrolysis-field ionisation mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) and hot-water extraction. Before tillage, the Py-FIMS mass spectra revealed differences in relative ion intensities of MF and CL compared to BD most likely attributable to the cattle manure used for the biogas feedstock and to relative enrichments during anaerobic fermentation. After tillage, the CO2 effluxes were increased in all treatments, but this increase was less pronounced in BD. We explain this by restricted availability of readily biodegradable carbon compounds and possibly an inhibitory effect of sterols from digestates. Significant changes in SOM composition were observed following tillage. In particular, lignin decomposition and increased proportions of N-containing compounds were detected in BD. In MF, lipid proportions increased at the expense of ammonia, ammonium, carbohydrates and peptides, indicating enhanced microbial activity. SOM composition in CL was unaffected by tillage. Our analyses provide strong evidence for significant short-term SOM changes due to tillage in fertilised soils.

  10. A multiple soil ecosystem services approach to evaluate the sustainability of reduced tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérès, Guénola; Menasseri, Safya; Hallaire, Vincent; Cluzeau, Daniel; Heddadj, Djilali; Cotinet, Patrice; Manceau, Olivier; Pulleman, Mirjam

    2017-04-01

    In the current context of soil degradation, reduced tillage systems (including reduced soil disturbance, use of cover crops and crop rotation, and improved organic matter management) are expected to be good alternatives to conventional system which have led to a decrease of soil multi-functionality. Many studies worldwide have analysed the impact of tillage systems on different soil functions, but overran integrated view of the impact of these systems is still lacking. The SUSTAIN project (European SNOWMAN programme), performed in France and the Netherlands, proposes an interdisciplinary collaboration. The goals of SUSTAIN are to assess the multi-functionality of soil and to study how reduced-tillage systems impact on multiple ecosystem services such as soil biodiversity regulation (earthworms, nematodes, microorganisms), soil structure maintenance (aggregate stability, compaction, soil erosion), water regulation (run-off, transfer of pesticides) and food production. Moreover, a socio-economic study on farmer networks has been carried out to identify the drivers of adoption of reduced-tillage systems. Data have been collected in long-term experimental fields (5 - 13 years), representing conventional and organic farming strategies, and were complemented with data from farmer networks. The impact of different reduced tillage systems (direct seeding, minimum tillage, non-inverse tillage, superficial ploughing) were analysed and compared to conventional ploughing. Measurements (biological, chemical, physical, agronomical, water and element transfer) have been done at several dates which allow an overview of the evolution of the soil properties according to climate variation and crop rotation. A sociological approach was performed on several farms covering different production types, different courses (engagement in reduced tillage systems) and different geographical locations. Focusing on French trials, this multiple ecosystem services approach clearly showed that

  11. Soil biological activity as affected by tillage intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, A. M.; Przewłoka, B.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of tillage intensity on changes of microbiological activity and content of particulate organic matter in soil under winter wheat duirng 3 years was studied. Microbial response related to the tillage-induced changes in soil determined on the content of biomass C and N, the rate of CO2 evolution, B/F ratio, the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases, soil C/N ratio and microbial biomass C/N ratio confirmed the high sensitivity of soil microbial populations to the tillage system applied. After three year studies, the direct sowing system enhanced the increase of labile fraction of organic matter content in soil. There were no significant changes in the labile fraction quantity observed in soil under conventional tillage. Similar response related to the tillage intensity was observed in particulate organic matter quantities expressed as a percentage of total organic matter in soil. A high correlation coefficients calculated between contents of soil microbial biomass C and N, particulate organic matter and potentially mineralizable N, and the obtained yields of winter wheat grown on experimental fields indicated on a high importance of biological quality of status of soil for agricultural crop production.

  12. Impact of climate change on water balance components in Mediterranean rainfed olive orchards under tillage or cover crop soil management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carretero, María Teresa; Lorite, Ignacio J.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Dosio, Alessandro; Gómez, José A.

    2013-04-01

    The rainfed olive orchards in Southern Spain constitute the main socioeconomic system of the Mediterranean Spanish agriculture. These systems have an elevated level of complexity and require the accurate characterization of crop, climate and soil components for a correct management. It is common the inclusion of cover crops (usually winter cereals or natural cover) intercalated between the olive rows in order to reduce water erosion. Saving limited available water requires specific management, mowing or killing these cover crops in early spring. Thus, under the semi-arid conditions in Southern Spain the management of the cover crops in rainfed olive orchards is essential to avoid a severe impact to the olive orchards yield through depletion of soil water. In order to characterize this agricultural system, a complete water balance model has been developed, calibrated and validated for the semi-arid conditions of Southern Spain, called WABOL (Abazi et al., 2013). In this complex and fragile system, the climate change constitutes a huge threat for its sustainability, currently limited by the availability of water resources, and its forecasted reduction for Mediterranean environments in Southern Spain. The objective of this study was to simulate the impact of climate change on the different components of the water balance in these representative double cropping systems: transpiration of the olive orchard and cover crop, runoff, deep percolation and soil water content. Four climatic scenarios from the FP6 European Project ENSEMBLES were first bias corrected for temperatures and precipitation (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) and, subsequently, used as inputs for the WABOL model for five olive orchard fields located in Southern Spain under different conditions of crop, climate, soils and management, in order to consider as much as possible of the variability detected in the Spanish olive orchards. The first results indicate the significant effect of the cover

  13. 3D Structure of Tillage Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Iván; Losada, Juan Carlos; Falconer, Ruth; Hapca, Simona; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil structure may be defined as the spatial arrangement of soil particles, aggregates and pores. The geometry of each one of these elements, as well as their spatial arrangement, has a great influence on the transport of fluids and solutes through the soil. Fractal/Multifractal methods have been increasingly applied to quantify soil structure thanks to the advances in computer technology (Tarquis et al., 2003). There is no doubt that computed tomography (CT) has provided an alternative for observing intact soil structure. These CT techniques reduce the physical impact to sampling, providing three-dimensional (3D) information and allowing rapid scanning to study sample dynamics in near real-time (Houston et al., 2013a). However, several authors have dedicated attention to the appropriate pore-solid CT threshold (Elliot and Heck, 2007; Houston et al., 2013b) and the better method to estimate the multifractal parameters (Grau et al., 2006; Tarquis et al., 2009). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of the algorithm applied in the multifractal method (box counting and box gliding) and the cube size on the calculation of generalized fractal dimensions (Dq) in grey images without applying any threshold. To this end, soil samples were extracted from different areas plowed with three tools (moldboard, chissel and plow). Soil samples for each of the tillage treatment were packed into polypropylene cylinders of 8 cm diameter and 10 cm high. These were imaged using an mSIMCT at 155keV and 25 mA. An aluminium filter (0.25 mm) was applied to reduce beam hardening and later several corrections where applied during reconstruction. References Elliot, T.R. and Heck, R.J. 2007. A comparison of 2D and 3D thresholding of CT imagery. Can. J. Soil Sci., 87(4), 405-412. Grau, J, Médez, V.; Tarquis, A.M., Saa, A. and Díaz, M.C.. 2006. Comparison of gliding box and box-counting methods in soil image analysis. Geoderma, 134, 349-359. González-Torres, Iván. Theory and

  14. Impact of tillage intensity on clay loam soil structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraghmeh, Omar; Petersen, Carsten; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    Soil structure and structural stability are key parameters in sustainable soil management and optimum cropping practices. Locally and temporally adapted precision tillage may improve crop performance while at the same time reduce environmental impacts. The main objective of this study...... was to improve the knowledge of precision tillage practices through characterizing the effect of varied tillage intensities on structural properties of a clay loam soil. A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with two main factors, i.e. operational speed (OS, 2 levels...... tracked soil at T1 (9 mm). We conclude that precise combination of operation and rotation speeds will result in optimum seedbed in terms of permeability and stability of soil structure....

  15. Influence of Soil Tillage Systems on Soil Respiration and Production on Wheat, Maize and Soybean Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, P. I.; Rusu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil respiration leads to CO2 emissions from soil to the atmosphere, in significant amounts for the global carbon cycle. Soil capacity to produce CO2 varies depending on soil, season, intensity and quality of agrotechnical tillage, soil water, cultivated plant, fertilizer etc. The data presented in this paper were obtained on argic-stagnic Faeoziom (SRTS, 2003). These areas were was our research, presents a medium multiannual temperature of 8.20C, medium of multiannual rain drowns: 613 mm. The experimental variants chosen were: A. Conventional system (CS): V1-reversible plough (22-25 cm)+rotary grape (8-10 cm); B. Minimum tillage system (MT): V2 - paraplow (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm); V3 - chisel (18-22 cm) + rotary grape (8-10 cm);V4 - rotary grape (10-12 cm); C. No-Tillage systems (NT): V5 - direct sowing. The experimental design was a split-plot design with three replications. In one variant the area of a plot was 300 m2. The experimental variants were studied in the 3 years crop rotation: maize - soy-bean - autumn wheat. To soil respiration under different tillage practices, determinations were made for each crop in four vegetative stages (spring, 5-6 leaves, bean forming, harvest) using ACE Automated Soil CO2 Exchange System. Soil respiration varies throughout the year for all three crops of rotation, with a maximum in late spring (1383 to 2480 mmoli m-2s-1) and another in fall (2141 to 2350 mmoli m-2s-1). The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration, the daily average is lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1), followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Productions obtained at MT and NT don't have significant differences at wheat and are higher at soybean. The differences in crop yields are recorded at maize and can be a direct consequence of loosening, mineralization and intensive mobilization of soil fertility. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by CNCSIS

  16. [Effects of returning straw to soil and different tillage methods on paddy field soil fertility and microbial population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Jun; Liu, Dai-Yin; Wu, Jin-Xiu; Wu, Ju-Xian; De, Chen-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2009-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a paddy field to study the effects of returning straw to soil and different tillage methods (no-tillage + returning straw, no-tillage, tillage + returning straw, and tillage) on the fertility level and microbial quantities of different soil layers. The results showed that in upper soil layer, the organic matter content in treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw' was 5.33, 2.79, and 5.37 g x kg(-1) higher than that in treatments 'no-tillage', 'tillage + returning straw', and 'tillage', respectively, and the contents of total and available N, P and K in treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw' were also the highest, followed by in treatments 'no-tillage' and 'tillage + returning straw', and in treatment 'tillage'. In deeper soil layer, all the fertility indices were higher in treatment 'tillage + returning straw'. Treatments of 'returning straw to soil' had the highest quantities of soil microbes. The quantities of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in upper soil layer were the highest in treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw', and thus, the cellulose decomposition intensity in this treatment at maturity period was 26.44%, 79.01%, and 98. 15% higher than that in treatments 'tillage + returning straw', 'no-tillage', and 'tillage', respectively. In deeper soil layer, the quantities of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were the highest in treatment 'tillage + returning straw'. Treatment 'no-tillage + returning straw' had the features of high fertility and abundant microbes in surface soil layer. The quantities of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the decomposition intensity of soil cellulose were significantly positively correlated with soil fertility level.

  17. Soil surface roughness decay in contrasting climates, tillage types and management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Bertol, Ildegardis; Tondello Barbosa, Fabricio; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Soil surface roughness describes the variations in the elevation of the soil surface. Such variations define the soil surface microrelief, which is characterized by a high spatial variability. Soil surface roughness is a property affecting many processes such as depression storage, infiltration, sediment generation, storage and transport and runoff routing. Therefore the soil surface microrelief is a key element in hydrology and soil erosion processes at different spatial scales as for example at the plot, field or catchment scale. In agricultural land soil surface roughness is mainly created by tillage operations, which promote to different extent the formation of microdepressions and microelevations and increase infiltration and temporal retention of water. The decay of soil surface roughness has been demonstrated to be mainly driven by rain height and rain intensity, and to depend also on runoff, aggregate stability, soil reface porosity and soil surface density. Soil roughness formation and decay may be also influenced by antecedent soil moisture (either before tillage or rain), quantity and type of plant residues over the soil surface and soil composition. Characterization of the rate and intensity of soil surface roughness decay provides valuable information about the degradation of the upper most soil surface layer before soil erosion has been initiated or at the very beginning of soil runoff and erosion processes. We analyzed the rate of decay of soil surface roughness from several experiments conducted in two regions under temperate and subtropical climate and with contrasting land use systems. The data sets studied were obtained both under natural and simulated rainfall for various soil tillage and management types. Soil surface roughness decay was characterized bay several parameters, including classic and single parameters such as the random roughness or the tortuosity and parameters based on advanced geostatistical methods or on the fractal theory. Our

  18. Predicting Suitable Field Workdays for Soil Tillage in North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simulation model was developed to predict suitable field workdays for tillage operations in North Central Nigeria. Predictions were made from a computer model which simulates daily soil moisture in the top 30 cm of soil depth using 6 years of daily meteorological records. The model was tested and validated by ...

  19. Soil workability as a basis for advice on tillage activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadena Zapata, M.

    1999-01-01

    In the tropical area of Mexico, when and how to carry out tillage is a qualitative decision. There is no quantified information about the interaction between a chosen process of cultivation, soil type and weather, which dictate the tool and power requirements. Waste of energy and soil

  20. The effects of no-tillage practice on soil physical properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of soil agitation, the soil aggregate rate under conventional tillage cropland was generally lower than that under the no-tillage practiced cropland. The studies of no-tillage on soil temperature and on crop yield also have conflicting results because of the absence of systemically long term monitoring, and there was ...

  1. Assessing Tillage Effects on Soil Hydraulic Properties via Inverse Parameter Estimation using Tension Infiltrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwen, Andreas; Bodner, Gernot; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2010-05-01

    Hydraulic properties are key factors controlling water and solute movement in soils. While several recent studies have focused on the assessment of the spatial variability of hydraulic properties, the temporal dynamics are commonly not taken into account, primarily because its measurement is costly and time-consuming. However, there is extensive empirical evidence that these properties are subject to temporal changes, particularly in the near-saturated range where soil structure strongly influences water flow. One main source of temporal variability is soil tillage. It can improve macroporosity by loosening the soil and thereby changing the pore-size distribution. Since these modifications are quite unstable over time, the pore space partially collapses after tillage. This effect should be largest for conventional tillage (CT), where the soil is ploughed after harvest every year. Assessing the effect of different tillage treatments on the temporal variability of hydraulic properties requires adequate measurement techniques. Tension infiltrometry has become a popular and convenient method providing not only the hydraulic conductivity function but also the soil rentention properties. The inverse estimation of parameters from infiltration measurements remains challenging, despite some progress since the first approach of Šimůnek et al. (1998). Measured data like the cumulative infiltration, the initial and final volumetric water content, as well as independently measured retention data from soil core analysis with laboratory methods, have to be considered to find an optimum solution describing the soil's pore space. In the present study we analysed tension infiltration measurements obtained several times between August 2008 and December 2009 on an arable field in the Moravian Basin, Lower Austria. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage including ploughing (CT), reduced tillage with chisel only (RT), and no-tillage treatment using a direct seeding

  2. Assessment of tillage systems in organic farming: influence of soil structure on microbial biomass. First results

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Jean François; Peigné, Joséphine; Chaussod, Rémi; Roger-Estrade, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Soil tillage modifies environmental conditions of soil microorganisms and their ability to release nitrogen. We compare the influence of reduced tillage (RT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP) on the soil microbial functioning in organic farming. In order to connect soil structure generated by these tillage systems on the soil microbial biomass we adopt a particular sampling scheme based on the morphological characterisation of the soil structure by the description of the soil profile. This method...

  3. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0-20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20-30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20-50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20-50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants' ability to access nutrients and water. An optimal

  4. Effects of tillage on runoff from a bare clayey soil on a semi-arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of tillage on runoff from a bare clayey soil on a semi-arid ecotope in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. ... IRWH is a special type of no-till (NT) crop production practice that promotes runoff from a crusted runoff strip into basins where the water infiltrates beyond evaporation but is available for crop use. Runoff was ...

  5. Effects of Conventional and Conservation Tillage on Soil Hydraulic Properties of a Silty-loamy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Niels Arne; Bens, O.; Buczko, U.

    2004-01-01

    Infiltration into soils is strongly correlated with macroporosity. Under agricultural land use, the properties of the macropore network are governed by the applied management and tillage system. On an experimental site with a silt loam soil partly under conventional and conservation tillage, the ...

  6. Infiltration capacity and macroporosity of a silty-loamy soil under different tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, N. A.; Buczko, U.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2003-04-01

    For soils under both agricultural and forest use, management and tillage practice have significant influence on different hydraulic properties. Under agricultural land use, the properties of the macropore system are, amongst others, a function of the applied management and tillage system (i.e. conventional vs. conservation tillage). Macropores are crucial to rapid infiltration of surface water and aeration of the soil. Low macroporosity will give rise to higher surface flow rates especially on sloping areas, thus enhancing the risk for higher erosion. Investigations were carried out near the town of Adenstedt (52^o00', 9^o56'), app. 50 km S of Hannover in Lower Saxony. The predominant soil in the study area is an eroded orthic Luvisol from glacial deposits with a predominant silty-loamy texture. The experimental site with two crop rotations has been run with two different tillage systems (e.g. conventional and conservative tillage) since 1990. In this study, the minimum radius of a macropore is set to r = 0.5 cm. Dye tracer experiments were performed with methylene blue that was sprayed on a confined irrigation plot. Staining patterns were recorded two hours later at defined depth increments and results of stained and unstained areas were manually digitized and processed with an appropriate GIS-software. Tension infiltrometer experiments were performed simultaneously with the dye tracer experiments using a tension infiltrometer (hood infiltrometer) at different hydraulic supply potentials and soils depths. Dye tracer experiments with methylene blue indicate a penetration depth of 120 cm on the reduced tilled plot as compared to the conventionally tilled plot (60 cm). Both tillage systems exhibit the highest density of macropores in the topsoil, ranging between 100 and 1.000 macropores per square meter. The conventionally tilled plot exhibits a higher number of macropores in the upper 20 cm than the reduced tilled plot while at greater soil depth, this holds true

  7. Infiltration and Soil Loss Changes during the Growing Season under Ploughing and Conservation Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Jakab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Decreased water retention and increased runoff and soil loss are of special importance concerning soil degradation of hilly crop fields. In this study, plots under ploughing (conventional tillage (PT and conservation tillage (CT; 15 years were compared. Rainfall simulation on 6 m2 plots was applied to determine infiltration and soil loss during the growing season. Results were compared with those measured from 1200 m2 plots exposed to natural rainfalls in 2016. Infiltration was always higher under CT than PT, whereas the highest infiltration was measured under the cover crop condition. Infiltration under seedbed and stubble resulted in uncertainties, which suggests that natural pore formation can be more effective at improving soil drainage potential than can temporary improvements created by soil tillage operations. Soil erodibility was higher under PT for each soil status; however, the seedbed condition triggered the highest values. For CT, soil loss volume was only a function of runoff volume at both scales. Contrarily, on PT plots, some extreme precipitation events triggered extremely high soil loss owing to linear erosion, which meant no direct connection existed between the scales. Improved soil conditions due to conservation practice are more important for decreasing soil loss than the better surface conditions.

  8. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltrea, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander

    2015-01-01

    for soil tillage, and this still needs to be addressed for fields that receive diverse types of organic waste of urban, agricultural and agro-industrial origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in SOC induced by repeated soil application of OWP on draught force for soil...... tillage and tractor fuel consumption. Draught force was measured for tillage with conventional spring tillage tines, as well as bulk density, soil texture and SOC content in the CRUCIAL field experiment, Denmark in which diverse types of OWP had been applied annually for 11 years. The OWP included...... for different organic wastes influenced the specific draught. Overall, the decrease in draught force could lead to a decrease in tractor fuel consumption for soil tillage of up to 25% for compost applied at an accelerated rate and up to 14% for compost applied at a normal rate. This reduced fuel consumption...

  9. Tillage effects on topsoil structural quality assessed using X-ray CT, soil cores and visual soil evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbout, Amin; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Søren Baarsgaard

    2013-01-01

    Soil structure plays a key role in the ability of soil to fulfil essential functions and services in relation to, e.g., root growth, gas and water transport and organic matter turnover. The objective of this paper was: (1) To quantify tillage effects on soil structural quality in the entire topsoil....... Visual soil structure evaluation was carried out in the field at the same time as sampling. CT images (0.39 × 0.39 × 0.6 mm3 voxels) were produced using a medical X-ray CT scanner. The visual assessment showed a good structural quality in the top 5–8 cm for both treatments (Sq soil...... tillage and natural consolidation, and aggravated by a poor structural stability due to a low organic matter content. The visual soil evaluation scores were negatively correlated to soil porosity and number of pore networks estimated from X-ray CT imaging and positively correlated to the macropore...

  10. Effect Of Tillage And Mulching Practices On Soil Properties And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the field evaluation of the effect of tillage [tilled (MT) and untilled, (NT)], mulching material [Panicum maximum (p) and Chromolaena odorata (c)] and mulching method [incorporated (b), surface (s) and no mulch (o)] on soil properties and growth and yield of cowpea (Vigna unquiculata) in 2000 and 2001 ...

  11. The effect of tillage systems and mulching on soil microclimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effect of tillage systems and mulching on soil microclimatic conditions, growth and yield of yellow yam. To generate the needed data, the physiological approach was employed. An experimental farm that measured 35 x 47 m was established at Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria, for two planting seasons ...

  12. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON NODULATION AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jug

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary soil tillage for different crops in Croatia is generally based on mouldboard ploughing which is the most expensive for crops production. Negative effects due to frequent passes by equipment and machines (deterioration of soil structure, soil compaction, lower biogenity and soil tilth, together with negative economical and energetical costs, can be lowered and avoided by introduction of reduced soil tillage or direct drilling (No-tillage. Accordingly, the main goal of this research was to determine effects of conventional and reduced soil tillage systems on yield components and nodulation ability of nitrogen fixing bacteria in soybean crop. The research was established at chernozem soil type of northern Baranja as monofactorial completely randomized block design in four repetitions. The soil tillage variants were as follows: CT Conventional Tillage (primary soil tillage by moldboard ploughing at 25-30 cm depth, DH Multiple Diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, and NT No-tillage system. Results show significantly lower plant density, mass of 1000 grains and grain yield at variants with reduced soil tillage in both investigation years. However, reduced tillage systems had positive trend on nitrogen-fixing bacteria nodulation, since the highest values of number and mass of nodules per plant were recorded. This research was run during the years 2002 and 2003, the last one extremely droughty, thus it requires continuation.

  13. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS ON NODULATION AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jug; Mihaela Blažinkov; S. Redžepović; Irena Jug; B. Stipešević

    2005-01-01

    The primary soil tillage for different crops in Croatia is generally based on mouldboard ploughing which is the most expensive for crops production. Negative effects due to frequent passes by equipment and machines (deterioration of soil structure, soil compaction, lower biogenity and soil tilth), together with negative economical and energetical costs, can be lowered and avoided by introduction of reduced soil tillage or direct drilling (No-tillage). Accordingly, the main goal of this resear...

  14. Influence of crop rotation and tillage intensity on soil physical properties and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krümmelbein, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Soil tillage intensity can vary concerning tillage depth, frequency, power input into the soil and degree of soil turn-over. Conventional tillage systems where a plough is regularly used to turn over the soil can be differentiated from reduced tillage systems without ploughing but with loosening the upper soil and no tillage systems. Between conventional tillage and no tillage is a wide range of more or less reduced tillage systems. In our case the different tillage intensities are not induced by different agricultural machinery or techniques, but result from varying crop rotations with more or less perennial crops and therefore lower or higher tillage frequency. Our experimental area constitutes of quite unstructured substrates, partly heavily compacted. The development of a functioning soil structure and accumulation of nutrients and organic matter are of high importance. Three different crop rotations induce varying tillage intensities and frequencies. The first crop rotation (Alfalfa monoculture) has only experienced seed bed preparation once and subsequently is wheeled once a year to cut and chaff the biomass. The second crop rotation contains perennial and annual crops and has therefore been tilled more often, while the third crop rotation consists only of annual crops with annual seedbed preparation. Our results show that reduced tillage intensity/frequency combined with the intense root growth of Alfalfa creates the most favourable soil physical state of the substrate compared to increased tillage and lower root growth intensity of the other crop rotations. Soil tillage disturbs soil structure development, especially when the substrate is mechanically unstable as in our case. For such problematic locations it is recommendable to reduce tillage intensity and/or frequency to allow the development of soil structure enhanced by root growth and thereby the accumulation of organic matter and nutrients within the rooting zone.

  15. ECONOMICS RESULTS OF WHEAT PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE WAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kanisek

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat consumption in the world increases and its importers are some European countries too. The present price of wheat grain will make selling at the market difficult for manufactures from the Republic of Croatia. Conditions and results of four year organizational - economical investigations of conventional and four ways of reduced soil tillage at wheat production are displayed in this paper. Total of 9.35 hours/ha of machinery work and 114.3 l/ha of fuel are consumed at conventional soil tillage. Total costs are 1660 DM/ha. Price of grain is 276.71 DM/t and profit amounts to 187.83 DM/ha. If the soil tillage is done by a disk harrow costs of the machinery work reduce to 471.36 DM/ha and profitability amounts to 16.5%. When soil tillage is done by multitiller with classical sowing, a yield of 5.65 t/ha st price of 273.37 DM/t and investment profitability 12.7% are obtained. Direct sowing by a Rotosem, without previous tillage, requires 11.66 hours/ha of human work and 7.18 hours/ha of machinery work. to meet the total costs 4.9 t/ha of grains need. In order to get equipment, 98 t of grains from land of 17.5 ha should be given annually during the period of 8 years. Plughing and sowing by Rotosem give 5.9 t/ha grains at price of 279.36 DM/t. Total energy cost at conventional production is 30085 and at reduced one it is 27972 MJ/ha.

  16. Shallow tillage effects on soil properties for temperate-region hard-setting soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2013-01-01

    penetration resistance (PR) of the top 40 cm soil and sampled intact soil cores (at 0–4 and 14–18 cm depths) in 11 field experiments (4–23% clay) after continued ST and MP management for mostly 4–8 years (two experiments >30 years). Bulk soil was sampled from 0 to ∼20 cm of the MP soil and from the two layers...... above (‘ST-upper’) and below (‘ST-lower’) ST primary tillage depth. Soil organic carbon (SOC), water content, bulk density, air-filled pore space (ɛa) and air permeability (ka) at the field-sampled water content were determined. ST increased SOC concentration in the ST-upper soil when compared to MP......, whereas no difference between ST and MP was found for the ST-lower soil. When based on equivalent soil masses, the quantity of SOC did not differ between ST and MP. Bulk density and PR of the ST-lower soil were higher than at the same depth of MP soil. PR was generally close to or exceeded the often...

  17. [Effects of different tillage measures on upland soil respiration in Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Ren-zhi; Cai, Li-qun; Chen, Qiang-qiang

    2009-09-01

    A field experiment was conducted in Lijiabu Town of Dingxi City, Gansu Province to study the soil respiration and its relations with the canopy temperature and soil moisture content in a rotation system with spring wheat and pea under effects of different tillage measures. Six treatments were installed, i.e., tillage with no straw- or plastic mulch (conventional tillage, T), tillage with straw mulch (TS), tillage with plastic mulch (TP), no-tillage (NT), no-tillage with straw mulch (NTS), and no-tillage with plastic mulch (NTP). During the growth periods of spring wheat and pea, soil respiration had different change patterns, with the peaks appeared at the early jointing, grain-filling, and maturing stages of spring wheat, and at the 5-leaf, silking, flowering and poding, in spring wheat field between treatments NTS and T, and the soil respiration rate was significantlyand maturing stages of pea. There was an obvious difference in the diurnal change of soil respiration lower in NTS than in T; while the soil respiration in pea field had less diurnal chan ge. Soil respiration rate had a significant linear relationship with the canopy temperature of both spring wheat andpea, the correlation coefficient being the highest at booting stage of spring wheat and at flowering and poding stage of pea, followed by at grain-filling stage of spring wheat and at branching stage of pea. There was also a significant parabola relationship between soil respiration rate and soil moisture content, the correlation coefficient being higher under conservation tillage than under conventional tillage, with the highest under NTS. The moisture content in 10-30 cm soil layer of spring wheat field and that in 5-10 cm soil layer of pea field had the greatest effects on soil respiration. Comparing with conventional tillage, all the five conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage with straw mulch.

  18. Tillage effects on N2O emission from soils under corn and soybeans in eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorich, E.G.; St-Georges, P.; McKim, U.F.; Chan, C.; Rochette, P.

    2008-01-01

    New research has suggested that no-till agricultural practices will result in higher levels of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions due to increased levels of denitrification. This study was evaluated and compared N 2 O emissions from tilled and no-till soils. Data used in the study were comprised of more than 1500 flux measurements of N 2 O taken between April and October over a period of 3 years at a site in Ottawa, Ontario. Soybean and corn crop rotations were used. Treatment effects of tillage, crop, and time of season on N 2 O fluxes were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. The study evaluated the responses of tillage during periods when soil temperatures were above 0 degrees C. Results of the studies demonstrated that fertilization management practices contributed to the higher N 2 O emissions observed in soils planted with corn when compared with soils planted with soybeans. Biological nitrogen (N) fixation in soybeans did not contribute to annual N 2 O emissions, and the effects of tillage on N 2 O emissions varied from year to year. The tilled soils typically had better aeration, higher temperatures, and lower water content than no-till soils. N 2 O emissions from no-till soils were lower than rates observed in tilled soils in 2 of the 3 years studied. Higher emissions observed in no-till soils were attributed to timing and the method of fertilizer placement. It was concluded that further studies are needed to develop methods of improving N use efficiency within tillage systems. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Effect of different tillage practices and fertilizer on soil physical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of selected soil properties under different tillage practices and fertilizer in Imo State, Nigeria, was carried out at the Agro-Forestry centre, Umuokanne Ohaji-Egbema. The treatments consisted of fallow (control); zero tillage and manure (ZM); conventional tillage, fertilizer and manure (CFM); conventional ...

  20. Pesticide Interactions with N source and Tillage: Effects on soil biota and ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John; Petersen, Søren O; Elsgaard, Lars

    Pesticide effects on soil biota must be interpreted in the context of the specific management practice, including rotation, fertilization, tillage, and pest control. Tillage, foe example, has been shown to reduce earthworm populations by up to 80%, depending on timing and specific tillage techniq...

  1. Effect of tillage and poultry manure application on soil infiltration rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in Abeokuta, South-western Nigeria in 2008 and 2009 to assess the impact of tillage and poultry manure (PM) on soil infiltration rate and maize root growth. The experiment was a split-plot design with three replications. The main plot consisted of three tillage treatments: zero tillage (ZT), minimum ...

  2. Influence of Tillage and Mulch on Soil Physical Properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1Department of Agronomy, University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha,. Pakistan. 2Department of ... fertile tillers, grain yield and water use efficiency were significantly higher in HS compared with other tillage treatments while root length ...... financially supported by Higher Education. Commission Islamabad ...

  3. Impact of erosion and tillage on the productivity and quality of selected semiarid soils of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizade, B.; Asadi, H.; Shabanpour, M.; Ghadiri, H.

    2013-09-01

    This greenhouse research was carried out to study the effects of water and tillage erosion on agricultural productivity and soil quality in soil samples from a semiarid region of Iran. A factorial experiment of complete randomized block design was used to compare the effects of soil erosion (eroded and non-eroded soils), slope position, water stress and fertilizer (N-P-K) on yield and yield components of wheat as soil productivity index. The results showed that erosion ie water and tillage erosion has a significant effect (p<0.01) in decreasing soil productivity due to its negative impact on soil organic matter, nutrients (N and K) and hydraulic conductivity. Complete N-P-K fertilization and water stress had significant effects on increasing and decreasing of wheat yield, respectively. The effect of water stress in particular was so high that it could eclipse the erosion impact on yield reduction. Wheat dry matter and grain mass on foot and mid slopes were significantly higher than that on upslope positions where total N and available K were the lowest and equivalent calcium carbonate the highest. Saturated hydraulic conductivity and total nitrogen were found to be the most important soil properties as far as their correlations to wheat yield are concerned.

  4. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Marco, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalosrodriguez@wur.nl [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Espejo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.espejo@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallejo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.vallejo@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio, E-mail: i.mariscal@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N{sub 2}O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N{sub 2}O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH{sub 4} emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N{sub 2}O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH{sub 4} oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al{sup 3+} toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH{sub 4} emissions and, under CT, abate N{sub 2}O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N{sub 2}O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT

  5. Water use efficiency of dryland cowpea, sorghum and sunflower under reduced tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought-adapted, early maturing crops combined with reduced tillage systems have the potential to stabilize and increase dryland crop yields in the Southern High Plains. The objective of this study was to evaluate dryland grain yield response and soil water use for cowpea [Vigna Unguiculata (L.) Wal...

  6. Which soil tillage is better in terms of the soil organic matter and soil structure changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR ŠIMANSKÝ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to evaluate effects of minimum (MT and conventional tillage (CT on soil organic matter and soil structure in haplic Chernozems and mollic Fluvisols. The content of soil organic carbon (Corg as well as parameters of stability and vulnerability of soil structure were quantified. The results showed that soil type had statistically significant influence on Corg. In haplic Chernozems the Corg content near the surface (0–0.1 m was significantly higher under MT (by 6% compared to CT, however, in layer 0–0.3 m under CT the average Corg content was by 16% higher than under MT. In mollic Fulvisols under MT, the average Corg content (17.5 ± 5.4 g*kg-1 was significantly less for the 0–0.3 m layer than the CT (22.7 ± 0.4 g*kg-1. In Chernozems, total content of water-stable micro-aggregates (WSAmi was higher in MT (90.8% than in CT (69.5%. In mollic Fluvisols, the average content of WSAmi was higher in CT (62.5% than in MT (53.2%. The low aggregate stability and the high structure vulnerability were reflected also due to the high contents of WSAmi in both soils. The stability of aggregates was a higher in mollic Fluvisols than in haplic Chernozems. In haplic Chernozems, better soil structure stability was under CT than MT, on the other hand, in mollic Fluvisols, the average value of coefficient of aggregate stability was lower by 32% in CT than MT.

  7. Effect of tillage and water management on GHG emissions from Mediterranean rice growing ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangueiro, David; Becerra, Daniel; Albarrán, Ángel; Peña, David; Sanchez-Llerena, Javier; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; López-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    %, relative to CT. However, the effect of water management on yield-scaled GWP depended on the soil management: yield-scaled GWP was higher with flooding when NT was used and lower when tillage was used. It can be concluded that, for aerobic rice production, NT is an efficient strategy to minimize GHG emissions while maintaining high levels of production.

  8. YIELD OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L. ON DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE VARIANTS

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    Danijel Jug

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduced tillage, as well as the most reduced tillage – No-till – every year are becoming more important in our region. Unfortunately, the areas under reduced tillage are still very small. In order to establish optimal system of reduced soil tillage, the experimental trials were set on Chernozem soil type in northern Baranja during three vege¬tation seasons (1998/1999-2000/2001 and five soil tillage systems: CT Conventional Tillage (primary soil tillage by moldboard ploughing at 30-35 cm depth, DH Multiple Diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, CH Chiseling and diskharrowing (chiseling at 30-35 cm and diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, PD One diskharro-wing pass (diskharrowing at 10-15 cm as primary tillage, and NT No-tillage system. The highest yields were recor¬ded at CT with three-year average of 9.29 t/ha, followed by CH with 8.37 t/ha, DH with 8.07 t/ha, PD with 6.99 t/ha, whereas the lowest yields were recorded at NT treatment, with three-year average of 5.94 t/ha. The highest profit was achieved at CT treatment (665,34 HRK/ha, followed by CH (189,24 HRK/ha, DH (77,20 HRK/ha, PD (-334,95 HRK/ha and NT (-459,81 HRK/ha.

  9. Nutrient cycling and soil biology in row crop systems under intensive tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent interest in management of the soil biological component to improve soil health requires a better understanding on how management practices (e.g., tillage) and environmental conditions influence soil organisms. Intensive tillage often results in reduced organic matter content in the surface so...

  10. Spatial Distribution of Soil Fauna In Long Term No Tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbo, J. Z. F.; Vieira, S. R.; Siqueira, G. M.

    2012-04-01

    The soil is a complex system constituted by living beings, organic and mineral particles, whose components define their physical, chemical and biological properties. Soil fauna plays an important role in soil and may reflect and interfere in its functionality. These organisms' populations may be influenced by management practices, fertilization, liming and porosity, among others. Such changes may reduce the composition and distribution of soil fauna community. Thus, this study aimed to determine the spatial variability of soil fauna in consolidated no-tillage system. The experimental area is located at Instituto Agronômico in Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil). The sampling was conducted in a Rhodic Eutrudox, under no tillage system and 302 points distributed in a 3.2 hectare area in a regular grid of 10.00 m x 10.00 m were sampled. The soil fauna was sampled with "Pitfall Traps" method and traps remained in the area for seven days. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to determine the main statistical moments (mean variance, coefficient of variation, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis). Geostatistical tools were used to determine the spatial variability of the attributes using the experimental semivariogram. For the biodiversity analysis, Shannon and Pielou indexes and richness were calculated for each sample. Geostatistics has proven to be a great tool for mapping the spatial variability of groups from the soil epigeal fauna. The family Formicidae proved to be the most abundant and dominant in the study area. The parameters of descriptive statistics showed that all attributes studied showed lognormal frequency distribution for groups from the epigeal soil fauna. The exponential model was the most suited for the obtained data, for both groups of epigeal soil fauna (Acari, Araneae, Coleoptera, Formicidae and Coleoptera larva), and the other biodiversity indexes. The sampling scheme (10.00 m x 10.00 m) was not sufficient to detect the spatial

  11. Comparison of soil surface arthropod populations in conventional tillage, no-tillage and old field systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumberg, A Y; Crossley, Jr, D A

    1980-08-01

    Soil surface arthropod populations in conventional tillage (CT) and no-tillage (NT) sorghum and adjacent old field (OF) were compared using pitfall trap captures. Total numbers of individuals and species, overall diversity (anti H), richness (D), evenness (J'), dominance (C) and similarity quotients (QS) between systems were calculated for each of seven 24 hour sampling periods throughout the season. Although each system was distinct (any two of the systems had less than 30 percent of their species in common), NT was most similar to OF and least similar to CT during a period of stress (drought) and after heading of the sorghum. Percentages of individuals and species represented by spiders were similar in NT and OF; percentages were substantially less in CT. Yields (biomass of sorghum) in CT and NT were not significantly different despite the generally predicted higher pest populations in NT. Results suggest that insecticide stress may lower the stability of NT systems, thus allowing an increase in pest species.

  12. Characterization of tillage effects on soil permeability using different measures of macroporosity derived from tension infiltrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, G.; Schwen, A.; Scholl, P.; Kammerer, G.; Buchan, G.; Kaul, H.-P.; Loiskandl, W.

    2010-05-01

    approaches (direct vs. inverse evaluation, capillary vs. flow weighted pore radius). We will show the influence of the distinct evaluation procedures on the resulting effective macroporosity, as well as on the relationships between macropore radius and hydraulic conductivity (Moret and Arrúe, 2007) and pore fraction respectively (Carey et al., 2007). The infiltration measurements used in this study were obtained in a long-term tillage trial located in the semi-arid region of Eastern Austria. Measurements were taken five times over the vegetation period, starting immediately after tillage until harvest of the winter wheat crop. Three tillage systems were evaluated, being conventional tillage with plough, minimum tillage with chisel and no-tillage. Additional to infiltration measurements, also soil water content was monitored continuously by a capacitance probe in all three replicates of each tillage treatment in 10, 20 and 40 cm soil depth. Water content time series are used to derive flow velocity in the wet range by cross-correlation analysis (Wu et al., 1997). This effective parameter of water transmission will then be compared to the flow behaviour expected from the characterization of soil macroporosity. We will show that mainly in no-tillage systems large macropores contribute essentially to flow and therefore the decision on pore measure and evaluation procedure to be used leads to substantial differences. For a detailed comparison of tillage effects on soil hydraulic properties it is therefore essential to analyse the contribution of different tension infiltrometry based evaluation methods to explain effective water transmission through the complex porous network of the soil. References Carey, S.K., Quinton, W.L., Goeller, N.T. 2007. Field and laboratory estimates of pore size properties and hydraulic characteristics for subarctic organic soils. Hydrol. Process. 21, 2560-2571. Moret, D., Arrúe, J.L. 2007. Characterizing soil water conducting macro- and mesoporosity

  13. EFFECT OF SOIL TILLAGE AND PLANT RESIDUE ON SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF AN OXISOL UNDER SIMULATED RAIN

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    Elói Panachuki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness of the soil is formed by mechanical tillage and is also influenced by the kind and amount of plant residue, among other factors. Its persistence over time mainly depends on the fundamental characteristics of rain and soil type. However, few studies have been developed to evaluate these factors in Latossolos (Oxisols. In this study, we evaluated the effect of soil tillage and of amounts of plant residue on surface roughness of an Oxisol under simulated rain. Treatments consisted of the combination of the tillage systems of no-tillage (NT, conventional tillage (CT, and minimum tillage (MT with rates of plant residue of 0, 1, and 2 Mg ha-1 of oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and 0, 3, and 6 Mg ha-1 of maize (Zea mays L.. Seven simulated rains were applied on each experimental plot, with intensity of 60±2 mm h-1 and duration of 1 h at weekly intervals. The values of the random roughness index ranged from 2.94 to 17.71 mm in oats, and from 5.91 to 20.37 mm in maize, showing that CT and MT are effective in increasing soil surface roughness. It was seen that soil tillage operations carried out with the chisel plow and the leveling disk harrow are more effective in increasing soil roughness than those carried out with the heavy disk harrow and leveling disk harrow. The roughness index of the soil surface decreases exponentially with the increase in the rainfall volume applied under conditions of no tillage without soil cover, conventional tillage, and minimum tillage. The oat and maize crop residue present on the soil surface is effective in maintaining the roughness of the soil surface under no-tillage.

  14. Effects of agricultural tillage practise on green house gas balance of an arable soil in a long term field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Jean Charles; Schilling, Rolf; Ruth, Bernhard; Fuss, Roland

    2010-05-01

    Soils are an important part of the global carbon cycle. A large proportion of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is released from soils, though carbon sequestration occurs. Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of soils are also believed to contribute significantly to the green house effect as well as the stratospheric ozone depletion. An important source of N2O emissions is denitrification of nitrate from nitrogen fertilized soils. Although it is desirable to minimize these emissions while maintaining high crop yields it is still poorly understood how green house gas emissions may be steered by agricultural management practise, i.e. tillage and fertilization systems . In an ongoing long term field experiment at the research farm Scheyern, Bavaria, a arable field with one homogenous soil formation was transformed into plots in a randomized design 14 years ago. Since then, they are managed using conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT) as well as low and high fertilization. A conventional crop rotation is maintained on the field. Starting 2007, CO2 and N2O emissions were monitored continuously for 2.5 years. Furthermore water content, temperature and redox potential were measured in-situ as they are major factors on microbial activity and denitrification. Soil was sampled from the Ap horizons of the plots about twice a month and extracts from these soil samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium, nitrate/nitrite, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). According to the results soil density and hydrology are clearly affected by tillage practise. DOC is more affected by tillage while concentration of nitrogen species is controlled mainly by fertilization. There are distinct differences in redox potential between CT and NT plots with CT plots having more anaerobic periods. CO2 and N2O emissions exhibit a clear seasonal pattern and are affected by both tillage system and fertilization

  15. Fungal Communities in Rhizosphere Soil under Conservation Tillage Shift in Response to Plant Growth

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    Ziting Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation tillage is an extensively used agricultural practice in northern China that alters soil texture and nutrient conditions, causing changes in the soil microbial community. However, how conservation tillage affects rhizosphere and bulk soil fungal communities during plant growth remains unclear. The present study investigated the effect of long-term (6 years conservation (chisel plow, zero and conventional (plow tillage during wheat growth on the rhizosphere fungal community, using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS gene and quantitative PCR. During tillering, fungal alpha diversity in both rhizosphere and bulk soil were significantly higher under zero tillage compared to other methods. Although tillage had no significant effect during the flowering stage, fungal alpha diversity at this stage was significantly different between rhizosphere and bulk soils, with bulk soil presenting the highest diversity. This was also reflected in the phylogenetic structure of the communities, as rhizosphere soil communities underwent a greater shift from tillering to flowering compared to bulk soil communities. In general, less variation in community structure was observed under zero tillage compared to plow and chisel plow treatments. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal orders Capnodiales, Pleosporales, and Xylariales contributed the highest to the dissimilarities observed. Structural equation models revealed that the soil fungal communities under the three tillage regimes were likely influenced by the changes in soil properties associated with plant growth. This study suggested that: (1 differences in nutrient resources between rhizosphere and bulk soils can select for different types of fungi thereby increasing community variation during plant growth; (2 tillage can alter fungal communities' variability, with zero tillage promoting more stable communities. This work suggests that long-term changes in

  16. The dependence of the content of Cs137 forms in sod-podzolic sabulous soil of different degree of humidification on the basic soil tillage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulko, N.N.; Ermolenko, A.V.; Lazarevich, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of the content of 137 Cs-forms in sod-podzolic sabulous soils of different degree of humidification on the basic soil tillage is presented. Structure (in %) of plant available 137Cs in automorphic and semi-hydromorphic soils is shown. The influence of soil tillage type on 137Cs content is analyzed per 2007-2008. Content (in %) of plant available 137Cs in automorphic and semi-hydromorphic soils during moldboard plowing, beardless plowing, surface disc plowing and minimum tillage is evaluated. In sod-podzolic sabulous soils with 137 Cs pollution density which equals to 13-15 Cu/km2 the content of the accessible for plants forms (water-soluble, exchangeable, mobile forms) makes in average 9-11%; of those inaccessible (not exchangeable, fixed) 89-91%. It is established, that the degree of the hydromorphic feature in sod-podzolic sabolous soil influence the content of accessible forms of 1376cs in its top layer. The chisel tillage and the minimum tillage make it possible to decrease the accessible 137Cs connections by 2-4%

  17. Soil nitrogen dynamics and leaching under conservation tillage in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation tillage (CsT) involves management that reduces soil erosion by maintaining crop residue cover on farm fields. Typically, both infiltration and soil organic matter increase over time with CsT practices. We compared the impact of a commonly used CsT practice, strip tillage (ST), to conven...

  18. Influence of Tillage and Mulch on Soil Physical Properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomized complete block design in a split plot arrangement was used with four tillage methods [conventional tillage, (CT); deep tillage, (DT); zero tillage with zone disc tiller, (ZDT); and happy seeder, (HS)] in main plots and five mulch materials [no mulch, (M0); rice straw, (MRice); wheat straw, (MWheat); plastic sheet, ...

  19. Yield and water use efficiencies of maize and cowpea as affected by tillage and cropping systems in semi-arid Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miriti, M.J; Kironchi, G; Gachene, K.K.C; Esilaba, O.A.; Mwangi, M.D; Heng, K.L

    2012-01-01

    Soil water conservation through tillage is widely accepted as one of the ways of improving crop yields in rainfed agriculture. Field experiments were conducted between 2007 and 2009 to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage on the yields and crop water use efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in eastern Kenya. Experimental treatments were a combination of three tillage practices and four cropping systems. Tillage practices were tied-ridges, subsoiling-ripping and ox-ploughing. The cropping systems were single crop maize, single crop cowpea, intercropped maize.cowpea and single crop maize with manure. The treatments were arranged in split plots with tillage practices as the main plots and cropping systems as the sub-plots in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results showed that tied-ridge tillage had the greatest plant available water content while subsoiling-ripping tillage had the least in all seasons. Averaged across seasons and cropping season, tillage did not have a significant effects on maize grain yield but it did have a significant effect on crop grain and dry matter water use efficiency (WUE). Nevertheless, maize grain yields and WUE values were generally greater under tied-ridge tillage than under subsoiling-ripping and ox-plough tillages. The yields and WUE of cowpea under subsoiling-ripping tillage were less than those of ox-plough tillage. When averaged across the seasons and tillage systems, the cropping system with the manure treatment increased (P.0.05) maize grain yield, grain WUE and dry matter WUE by 36%, 30%, 26% respectively, compared to treatments without manure. Maize and cowpea when intercropped under ox-plough and ripping tillage systems did not have any yield advantage over the single crop

  20. Effect of tillage and rainfall on transport of manure-applied Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Norma E; Wang, Ping; Lejeune, Jeff; Shipitalo, Martin J; Ward, Lucy A; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Dick, Warren A

    2009-01-01

    Most waterborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been attributed to agricultural sources due to the high prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal wastes and manure spreading on farmlands. No-till, an effective conservation practice, often results in soil having higher water infiltration and percolation rates than conventional tillage. We treated six undisturbed no-till and six tilled soil blocks (30 by 30 by 30 cm) with 1 L liquid dairy manure containing 10(5) C. parvum oocysts per milliliter to test the effect of tillage and rainfall on oocyst transport. The blocks were subjected to rainfall treatments consisting of 5 mm or 30 mm in 30 min. Leachate was collected from the base of the blocks in 35-mL increments using a 64-cell grid lysimeter. Even before any rain was applied, approximately 300 mL of water from the liquid manure (30% of that applied) was transported through the no-till soil, but none through the tilled blocks. After rain was applied, a greater number and percentage of first leachate samples from the no-till soil blocks compared to the tilled blocks tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. In contrast to leachate, greater numbers of oocysts were recovered from the tilled soil, itself, than from the no-till soil. Although tillage was the most important factor affecting oocyst transport, rainfall timing and intensity were also important. To minimize transport of Cryptosporidium in no-till fields, manure should be applied at least 48 h before heavy rainfall is anticipated or methods of disrupting the direct linkage of surface soil to drains, via macropores, need to be used.

  1. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

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    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  2. Effects of tillage and fertilization on persistence of crude oil contamination in an Alaskan soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, W.W.; Loynachan, T.E.; McKendrick, J.D.

    1979-10-01

    The persistence of Prudhoe Bay crude oil was evaluated with cereal plantings over a 4-year period on field plots at Palmer, Alaska, oiled at 10 and 20 liters/m/sup 2/ with tillage and fertilization as treatments. Following the field study soil was removed for greenhouse evaluations and analyses. Tilling aided water infiltration on the oiled plots in the field. Oiled plots without tillage or fertilization produced negligible growth during the first three growing seasons and very poor growth (< 10% coverage) in the fourth year. In the first year, only the 10-liter tilled plots provided tangible growth, about one-tenth that of the unoiled plots. The 20-liter plots required both treatments to produce growth in the second and third years, while either treatment sufficed for the 10-liter plots, with growth still much reduced from the controls. Oil decomposition was sufficiently advanced in the fourth year to permit over 75% coverage on the tilled 10-liter plots, about 50% coverage on the tilled and fertilized 20-liter plots, and about 25 to 40% coverage on the tilled, unfertilized 20-liter and on the fertilized, untilled 10-liter plots. Annual weeds were mostly unsuccessful in invading the oiled plots until the fourth year. Greenhouse studies with oiled, fertilized soil removed from the field in the fourth year showed that tillage benefited growth of barley and bromegrass in the surface layer but was detrimental to growth in the 10- to 15-cm layer. Field moisture levels were highly negatively correlated with residual oil contents, thus emphasizing the droughty effects of oil contamination. Decreasing levels of residual oil with increasing depth of tilled soil did not result in significantly greater plant growth. Beneficial degradation of oil may be retarded at depths in the soil, thus prolonging its phytotoxic effects. Tillage is best delayed to allow volatilization and some weathering to occur.

  3. Soy Culture in Minimum Tillage and the Influence on Soil Attributes, ARDS Turda, 2005-2014

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    Felicia Cheţan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The system of agriculture conservative comes must halt this process of degradation and soil protection with carpets plant debris and intervention minimal on the ground shall be avoided the process of compaction erosion by increasing fertility. Excessive processing of agricultural land with mechanical equipment and primarily the work of basic-till that mobilizes soil in depth damage to a greater extent pests and diseases in the soil but it also has negative effect by losses mineralization weaker plant debris, breaking continuity capillarity and if an angry crowd on side slopes should be done after the line of the greatest slope will promote erosion. By applying minimum tillage system soil at ARDS Turda, is intended primarily to combat soil erosion, keeping the water in the soil, increasing fertility, protection of the environment.

  4. The Effects of Different Tillage Methods on Available Soil Potassium Measured by Various Extractors in a Soil with High Specific Surface Area

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    M. Hosseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effects of any tillage method on soil properties, depends on location (soil, water and air and the number of (years their implementation. Soil compaction reduces yield through increased soil mechanical resistance against root growth and lower water and nutrient use efficiency (Gamda et al. 18 & Ishagh et al 23. Soil surface and sub surface compaction both reduce yield due to limited root growth and plant potassium uptake (Doulan et al. 14. Sabt et al. (50 reported that in the study area, which the lands are mostly illite clay (high specific surface area with sufficient nitrogen, soil potassium is the most important limiting factor for the growth of wheat.Considering the point that loess soils in Golestan Province have a high specific surface area,they can provide potassium for plants to produce crop, but for a higher production, potassium fertilizers should be used. Previous studies indicated that production of wheat is limited due to potassium deficiency (4, 49, 54 and 57. In these soils with a high specific surface area, the speed of movement of potassium from the soil solution is low, and doing solimits wheat yield.In loess soils containing high illite and high specific surface area (eg, soilsin the series of Rahmat Abad of Gorgan, ammonium acetate measured potassium on exchange and solution surfaces, which is highly correlated with grain yield (54 . There is a high correlation between grain yield with overload of potassium and Na TPB extraction (57. The aim of this study was to absorb potassium (limiting factor for plant growth with different tillage systemsat different depths. International recommendations towards reducing the depth and intensity of tillage (from minimum tillage to no-tillage in order to reduce erosion and oxidation of organic substances plays an important role in determining the amount of greenhouse gases. If potassium absorption does not reduceafter reducing tillage intensity,low or no-tillage methods

  5. Comparison of agricultural soils' structure depending on tillage system using X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Eléonore; Degré, Aurore; Ly, Sarann; Léonard, Angélique

    2010-05-01

    This study aims at characterizing agricultural soils' structure depending on the tillage system: conventional tillage or conservational tillage. Tillage reduction is an increasing practice, but the micro-structural effects on soils and on their hydrodynamic parameters are still not well described. Recent research shows non-converging results. Our point is to highlight fundamental differences in structure through characterization of soils porosity's parameters using X-ray microtomography measurements coupled to image analysis. This attempt is in line with a more integrated experiment of which the aim is to quantify the effects of tillage intensity on lateral flow production, and finally on global water balance. Parameters' measurements consist in a combined approach, based on two different space-time scales of exploration: fundamental scale, with soil sampling campaign for microtomography analysis, and field scale, with continuous flow measurements (plots' dimensions: 18*28 m). For their part, parameters for water balance determination (precipitation, evapotranspiration…) are monitored on the field. All of these measurements have the main objective of hydrological modeling enhancement by taking into account a better lateral flow description. Discussion in this paper will focus on the first results obtained by X-ray microtomography measurements. Our experiment takes place in Gentinnes (Walloon Brabant, Belgium), on a field organized in a split-plot scheme. Since 2004, plots have been cultivated in conventional tillage or in reduced tillage. The latter consists in sowing after stubble ploughing of about 10cm. The crop rotation is sugar beet followed by winter wheat. The soil is mainly composed of silt loam. Soils samples, with a 3 cm diameter and a 5 cm height, were removed from the upper layer (Ap horizon) for both management practices. Samples are scanned by X-ray microtomography using a Skyscan-1172 high-resolution desk-top micro-CT system (Skyscan, Kontich

  6. Suitability of technical materials for machinery subsoilers for soil tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bednář

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soil processing belongs to the basic elements in the process of crop production. Currently classic tillage method is decreasing and the only trend has stated as a shallow plowing. Suitable post harvest soil tillage greatly affects yields in the next cycle. The aim of the study is the analysis of abrasive wear of selected construction materials and their subsequent use for DXRV-HD cultivator. The performed tests are focused on monitoring the mechanical properties of the materials and their use for variable cutting tip of cultivator body. Tested materials are divided into four categories. These materials include tool steel (19436, carbon steel (12050, cast iron with globular graphite and welding material supplied as a functional complex on low carbon steel by the Abraweld company. These materials are tested together with the original part of share cultivator. The present experiment is focused on metallorgraphic, mechanical and abrasive analysis. Structural component of the material is identified by metallographic photos and then compared with the impact strength tested on Charpy hammer. Followed the abrasion resistance according to CSN 01 5084 and the total evaluation of the tested samples are done.

  7. Response of water use efficiency and carbon emission to no-tillage and winter wheat genotypes in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yujie; Gao, Chao; Han, Huifang; Li, Quanqi

    2018-04-20

    No-tillage management practices reduce net CO 2 losses from farmland and keep soil from degrading, but also decrease winter wheat grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) in the North China Plain (NCP). Suitable management practices, namely, the choice of genotypes, could enhance crop yield and WUE; however, how the WUE and CO 2 exchange responds to no-tillage practices and winter wheat genotypes remains unclear. In the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 winter wheat growing seasons in the NCP, a field experiment was carried out, and tested two tillage methods (no-tillage with mulching and conventional tillage) and two winter wheat genotypes ('Tainong 18' and 'Jimai 22'). The goal of the study was to identify the relationship between winter wheat grain yield, water consumption, and carbon emissions in no-tillage practices. The results showed that, compared to conventional tillage, no-tillage significantly reduced the net CO 2 -C cumulative emissions and water consumption; however, the grain yield was significantly reduced by 6.8% and 12.0% in the first and second growing seasons, respectively. Compared with Jimai 22, Tainong 18 had a compensatory effect on the yield reduction caused by no-tillage. As a result, the yield carbon utilization efficiency (R) and WUE were the highest in no-tillage with Tainong 18 (NT18), and the carbon emission per unit water consumption was the lowest in NT18. The results support the idea that a combination of no-tillage with genotype can improve the regulation of soil carbon emissions and water consumption of winter wheat, thus, providing theoretical support for sustainable crop production and soil development in the NCP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Translocation of Soil Particles during Secondary Soil Tillage along Contour Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Petr

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A high percentage of arable land and erosion risk on agricultural land are typical of current agriculture. While tillage erosion is a less frequently studied issue, it impacts vast areas of agricultural land. Not all relationships between cultivation equipment, the gradient of the plot and other factors have been known until now. Intensive soil tillage can be a crucial erosive factor mainly when the cultivation equipment moves in a fall line direction. Nevertheless, even when the equipment moves along contour lines, soil particles can be translocated perpendicular to the direction of the equipment movement (in a fall line direction. This phenomenon has not yet been adequately studied. For measurements, a field trial with secondary tillage of soil was laid out (a seedbed preparation implement was used. The objective of the trial was to evaluate the effect of the working tools of the cultivation equipment on the crosswise and lengthwise translocation of soil particles during soil tillage. Aluminium cubes, with a side length of 16 mm, were used as tracers. Before the operation, the tracers were inserted in a row perpendicular (at a right angle to a direction of the equipment passes. After the equipment passes, position of tracers was evaluated within a two-axis grid. The trial was performed at three gradients of the plot (2°, 6° and 11°. For each gradient, the 1-pass, 2-pass and 3-pass treatments were tested. The equipment always moved along the plot contour line. After the equipment passes in all treatments, all tracers were localized on an orthogonal grid. The results of the trial demonstrate the effect of the slope gradient on the crosswise translocation of particles during secondary tillage of soil in the slope direction. The tillage equipment translocated particles in the fall line direction even if it passed along the contour line. With the increasing intensity of passes, the effect of the equipment on crosswise translocation increases

  9. Geophysical characterization of soil moisture spatial patterns in a tillage experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Giráldez, J. V.; Muriel, J. L.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge on the spatial soil moisture pattern can improve the characterisation of the hydrological response of either field-plots or small watersheds. Near-surface geophysical methods, such as electromagnetic induction (EMI), provide a means to map such patterns using non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of the soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa. In this study ECa was measured using an EMI sensor and used to characterize spatially the hydrologic response of a cropped field to an intense shower. The study site is part of a long-term tillage experiment in Southern Spain in which Conventional Tillage (CT), Direct Drilling (DD) and Minimum Tillage (MT) are being evaluated since 1982. Soil ECa was measured before and after a rain event of 115 mm, near the soil surface and at deeper depth (ECas and ECad, respectively) using the EM38-DD EMI sensor. Simultaneously, elevation data were collected at each sampling point to generate a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Soil moisture during the first survey was close to permanent wilting point and near field capacity during the second survey. For the first survey, both ECas and ECad, were higher in the CT and MT than in the DD plots. After the rain event, rill erosion appeared only in CT and MT plots were soil was uncovered, matching the drainage lines obtained from the DEM. Apparent electrical conductivity increased all over the field plot with higher increments in the DD plots. These plots showed the highest ECas and ECad values, in contrast to the spatial pattern found during the first sampling. Difference maps obtained from the two ECas and ECad samplings showed a clear difference between DD plots and CT and MT plots due to their distinct hydrologic response. Water infiltration was higher in the soil of the DD plots than in the MT and CT plots, as reflected by their ECad increment. Higher ECa increments were observed in the depressions of the terrain, where water and sediments accumulated. On the contrary, the

  10. Effect of tillage systems and permanent groundcover intercropped with orange trees on soil enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage systems and groundcover crops intercropped with orange trees on soil enzyme activities. The experiment was performed in an Ultisol soil in northwestern Paraná State. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated [conventional tillage (CT across the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m strip width] in combination with various groundcover vegetation management systems. Soil samples were collected after five years of experimental management at a depth of 0-15 cm under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space in the following treatments: (1 CT-Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT-Arachis pintoi; (3 CT-Bahiagrass; (4 CT-Brachiaria humidicola; and (5 ST-B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and groundcover crops influenced the soil enzyme activities both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola provided higher amylase, arylsulfatase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase than other groundcover species. Strip tillage increased enzyme activities compared to the conventional tillage system.

  11. The effect of tillage intensity on soil structure and winter wheat root/shoot growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage intensity on crop growth dynamics and soil structure. A tillage experiment was established in autumn 2002 on two Danish sandy loams (Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in a cereal-based crop rotation. The tillage systems included in this study were direct drilling (D...... with decreasing tillage intensity for the first year winter wheat at Foulum. In general ploughing resulted in the highest grain yields. This study highlights the important interaction between soil structure and crop growth dynamics....... was followed during the growing seasons using spectral reflectance and mini-rhizotron measurements, respectively. A range of soil physical properties were measured. We found decreased early season shoot and root growth with decreasing tillage intensity. Differences diminished later in the growing season...

  12. Long-term rotation and tillage effects on soil structure and crop yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, R; Deen, B

    2013-01-01

    to the soil quality estimates. We found significant effect of both rotation and tillage on visual soil structure at both times of assessment. Poor soil structure was found for NT except when combined with a diverse crop rotation (R6). The soil core pore characteristics data also displayed a significant effect...... of tillage but only a weak insignificant effect of rotation. The drop shatter results were in accordance with the visual assessment data. Crop yield correlated significantly with the visual soil structure scores. We conclude that a diverse crop rotation was needed for an optimal performance of NT......Tillage and rotation are fundamental factors influencing soil quality and thus the sustainability of cropping systems. Many studies have focused on the effects of either tillage or rotation, but few have quantified the long term integrated effects of both. We studied the issue using a 30-year old...

  13. Effects of over-winter green cover on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath tillage land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premrov, Alina; Coxon, Catherine E; Hackett, Richard; Kirwan, Laura; Richards, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing need to reduce nitrogen losses from agricultural systems to increase food production while reducing negative environmental impacts. The efficacy of vegetation cover for reducing nitrate leaching in tillage systems during fallow periods has been widely investigated. Nitrate leaching reductions by natural regeneration (i.e. growth of weeds and crop volunteers) have been investigated to a lesser extent than reductions by planted cover crops. This study compares the efficacy of natural regeneration and a sown cover crop (mustard) relative to no vegetative cover under both a reduced tillage system and conventional plough-based system as potential mitigation measures for reducing over-winter soil solution nitrate concentrations. The study was conducted over three winter fallow seasons on well drained soil, highly susceptible to leaching, under temperate maritime climatic conditions. Mustard cover crop under both reduced tillage and conventional ploughing was observed to be an effective measure for significantly reducing nitrate concentrations. Natural regeneration under reduced tillage was found to significantly reduce the soil solution nitrate concentrations. This was not the case for the natural regeneration under conventional ploughing. The improved efficacy of natural regeneration under reduced tillage could be a consequence of potential stimulation of seedling germination by the autumn reduced tillage practices and improved over-winter plant growth. There was no significant effect of tillage practices on nitrate concentrations. This study shows that over winter covers of mustard and natural regeneration, under reduced tillage, are effective measures for reducing nitrate concentrations in free draining temperate soils. © 2013.

  14. Effect Of Depth Of Tillage On Soil Physical Conditions, Growth And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Penetrometer values were 54, 66, 74 and 78 % significantly higher on 10, 20, 30 and 40cm tillage depth plots than the untilled plots. The gravimetric moisture content was 20, 33, and 43 % significantly higher in the zero than the 20, 30, and 40 cm tillage depths respectively. Tilling the soil significantly increased crop growth ...

  15. Shallow non-inversion tillage in organic farming maintains crop yields and increases soil C stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, Julia; Baranski, Marcin; Stewart, Gavin; Nobel-de Lange, Majimcha; Bàrberi, Paolo; Fließbach, Andreas; Peigné, Josephine; Berner, Alfred; Brock, Christopher; Casagrande, Marion; Crowley, Oliver; David, Christophe; Vliegher, De Alex; Döring, Thomas F.; Dupont, Aurélien; Entz, Martin; Grosse, Meike; Haase, Thorsten; Halde, Caroline; Hammerl, Verena; Huiting, Hilfred; Leithold, Günter; Messmer, Monika; Schloter, Michael; Sukkel, Wijnand; Heijden, van der Marcel G.A.; Willekens, Koen; Wittwer, Raphaël; Mäder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Reduced tillage is increasingly promoted to improve sustainability and productivity of agricultural systems. Nonetheless, adoption of reduced tillage by organic farmers has been slow due to concerns about nutrient supply, soil structure, and weeds that may limit yields. Here, we compiled the

  16. Effects of strip and full-width tillage on soil carbon IV oxide-carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... determine the effects of strip tillage and full-width tillage treatments on soil carbon IV oxide-carbon (CO2-C) fluxes, bacterial and fungal populations in growing period of sunflower (Helianthus annus). A row-crop rotary hoe with C type blades was used to create three strip widths by changing the connection of blades of the ...

  17. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities below the Seedbed under Two Contrasting Tillage Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florine Degrune

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct consequences for the associated ecosystem services. Although there is increasing evidence that different tillage regimes alter the soil microbiome, we have a limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of these effects. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers to explore changes in soil microbial community structure under two contrasting tillage regimes (conventional and reduced tillage either with or without crop residue retention. Soil samples were collected over the growing season of two crops (Vicia faba and Triticum aestivum below the seedbed (15–20 cm. Tillage, crop and growing stage were significant determinants of microbial community structure, but the impact of tillage showed only moderate temporal dependency. Whereas the tillage effect on soil bacteria showed some temporal dependency and became less strong at later growing stages, the tillage effect on soil fungi was more consistent over time. Crop residue retention had only a minor influence on the community. Six years after the conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, soil moisture contents and nutrient levels were significantly lower under reduced than under conventional tillage. These changes in edaphic properties were related to specific shifts in microbial community structure. Notably, bacterial groups featuring copiotrophic lifestyles or potentially carrying the ability to degrade more recalcitrant compounds were favored under conventional

  18. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities below the Seedbed under Two Contrasting Tillage Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrune, Florine; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Colinet, Gilles; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hartmann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct consequences for the associated ecosystem services. Although there is increasing evidence that different tillage regimes alter the soil microbiome, we have a limited understanding of the temporal dynamics of these effects. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal ribosomal markers to explore changes in soil microbial community structure under two contrasting tillage regimes (conventional and reduced tillage) either with or without crop residue retention. Soil samples were collected over the growing season of two crops ( Vicia faba and Triticum aestivum ) below the seedbed (15-20 cm). Tillage, crop and growing stage were significant determinants of microbial community structure, but the impact of tillage showed only moderate temporal dependency. Whereas the tillage effect on soil bacteria showed some temporal dependency and became less strong at later growing stages, the tillage effect on soil fungi was more consistent over time. Crop residue retention had only a minor influence on the community. Six years after the conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, soil moisture contents and nutrient levels were significantly lower under reduced than under conventional tillage. These changes in edaphic properties were related to specific shifts in microbial community structure. Notably, bacterial groups featuring copiotrophic lifestyles or potentially carrying the ability to degrade more recalcitrant compounds were favored under conventional tillage, whereas

  19. The impact of different soil tillage on weed infestation of spring barley in conditions of dryer climatic areas Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Winkler

    2008-01-01

    The impact of soil tillage on weeds in spring barley was observed on the field trial. The field trial was established in very warm and dry climatic region (experimental field station in Žabčice, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Czech Republic). In the experiment there was used 7-strip crop rotation and three variants of soil tillage: conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), when soil is shallow loosened and no tillage (NT) what means direct sowing without any soil t...

  20. ANALYSING THE SOIL STRUCTURE UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE SYSTEMS USING X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY AND PF CURVES

    OpenAIRE

    Beekkerk van Ruth, Jöran; Degre, Aurore; Aubinet, Marc; Roisin, Christian; Léonard, Angélique; Beckers, Eléonore

    2011-01-01

    Assessing soil structure is primordial when comparing tillage systems. Whilst most conventional techniques characterize global parameters, X-ray microtomography allows a characterization of the poral space at a µm-scale. These results, combined with data from pF curves, can form a solid basis in order to quantify soil physical fertility. Soil samples were taken from the organic topsoil on two Belgian experimental sites implementing both conventional tillage (CT, ploughing) and simplified ...

  1. Qualidade de solo submetido a sistemas de cultivo com preparo convencional e plantio direto Soil quality under tillage and no-tillage cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusângela Antônia Costa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de um Latossolo Vermelho submetido a sistemas de cultivo com preparo convencional e plantio direto. Foram estudadas duas áreas experimentais, localizadas na Embrapa Cerrados, em Planaltina, DF, com oito e dez anos de cultivo. Foram coletadas amostras de solo, em diversas profundidades, nas parcelas experimentais e em área de cerrado nativo. Os seguintes atributos foram avaliados: densidade do solo, porosidade total, capacidade de água disponível, grau de floculação, resistência do solo à penetração, teor de matéria orgânica, capacidade de troca catiônica, fósforo remanescente, carbono da biomassa microbiana e respiração basal. Os dados obtidos foram comparados a valores referenciais quanto à qualidade do solo, mediante modelagem gráfica. Observou-se que a qualidade do solo, em ambos os sistemas de cultivo, é similar quanto aos atributos físicos; os teores de matéria orgânica e fósforo remanescente também são semelhantes, mas a capacidade de troca catiônica é mais alta no solo sob plantio direto. Em relação aos atributos biológicos, o solo sob plantio direto apresenta atividade biológica mais elevada. A qualidade do solo em ambos os sistemas é similar, em relação aos atributos avaliados.The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of an Oxisol under tillage and no-tillage systems. Two experimental areas were studied, both located in Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, DF, Brazil, with eight and ten years of cropping. Soil samples were collected from different depth layers in the experimental plots and native cerrado vegetation area. The following soil atributes were evaluated: bulk density, soil porosity, available water capacity, degree of flocculation, soil resistance to penetration, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, equilibrium phosphorus, microbial biomass carbon and basal respiration. The data obtained were compared with referential

  2. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  3. Influence of physical and chemical properties of different soil types on optimal soil moisture for tillage

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    Vladimir Zebec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil plasticity is the area of soil consistency, i.e. it represents a change in soil condition due to different soil moisture influenced by external forces activity. Consistency determines soil resistance in tillage, therefore, the aim of the research was to determine the optimum soil moisture condition for tillage and the influence of the chemical and physical properties of the arable land horizons on the soil plasticity on three different types of soil (fluvisol, luvisol and humic glaysol. Statistically significant differences were found between all examined soil types, such as the content of clay particles, the density of packaging and the actual and substitution acidity, the cation exchange capacity and the content of calcium. There were also statistically significant differences between the examined types of soil for the plasticity limit, liquid limit and the plasticity index. The average established value of plasticity limit as an important element for determining the optimal moment of soil tillage was 18.9% mass on fluvisol, 24.0% mass on luvisol and 28.6% mass on humic glaysol. Very significant positive direction correlation with plasticity limits was shown by organic matter, clay, fine silt, magnesium, sodium and calcium, while very significant negative direction correlation was shown by hydrolytic acidity, coarse sand, fine sand and coarse silt. Created regression models can estimate the optimal soil moisture condition for soil cultivation based on the basic soil properties. The model precision is significantly increased by introducing a greater number of agrochemical and agrophysical soil properties, and the additional precision of the model can be increased by soil type data.

  4. Soil structure, microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen stocks as influenced by conventional tillage and conservation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrougui, Khaoula; Khemis, Chiheb; Cornelis, Wim; Chehaibi, Sayed

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of tillage systems on soil environment, it is necessary to quantify the modifications to physical, chemical and biological properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term impact of different tillage systems in organic farming on soil resistance to penetration, bulk density, microbial biomass, organic matter, and carbon and nitrogen stocks. The tillage systems included conventional tillage (CT), 'agronomic' tillage (AT) and superficial (shallow) tillage (ST), with ST being a non-inversion practice. Tests were carried out on alluvial poorly developed soil (10% clay, 57% silt, 33% sand) in the Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Meriem (Tunisia). The soil resistance to penetration was measured with a penetrologger till 50 cm depth along with soil water content measurements. Bulk density (g cm-3) was measured by a cylinder densimeter on samples collected every 10 cm till 30 cm depth. Microbial biomass is a determining factor in soil biological quality because of its role in the regulation, transformation and storage of nutrients. To count the germs, we used the method of enumeration after incorporation into agar. The Walkley and Black method was used for the determination of soil organic matter, and Kjeldahl's for the analysis of total nitrogen content. Carbon and nitrogen stocks (t ha-1) were then calculated as a function of carbon and nitrogen contents, bulk density and the horizon depth. Shallow tillage without inversion ST showed the best values in terms of soil resistance and bulk density. Indeed, soil resistance was 3.1, 2.4 and 2 MPa under CT, AT and ST respectively at 40 cm depth. By adopting this conservation technique, we noted an increase in organic matter with 53% as compared to CT (from 1.9% to 2.9%) and thus a significant increase in C (from 12.5 to 14.5 g kg-1) and N (from 5 to 8 g kg-1) stocks, particularly in the topsoil. In fact, the increase of organic matter in the topsoil constituted a reserve of

  5. Carbon fractions and soil fertility affected by tillage and sugarcane residue management an Xanthic Udult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Maria Lopes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The gradual change in management practices in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. production from burning straw to a green harvesting system, as well as the use of minimum soil tillage during field renovation, may affect soil fertility and soil organic matter (SOM contents. The objectives of this work were to investigate the influence of sugar cane production systems on: (1 soil fertility parameters; (2 on physical carbon fractions; (3 and on humic substance fractions, in a long-term experiment, comparing two soil tillage and two residue management systems an Xanthic Udult, in the coastal tableland region of Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The treatments consisted of plots (conventional tillage (CT or minimum tillage (MT and subplots (residue burned or unburned at harvesting, with five replicates The highest values of Ca2+ + Mg2+ and total organic carbon (TOC were observed in the MT system in all soil layers, while high values of K+ were observed in the 0.1-0.2 m layer. The CT associated with the burned residue management negatively influenced the TOC values, especially in the 0.1-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m layers. The carbon in the humin fraction and organic matter associated with minerals were significantly different among the tillage systems; the MT showed higher values than the CT. However, there were no significant differences between the sugarcane residue management treatments. Overall, fractioning the SOM allowed for a better understanding of tillage and residue management systems effects on the soil properties.

  6. Tillage and farmyard manure efects on crusting and compacting soils at Katumani, Semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biamah, E.K.; Sterk, G.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2008-01-01

    In semi-arid Kenya, the most dominatn soil types are of limited agricultural productivity due to crusting and compaction. The occurence of soil crusting and compaction is attributed to seasonal rainfall characteristics, physical soil properties and bad tillage practices. Soil crusting and compaction

  7. Integrating soil physical and biological properties in contrasting tillage systems in organic and conventional farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though soil physical and soil biological properties are intrinsically linked in the soil environment they are often studied separately. This work adds value to analyses of soil biophysical quality of tillage systems under organic and conventional farming systems by correlating physical and

  8. How do soil physical conditions for crop growth vary over time under established contrasting tillage regimes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Paul; Stobart, Ron; Valentine, Tracy; George, Timothy; Morris, Nathan; Newton, Adrian; McKenzie, Blair

    2014-05-01

    When plant breeders develop modern cereal varieties for the sustainable intensification of agriculture, insufficient thought is given to the impact of tillage on soil physical conditions for crop production. In earlier work, we demonstrated that barley varieties that perform best in ploughed soil (the approach traditionally used for breeding trials) were not the same as those performing best under shallow non-inversion or zero-tillage. We also found that the Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) associated with improved phosphorus uptake, and hence useful for marker assisted breeding, were not robust between different tillage regimes. The impact of the soil environment had greater impact than the genetics in GxE interactions. It is obvious that soil tillage should be considered when breeding the next generation of crops. Tillage may also have important impacts on carbon storage, but we found that despite greater soil carbon at shallow depths under non-inversion tillage, the carbon stored throughout the soil profile was not affected by tillage. Studies on soil tillage impacts to crop productivity and soil quality are often performed in one season, on single sites that have had insufficient time to develop. Our current research explores multiple sites, on different soils, with temporal measurements of soil physical conditions under contrasting tillage regimes. We use the oldest established contemporary tillage experiments in the United Kingdom, with all sites sharing ploughed and shallow (7cm) non-inversion tillage treatments. In eastern Scotland (Mid Pilmore), the site also has zero tillage and deep ploughing (40 cm) treatments, and was established 11 years ago. In east England there are two sites, both also having a deep non-inversion tillage treatment, and they were established 6 (New Farm Systems) and 8 (STAR) years ago. We measure a range of crop and soil properties at sowing, one month after sowing and post-harvest, including rapid lab based assays that allow high

  9. The impact of different soil tillage on weed infestation of spring barley in conditions of dryer climatic areas Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of soil tillage on weeds in spring barley was observed on the field trial. The field trial was established in very warm and dry climatic region (experimental field station in Žabčice, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno, Czech Republic. In the experiment there was used 7-strip crop rotation and three variants of soil tillage: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT, when soil is shallow loosened and no tillage (NT what means direct sowing without any soil tillage. The weed infestation was evaluated by counting method before herbicide application. Analysis of va­rian­ce (ANOVA and then LSD methods, DCA (Detrended Correspondence Analysis and CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis were used for evaluation of results. The obtained results showed, that different soil tillage did not statistically influenced weed infestation in spring barley. The number of weed species depended on the depth of soil tillage, the variant of minimum tillage had lower number of weed species. These species were more common on the variant of conventional tillage: Chenopodium album, Silene noctiflora, Sinapis arvensis, Veronica polita. The variant of minimum tillage was more suitable for these species: Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis, Amaranthus sp., Galium aparine. On the variant of direct so­wing there appeared mainly these species: Sonchus oleraceus, Lactuca serriola, Tripleurospermum inodorum.

  10. The effect of soil extracts from a monoculture of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown under different tillage systems on the germination of its seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out in the period 2006-2008. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of aqueous soil extracts from the soil of a spring wheat monoculture on seed germination energy and capacity, the length of the first leaf and of the longest radicle as well as the number of radicles. Moreover, the content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the soil was compared in the last year of the study. The soil used to prepare the solutions came from a field experiment established on medium heavy mixed rendzina soil. Spring wheat, cv. Zebra, was grown using plough tillage and two conservation tillage methods in the presence of undersown crops (red clover, Westerwolds ryegrass and stubble crops (lacy phacelia, white mustard. Germination energy of the seeds watered with the soil extracts from the ploughed plots was significantly higher than this trait in the seeds watered with the extracts from the conservation tillage treatments with spring disking of the catch crops. Germination energy and capacity of spring wheat in the control treatment watered with distilled water were significantly higher compared to the other treatments under evaluation. Spring wheat watered with the aqueous extract prepared from the soil obtained from the plough tillage treatment produced a significantly longer first leaf compared to the treatments in which both conservation tillage methods had been used. The shortest leaf and the lowest number of radicles were produced by the seedlings watered with the soil extract from the treatment with the white clover stubble crop. Radicle length was not significantly differentiated by the soil extracts under consideration. The content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the rendzina soil determined during the spring period was higher than that determined in the autumn. The content of 0-dihydroxyphenols in the soil was lower in the conservation tillage treatments with autumn incorporation of the catch crops than in the plots in which

  11. Soil structure and greenhouse gas production differences between row and interrow positions under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Pires da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No-tillage in Brazil is an efficient agricultural system that improves crop productivity whilst controlling erosion caused to the soil by degradation. However, there is some concern regarding soil compaction. Our objective was to determine whether the function of soil structure in sustaining crop growth was dependent on row and interrow positions in long-term no-tillage. We took soil samples from a field in a commercial farm under long-term no-tillage since 1979 on a clayey Oxisol in Southern Brazil. We assessed soil physical quality using the revised Peerlkamp technique and measured bulk density, air-filled porosity and air permeability of intact soil cores. Samples were incubated to assess in vitro N2O and CO2 production. The soil physical and structural properties showed consistent differences between interrow and row positions, where the properties measured were more favorable. The revised Peerlkamp technique proved as efficient as quantitative parameters in discriminating treatment differences. Overall, soil physical conditions in the interrow were less favourable than in the row. Pore continuity did not vary as regards position. This may explain why row position did not influence in vitro N2O and CO2 production. Soil physical quality under no-tillage system is enhanced, at least in the short term, by superficial disturbances in the row as a result of the action of the coulters of the no-tillage seeder.

  12. Water-use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-fang; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2015-07-20

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259-7898 kg ha(-1) for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic.

  13. Water-use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Fang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259-7898 kg ha-1 for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic.

  14. Ajuste osmótico em milho cultivado em diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo e disponibilidade hídrica Osmotic adjustment in maize cultivated in different soil tillage systems and water availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleusa Adriane Menegassi Bianchi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do milho é sensível ao déficit hídrico, e esta é uma causa freqüente de redução na produção de grãos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a ocorrência de ajuste osmótico em milho, cultivado em dois sistemas de manejo do solo, com diferentes disponibilidades hídricas. Os tratamentos consistiram do cultivo do milho em semeadura direta (SD e convencional (SC, com irrigação de forma a manter a umidade do solo próxima à capacidade de campo, e sem irrigação. O ajuste osmótico foi obtido pela diferença do potencial osmótico hidratado entre as plantas irrigadas e sem irrigação. Os maiores valores de potencial mínimo de água na folha ocorreram em plantas cultivadas sob SD, em razão do maior potencial matricial da água no solo nesse sistema. O potencial de pressão e o osmótico hidratado diminuíram em conseqüência do déficit hídrico, o que determinou a ocorrência de ajuste osmótico em ambos os sistemas, que foi mais intenso em manejo convencional. Portanto, o potencial mínimo de água na folha demonstra ser um indicador adequado da condição hídrica das plantas de milho. A cultura apresenta tolerância ao déficit hídrico por meio do mecanismo de ajuste osmótico.Maize is a very sensible crop to water deficit, which is a frequent cause of reduction in its grain yield. The objective of this work was to verify the occurrence of osmotic adjustment in maize cultivated in different soil management systems and water availability. The maize was cropped in no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT, with irrigation and no-irrigation. For measurements of minimum leaf water potential, a pressure chamber was utilized. Osmotic adjustment was calculated as the difference between osmotic potentials at full turgor, in irrigated and non-irrigated plants. Highest values of minimum leaf water potential were found in plants cropped in NT, as a response to the highest soil potential on this cropping system. Pressure

  15. Bacterial and fungal communities respond differently to varying tillage depth in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Anderson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In arable cropping systems, reduced or conservation tillage practices are linked with improved soil quality, C retention and higher microbial biomass, but most long-term studies rarely focus on depths greater than 15 cm nor allow comparison of microbial community responses to agricultural practices. We investigated microbial community structure in a long-term field trial (12-years, Lincoln, New Zealand established in a silt-loam soil over four depth ranges down to 30 cm. Our objectives were to investigate the degree of homogenisation of soil biological and chemical properties with depth, and to determine the main drivers of microbial community response to tillage. We hypothesised that soil microbiological responses would depend on tillage depth, observed by a homogenisation of microbial community composition within the tilled zone. Tillage treatments were mouldboard plough and disc harrow, impacting soil to ∼20 and ∼10 cm depth, respectively. These treatments were compared to a no-tillage treatment and two control treatments, both permanent pasture and permanent fallow. Bacterial and fungal communities collected from the site were not impacted by the spatial location of sampling across the study area but were affected by physicochemical changes associated with tillage induced soil homogenisation and plant presence. Tillage treatment effects on both species richness and composition were more evident for bacterial communities than fungal communities, and were greater at depths <15 cm. Homogenisation of soil and changing land management appears to redistribute both microbiota and nutrients deeper in the soil profile while consequences for soil biogeochemical functioning remain poorly understood.

  16. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    highly degrade the environment, applied without practices of soil and water conservation. Such production systems are associated with a variety of environmental problems, such as soil erosion, the extensive pumping of groundwater, the partial obstruction of surface drainage to form artificial lakes, the contamination of groundwater, among others. The environmental impacts generated by all these problems assume a greater importance due to the complete absence of monitoring the continuous lowering of the water table and the changes in water quality. We consider that the main management strategies for developing sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in this area should be based on monitoring water use efficiency, increasing water availability in the root zone and also preventing runoff, leaching and evaporation of water from the soil. Therefore, techniques were applied as green manures with legumes without incorporation of the biomass, non-mechanized and curve-level soil preparation, planting in level, soil cover with crop residues, fertirrigation with solid fertilization of low value, the conduct of tomato especially supported by plastic string attached to a trellis, drip irrigation, and monitoring soil water potential (SWP) with Watermak sensors. At the end of the tomato cycle, water use efficiency and the productivity were compared at 8 micro-plots installed in the 3 studied production systems: conventional tillage (CT-H), minimum tillage (MT-H), both with "wetting irrigation with garden hose", and no-tillage with drip irrigation (NT-D). For each production system, soil physical properties were characterized and soil water potential (SWP) and soil temperature were continuously monitored at different depths (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm), as well as the total water volume used in each irrigation. In parallel, we also compared the development of the root system and the final productivity for each one of the three production systems. The results obtained in this

  17. Ofloxacin sorption in soils after long-term tillage: The contribution of organic and mineral compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dandan; Chen, Bingfa; Wu, Min, E-mail: kustless@gmail.com; Liang, Ni; Zhang, Di; Li, Hao; Pan, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Intensive human activities in agricultural areas resulted in significant alteration of soil properties, which consequently change their interactions with various contaminants. This process needs to be incorporated in contaminant behavior prediction and their risk assessment. However, the relevant study is missing. This work was designed to examine the change of soil properties and ofloxacin (OFL) sorption after tillage. Soil samples were collected in Yuanyang, Mengzi, and Dianchi areas with different agricultural activities. Although the mineral compositions of soils from Yuanyang and Dianchi differed greatly, these compositions are similar after tillage, especially for paddy soils. Soil pH decreased generally after OFL sorption, suggesting that ion exchange of OFL with protons in soil organic matter (SOM) was important for OFL sorption. However, a positive relationship between SOM and OFL sorption was not observed. On the contrary, increased SOM decreased OFL sorption when soils from the same geological location were compared. Generally speaking, tillage activities or dense vegetations greatly decreased OFL sorption. The higher OFL sorption in B horizon than A horizon suggested limited leaching of OFL through soil columns. The summed sorption calculated based on the sorption of individual soil components and their percentages in soils was higher than the intact soil. This phenomenon may be understood from the interactions between soil components, such as the coating of SOM on mineral particles. This study emphasizes that soil should be treat as a dynamic environmental matrix when assessing antibiotic behaviors and risks, especially in the area with intense human activities. - Highlights: • Mineral compositions tend to be similar after tillage. • Increased SOM decreases OFL sorption for soils from the same geological location. • Tillage activities or dense vegetations greatly decrease OFL sorption. • The summed sorption of individual soil components is

  18. Long-term no-tillage and organic input management enhanced the diversity and stability of soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Chunyue; Tu, Cong; Hoyt, Greg D; DeForest, Jared L; Hu, Shuijin

    2017-12-31

    Intensive tillage and high inputs of chemicals are frequently used in conventional agriculture management, which critically depresses soil properties and causes soil erosion and nonpoint source pollution. Conservation practices, such as no-tillage and organic farming, have potential to enhance soil health. However, the long-term impact of no-tillage and organic practices on soil microbial diversity and community structure has not been fully understood, particularly in humid, warm climate regions such as the southeast USA. We hypothesized that organic inputs will lead to greater microbial diversity and a more stable microbial community, and that the combination of no-tillage and organic inputs will maximize soil microbial diversity. We conducted a long-term experiment in the southern Appalachian mountains of North Carolina, USA to test these hypotheses. The results showed that soil microbial diversity and community structure diverged under different management regimes after long term continuous treatments. Organic input dominated the effect of management practices on soil microbial properties, although no-tillage practice also exerted significant impacts. Both no-tillage and organic inputs significantly promoted soil microbial diversity and community stability. The combination of no-tillage and organic management increased soil microbial diversity over the conventional tillage and led to a microbial community structure more similar to the one in an adjacent grassland. These results indicate that effective management through reducing tillage and increasing organic C inputs can enhance soil microbial diversity and community stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selected soil physical and hydraulic properties for different crop successions under no tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasal, M. C.; Castiglioni, M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Wilson, M. G.; Oszust, J.

    2009-04-01

    No tillage is now widely widespread in Argentina in response to several circumstances, including limited runoff and a drop in soil erosion. Crop residues left on the soil surface help both natural rainfall and irrigation water infiltrate and also limits evaporation, conserving water for plant growth. This notwithstanding, wide differences in runoff rates between crop succession have been observed under no tillage. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of the main crop successions of Entre Ríos province, Argentina on selected soil physic and hydraulic properties. Results obtained on no-till plots were compared with those recorded on a 10-years old grassland plot and on a conventionally tilled plot left bare, both of them taken as references. The study soil was classified as an Aquic Argiudoll. Treatments were: maize and soybean, both cropped as monoculture, succession wheat/soybean or wheat/maize, grassland and conventionally tilled soil left bare. Soil runoff was recorded on experimental plots 100 m2 in surface. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Khc) and sorptivity were measured in field conditions using a disc permeameter. Bulk density (Bd), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kh) total porosity (TP) and pore size distributions were determined on undisturbed cores sampled at the 0-4 and 4-8 cm depth with five replications. Maximum water losses were recorded in bare soils conventionally tilled. Under maize and soybean monocultures water losses were six time higher than under grassland. Water losses under successions wheat/soybean-maize were lower than under monoculture but not significantly different. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Khc) was highest under grassland and the remaining treatments don't showed significant differences. Differences in sorptivity between plots were not significantly different. A significant relationship was found between saturated hydraulic conductivity measured in field conditions (Khc) and determined in soil cores (Kh

  20. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    OpenAIRE

    S. M Hosseini; S Afzalinia; K Mollaei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006). Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006). In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by com...

  1. Effects of strip and full-width tillage on soil carbon IV oxide-carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    carbon IV oxide-carbon (CO2-C) fluxes, bacterial and fungal populations in growing period of sunflower. (Helianthus annus). A row-crop .... Tillage accelerates soil CO2 emission by improving soil aeration, disaggregating soil .... Schleibler calcimeter (Tee et al., 1993), total nitrogen (N) was determined by using the micro ...

  2. The influence of clay-to-carbon ratio on soil physical properties in a humid sandy loam soil with contrasting tillage and residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Getahun, Gizachew Tarekegn; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Schjønning, Per

    2016-01-01

    Tillage and residue management influence soil organic carbon (SOC) and lead to changes in soil physical behav-iour and functioning. We examined the effect of the clay-to-carbon ratio on soil physical properties in a humid sandy loam soil with contrasting tillage and residue management. Soil was sa...

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization under different tillage systems and Permanent Groundcover cultivation between Orange trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1 CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.

  4. Forms of phosphorus transfer in runoff under no-tillage in a soil treated with successive swine effluents applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenzi, Cledimar Rogério; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Tiecher, Tadeu Luis; Lorensini, Felipe; Cancian, Adriana; Stefanello, Lincon; Girotto, Eduardo; Vieira, Renan Costa Beber; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2015-04-01

    Successive swine effluent applications can substantially increase the transfer of phosphorus (P) forms in runoff. The aim of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in the soil and transfer of P forms in surface runoff from a Hapludalf soil under no-tillage subjected to successive swine effluent applications. This research was carried out in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil, from 2004 to 2007, on a Typic Hapludalf soil. Swine effluent rates of 0, 20, 40, and 80 m3 ha(-1) were broadcast over the soil surface prior to sowing of different species in a crop rotation. Soil samples were collected in stratified layers, and the levels of available P were determined. Samples of water runoff from the soil surface were collected throughout the period, and the available, soluble, particulate, and total P were measured. Successive swine effluent applications led to increases in P availability, especially in the soil surface, and P migration through the soil profile. Transfer of P forms was closely associated with runoff, which is directly related to rainfall volume. Swine effluent applications also reduced surface runoff. These results show that in areas with successive swine effluent applications, practices that promote higher water infiltration into the soil are required, e.g., crop rotation and no-tillage system.

  5. Effects of No-tillage Combined with Reused Plastic Film Mulching on Maize Yield and Irrigation Water Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SU Yong-zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of reused plastic film mulching and no-tillage on maize yield and irriga-tion water productivity(IWP in the marginal oasis in the middle of Hexi Corridor region of northwestern China. The aim is to provide an alternative tillage and cultivation pattern for reducing plastic film pollution, saving cost and increasing income, and improving resource use efficiency. The field experiment was carried out in three soils with different textures and fertility levels. Three treatments for each soil were set up:(1 conventional tillage,winter irrigation, and new plastic mulching cultivation(NM;(2 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching cultivation (RM;(3 no tillage, less winter irrigation and reused plastic mulching combined with straw mulching (RMS. The results showed that the average daily soil temperature in the two reused plastic mulching treatment(RM and RMS during maize sowing and elongation stage was lower 0.6~1.0℃(5 cm depth and 0.5~0.8℃(15 cm depth than that in the NM. This result suggested that no tillage and reused plastic mulching cultivation still had the effect of increasing soil temperature. Maize grain yield in the RM was reduced by 4.4%~10.6% compared with the conventional cultivation(NM, while the net income increased due to saving in plastic film and tillage ex-penses. There was no significant difference in maize grain yield between the RMS and NM treatment, but the net income in the RMS was in-creased by 12.5%~17.1% than that in the NM. Compared with the NM, the two reused plastic film mulching treatments (RM and RMS decreased the volume of winter irrigation, but maize IWP increased. Soil texture and fertility level affected significantly maize nitrogen uptake and IWP. In the arid oases with the shortage of water resources, cultivation practices of conservation tillage with recycle of plastic film is an ideal option for saving cost and increasing income

  6. 29 CFR 780.110 - Operations included in “cultivation and tillage of the soil.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Cultivation and Tillage of the Soil § 780.110... the ground for a proper seedbed or building terraces on farmland to check soil erosion are included... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in âcultivation and tillage of the soil...

  7. Influence of Conservation Tillage on some Soil Physical Properties and Crop Yield in Vetch-Wheat Rotation in Dryland Cold Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Eskandari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Winter wheat is an important, well-adapted grain crop under dryland condition of the northwest of Iran. Soil water is the most limiting resource for crop growth in dryland areas. Therefore, farmers need to use crop residues and minimum tillage to control the soil erosion and effectively store and to use the limited precipitation received for crop production. Crop rotation and tillage system could affect crop yield due to their effects on water conservation and soil chemical and physical properties. Galantini et al., (2000 studied the effect of crop rotation on wheat productivity in the Pampean semi-arid region of Argentina and found that a wheat–vetch (Vicia sativa L. rotation resulted in higher yield and protein content, and greater yield components than the other rotations.Payne et al. (2000 stated that where precipitation amount is marginal (400 mm, dry field pea offers a potential alternative to summer fallowing. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal tillage system for increasing crop productivity in a vetch–wheat rotation in dryland farming of the northwest of Iran. Materials and Methods The field experiment was carried out from 2010 to 2014 at the Dryland Agricultural Research Station (latitude37° 12´N; longitude 46◦20´E; 1730 m a.s.l., 25 km east of Maragheh, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. The long-term (10 years average precipitation, temperature and relative humidity of the station are 336.5 mm, 9.4 ◦C and 47.5%, respectively. The soil (Fine Mixed, Mesic, Vertic Calcixerepts, USDA system; Calcisols, FAO system at the study site had a clay loam texture in the 0–15 cm surface layer and a clay texture in the 15–80 cm depth. This study was conducted in vetch (Vicia pannonica- wheat (Triticum aestivum L. rotation. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The tillage treatments consisted of (1 conventional tillage: moldboard plowing followed by one

  8. PORE SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND SOIL HYDRO PHYSICAL PROPERTIES UNDER DIFFERENT TILLAGE PRACTICES AND COVER CROPS IN A TYPIC HAPLUSULT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Mohammed Lawal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tillage practices influence soil physical, chemical and biological qualities which in-turn alters plant growth and crop yield. In the Northern Guinea Savanna (NGS ecological zone of Nigeria, agricultural production is mainly constrained by low soil nutrient and water holding capacity, it is therefore, imperative to develop appropriate management practices that will give optimal soil hydro-physical properties for proper plant growth, effective soil and water management and environmental conservation. This study investigated the effect of three tillage practices (no till, reduced till and conventional till and four cover crops (Centrosema pascuorum, Macrotyloma uniflorum, Cucurbita maxima and Glyine max and a bare/control (no cover crop on some soil physical properties of a Typic Haplusult during the rainy seasons of 2011, 2012 and 2013 in Samaru, NGS ecological zone of Nigeria. The field trials were laid out in a split plot arrangement with tillage practices in the main plots and cover crops in the subplots, all treatments were replicated three times. Auger and core soil samples were collected at the end of each cropping season each year in three replicates from each treatment plot at four depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 cm. Particle size distribution, bulk density, total pore volume and water retention at various soil matric potentials were determined using standard methods. Data obtained were compared with optimum values and fitted into a RETC computer code for quantifying soil hydraulic behavior and physical quality. Results showed that different tillage practices had varied effect on soil physical properties. No-till had the highest water holding capacity at most suction points evaluated, it had 4.3 % and 12.9 % more soil moisture than the reduced till  and conventionally tilled systems across all matric potentials while Centrosema pascuorum (3.1% and Cucurbita maxima (5.5% were best among evaluated cover crops in retaining soil moisture

  9. Determination of crop residues and the physical and mechanical properties of soil in different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring and management of soil quality is crucial for sustaining soil function in ecosystem. Tillage is one of the management operations that drastically affect soil physical quality. Conservation tillage methods are one of the efficient solutions in agriculture to reduce the soil erosion, air pollution, energy consumption, and the costs, if there is a proper management on the crop residues. One of the serious problems in agriculture is soil erosion which is rapidly increased in the recent decades as the intensity of tillage increases. This phenomenon occurs more in sloping lands or in the fields which are lacking from crop residues and organic materials. The conservation tillage has an important role in minimizing soil erosion and developing the quality of soil. Hence, it has attracted the attention of more researchers and farmers in the recent years. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effect of different tillage methods has been investigated on the crop residues, mechanical resistance of soil, and the stability of aggregates. This research was performed on the agricultural fields of Urmia University, located in Nazloo zone in 2012. Wheat and barley were planted in these fields, consecutively. The soil texture of these fields was loamy clay and the factorial experiments were done in a completely randomized block design. In this study, effect of three tillage systems including tillage with moldboard (conventional tillage, tillage with disk plow (reduced tillage, chisel plow (minimum tillage and control treatment on some soil physical properties was investigated. Depth is second factor that was investigated in three levels including 0-60, 60-140, and 140-200 mm. Moreover, the effect of different percentages of crop residues on the rolling resistance of non-driving wheels was studied in a soil bin. The contents of crop residues have been measured by using the linear transects and image processing methods. In the linear

  10. Tillage and Water Deficit Stress Effects on Corn (Zea mays, L.) Root Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    One goal of soil management is to provide optimum conditions for root growth. Corn root distributions were measured in 2004 from a crop rotation – tillage experiment that was started in 2000. Corn was grown either following corn or following sunflower with either no till or deep chisel tillage. Wate...

  11. Variabilidade espacial da umidade de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo sob plantio direto Spatial variability of soil water content of a Red-Yellow Latosol under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de M. T. Sampaio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da dependência espacial de atributos do solo é importante para aprimorar as práticas de manejo e de amostragem. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar a variabilidade espacial da umidade de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo sob plantio direto, cultivado com milho, e sua relação com o carbono orgânico total do solo, macroporosidade e microporosidade. A pesquisa foi conduzida em uma área localizada no município de Lavras - MG. Na avaliação dos atributos do solo, foi delineada uma malha experimental com dimensões iguais a 90 x 90 m (0,81 ha de área, com espaçamento entre os pontos de amostragem de 15 x 15 m. Para obter maior detalhamento da dependência espacial dos dados, realizou-se a implantação de mais duas malhas (zoom dentro de um quadrante da grande malha, totalizando 73 pontos de leitura. A umidade do solo em base volume (cm³ cm-3 foi determinada in situ em duas datas, utilizando-se de um equipamento de TDR. Por meio da análise dos dados das duas datas pela Estatística Clássica, observaram-se coeficientes de variação médios para a umidade do solo. Obteve-se um semivariograma com efeito pepita puro quando o solo se apresentou mais úmido, indicando a ausência total de estruturação nestas condições. Já para o solo mais seco, ajustou-se o modelo exponencial ao semivariograma, o qual mostrou moderada dependência espacial e alcance de 75 m. Verificou-se que a associação entre a umidade do solo e o carbono orgânico aumentou na condição de solo mais seco.The study of spatial dependence of soil attributes is important to improve management practices and sampling. This research aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of the soil water content of a Red-Yellow Latosol under no-tillage cultivated with maize and its relation to the total organic carbon in soil, macroporosity and microporosity. The experiment was on experimental area located in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, which was

  12. Overall assessment of soil quality on humid sandy loams: Effects of location, rotation and tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Hansen, Elly Møller; Rickson, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation tillage and diversified crop rotations have been suggested as appropriate alternative soil management systems to sustain soil quality. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of implementing three crop rotations (R2–R4) on soil structural changes and the “productivity...... function” of soil. R2 is a winter-dominated crop rotation (winter wheat was the main crop) with straw residues incorporated. R3 is a mix of winter and spring crops with straw residues removed. R4 is the same mix of crops as in R3, but with straw residues incorporated. Three tillage systems were used...... the correlation between the soil quality indices and relative crop yield. Relevant soil properties for calculating the soil quality indices were measured or obtained from previous publications. Crop rotation affected the soil structure and RY. The winter-dominated crop rotation (R2) resulted in the poorest soil...

  13. The effect of different tillage and cover crops on soil quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdollahi, Lotfollah; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    (direct drilling (D), harrowing (H) to a depth of 8 cm and ploughing to a depth of 20 cm (P)) as main plot. The soil was cropped with cover crop (+CC) or left without cover crop (-CC) as split plot treatments in the main plots with different tillage treatments. We assessed topsoil structural quality......This paper examines the effect of different tillage treatments and cover crop on soil physical, chemical and biological properties of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial set up in 2007 at Foulum, Denmark. The experimental design is a split plot design with different tillage practices...... in field using a visual method, measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at -4 hPa in field and determined aggregate size distribution after a drop shatter test for soil taken from 10-20 cm depth. The drop shatter test data showed significantly lowest mean weight diameter (MWD) for P than for H and D...

  14. Effect of inoculum density and soil tillage on the development and severity of rhizoctonia root rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K L; Paulitz, T C

    2008-03-01

    Rhizoctonia spp. cause substantial yield losses in direct-seeded cereal crops compared with conventional tillage. To investigate the mechanisms behind this increased disease, soils from tilled or direct-seeded fields were inoculated with Rhizoctonia spp. at population densities from 0.8 to 250 propagules per gram and planted with barley (Hordeum vulgare). The incidence and severity of disease did not differ between soils with different tillage histories. Both R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae stunted plants at high inoculum densities, with the latter causing pre-emergence damping-off. High inoculum densities of both species stimulated early production of crown roots in barley seedlings. Intact soil cores from these same tilled and direct-seeded fields were used to evaluate the growth of Rhizoctonia spp. from colonized oat seeds. Growth of R. oryzae was not affected by previous tillage history. However, R. solani AG-8 grew more rapidly through soil from a long-term direct-seeded field compared to tilled soils. The differential response between these two experiments (mixed, homogenized soil versus intact soil) suggests that soil structure plays a major role in the proliferation of R. solani AG-8 through soils with different tillage histories.

  15. INFLUENCE OF REDUCED SOIL TILLAGE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AT WINTER WHEAT AND SOYBEAN GRAIN YIELDS AT BARANYA HIPOGLEY SOIL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Stošić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available During the three years (2006/2007-2008/2009 stationary research of reduced soil tillage had been conducted for winter wheat and soybean, at marsh gley (hipogley hydromeliorated soil type of Baranya. The research has been conducted with eight soil tillage treatments and three nitrogen fertilization treatments set up in split-plot design in four repetitions. Soil tillage treatments consisted of four continued soil tillage systems for both crops: OR-conventional soil tillage, TR-multiple diskharrowing, RT-chiseling and diskharrowing, NT-no-tillage and four discontinued soil tillage systems: OsTp-OR for soybean TR for w. wheat in the forthcoming season: OpTs-OR for w.wheat TR for soybean in the forthcoming season, NpOs-NT for w. wheat OR for soybean in forthcoming season: NsOp-NT for soybean OR for w. wheat in forthcoming season. Nitrogen fertilization treatment had three levels of applied nitrogen: for w.wheat G-1=120, G-2=150, G-3=180 kg N ha -1 and for soybean G-1=35, G-2=70, G-3=110 kg N ha-1. Weather conditions had significant aberrations during 2006/2007 and 2008/2009 (extremely drought seasons, whereas 2007/2008 season was moderately humid. The high and stabile average winter wheat grain yields had been achieved, with statistical difference among years of the research, whereas yield decreased by applied soil tillage systems in the order as follows: RT (7.78 > NsOp (7.75 > OR (7.74 > OpTs (7.62 > TR (7.63 > OsTp (7.58 > NpOs (6.95 > NT (6.92 t ha-1, with NpOs and NT treatments recorded significantly lower yields in comparison with OR treatment. According to three year averages, normal and relatively stabile soybean grain yield has been achieved, with significant difference among years, whereas soil tillage systems showed the following decrease order: NpOs (2.62 > OR (2.58 > OsTp (2.56 > NsOp (2.49 > TR (2.46 = RT (2.46 > NT (2.42 > OpTs (2.35 t ha-1. In comparison with OR treatment, only OpTs had significantly lower soybean grain yield. The

  16. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conservation tillage as an approach to reduce surface runoff and soil degradation and reduced tillage systems may offer a compromise solution. The objective of the study is to test different conservation tillage techniques and evaluate the impacts of the system on conserving water, labor requirement for pre and post ...

  17. Effects of land clearing techniques and tillage systems on runoff and soil erosion in a tropical rain forest in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehigiator, O A; Anyata, B U

    2011-11-01

    This work reports runoff and soil loss from each of 14 sub-watersheds in a secondary rain forest in south-western Nigeria. The impact of methods of land clearing and post-clearing management on runoff and soil erosion under the secondary forest is evaluated. These data were acquired eighteen years after the deforestation of primary vegetation during the ' West bank' project of the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA). These data are presented separately for each season; however, statistical analyses for replicates were not conducted due to differences in their past management. Soil erosion was affected by land clearing and tillage methods. The maximum soil erosion was observed on sub-watersheds that were mechanically cleared with tree-pusher/root-rake attachments and tilled conventionally. A high rate of erosion was observed even when graded-channel terraces were constructed to minimize soil erosion. In general there was much less soil erosion on manually cleared than on mechanically cleared sub-watersheds (2.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1) versus 13.8 t ha(-1) yr(-1)) and from the application of no-tillage methods than from conventionally plowed areas (6.5 t ha(-1) yr(-1) versus 12.1 t ha(-1) yr(-1)). The data indicate that tillage methods and appropriate management of soils and crops play an important role in soil and water conservation and in decreasing the rate of decline of soil quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tillage effects on soil organic matter in density fractions of a Cerrado Oxisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Buurman, P.

    2003-01-01

    Reclamation of Brazilian cerrados (savannas) has been intensified in the last decades, with implications for soil quality and soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics. Studying the impact of different tillage systems is essential to define better strategies for land use in Cerrado, which may favor C

  19. Soil biota in vineyards are more influenced by plants and soil quality than by tillage intensity or the surrounding landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Jacob; Querner, Pascal; Paredes, Daniel; Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Guernion, Muriel; Scimia, Jennifer; Cluzeau, Daniel; Burel, Françoise; Kratschmer, Sophie; Winter, Silvia; Potthoff, Martin; Zaller, Johann G

    2017-12-12

    Tillage is known for its adverse effects on soil biota, at least in arable agroecosystems. However, in vineyards effects might differ as tillage is often performed during dry periods or only in every other inter-row allowing species to re-colonise disturbed areas. We examined the response of earthworms (lumbricids), springtails (collembola) and litter decomposition to periodically mechanically disturbed (PMD) and permanently green covered (PGC) vineyard inter-rows and assessed whether site effects are altered by the surrounding landscape. In commercial vineyards in Austria we sampled earthworms by handsorting, springtails by soil coring and pitfall trapping and installed litter decomposition bags. Earthworm species diversity increased with plant biomass under PMD but not under PGC; earthworm density was unaffected by tillage but increased with plant biomass mainly at high soil quality (soil fertility index). Springtail species diversity was unaffected by tillage; springtail densities (mainly larger species) were reduced under PGC. Litter decomposition was little affected by investigated parameters. Landscape heterogeneity affected the functional diversity of surface springtails, but did not influence soil-dwelling springtails, earthworms or litter decomposition. We conclude that effects on soil biota of periodical tillage in vineyards need not necessarily be detrimental and will be modified by plant biomass and soil quality.

  20. Soil microbial community composition changes according to the tillage practice and plant development stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrune, Florine; Dufrêne, Marc; Colinet, Gilles; Taminiau, Bernard; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Daube, Georges; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2015-04-01

    Soil microorganisms are abundant and diverse and can have both beneficial and adverse effects on crop growth. Some, such as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae, are well known to favor crop productivity and plant health. They are notably involved in key processes such as improving plant nutrient acquisition, and they also play major roles in stimulating plant growth and protecting plants against pathogens by producing bioactive substances. Conversely, both agricultural practices and the plant development stage are known to influence the physical and chemical properties of the soil and hence the abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. Here we investigated the impact of both tillage practice (conventional versus reduced tillage) and plant development stage (germination versus flowering) on the microbial community composition of an agricultural soil supporting a faba bean crop. Samples were taken at a depth of 15-20 cm from a silty soil in Belgium. For bacteria, we observed significant shifts in community composition according to both factors. Some changes were strongly related to the plant development stage and others to the tillage practice. Some taxa, including Gemmatimonas, Xanthomonadaceae, and Sinobacteraceae, showed a higher relative abundance at the flowering stage than at the germination stage, but no effect of tillage practice. Other taxa, including Flovobacterium, Chitinophaga, and Luteolibacter, showed a higher relative abundance under conventional tillage than under reduced tillage, but no change according to the stage of plant development. For fungi, significant shifts in community composition were observed according to the plant development stage. No effect of tillage practice was observed. The relative abundances of certain taxa, including Chaetomium and Clavicipitaceae, were higher during germination than during flowering, whereas other taxa, including Minimedusa and Teberdinia, showed a higher relative abundance during

  1. Effects of Different Soil Tillage Intensity on Yields of Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pernicová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the period 1990–2012, effects of different soil tillage intensity on yields of spring barley were studied in a field experiment in the sugar-beet producing region (Ivanovice na Hané, Czech Republic. The forecrop of the spring barley was always sugar beet; following in three different crop rotations, after maize for silage, winter wheat and spring barley. Four variants of tillage were evaluated: Variant 1 – ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m; Variant 2 – shallow ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m; Variant 3 – no tillage; Variant 4 – shallow loosening soil to the depth of 0.10 m.Effect of different tillage on yields of spring barley was statistically insignificant. In all three crop rotations, the highest and the lowest average yields were obtained in Variant 2 (ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 1 (ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Average yields in variants of soil tillage were these: variant 1 – 6.42 t.ha−1; variant 2 – 6.57 t.ha−1, variant 3 – 6.53 t.ha−1, variant 4 – 6.50 t.ha−1. The obtained results indicate that in these pedo-climatic conditions reduction of intensity soil tillage represented a very suitable alternative in case of growing spring barley after sugar beet as compared with the conventional method of tillage by ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m.

  2. Temporal Dynamics of Soil Microbial Communities below the Seedbed under Two Contrasting Tillage Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Florine Degrune; Florine Degrune; Nicolas Theodorakopoulos; Gilles Colinet; Marie-Pierre Hiel; Marie-Pierre Hiel; Bernard Bodson; Bernard Taminiau; Georges Daube; Micheline Vandenbol; Martin Hartmann

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural productivity relies on a wide range of ecosystem services provided by the soil biota. Plowing is a fundamental component of conventional farming, but long-term detrimental effects such as soil erosion and loss of soil organic matter have been recognized. Moving towards more sustainable management practices such as reduced tillage or crop residue retention can reduce these detrimental effects, but will also influence structure and function of the soil microbiota with direct conseq...

  3. A simplified modelling approach for quantifying tillage effects on soil carbon stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatskikh, Dmitri; Hansen, Søren; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2009-01-01

    all decomposition and maintenance parameters in the model. An initial value of TF = 0.57 (parameter uncertainty, PU = 0.15) for NT (with TF set to 1.0 for CT) was used on the basis of a previous study with observations of soil CO2 respiration. The simulated and observed changes in SOC were......Soil tillage has been shown to affect long-term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) content in a number of field experiments. This paper presents a simplified approach for including effects of tillage in models of soil C turnover in the tilled-soil layer. We used an existing soil organic matter...... (SOM) model (CN-SIM) with standard SOC data for a homogeneous tilled layer from four long-term field experiments with conventionally tilled (CT) and no-till (NT) treatments. The SOM model was tested on data from long-term (>10 years) field trials differing in climatic conditions, soil properties...

  4. Urease activity and its relation to soil organic matter, microbial biomass nitrogen and urea-nitrogen assimilation by maize in a Brazilian oxisol under no-tillage and tillage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Vasconcellos, C.A.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Guedes, G.A.A.; Fernandes, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the relationship between urease activity (UA) and soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass N (Nbiom) content, and urea-N fertilizer assimilation by maize in a Dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplustox) cultivated for 9 years under no-tillage (NT), tillage with a disc plough (DP), and tillage

  5. Long-term impact of reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for conservation agriculture on contrasting soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivenge, P.P.; Murwira, H.K.; Giller, K.E.; Mapfumo, P.; Six, J.

    2007-01-01

    Residue retention and reduced tillage are both conservation agricultural management options that may enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization in tropical soils. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of long-term tillage and residue management on SOC dynamics in a Chromic Luvisol (red clay soil)

  6. Tillage System Affects Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Quality in Central Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moussadek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilizing or improving soil organic carbon content is essential for sustainable crop production under changing climate conditions. Therefore, soil organic carbon research is gaining momentum in the Mediterranean basin. Our objective is to quantify effects of no tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT on soil organic carbon stock (SOCs in three soil types (Vertisol, Cambisol, and Luvisol within Central Morocco. Chemical analyses were used to determine how tillage affected various humic substances. Our results showed that, after 5 years, surface horizon (0–30 cm SOC stocks varied between tillage systems and with soil type. The SOCs was significantly higher in NT compared to CT (10% more in Vertisol and 8% more in Cambisol, but no significant difference was observed in the Luvisol. Average SOCs within the 0–30 cm depth was 29.35 and 27.36 Mg ha−1 under NT and CT, respectively. The highest SOCs (31.89 Mg ha−1 was found in Vertisols under NT. A comparison of humic substances showed that humic acids and humin were significantly higher under NT compared to CT, but fulvic acid concentrations were significantly lower. These studies confirm that NT does have beneficial effects on SOCs and quality in these soils.

  7. Soil CO 2 fluxes from direct seeding rice fields under two tillage practices in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-fang; Kou, Zhi-kui; Yang, Jin-hua; Cai, Ming-li; Wang, Jin-ping; Cao, Cou-gui

    2010-07-01

    Agricultural practices affect the production and emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from paddy soils. It is crucial to understand the effects of tillage and N fertilization on soil CO 2 flux and its influencing factors for a better comprehension of carbon dynamics in subtropical paddy ecosystems. A 2-yr field study was conducted to assess the effects of tillage (conventional tillage [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) and N fertilization (0 and 210 kg N ha -1) on soil CO 2 fluxes during the 2008 and 2009 rice growing seasons in central China. Treatments were established following a split-plot design of a randomized complete block with tillage practices as the main plot and N fertilizer level as the split-plot treatment. The soil CO 2 fluxes were measured 24 times in 2008 and 17 times in 2009. N fertilization did not affect soil CO 2 emissions while tillage affected soil CO 2 emissions, where NT had similar soil CO 2 emissions to CT in 2008, but in 2009, NT significantly increased soil CO 2 emissions. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were 2079-2245 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 2084-2141 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2008, and were 1257-1401 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from NT treatments, and 1003-1034 kg CO 2-C ha -1 from CT treatments in 2009, respectively. Cumulative CO 2 emissions were significantly related to aboveground biomass and soil organic C. Before drainage of paddy fields, soil CO 2 fluxes were significantly related to soil temperature with correlation coefficients ( R) of 0.67-0.87 in 2008 and 0.69-0.85 in 2009; moreover, the Q 10 values ranged from 1.28 to 1.55 and from 2.10 to 5.21 in 2009, respectively. Our results suggested that NT rice production system appeared to be ineffective in decreasing carbon emission, which suggested that CO 2 emissions from integrated rice-based system should be taken into account to assess effects of tillage.

  8. Effect of tillage and crop residue on soil temperature following planting for a Black soil in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; McLaughlin, Neil; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Minggang; Liang, Aizhen

    2018-03-14

    Crop residue return is imperative to maintain soil health and productivity but some farmers resist adopting conservation tillage systems with residue return fearing reduced soil temperature following planting and crop yield. Soil temperatures were measured at 10 cm depth for one month following planting from 2004 to 2007 in a field experiment in Northeast China. Tillage treatments included mouldboard plough (MP), no till (NT), and ridge till (RT) with maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crops. Tillage had significant effects on soil temperature in 10 of 15 weekly periods. Weekly average NT soil temperature was 0-1.5 °C lower than MP, but the difference was significant (P temperature. Higher residue coverage caused lower soil temperature; the effect was greater for maize than soybean residue. Residue type had significant effect on soil temperature in 9 of 15 weekly periods with 0-1.9 °C lower soil temperature under maize than soybean residue. Both tillage and residue had small but inconsistent effect on soil temperature following planting in Northeast China representative of a cool to temperate zone.

  9. Soil physical and X-ray computed tomographic measurements to investigate small-scale structural differences under strip tillage compared to mulch till and no-till

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlitz, Julia; Rücknagel, Jan; Schlüter, Steffen; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2017-04-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing application of conservation tillage techniques where the soil is no longer turned, but only loosened or left completely untilled. Dead plant material remains on the soil surface, which provides environmental and economic benefits such as the conservation of water, preventing soil erosion and saving time during seedbed preparation. There is a variety of conservation tillage systems, e.g. mulch till, no-till and strip tillage, which is a special feature. In strip tillage, the seed bed is divided into a seed zone (strip-till within the seed row: STWS) and a soil management zone (strip-till between the seed row: STBS). However, each tillage application affects physical soil properties and processes. Here, the combined application of classical soil mechanical and computed tomographic methods is used on a Chernozem (texture 0-30 cm: silt loam) to show small-scale structural differences under strip tillage (STWS, STBS) compared to no-till (NT) and mulch till (MT). In addition to the classical soil physical parameters dry bulk density and saturated conductivity (years: 2012, 2014, 2015) at soil depths 2-8 and 12-18 cm, stress-strain tests were carried out to map mechanical behavior. The stress-strain tests were performed for a load range from 5-550 kPa at 12-18 cm depth (year 2015). Mechanical precompression stress was determined on the stress-dry bulk density curves. Further, CT image cross sections and computed tomographic examinations (average pore size, porosity, connectivity, and anisotropy) were used from the same soil samples. For STBS and NT, a significant increase in dry bulk density was observed over the course of time compared to STWS and MT, which was more pronounced at 2-8 cm than at 12-18 cm depth. Despite higher dry bulk density, STBS displayed higher saturated conductivity in contrast to STWS, which can be attributed to higher earthworm abundance. In strip tillage, structural differences were identified

  10. Soil erosion measurements under organic and conventional land use treatments and different tillage systems using micro-scale runoff plots and a portable rainfall simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Steffen; Goebes, Philipp; Song, Zhengshan; Wittwer, Raphaël; van der Heijden, Marcel; Scholten, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major environmental problem of our time and negatively affects soil organic matter (SOM), aggregate stability or nutrient availability for instance. It is well known that agricultural practices have a severe influence on soil erosion by water. Several long-term field trials show that the use of low input strategies (e.g. organic farming) instead of conventional high-input farming systems leads to considerable changes of soil characteristics. Organic farming relies on crop rotation, absence of agrochemicals, green manure and weed control without herbicides. As a consequence, SOM content in the top soil layer is usually higher than on arable land under conventional use. Furthermore, the soil surface is better protected against particle detachment and overland flow due to a continuous vegetation cover and a well-developed root system increases soil stability. Likewise, tillage itself can cause soil erosion on arable land. In this respect, conservation and reduced tillage systems like No-Till or Ridge-Till provide a protecting cover from the previous year's residue and reduce soil disturbance. Many studies have been carried out on the effect of farming practices on soil erosion, but with contrasting results. To our knowledge, most of those studies rely on soil erosion models to calculate soil erosion rates and replicated experimental field measurement designs are rarely used. In this study, we performed direct field assessment on a farming system trial in Rümlang, Switzerland (FAST: Farming System and Tillage experiment Agroscope) to investigate the effect of organic farming practises and tillage systems on soil erosion. A portable single nozzle rainfall simulator and a light weight tent have been used with micro-scale runoff plots (0.4 m x 0.4 m). Four treatments (Conventional/Tillage, Conventional/No-Tillage, Organic/Tillage, Organic/Reduced-tillage) have been sampled with 8 replications each for a total of 32 runoff plots. All plots have been

  11. Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation tillage systems have been adopted by farmers in many countries to solve the problem of land degradation and declining water productivity. However, direct application of such tillage systems was not possible among resource poor smallholder farmers in semi arid areas of Ethiopia. Problems

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF MINIMUM TILLAGE SYSTEMS UPON THE SOIL PROPERTIES, YIELD AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN SOME ARABLE CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor RUSU

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of the conventional ploughing tillage technology in comparison with the minimum tillage, upon the soil properties, weed control, yield and energy efficiency in the case of maize (Zea mays L., soyabean (Glycine hispida L. and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in a three years crop rotation. For all cultures within the crop rotation, the weed encroachment is maximum for the disc harrow and rotary harrow soil tillage, followed by the chisel and paraplow. The weed encroachment is minimum for the conventional ploughing tillage technology. The results of investigations showed that the yield is a conclusion soil tillage systems influence on soil properties, plant density assurance and on weed control.

  13. Effect of conservation tillage and peat application on weed infestation on a clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. VANHALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amendment of soil with peat is an attempt to avoid crop yield variation in the transition to conservation tillage, as it improves seedbed conditions and crop growth in drought-sensitive clay soils. Weed infestations were compared in 1999-2000 between the original and peat-amended clay (Typic Cryaquept, very fine, illitic or mixed under different autumn tillage systems in an oats-barley rotation. In a field experiment, sphagnum peat (H = 4 had been spread (0.02 m 3 m -2 on the soil surface in August 1995. Tillage treatments included mouldboard ploughing (to 20 cm and stubble cultivations of different working depths (8 or 15 cm and intensity (once or twice. Weed biomass and density were assessed by an area of 1 m 2 per field plot in August 1999-2000 and June 2000. The 1999 season was dry, but soil moisture conditions were more favourable in 2000. Peat application tended to increase the number of volunteer oats and Chenopodium album in 1999, while decreasing Galium spurium biomass. Ploughing significantly increased the abundance of Chenopodium album and Lamium purpureum in barley (Hordeum vulgare in 1999. Weed infestation was much lower in 2000, and tillage effect on Chenopodium album was minor in oats (Avena sativa. Growth of Lamium purpureum and Fumaria officinalis was stimulated in ploughed soils both years. Intensity and working depth of stubble cultivation had no significant effect on weeds.;

  14. Tillage systems and cover crops on soil physical properties after soybean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael B. Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil management alters soil physical attributes and may affect crop yield. In order to evaluate soil physical attributes in layers from 0 to 0.40 m and soybean grain yield, in the 2012/2013 agricultural year, an essay was installed in the experimental area of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS/CPCS. Soil tillage systems were: conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no tillage (DS, the cover crops used were millet, sunn hemp and fallow. The experimental design was randomized blocks with split plots. For the layer of 0.20-0.30 m, millet provided the best results for soil bulk density, macro and microporosity. The resistance to penetration (RP was influenced in the layer of 0-0.10 m, and millet provided lower RP. The DS provided the lowest RP values for the layer of 0.10-0.20 m. The treatments did not influence yield or thousand-seed weight.

  15. Effect of Tillage Practices on Soil Properties and Crop Productivity in Wheat-Mungbean-Rice Cropping System under Subtropical Climatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Monirul; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to know cropping cycles required to improve OM status in soil and to investigate the effects of medium-term tillage practices on soil properties and crop yields in Grey Terrace soil of Bangladesh under wheat-mungbean-T. aman cropping system. Four different tillage practices, namely, zero tillage (ZT), minimum tillage (MT), conventional tillage (CT), and deep tillage (DT), were studied in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with four replications. Tillage practices showed positive effects on soil properties and crop yields. After four cropping cycles, the highest OM accumulation, the maximum root mass density (0–15 cm soil depth), and the improved physical and chemical properties were recorded in the conservational tillage practices. Bulk and particle densities were decreased due to tillage practices, having the highest reduction of these properties and the highest increase of porosity and field capacity in zero tillage. The highest total N, P, K, and S in their available forms were recorded in zero tillage. All tillage practices showed similar yield after four years of cropping cycles. Therefore, we conclude that zero tillage with 20% residue retention was found to be suitable for soil health and achieving optimum yield under the cropping system in Grey Terrace soil (Aeric Albaquept). PMID:25197702

  16. Long-Term Effects of Rotational Tillage On Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure, Soil Quality and Crop Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Heck, Richard; Deen, Bill

    structural quality was visually evaluated early June and mid October. Minimal disturbed soil cores early June and these were used for X-ray CT scanning and more traditional analysis. Soil friability was determined on the soil samples using a drop shatter test. Crop yield was determined and correlated...... to the soil quality estimates. We found significant effect of both rotation and tillage on visual soil structure at both times of assessment. Poor soil structure was found for NT except when combined with a versatile crop rotation (R6). The soil core pore characteristics data also displayed a significant...... effect of tillage but only a weak insignificant effect of rotation. The drop shatter results were in accordance with the visual assessment data. Crop yield correlated significantly with the visual soil structure scores. We conclude that a versatile crop rotation was needed for an optimal performance...

  17. Effects of crop rotation and soil tillage on weeds in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Franz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An organic long-term field experiment with two factors has been carried out since 1998 at the experimental station Gladbacherhof, University of Giessen. Effects of 3 different farm types (with lifestock raising, stockless farming with rotational set-aside, stockless farming only cash crops combined with 4 tillage treatments (mouldboard plough, two-layer-plough, reduced tillage depth and tillage without plough on plants, soil and environment have been investigated. This article presents results on the coverage rate of arable wild plants (weed coverage, the range of weed species, the abundance of C. arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle and the weed phytomass during harvest time of the main crops dependent on farm type and soil tillage. It can be concluded that, compared to conventional economic weed thresholds, the weed coverage was generally relatively low and only limited ranges of species were found. Wild arable plants probably did not have any impact on yields of the cultivated plants due to intensive mechanical regulatory measures. In stockless organic farming without alfalfa-grass in the crop rotation Cirsium arvense (L. Scop. (Canada thistle might become a problem whereas this perennial root-weed does not seem to raise a long term problem in a soil tillage system without ploughing. In all treatments the abundance of weeds like Galium aparine L. (catchweed bedstraw and Stellaria media L. (chickweed was high. However, none of the farm types or soil tillage systems succeeded in providing evidence of promoting rare species or encouraging biodiversity. In order to achieve this special support measures should be implemented.

  18. [Effects of Tillage on Distribution of Heavy Metals and Organic Matter Within Purple Paddy Soil Aggregates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiong-bin; Zhao, Xiu-lan; Chang, Tong-ju; Lu, Ji-wen

    2016-05-15

    A long-term experiment was utilized to study the effects of tillage methods on the contents and distribution characteristics of organic matter and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe and Mn) in aggregates with different sizes (including 1-2, 0.25-1, 0.05-0.25 mm and soil under two tillage methods including flooded paddy field (FPF) and paddy-upland rotation (PR). The relationship between heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates was also analyzed. The results showed that the aggregates of two tillage methods were dominated by 0.05-0.25 mm and organic matter in each aggregate decreased with the decrease of aggregate sizes, however, compared to PR, FPF could significantly increase the contents of organic matter in soils and aggregates. The tillage methods did not significantly affect the contents of heavy metals in soils, but FPF could enhance the accumulation and distribution of aggregate, organic matter and heavy metals in aggregates with diameters of 1-2 mm and 0.25-1 mm. Correlation analysis found that there was a negative correlation between the contents of heavy metals and organic matter in soil aggregates, but a positive correlation between the amounts of heavy metal and organic matter accumulated in soil aggregates. From the slope of the correlation analysis equations, we could found that the sensitivities of heavy metals to the changes of soil organic matters followed the order of Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Fe > Cd under the same tillage. When it came to the same heavy metal, it was more sensitive in PR than in FPF.

  19. Crop response to deep tillage - a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Florian; Don, Axel; Hennings, Inga; Schmittmann, Oliver; Seidel, Sabine J.

    2017-04-01

    Subsoil, i.e. the soil layer below the topsoil, stores tremendous stocks of nutrients and can keep water even under drought conditions. Deep tillage may be a method to enhance the plant-availability of subsoil resources. However, in field trials, deep tillage effects on crop yields were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of crop yield response to subsoiling, deep ploughing and deep mixing of soil profiles. Our search resulted in 1530 yield comparisons following deep and conventional control tillage on 67 experimental cropping sites. The vast majority of the data derived from temperate latitudes, from trials conducted in the USA (679 observations) and Germany (630 observations). On average, crop yield response to deep tillage was slightly positive (6% increase). However, individual deep tillage effects were highly scattered including about 40% yield depressions after deep tillage. Deep tillage on soils with root restrictive layers increased crop yields about 20%, while soils containing >70% silt increased the risk of yield depressions following deep tillage. Generally, deep tillage effects increased with drought intensity indicating deep tillage as climate adaptation measure at certain sites. Our results suggest that deep tillage can facilitate the plant-availability of subsoil nutrients, which increases crop yields if (i) nutrients in the topsoil are growth limiting, and (ii) deep tillage does not come at the cost of impairing topsoil fertility. On sites with root restrictive soil layers, deep tillage can be an effective measure to mitigate drought stress and improve the resilience of crops. However, deep tillage should only be performed on soils with a stable structure, i.e. <70% silt content. We will discuss the contribution of deep tillage options to enhance the sustainability of agricultural production by facilitating the uptake of nutrients and water from the subsoil.

  20. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  1. Parâmetros relacionados com a erosão hídrica sob taxa constante da enxurrada, em diferentes métodos de preparo do solo Water-erosion related parameters under steady runoff-rate for different soil tillage methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2006-08-01

    ção e o tamanho dos sedimentos, bem como a taxa de perda de solo, aumentaram com a diminuição da rugosidade e da cobertura superficiais do solo, enquanto a taxa de infiltração da água da chuva diminuiu. A taxa de descarga e o coeficiente de enxurrada - parâmetro C da Fórmula Racional -, aumentaram com a diminuição da rugosidade e da cobertura superficiais do solo.Tillage influences both surface and subsurface soil physical conditions, and consequently the values of the factors related to the rainfall-water erosion process. A field experiment using simulated rainfall was conducted from October, 1999 to May, 2000, in the Planalto Sul Catarinense region, Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in order to evaluate some of the factors related to the rainfall-water erosion process under steady runoff-rate, with three different soil tillage methods. The soil used in the study was a clayey Typic Hapludox with 0.14 m m-1 slope at the experimental site. The evaluated treatments consisted of: (a reduced tillage (chiseling + disking, (b typical conventional tillage (plowing + double-disking, and (c modified conventional tillage (plowing + double-disking + double hand-harrowing. The first two treatments were applied in continuously cultivated soil and the last one in continuously uncultivated-soil (control treatment. Both the soil surface random-roughness and soil surface residue cover were characterized in the treatments through measurements immediately before and after tillage, on the day before simulated rainfall application. The rainfall test was applied by the time of soybean planting, at a constant intensity of 64 mm h-1 and varying durations (until completing 30-min of constant runoff in each treatment. Soil tillage increased the random-surface roughness and decreased surface cover to different degrees, depending on the type of equipment. Reduced tillage was the most effective treatment in terms of both increasing random surface roughness and maintaining the soil

  2. Tillage Effect on Soil Moisture Storage and Wheat Yield on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    2008. 1 Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia. fassil@ethionet.et. 2District Disaster Prevention and preparedness Commission, North Wello Zone, Delanta Dawunt Woreda, Ethiopia. 49. Tillage Effect on Soil Moisture Storage and Wheat Yield on the ...

  3. Impact of no-till and conventional tillage practices on soil chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.; Bangash, N.

    2015-01-01

    There is a global concern about progressive increase in the emission of greenhouse gases especially atmosphere CO/sub 2/. An increasing awareness about environmental pollution by CO/sub 2/ emission has led to recognition of the need to enhance soil C sequestration through sustainable agricultural management practices. Conservation management systems such as no-till (NT) with appropriate crop rotation have been reported to increase soil organic C content by creating less disturbed environment. The present study was conducted on Vanmeter farm of The Ohio State University South Centers at Piketon Ohio, USA to estimate the effect of different tillage practices with different cropping system on soil chemical properties. Tillage treatments were comprised of conventional tillage (CT) and No-till (NT).These treatments were applied under continuous corn (CC), corn-soybean (CS) and corn soybean-wheat-cowpea (CSW) cropping system following randomized complete block design. No-till treatment showed significant increase in total C (30%), active C (10%), and passive salt extractable (18%) and microwave extractable C (8%) and total nitrogen (15%) compared to conventional tillage practices. Total nitrogen increased significantly 23 % in NT over time. Maximum effect of no-till was observed under corn-soybean-wheat-cowpea crop rotation. These findings illustrated that no-till practice could be useful for improving soil chemical properties. (author)

  4. Tillage effects on soil quality after three years of irrigation in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation is being initiated on large areas of traditionally rainfed land to meet increasing global demand for food, feed, fiber, and fuel. However, the consequences of this transition on soil quality (SQ) have scarcely been studied. Therefore, after previously identifying the most tillage-sensitiv...

  5. Relation of some Soil Water-transmission Characteristics to some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine soil physical properties of an Alfisol constituting the soil of a proposed tillage and irrigation water management field laboratory and to relate the physical properties to the water transmission characteristics. The soil was found to be mainly sandy loam on the surface with high infiltration ...

  6. [Effects of straw mulching on the soil aggregates in dryland wheat field under no-tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Xia; Sun, Hong-Xia; Han, Qing-Fang; Wang, Min; Zhang, Rui; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Nie, Jun-Feng; Liu, Ting

    2012-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of full period and growth period straw mulching with an amount of 3000, 6000, and 9000 kg x hm(-2) on the soil aggregates in a no-tillage dryland wheat field in Weibei Loess Pleateau of Shaanxi Province, taking no full period straw mulching as the control. In the 0-40 cm soil layer, the content of > 5 mm aggregates increased with depth, while that of mulching, the total contents of > 0.25 mm mechanical stable aggregates (DR0.25) and of > 0.25 mm water stable aggregates (WR0.25) were significantly higher than the control, with an increase of 13.0%-26.4% and 18.6%-45.6%, respectively and the largest increment in the treatment 6000 kg x hm(-2) of straw mulching. Straw mulching increased the soil organic matter content, and the latter had a significant positive correlation with the WR0.25 content. All the straw mulching treatments decreased the soil unstable aggregate index (E(LT)) which was the lowest in treatment 6000 kg x hm(-2) of straw mulching. This study showed that straw mulching could increase the >0.25 mm aggregates and organic matter contents in 0-40 cm soil layer and improve the soil structural stability, and mulching with an amount of 6000 kg x hm(-2) had the best effect, being a reasonable straw mulching mode to be applied in the agricultural production in Weibei Loess Plateau.

  7. Distributed soil loss estimation system including ephemeral gully development and tillage erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. N. Vieira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new modelling system is being developed to provide spatially-distributed runoff and soil erosion predictions for conservation planning that integrates the 2D grid-based variant of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation, version 2 model (RUSLER, the Ephemeral Gully Erosion Estimator (EphGEE, and the Tillage Erosion and Landscape Evolution Model (TELEM. Digital representations of the area of interest (field, farm or entire watershed are created using high-resolution topography and data retrieved from established databases of soil properties, climate, and agricultural operations. The system utilizes a library of processing tools (LibRaster to deduce surface drainage from topography, determine the location of potential ephemeral gullies, and subdivide the study area into catchments for calculations of runoff and sheet-and-rill erosion using RUSLER. EphGEE computes gully evolution based on local soil erodibility and flow and sediment transport conditions. Annual tillage-induced morphological changes are computed separately by TELEM.

  8. [Soil respiration and carbon balance in wheat field under conservation tillage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Wang, Long-Chang; Huang, Zhao-Cun; Jia, Hui-Juan; Ran, Chun-Yan

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the characteristics of carbon sources and sinks in the winter wheat farmland ecosystem in southwest hilly region of China, the LI6400-09 respiratory chamber was adopted in the experiment conducted in the experimental field in Southwest University in Chongqing. The soil respiration and plant growth dynamics were analyzed during the growth period of wheat in the triple intercropping system of wheat-maize-soybean. Four treatments including T (traditional tillage), R (ridge tillage), TS (traditional tillage + straw mulching), and RS (ridge tillage + straw mulching) were designed. Root biomass regression (RR) and root exclusion (RE) were used to compare the contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration. The results showed that the average soil respiration rate was 1.71 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1) with a variation of 0.62-2.91 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1). Significant differences in soil respiration rate were detected among different treatments. The average soil respiration rate of T, R, TS and RS were 1.29, 1.59, 1.99 and 1.96 micromol x (m2 x s)(-1), respectively. R treatment did not increase the soil respiration rate significantly until the jointing stage. Straw mulching treatment significantly increased soil respiration, with a steadily high rate during the whole growth period. During the 169 days of growth, the total soil respiration was 2 266.82, 2799.52, 3 483.73 and 3 443.89 kg x hm(-2) while the cumulative aboveground biomasses were 51 800.84, 59 563.20, 66 015.37 and 7 1331.63 kg x hm(-2). Compared with the control, the yield of R, TS and RS increased by 14.99%, 27.44% and 37.70%, respectively. The contribution of root respiration to total soil respiration was 47.05% by RBR, while it was 53.97% by RE. In the early growth period, the carbon source was weak. The capacity of carbon sink started to increase at the jointing stage and reached the maximum during the filling stage. The carbon budget of wheat field was 5 924.512, 6743.807, 8350

  9. How does tillage intensity affect soil organic carbon? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddaway, Neal Robert; Hedlund, Katarina; E Jackson, Louise; Kätterer, Thomas; Lugato, Emanuele; Thomsen, Ingrid; Bracht Jørgensen, Helene; Isberg, Per-Erik

    2017-04-01

    Background: The loss of carbon (C) from agricultural soils has been, in part, attributed to tillage, a common agricultural practice that provides a number of benefits to farmers. The promotion of less intensive tillage practices and no tillage (NT) aims to mitigate negative impacts on soil quality and to preserve soil organic carbon (SOC). Several reviews and meta-analyses have shown both beneficial and null effects on SOC due to no tillage relative to conventional tillage, hence there is a need for a comprehensive systematic review of the topic. Methods: We systematically review relevant research in warm temperate and boreal regions using, as a basis, evidence identified within a recently completed systematic map on the impacts of farming on SOC. We performed an update of the original systematic map searches to include studies published since the map search. We screened all evidence for relevance according to predetermined inclusion criteria. Studies were coded and subject to meta-data extraction. Quantitative study findings were then extracted and meta-analyses performed to investigate the impact of reducing tillage (from high (HT) to intermediate intensity (IT), HT to NT, and from IT to NT) for SOC concentration and SOC stock in the upper soil and at lower depths. Results: A total of 351 studies were included in the systematic review: some 18% coming from an update of research published in the 2 years following searches performed for the systematic map. SOC concentration was found to be significantly higher in NT relative to both IT (1.18 g/kg ± 0.34 (SE)) and HT (2.09 g/kg ± 0.34 (SE)) in the upper soil layer (0-15 cm). IT was also found to be significant higher (1.30 g/kg ± 0.22 (SE)) in SOC concentration than HT for the upper soil layer (0-15 cm). At lower depths, only IT SOC compared with HT at 15-30 cm showed a significant difference; being 0.89 g/kg (± 0.20 (SE)) lower in intermediate intensity tillage. For stock data NT had significantly higher SOC

  10. Perdas de solo e água por erosão hídrica influenciadas por métodos de preparo, classes de declive e níveis de fertilidade do solo Soil and water losses by rainfall erosion influenced by tillage methods, slope-steepness classes, and soil fertility levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Cogo

    2003-08-01

    guidelines for conservation plans, an erosion experiment under natural rainfall was conducted on a very clayey soil (Typic Haplortox, in Santo Ângelo, region of Missões, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, December 1994 through May 1996, to quantify soil and water losses caused by rainfall erosion. Treatments of conventional tillage, reduced tillage, and no-till were evaluated under conditions of "soil with improved fertility" in slope-steepness classes of 0-0.04, 0.04-0.08, and 0.08-0.12 m m-1 (with average slope gradients of, respectively, 0.035, 0.065, and 0.095 m m-1 and of "soil with actual fertility" in the 0.04-0.08 m m-1 slope-steepness class. A crop sequence of two soybean (Glycine max, L cycles (spring-summer 1994/95 and 1995/96 followed by black oat (Avena strigosa, S. (fall-winter 1995 was used for an evaluation of erosion. Tillage and planting operations were performed along contour lines in all plots, except for the Wischmeier's unit plot, where plowing and disking operations were performed up and down the slope. The calculated rainfall erosivity index EI30 of the experimental period (1,5 year was 10.236 MJ mm ha-1 h-1. Both in 1995 and 1996 a concentration in the period between January and March accumulated 70% of the total rainfall. Only under conventional tillage with no cropping and in vertical direction (control plot there were great soil losses by rainfall erosion (up to 80 Mg ha-1 in a single crop cycle, although the soil in the plot presented a very low erodibility value (K-factor of 0.0091 Mg ha h MJ-1 mm-1 ha-1 . Under cropping, though in much lower values, soil losses were also highest in conventional tillage (about 13.0 Mg ha-1 in 1,5 years, markedly in medium and high slope-steepness classes. Intermediate soil losses were associated with reduced tillage (about 4.0 Mg ha-1 in 1,5 year, and the lowest with no-till (about 1.0 t ha-1 in 1,5 year, while water losses were all very low and little differentiated. The condition "soil with improved fertility

  11. Comparing effects of tillage treatments performed with animal traction on soil physical properties and soil electrical resistivity: preliminary experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Tomillo Aitor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil Compaction results from compressive forces applied to compressible soil by machinery wheels, combined with tillage operations. Draft animal‐pulled equipment may also cause soil compaction, but a huge gap exists on experimental data to adequately assess their impacts and, actually, animal traction is an option seen with increasing potential to contribute to sustainable agriculture, especially in mountain areas. This study was conducted to assess the impacts on soil compaction of tillage operations with motor tractor and draft animals. In a farm plot (Vale de Frades, NE Portugal treatments were applied in sub‐plots (30 m × 3 m, consisting in a two way tillage with tractor (T, a pair of cows (C and a pair of donkeys (D. Undisturbed soil samples (120 were taken before and after operations for bulk density (BD and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks. The relative changes in BD observed after tillage in the 0-0.05 m soil depth increased after operations in all treatments. The increase was higher in the tractor sub-plot (15% than in those where animal traction was used (8%. Before operation Ks class was rapid and fast in all samples, and after operation this value was reduced to 33% in T, whereas it reached 83% in C. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT was useful as a tool to identify the alterations caused by tillage operations on soil physical status. These preliminary results confirm the potential of animal traction as an option for mountain agri‐environments, yet it requires much wider research to soundly ground its assets.

  12. Influence of tillage practices on soil biologically active organic matter content over a growing season under semiarid Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martín-Lammerding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In semiarid areas, traditional, intensive tillage has led to the depletion of soil organic matter, which has resulted in reduced soil fertility. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of different soil management systems, practised over 12 years, on soil organic carbon (SOC, nitrogen (SN and biologically active organic matter (particulate organic matter [POM]; potentially mineralisable nitrogen [PMN]; microbial biomass [MB]. A Mediterranean Alfisol, located in central Spain, was managed using combinations of conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT or no-tillage (NT, plus a cropping background of either continuous wheat (WW or a fallow/wheat/pea/barley rotation (FW. Soil was sampled at two depths on four occasions during 2006-2007. The results showed the sampling date and the cropping background to significantly affect the SOC (p<0.0057 and p<0.0001 respectively. Tillage practice, however, had no effect on SOC or SN. The C-and N-POM contents were significantly influenced by the date, tillage and rotation. These variables were significantly higher under NT than CT and under WW than FW. The PMN was influenced by date, tillage and rotation, while C-MB was significantly affected by tillage (p< 0.0063, but not by rotation. The NT plots accumulated 66% C-POM, 60% N-POM, 39% PMN and 84% C-MB more than the CT plots. After more than 12 years, the benefits of conservation practices were found in the considered soil properties, mainly under no tillage. In order to obtain a consistent data set to predict soil biological status, it is necessary further study over time.

  13. Medium-term impact of tillage and residue management on soil aggregate stability, soil carbon and crop productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, B.K.; Vanlauwe, B.; Ayuke, F.; Gassner, A.; Hoogmoed, M.; Hurisso, T.T.; Koala, S.; Lelei, D.; Ndabamenye, T.; Six, J.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation agriculture is widely promoted for soil conservation and crop productivity increase, although rigorous empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa is still limited. This study aimed to quantify the medium-term impact of tillage (conventional and reduced) and crop residue management

  14. Microbial community responses to soil tillage and crop rotation in a corn/soybean agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris R; Blair, Peter L; Boyd, Charlie; Cody, Brianne; Hazel, Alexander; Hedrick, Ashley; Kathuria, Hitesh; Khurana, Parul; Kramer, Brent; Muterspaw, Kristin; Peck, Charles; Sells, Emily; Skinner, Jessica; Tegeler, Cara; Wolfe, Zoe

    2016-11-01

    The acreage planted in corn and soybean crops is vast, and these crops contribute substantially to the world economy. The agricultural practices employed for farming these crops have major effects on ecosystem health at a worldwide scale. The microbial communities living in agricultural soils significantly contribute to nutrient uptake and cycling and can have both positive and negative impacts on the crops growing with them. In this study, we examined the impact of the crop planted and soil tillage on nutrient levels, microbial communities, and the biochemical pathways present in the soil. We found that farming practice, that is conventional tillage versus no-till, had a much greater impact on nearly everything measured compared to the crop planted. No-till fields tended to have higher nutrient levels and distinct microbial communities. Moreover, no-till fields had more DNA sequences associated with key nitrogen cycle processes, suggesting that the microbial communities were more active in cycling nitrogen. Our results indicate that tilling of agricultural soil may magnify the degree of nutrient waste and runoff by altering nutrient cycles through changes to microbial communities. Currently, a minority of acreage is maintained without tillage despite clear benefits to soil nutrient levels, and a decrease in nutrient runoff-both of which have ecosystem-level effects and both direct and indirect effects on humans and other organisms.

  15. Global achievements in soil and water conservation: The case of Conservation Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kassam; R. Derpsch; T. Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    In response to the dust bowls of the mid-thirties in the USA, soil and water conservation programmes involving reduced tillage were promoted to control land degradation, particularly soil erosion. The farming and land management practices that were considered to adequately address soil and water conservation objectives were based on no-till seeding and maintenance of soil mulch cover. This collection of practices led to what became known as conservation tillage, although no-till systems by de...

  16. Effects of 24 Years of Conservation Tillage Systems on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24-year study was conducted in southern Illinois (USA on land similar to that being removed from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage systems on: (1 amount and rates of soil organic carbon (SOC storage and retention, (2 the long-term corn and soybean yields, and (3 maintenance and restoration of soil productivity of previously eroded soils. The no-till (NT plots did store and retain 7.8 Mg C ha−1 more and chisel plow (CP −1.6 Mg C ha−1 less SOC in the soil than moldboard plow (MP during the 24 years. However, no SOC sequestration occurred in the sloping and eroding NT, CP, and MP plots since the SOC level of the plot area was greater at the start of the experiment than at the end. The NT plots actually lost a total of −1.2 Mg C ha−1, the CP lost −9.9 Mg C ha−1, and the MP lost −8.2 Mg C ha−1 during the 24-year study. The long-term productivity of NT compared favorably with that of MP and CP systems.

  17. Effect of Conservation Tillage Practices on Soil Phosphorus Nutrition in an Apple Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhu YANG

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil phosphorus (P is an essential and limiting element for plant growth, which is significantly affected by different approaches to soil management. In order to reveal the effect of different management approaches on soil P and phosphatase activity in 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm soil, this research was conducted to study variations in the characteristics of P and phosphatase activity under 3-year tillage without mulching (CK, no-tillage with corn straw mulching (NTSM and no-tillage with grass (NTG in Liaoning apple orchard. The results showed that NTSM and NTG could significantly increase soil P content (P < 0.05 as compared with CK. However, the effect was different between NTSM and NTG; with the NTSM approach, the improvement in the P content in 20–40 cm was remarkable, and in the NTG approach, the improvement in the soil surface P content was significant. At the same time, soil phosphatase activity significantly increased (P < 0.05 under NTSM and NTG. The soil surface and 20–40 cm phosphodiesterase (PD activity was enhanced under the two management approaches, however, the effect of NTG was stronger than NTSM. In addition, NTSM was more conducive to increasing alkaline phosphomonoesterase (AlP, and NTG was more conducive to increasing acid phosphomonoesterase (AcP. Our findings highlight the variation of dominant mechanisms involved in soil P with different mulching materials application. NTSM and NTG could have the potential to increase P content and phosphatase activity, and provide a basis for using this method to improve P phytoavailability and reduce the application of soil fertilizer.

  18. Phosphorus forms and chemistry in the soil profile under long-term conservation tillage: a phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Carter, Martin R; James, Dean C; Liu, Corey W

    2010-01-01

    In many regions, conservation tillage has replaced conventional tilling practices to reduce soil erosion, improve water conservation, and increase soil organic matter. However, tillage can have marked effects on soil properties, specifically nutrient redistribution or stratification in the soil profile. The objective of this research was to examine soil phosphorus (P) forms and concentrations in a long-term study comparing conservation tillage (direct drilling, "No Till") and conventional tillage (moldboard plowing to 20 cm depth, "Till") established on a fine sandy loam (Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. No significant differences in total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total P, or total organic P concentrations were detected between the tillage systems at any depth in the 0- to 60-cm depth range analyzed. However, analysis with phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed differences in P forms in the plow layer. In particular, the concentration of orthophosphate was significantly higher under No Till than Till at 5 to 10 cm, but the reverse was true at 10 to 20 cm. Mehlich 3-extractable P was also significantly higher in No Till at 5 to 10 cm and significantly higher in Till at 20 to 30 cm. This P stratification appears to be caused by a lack of mixing of applied fertilizer in No Till because the same trends were observed for pH and Mehlich 3-extractable Ca (significantly higher in the Till treatment at 20 to 30 cm), reflecting mixing of applied lime. The P saturation ratio was significantly higher under No Till at 0 to 5 cm and exceeded the recommended limits, suggesting that P stratification under No Till had increased the potential for P loss in runoff from these sites.

  19. Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Penetration Resistance, Technical Parameters and Wheat Yield

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    S.M.j Afzali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of tillage practices (with different depths on soil penetration resistance, technical parameters and grain yield of wheat crop. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications for two years. Treatments included: moldboard plow fallowed by two passes of disc harrow and leveler (CT, two passes of disc harrow plus leveler (RT, subsoiler fallowed by two passes of disc harrow and leveler (S1D and subsoiler fallowed by rotivator (S1R. The results showed that soil compaction and penetration resistance increased at the end of growth stages because of irrigation operations and cohesion force of soil particles. However due to increasing of cumulative infiltration, it can be concluded that subsoiler caused the formation of micro cracks in different depths of soil. From technical indices viewpoint comparing to CT treatment, S1D and S1R treatments saved fuel consumption up to 2.2 and 10.44 lit ha 1 and tillage operation time up to 0.58 and 1.54 h ha-1, respectively. The result of grain yield assessment showed an increase of 8.5% in grain yield after replacing moldboard plow with annual subsoiling. Subsoiling has advantages such as, good technical indices, elimination of preplanting irrigation and fewer operations in planting time. Finally, subsoiling increased grain yield by 22% as compared to reduced tillage practice

  20. Species composition and density of weeds in a wheat crop depending on the soil tillage system in crop rotation

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    P. Yankov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo on slightly leached chernozem soil type. For the purposes of this investigation, variants from a stationary field experiment initiated in 1987 and based on various soil tillage tools and operations were analyzed. The species composition and density of weeds were followed in a wheat crop grown after grain maize using the following soil tillage systems: plowing at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; cutting at 24 – 26 cm (for maize – cutting at 8 – 10 cm (for wheat; disking at 10 – 12 cm (for maize – disking at 10 – 12 cm (for wheat; no-tillage (for maize – no-tillage (for wheat.Weed infestation was read at the fourth rotation since the initiation of the trial. The observations were made in spring before treatment of the crop with herbicides. The soil tillage system had a significant effect on the species composition and density of weeds in the field with wheat grown after previous crop maize. The long-term alternation of plowing with disking in parallel with the usage of chemicals for weed control lead to lower weed infestation of the weed crop. The lower weed density after this soil tillage system was not related to changes in the species composition and the relative percent of the individual species in the total weed infestation. The long-term application in crop rotation of systems without turning of the soil layer and of minimal and no-tillage increased the amount of weeds. The reason is the greater variability of weed species which typically occur after shallow soil tillage.

  1. Soil variability and effectiveness of soil and water conservation in the Sahel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hien, F.G.; Rietkerk, M.; Stroosnijder, L.

    1997-01-01

    Sahelian sylvopastoral lands often degrade into bare and crusted areas where regeneration of soil and vegetation is impossible in the short term unless soil and water conservation measures are implemented. Five combinations of tillage with and without mulch on three crust type/soil type combinations

  2. Alterações na rugosidade superficial do solo pelo preparo e pela chuva e sua relação com a erosão hídrica Alterations in soil surface roughness by tillage and rainfall in relation to water erosion

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    Luciana Gomes Castro

    2006-04-01

    de curta duração, aplicados logo após o preparo, impedindo ou reduzindo as perdas de água e solo naquele período, independentemente da cobertura do solo. Nas chuvas contínuas subseqüentes, de longa duração, a rugosidade superficial do solo não influenciou a perda de água nos tratamentos com solo mobilizado na ausência de cobertura, sendo alta em todos eles, mas a influenciou na sua presença, diminuindo-a com o aumento da rugosidade. O tratamento sem preparo permaneceu com a perda de água elevada sempre em tais chuvas. Quanto à perda de solo, nas mesmas chuvas, o efeito da rugosidade na sua redução foi mais evidente na ausência de cobertura, tendo sido substancialmente ocultado na sua presença. A cobertura morta adicionada ao solo não preservou a elevada rugosidade superficial inicialmente criada pelos preparos no solo degradado utilizado no estudo. Mesmo assim, ao final do experimento, ainda restava mais da metade da capacidade teórica inicial de retenção de água e de sedimento nas microdepressões formadas pela rugosidade. Os dados obtidos foram consistentes com teorias e conceitos usados em estudos de mecânica de erosão hídrica do solo.Although being temporary, the presence of tillage-induced surface roughness in the soil is an important requirement in conservation tillage systems. The reason is that surface roughness increases both surface retention and surface infiltration of water in the soil, reduces runoff velocity and volume, and traps eroded sediments, thus reducing water erosion damages. With this in mind, this study was developed with the objective of evaluating modifications in soil surface roughness by tillage and rainfall actions related to water erosion, in the absence and presence of mulch cover. The experiment was carried out in the field, at the Agriculture Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (EEA/UFRGS, in Eldorado do Sul County, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1996 and 1997, using

  3. Long-term Tillage and Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Soil Properties and Crop Yields

    OpenAIRE

    Muhajir Utomo; Irwan Sukri Banuwa; Henrie Buchari; Yunita Anggraini; Berthiria

    2013-01-01

    The impact of agricultural intensification on soil degradation now is occurring in tropical countries. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term tillage and N fertilization on soil properties and crop yields in corn-soybean rotation. This long-term study which initiated since 1987 was carried out on a Typic Fragiudult soil at Politeknik Negeri Lampung, Sumatra (105o13’45.5"-105o13’48.0"E, 05o21’19.6"-05o21’19.7"S) in 2010 and 2011. A factoria...

  4. Winter effect on soil microorganisms under different tillage and phosphorus management practices in eastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yichao; Lalande, Roger; Hamel, Chantal; Ziadi, Noura

    2015-05-01

    Determining how soil microorganisms respond to crop management systems during winter could further our understanding of soil phosphorus (P) transformations. This study assessed the effects of tillage (moldboard plowing or no-till) and P fertilization (0, 17.5, or 35 kg P·ha(-1)) on soil microbial biomass, enzymatic activity, and microbial community structure in winter, in a long-term (18 years) corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation established in 1992 in the province of Quebec, Canada. Soil samples were collected at 2 depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) in February 2010 and 2011 after the soybean and the corn growing seasons, respectively. Winter conditions increased the amounts of soil microbial biomasses but reduced the overall enzymatic activity of the soil, as compared with fall levels after corn. P fertilization had a quadratic effect on the amounts of total, bacterial, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi phospholipid fatty acid markers after corn but not after soybean. The soil microbial community following the soybean and the corn crops in winter had a different structure. These findings suggest that winter conditions and crop-year could be important factors affecting the characteristics of the soil microbial community under different tillage and mineral P fertilization.

  5. Impacto de técnicas de mobilização na conservação do solo e na produtividade de milho regado por rampa rotativa num Fluvissolo Tillage techniques impact on soil conservation and on maize yield irri­gated by center pivot in a Fluvisol

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    T. B. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Num Fluvissolo com textura mediana e declive In a maize growing area, with a medium textured Fluvisol, a slope <0.2 %, irrigated by center-pivot, and subjected to different soil tillage techniques (conventional tillage, reduced tillage, and tillage reservoirs soil water content, runoff, soil loss, and yield production values were compared, from 2002 to 2004. The plots with tillage reser­voirs presented significantly (P<0.001 higher soil water content, minimal runoff and soil loss, and a yield production 4 Mg/ha higher (P<0.05 than in the other plots. Runoff medium values in the plots with conventional and reduced tillage were 46 and 57 % of the water application, re­spectively. Soil loss was very similar in these two tillage practices, presenting me­dium values per irrigation, during the 3 years, of 100 kg/ha. CRESP methodology provided reasonable predictions of potential runoff considering the water application conditions and soil type.

  6. Experimental analysis of CO{sub 2} emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buragienė, Sidona [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Šarauskis, Egidijus, E-mail: egidijus.sarauskis@asu.lt [Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Safety, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 15A, LT-53361 Akademija, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania); Romaneckas, Kęstutis, E-mail: kestas.romaneckas@asu.lt [Institute of Agroecosystems and Soil Science, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Sasnauskienė, Jurgita, E-mail: jurgita.sasnauskiene@asu.lt [Institute of Environment and Ecology, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Studentu str. 11, Akademija LT-53361, Kaunas dist. (Lithuania); Masilionytė, Laura, E-mail: laura.masilionyte@gmail.com [Joniskelis Experimental Station, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Joniskelis, LT-39301 Pasvalys distr. (Lithuania); Kriaučiūnienė, Zita, E-mail: zita.kriauciuniene@asu.lt [Experimental Station, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Rapsu str. 7, LT-53363 Noreikiskes, Kaunas distr. (Lithuania)

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO{sub 2} emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO{sub 2} emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO{sub 2} emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO{sub 2} emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO{sub 2

  7. Effects of tillage on contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, water-stable aggregates and light fraction for four different long-term trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruschkewitsch, R.; Geisseler, D.; Koch, H.-J.; Ludwig, B.

    2012-04-01

    Despite increasing interest in tillage techniques as a factor affecting organic carbon (Corg) dynamics and stabilization mechanisms little is known about the underlying processes. Our objectives were (i) to quantify the impact of different tillage treatments on the amount and distribution of of labile Corg pools, on the water-stable macro-aggregate (>250 µm) contents and on organic carbon (Corg) storage and (ii) to quantify the ability of soils under different tillage treatments, light fraction (LF) inputs and clay contents in macro-aggregate formation. Therefore four long-term tillage trials on loess soil in Germany with regular conventional tillage (CT, to 30 cm), mulch tillage (MT, to 10 cm), and no-tillage (NT) treatments. Samples were taken in 0-5 cm, 5-25 cm and 25-40 cm depth after 18-25 years of different tillage treatments and investigated on free and occluded LF (fLF and oLF, respectively) and on macro-aggregate contents. Furthermore an incubation experiment for the quantifcation of macro-aggregate formation was conducted. Macro-aggregates in soils from CT and NT treatments (0-5 and 5-25 cm soil depth) were destroyed and different amounts of light fraction (LF) and clay were applied. The four long-term tillage trials, differing in texture and climatic conditions, revealed consistent results in Corg storage among each other. Based on the equivalent soil mass approach (CT: 0-40, MT: 0-38, NT: 0-36 cm) the Corg stocks in the sampled profile were significantly higher for the MT treatment than for the CT and NT treatments. Significantly lower Corg, fLF, oLF, and macro-aggregate contents for the soils under CT treatment in comparison with the soils under NT and MT treatments were restricted on the top 5 cm. The correlation of the macro-aggregate content against the fLF and oLF contents suggested that the macro-aggregate content is influenced to a lesser extent directly by the physical impact of the different tillage treatments but by the contents of available

  8. Soil carbon fractions under maize-wheat system: effect of tillage and nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, S; Manjaiah, K M; Pal, Sharmistha; Singh, A K

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in sustaining agroecosystems and maintaining environmental quality as it acts as a major source and sink of atmospheric carbon. The present study aims to assess the impact of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon pools in a maize-wheat cropping system of Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Soil samples from a split plot design with two tillage systems (bed planting and conventional tillage) and six nutrient treatments (T1 = control, T2 = 120 kg urea-N ha(-1), T3 = T2 (25 % N substituted by FYM), T4 = T2 (25 % N substituted by sewage sludge), T5 = T2 + crop residue, T6 = 100 % organic source (50 % FYM + 25 % biofertilizer + 25 % crop residue) were used for determining the organic carbon pools. Results show that there was a significant improvement in Walkley and Black carbon in soil under integrated and organic nutrient management treatments. KMnO4-oxidizable carbon content of soil varied from 0.63 to 1.50 g kg(-1) in soils and was found to be a better indicator for monitoring the impact of agricultural management practices on quality of soil organic carbon than microbial biomass carbon. Tillage and its interaction were found to significantly influence only those soil organic carbon fractions closely associated with aggregate stability viz, labile polysaccharides and glomalin. The highest amount of C4-derived carbon was found to be in plots receiving recommended doses of N as urea (29 %) followed by control plots (25 %). The carbon management index ranged between 82 to 195 and was better in integrated nutrient sources than ones receiving recommended doses of nutrients through mineral fertilizers alone.

  9. Impact of different cropping conditions and tillage practices on the soil fungal abundance of a Phaeozem luvico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, R.P.; Aulicino, M.B.; Mónaco, C.I.; Kripelz, N.; Cordo, C.A.

    2015-07-01

    Fungal diversity seems to be a good indicator of ecosystem disturbance and functioning. The purpose of this work was to quantify the fungal population as a sensitive indicator of the changes caused by stubble placement in two tillage systems: reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) with and without cropping. To this end, we determined the effect of soil disturbances such as N fertilization, tillage practice, and cropped area on the soil fungal communities of a Phaeozem luvico of the El Salado river basin (Argentina). Soil samples (at 0-10 cm depth) were collected from a field cultivated with wheat at post-harvest, before sowing and at tillering. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was studied on Nash Snyder and Oxgall agar media after different treatments and assessed as colony forming units (CFU/gof soil). The diversity of the fungal population was studied by Shannon´s index (H). The tillage system showed a marked effect only at post-harvest and the number of propagules was highest under RT for both culture media. The largest values of H were found only at post-harvest when Oxgall agar was used. A significant decrease in the values of H was observed when CT and high fertilization was applied in the wheat cropped area. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was different in soils under the different tillage practices. (Author)

  10. Soil and crop residue CO2-C emission under tillage systems in sugarcane-producing areas of southern Brazil

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    Luís Gustavo Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate management of agricultural crop residues could result in increases on soil organic carbon (SOC and help to mitigate gas effect. To distinguish the contributions of SOC and sugarcane (Saccharum spp. residues to the short-term CO2-C loss, we studied the influence of several tillage systems: heavy offset disk harrow (HO, chisel plow (CP, rotary tiller (RT, and sugarcane mill tiller (SM in 2008, and CP, RT, SM, moldboard (MP, and subsoiler (SUB in 2009, with and without sugarcane residues relative to no-till (NT in the sugarcane producing region of Brazil. Soil CO2-C emissions were measured daily for two weeks after tillage using portable soil respiration systems. Daily CO2-C emissions declined after tillage regardless of tillage system. In 2008, total CO2-C from SOC and/or residue decomposition was greater for RT and lowest for CP. In 2009, emission was greatest for MP and CP with residues, and smallest for NT. SOC and residue contributed 47 % and 41 %, respectively, to total CO2-C emissions. Regarding the estimated emissions from sugarcane residue and SOC decomposition within the measurement period, CO2-C factor was similar to sugarcane residue and soil organic carbon decomposition, depending on the tillage system applied. Our approach may define new emission factors that are associated to tillage operations on bare or sugarcane-residue-covered soils to estimate the total carbon loss.

  11. Impact of different cropping conditions and tillage practices on the soil fungal abundance of a Phaeozem luvico

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    Romina P. Gómez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diversity seems to be a good indicator of ecosystem disturbance and functioning. The purpose of this work was to quantify the fungal population as a sensitive indicator of the changes caused by stubble placement in two tillage systems: reduced tillage (RT and conventional tillage (CT with and without cropping. To this end, we determined the effect of soil disturbances such as N fertilization, tillage practice, and cropped area on the soil fungal communities of a Phaeozem luvico of the El Salado river basin (Argentina. Soil samples (at 0-10 cm depth were collected from a field cultivated with wheat at post-harvest, before sowing and at tillering. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was studied on Nash Snyder and Oxgall agar media after different treatments and assessed as colony forming units (CFU/g of soil. The diversity of the fungal population was studied by Shannon´s index (H. The tillage system showed a marked effect only at post-harvest and the number of propagules was highest under RT for both culture media. The largest values of H were found only at post-harvest when Oxgall agar was used. A significant decrease in the values of H was observed when CT and high fertilization was applied in the wheat cropped area. The relative abundance of individuals of the fungal population was different in soils under the different tillage practices.

  12. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonetto, Belén; Rascovan, Nicolás; Álvarez, Roberto; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Vázquez, Martin P

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment) presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional tillage systems may

  13. Structure, composition and metagenomic profile of soil microbiomes associated to agricultural land use and tillage systems in Argentine Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Carbonetto

    Full Text Available Agriculture is facing a major challenge nowadays: to increase crop production for food and energy while preserving ecosystem functioning and soil quality. Argentine Pampas is one of the main world producers of crops and one of the main adopters of conservation agriculture. Changes in soil chemical and physical properties of Pampas soils due to different tillage systems have been deeply studied. Still, not much evidence has been reported on the effects of agricultural practices on Pampas soil microbiomes. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of agricultural land use on community structure, composition and metabolic profiles on soil microbiomes of Argentine Pampas. We also compared the effects associated to conventional practices with the effects of no-tillage systems. Our results confirmed the impact on microbiome structure and composition due to agricultural practices. The phyla Verrucomicrobia, Plactomycetes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in non cultivated soils while Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae and WS3 were more abundant in cultivated soils. Effects on metabolic metagenomic profiles were also observed. The relative abundance of genes assigned to transcription, protein modification, nucleotide transport and metabolism, wall and membrane biogenesis and intracellular trafficking and secretion were higher in cultivated fertilized soils than in non cultivated soils. We also observed significant differences in microbiome structure and taxonomic composition between soils under conventional and no-tillage systems. Overall, our results suggest that agronomical land use and the type of tillage system have induced microbiomes to shift their life-history strategies. Microbiomes of cultivated fertilized soils (i.e. higher nutrient amendment presented tendencies to copiotrophy while microbiomes of non cultivated homogenous soils appeared to have a more oligotrophic life-style. Additionally, we propose that conventional

  14. Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Zhang, H.; dikgwatlhe, S.B.; Xue, J.; Qiu, K.; Tang, H.; Chen, F.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientific community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different tillage systems and

  15. Responses of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities to tillage and fertilization systems in soybean (Glycine max L. production

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    Gholamreza Heidari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tillage operation and fertilizer type play important roles in soil properties as far as soil microbial condition is concerned. Information regarding the simultaneous evaluation of the effect of long-term tillage and fertilization on the soil microbial traits of soybean farms is not available. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that, the microbial biomass and enzyme activity, more often than not, respond quickly to changes in soil tillage and fertilization. Therefore, the experiments were aimed at analyzing the responses of soil microbial traits to tillage and fertilization in a soybean field in Kurdistan University, Iran. The field soil is categorized into coarse Loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, and mesic Typic Xerorthents. The experiments were arranged in split plot, based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots consisted of long-term (since 2002 tillage systems including conventional tillage (CT, minimum tillage (MT and no-tillage (NT. Eight fertilization methods were employed in the sub-plots, including (F1: farmyard manure (FYM; (F2: compost; (F3: chemical fertilizers; (F4: FYM + compost; (F5: FYM + chemical fertilizers; (F6: compost + chemical fertilizers; (F7: FYM + compost + chemical fertilizers and (F8: Control (without fertilizer. The highest microbial biomass carbon (385.1 μg was observed in NT-F4 treatment. The NT treatment comparatively recorded higher values of acid phosphatase (189.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1, alkaline phosphatase (2879.6 μg PNP g-1 h-1 and dehydrogenase activity (68.1 μg PNP g-1 h-1. The soil treated with a mixture of compost and FYM inputs had the maximum urease activity of all tillage treatments. Organically manured treatment (F4 showed more activity in dehydrogenase (85.7 μg PNP g-1 h-1, acid phosphatase (199.1 µg PNP g-1 h-1 and alkaline phosphatase (3183.6 µg PNP g-1 h-1 compared to those treated with chemical fertilizers. In NT-F4 treatment, using on-farm inputs is most

  16. Influence of Conservation Tillage and Soil Water Content on Crop Yield in Dryland Compacted Alfisol of Central Chile Influencia de la Labranza de Conservación y el Contenido de Agua sobre el Rendimiento del Cultivo en un Alfisol compactado del Secano Central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martinez G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chilean dryland areas of the Mediterranean climate region are characterized by highly degraded and compacted soils, which require the use of conservation tillage systems to mitigate water erosion as well as to improve soil water storage. An oat (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA crop rotation was established under the following conservation systems: no tillage (Nt, Nt + contour plowing (Nt+Cp, Nt + barrier hedge (Nt+Bh, and Nt + subsoiling (Nt+Sb, compared to conventional tillage (Ct to evaluate their influence on soil water content (SWC in the profile (10 to 110 cm depth, the soil compaction and their interaction with the crop yield. Experimental plots were established in 2007 and lasted 3 yr till 2009 in a compacted Alfisol. At the end of the growing seasons, SWC was reduced by 44 to 51% in conservation tillage systems and 60% in Ct. Soil water content had a significant (p En Chile, las zonas de clima mediterráneo se caracterizan por suelos altamente degradados y compactados por erosión, lo que requiere el uso de sistemas de labranza conservacionista para mitigar la erosión hídrica, así como incrementar el contenido de agua en el suelo. Se evaluó una rotación avena (Avena sativa L. cv. Supernova-INIA - trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pandora-INIA establecida bajo los siguientes sistemas conservacionistas: cero labranza (Nt, Nt + curvas de nivel (Nt+Cp, Nt + franjas vivas (Nt+Bh y Nt + subsolado (Nt+Sb, las que fueron comparadas al sistema de labranza convencional (Ct, para evaluar su influencia en el contenido de agua en el suelo (SWC en el perfil (10 a 110 cm profundidad, la compactación del suelo y su interacción con el rendimiento del cultivo. Las parcelas experimentales fueron establecidas 3 años seguidos (2007 al 2009 en un Alfisol compactado. Al final de la temporada, el SWC disminuyó 44 a 51% en los sistemas conservacionistas y 60% en el sistema convencional. El sistema de

  17. Disponibilidade de água do solo ao milho cultivado sob sistemas de semeadura direta e preparo convencional Water availability to maize plants cultivated under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta Teresinha Petry

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o armazenamento, a disponibilidade e a extração de água no solo por plantas de milho irrigadas e submetidas a déficit hídrico terminal, cultivadas sob sistema de semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Foram realizados dois experimentos durante os anos agrícolas de 1999/00 e 2000/01, em área experimental do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, fatorial, com quatro repetições. Foram utilizados dois manejos da água de irrigação (fator A: irrigado e déficit hídrico terminal (plantas de milho foram submetidas a déficit hídrico terminal a partir dos 27 dias após a emergência; e dois sistemas de cultivo (fator B: semeadura direta e preparo convencional. Nas parcelas irrigadas, irrigações foram feitas para elevar o conteúdo de água no solo ao limite superior de disponibilidade de água às plantas, sempre que a evapotranspiração máxima acumulada da cultura do milho atingia 25 mm. O conteúdo de água no solo foi medido em três leituras semanais, para determinação da extração de água pelas plantas e disponibilidade de água às plantas de milho. Os resultados indicaram que a disponibilidade de água às plantas de milho foi similar nos sistemas semeadura direta e preparo convencional, em ambos os anos agrícolas avaliados. Plantas de milho cultivadas em preparo convencional extraíram maior quantidade de água, em ambos os anos, em relação à semeadura direta.The aim objective of this study was to quantify the soil water storage, plant-available water and extraction of soil water by corn plants under irrigation and terminal drought. Plants were cultivated under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Two experiments were conducted in the 1999/00 and 2000/01 growing season on an experimental field of the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Federal University of Santa

  18. Seasonal herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff and sediments of an olive orchard under conventional tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Maria Jesus; de Luna, Elena; Gómez, José Alfonso; Cornejo, Juan; Hermosín, M. Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Several pollution episodes in surface and groundwaters with pesticides have occurred in areas where olive crops are established. For that reason, it is necessary to know the evolution of some pesticides in olive trees plantation depending on their seasonal application. This is especially important when conventional tillage is used. A monitoring of two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen)in the first cm of soil and, in runoff and sediment yield was carried out after several rainfall events. The rainfall occurred during the study was higher in winter than in spring giving rise more runoff in winter. However, no differences in sediment yields were observed between spring and winter. Terbuthylazine depletion from soil is associated to the first important rainfall events in both seasons (41 mm in spring and 30 mm in winter). At the end of the experiment, no terbuthylazine soil residues were recovered in winter whereas 15% of terbuthylazine applied remained in spring. Oxyfluorfen showed a character more persistent than terbuthylazine remaining 48% of the applied at the end of the experiment due to its low water solubility. Higher percentage from the applied of terbuthylazine was recovered in runoff in winter (0.55%) than in spring (0.17%). Nevertheless, no differences in terbuthylazine sediments yields between both seasons were observed. That is in agreement with the values of runoff and sediment yields accumulated in tanks in both seasons. Due to the low water solubility of oxyfluorfen very low amount of this herbicide was recovered in runoff. Whereas, in sediment yields the 39.5% of the total applied was recovered. These data show that the dissipation of terbuthylazine from soil is closely related with leaching processes and in less extent with runoff. However, oxyfluorfen dissipation is more affected by runoff processes since this herbicide is co-transported in sediment yields. Keywords: olive crop, pesticide, runoff, sediments, surface water, groundwater

  19. soil failure crescent radii measurement for draft in tillage study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1986-09-01

    Sep 1, 1986 ... effective width of the failure crescent. V. = vertical component of blade force. V. = width of blade α. = blade rate angle δ. = soil metal friction angle. ϒs. = ..... Report. Department of. Agricultural. Engineering,. McGill University Montreal, canada, 1976. 13. Mckyes, E. and O.S. Ali. The cut- ting of soil by narrow.

  20. Field trial assessment of biological, chemical, and physical responses of soil to tillage intensity, fertilization, and grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  1. Soil water and mineral nitrogen content as influenced by crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and wheat–medic rotation (McWMcW) and tillage, conventional-till (CT), minimum-till (MT), no-till (NT) and zero-till (ZT) were studied. Crop rotation did not influence soil moisture content. Soil water content in CT tended to be lower compared ...

  2. Soil-blade orientation effect on tillage forces determined by 3D finite element models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayadi Ibrahmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of the cutting parameters of a blade on the tillage force components using finite element modeling. A three-dimensional model was carried out with Abaqus Explicit in order to study the interaction between the tool and soil. The soil was modeled with linear forms of the Drucker-Pager model, while the tool was considered as a rigid body with a reference point taken at its tip. The effect of tillage depth and the width of a vertical blade were studied. It was found that the amounts of the draught and vertical forces increase linearly with a slope of 0.037 and 0.0143 respectively when the width increases. The narrow tool (width< 60mm has a greater effect on the specific draught force than a larger tool. Draught and specific draught force increase with polynomial and linear curve respectively versus the depth. However, this effect was reduced for the vertical force. These results were in a good agreement with previously published works. The second part of this paper is focused on the oblique position of the blade to evaluate the effect of the attack angles on both the tillage forces (draught, lateral and vertical and the cutting process of the soil during and after its failure. For all considered angles, the draught force presents the highest values compared to the vertical and lateral forces. Results showed that working with small cutting and an average rake angles (30° to 60° and 45° respectively can produce a good soil inversion.

  3. Predicting Suitable field workdays for soil tillage in North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oladimeji S. Ife

    machinery, soil etc.) If a crop is planted at a time other than within the optimum period, reduced yield can occur leading to losses. When the crop matures, and is not harvested within the optimum period, some of it may deteriorate in the field, leading to losses. These losses attract extra costs usually referred to as timeliness ...

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils in southern Poland under various tillage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkowski, Michal; Zieba, Damian; Ciaciek, Klaudia; Necki, Jaroslaw; Rozanski, Kazimierz

    2015-04-01

    Due to close ties of nitrogen cycle with the production of food, appropriate mitigation policies need to be considered in order to reduce the impact of reactive N compounds on both human health and the environment. These policies strongly rely on quantitative information with respect to fluxes of reactive nitrogen compounds to the atmosphere and mechanisms controlling those fluxes on a various time and space scales. One of these compounds is nitrous oxide - currently the most important human-emitted ozone depleting substance and one of the most important greenhouse gases. In this study, which is a part of broader, regional (Southern Poland) analysis of nitrous oxide circulation, we present the results of field measurements performed at the Institute of Plant Acclimatization and Husbandry (ZDHAR) in Grodkowice (Malopolska). Several representative sites have been selected for measurements of N2O emissions during two campaigns - in spring (March) and autumn (October) 2014. The investigated crops were chosen to represent the regional agriculture and included wheat, canola and maize under various tillage conditions (with and without tilling), as well as an uncultivated grassland as a control site. The static chamber method was chosen to quantify soil-atmosphere N2O fluxes. Chamber enclosures have been performed every 3-5 days, depending on the conditions prevailing at the sites during the intermediate periods (e.g. rainfall or fertilization events). From each enclosure, five 50-ml air samples have been collected for subsequent analysis of nitrous oxide concentrations. Well-established gas chromatography methods, with a precision of a single N2O measurement better than 0.5 ppb were employed. The measured concentrations were then used in a linear emission model to calculate N2O fluxes. Other trace gases (CH4, CO2, SF6) were also measured in each sample for quality control purposes. Result for both campaigns show large variability of N2O emissions, with maximum fluxes in

  5. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  6. The influence of tillage systems, fertilization and plant protection levels on weed infestation in winter rye cultivated on light soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kraska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to determine the influence of conventional and ploughless tillage systems upon infestation in two differentiated fertilization and plant protection levels on light soil. Before harvest winter rye there was determined weed infestation of square-frame method. There were estimated weed species composition and air dry matter of weeds in two randomly selected place. Number of monocotyledonous weeds, total weeds and dry matter of weeds was higher on the objects with ploughless tillage system compared with conventional tillage. Intensive fertilization and plant protection decreased number of dicotyledonous weeds in canopy of winter rye. Conventional tillage system decreased Apera spica-venti occurrence in a canopy of winter rye and increased number of Plantago major plants. Intensive level of fertilization and plant protection decreased weed infestation first of all through Matricaria maritima.

  7. Stratification and Storage of Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen as Affected by Tillage Practices in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    Full Text Available Tillage practices can redistribute the soil profiles, and thus affects soil organic carbon (SOC, and its storage. The stratification ratio (SR can be an indicator of soil quality. This study was conducted to determine tillage effects on the profile distribution of certain soil properties in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and summer maize (Zea mays L. systems in the North China Plain (NCP. Three tillage treatments, including no till (NT, rotary tillage (RT, and plow tillage (PT, were established in 2001 in Luancheng County, Hebei Province. The concentration, storage, and SR of SOC and soil total nitrogen (TN were assessed in both the wheat and maize seasons. Compared with RT and PT, the mean SRs for all depth ratios of SOC under NT increased by 7.85% and 30.61% during the maize season, and by 14.67% and 30.91% during the wheat season, respectively. The SR of TN for 0-5:30-50 cm increased by 140%, 161%, and 161% in the maize season, and 266%, 154%, and 122% in the wheat season compared to the SR for 0-5:5-10 cm under NT, RT and PT, respectively. The data indicated that SOC and TN were both concentrated in the surface-soil layers (0-10 cm under NT but were distributed relatively evenly through the soil profile under PT. Meanwhile, the storage of SOC and TN was higher under NT for the surface soil (0-10 cm but was higher under PT for the deeper soil (30-50 cm. Furthermore, the storage of SOC and TN was significantly related to SR of SOC and TN along the whole soil profile (P<0.0001. Therefore, SR could be used to explain and indicate the changes in the storage of SOC and TN. Further, NT stratifies SOC and TN, enhances the topsoil SOC storage, and helps to improve SOC sequestration and soil quality.

  8. Stratification and Storage of Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen as Affected by Tillage Practices in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Xue, Jian-Fu; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Kong, Fan-Lei; Chen, Fu; Lal, Rattan; Zhang, Hai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Tillage practices can redistribute the soil profiles, and thus affects soil organic carbon (SOC), and its storage. The stratification ratio (SR) can be an indicator of soil quality. This study was conducted to determine tillage effects on the profile distribution of certain soil properties in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) systems in the North China Plain (NCP). Three tillage treatments, including no till (NT), rotary tillage (RT), and plow tillage (PT), were established in 2001 in Luancheng County, Hebei Province. The concentration, storage, and SR of SOC and soil total nitrogen (TN) were assessed in both the wheat and maize seasons. Compared with RT and PT, the mean SRs for all depth ratios of SOC under NT increased by 7.85% and 30.61% during the maize season, and by 14.67% and 30.91% during the wheat season, respectively. The SR of TN for 0-5:30-50 cm increased by 140%, 161%, and 161% in the maize season, and 266%, 154%, and 122% in the wheat season compared to the SR for 0-5:5-10 cm under NT, RT and PT, respectively. The data indicated that SOC and TN were both concentrated in the surface-soil layers (0-10 cm) under NT but were distributed relatively evenly through the soil profile under PT. Meanwhile, the storage of SOC and TN was higher under NT for the surface soil (0-10 cm) but was higher under PT for the deeper soil (30-50 cm). Furthermore, the storage of SOC and TN was significantly related to SR of SOC and TN along the whole soil profile (Pstorage of SOC and TN. Further, NT stratifies SOC and TN, enhances the topsoil SOC storage, and helps to improve SOC sequestration and soil quality.

  9. Soil change and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) seedling growth following site preparation tillage in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad M. Lincoln; Rodney E. Will; Lawrence A. Morris; Emily A. Carter; Daniel Markewtiz; John R. Britt; Ben Cazell; Vic Ford

    2007-01-01

    To determine the relationship between changes in soil physical properties due to tillage and growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings, we measured soil moisture and penetration resistance for a range of tillage treatments on two Upper Coastal Plain sites in Georgia and correlated these measurements to the growth of individual seedlings. The...

  10. Impact of direct seeding on soil water retention in semi-arid area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , twentyfive years after the first of zero tillage farming experiences, this new method was named crop conservation agriculture because it helps preserve soil nutrients, water absorption enhancing and infiltration and biodiversity by maintaining ...

  11. Effects of Reduced Tillage on Crop Yield, Plant Available Nutrients and Soil Organic Matter in a 12-Year Long-Term Trial under Organic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Claupein

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was performed in Southwest Germany to examine the effects of long-term reduced tillage (2000–2012. Tillage treatments were deep moldboard plow: DP, 25 cm; double-layer plow; DLP, 15 + 10 cm, shallow moldboard plow: SP, 15 cm and chisel plow: CP, 15 cm, each of them with or without preceding stubble tillage. The mean yields of a typical eight-year crop rotation were 22% lower with CP compared to DP, and 3% lower with SP and DLP. Stubble tillage increased yields by 11% across all treatments. Soil nutrients were high with all tillage strategies and amounted for 34–57 mg kg−1 P and 48–113 mg kg−1 K (0–60 cm soil depth. Humus budgets showed a high carbon input via crops but this was not reflected in the actual Corg content of the soil. Corg decreased as soil depth increased from 13.7 g kg−1 (0–20 cm to 4.3 g kg−1 (40–60 cm across all treatments. After 12 years of experiment, SP and CP resulted in significantly higher Corg content in 0–20 cm soil depth, compared to DP and DLP. Stubble tillage had no significant effect on Corg. Stubble tillage combined with reduced primary tillage can sustain yield levels without compromising beneficial effects from reduced tillage on Corg and available nutrient content.

  12. Long-Term No-Tillage Direct Seeding Mode for Water-Saving and Drought-Resistance Rice Production in Rice-Rapeseed Rotation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-bin DU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of long-term no-tillage direct seeding mode on rice yield and the soil physiochemical property in a rice-rapeseed rotation system, a comparative experiment with a water-saving and drought-resistance rice (WDR variety and a double low rapeseed variety as materials was conducted under no-tillage direct seeding (NTDS mode and conventional tillage direct seeding (CTDS mode for four years, using the CTDS mode as the control. Compared with the CTDS mode, the actual rice yield of WDR decreased by 8.10% at the first year, whereas the plant height, spikelet number per panicle, spikelet fertility, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, actual yield, and harvest index increased with no-tillage years, which led to the actual yield increase by 6.49% at the fourth year. Correlation analysis showed that the panicle length was significantly related to the actual yield of WDR. Compared with the CTDS mode in terms of the soil properties, the pH value of the NTDS mode decreased every year, whereas the contents of soil organic matter and total N of the NTDS mode increased. In the 0–5 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the soil bulk decreased, whereas the contents of soil organic matter, total N, and available N increased. In the 5–20 cm layer of the NTDS mode, the available N and K decreased, whereas the soil bulk, contents of soil organic matter, and total N increased. In summary, the NTDS mode increased the rice yield, and could improve the paddy soil fertility of the top layer.

  13. Soil microbial biomass under different management and tillage systems of permanent intercropped cover species in an orange orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Liborio Balota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate soil erosion and enhance soil fertility in orange plantations, the permanent protection of the inter-rows by cover species has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the microbial biomass, due to different soil tillage systems and intercropped cover species between rows of orange trees. The soil of the experimental area previously used as pasture (Brachiaria humidicola was an Ultisol (Typic Paleudult originating from Caiuá sandstone in the northwestern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT in the entire area and strip tillage (ST (strip width 2 m, in combination with different ground cover management systems. The citrus cultivar 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime rootstock was used. Soil samples were collected after five years of treatment from a depth of 0-15 cm, under the tree canopy and in the inter-row, in the following treatments: (1 CT and an annual cover crop with the leguminous species Calopogonium mucunoides; (2 CT and a perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3 CT and an evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4 CT and a cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation; and (5 ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture of Brachiaria humidicola. Soil tillage and the different cover species influenced the microbial biomass, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row. The cultivation of brachiaria increased C and N in the microbial biomass, while bahiagrass increased P in the microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P by the presence of ground cover species and according to the soil P content. The grass species increased C, N and P in the soil microbial biomass from the inter-row more than leguminous species.

  14. Tillage-induced changes to soil structure and organic carbon fractions in New Zealand soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T. G.; Saggar, S.; Ross, C. W.; Dando, J. L.; Newman, R. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of increasing cropping and soil compaction on aggregate stability and dry-sieved aggregate-size distribution, and their relationship to total organic C (TOC) and the major functional groups of soil organic carbon, were investigated on 5 soils of contrasting mineralogy. All soils except the allophanic soil showed a significant decline in aggregate stability under medium- to long-term cropping. Mica-rich, fine-textured mineral and humic soils showed the greatest increase in the mean weight diameter (MWD) of dry aggregates, while the oxide-rich soils, and particularly the allophanic soils, showed only a slight increase in the MWD after long-term cropping. On conversion back to pasture, the aggregate stability of the mica-rich soils increased and the MWD of the aggregate-size distribution decreased, with the humic soil showing the greatest recovery. Aggregate stability and dry aggregate-size distribution patterns show that soil resistance to structural degradation and soil resilience increased from fine-textured to coarse-textured to humic mica-rich soils to oxide-rich soils to allophanic soils. Coarse- and fine-textured mica-rich and oxide-rich soils under pasture contained medium amounts of TOC, hot-water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), and acid hydrolysable carbohydrate (AHC), all of which declined significantly under cropping. The rate of decline varied with soil type in the initial years of cropping, but was similar under medium- and long-term cropping. TOC was high in the humic mica-rich and allophanic soils, and levels did not decline appreciably under medium- and long-term cropping. 13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance evidence also indicates that all major functional groups of soil organic carbon declined under cropping, with O-alkyl C and alkyl C showing the fastest and slowest rate of decline, respectively. On conversion back to pasture, both WSC and AHC returned to levels originally present under long-term pasture. TOC recovered to original pasture

  15. Reduced tillage and cover crops as a strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil organic carbon sequestration in dry Mediterranean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, María; Garcia-Franco, Noelia; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Martínez-Mena, María

    2016-04-01

    The implementation of sustainable land management (SLM) practices in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems can be beneficial to maintain or enhance levels of soil organic carbon and mitigate current atmospheric CO2 increase. In this study, we assess the effects of different tillage treatments (conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), reduced tillage combined with green manure (RTG), and no tillage (NT)) on soil CO2 efflux, aggregation and organic carbon stabilization in two semiarid organic rainfed almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., var. Ferragnes) orchards located in SE Spain Soil CO2 efflux, temperature and moisture were measured monthly between May 2012 and December 2014 (site 1), and between February 2013 and December 2014 (site 2). In site 1, soil CO2 efflux rates were also measured immediately following winter and spring tillage operations. Aboveground biomass inputs were estimated at the end of the growing season in each tillage treatment. Soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected in the rows between the trees (n=4) in October 2012. Four aggregate size classes were distinguished by sieving (large and small macroaggregates, free microaggregates, and free silt plus clay fraction), and the microaggregates occluded within macroaggregates (SMm) were isolated. Soil CO2efflux rates in all tillage treatments varied significantly during the year, following changes during the autumn, winter and early spring, or changes in soil moisture during late spring and summer. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed that there were no significant differences in soil CO2 efflux between tillage treatments throughout the study period at both sites. Average annual values of C lost by soil respiration were slightly but not significantly higher under RT and RTG treatments (492 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) than under NT treatment (405 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) in site 1, while slightly but not significantly lower values were observed under RT and RTG treatments (468 and 439 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1

  16. Tillage and residue management effect on soil properties, crop performance and energy relations in greengram (Vigna radiata L. under maize-based cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Meena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of tillage and crop residue management on soil properties, crop performance, energy relations and economics in greengram (Vigna radiata L. was evaluated under four maize-based cropping systems in an Inceptisol of Delhi, India. Soil bulk density, hydraulic conductivity and aggregation at 0–15 cm layer were significantly affected both by tillage and cropping systems, while zero tillage significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. Yields of greengram were significantly higher in maize–chickpea and maize–mustard systems, more so with residue addition. When no residue was added, conventional tillage required 20% higher energy inputs than the zero tillage, while the residue addition increased the energy output in both tillage practices. Maize–wheat–greengram cropping system involved the maximum energy requirement and the cost of production. However, the largest net return was obtained from the maize–chickpea–greengram system under the conventional tillage with residue incorporation. Although zero tillage resulted in better aggregation, C content and N availability in soil, and reduced the energy inputs, cultivation of summer greengram appeared to be profitable under conventional tillage system with residue incorporation.

  17. Artificial neural network approach for mapping contrasting tillage practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage information is crucial for environmental modeling as it directly affects evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, carbon sequestration, and soil losses due to wind and water erosion from agricultural fields. However, collecting this information can be time consuming and costly. Remote sensi...

  18. Impact of orchard and tillage management practices on soil leaching of atrazine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, ammonium, nitrates and phosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajdak, L.; Lipiec, J.; Siczek, A.; Kotowska, U.; Nosalewicz, A.

    2009-04-01

    The experiments were carried out on an Orthic Luvisol developed from loess, over limestone, at the experimental field of Lublin Agricultural University in Felin (51o15'N, 22o35'E), Poland. The investigation deals with the problems of leaching's rate of atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,2,3-triazine), potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, ammonium, nitrates and phosphates from two management systems of soil: (i) conventionally tilled field with main tillage operations including stubble cultivator (10 cm) + harrowing followed by mouldboard ploughing to 20 cm depth, and crop rotation including selected cereals, root crops and papillionaceous crops, (ii) 35-year-old apple orchard field (100x200m) with a permanent sward that was mown in the inter-rows during the growing season. The conventionally tilled plot was under the current management practice for approximately 30 years. Field sites were close to each other (about 150 m). Core samples of 100 cm3 volume and 5 cm diameter were taken from two depths 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, and were used to determine the soil water characteristic curve. It was observed that management practices impacted on the physic-chemical properties of soils. pH (in H2O) in tilled soil ranged from 5.80 to 5.91. However soil of orchard soil revealed higher values of pH than tilled soil and ranged from 6.36 to 6.40. The content of organic carbon for tilled soil ranged from 1.13 to 1.17%, but in orchard soil from 1.59 to 1.77%. Tillled soil showed broader range of bulk density 1.38-1.62 mg m-3, than orchard soil 1.33-134 mg m-3. The first-order kinetic reaction model was fitted to the experimental atrazine, potassium, magnesium, manganese, iron, nitrates, ammonium and phosphates leaching vs. time data. The concentrations of leached chemical compounds revealed linear curves. The correlation coefficients ranged from -0.873 to -0.993. The first-order reaction constants measured for the orchard soils were from 3.8 to 19 times higher than

  19. Micro and macroscopic investigation to quantify tillage impact on soil hydrodynamic behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, E.; Roisin, C.; Plougonven, E.; Deraedt, D.; Léonard, A.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, tillage simplification is an increasing practice. Many advantages are cited in the literature, such as energy saving, soil conservation etc. Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but consequent changes in soil hydrodynamic behaviour at the field scale are still not well understood. Many studies focus only on macroscopic measurements which do not provide mechanistic explanations. Moreover, research shows divergent conclusions over structure modification. The aim of this work is to fill this gap by quantifying soil structure modification depending on tillage intensity through both macroscopic and microscopic measurements, the latter improving our comprehension of the fundamental mechanisms involved. Our experiment takes place in Gentinnes (Walloon Brabant, Belgium), on a field organized in a Latin square scheme. Since 2004, plots have been cultivated in conventional tillage (CT) or in reduced tillage (RT). The latter consists in sowing after stubble ploughing of about 10cm. The crop rotation is sugar beet followed by winter wheat. The soil is mainly composed of silt loam and can be classified as a Luvisol. Macroscopic investigations consist in establishing pF and K(h) curves and 3D soil strength profiles. At the microscale, 3D morphologic parameters are measured using X-ray microtomography. Because of the variation of working depth between management practices (10cm for RT vs. 25cm for CT), two horizons were investigated: H1 between 0-10cm and H2 between 12-25cm. 3D soil strength profiles were established thanks to a fully automated penetrometer (30° angle cone with a base area of 10mm2) which covered a 160 × 80cm2 area with 5cm spacing between neighbouring points. At each node, penetration was performed and soil strength measurements were collected every 1cm from 5 to 55cm depth. K(h) curves were provided by 20cm diameter tension-infiltrometer measurements (Eijkelkamp Agrisearch Equipment). Undisturbed soil samples were removed from

  20. Effects of Zero Tillage (No-Till) Conservation Agriculture on soil physical and biological properties and their contributions to sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John N.; Rass, Gerard; de Freitas, Pedro L.; Basch, Gottlieb; González Sanchez, Emilio J.; Tabaglio, Vincenzo; Kassan, Amir; Derpsch, Rolf; Friedrich, Theodor; Giupponi, Luca

    2013-04-01

    Not cultivating soil, rotating crops over the years, and leaving crop residues on the surface in the practice of zero tillage/conservation agriculture (ZT/CA) reverses the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil structure, while increasing soil biological activity by a factor of 2 to 4. The results of this are many: (a) not cultivating reduces soil compaction, leaving old root holes to facilitate internal drainage, averts the pulverization of soil aggregates and formation of pans, reduces draft power for planting and gives shelter, winter food and nesting sites for fauna, (b) crop residues on the surface practically eliminate wind and water erosion, reduce soil moisture loss through the mulch effect, slow spring warm-up (possibly offset by a lower specific heat demand with less water retention in surface soil) and act as a reserve of organically-compounded nutrients (as they decompose to humus), (c) more SOM means higher available water and nutrient retention, higher biological activity year round (enhancing biological controls), higher levels of water-stable aggregates and a positive carbon sink in incremental SOM. The positive impacts for society are: (i) more and cheaper food, (ii) reduced flood and drought-induced famine risks, (iii) a positive carbon sink in SOM and possible reductions in NO2 emissions, (iv) cleaner water and greater aquifer recharge due to reduced runoff, (v) cleaner air through effective elimination of dust as a product of cultivation (vi) less water pollution and greater aquifer recharge from reduced rainfall runoff, (vii) farm diesel consumption halved, (viii) reduced demand for (tropical) de-forestation, by permitting crop expansion on steeper lands, (ix) increased wildlife populations (skylarks, plovers, partridge and peccaries) and (x) an improved conservation mindset in farmers. It is notable that, in spite of successful practitioners in all European countries, mainstream adoption is still to come

  1. Nutrients in soil layers under no-tillage after successive pig slurry applications

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    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successive applications of pig slurry to soils under no-tillage can increase the nutrient levels in the uppermost soil layers and part of the nutrients may be transferred to deeper layers. The objective was to evaluate the distribution of nutrients in the profile of a soil after 19 pig slurry applications under no-tillage for 93 months. The experiment was conducted from May 2000 to January 2008 in an experimental area of the Federal University of Santa Maria, southern Brazil, on a Typic Hapludalf. The treatments consisted of pig slurry applications (0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 and at the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected (layers 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, 8-10, 10-12, 12-14, 14-16, 16-18, 18-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm. The levels of mineral N, available P and K and total N, P and K were evaluated. The 19 pig slurry applications in 93 months promoted migration of total N and P down to 30 cm and available P and K to the deepest layer analyzed. At the end of the experiment, no increase was observed in mineral N content in the deeper layers, but increased levels of available P and K, showing a transfer of N, P and K to layers below the sampled. This evidences undesirable environmental and economic consequences of the use of pig slurry and reinforces the need for a more rational use, i.e., applications of lower manure doses, combined with mineral fertilizers.

  2. Assessing the Soil Physiological Potential Using Pedo-Biological Diagnosis Under Minimum-Tillage System and Mineral Fertilization

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    Lazar Bireescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized agrofond, using moderate mineral doses (N80P80 as average of 2009–2010 period, under minimum tillage (2x disk, paraplow, chisel compared to conventional (plugging at 20 cm and 30 cm. In the case of soil works with chisel and paraplow without return of furrow, the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis highlights an increase of soil physiological potential, in the both variants (unfertilized and fertilized, unlike the method of alternating the depth of plugging that proved to be ineffective.

  3. Temperatura do solo em função do preparo do solo e do manejo da cobertura de inverno Soil temperature as affected by soil tillage and management of winter cover crops

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    Carlos Eduardo Angeli Furlani

    2008-02-01

    , or shredding. The soil temperature (thermocouples was evaluated at a depth of 5 cm, every hour, 7, 14, 30, 45, and 60 days after plant emergence; the soil water content at a depth of 10 cm, at the same dates and, the soil surface coverage (dry mass and cover index were measured immediately after treatment application. Lower soil temperatures were observed in the no-tillage system than under conventional tillage until the 14th day after plant emergence (DAE. From the 30th DAE, the temperature was no longer influenced by the treatments due to the soil cover and sufficient water availability in the soil. The cover managements with plant rolling, shredding, or herbicide had no influence on the soil temperature. The soil temperature did not affect the development of the cover crops.

  4. Soil total carbon and nitrogen and crop yields after eight years of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the long-term effect of management practices on soil C and N stocks is lacking. An experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2011 in the northern Great Plains, USA to examine the effects of tillage, crop rotation, and cultural practice on annualized crop biomass (stems + leaves) residue r...

  5. GRANULOMETRIC AND HUMIC FRACTIONS CARBON STOCKS OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER UNDER NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM IN UBERABA, BRAZIL

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    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cover plant use preceding grain crops in Cerrado soil can increase the carbon stocks of chemical and physical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon stocks of SOM granulometric and humic fractions in a Cerrado area under no-tillage system with different cover plant, and compare the results with those from conventional tillage and fallow areas, in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. The implemented cover crops were: millet, tropical grass and sunn hemp. Furthermore, an area was used in fallow and another as a control area (conventional tillage. After cover crop removal, the areas were subdivided for the corn and soybean plantation. Soil samples were collected in the 0.0-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m depths, with posterior quantification of total organic carbon (TOC levels and chemical and granulometric fractionation of SOM. Humic acid carbon (C-HAF, fulvic acids (C-FAF and humin (C-HUM were quantified through these fractionations. The granulometric fractions consisted in particulate organic matter (POM and mineral organic matter (MOM. Using the carbon levels for each fraction, the respective stocks for each depth were calculated, including the 0.0-0.20 m layer. In the 0.0-0.20 m layer, TOC had the highest stocks for the millet area. The highest POM stocks were found for the corn plantation over sunn hemp and the fallow and soybean area over millet and tropical grass (0.0-0.20 m. In relation to the MOM stocks, the highest values were observed in the areas with millet, sunn hemp and tropical (palisade grass, all superior to those found in the conventional tillage and fallow areas, independent of evaluated culture (0.10-0.20 m. The highest C-HUM stocks were observed in the area with tropical grass (0.025-0.05 m and areas with tropical grass and sunn hemp (0.10-0.20 m, when compared to conventional tillage, independent of evaluated culture (corn and soybean. The highest C-FAH stocks in the depth of 0

  6. Warmer and Wetter Soil Stimulates Assimilation More than Respiration in Rainfed Agricultural Ecosystem on the China Loess Plateau: The Role of Partial Plastic Film Mulching Tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Daozhi; Hao, Weiping; Mei, Xurong; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Qi; Caylor, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem carbon storage have acquired widespread concern due to its alleviation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, combining of furrow-ridge with plastic film mulching in spring maize ecosystem was widely applied to boost crop water productivity in the semiarid regions of China. However, there is still limited information about the potentials for increased ecosystem carbon storage of this tillage method. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast net carbon dioxide exchange, biomass accumulation and carbon budgets of maize (Zea maize L.) fields under the traditional non-mulching with flat tillage (CK) and partial plastic film mulching with furrow-ridge tillage (MFR) on the China Loess Plateau. Half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of both treatments were synchronously measured with two eddy covariance systems during the growing seasons of 2011 through 2013. At same time green leaf area index (GLAI) and biomass were also measured biweekly. Compared with CK, the warmer and wetter (+1.3°C and +4.3%) top soil at MFR accelerated the rates of biomass accumulation, promoted greater green leaf area and thus shortened the growing seasons by an average value of 10.4 days for three years. MFR stimulated assimilation more than respiration during whole growing season, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEE of -79 gC/m2 than CK. However, after considering carbon in harvested grain (or aboveground biomass), there is a slight higher carbon sink (or a stronger carbon source) in MFR due to its greater difference of aboveground biomass than that of grain between both treatments. These results demonstrate that partial plastic film mulched furrow-ridge tillage with aboveground biomass exclusive of grain returned to the soil is an effective way to enhance simultaneously carbon sequestration and grain yield of maize in the semiarid regions.

  7. Warmer and Wetter Soil Stimulates Assimilation More than Respiration in Rainfed Agricultural Ecosystem on the China Loess Plateau: The Role of Partial Plastic Film Mulching Tillage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daozhi Gong

    Full Text Available Effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem carbon storage have acquired widespread concern due to its alleviation of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Recently, combining of furrow-ridge with plastic film mulching in spring maize ecosystem was widely applied to boost crop water productivity in the semiarid regions of China. However, there is still limited information about the potentials for increased ecosystem carbon storage of this tillage method. The objective of this study was to quantify and contrast net carbon dioxide exchange, biomass accumulation and carbon budgets of maize (Zea maize L. fields under the traditional non-mulching with flat tillage (CK and partial plastic film mulching with furrow-ridge tillage (MFR on the China Loess Plateau. Half-hourly net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE of both treatments were synchronously measured with two eddy covariance systems during the growing seasons of 2011 through 2013. At same time green leaf area index (GLAI and biomass were also measured biweekly. Compared with CK, the warmer and wetter (+1.3°C and +4.3% top soil at MFR accelerated the rates of biomass accumulation, promoted greater green leaf area and thus shortened the growing seasons by an average value of 10.4 days for three years. MFR stimulated assimilation more than respiration during whole growing season, resulting in a higher carbon sequestration in terms of NEE of -79 gC/m2 than CK. However, after considering carbon in harvested grain (or aboveground biomass, there is a slight higher carbon sink (or a stronger carbon source in MFR due to its greater difference of aboveground biomass than that of grain between both treatments. These results demonstrate that partial plastic film mulched furrow-ridge tillage with aboveground biomass exclusive of grain returned to the soil is an effective way to enhance simultaneously carbon sequestration and grain yield of maize in the semiarid regions.

  8. Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Brevik, Eric C; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Jordán, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-05-01

    Soil erosion is extreme in Mediterranean orchards due to management impact, high rainfall intensities, steep slopes and erodible parent material. Vall d'Albaida is a traditional fruit production area which, due to the Mediterranean climate and marly soils, produces sweet fruits. However, these highly productive soils are left bare under the prevailing land management and marly soils are vulnerable to soil water erosion when left bare. In this paper we study the impact of different agricultural land management strategies on soil properties (bulk density, soil organic matter, soil moisture), soil water erosion and runoff, by means of simulated rainfall experiments and soil analyses. Three representative land managements (tillage/herbicide/covered with vegetation) were selected, where 20 paired plots (60 plots) were established to determine soil losses and runoff. The simulated rainfall was carried out at 55mmh(-1) in the summer of 2013 (soil moisture) for one hour on 0.25m(2) circular plots. The results showed that vegetation cover, soil moisture and organic matter were significantly higher in covered plots than in tilled and herbicide treated plots. However, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion were significantly higher in herbicide treated plots compared to the others. Runoff sediment concentration was significantly higher in tilled plots. The lowest values were identified in covered plots. Overall, tillage, but especially herbicide treatment, decreased vegetation cover, soil moisture, soil organic matter, and increased bulk density, runoff coefficient, total runoff, sediment yield and soil erosion. Soil erosion was extremely high in herbicide plots with 0.91Mgha(-1)h(-1) of soil lost; in the tilled fields erosion rates were lower with 0.51Mgha(-1)h(-1). Covered soil showed an erosion rate of 0.02Mgha(-1)h(-1). These results showed that agricultural management influenced water and sediment dynamics and that tillage and herbicide

  9. Effects of different soil management practices on soil properties and microbial diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Anna M.; Czyż, Ewa A.; Dexter, Anthony R.; Furtak, Karolina M.; Grządziel, Jarosław; Stanek-Tarkowska, Jadwiga

    2018-01-01

    The effects of different tillage systems on the properties and microbial diversity of an agricultural soil was investigated. In doing so, soil physical, chemical and biological properties were analysed in 2013-2015, on a long-term field experiment on a loamy sand at the IUNG-PIB Experimental Station in Grabów, Poland. Winter wheat was grown under two tillage treatments: conventional tillage using a mouldboard plough and traditional soil tillage equipment, and reduced tillage based on soil crushing-loosening equipment and a rigid-tine cultivator. Chopped wheat straw was used as a mulch on both treatments. Reduced tillage resulted in increased water content throughout the whole soil profile, in comparison with conventional tillage. Under reduced tillage, the content of readily dispersible clay was also reduced, and, therefore, soil stability was increased in the toplayers, compared with conventional tillage. In addition, the beneficial effects of reduced tillage were reflected in higher soil microbial activity as measured with dehydrogenases and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate, compared with conventional tillage. Moreover, the polimerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that soil under reduced till-age had greater diversity of microbial communities, compared with conventionally-tilled soil. Finally, reduced tillage increased organic matter content, stability in water and microbial diversity in the top layer of the soil.

  10. Fractions of soil organic matter under pasture, tillage system and crop-livestock integration

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    Paulo Roberto Gazolla

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the total organic carbon and the chemical (humic acid – FAH, fulvic acid – FAF, humin – Hum and textural (organic carbon associated particles – COp, organic carbon associated with minerals – COam and carbon management index – IMC of soil organic matter (SOM in samples of an Oxisol under no-tillage (NT with crop-livestock integration (ILP, compared to one NT area without ILP and areas of natural Cerrado (CE and pasture (PA in southwestern Goiás. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm in a completely randomized design. Among the cultivated areas the ILP presented in the upper soil layers the highest COT, COp, COam, Hum C-FAH/C-FAF and respect, having been checked in COT, COp, and COam Hum similar to those quantified in CE area in the deeper layers of the soil. In some depths evaluated, areas of NT and ILP had higher IMC compared to PA area. Areas of NT and PA showed no statistical difference in the COT, COam and C-FAH/C-FAF relationship, however, the NT area proved to be forwarding to greater stability of SOM, as it showed similarities in levels C of Hum, FAH, COp and IMC in relation to areas of CE and ILP in some depths evaluated.

  11. Short-term turnover of soil organic matter after tillage proven by Pyrolysis-field ionization MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Sebastian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Leinweber, Peter; Glatzel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about the composition and the turnover dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) is crucial to the fertility of agricultural soils. Even short-term changes of SOM are of fundamental importance. Tillage changes the decomposition and the mineralisation of SOM. By disrupting macroaggregates, tillage induces an increased turnover and hampers the aggregation of SOM. As a consequence, mineralisation of SOM is stimulated which may imply an additional efflux of CO2 and N2O from soil. Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) has been developed as a key method for SOM research. This powerful analytical tool allows a rapid, global and objective determination of the majority of chemical compound classes and is an appropriate method for the analysis of even small differences of biogeochemical matters. Hence, Py-FIMS may allow for a precise detection of the turnover of SOM and the involved compounds that are affected by tillage in the short-term. Py-FIMS measurements along with the determination of the CO2 and N2O effluxes from soil after tillage at the same site may give new insights into the compounds of SOM which are mineralised and consequently contribute to fundamental processes such as respiration, nitrification and denitrification. We applied Py-FIMS to soil samples from a stagnic Luvisol taken before and after tillage from a harvested maize field in Northern Germany. The samples were taken from two treatments amended with mineral fertiliser (MF) and biogas residues (BR), respectively, and also from an unfertilised control (UC). Tillage was conducted by disc harrowing, followed by mouldboard ploughing up to 30 cm. Simultaneously the soil efflux of CO2 and N2O was measured with a dynamic chamber technique. Before tillage, the mass spectra showed distinct differences in the relative ion intensities: the BR treatment showed much more volatilised matter during pyrolysis indicating an increased amount of SOM. Furthermore, in this treatment, the proportions

  12. Occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium species under wheat crop in zero tillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestro, L. B.; Stenglein, S. A.; Forjan, H.; Dinolfo, M. I.; Aramburri, A. M.; Manso, L.; Moreno, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    The presence of Fusarium species in cultivated soils is commonly associated with plant debris and plant roots. Fusarium species are also soil saprophytes. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium spp. at different soil depths in a zero tillage system after the wheat was harvested. Soil samples were obtained at three depths (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm) from five crop rotations: I, conservationist agriculture (wheat-sorghum-soybean); II, mixed agriculture/livestock with pastures, without using winter or summer forages (wheat-sorghum-soybean-canola-pastures); III, winter agriculture in depth limited soils (wheat-canola-barley-late soybean); IV, mixed with annual forage (wheat-oat/Vicia-sunflower); V, intensive agriculture (wheat-barley-canola, with alternation of soybean or late soybean). One hundred twenty two isolates of Fusarium were obtained and identified as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. oxysporum, F. scirpi and F. solani. The most prevalent species was F. oxysporum, which was observed in all sequences and depths. The Tukey's test showed that the relative frequency of F. oxysporum under intensive agricultural management was higher than in mixed traditional ones. The first 5 cm of soil showed statistically significant differences (p=0.05) with respect to 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths. The ANOVA test for the relative frequency of the other species as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. scirpi and F. solani, did not show statistically significant differences (p<0.05). We did not find significant differences (p<0.05) in the effect of crop rotations and depth on Shannon, Simpson indexes and species richness. Therefore we conclude that the different sequences and the sampling depth did not affect the alpha diversity of Fusarium community in this system. (Author) 51 refs.

  13. Occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium species under wheat crop in zero tillage

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    L. B. Silvestro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Fusarium species in cultivated soils is commonly associated with plant debris and plant roots. Fusarium species are also soil saprophytes. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium spp. at different soil depths in a zero tillage system after the wheat was harvested. Soil samples were obtained at three depths (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm from five crop rotations: I, conservationist agriculture (wheat-sorghum-soybean; II, mixed agriculture/livestock with pastures, without using winter or summer forages (wheat-sorghum-soybean-canola-pastures; III, winter agriculture in depth limited soils (wheat-canola-barley-late soybean; IV, mixed with annual forage (wheat-oat/Vicia-sunflower; V, intensive agriculture (wheat-barley-canola, with alternation of soybean or late soybean. One hundred twenty two isolates of Fusarium were obtained and identified as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. oxysporum, F. scirpi and F. solani. The most prevalent species was F. oxysporum, which was observed in all sequences and depths. The Tukey’s test showed that the relative frequency of F. oxysporum under intensive agricultural management was higher than in mixed traditional ones. The first 5 cm of soil showed statistically significant differences (p=0.05 with respect to 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths. The ANOVA test for the relative frequency of the other species as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. scirpi and F. solani, did not show statistically significant differences (p<0.05. We did not find significant differences (p<0.05 in the effect of crop rotations and depth on Shannon, Simpson indexes and species richness. Therefore we conclude that the different sequences and the sampling depth did not affect the alpha diversity of Fusarium community in this system.

  14. Effects zero tillage on cassava ( Manihot esculentsa crantz ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted on a sandy clay loamy soil (Alfisol) at Owo, Southwest Nigeria to evaluate the effects of four tillage methods on soil physical and chemical properties and cassava performance. Tillage treatments were: zero tillage, Conventional tillage, manual mounding and manual ridging. Zero tillage had ...

  15. Tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on dryland soil carbon dioxide emission and carbon content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainju, Upendra M; Jabro, Jalal D; Caesar-Tonthat, Thecan

    2010-01-01

    Management practices are needed to reduce dryland soil CO(2) emissions and to increase C sequestration. We evaluated the effects of tillage and cropping sequence combinations and N fertilization on dryland crop biomass (stems + leaves) and soil surface CO(2) flux and C content (0- to 120-cm depth) in a Williams loam from May to October, 2006 to 2008, in eastern Montana. Treatments were no-tilled continuous malt barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) (NTCB), no-tilled malt barley-pea (Pisum sativum L.) (NTB-P), no-tilled malt barley-fallow (NTB-F), and conventional-tilled malt barley-fallow (CTB-F), each with 0 and 80 kg N ha(-1). Measurements were made both in Phase I (malt barley in NTCB, pea in NTB-P, and fallow in NTB-F and CTB-F) and Phase II (malt barley in all sequences) of each cropping sequence in every year. Crop biomass varied among years, was greater in the barley than in the pea phase of the NTB-P treatment, and greater in NTCB and NTB-P than in NTB-F and CTB-F in 2 out of 3 yr. Similarly, biomass was greater with 80 than with 0 kg N ha(-1) in 1 out of 3 yr. Soil CO(2) flux increased from 8 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in early May to 239 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in mid-June as temperature increased and then declined to 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1) in September-October. Fluxes peaked immediately following substantial precipitation (>10 mm), especially in NTCB and NTB-P. Cumulative CO(2) flux from May to October was greater in 2006 and 2007 than in 2008, greater in cropping than in fallow phases, and greater in NTCB than in NTB-F. Tillage did not influence crop biomass and CO(2) flux but N fertilization had a variable effect on the flux in 2008. Similarly, soil total C content was not influenced by treatments. Annual cropping increased CO(2) flux compared with crop-fallow probably by increasing crop residue returns to soils and root and rhizosphere respiration. Inclusion of peas in the rotation with malt barley in the no-till system, which have been known to reduce N fertilization rates and

  16. Scenario Analysis of Soil and Water Conservation in Xiejia Watershed Based on Improved CSLE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jieying; Yu, Ming; Wu, Yong; Huang, Yao; Nie, Yawen

    2018-01-01

    According to the existing research results and related data, use the scenario analysis method, to evaluate the effects of different soil and water conservation measures on soil erosion in a small watershed. Based on the analysis of soil erosion scenarios and model simulation budgets in the study area, it is found that all scenarios simulated soil erosion rates are lower than the present situation of soil erosion in 2013. Soil and water conservation measures are more effective in reducing soil erosion than soil and water conservation biological measures and soil and water conservation tillage measures.

  17. Evaluation Of Onion Production On Sandy Soils By Use Of Reduced Tillage And Controlled Traffic Farming With Wide Span Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Hans Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of vegetables is often characterised by intensive field traffic and use of heavy machines. By implementing controlled traffic farming (CTF, compaction of the growth zone can be avoided. An experiment was established in an onion field on a coarse sandy loam. Treatments were applied in the field that for five years had been managed by seasonal CTF (SCTF, where harvest is performed by random traffic due to lack of suitable harvest machines. The main treatment was compaction with a fully loaded potato harvester. The split treatment in the crossed split plot design was mechanical loosening. Bulk density, macroporosity, penetration resistance, water retention characteristics and yield were measured. Mechanical loosening caused improvements in the physical soil measurements and more roots were found in the upper soil layers. The highest yield was however found in the CTF simulation plots (19% higher than in the SCTF simulated plots. Using wide span tractors as a harvest platform will enable CTF in vegetable production. Avoidance of compaction will enable reduced tillage intensity and productivity can be improved both through higher yield of the area that is cropped and by a larger percentage of fields can be cropped area as less area will be needed for tracks.

  18. Economic feasibility of no-tillage and manure for soil carbon sequestration in corn production in northeastern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendell, Dustin L; Williams, Jeffery R; Rice, Charles W; Nelson, Richard G; Boyles, Scott B

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the economic potential of no-tillage versus conventional tillage to sequester soil carbon by using two rates of commercial N fertilizer or beef cattle manure for continuous corn (Zea mays L.) production. Yields, input rates, field operations, and prices from an experiment were used to simulate a distribution of net returns for eight production systems. Carbon release values from direct, embodied, and feedstock energies were estimated for each system, and were used with soil carbon sequestration rates from soil tests to determine the amount of net carbon sequestered by each system. The values of carbon credits that provide an incentive for managers to adopt production systems that sequester carbon at greater rates were derived. No-till systems had greater annual soil carbon gains, net carbon gains, and net returns than conventional tillage systems. Systems that used beef cattle manure had greater soil carbon gains and net carbon gains, but lower net returns, than systems that used commercial N fertilizer. Carbon credits would be needed to encourage the use of manure-fertilized cropping systems.

  19. Effect of pre-sowing soil tillage for wheat on the crop structure and the yield components in Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yankov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The investigation was carried out in the trial field of Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute on slightly leached chernozem soil. In order to clarify the effect of some types of pre-sowing soil tillage for wheat on the crop structure and certain yield components, the following variants of a stationary field experiment were analyzed: double disking at depth 10-12 cm (check variant; ploughing at 14-16 cm + disking; no-tillage (direct sowing – pre-sowing treatment of the area with total herbicides. Wheat was sown after previous crop grain maize and was fertilized with N P K . Wheat cultivar Enola was planted at norm 550 germinating 140 120 80 2 seeds/m . The number of emerging wheat plants was read using square sampling frames sized 50 cm x 50 cm. Using the same sampling frames, the tillering in autumn prior to the wintering of the crops was followed, and in spring – prior to booting stage. The number of productive tillers was also read using these sampling frames. To determine the length of spike, the number of grains in it, and their weight, 30 spikes from 8 replications of each variant were analyzed. The emerging of the wheat plants, under the conditions of slightly leached chernozem soil in Dobrudzha region, was more uniform after sowing following disking, and after direct sowing. The minimal pre-sowing tillage and no-tillage for wheat ensured better autumn development of the crop and the plants. In these variants, higher number of overwintering plants and productive tillers per unit area were registered. Spike length was the highest after ploughing as pre-sowing tillage. Significant variations in the number of grains per spike of the investigated variants were not found. Grain weight per spike was the lowest under direct sowing.

  20. Spatial 2D distribution of the proportion of soil phosphorus uptake by maize and soybean caused by tillage and fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixiao; Mollier, Alain; Ziadi, Noura; Messiga, Aimé Jean; Parent, Leon-Étienne; Morel, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Plant-available soil phosphorus (P) accumulates primarily in the topsoil due to P fertilization and P released from crop residues. In contrast with conventional tillage (moldboard plough, MP), conservation tillage [e.g. no-till, (NT)] often leads to higher P concentrations in the topsoil mainly due to the absence of mixing between soil, fertilizer, and crop residues. Our objective was to estimate the proportion of P uptake from a given soil mass across the soil profile under maize and soybean as the product of root surface density proportions and local plant-available soil P. This study was conducted on a long-term field experiment initiated in 1992 in southern Quebec, Canada, and established on a clay-loam soil under MP and NT systems. The experiment was factorially treated with three P doses (0, 17.5 and 35 kg P ha-1 applied as triple superphosphate on maize at 5 cm depth and at 5 cm on one side of the crop row). Soil was sampled at flowering stage at five depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm) and three horizontal distances perpendicular to the crop row (5, 15 and 25 cm) in 2014 and 2015 to map a grid soil P availability to plants, e.g. phosphate ion concentrations in solution and the time-dependent amount of phosphate ions that can equilibrate- solution by diffusion, root distribution, and consequently crop P uptake, which was calculated as the fraction of plant-available soil P intercepted by surface roots. In general, NT tended to have higher soil P status in the upper soil layer and lower soil P status in the deeper soil layer compared to MP ; confirming previous results obtained from the same experimental site. This variation along the soil profile was significantly affected by sampling distance to crop row with higher concentration observed at 5-cm distance mainly because of the placement of P fertilizers. The 2D distribution of P uptake depended on tillage practice and P fertilization. There was higher proportions of P uptake from the 0-10 and 0

  1. Root systems and soil microbial biomass under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venzke Filho Solismar de Paiva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some root parameters such as distribution, length, diameter and dry matter are inherent to plant species. Roots can influence microbial population during vegetative cycle through the rhizodeposits and, after senescence, integrating the soil organic matter pool. Since they represent labile substrates, especially regarding nitrogen, they can determine the rate of nutrient availability to the next crop cultivated under no-tillage (NT. The root systems of two crop species: maize (Zea mays L. cultivar Cargill 909 and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivar Embrapa 59, were compared in the field, and their influence on spatial distribution of the microbial C and N in a clayey-textured Typic Hapludox cultivated for 22 years under NT, at Tibagi, State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, was determined. Digital image processing and nail-plate techniques were used to evaluate 40 plots of a 80 ´ 50 ´ 3 cm soil profile. It was observed that 36% and 30% of the maize and soybeans roots, respectively, are concentrated in the 0 to 10 cm soil layer. The percent distribution of root dry matter was similar for both crops. The maize roots presented a total of 1,324 kg C ha-1 and 58 kg N ha-1, with higher root dry matter density and more roots in decomposition in the upper soil layer, decreasing with depth. The soybean roots (392 kg C ha-1 and 21 kg N ha-1 showed higher number of thinner roots and higher density per length unity compared to the maize. The maize roots enhanced microbial-C down to deeper soil layers than did the soybean roots. The microbial N presented a better correlation with the concentration of thin active roots and with roots in decomposition or in indefinite shape, possibly because of higher concentration of C and N easily assimilated by soil microorganisms.

  2. The effect of soil tillage system and weeding time on the growth of weed and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Thamrin Sebayang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and yield of soybeans can decrease due to competition from weeds. Various efforts have been made to control the growth of weeds such as land preparation and weeding periods. An experiment to study the effect of soil tillage systems and weeding time on the growth of weeds and soybean crop yield (Glycine max (L. Merril has been done in Wringinsongo Village, Tumpang Sub-District, Malang Regency from February to May 2017. The split-plot design with three replicates was used with the soil tillage system as the main plot consisting of three levels, T0: no tillage, T1: minimum tillage, and T2: conventional tillage, and weeding time as the sub plot consisting of 4 levels, P0: no weeding, P1: weeding 1 time, P2: weeding two times and P3: weeding three times. The results showed that the dominant weed species before treatment were Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, and Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane. After treatment, the dominant weed species were Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry, and Eclipta alba (False daisy. There was no significant difference of the dry weight of weeds in conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting, and minimum tillage and no tillage. For the yield of soybeans, conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting were not significant with that of minimum tillage. The yield of soybeans was lower than that of with no tillage and no weeding.

  3. Effects of Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz and some Soil Properties in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndaeyo, NU.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of soil fertility status and optimum crop yield has been a great task in Nigeria. Against this background, studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 growing seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of cassava and soil properties and dynamics under some tillage practices. Randomized block design with four replications was used and the tillage treatments were Heaping [HP], No-Till + Herbicide [NTH], Ridging [RG] and No-Till-Slash and Burn [NSB]. Results revealed that tillage practices had no significant effect on sprouting percentage in 1994 but in 1995, HP treatment was significantly (P < 0.05 higher than others. Tillage had no marked effect on cassava height in both years while number of leaves only differed significantly (P < 0.05 8 months after planting with HP treatment being higher than others. Stem girth showed no marked differences among treatments in both years. Similarly, in both years, cassava fresh root yield and yield components were not significantly affected by tillage practices. NSB showed significantly higher soil bulk density at planting in both years than other treatments. Generally, soil chemical properties were not markedly affected by the tillage practices. The highest cost of production was observed under NSB while RG produced the highest returns. The study suggests that successful growing of cassava under reduced tillage practices is practicable in an Alfisol in this agro-ecological zone.

  4. The effects of no-tillage practice on soil physical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... Nevertheless, it was not good for soil water maintenance because of serious water evaporation, which has negative influences on the crop absorbing water due to the restriction of water reservation when the precipitation was adequate and of water transportation and effective water usage by the crop in the ...

  5. Spatially resolved data on sediment transport: 1) field application examining fluorescent soil particle movement from tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, John; Hardy, Robert; Pates, Jacqueline; James, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Understanding where sediment originates from and where it travels to, in what quantities and at which rate is at the heart of many questions surrounding sediment transport. Progress towards unravelling these questions and deepening our understanding has come from a wide range of approaches, including laboratory and field experiments conducted at a variety of scales. In seeking to understand the connectivity of sources and sinks of sediment scientists have spent considerable energy in developing tracing technologies. These have included numerous studies that have relied on the chemical properties of the soil and sediment to establish source-sink connectivity, and the use of 137Ceasium, from radioactive fall-out, to map sediment redistribution. More recently there has been an upsurge in interest in the use of artificially applied soil tracers, including rare earth element oxides and magnetic minerals. However all these tracing methods have a significant drawback: they rely on the collection of samples to assess their concentration. This means that their spatial distribution cannot easily be established in situ and that the environment that is being studied is damaged by the sampling process; nor can data be collected in real time which allows a dynamic understanding of erosion and transport processes to be developed. Here we report on the field application of a fluorescent sand sized tracer at the hillslope scale during a tillage erosion experiment. Here we trialled both intensity based and particle counting methodologies for tracer enumeration. After simulating seven years of tillage on a hillslope we were able to precisely determine the distribution of the fluorescent tracer and also its incorporation and distribution within the soil profile. Single grains of tracer could be found over 35 m from the insertion point. In a second abstract we report on an application that combines novel fluorescent videography techniques with custom image processing to trace the

  6. Water availability for winter wheat affected by summer fallow tillage practices in sloping dryland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Cai, D.X.; Jin, K.; Wu, H.J.; Bai, Z.G.; Zhang, C.J.; Yao, Y.Q.; Lu, J.J.; Wang, Y.H.; Yang, B.; Hartman, R.; Gabriels, D.

    2003-01-01

    The tillage experiments for winter wheat were conducted on the slope farmland in Luoyang,Henan Province in the semihumid to arid loess plateau areas of North China. Different tillage methods inclu-ding reduced tillage (RT), no-till (NT), 2 crops/year (2C), subsoiling(SS), and conventional tillage

  7. Effects of Tillage Practices on Growth and Yield of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and some Soil Properties in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ndaeyo, NU.; Aiyellari, EA.; Agboola, AA.

    2002-01-01

    Maintenance of soil fertility status and optimum crop yield has been a great task in Nigeria. Against this background, studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 growing seasons at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the productivity of cassava and soil properties and dynamics under some tillage practices. Randomized block design with four replications was used and the tillage treatments were Heaping [HP], No-Till + Herbicide [NTH], Ridging [RG] and No-Till-...

  8. Densidade, porosidade e resistência à penetração em Latossolo cultivado sob diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo Soil bulk density, porosity and resistance to root penetration in an Oxisol managed by different soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Antonio Tormena

    2002-12-01

    only along the crop row - NT, Minimum Tillage (subsoiling to the 0.30 m depth, followed by leveling - MT and Conventional Tillage (plowing with moldboard plow to the 0.25 m depth, followed by leveling - CT. The following soil physical properties were evaluated at the depths of 0-0.10 m and 0.10-0.20 m: soil bulk density (Bd, soil porosity, and the soil resistance to root penetration (SRP, which was evaluated at each 0.05 m up to 0.4m, during three different periods. The results suggest showed higher values of Bd and smaller values of macroporosity in the 0-0,10 m layer for NT and MT. Similar results were obtained for SRP, independently of the time of evaluation and soil water content. MT and CT may provide favorable soil physical conditions to the growth of the crop when compared to NT. Medium to long-term evaluations are necessary due to the dynamic changes in soil physical quality, result of the tillage system, soil and crop management.

  9. Sequestration of Soil Organic Carbon by Long-Term No-Tillage in a Cool Semi-Arid Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Patrick M.; Brevik, Eric C.; Horsley, Richard D.; Martin, Glenn B.

    2016-04-01

    Management choices are known to influence soil organic carbon (SOC) amounts and distribution in agricultural soils. No-tillage (NT) has been viewed as a management technique that sequesters SOC, but some recent studies have brought this into question. These studies have indicated that NT concentrates SOC in shallow horizons while depleting SOC at depth rather than increasing SOC throughout the entire soil profile, with no statistical difference between total profile SOC when soils are sampled to depths greater than about 20-30 cm. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if long-term NT management in a cool semiarid environment showed SOC sequestration as compared to clean-tillage (CT) and reduced-tillage (RT) management when soil depths >30 cm were considered. Soil samples were collected from 0-30, 30-60, and 60-90 cm depth intervals in research plots arranged in a randomized complete block design. No-tillage, RT, and CT treatments had been maintained in these plots at Dickinson, ND, USA for ≥19 yr. Data was analyzed using a mixed model where tillage and soil depth were considered fixed and blocks were considered random effects. SOC levels were higher under NT (64 Mg ha-1) than CT and RT (≤55 Mg ha-1) management in the 0-30 cm depth interval. The same trend was detected in the 30-60 cm depth interval under NT compared with RT, but not when NT was compared with CT. SOC levels were higher under NT (29 Mg ha-1) than under RT (23 Mg ha-1) in the 60-90 cm depth interval. Through the upper 90 cm of the soil profile, SOC levels were significantly higher under NT (127 Mg ha-1) than under CT and RT (≤112 Mg ha-1). The results of this research indicate that NT can increase SOC levels in the 0-90 cm soil depth interval in cool semiarid environments when compared to CT and RT.

  10. Earthworm impact on the global warming potential of a no-tillage arable soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, M.; Hurme, T.; Mikola, J.; Regina, K.; Nuutinen, V.

    2015-04-01

    We studied the effect of the deep-burrowing earthworm Lumbricus terrestris on the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and global warming potential (GWP) of arable no-till soil using both field measurements and a controlled 15 week laboratory experiment. In the field, the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were on average 43 and 32% higher in areas occupied by L. terrestris (the presence judged by the surface midden) than in adjacent, unoccupied areas (with no midden). The fluxes of methane (CH4) were variable and had no consistent difference between the midden and non-midden areas. Removing the midden did not affect soil N2O and CO2 emissions. The laboratory results were consistent with the field observations in that the emissions of N2O and CO2 were on average 27 and 13% higher in mesocosms with than without L. terrestris. Higher emissions of N2O were most likely due to the higher content of mineral nitrogen and soil moisture under the middens, whereas L. terrestris respiration fully explained the observed increase in CO2 emissions. The activity of L. terrestris increased the GWP of field and laboratory soil by 50 and 18%, but only 6 and 2% of this increase was due to the enhanced N2O emission. Our results suggest that high N2O emissions commonly observed in no-tillage soils can partly be explained by the abundance of L. terrestris under no-till management and that L. terrestris can markedly regulate the climatic effects of different cultivation practises.

  11. Economic and energy assessment of minimalized soil tillage methods in maize cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Szulc; Andrzej Dubas

    2014-01-01

    Grain yield of maize cultivated in the years 1997-2009 in monoculture and with annual tillage simplifications was assessed in energy and economy terms. Effects of no-tillage system and direct sowing (D) with cultivation with autumn deep (A) and shallow (B) ploughing and cultivation with spring pre-sowing ploughing (C) were compared. It was demonstrated that the 13-year maize grain yield in no-tillage system and direct sowing was lower by 10.4% than the yield obtained in conventional tillage s...

  12. Uncertainties in assessing tillage erosion - How appropriate are our measuring techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiener, P.; Wilken, F.; Aldana-Jague, E.; Deumlich, D.; Gómez, J. A.; Guzmán, G.; Hardy, R. A.; Quinton, J. N.; Sommer, M.; Van Oost, K.; Wexler, R.

    2018-03-01

    Tillage erosion on arable land is a very important process leading to a net downslope movement of soil and soil constitutes. Tillage erosion rates are commonly in the same order of magnitude as water erosion rates and can be even higher, especially under highly mechanized agricultural soil management. Despite its prevalence and magnitude, tillage erosion is still understudied compared to water erosion. The goal of this study was to bring together experts using different techniques to determine tillage erosion and use the different results to discuss and quantify uncertainties associated with tillage erosion measurements. The study was performed in northeastern Germany on a 10 m by 50 m plot with a mean slope of 8%. Tillage erosion was determined after two sequences of seven tillage operations. Two different micro-tracers (magnetic iron oxide mixed with soil and fluorescent sand) and one macro-tracer (passive radio-frequency identification transponders (RFIDs), size: 4 × 22 mm) were used to directly determine soil fluxes. Moreover, tillage induced changes in topography were measured for the entire plot with two different terrestrial laser scanners and an unmanned aerial system for structure from motion topography analysis. Based on these elevation differences, corresponding soil fluxes were calculated. The mean translocation distance of all techniques was 0.57 m per tillage pass, with a relatively wide range of mean soil translocation distances ranging from 0.39 to 0.72 m per pass. A benchmark technique could not be identified as all used techniques have individual error sources, which could not be quantified. However, the translocation distances of the macro-tracers used were consistently smaller than the translocation distances of the micro-tracers (mean difference = - 26 ± 12%), which questions the widely used assumption of non-selective soil transport via tillage operations. This study points out that tillage erosion measurements, carried out under almost

  13. Use of neutron water and gamma density gauges in soil water studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirda, C.

    1990-01-01

    Irrigation practices should be improved to increase effective use of water and thereby increasing irrigated areas as well as securing soil productivity under irrigated agriculture. Under dry farming systems of rainfed agriculture, different tillage practices should be tested for improved soil water conservation and rain harvesting. The research work addressing the above mentioned problems requires methods to measure soil water content accurately and conveniently. In the following article, the methods which are currently used to measure field soil water content were discussed. 34 refs, 13 figs, 13 tabs

  14. Effect of Winged Subsoiler and Traditional Tillage Integrated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Winged Subsoiler and Traditional Tillage Integrated with Fanya Juu on Selected Soil Physico-Chemical and Soil Water Properties in the Northwestern ... Soil evaporation was estimated by a conceptual model whereby leaf area index, canopy cover, crop root length, moisture at saturation and field capacity were ...

  15. Vertical Mulching e manejo da água em semeadura direta Vertical Mulching and water management in no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Garcia

    2008-04-01

    soil structure degradation, soil compaction below the arable layer, and decreased macroporosity. These changes resulted in reduced soil water infiltration rate and increased runoff, soil erosion and sedimentation in rivers and reservoirs. In the no tillage system the water erosion from the soil surface is practically controlled, and the terraces were eliminated by the farmers. Nevertheless, the surface flow is higher than it was in the conventional tillage system. With the objective of evaluating the hydrological behavior of vertical mulching in no tillage systems as related to runoff, this study was developed in the growing seasons of 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 on a Red Latosol (Oxisol in the Planalto Médio region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A field experiment was installed using plots without vertical mulching, with vertical mulching at every 10 m and with vertical mulching at every 5 m. It was used a randomized block design with three replications. Leveled furrows of vertical mulching, perpendicular to the soil slope (0.08 m wide by 0.38 m deep were dug and filled with straw compacted enough to stabilize the furrow sides. Rainfall intensities of 70 and 106 mm h-1 were simulated on soybean and wheat to determine runoff, soil water infiltration rate, and nutrient and organic carbon concentration in the runoff. The results showed that vertical mulching in no tillage significantly reduces surface runoff and increases the water infiltration rate into the soil. It also reduces the total nutrient and organic carbon losses due to the reduction of water runoff.

  16. Phosphorus fractions and correlation with soil attributes in a chronosequence of agricultural under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In no-tillage (NT soils, changes in the quantity and quality of soil organic matter (SOM have been observed over time. These changes can interfere with the dynamics of P in surface soil layers. Thus, the objectives of this study were: to evaluate the organic and inorganic fractions of P and their degree of lability (labile, moderately labile, and moderately recalcitrant in an Oxisol under NT for 6 years (NT6, 14 years (NT14, and 22 years (NT22 and cultivated with a succession of soybean and corn/wheat. The fractions were evaluated for 16 years of NT, with the last four years under integrated corn second crop and Brachiaria (NT16+B. We also analyzed an area of native forest, as well as analyzing the correlations between the results of the P fractions of these areas with other attributes such as total carbon content, vegetable waste deposited on the ground, phosphorus and humic fractions remaining in SOM. From each of the areas, samples were collected at 0.00-0.05 m and 0.05-0.10 m. A completely randomized design with 5 replicates was used. Management of phosphorus fertilization and SOM following adoption of the SPD of time (6 to 22 years increased the levels of all fractions of inorganic P (0.0 to 0.10 m, as well as the fractions of labile (0.05-0.10 m, moderately labile (0.0-0.10 m, and moderately recalcitrant (0.05-0.10 m organic phosphorus. The correlation matrix shows interactions between the evaluated soil attributes, especially between inorganic phosphorus fractions and fulvic and humic acids and between the moderately recalcitrant organic phosphorus and humin fraction.

  17. Soil Temperature Moderation by Crop Residue Mulch, Grevilla Robusta Tillage Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteng'i, S.B.B.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of mulching with crop residues and shading by Grevillea robust trees on the soil temperatures of Mt. Kenya Volcanic soils at Matanya area, Laikipia district, were studied. Soil thermistors connected to data-loggers(type Grant squirrel)were used to record soil temperaturs. The soils were mulched and minimum tilled (depths of 0.04 till 0.05m), and unmulched and deep tilled (depths 0.20till 0.25m) in plots of pruned and unpruned trees and also to cotrol (non-agroforestry) plots. The results showed that closer tp the trees, canopy differences ionfluenced changes in soil temperatures of about ≠2.0 degrees centrigrade. The dumping depth and Stigters ratio values showed soil temperatures were modified by treatment and tree canopy differences. The modified soil temperatures resulted in better crop performance when the soil water was adequate.(author)

  18. Grazing and tillage effects on soil properties, rain infiltration and sediment transport during fallow

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the semiarid Southern Great Plains, precipitation and soil water stored during fallow determine dryland production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grown in the wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation. In this three-year rotation, soil water storage is t...

  19. The influence of tillage on field scale water fluxes and maize yields in semi-arid environments: A case study of Potshini catchment, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgei, J. R.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Kongo, V. M.; Lorentz, S. A.

    Water is a limiting resource to crop production in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and is responsible for substantial yield losses annually. These lands are often occupied by resource poor smallholder rainfed farmers who have little capacity to establish conventional irrigation infrastructure to mitigate recurrent droughts and dry spells. In situ water harvesting techniques in the form of conservation agriculture practices have been identified and promoted as measures that can improve soil water availability and thus enhance crop yields. Land use practices e.g. tillage influences mechanisms of lateral flow, infiltration, storage, redistribution and residence times of water at field scale. Such alterations in flow paths have not been adequately studied in ASALs where small perturbations at field scale upstream of a catchment may have significant effects downstream. Quantifying these fluxes enables better understanding of productive and non-productive water transition processes and thus to evaluate cropping and management systems. On this study the effects of tillage on water fluxes, soil physical properties and maize ( Zea mays L.) yields were examined at three sites in the Potshini catchment, South Africa. Measurements were made on plots under no-till ( NT) and conventional till ( CT) practices. Seasonal analysis indicated that nearly twice as much runoff was generated from CT treatments when compared to NT plots. However, this was not the case at the beginning of the season. The moisture content in the root zone was significantly higher in NT treatments. Maize yield was also higher in NT compared to CT plots.

  20. Mineralogy and phosphorus adsorption in soils of south and central-west Brazil under conventional and no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessé Rodrigo Fink

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The low phosphorus availability in tropical and subtropical soils, normally related to adsorption of phosphate to the minerals surfaces, can be attenuated when organic matter (OM accumulates in the soils. Herein, we report the results of long-term experiments (18–32 years aimed at quantifying the maximum phosphorus adsorption capacity (MPAC and its determinant mineralogical variables in Brazilian soils and at assessing the effect of no-tillage (NT in mitigating the phosphorus adsorption of soils. The MPAC of soils ranged from 297 to 4,561 mg kg-1 in the 0.00–0.10 m layer and from 285 to 4,961 mg kg-1 in the 0.10–0.20 m layer. The MPAC was correlated with the concentrations of iron oxides, goethite and ferrihydrite, gibbsite/(gibbsite+kaolinite ratio and the specific surface area. The OM increased in the 0.00–0.10 m layer of NT soils, which was not reflected on the decrease of MPAC for the no-tillage soils.

  1. Influence of Tillage and Daily Manure Application on the Survival of Bacterial Pathogens Indicators in Soil and on Radish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Bjorneberg, D.L.; Verwey, Sh.

    2010-01-01

    We measured Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus sp. numbers in soil and on fresh radish (Raphanus sativus L.) at 1, 7, 14, 28, 54, and 84 days after the addition of high and low amounts of solid dairy manure in combination with chisel tillage to a 20 cm depth (deep) or roller tillage to a 10 cm depth (shallow). When the high or low amount of solid dairy manure was added to the soil, E. coli populations in soil were higher in the 54 days following manure addition compared to the control treatment. Dairy manure addition increased Enterococcus sp. in soils compared to the control treatment for the entire 84 days sampling period. At harvest, which was 84 days after application, we did not detect E. coli in radish in rhizosphere soil or on radish roots. Addition of solid dairy manure increased Enterococcus sp. numbers in radish rhizosphere soil and on radish roots. We suggest that fresh animal manure be applied to soil at least 120 days prior to planting to allow die-off of human pathogenic bacteria and reduce the incidence of bacterial adhesion on or bacterial colonization of ready to eat vegetables.

  2. Reducing Soil CO2 Emission and Improving Upland Rice Yield with no-Tillage, Straw Mulch and Nitrogen Fertilization in Northern Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou-Yovo, E.; Brueggemann, N.; Naab, J.; Huat, J.; Ampofo, E.; Ago, E.; Agbossou, E.

    2015-12-01

    To explore effective ways to decrease soil CO2 emission and increase grain yield, field experiments were conducted on two upland rice soils (Lixisols and Gleyic Luvisols) in northern Benin in West Africa. The treatments were two tillage systems (no-tillage, and manual tillage), two rice straw managements (no rice straw, and rice straw mulch at 3 Mg ha-1) and three nitrogen fertilizers levels (no nitrogen, recommended level of nitrogen: 60 kg ha-1, and high level of nitrogen: 120 kg ha-1). Potassium and phosphorus fertilizers were applied to be non-limiting at 40 kg K2O ha-1 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1. Four replications of the twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil CO2 emission, soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at 5 cm depth in 6 to 10 days intervals during the rainy season and every two weeks during the dry season. Soil moisture was the main factor explaining the seasonal variability of soil CO2 emission. Much larger soil CO2 emissions were found in rainy than dry season. No-tillage planting significantly reduced soil CO2 emissions compared with manual tillage. Higher soil CO2 emissions were recorded in the mulched treatments. Soil CO2 emissions were higher in fertilized treatments compared with non fertilized treatments. Rice biomass and yield were not significantly different as a function of tillage systems. On the contrary, rice biomass and yield significantly increased with application of rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer. The highest response of rice yield to nitrogen fertilizer addition was obtained for 60 kg N ha-1 in combination with 3 Mg ha-1 of rice straw for the two tillage systems. Soil CO2 emission per unit grain yield was lower under no-tillage, rice straw mulch and nitrogen fertilizer treatments. No-tillage combined with rice straw mulch and 60 kg N ha-1 could be used by smallholder farmers to achieve higher grain yield and lower soil CO2 emission in upland rice fields in northern Benin.

  3. Qualidade e rendimento de sementes de soja produzidas sob cultivo orgânico em plantio direto e preparo reduzido do solo = Quality and production of soybean seeds in no tillage and reduced tillage soil systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a qualidade das sementes de soja em cultivo orgânico sob dois sistemas de manejo do solo, plantio direto e preparo reduzido do solo (escarificação + gradagem na região Oeste do Paraná. Foram utilizados 6 tratamentos para o controle de pragas mais uma testemunha (1.Baculovirus anticarsia; 2.Baculovirus anticarsia + Extrato de Cinamomo; 3.Extrato de Cinamomo; 4.Bacillus thurigiensis; 5.Óleo de Neen; 6.Composto A; 7.Testemunha. Os parâmetros avaliados foram teor de água, peso de100 sementes, porcentagem de germinação, vigor determinado pelo envelhecimento acelerado e teste de tetrazólio e também rendimento de sementes. Os dados obtidos foram analisados pelo teste de Scott – Knott a 5% de significância e permitiram concluir que o alto grau dedeterioração das sementes, provocado pela baixa eficiência dos tratamentos, contribuiu para o decréscimo da qualidade. O sistema de manejo do solo não influenciou no rendimento de sementes e o tratamento com Composto A apresentou maior rendimento.This trial aimed at determining soybean seeds quality in an organic production under two soil management systems: no tillage and reduced tillage (scarification + grading in western region of the State of Paraná. Six treatments were designed to control some weeds plus one check treatment (1.Baculovirus anticarsia; 2.Baculovirus anticarsia +cinnamon extract; 3.Cinnamon extract; 4.Baculovirus thurigiensis; 5.Neen oil; 6.Composite A; 7.Check treatment. Parameters as water content, weight of one hundred seeds, seedling percentage, seeds vigor determined by fast aging, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride andseedling yield were evaluated. The data were analyzed by the Scott Knott test – 5% of significance – which allowed to conclude that the high level of seedling deterioration, derived from the low efficiency of treatments, contributed to the decreased seed quality. However, the soil tillage system did not influence

  4. [Conservation tillage systems in North America and their significance for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Xiaoping; Fang, Huajun; Liang, Aizhen; Qi, Xiaoning; Wang, Yang

    2004-02-01

    Soil degradation through erosion and desertification reduces soil productivity, and is a serious problem in agricultural production of China. To avert our arable land from further degradation, soil management must be shifted from degrading tillage to conservation practices. Over viewing the technology used in the 20th century for controlling soil degradation from erosion, conservation tillage developed in the United States and adopted in South America and Africa is one of the most successful measures to overcome soil degradation problems. This paper reviewed the historical development and the current situation of conservation tillage systems used in North and South America, with special reference to their effects on soil erosion control and soil quality. The increasing adoption of conservation tillage systems in North and South America and Africa followed an enhanced awareness of the increasing risk of soil erosion and the high cost of fuel associated with conventional tillage. Many crucial points for successfully adopting conservation tillage systems were emphasized, such as equipment/tool development and chemical weed control. Adopting conservation tillage could provide China with low-priced means of reducing soil degradation and improving soil and water quality.

  5. Sustainable semiarid dryland production in relation to tillage effects on Hydrology: 1983-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch tillage, SM, as a result of improved soil conditions or water conservation, but knowledge of long-term tillage effects on the comprehensive field hydrology and sustained crop production is needed. ...

  6. Soil management system for water conservation and mitigation of global change effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, A.; Florentino, A.; Lorenzo, V.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main constraints in rained agriculture is the water availability for plant growth which depends largely on the ability of the soil to allow water flow, infiltration and its storage. In Venezuela, the interaction between aggressive climatic conditions, highly susceptible soils and inadequate management systems have caused soil degradation which together with global change threatened the food production sustainability. To address this problem, we need to implement conservationist management strategies that improve infiltration rate, permeability and water holding capacity in soil and reduce water loss by protecting the soil surface. In order to study the impact of different management systems on soil water balance in a Fluventic Haplustept, the effects of 11 years of tillage and crops rotation management were evaluated in a long term field experiment located in Turén (Portuguesa state). The evaluated tillage systems were no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and crop rotation treatments were maize (Zea mays)-cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and maize-bean (Vigna unguiculata). Treatments were established in plots arranged in a randomized block design with three replicates. The gravimetric moisture content was determined in the upper 20 cm of soil, at eight different sampling dates. Results showed increased in time of the water availability with the use of tillage and corn-cotton rotation and, better protection of the soil against raindrop impact with crop residues. Water retention capacity also increased and improved structural condition on soil surface such as infiltration, storage and water flow distribution in the rooting zone. We conclude that these strategies of land use and management would contribute to mitigate the climate change effects on food production in this region of Venezuela. Key words: Soil quality; rained agriculture; plant water availability

  7. Soil structure stability and distribution of carbon in water-stable aggregates in different tilled and fertilized Haplic Luvisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Šimanský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of tillage and fertilization on soil structure stability and the distribution of carbon in water-stable aggregates of loamy Haplic Luvisol were studied. Soil samples from the locality of Dolná Malanta (experimental station of SUA Nitra were collected (in 2007–2009 from a depth of 0–0.2 m in two tillage variants: (1. conventional tillage, 2. minimal tillage and three treatments of fertilization: (1. without fertilization, 2. crop residues and NPK fertilizers, 3. NPK fertilizers. The minimal tillage system has a positive effect on both the aggregation processes and sequestration of carbon in size fractions of water-stable aggregates, as well as ploughing of crop residues together with NPK fertilizers. On the other hand, application of only NPK fertilizers had a negative effect on SOM content. Under the minimal tillage system and in treatment with crop residues together with NPK fertilizers, what has been observed is a statistically significant increase in the total organic carbon contents by increasing size fractions of water-stable aggregates. Organic carbon did not influence the aggregation processes with dependence on tillage systems. Under conventional tillage as well as in treatment with ploughing crop residues with NPK fertilizers, a very important effect on aggregation had bivalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+.

  8. Evidence of limited carbon sequestration in soils under no-tillage systems in the Cerrado of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeels, Marc; Marchão, Robelio Leandro; Neto, Marcos Siqueira; Ferreira, Eliann Garcia; Madari, Beata Emöke; Scopel, Eric; Brito, Osmar Rodrigues

    2016-02-01

    The Brazilian government aims at augmenting the area cropped under no-tillage (NT) from 32 to 40 million ha by 2020 as a means to mitigate CO2 emissions. We estimated soil carbon (C) sequestration under continuous NT systems in two municipalities in the Goiás state that are representative of the Cerrado. A chronosequence of NT fields of different age since conversion from conventional tillage (CT) was sampled in 2003 and 2011. Soil C levels of native Cerrado and pasture were measured for comparison. After about 11 to 14 years, soil C stocks under NT were highest and at the levels of those under natural Cerrado. Average annual rates of soil C sequestration estimated using the chronosequence approach were respectively 1.61 and 1.48 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 for the 2003 and 2011 sampling, and were higher than those observed using repeated sampling after eight years. The diachronic sampling revealed that the younger NT fields tended to show higher increases in soil C stocks than the older fields. Converting an extra 8 million ha of cropland from CT to NT represents an estimated soil C storage of about 8 Tg C yr-1 during 10 to 15 years.

  9. Influence of liming on residual soil respiration and chemical properties in a tropical no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Valente Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the climate changes occurring across the planet, especially global warming, the different forms of agricultural soil use have attracted researchers´ attention. Changes in soil management may influence soil respiration and, consequently, C sequestration. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the long-term influence of liming on soil respiration and correlate it with soil chemical properties after two years of liming in a no-tillage system. A randomized complete block design was used with six replications. The experimental treatments consisted of four lime rates and a control treatment without lime. Two years after liming, soil CO2 emission was measured and the soil sampled (layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. The P, Ca2+ e Mg2+ soil contents and pH and base saturation were determined. CO2 emission from soil limed at the recommended rate was 24.1 % higher, and at twice the recommended rate, 47.4 % higher than from unlimed soil. Liming improved the chemical properties, and the linear increase in soil respiration rate correlated positively with the P, Ca2+ and Mg2+ soil contents, pH and base saturation, and negatively with H + Al and Al3+ contents. The correlation coefficient between soil respiration rate and chemical properties was highest in the 10-20 cm layer.

  10. Effects of Soil Management Practices on Water Erosion under Natural Rainfall Conditions on a Humic Dystrudept

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    Vinicius Ferreira Chaves de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation and is influenced by rainfall, soil, topography, land use, soil cover and management, and conservation practices. The objective of this study was to quantify water erosion in a Humic Dystrudept in two experiments. In experiment I, treatments consisted of different rates of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage conditions. In experiment II, treatments consisted of a no-tillage in natural rangeland, burned natural rangeland and natural rangeland. Forage turnip, black beans, common vetch, and corn were used in rotation in the treatments with crops in the no-tillage during study period. The treatments with crops and the burned rangeland and natural rangeland were compared to a bare soil control, without cultivation and without fertilization. Increasing fertilization rates increased organic carbon content, soil resistance to disintegration, and the macropore volume of the soil, due to the increase in the dry mass of the crops, resulting in an important reduction in water erosion. The exponential model of the ŷ = ae-bx type satisfactorily described the reduction in water and soil losses in accordance with the increase in fertilization rate and also described the decrease in soil losses in accordance with the increase in dry mass of the crops. Water erosion occurred in the following increasing intensity: in natural rangeland, in cultivated natural rangeland, and in burned natural rangeland. Water erosion had less effect on water losses than on soil losses, regardless of the soil management practices.

  11. Effects of tillage and nitrogen fertilizers on CH4 and CO2 emissions and soil organic carbon in paddy fields of central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng-Fang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon (C sequestration in paddy soils is necessary to help better understand the effect of agricultural practices on the C cycle. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of tillage practices [conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT] and the application of nitrogen (N fertilizer (0 and 210 kg N ha(-1 on fluxes of CH(4 and CO(2, and soil organic C (SOC sequestration during the 2009 and 2010 rice growing seasons in central China. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased CH(4 emissions by 13%-66% and SOC by 21%-94% irrespective of soil sampling depths, but had no effect on CO(2 emissions in either year. Tillage significantly affected CH(4 and CO(2 emissions, where NT significantly decreased CH(4 emissions by 10%-36% but increased CO(2 emissions by 22%-40% in both years. The effects of tillage on the SOC varied with the depth of soil sampling. NT significantly increased the SOC by 7%-48% in the 0-5 cm layer compared with CT. However, there was no significant difference in the SOC between NT and CT across the entire 0-20 cm layer. Hence, our results suggest that the potential of SOC sequestration in NT paddy fields may be overestimated in central China if only surface soil samples are considered.

  12. Propriedades físicas do solo sob preparo convencional e semeadura direta em rotação e sucessão de culturas, comparadas às do campo nativo Physical soil properties of conventional tillage and no-tillage, in crop rotation and succession, compared with natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bertol

    2004-02-01

    sustentabilidade da semeadura direta no que se refere à estabilidade dos agregados em água. Os sistemas de cultivo não influenciaram as propriedades físicas do solo.In soils with naturally favorable characteristics for cultivation, conventional tillage degrades the physical soil properties, since this management system causes the rupture of aggregates, soil compaction, and eliminates soil cover. No-tillage, on the other hand, maintains soil cover and improves physical properties, but consolidates the surface layer. Our study was conducted on a Haplumbrept soil, from May 1995 to April 2001. Five soil tillage treatments were used: conventional tillage crop rotation (CTR, conventional tillage crop succession (CTS, no-tillage crop rotation (NTR, no-tillage crop succession (NTS, and natural pasture (NP, in four replications each. The crop sequences were bean/fallow/maize/fallow/soybean/fallow in CTR, maize/fallow/maize/fallow/maize/fallow in CTS, bean/oat/maize/turnip/soybean/vetch in NTR and maize/vetch/maize/vetch/maize/vetch in NTS. Soil density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, organic carbon, and water aggregate stability (MWD were evaluated in April 2001 for the soil layers 0-2.5, 2.5-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, and 20-30 cm. In the 0-10 cm layer, soil density was higher in no-tillage than conventional tillage and natural pasture, while macroporosity, total porosity, and the macroporosity/total porosity relation was higher in conventional tillage in the mean for cropping systems, in this layer. Organic carbon, MWD, and sensibility index for MWD means of layers and tillage systems were higher in no-tillage and natural pasture than in conventional tillage.

  13. A multifractal approach to characterize cumulative rainfall and tillage effects on soil surface micro-topography and to predict depression storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vidal Vázquez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the indices currently employed for assessing soil surface micro-topography, such as random roughness (RR, are merely descriptors of its vertical component. Recently, multifractal analysis provided a new insight for describing the spatial configuration of soil surface roughness. The main objective of this study was to test the ability of multifractal parameters to assess in field conditions the decay of initial surface roughness induced by natural rainfall under different soil tillage systems. In addition, we evaluated the potential of the joint use of multifractal indices plus RR to improve predictions of water storage in depressions of the soil surface (MDS. Field experiments were performed on an Oxisol at Campinas, São Paulo State (Brazil. Six tillage treatments, namely, disc harrow, disc plough, chisel plough, disc harrow + disc level, disc plough + disc level and chisel plough + disc level were tested. In each treatment soil surface micro-topography was measured four times, with increasing amounts of natural rainfall, using a pin meter. The sampling scheme was a square grid with 25 × 25 mm point spacing and the plot size was 1350 × 1350 mm (≈1.8 m2, so that each data set consisted of 3025 individual elevation points. Duplicated measurements were taken per treatment and date, yielding a total of 48 experimental data sets. MDS was estimated from grid elevation data with a depression-filling algorithm. Multifractal analysis was performed for experimental data sets as well as for oriented and random surface conditions obtained from the former by removing slope and slope plus tillage marks, respectively. All the investigated microplots exhibited multifractal behaviour, irrespective of surface condition, but the degree of multifractality showed wide differences between them. Multifractal parameters provided valuable information for characterizing the spatial features of soil micro-topography as they were able to

  14. Mechanized farming in the humid tropics with special reference to soil tillage, workability and timeliness of farm operations : a case study for the Zanderij area of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goense, D.

    1987-01-01

    The reported investigations concern aspects of mechanized farming for the production of rainfed crops on the loamy soils of the Zanderij formation in Suriname and in particular, the effect of tillage on crop yield and soil properties, workability of field operations and timeliness of field

  15. Design of a soil cutting resistance sensor for application in site-specific tillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Juan; Carballido, Jacob; Gil, Jesús; Gliever, Chris J; Perez-Ruiz, Manuel

    2013-05-10

    One objective of precision agriculture is to provide accurate information about soil and crop properties to optimize the management of agricultural inputs to meet site-specific needs. This paper describes the development of a sensor equipped with RTK-GPS technology that continuously and efficiently measures soil cutting resistance at various depths while traversing the field. Laboratory and preliminary field tests verified the accuracy of this prototype soil strength sensor. The data obtained using a hand-operated soil cone penetrometer was used to evaluate this field soil compaction depth profile sensor. To date, this sensor has only been tested in one field under one gravimetric water content condition. This field test revealed that the relationships between the soil strength profile sensor (SSPS) cutting force and soil cone index values are assumed to be quadratic for the various depths considered: 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm (r2 = 0.58, 0.45 and 0.54, respectively). Soil resistance contour maps illustrated its practical value. The developed sensor provides accurate, timely and affordable information on soil properties to optimize resources and improve agricultural economy.

  16. Tillage and Fertilizer Effects on Maize Production in Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major food crop in Ghana but grain yield is often constrained by low soil fertility and water deficits during grain fill. Response of maize to tillage and fertilizer treatments was evaluated in a field experiment from 2000 through 2002 on a sandy loam soil (Typic-plinthic Paleustalf) in Wa in the northern ...

  17. Developments in conservation tillage in rainfed regions of North China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Cai, D.X.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.; Perdok, U.D.

    2007-01-01

    Dryland regions in northern China account for over 50% of the nation's total area, where farming development is constrained by adverse weather, topography and water resource conditions, low fertility soils, and poor soil management. Conservation tillage research and application in dryland regions of

  18. Dryland maize yields and water use efficiency in response to tillage and nutrient management practices in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.B.; Dai, K.; Zhao, Q.; Cai, D.X.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.

    2009-01-01

    Rainfed crop production in northern China is constrained by low and variable rainfall. This study explored the effects of tillage and nutrient management practices on maize (Zea mays L.) yield and water use efficiency (WUE), at Shouyang Dryland Farming Experimental Station in northern China during

  19. Soil water erosion under different cultivation systems and different fertilization rates and forms over 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The action of rain and surface runoff together are the active agents of water erosion, and further influences are the soil type, terrain, soil cover, soil management, and conservation practices. Soil water erosion is low in the no-tillage management system, being influenced by the amount and form of lime and fertilizer application to the soil, among other factors. The aim was to evaluate the effect of the form of liming, the quantity and management of fertilizer application on the soil and water losses by erosion under natural rainfall. The study was carried out between 2003 and 2013 on a Humic Dystrupept soil, with the following treatments: T1 - cultivation with liming and corrective fertilizer incorporated into the soil in the first year, and with 100 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T2 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over five years, and with 75 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T3 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over three years, and with 50 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T4 - surface liming and corrective fertilization distributed over two years, and with 25 % annual maintenance fertilization of P and K; T5 - fallow soil, without liming or fertilization. In the rotation the crops black oat (Avena strigosa , soybean (Glycine max , common vetch (Vicia sativa , maize (Zea mays , fodder radish (Raphanus sativus , and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris . The split application of lime and mineral fertilizer to the soil surface in a no-tillage system over three and five years, results in better control of soil losses than when split in two years. The increase in the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil surface under no-tillage cultivation increases phytomass production and reduces soil loss by water erosion. Water losses in treatments under no-tillage cultivation were low in all crop cycles, with a similar behavior as soil losses.

  20. The Energy Effectiveness Of Crops In Crop Rotation Under Different Soil Tillage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strašil Zdeněk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and compares the energy balance of winter wheat, spring barley and white mustard – all grown in crop rotation under different tillage conditions. The field trial included the conventional tillage (CT method, minimum tillage (MT and a system with no tillage (NT. The energy inputs included both the direct and indirect energy component. Energy outputs are evaluated as gross calorific value (gross heating value of phytomass dry matter of the primary product and the total harvested production. The energy effectiveness (energy output: energy input was selected for evaluation. The greatest energy effectiveness for the primary product was established as 6.35 for barley, 6.04 for wheat and 3.68 for mustard; in the case of total production, it was 9.82 for barley, 10.08 for wheat and 9.72 for mustard. When comparing the different tillage conditions, the greatest energy effectiveness was calculated for the evaluated crops under the MT operation and represented the primary product of wheat at 6.49, barley at 6.69 and mustard at 3.92. The smallest energy effectiveness for the primary product was found in wheat 5.77 and barley 6.10 under the CT option; it was 3.55 for mustard under the option of NT. Throughout the entire cropping pattern, the greatest energy effectiveness was established under the minimum tillage option – 5.70 for the primary product and 10.47 for the total production. On the other hand, the smallest values were calculated under CT – 5.22 for the primary product and 9.71 for total production.

  1. Effects of tropical ecosystem engineers on soil quality and crop performance under different tillage and residue management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulleman, Mirjam; Paul, Birthe; Fredrick, Ayuke; Hoogmoed, Marianne; Hurisso, Tunsisa; Ndabamenye, Telesphore; Saidou, Koala; Terano, Yusuke; Six, Johan; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Feeding a future global population of 9 billion will require a 70-100% increase in food production, resulting in unprecedented challenges for agriculture and natural resources, especially in Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural practices that contribute to sustainable intensification build on beneficial biological interactions and ecosystem services. Termites are the dominant soil ecosystem engineers in arid to sub-humid tropical agro-ecosystems. Various studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of termites for rehabilitation of degraded and crusted soils and plant growth in semi-arid and arid natural ecosystems. However, the contribution of termites to agricultural productivity has hardly been experimentally investigated, and their role in Conservation Agriculture (CA) systems remains especially unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the effects of termites and ants on soil physical quality and crop productivity under different tillage and residue management systems in the medium term. A randomized block trial was set up in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003. Treatments included a factorial combination of residue retention and removal (+R/-R) and conventional and reduced tillage (+T/-T) under a maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glyxine max. L.) rotation. A macrofauna exclusion experiment was superimposed in 2005 as a split-plot factor (exclusion +ins; inclusion -ins) by regular applications of pesticides (Dursban and Endosulfan) in half of the plots. Macrofauna abundance and diversity, soil aggregate fractions, soil carbon contents and crop yields were measured between 2005 and 2012 at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Termites were the most important macrofauna species, constituting between 48-63% of all soil biota, while ants were 13-34%, whereas earthworms were present in very low numbers. Insecticide application was effective in reducing termites (85-56% exclusion efficacy) and earthworms (87%), and less so ants (49-81%) at 0-15 cm soil depth

  2. [Effects of tilage mode and deficit irrigation on the yield and water use of transplanted cotton following wheat harvest under sprinkler irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Peng; Shen, Xiao-Jun

    2012-02-01

    To develop a suitable tillage mode and irrigation schedule of transplanted cotton following wheat harvest under sprinkler irrigation, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different tillage modes (conventional tillage and no-tillage) and different irrigation schedules (45 and 22.5 mm of irrigating water quota) on the water consumption, seed yield, water use efficiency, and fiber quality of cotton. Comparing with conventional tillage, no-tillage decreased the soil evaporation among cotton plants by 20.3%. Whether with conventional tillage or with no-tillage, deficit irrigation (22.5 mm of irrigating water quota) did not affect seed yield and fiber quality, while decreased the water consumption and improved the water use efficiency. No-tillage with 22.5 mm of irrigating water quota under sprinkler irrigation not only decreased the soil evaporation effectively, but also achieved water-saving, high quality and high yield of transplanted cotton following wheat harvest.

  3. Long-term conventional and no-tillage effects on field hydrology and yields of a dryland crop rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarid dryland crop yields with no-till, NT, residue management are often greater than stubble-mulch, SM, tillage as a result of improved soil conditions and water conservation, but information on long-term tillage effects on field hydrology and sustained crop production are needed. Our objective ...

  4. Critical limits of soil penetration resistance in a rhodic Eutrudox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Tuzzin de Moraes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil penetration resistance is an important indicator of soil physical quality and the critical limit of 2 MPa has been widely used to characterize the soil physical quality, in both no-tillage and conventional systems. The aim of this study was to quantify the influence of different tillage and cropping systems on the soil penetration resistance in a Rhodic Eutrudox. The experiment was carried out in a 5 × 2 factorial, completely randomized block design (tillage systems vs cropping systems, with four replications. The tillage systems consisted of: conventional tillage disk harrow; minimum tillage with annual chiseling; minimum tillage with chiseling every three years; no-tillage for 11 consecutive years; and no-tillage for 24 consecutive years. The factor cropping systems was represented by: crop rotation and crop succession. The soil penetration resistance (SPR was determined in 20 soil samples per treatment and layer (0.0-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m for each soil matric potential: -6, -10, -33, -100, -500 kPa. The SPR was determined at a volumetric soil water content equivalent to the fraction of plant-available water of 0.7. There were no differences of soil penetration resistance between the two cropping systems. Differences in soil penetration resistance among tillage systems were related to the matric potential at which the samples were equilibrated. The critical SPR limit of 2 MPa normally used for conventional tillage should be maintained. However, this value of 2 MPa is inappropriate for the physical quality characterization of Rhodic Eutrudox under no-tillage and/or minimum tillage with chiseling. Regardless of the cropping systems, the critical SPR limit should be raised to 3 MPa for minimum tillage with chiseling and to 3.5 MPa for no-tillage.

  5. Contributions of long-term tillage systems on crop production and soil properties in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yining; Zhang, Renzhi; Luo, Zhuzhu; Li, Lingling; Cai, Liqun; Li, Guang; Xie, Junhong

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the long-term effect of tillage systems on soil properties and crop yields in a semi-arid environment. Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were alternately grown in six tillage systems at Dingxi (35° 28' N, 104° 44' E), north-west China starting in 2001. After the first 6 years of experiments, conventional tillage with stubble incorporating (TS) and no-till with stubble cover (NTS) increased soil organic matter by 9.9% and 13.0%, respectively, compared to the conventional tillage with stubble removed (T); both TS and NTS also increased soil microbial counts, available K and P, and total N. No-till with stubble removed (NT), NTS and NTP (no-till with plastic mulching) had 20.7%, 62.6% and 43.7% greater alkaline phosphatase activity compared to the T treatment. Soil catalase, urease and invertase activities were all greater in the no-till treatments than in the T treatment. Averaged across 6 years, both wheat and pea achieved highest grain yields under NTS treatment. No-till with stubble retention is the most promising system for improving soil physical, biological and chemical properties, and increasing crop yields, and thus, this system can be adopted in areas with conditions similar to the semi-arid north-west China. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A. (Univ. of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)); Serafini, P.G. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (United States))

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s[sup [minus]1] as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzhaf, J.; Leihner, D.E.; Buerkert, A.; Serafini, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    Deforestation, overgrazing, and declining soil regeneration periods have resulted in increased wind erosion problems in dry areas of the West African Sahel, but little is known about the bio-physical factors involved. This research was conducted to determine the effects of ridging and four different windbreak spacings on wind erosion, potential evaporation, and soil water reserves. A field trial was conducted from 1985 to 1987 on 12 ha of a Psammentic Paleustalf in Southern Niger. Millet, Pennisetum glaucum (L.), and cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., were seeded in strips on flat and ridged soil. Windbreaks of savannah vegetation were spaced at 6, 20, 40, and 90 m. The effects of ridging on wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion were small and mostly non-significant. However, average wind speed at 0.3 m above ground in the center of cowpea and millet strips was significantly reduced from 2.8 to 2.1 m s -1 as windbreak distances narrowed from 90 to 6 m. As a consequence, potential evaporation declined by 15% and the amount of windblown soil particles by 50% in ridged and by 70% in flat treatments. Despite reduced potential evaporation, average subsoil water reserves were 14 mm smaller in the 6- than in the 20-m windbreak spacing indicating excessive water extraction by the windbreak vegetation. Thus, establishing windbreaks with natural savannah vegetation may require a careful consideration of the agronomic benefits and costs to competing crops. 21 refs., 5 figs

  8. Efeito de diferentes coberturas vegetais e sistemas de preparo do solo na produção da cultura da soja = Effect of different vegetal coverings and soil tillage systems on soybean crop production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reny Adilmar Prestes Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o desempenho da soja sob a influência de cobertura vegetal e de manejo do solo em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Utilizaram-se aveia, nabo, ervilhaca, ervilha, milheto e tremoço. Avaliaram-se altura e densidade de plantas, altura de inserção de vagens, número de vagens, produtividade, massa de mil grãos, teor de água, densidade e resistência do solo à penetração. O sistema semeadura direta teve maior altura de inserção de vagens, quantidade de vagens, altura de plantas, teor de água e densidade do solo. Maiores valores de resistência do solo à penetração foram verificados no preparo convencional, porém obteve-se maior produtividade. As coberturas e os sistemas de preparo influenciaram na produtividade das plantas de soja. As coberturas vegetaispromoveram melhorias no solo com redução da compactação em algumas camadas do solo. O consórcio aveia/ervilhaca mostrou-se uma técnica de manejo inadequada para as condições às quais o solo foi submetido. O consórcio aveia/milheto mostrou ser uma opção viável de cobertura de solo antecessora à soja. A semeadura direta mostrou ser técnica demanejo adequado para o tipo de solo estudado.This study evaluated the performance of the soybean under the influence of vegetal covering and soil management in Red Latosol dystrofic. Oats, turnip, hairy vetch, pea, millet and lupine were used. The study evaluated height and density of plants, height of insertion in string beans, number of string beans, productivity, athousand grain mass, water contend, bulk density and soil resistance to penetration. The no-tillage system had greater height of insertion of string beans, amount of string beans, height of plants, water contend and soil bulk density. Greater values of soil resistance topenetration were verified in the tillage, though higher productivity was observed. The coverings and the soil tillage systems influenced the productivity of soybean plants. The

  9. Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book describes the unique problems faced by smallholder farmers in semi arid regions of Ethiopia. It is the result of years of on-farm research that involved farmers and incorporated their indigenous knowledge to develop appropriate tillage systems and implements. It describes tillage

  10. Efeitos de sistemas de preparo nas propriedades físicas de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico Effects of tillage systems on the soil physical properties of a dystrophic Red Latosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Maria Vieira Cavalieri

    2006-02-01

    residue management are essential for the sustainability of cassava production in sandy and sandy loam soils of Northwestern Paraná State, Southern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different tillage systems used for planting cassava: no-tillage (NT, minimum tillage using chiseling (MT and conventional tillage with moldboard plow and disking (CT on some physical properties of a dystrophic Red Latosol. The following soil physical properties were evaluated in the 0-0.15 m and 0.15-0.30 m soil layers: soil bulk density (BD, soil water retention curve, soil resistance to penetration curve and least limiting water range (LLWR. Higher values of BD and soil resistance to penetration were verified in the NT and MT treatments. The soil water retention curve was only influenced by BD, which incorporated the effects of the soil tillage systems independent of sampled layers. The soil resistance curve to penetration was influenced by tillage systems and layers, indicating that the soil resistance to root penetration was higher in NT > MT > CT, and was accentuated at the 0.15-0.30 m depth. The increase in the BD led to a reduction in the LLWR due to the effects of soil resistance to penetration and air-filled porosity, which in turn determined the range of soil available water. Results indicated that LLWR value followed the sequence: PC = PM > PSR in the 0-0.15 m soil layer, and was not influenced by tillage systems in the 0.15-0.30 soil layer The critical bulk density value (BDc, the BD value at which LLWR = 0, was lower in NT and MT tillage systems compared with CT, therefore resulting in a smaller frequency of higher BD values than BDc in the soil under CT.

  11. Long-term effect of tillage and manure application on soil organic fractions and crop performance under Sudano-Sahelian conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mando, A.; Ouattara, B.; Sédogo, M.; Stroosnijder, L.; Ouattara, K.; Brussaard, L.; Vanlauwe, B.

    2005-01-01

    Human-induced degradation of natural resources in general and of soil in particular, is a major problem in many regions, including the Sudano-Sahelian zone. The combined effects of tillage and manure application on Lixisol properties and on crop performance were investigated at Saria, Burkina Faso,

  12. Effects of tillage, organic resources and nitrogen fertiliser on soil carbon dynamics and crop nitrogen uptake in semi-arid West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2006-01-01

    Tillage, organic resources and fertiliser effects on soil carbon (C) dynamics were investigated in 2000 and 2001 in Burkina Faso (West Africa). A split plot design with four replications was laid-out on a loamy-sand Ferric Lixisol with till and no-till as main treatments and fertiliser types as

  13. Modelling of soil penetration resistance for an oxisol under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Filho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil penetration resistance is an important property that affects root growth and elongation and water movement in the soil. Since no-till systems tend to increase organic matter in the soil, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency with which soil penetration resistance is estimated using a proposed model based on moisture content, density and organic matter content in an Oxisol containing 665, 221 and 114 g kg-1 of clay, silt and sand respectively under annual no-till cropping, located in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. Penetration resistance was evaluated at random locations continually from May 2008 to February 2011, using an impact penetrometer to obtain a total of 960 replications. For the measurements, soil was sampled at depths of 0 to 20 cm to determine gravimetric moisture (G, bulk density (D and organic matter content (M. The penetration resistance curve (PR was adjusted using two non-linear models (PR = a Db Gc and PR' = a Db Gc Md, where a, b, c and d are coefficients of the adjusted model. It was found that the model that included M was the most efficient for estimating PR, explaining 91 % of PR variability, compared to 82 % of the other model.

  14. Using isotopic tracers to assess the impact of tillage and straw management on the microbial metabolic network in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Groenigen, K.; Forristal, D.; Jones, M. B.; Schwartz, E.; Hungate, B. A.; Dijkstra, P.

    2013-12-01

    By decomposing soil organic matter, microbes gain energy and building blocks for biosynthesis and release CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, insight into the effect of management practices on microbial metabolic pathways and C use efficiency (CUE; microbial C produced per substrate C utilized) may help to predict long term changes in soil C stocks. We studied the effects of reduced (RT) and conventional tillage (CT) on the microbial central C metabolic network, using soil samples from a 12-year-old field experiment in an Irish winter wheat cropping system. Each year after harvest, straw was removed from half of the RT and CT plots or incorporated into the soil in the other half, resulting in four treatment combinations. We added 1-13C and 2,3-13C pyruvate and 1-13C and U-13C glucose as metabolic tracer isotopomers to composite soil samples taken at two depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm) from each treatment and used the rate of position-specific respired 13CO2 to parameterize a metabolic model. Model outcomes were then used to calculate CUE of the microbial community. We found that the composite samples differed in CUE, but the changes were small, with values ranging between 0.757-0.783 across treatments and soil depth. Increases in CUE were associated with a decrease in tricarboxylic acid cycle and reductive pentose phosphate pathway activity and increased consumption of metabolic intermediates for biosynthesis. Our results indicate that RT and straw incorporation promote soil C storage without substantially changing CUE or any of the microbial metabolic pathways. This suggests that at our site, RT and straw incorporation promote soil C storage mostly through direct effects such as increased soil C input and physical protection from decomposition, rather than by feedback responses of the microbial community.

  15. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.

    1994-01-01

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment

  16. Soil management and green water in sloping rainfed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Marqués Pérez, María; Ruíz-Colmenero, Marta; García-Díaz, Andrés; Bienes Allas, Ramón

    2017-04-01

    Improved crop production in areas with restricted water availability is of particular interest. Farmers need to maximize the water use efficiency when the possibilities of further extension of irrigation are limited and water is becoming scarce and expensive. Water in rainfed crops depends on rainfall depth and soil characteristics such as texture and structure, water holding capacity, previous moisture, infiltration, soil surface conditions, steepness and slope length. Land management practices can be used to maximise water availability. In previous studies the unwillingness of farmers to change their practices towards more sustainable use was mainly due to the worry about water competition. This work is aimed at understanding the influence of management practices in the water partitioning of this land use. This study was conducted in a sloping vineyard in the centre of Spain. A rain gauge recorded rainfall depth and intensity in the area. Three different soil management practices were considered: 1) traditional tillage, 2) permanent cover and 3) mowed cover of cereals, both sown in the strips between vines. Two moisture sensors were buried at 10 and 35 cm depths. Three replicates per management practice were performed. It is expected that the lack of tillage increase the potential for litter to protect the soil surface against raindrop impact and to contribute to increasing soil organic carbon, and the corresponding increase in infiltration and water holding capacity. The analysis of two years of daily records of rainfall, runoff and soil moisture are intended to establish any influence of management practices on the partitioning of water. Particularly, the so-called "green water" was estimated, i.e. the fraction of rainfall that infiltrates into the soil and will be further available to plants. Soil characteristics such as texture, structure, moisture, infiltration were established. In addition simulated rainfalls carried out in summer and winter over bounded

  17. Perda de água, solo e fósforo com aplicação de dejeto líquido bovino em latossolo sob plantio direto e com chuva simulada Water, soil and phosphorus loss after cattle slurry application to oxisol under no-tillage and simulated rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Fumiaki Mori

    2009-02-01

    á (Brazil is an important region of milk production and consequently of cattle slurry. The purposes of this study were: (a to evaluate losses of water, soil, total P, soluble P and particulate P under simulated rainfall performed immediately after the application of 0, 30, 60 and 90 m³ ha-1 cattle slurry on a Red-Yellow Latossol (Ferralsol under no-tillage system, and (b to discuss the possible impacts on water quality. Slurry application increased the surface runoff rate by more than 10 times in all 15 min intervals of the 2 h rainfall. The increase of total runoff was highest between 0 and 30 m³ ha-1, and tended to stabilize at over 60 m³ ha-1. The soil loss rate in the first 15 min of rainfall also increased with slurry application, and this tendency continued until the end of the 2 h rainfall, although not significantly. The highest increase of total soil loss was also observed between 0 and 30 m³ ha-1, tending to stabilization at the highest slurry dose. Part of the solid runoff was derived from the applied slurry. The application, even at only 30 m³ ha-1 slurry, increased the total, soluble and particulate P concentration in the runoff to over the limit values regarding eutrophication, especially in the first 15 min of rainfall. Besides the increased runoff rate and P concentration, the slurry application also caused higher absolute losses of the three P forms, which tended to stabilize from 60 m³ ha-1 onwards. The increase in runoff and soil and P loss rates were possibly due to soil surface sealing caused by slurry particles and is possibly related to the fact that rainfall was simulated immediately after slurry application.

  18. Influence of soil management on water erosion and hydrological responses in semiarid agrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alba, Saturnino; Alcazar, María; Ivón Cermeño, F.

    2014-05-01

    In Europe, in the Mediterranean area, water erosion is very severe, moderately to seriously affecting 50% to 70% of the agricultural land. However, it is remarkable the lack of field data of water erosion rates for agricultural areas of semiarid Mediterranean climate. Moreover, this lack of field data is even more severe regarding the hydrological and erosive responses of soils managed with organic farming compared to those with conventional managements or others under conservation agriculture. This paper describes an experimental field station (La Higueruela Station) for the continuous monitoring of water erosion that was set up in 1992 in Central Spain (Toledo, Castilla-La Mancha). In the study area, the annual precipitation is around 450 mm with a very irregular inter-annual and seasonal distribution, which includes a strong drought in summer. The geology is characterised by non-consolidated Miocene materials, mostly arcosics. The area presents a low relief and gentle slopes, generally less than 15%. At the experimental field, the soil is a Typic Haploxeralf (USDA, 1990). The land-uses are rainfed crops mainly herbaceous crops, vineyard and olive trees. The hydrological response and soil losses by water erosion under natural rainfall conditions are monitored in a total of 28 experimental plots of the USLE type. The plots have a total area of 33.7 m2, (22.5 m long downslope and 3 m wide) and presented a slope gradient of 9%. Detailed descriptions of the experimental field facilities and the automatic station for monitoring runoff and sediment productions, as well as of the meteorological station, are presented. The land uses and treatments applied on the experimental plots are for different soil management systems for cereals crops (barley): 1) Organic farming, 2) Minimum tillage of moderate tillage intensity, 3) No-tillage, and 4) Conventional tillage; five alternatives of fallow: 1) Traditional fallow (white fallow) with conventional tillage, 2) Traditional

  19. On-farm assessment of tillage impact on the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and structural soil properties in a semiarid region in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemai, Imene; Ben Aissa, Nadhira; Ben Guirat, Saida; Ben-Hammouda, Moncef; Gallali, Tahar

    2012-12-30

    In semiarid areas, low and erratic rainfall, together with the intensive agricultural use of soils, has depleted soil organic carbon and degraded the soil's chemical, biological and physical fertility. To develop efficient soil-management practices for the rapid restoration of severely degraded soils, no-till, mulch-based cropping systems have been adopted. Thus, a study was conducted on a farm to evaluate the effect of a no-tillage system (NT) versus conventional tillage (CT) on the vertical (0-50 cm) distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), structural instability (SI), stable aggregates and infiltration coefficient (Ks) in a clay loam soil under rain-fed conditions in a semiarid region of north-western Tunisia. CT consisting of moldboard plowing to a depth of 20 cm was used for continuous wheat production. NT by direct drilling under residue was used for 3 (NT3) and 7 (NT7) years in wheat/fava bean and wheat/sulla crop rotations, respectively. SOC was more significantly increased (p < 0.05) by NT3 and NT7 than by CT at respective depths of 0-10 and 0-20 cm, but a greater increase in the uppermost 10 cm of soil was observed in the NT7 field. NT3 management decreased BD and consequently increased TP at a depth of 0-10 cm. The same trend was observed for the NT7 treatment at a depth of 0-30 cm. Ks was not affected by the NT3 treatment but was improved at a depth of 0-30 cm by the NT7 treatment. Changes in BD, TP and Ks in the NT7 plot were significant only in the first 10 cm of the soil. Both NT3 and NT7 considerably reduced SI (p < 0.1) and enhanced stable aggregates (p < 0.05) across the soil profile. These differences were most pronounced under NT7 at a depth of 0-10 cm. The stratification ratio (SR) of the selected soil properties, except that of SI, showed significant differences between the CT and NT trials, indicating an improvement in soil quality. NT management in the farming systems of north-western Tunisia was

  20. Evolution of soil and water conservation in rain-fed areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lingling

    2014-03-01

    Modern research on conservation tillage (No Till, although essential for reducing erosion, increasing crop productivity, and ameliorating poverty, is just beginning in China. Modern conservation tillage research started in the1990s' with support from Australia and other countries. The procedures, however, were modified to be in accord with local conditions and prevailing farmer experiences. With 10 years of experimentation, results show that the most successful conservation practice on the Western Loess Plateau is no till with stubble retention. This technique helps to conserve soil water, increases soil organic carbon, improves soil structure and water infiltration, reduces soil and water erosion, and improves crop productivity and sustainability of rain-fed farming systems. However, its adoption rate remains low due to barriers such as traditional attitude, insufficient rural extension, and so forth.

  1. Depth distribution of glyphosate and AMPA under diferent tillage system and soils in long-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis; De Geronimo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) is a post-emergence, non-selective, foliar herbicide. Around 200 million liters of this herbicide are applied every year in Argentina, where the main agricultural practice is no-till (NT), accounting for 78 % of the cultivated land. In this work, we studied the depth distribution of glyphosate in long-term experiments (more than 15 years) at different locations under NT and conventional tillage (CT). Samples from 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm depth with four replication and two treatments NT CT at three locations: Balcarce (BA) a loam soil, Bordenave (BO) a sandy loam soil y Marcos Juarez a silty loam soil (MJ). The glyphosate concentration in the first 2 cm of soil was, on the average, 70% greater than in the next 2-5 cm. The mass of glyphosate in CT was higher at 2 to 10 cm depth. The depth concentration of AMPA follows the same trend than glyphosate, although its average concentration at 0-2 cm depth is 28 times higher than the glyphosate concentration at 2-5 cm (glyphosate = 147 ppb and AMPA = 4100 ppb). Beside the AMPA concentration at 0-2 cm depth is greater in NT than in CT, the mass of AMPA is higher in CT only for the Balcarce location. To our knowledge, this study is the first dealing with the depth distribution of glyphosate concentration in soils under different soil managements. In the present study, it was demonstrated that glyphosate and AMPA are present in soils under agricultural activity with maximum concentration in the first two cm of soil and the AMPA concentration at this depth is greater in NT than in CT.

  2. Distribution of nitrogen ammonium sulfate (15N) soil-plant system in a no-tillage crop succession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Flavia Carvalho da Silva; Libardi, Paulo Leonel

    2012-01-01

    the n use by maize (Zea mays, l.) is affected by n-fertilizer levels. this study was conducted using a sandy-clay texture soil (Hapludox) to evaluate the efficiency of n use by maize in a crop succession, based on 15 N labeled ammonium sulfate (5.5 atom %) at different rates, and to assess the residual fertilizer effect in two no-tillage succession crops (signal grass and corn). Two maize crops were evaluated, the first in the growing season 2006, the second in 2007, and brachiaria in the second growing season. The treatments consisted of n rates of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha -1 in the form of labeled 15 N ammonium sulfate. This fertilizer was applied in previously defined subplots, only to the first maize crop (growing season 2006). The variables total accumulated n; fertilizer-derived n in corn plants and pasture; fertilizer-derived n in the soil; and recovery of fertilizer-n by plants and soil were evaluated.The highest uptake of fertilizer n by corn was observed after application of 120 kg ha -1 N and the residual effect of n fertilizer on subsequent corn and brachiaria was highest after application of 180 kg ha -1 N. After the crop succession, soil n recovery was 32, 23 and 27 % for the respective applications of 60, 120 and 180 kg ha -1 N. (author)

  3. Residual effects of fallows on selected soil hydraulic properties in a kaolinitic soil subjected to conventional tillage (CT) and no tillage (NT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyamadzawo, G.; Nyamugafata, P.; Chikowo, R.; Giller, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Improved fallows have been used to reduce time required for soil fertility regeneration after cropping in low input agricultural systems. In semi-arid areas of Southern Africa, Acacia angustissima and Sesbania sesban are among some of the more widely used improved fallow species. However the

  4. Effect of Tillage and Fertilizer Practices on Sorghum Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) production is mainly constrained by soil water and nutrient deficits in northern Ethiopia. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of tillage and fertilizer practices on productivity of two sorghum varieties in Abergelle area, northern Ethiopia. The experimental design was ...

  5. Water erosion in no-tillage monoculture and intercropped systems along contour lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildegardis Bertol

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Water erosion is the major cause of soil and water losses and the main factor of degradation of agricultural areas. The objective of this work was to quantify pluvial water erosion from an untilled soil with crop rows along the contour, in 2009 and 2010, on a Humic Dystrupept, with the following treatments: a maize monoculture; b soybean monoculture; c common bean monoculture; d intercropped maize and bean, exposed to four simulated rainfall tests of on hour at controlled intensity (64 mm h-1. The first test was applied 18 days after sowing and the others; 39, 75 and 120 days after the first test. The crop type influenced soil loss through water erosion in the simulated rainfall tests 3 and 4; soybean was most effective in erosion control in test 3, however, in test 4, maize was more effective. Water loss was influenced by the crop type in test 3 only, where maize and soybean were equally effective, with less runoff than from the other crops. The soil loss rate varied during the runoff sampling period in different ways, demonstrating a positive linear relationship between soil and water loss, in the different rainfall tests.

  6. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006. Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006. In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by combining different tillage and planting operations. Results of research conducted in Fars province shows that conservation tillage saves fuel consumption for 77% compared to the conventional system (Afzalinia et al., 2009. Conservation tillage also reduces energy consumption from 23.6 to 42.8% in comparison to the conventional tillage (Rusu, 2005. Since energy indices would be affected by reduced input energies in conservation tillage, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of different tillage and planting methods on energy inputs and energy indices in irrigated wheat production in Eghlid region. Materials and Methods: This research was performed to evaluate and compare the energy indices in irrigated wheat production under different tillage and planting methods. The study was conducted in the form of a randomized complete block experimental design with five treatments and three replications in Eghlid region. The treatments were included, conventional tillage and seed broadcasting (A, conventional tillage and planting with Machine Barzegar grain drill (B, reduced tillage and seeding with Roto-seeder (C, direct seeding with Jairan Sanaat grain drill (D, and direct seeding with Sfoggia direct drill (E. Experimental plots with 10 by 50 m dimensions were used in this study. Loss crop residues were taken out of the experimental plots and standing crop residues were retained in the plots. In the conventional tillage method, primary tillage was performed

  7. Soil fertility erosion and the associated cost of NPK removed under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cost of NPK removed by erosion was calculated by the Replacement cost method. In Experiment 1, hand tillage and all tillage in excess of plough-plant caused significant loss of soil, water, NPK and organic matter. In all cases, the excessive tillage recorded the highest losses whilst plough-plant had the least. In most ...

  8. The influence of cover crops and tillage on actual and potential soil erosion in an olive grove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Blanca; Bienes, Ramón; García-Díaz, Andrés; Panagopoulos, Thomas; José Marqués, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The study was carried out in an olive grove in central Spain (South of Madrid; Tagus River Basin). In this semi-arid zone, the annual mean temperature is 13.8 ºC and the annual precipitation is 395 mm. Olive groves are planted in an erosion prone area due to steep slopes up to 15%. Soil is classified as Typic Haploxerept with clay loam texture. The land studied was formerly a vineyard, but it was replaced by the studied olive grove in 2004. It covers approximately 3 ha and olive trees are planted every 6 x 7 metres. They were usually managed by tillage to decrease weed competition. This conventional practice results in a wide surface of bare soil prone to erosion processes. In the long term soil degradation may lead to increase the desertification risk in the area. Storms have important consequences in this shallow and vulnerable soil, as more than 90 Mg ha-1 have been measured after one day with 40 mm of rainfall. In order to avoid this situation, cover crops between the olive trees were planted three years ago: sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and purple false brome (Brachypodium distachyon), and they were compared with annual spontaneous vegetation after a minimum tillage treatment (ASV). The results regarding erosion control were positive. We observed (Oct. 2012/Sept. 2013) annual soil loss up to 11 Mg ha-1 in ASV, but this figure was reduced in the sown covers, being 8 Mg ha-1 in sainfoin treatment, 3,7 Mg ha-1 in barley treatment, and only 1,5 Mg ha-1 in false brome treatment. Those results are used to predict the risk of erosion in long term. Moreover, soil organic carbon (SOC) increased with treatments, this is significant as it reduces soil erodibility. The increases were found both in topsoil (up to 5 cm) and more in depth, in the root zone (from 5 to 10 cm depth). From higher to lower SOC values we found the false brome (1.05%), barley (0.92%), ASV (0.79%) and sainfoin (0.71%) regarding topsoil. In the root zone (5-10 cm depth

  9. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  10. Mapping soil resistance under different soil water content conditions using indicator kriging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miras-Avalos, J. M.; Bonnin-Acosta, J.; Sande-Fouz, P.; Pereira-Lanças, K.; Paz-Gonzalez, A.

    2009-04-01

    In many agricultural problems, it is of interest to map the zones where the variable under study shows the probability of being greater than a threshold value. Soil resistances higher than 2 MPa might difficult the establishment of cultures; therefore, further management or tillage techniques should be undertaken. The aim of this work was to map soil resistance using geostatistical techniques, therefore, an analysis of the spatial distribution of soil compaction and the influence of soil water content on the resistance to penetration was carried out. The studied clay-textured soil was managed under no-tillage practices. Soil resistance was described by the cone index which was obtained using a penetrometer. This attribute was assessed at 5 different depths, i.e. 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm and deeper than 40 cm, whereas soil water content was described at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. In the end, 73 data points were surveyed. Soil water conditions varied during the five different samplings. Statistical analysis showed that datasets followed a normal distribution, therefore, no transformation was required. Studied attributes showed low and non-significant correlation coefficients which impeded the application of cross-variogram and cokriging techniques. Because of the limited number of measured data, only the omnidirectional semivariogram was computed, and hence the spatial variability is assumed to be identical in all directions. Spatial dependence was observed in 33 out of 35 data series, both for cone index and soil water content. Fitted theoretical structures corresponded to exponential models in 20 cases, 10 Gaussian models and 3 spherical models. Nugget effect varied from 0 to 44.4 depending on the dataset and spatial dependence maximum range was 90 m. A strong spatial dependence was observed in 18 of the data sets whereas only 2 showed a weak autocorrelation. Taking into account the 2 MPa threshold, indicator kriging was used to map the soil resistance

  11. Management-induced Soil Structure Degradation: Organic Matter Depletion and Tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, B.D.; Munkholm, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Soil structure is an important element of soil quality since changes in structural characteristics can cause changes in the ability of soil to fulfil different functions and services. Emphasis in this chapter is placed on the role of soil structure in biological productivity of agroecosystems. Combinations of management practices in which the extent of the degradation of soil structure caused by one practice is balanced or exceeded by the extent of regeneration by other practices will help su...

  12. Energy Demand And Corn Yield With Fertilizer Application Before Sowing In Two Soil Tillage Systems; Demanda energetica e produtividade da cultura do milho com adubacao de pre-semeadura em dois sistemas de manejo do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Erick Vinicius [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia], E-mail: erickbertolini@yahoo.com.br; Gamero, Carlos Antonio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: gamero@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the corn yield with fertilizer application before sowing and provide of the energy demand results involved in the fertilizer application before sowing and sowing in two soil tillage systems. The experiment was carried out at Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas (FCA), Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu-SP campus, from November 2006 to April 2007, in a Dystric Nitosol. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with split-plots and four repetitions. The main plots consisted in two soil tillage systems (no-tillage and reduced tillage with chisel plow) and the split-plots of fertilizer application methods (surface fertilizer application before corn sowing and fertilizer application conventional). Obtained results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% of probability for comparing averages. Statistical analysis showed that fertilizer application before corn sowing the soil tillage systems did not influence the traction force, bar power demanded, effective field capacity, demanded time, energy specific consumption and hourly fuel consumption; the reduced tillage showed higher area fuel consumption. For corn sowing it was observed that no-tillage system showed lower traction force, bar power demanded, energy specific consumption, hourly and area consumption of fuel. Fertilizer application before corn sowing did not affect corn yield in relation to the fertilizer application conventional. (author)

  13. Effects of tillage practice on soil structure, N2O emissions and economics in cereal production under current socio-economic conditions in central Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žurovec, Ognjen; Sitaula, Bishal Kumar; Čustović, Hamid; Žurovec, Jasminka; Dörsch, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Conservation tillage is expected to have a positive effect on soil physical properties, soil Carbon (C) storage, while reducing fuel, labour and machinery costs. However, reduced tillage could increase soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and offset the expected gains from increased C sequestration. To date, conservation tillage is barely practiced or studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH). Here, we report a field study on the short-term effects of reduced (RT) and no tillage (NT) on N2O emission dynamics, yield-scaled N2O emissions, soil structure and the economics of cereal production, as compared with conventional tillage (CT). The field experiment was conducted in the Sarajevo region on a clayey loam under typical climatic conditions for humid, continental BH. N2O emissions were monitored in a Maize-Barley rotation over two cropping seasons. Soil structure was studied at the end of the second season. In the much wetter 2014, N2O emission were in the order of CT > RT > NT, while in the drier 2015, the order was RT > CT > NT. The emission factors were within or slightly above the uncertainty range of the IPCC Tier 1 factor, if taking account for the N input from the cover crop (alfalfa) preceding the first experimental year. Saturated soils in spring, formation of soil crusts and occasional droughts adversely affected yields, particularly in the second year (barley). In 2014, yield-scaled N2O emissions ranged from 83.2 to 161.7 g N Mg-1 grain (corn) but were much greater in the second year due to crop failure (barley). RT had the smallest yield-scaled N2O emission in both years. NT resulted in economically inacceptable returns, due to the increased costs of weed control and low yields in both years. The reduced number of operations in RT reduced production costs and generated positive net returns. Therefore, RT could potentially provide agronomic and environmental benefits in crop production in BH.

  14. Consórcio de milho e Brachiaria decumbens em diferentes preparos de solo = Maize and Brachiaria decumbens under different soil tillage in farmingpasture integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simério Carlos Silva Cruz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparos conservacionistas e sistemas de produção que visam à maximização sustentável do uso do solo e da água têm surgido como alternativas para regiões caracterizadas por períodos chuvosos relativamente curtos e temperaturas elevadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o sistema de consorciação entre milho e Brachiaria decumbens que melhor se adapte às condições dafoclimáticas da região da Zona da Mata do Estado de Alagoas. Os tratamentos consistiram de um híbrido de milho BRS3150, cultivado nos sistemas: Preparo Convencional, Cultivo Mínimo e Semeadura Direta (BRS3150consorciado com Brachiaria decumbens. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualisados com parcelas subdivididas. Amostras de solo foram coletadas para análise química. Também foram avaliados os componentes da produção e produtividade de grãos de milho. Os diferentes preparos do solo e a presença de Brachiaria decumbens, no sistema de consócio com milho, não exerceram influência sobre os componentes da produção. Os resultados analisados permitem concluir que a presença da Brachiaria decumbens interferiu negativamente na produtividade dos grãos de milho, quando cultivado em sistema deconsórcio, e as maiores produtividades foram obtidas nos sistemas conservacionistas.Conservation tillage and production systems that aim to maximize soiland water use in a sustainable form have become alternatives for regions that have relatively short periods of rain and high temperatures. The objective of this research was to evaluate intercropping systems with maize and Brachiaria that have better adaptation to the edaphoclimatic conditions of the “Zona da Mata” region, state of Alagoas. The treatments consisted of a BRS 3150 hybrid of maize, cultivated in the following systems: Conventional Cropping, Minimum Cultivation and No-tillage (BRS 3150 intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens. The design used was randomized block with subdivided plots. Soil

  15. The effect of conservation tillage forward speed and depth on farm fuel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jalali

    2015-09-01

    energyconsumption. Mankind has been tilling agricultural soils for thousands of years to loosen them, to improve their tilth for water use and plant growth and to cover pests. Tillage is a process of creating a desired final soil condition for seeds from some undesirable initial soil conditions through manipulation of soil with the purpose of increasing crop yield.The aim of conservation tillage is to improve soil structure. Considering the advantages of conservation tillage and less scientific research works on imported conservation tillage devices and those which are made inside the country, and considering the importance of tillage depth and speed in different tiller performance, this investigation was carried out. Materials and methods: This investigation was carried out based on random blocks in the form of split plot experimental design. The main factor, tillage depth, (was 10 and 20cm at both levels and the second factor istillage forward speed, (was 6, 8, 10, 12 km h-1 in four levels for Bostan-Abad and 8, 10, 12, 14 km h-1 for Hashtrood with 4 repetitions. It was carried out by using complex tillager made in the Sazeh Keshte Bukan Company, which is mostly used in Eastern Azerbaijan and using Massey Ferguson 285 and 399tractors and its fuel consumptionwas studied. Results and Discussion: In this study, the effect of both factors on the feature of fuel consumption was examined. Regarding tillage speed effect for studies characteristic in Bostan-Abad at 1% probability level fuel consumption was effective. The effect of tillage depth has significance at 5% probability level on fuel consumption. The interaction effect of tillage speed and depth on fuel consumption was significant at probability level of 1% . In Hashtrood, the effect of tillage speed was significant on fuel consumption at probability level of 1% , and also tillage depth effect was significant on fuel consumption amount at probability of 1% . The interaction effect of tillage speed and depth on fuel consumption

  16. Effect of tillage on soil physical properties, growth and yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ploughing plus harrowing plus bedding (PHB), on soil physical properties, growth and shoot yield of large-green leafy amaranth (Amaranth sp.). Soil moisture retention and infiltration rates were also measured in two cropping seasons. Soil moisture retention did not reflect any significant differences in the first and second ...

  17. Analysis of Best Management Practices Implementation on Water Quality Using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Motsinger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico can be traced to agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern United States that are artificially drained in order to make the land suitable for agriculture. A number of best management practices (BMPs have been introduced to improve the water quality in the region but their relative effectivenss of these BMPs in reducing nutrient load has not been properly quantified. In order to determine the BMPs useful for reducing nutrient discharge from a tile drained watershed, a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was calibrated and validated for water flow and nitrate load using experimental data from the Little Vermillion River (LVR watershed in east-central Illinois. Then, the performance of four common BMPs (reduced tillage, cover crop, filter strip and wetlands were evaluated. For BMPs, the usage of rye as cover crop performed the best in reducing nitrate discharge from the watershed as a single BMP, with an average annual nitrate load reduction of 54.5%. Combining no tillage and rye cover crops had varying results over the period simulated, but the average nitrate reduction was better than using rye cover crops with conventional tillage, with the average annual nitrate discharge decreased by 60.5% (an improvement of 13% over rye only.

  18. Effects of Conservation Tillage and Nutrient Management Practices on Soil Fertility and Productivity of Rice (Oryza sativa L.–Rice System in North Eastern Region of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulab Singh Yadav

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over centuries and even today, traditional farming practices are well performed without any ecological degradation. However, management practice such as conservative tillage combined with nutrient and residue could increase the crop production as well as soil fertility. A three-year replicated study was conducted to assess the effects of agronomic modification of traditional farming practices on productivity and sustainability of rice (wet season–rice (dry season system (RRS. The replacement of farmers practice (T2 with conservation effective tillage (no-till (NT and integrated nutrient management (INM practice along with 30% residue retention (T5 enhanced the straw, root and biomass yield of both wet season rice (WR, dry season rice (DR and system as a whole over T2. Treatment T5 recorded significantly lower soil bulk density (ρb and higher pH than the T2 after three years of the experiment. Further, treatment T5 increased total soil organic carbon (2.8%, total soil organic carbon stock (2.8%, carbon sequestration rate (336.5 kg ha−1 year−1, cumulative carbon stock (142.9% and carbon retention efficiency (141.0% over T2 of 0–20 cm depth after three year. The soil microbial biomass carbon concentration was significantly the highest under T5. Similarly, the dehydrogenase activity was the maximum under T5. Adoption of conservation tillage and nutrient management practice involving NT and INM along with residue retention can enhance the system productivity, and C and N sequestration in paddy soils is thereby contributing to the sustainability of the RRS.

  19. Combining Old and New Stable Isotope Techniques to Evaluate the Impact of Conservation Tillage on Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics and Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Clercq, T.; Xu, H.; Mercklx, R.; Heiling, M.; Dercon, G.; Resch, C.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a major carbon pool. It is a crucial factor for soil quality including several soil physical properties and a major nutrient source for crops. It also plays a significant role in the global carbon cycle. Soils can act as a carbon sink or source depending on land use and agricultural management practices. Some practices such as conservation tillage or no-tillage could increase SOM stocks, particularly in the topsoil, but in the long term it remains to be seen if and how this SOM is stabilized (De Clercq et al., 2015; Govaerts et al., 2009). In order to evaluate the sustainability and efficiency of soil carbon sequestration measures and the impact of different management and environmental factors, information on SOM stability and mean residence time (MRT) is required. However, this information on SOM stability and MRT is expensive to determine via radiocarbon dating, precluding a wide spread use of stability measurements in soil science. But alternative methods based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, can provide this information at a fraction of the cost

  20. Impact of agricultural extensification on the relation between soil biodiversity and ecosystem services (soil structure maintenance, water regulation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, J.; Pérès, G.; Groot, A. de

    Introduction – There are increasing pressures on soil biodiversity and soil degradation remains a pertinent issue. In this context, one aim of the EcoFINDERS European project was to assess the impact of agricultural extensification, across a broad range of European land-use systems, on the relati...... biodiversity, providing better soil structure and water infiltration. These results provide more quantitative insights that allow for ecohydrological modelling (forecasting) and economic valuation......., on the relationships between soil biodiversity and ecosystem services. Special attention was given to the relation between i) soil biodiversity and aggregate stability, and ii) earthworms and soil macroporosity and water infiltration.  Method - Data from seven long-term field studies (France, Germany, United......-Kingdom, Slovenia, Denmark) on replicated plots of different land management scenarios (grassland, arable cropping, mixed crop-grassland, reduced or conventional tillage) were analysed. Earthworms were sampled using hand sorting and chemical extraction. Aggregate stability was measured using wet sieving method...

  1. Visual soil structure effects of tillage and corn stover harvest in Iowa, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive harvest of corn (Zea mays L.) stover for ethanol production has raised concerns regarding negative consequences on soil structure and physical quality. Visual soil structure assessment methods have the potential to help address these concerns through simple, straightforward on-farm evaluat...

  2. Tillage Effect on Soil Moisture Storage and Wheat Yield on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertisols are one of the agriculturally important soils in Delanta Dawunt, north central highlands of Ethiopia, for peasant farmers as almost all the cereal, soil and forage crops are grown on them. However, waterlogging during the growing season impedes the performances of cereal crops. It is crucial to seek for cost effective ...

  3. Long-term changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen under semiarid tillage and cropping practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding long-term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TSN) is important for evaluating C fluxes and optimizing N management. We evaluated long-term SOC and TSN changes under dryland rotations for historical stubble-mulch (HSM) and graded terrace (GT) plots on a clay l...

  4. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  5. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  6. RNA Sequencing Analysis Reveals Transcriptomic Variations in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum Leaves Affected by Climate, Soil, and Tillage Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Lei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and development of plants are sensitive to their surroundings. Although numerous studies have analyzed plant transcriptomic variation, few have quantified the effect of combinations of factors or identified factor-specific effects. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis on tobacco leaves derived from 10 treatment combinations of three groups of ecological factors, i.e., climate factors (CFs, soil factors (SFs, and tillage factors (TFs. We detected 4980, 2916, and 1605 differentially expressed genes (DEGs that were affected by CFs, SFs, and TFs, which included 2703, 768, and 507 specific and 703 common DEGs (simultaneously regulated by CFs, SFs, and TFs, respectively. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in abiotic stress responses and secondary metabolic pathways were overrepresented in the common and CF-specific DEGs. In addition, we noted enrichment in CF-specific DEGs related to the circadian rhythm, SF-specific DEGs involved in mineral nutrient absorption and transport, and SF- and TF-specific DEGs associated with photosynthesis. Based on these results, we propose a model that explains how plants adapt to various ecological factors at the transcriptomic level. Additionally, the identified DEGs lay the foundation for future investigations of stress resistance, circadian rhythm and photosynthesis in tobacco.

  7. Soil physical properties under different soil managements for the cultivation of sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarílis Beraldo Rós

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the impact of tillage systems on physical properties of an Alfissol type soil and on the growth of sweet potato tuberous roots. To assess the soil physical properties, an experiment was conducted in randomized blocks design, in split-plot scheme. The plots consisted of the treatments conventional tillage with making mounds and straw incorporated, conventional tillage with making mounds and without straw, reduced tillage with straw on the soil surface and reduced tillage without straw; and the subplots, to collect periods. The soil physical properties evaluated were soil bulk density, total soil porosity, soil macroporosity and soil microporosity, soil resistance to penetration and gravimetric soil water. For the assessment of the growth of sweet potato tuberous roots, it was adopted an experiment where the plots corresponded to the soil management forms and subplots to four collect periods: 90, 120, 150 and 180 (DAP. The length / roots diameter of individual roots relations were avaluated. It was concluded that the reduced tillage gives greater soil resistance to penetration of roots, by reducing the vertical growth of roots, and the presence of straw incorporated in the conventional tillage favors maintenance of lowest soil bulk density and highest soil macroporosity along the time.

  8. Recuperação da qualidade estrutural, pelo sistema plantio direto, de um Argissolo Vermelho Soil structural quality restoration by no-tillage system of a Hapludalf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Flores

    2008-11-01

    densidade e porosidade do solo a recuperação não foi observada.Soils with high sand content in the A horizon are prone to degradation processes, depending on management system used. This study had as objective to evaluate the degradation of a Hapludalf formed from granite, located in the Passo do Pilão watershed in Pelotas county, cultivated under conventional system, and its recovery by no-tillage system, compared to two native systems, namely grass field and forest. The experiment was setup in an agricultural area, in April of 1995, with the cultivation of Avena strigosa plus Vicia vilosa, both for conventional system and no-tillage. An area under native grasses and another with native forest were sampled for comparison. Soils samples were colleted from the layers of 0-0.05m, 0.10-0.15m and 0.20-0.25m, to determine the soil texture, porosity, densities, water retention, aggregate stability and distribution, and organic carbon content. The cultivation systems increase the soil bulk density and reduce total porosity, microporosity, water retention and availability, compared with native systems such as grass field and forest. The conventional system reduces organic carbon content and aggregate stability, whereas no-tillage, after five years, increases, somewhat, the organic carbon content in the surface layer, but increases aggregate stability to values near of those for native systems. The aggregate stability had direct relationship with organic carbon content up to an upper limit of 25g kg-1. The bulk density, macroporosity, S parameter, organic carbon content and aggregate stability are good indicators of the changes observed in the soil management systems. For the Hapludalf formed from granite, there was recovery of the properties related to soil structure stability, but in those related to soil bulk density and porosity no recovery was observed.

  9. Atributos físicos do solo sob diferentes preparos e coberturas influenciados pela distribuição de poros Soil physical attributes under different tillage systems and cover crops, as influenced by pore distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurâimi de Q. Cunha

    2010-11-01

    taken from soil layers of 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m in November 2007, in the plots and in a near by native forest (Cerrado, for determination of soil organic matter (OM content and physical attributes. Cerrado soil use for agricultural production, regardless of tillage system, resulted in decrease of soil total porosity (TP, macroporosity (Mp, and soil air capacity (SAC. Soil physical attributes were favorably affected by OM. Variations in TP, Mp, SAC, and available soil water capacity can be explained by variation in soil pore size distribution, mainly by those with ∅ > 0.075 mm.

  10. Impacts of the conventional tillage tools and reduced tillage on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The long-term impacts of conventional tillage through compaction, soil erosion and loss of soil fertility have led to evaluation of this system. To mitigate these problems, simplified cultivation techniques (SCT) are increasingly practiced. The objective of this review is to clarify the effects of conventional tillage and ...

  11. Do Rates and Splitting of Phosphogypsum Applications Influence the Soil and Annual Crops in a No-Tillage System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vicensi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Applications of phosphogypsum (PG provide nutrients to the soil and reduce Al3+ activity, favoring soil fertility and root growth, but allow Mg2+ mobilization through the soil profile, resulting in variations in the PG rate required to achieve the optimum crop yield. This study evaluated the effect of application rates and splitting of PG on soil fertility of a Typic Hapludox, as well as the influence on annual crops under no-tillage. Using a (4 × 3 + 1 factorial structure, the treatments consisted of four PG rates (3, 6, 9, and 12 Mg ha-1 and three split applications (P1 = 100 % in 2009; P2 = 50+50 % in 2009 and 2010; P3 = 33+33+33 % in 2009, 2010 and 2011, plus a control without PG. The soil was sampled six months after the last PG application, in stratified layers to a depth of 0.8 m. Corn, wheat and soybean were sown between November 2011 and December 2012, and leaf samples were collected for analysis when at least 50 % of the plants showed reproductive structures. The application of PG increased Ca2+ concentrations in all sampled soil layers and the soil pH between 0.2 and 0.8 m, and reduced the concentrations of Al3+ in all layers and of Mg2+ to a depth of 0.6 m, without any effect of splitting the applications. The soil Ca/Mg ratio increased linearly to a depth of 0.6 m with the rates and were found to be higher in the 0.0-0.1 m layer of the P2 and P3 treatments than without splitting (P1. Sulfur concentrations increased linearly by application rates to a depth of 0.8 m, decreasing in the order P3>P2>P1 to a depth of 0.4 m and were higher in the treatments P3 and P2 than P1 between 0.4-0.6 m, whereas no differences were observed in the 0.6-0.8 m layer. No effect was recorded for K, P and potential acidity (H+Al. The leaf Ca and S concentration increased, while Mg decreased for all crops treated with PG, and there was no effect of splitting the application. The yield response of corn to PG rates was quadratic, with the maximum

  12. Parámetros físicos del suelo en condiciones no perturbadas y bajo laboreo Physical parameters of a soil under minimum tillage and non-disturbed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alejandra Ferreras

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de dos sistemas de labranza sobre algunas propiedades del suelo y el rendimiento de soja. La experiencia se realizó sobre un Argiudol típico durante 1996. Los tratamientos fueron: siembra directa (SD, labranza vertical (LV y un control no laboreado (T. Sedeterminó: densidad del suelo (DS; densidad máxima (DSMAX; compactación relativa (CR; porosidad estructural (PE; carbono orgánico total (COT, humificado (COH y libre (COL y humedad gravimétrica (HG. Se realizó el perfil cultural en LV y SD. La DS en SD fue significativamente mayor (PT>SD, mientras que en profundidad fue T>LV>SD. Hubo relación inversa entre CR y PE (r²=0,87. El perfil cultural mostró un 40% de agregados sin porosidad interna enSD. En superficie T presentó mayor COT, COH y COL. La DSMAX se correlacionó negativamente con el COT (r²=0,88. Al inicio del cultivo, SD presentó mayor HG (PThe effect of two tillage systems on soil properties and soybean yield was studied. The experiment was carried out on a Typic Argiudoll during 1996. Treatments were: no-tillage (NT, chisel plow (CP and a control not sown (CNS. Soil bulk density (SBD, maximum bulk density (MAXDB, relative compaction (RC, structural porosity (SP, total organic carbon (TOC, humified organic carbon (HOC, free organic carbon (FOC and water content were evaluated. Soil profile analysis was performed for both tillage systems. Results of SBD in NT showed significant differences both at surface and in depth (1.22 and 1.37 Mg m-3, respectively. The SP at both sampling depths was in the order CP>CNS>NT and CNS>CP>NT, respectively. RC was inversely related to the SP (r²=0.87. Soil profiles showed a 40% of aggregates without internal porosity in NT. TOC, HOC and FOC on surface was higher (P<=0,01 in T as respect NT and CP. MAXBD was negatively correlated to TOC (r²=0.88. Water content in NT was higher (P<=0,01 than in CP at the initial stages, while it was higher (P<=0.01 in CP at flowering

  13. Emissions of nitrous oxide from Irish arable soils: effects of tillage and reduced N input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, M.; Jones, M.B.; Ambus, Per

    2010-01-01

    and reduced N fertilizer on seasonal fluxes and emission factors of N2O and to study the relationship between crop yield and N-induced fluxes of N2O. The soil is classified as a sandy loam with a pH of 7.4 and a mean organic carbon and nitrogen content at 15 cm of 19 and 1.9 g kg(-1) dry soil, respectively...... nitrogen fertilizer by 50% compared to the normal field rate, N2O emissions could be reduced by 57% with no significant decrease on grain yield or quality. This was consistent over the 2 years of measurements....

  14. Comparison of aggregate stability within six soil profiles under conventional tillage using various laboratory tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Rohošková, M.; Žigová, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2009), s. 550-554 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : fast wetting test * slow wetting test * shaking after pre-wetting test * wet sewing Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2009

  15. Changes in soil surface chemistry after fifty years of tillage and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge gained on the long-term effects of crop management practices on soil fertility is critical in developing nutrient management strategies to optimize crop yields. This study examined the long-term effects of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application (N rates of 0, 22, 45 and 67 kg N ha-1) and till...

  16. Tillage and cover cropping effects on soil properties and crop production in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops (CCs) have been heralded for their potential to improve soil properties, retain nutrients in the field, and increase subsequent crop yields yet support for these claims within the state of Illinois remains limited. We assessed the effects of integrating five sets of CCs into a corn-soybe...

  17. Tillage Frequency, Soil Compaction and N-Fertilizer Rate Effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, teff is grown for its grain and straw. There is a dearth of information with respect to plowing, compaction and fertilization on vertisols in central zone of Tigray. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effects of plowing frequency, soil compaction and N on teff yields. The experimental design was a ...

  18. Effect of water management, tillage options and phosphorus status on arsenic uptake in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, A S M H M; Meisner, C A; Sarkar, M A R; Islam, M S

    2011-05-01

    High arsenic (As) concentrations in soil may lead to elevated concentrations of arsenic in agricultural products. Field experiments were conducted to examine the effects of water management (WM) and Phosphorus (P) rates on As uptake, rice growth, yield and yield attributes of winter (boro) and monsoon (aman) rice in an As contaminated soil-water at Gobindagonj, Gaibandha, Bangladesh in 2004 and 2005. Significantly, the highest average grain yields (6.88±0.07 t ha(-1) in boro 6.38±0.06 t ha(-1) in aman) were recorded in permanent raised bed (PRB; aerobic WM: Eh=+360 mV) plus 100% P amendment. There was a 12% yield increase over conventional till on flat (CTF; anaerobic WM: Eh=-56 mV) at the same P level. In boro, the As content in grain and As content in straw were about 3 and 6 times higher in CTF compared to PRB, respectively. The highest total As content (0.646±0.01 ppm in grain and 10.93±0.19 ppm in straw) was recorded under CTF, and the lowest total As content (0.247±0.01 and 1.554±0.09 ppm in grain and straw, respectively) was recorded under PRB (aerobic WM). The results suggest that grain and straw As are closely associated in boro rice. The furrow irrigation approach of the PRB treatments consistently reduced irrigation input by 29-31% for boro and 27-30% for aman rice relative to CTF treatments in 2004 and 2005, respectively, thus reducing the amount of As added to the soil from the As-contaminated irrigation water. Yearly, 30% less As was deposited to the soil compared to CTF system through irrigation water during boro season. High As concentrations in grain and straw in rice grown using CTF in the farmers' field, and the fact that using PRB reduced grain As concentrations to value less than half of the proposed food hygiene standard. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effects of no-tillage plus inter-planting and remaining straw on the field on cropland eco-environment and wheat growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Zhang, Hongcheng; Dai, Qigen; Huo, Zhongyang; Xu, Ke; Ruan, Huifang

    2005-02-01

    The studies showed that under no-tillage plus inter-planting rice and wheat, the height of rice stubble remained on the field significantly affected light transmission rate, with an optimal height of 20-30 cm. No-tillage and straw-remaining decreased soil temperature at noon in sunny days, but slightly increased it in the morning and evening, led to a less diurnal difference of soil temperature. The average diurnal soil temperature under no-tillage was higher in cloudy but lower in sunny days. Under no-tillage and straw-remaining, both the bulk density and the penetration resistance of topsoil increased, but no apparent adverse effect of them was observed on wheat growth. Under no-tillage, soil water content was higher under drought condition, and soil permeability after irrigation was better, which was propitious to the wheat growth. Straw-remaining significantly inhibited weeds, but led to the decrease of basic seedlings and enhanced the damage of freezing. Under no-tillage plus inter-planting, the individuals of effective ears decreased, while the kilo-grain weight increased. The grain yield was slightly but not significantly low under no-tillage plus inter-planting.

  20. Tillage as a tool to manage crop residue: impact on sugar beet production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Chélin, Marie; Degrune, Florine; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and plant cover represent a pool of organic matter that can be used either to restore organic matter in soils, and therefore maintain soil fertility, or that can be valorized outside of the field (e.g. energy production). However, it is crucial that the exportation of residues is not done to the detriment of the system sustainability. Three long term experiments have been settled in the loamy region in Belgium. All of them are designed to study the effect of residues management by several tillage systems (conventional plowing versus reduced tillage) on the whole soil-water-plant system. SOLRESIDUS is a field experiment where we study the impact of crop residue management while in SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS, we study the impact of cover crop management. SOLRESIDUS was started in 2008. In this field, four contrasted crop residues managements are tested in order to contrast as much as possible the responses from the soil-water plant system. Two practices characterize the four modalities: soil tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth or reduce tillage at 10 cm max) and residue management (exportation or restitution). SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS were started in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In those fields cover crop management is also diverse: destruction of the cover crop by winter ploughing, spring ploughing, strip tillage (with a chemical destruction if needed) or shallow tillage (with a decompaction before cover crop sowing). Although although the overall project aims at studying the impact of management on the whole soil-water-plant system, here we will only present the results concerning crop production (sugar beet) in SOLCOUVERT experiments. The presented data will include germination rate, crop development (biomass quantification and BBCH stages) weeds population, disease occurrence, pest occurrences, nitrogen uptake by plants, quality and quantity of harvested products.

  1. Soils and water [Chapter 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Berndes; Heather Youngs; Maria Victoria Ramos Ballester; Heitor Cantarella; Annette L. Cowie; Graham Jewitt; Luiz Antonio Martinelli; Dan Neary

    2015-01-01

    Bioenergy production can have positive or negative impacts on soil and water. To best understand these impacts, the effects of bioenergy systems on water and soil resources should be assessed as part of an integrated analysis considering environmental, social and economic dimensions. Bioenergy production systems that are strategically integrated in the landscape to...

  2. Water erosion during a 17-year period under two crop rotations in four soil management systems on a Southbrazilian Inceptisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Ildegardis; Vidal Vázquez, Eva; Paz Ferreiro, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Soil erosion still remains a persistent issue in the world, and this in spite of the efforts to ameliorate soil management systems taken into account the point of view of environmental protection against soil losses. In South Brazil water erosion is mainly associated to rainfall events with a great volume and high intensity, which are more or less evenly distributed all over the year. Nowadays, direct drilling is the most widely soil management system used for the main crops of the region. However, some crops still are grown on conventionally tilled soils, which means mainly ploughing and harrowing and less frequently chisel ploughing. In Lages-Santa Catarina State, Brazil, a plot experiment under natural rain was started in 1992 on an Inceptisol with the aim of quantifying soil and water losses. Treatments included bare and vegetated plots. The crop succession was: oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Soil tillage systems investigated in this study were: i) conventional tillage (CT), ii) reduced tillage (MT), iii) no tillage (NT) under crop rotation and iv) conventional tillage on bare soil (BS). Treatments CT and BS involved ploughing plus twice harrowing, whereas MT involved chisel ploughing plus harrowing. Rainfall erosivity from January 1 1992 to December 31 2009 was calculated. Soil losses from the BS treatment along the 17 year study period were higher than 1200 Mg ha-1. Crop cover significantly reduced erosion, so that under some crops soil losses in the CT treatment were 80% lower than in the BS treatment. In turn soil losses in the MT treatment, where tillage was performed by chiselling and harrowing, were on average about 50% lower than in the CT treatment. No tillage was the most efficient soil management system in reducing soil erosion, so that soil losses in the NT treatment were about 98% lower than in the BS treatment. The three

  3. Effect of simplified tillage and mineral fertilization on weed infestation of potato growing on loess soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Bujak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper effect of limitation of postharvest measure to single cultivating or disking of soil and mineral fertilization level on number, air-dry matter and botanical composition of weeds in the potato-field is presented. Simplifield postharvest measure was increasing insignificantly and more intensive fertilization was limiting the weed infestation of potato-field. Decteasing of weeds number increasing fertilization was ststistically significant. Dominating species of weeds in the potato-field were Capsella bursa-pastoris, Poa annua, Viola arvensis, Chenopodium album, Elymus repens i Equisetum arvense.

  4. Strip-tillage: A conservation alternative to full-width tillage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowski, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Historically no-till management has been a challenge for maize production in the Midwestern USA because crop residue slows the warming of the soil in the spring and can physically impair planting by plugging the planter. After trying no-till, producers often return to more aggressive tillage operations to address residue concerns; however these systems can cause soil erosion and can increase the cost of production. An alternative system known as strip-tillage has been suggested as a compromise between no-till and full-width tillage. This practice utilizes implements that loosen the soil and allow warming in the row area, yet maintain nearly as much residue as no-till. Strip-tillage is generally understood to be a single pass with a separate implement in the fall, although spring strip-tillage is possible if soil moisture and conditions permit. Strip-tillage can be accomplished in a shorter time, with lower energy and equipment inputs compared to full-width tillage. The first of two studies that examined the merits of strip-tillage was conducted the University of Wisconsin Lancaster Agricultural Research Station (42.84, -90.80). Natural runoff collectors were installed in a field having a silt loam soil with an 8% slope in fall chisel and fall strip-tillage system. The measured soil loss in a year that experienced substantial rainfall prior to canopy closure was 10.6 Mg ha-1 in chisel vs. 0.64 Mg ha-1 in strip-tillage. Soil loss was much less for both systems in the second year when early season rainfall was minimal. A second, ten year study was conducted at the University of Wisconsin Arlington Agricultural Research Station (43.30, -89.36) that compared fall strip-tillage with fall chisel/spring field cultivator and no-till systems in both a continuous maize and soybean-maize rotation. This work showed equal maize grain yield in maize after soybean when comparing chisel and strip-tillage. No-till yield was about 5 % lower. Yield in continuous maize was highest in

  5. Water Repellency, Infiltration and Water Retention Properties of Forest Soils Under Different Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, N. A.; Bens, O.; Schäfer, B.; Hüttl, R. F.

    For soils under both agricultural and forest use, management and tillage practice can have significant influence on the hydraulic properties. It is therefore supposed, that management practices are capable of altering surface runoff, water retention and flood- ing risk for river catchments. Soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) can adversely affect soil hydrological properties, e.g. reduce infiltration capacity and induce pref- erential flow, thus enhancing the overall risk of flooding in river catchment areas. Hydrophobic effects are especially pronounced in coniferous forest soils. Investigations were carried out on several study plots in the German Northeastern Lowlands, located app. 50 km NE of Berlin in Brandenburg. Soils found in the area are mainly of glacifluvial origin with a pronounced sandy texture (with medium sized sand dominating). The four stands investigated represent different stages of forest transfor- mation, in a sense of a SfalseT chronosequence and are made up of populations of & cedil;Pinus sylvestris and Fagus sylvatica of different ages. Infiltration was measured with hood infiltrometers, and single infiltration rings at soil surface. Water retention capacity and the influence of soil organic matter on water storage were evaluated with laboratory methods. Water repellency was quantified with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test, for determining the persistence of water repellency, and the ethanol percentage (EP) test, for measuring the severity/degree of water repellency. Soil samples from the four forest plots and different soil depths (0U160 cm) were used for the measurements. SPotentialT water repellencies were & cedil;determined after 3-day oven-drying at 45 C. The results indicate that for sandy forest soils, the overall infiltration capacity of the plots is low due to the effects of water repellency. The inter-variability of the plots is mainly caused by changes in the textural composition of the soils. For all plots a

  6. An approach for using general soil physical condition-root growth relationships to predict seedling growth response to site preparation tillage in loblolly pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.A. Morris; K.H. Ludovici; S.J. Torreano; E.A. Carter; M.C. Lincoln; R.E. Will

    2006-01-01

    Tree seedling root growth rate can be limited by any one of three soil physical factors: mechanical resistance, water potential or soil aeration. All three factors vary with soil water content and, under field conditions, root growth rate will depend on the soil water content as a result of its relationship to each factor. For a specific site, the relationship between...

  7. Análise multivariada da fauna edáfica em diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo Multivariate analysis of soil fauna under different soil tillage and crop management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo sobre a diversidade de animais da fauna edáfica, por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. Na análise canônica discriminante, os preparos conservacionistas com sucessão de culturas foram separados em relação aos tratamentos com rotação de culturas. Os grupos Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda e Collembola, e o índice de Shannon (H foram os atributos que mais contribuíram para separar os tratamentos. A análise de correspondência mostrou forte associação dos grupos Acarina e Hymenoptera com o tratamento semeadura direta com sucessão de culturas, e do grupo Collembola com o preparo convencional.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage and crop management systems on soil fauna groups, by means of multivariate analysis. In the canonical discriminant analysis the conservation soil management systems with crop succession were discriminated in relation to other treatments with crop rotation. The groups Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, and Collembola, and the Shannon index (H showed the highest contribution for the discrimination between treatments. The correspondence analysis showed a strong association between Acarina and Hymenoptera groups with the treatment no-tillage with crop succession, and between Collembola group with the conventional tillage system.

  8. Tillage and Farmyard Manure Effects on Crusting and Compacting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field investigations on rainfall characteristics, surface runoff, soil loss, soil bulk density and soil shear strength covered two rainy seasons (short and long rains) and were done on a Chromic Luvisol. The field treatments were zero tillage and conventional tillage, and two farmyard manure applications (5 and 10 Mg ha-1).

  9. Natural vegetation management to conserve biodiversity and soil water in olive orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P. Simoes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined impact of soil tillage intensification and expansion of olive farming is resulting in soil degradation and biodiversity decline. We hypothesized that, instead of tilling, mowing to control the natural vegetation in spring can increase biodiversity and improve soil quality. We compared the effects of natural vegetation mowing (NVM with those of tillage (NVT on plant community composition and cover, soil water content and resistance to penetration, and olive yield over an 8-year period, in a Mediterranean rainfed olive orchard. NVM had an average of 28 more species and showed a strong positive correlation with Poaceae and Fabaceae, and also with geophytes and hemicryptophytes. In contrast, NVT was negatively correlated with species richness and diversity, with perennial life forms, and positively correlated with Convolvulaceae. Proportions of grass and straw cover in spring were higher in NVM from the beginning of the study (average difference was about 20%. In autumn, grass cover became higher in NVM than in NVT from year five (13% more and straw cover from year two (30% more. Olive production did not differ between treatments in any of the years. Soil water was higher in NVM, at both soil depths, particularly in mid-summer and after the first autumn rains (1 to 2%. Soil resistance to penetration was 1 Mpa higher in NVM than in NVT. As compared to conventional tillage, natural vegetation cover mowed in spring seems to be an effective management practice to improve the overall rainfed olive orchard biodiversity and soil quality, without affecting production.

  10. Modifica��ões nos atributos físicos de solos submetidos a dois sistemas de preparo em rebrota de Eucalyptus saligna Monitoring soil physical characteristics in Eucalyptus saligna coppice under different soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Cavichiolo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito do revolvimento do solo das entrelinhas na produtividade de rebrota de Eucalyptus saligna, por meio das modificações em alguns atributos físicos do solo, e estabelecer qual profundidade de revolvimento apresenta maior ganho em produtividade em solos de texturas distintas, no Estado de São Paulo. Os sistemas de preparo foram: grade até 20 cm de profundidade e subsolador até 30 cm. Foram obtidas amostras indeformadas do solo nas seguintes profundidades: 0 a 10, 10 a 20 e 20 a 30 cm, em nove repetições por tratamento; nos mesmos pontos foram coletadas amostras de solo para análise da fertilidade. Os seguintes atributos físicos do solo foram determinados: densidade do solo, porosidade total e de aeração, macro e microporosidade e da planta: altura e DAP (Diâmetro à Altura do Peito. No solo de textura média não houve efeito do preparo do solo no crescimento das plantas, sendo estabelecido correlação negativa entre a porosidade de aeração, na profundidade de 10 - 20 cm, e o incremento em DAP (r²= 0,74. Essa mesma correlação foi positiva no solo de textura argilosa (r² = 0,78. No solo de textura argilosa, os dois sistemas de preparo de solo apresentaram maiores incrementos em altura e DAP do que a testemunha, diferindo estatisticamente no nível de 1%, pelo teste de Tukey.The objective of this work was to evaluate soil physical characteristic changes in soil of different textures after mechanized harvesting under different tillage systems, in an area of Eucalyptus saligna coppice. The soils were a coarse Yellow Latosol and a Clayey Red Latosol occurring in an area of commercial plantation, in São Paulo State. Soil tillage systems were harrowing to 20-cm depth and subsoiling to a 30-cm depth. The following soil physical characteristics determined were bulk density, total and aeration porosity; and in the plant total height and DBH. There was no tillage effect on plants growing

  11. Impact of glyphosate resistant corn, glyphosate applications, and tillage on soil nutrient ratios, exoenzyme activities, and nutrient acquisition ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report results of the last two years of a 7-year (2008-2014) field experiment designed to test the null hypothesis that applications of glyphosate on glyphosate resistant corn (Zea mays L.) as a routine weed control practice under both conventional and reduced tillage practices would have no effe...

  12. Resurrection of glyphosate resistant palmer amaranth control in conservation tillage dicamba tolerant cotton; soil health salvation using herbicide technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation agriculture hecterage in the mid-south and southeastern US has decreased because of herbicide resistant and other hard to control weeds. Producers have increasingly utilized tillage, the majority either using a moldboard plow to deeply bury weed seed and decrease emergence, or ‘vertica...

  13. Effect of tillage and crop residues management on mungbean (vigna radiata (L.) wilczek) crop yield, nitrogen fixation and water use efficiency in rainfed areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, W.; Shehzadi, S.; Shah, S.M.; Shah, Z.

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of crop residues and tillage practices on BNF, WUE and yield of mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) under semi arid rainfed conditions at the Livestock Research Station, Surezai, Peshawar in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The experiment comprised of two tillage i) conventional tillage (T1) and ii) no-tillage (T0) and two residues i) wheat crop residues retained (+) and ii) wheat crop residues removed (-) treatments. Basal doses of N at the rate of 20: P at the rate of 60 kg ha-1 were applied to mungbean at sowing time in the form of urea and single super phosphate respectively. Labelled urea having 5% 15N atom excess was applied at the rate of 20 kg N ha-1 as aqueous solution in micro plots (1m2) in each treatment plot to assess BNF by mungbean. Similarly, maize and sorghum were grown as reference crops and were fertilized with 15N labelled urea as aqueous solution having 1% 15N atom excess at the rate of 90 kg N ha/sup -1/. The results obtained showed that mungbean yield (grain/straw) and WUE were improved in notillage treatment as compared to tillage treatment. Maximum mungbean grain yield (1224 kg ha/sup -1/) and WUE (6.61kg ha/sup -1 mm/sup -1/) were obtained in no-tillage (+ residues) treatment. The N concentration in mungbean straw and grain was not significantly influenced by tillage or crop residue treatments. The amount of fertilizer-N taken up by straw and grain of mungbean was higher under no-tillage with residues-retained treatment but the differences were not significant. The major proportion of N (60.03 to 76.51%) was derived by mungbean crop from atmospheric N2 fixation, the remaining (19.6 to 35.91%) was taken up from the soil and a small proportion (3.89 to 5.89%) was derived from the applied fertilizer in different treatments. The maximum amount of N fixed by mungbean (82.59 kg ha/sup -1/) was derived in no-tillage with wheat residue-retained treatment. By using sorghum as

  14. Effect of soil surface roughness on infiltration water, ponding and runoff on tilled soils under rainfall simulation experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Longshan; Hou, Rui; Wu, Faqi; Keesstra, Saskia

    2018-01-01

    Agriculture has a large effect on the properties of the soil and with that on soil hydrology. The partitioning of rainfall into infiltration and runoff is relevant to understand runoff generation, infiltration and soil erosion. Tillage manages soil surface properties and generates soil surface

  15. TILLAGE EROSION: THE PRINCIPLES, CONTROLLING FACTORS AND MAIN IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wysocka-Czubaszek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tillage erosion is one of the major contributors to landscape evolution in hummocky agricultural landscapes. This paper summarizes the available data describing tillage erosion caused by hand-held or other simple tillage implements as well as tools used in typical conventional agriculture in Europe and North America. Variations in equipment, tillage speed, depth and direction result in a wide range of soil translocation rates observed all over the world. The variety of tracers both physical and chemical gives a challenge to introduce the reliable model predicting tillage erosion, considering the number and type of tillage operation in the whole tillage sequence.

  16. Two years monitoring of soil N_{2}O emissions on durum wheat in a Mediterranean area: the effect of tillage intensity and N-fertilizer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Iride; Bosco, Simona; Triana, Federico; Di Nasso, Nicoletta Nassi o.; Laville, Patricia; Virgili, Giorgio; Bonari, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Evaluating the magnitude and the key factors affecting N2O emissions from agriculture has a scientific and practical relevance, in fact emissions from agricultural and natural soils account for 56-70% of all global N2O sources (Syakila and Kroeze, 2011). Moreover, the necessity to increase the food production rate minimizing greenhouse gas emissions require a deeper understanding of the effect of the agricultural practices on direct soil emissions. Therefore, the aim of this work is to assess the effect of tillage intensity and nitrogen rate on soil N2O emissions on durum wheat. A two years monitoring campaign was carried out using a high-sensibility transportable instrument developed within the LIFE+ "Improved flux Prototypes for N2O emission from Agriculture" IPNOA project (Bosco et al., 2015; Laville et al., 2015). The project aims at improving the measurement technique of N2O flux directly in field using the flow-through non-steady state chamber technique. The monitoring campaign on durum wheat lasted for two growing seasons and two fallow periods (2013-14 and 2014-15). Treatment on the main plot was tillage intensity with two levels, ploughing and minimum tillage, and three different nitrogen rates were distributed to the subplots (N0: 0 kg ha-1, N1: 110 kg ha-1, N2: 170 kg ha-1). Ancillary measurements concerned meteorological data, soil temperature and moisture, NO3-, NH4+ soil concentration. Main results of the two years highlighted N rate as the main driver for both N2O daily flux and cumulative emissions during the growing season, while in the fallow period treatments did not affect the emission magnitude. Tillage intensity was not a key factor for N2O emissions. N2O emissions were significantly different in the two years. In particular, cumulative emissions of 2013-14 were about five times higher than in 2014-15, respectively on average 2885±260 g N-N2O ha-1 and 534±53 g N-N2O ha-1 for a similar monitoring period of about 300 days. Differences could be

  17. Abundance and Diversity of Soil Macrofauna in Native Forest, Eucalyptus Plantations, Perennial Pasture, Integrated Crop-Livestock, and No-Tillage Cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Trierveiler de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intensive land use can affect macrofaunal biodiversity, which is a property that can be used as a soil quality indicator. This study evaluated the abundance and diversity of soil macrofauna and its relation to soil chemical and physical properties in five land use systems (LUS in the eastern region of Santa Catarina. The following LUS were studied: native forest (NF, eucalyptus plantations (EP, perennial pasture (PP, integrated crop-livestock (ICL, and no-tillage cropping (NT. The macrofauna was quantified in 0.25 × 0.25 m monoliths and sampled in the 0.00-0.20 m layer in the summer (Jan/2012 and winter (Jul/2012. For each LUS, nine points were sampled, distributed in a 30 × 30 m sampling grid. After screening the edaphic macrofauna organisms, the individuals were counted and identified at the species level when possible, or in major taxonomic groups. The Shannon diversity indices were calculated and the macrofaunal groups together with the physical and chemical properties were subjected to principal component (PCA and redundancy analysis (RDA. The abundance and diversity of macrofaunal groups are affected by the LUS. The properties of organic matter, macroporosity, bulk density, cation exchange capacity at pH 7.0, base saturation, potential acidity, and exchangeable Al were related to the abundance of soil macrofaunal groups. The stability and biodiversity of soil macrofauna were highest in the LUS of NF, PP, and EP.

  18. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the 3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, pJournal of Soil Science, 4, 51-60. Urbanek., E., Hallet, P., Feeney, D., Horn, R. (2007) Water repellency and distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds in soil aggregates from different tillage systems. Geoderma, 140, 147-155. Wessel, A.T. (1988) On using the effective contact angle and the water drop penetration time for classification of water repellency in dune soils. Earth Surface Process and Landforms, 13, 555-265.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity, root colonization, and soil alkaline phosphatase activity in response to maize-wheat rotation and no-tillage in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Yang, Anna; Zhu, Anning; Wang, Junhua; Dai, Jue; Wong, Ming Hung; Lin, Xiangui

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring the effects of no-tillage (NT) in comparison with conventional tillage (CT) on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to compare the species composition and ecological function of soil arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi during the growth and rotation of crops under NT and CT. From late June 2009 to early June 2010, 32 topsoil (0-15 cm) samples from four individual plots per treatment (CT and NT) were collected at both the jointing and maturation stages of maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from a long-term experimental field that was established in an Aquic Inceptisol in North China in June 2006. The AM fungal spores were isolated and identified and then used to calculate species diversity indices, including the Shannon- Wiener index (H'), Evenness (E), and Simpson's index (D). The root mycorrhizal colonization and soil alkaline phosphatase activity were also determined. A total of 34 species of AM fungi within nine genera were recorded. Compared with NT, CT negatively affected the soil AM fungal community at the maize sowing stage, leading to decreases in the average diversity indices (from 2.12, 0.79, and 0.82 to 1.79, 0.72, and 0.74 for H', E, and D, respectively), root mycorrhizal colonization (from 28% to 20%), soil alkaline phosphatase activity (from 0.24 to 0.19 mg/g/24 h) and available phosphorus concentration (from 17.4 to 10.5 mg/kg) at the maize jointing stage. However, reductions in diversity indices of H', E, and D were restored to 2.20, 0.81, and 0.84, respectively, at the maize maturation stage. CT should affect the community again at the wheat sowing stage; however, a similar restoration in the species diversity of AM fungi was completed before the wheat jointing stage, and the highest Jaccard index (0.800) for similarity in the species composition of soil AM fungi between CT and NT was recorded at

  20. Tillage Effects on Maize Performance and Physical Properties of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of six tillage methods on soil physical properties maize (Zea mays L.) germination, growth and yield were evaluated in field experiments during 1995 and 1996 cropping seasons. The selected treatments represented both conventional and conservation tillage practices common within the study area. The soil ...

  1. Water in the critical zone: soil, water and life from profile to planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Earth is unique in the combination of abundant liquid water, plate tectonics and life, providing the broad context within which the critical zone exists, as the surface skin of the land. Global differences in the availability of water provide a major control on the balance of processes operating in the soil, allowing the development of environments as diverse as those dominated by organic soils, by salty deserts or by deeply weathered lateritic profiles. Within the critical zone, despite the importance of water, the complexity of its relationships with the soil material continue to provide many fundamental barriers to our improved understanding, at the scales of pore, hillslope and landscape. Water is also a vital resource for the survival of increasing human populations. Intensive agriculture first developed in semi-arid areas where the availability of solar energy could be combined with irrigation water from more humid areas, minimising the problems of weed control with primitive tillage techniques. Today the challenge to feed the world requires improved, and perhaps novel, ways to optimise the combination of solar energy and water at a sustainable economic and environmental cost.

  2. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  3. [Effects of planting system on soil and water conservation and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Da-Bing; Yong, Tai-Wen; Yang, Wen-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Bo; Guo, Kai

    2010-06-01

    A three-year experiment was conducted to study the effects of wheat/maize/soybean with total no-tillage and mulching (NTM), wheat/maize/soybean with part no-tillage and part mulching (PTM), wheat/maize/soybean with total tillage without mulching (TWM), and wheat/maize/ sweet potato with total tillage without mulching (TWMS) on the soil and water conservation, soil fertility, and crop output value in a sloping land of Southwest China. The average soil erosion amount and surface runoff of NTM were significantly lower than those of the other three planting systems, being 1189 kg x hm(-2) and 215 m3 x hm(-2), and 10.6% and 84.7% lower than those of TWMS, respectively. The soil organic matter, total N, available K and available N contents of NTM were increased by 15.7%, 18.2%, 55.2%, and 25.9%, respectively, being the highest among the test planting systems. PTM and TWM took the second place, and TWMS pattern had the least. NTM had the highest annual crop output value (18809 yuan x hm(-2)) and net income (12619 yuan x hm(-2)) in three years, being 2.2% -20.6% and 3.8% -32.9% higher than other three planting systems, respectively. In a word, the planting system wheat/maize/soybean was more beneficial to the water and soil conservation and the improvement of soil fertility and crop output value, compared with the traditional planting system wheat/maize/sweet potato.

  4. Short-Term Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Turnover Assessed by δ 13C Abundance in Particle-Size Fractions of Black Soils from Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xuewen

    2014-01-01

    The combination of isotope trace technique and SOC fractionation allows a better understanding of SOC dynamics. A five-year tillage experiment consisting of no-tillage (NT) and mouldboard plough (MP) was used to study the changes in particle-size SOC fractions and corresponding δ 13C natural abundance to assess SOC turnover in the 0–20 cm layer of black soils under tillage practices. Compared to the initial level, total SOC tended to be stratified but showed a slight increase in the entire plough layer under short-term NT. MP had no significant impacts on SOC at any depth. Because of significant increases in coarse particulate organic carbon (POC) and decreases in fine POC, total POC did not remarkably decrease under NT and MP. A distinct increase in silt plus clay OC occurred in NT plots, but not in MP plots. However, the δ 13C abundances of both coarse and fine POC increased, while those of silt plus clay OC remained almost the same under NT. The C derived from C3 plants was mainly associated with fine particles and much less with coarse particles. These results suggested that short-term NT and MP preferentially enhanced the turnover of POC, which was considerably faster than that of silt plus clay OC. PMID:25162052

  5. Influence of conservation tillage and zero tillage on arable weeds in organic faba bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung, Rüdiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The field experiments were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 on a Gleyic Cambisol near Goettingen, Lower Saxony, Germany. A crop sequence of summer barley, winter cover crops (intercropped oat and sunflower and summer faba bean was examined under organic farming conditions. Emphasis was given to the studying of arable weeds in faba beans. However, enhancing symbiotic nitrogen fixation of summer faba beans by accumulation of soil-nitrogen by winter cover crops was a second objective in these experiments. The faba bean field plots had been cultivated with three different tillage systems: 1. zero tillage, sowing with cross-slottechnique, 2. conservation tillage (wing share cultivator, rotary harrow sowing with cross-slot-technique and 3. conventional tillage with mouldboard plough followed by rotary harrow, sowing with precision monoseeder. In plots with zero tillage preceding cover crops were left as mulch on the soil surface. Cover crops accumulated adequate nitrogen amounts and following faba beans reacted with significant increase (up to 10% in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Maximum of arable weed biomass was observed in zero tillage-plots at the end of May or early in June. The abundance of the predominant weed wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis increased with tillage intensity, whereas the abundance of creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense increased in 2010 with decreasing tillage intensity. Average grain yield of faba beans was low with only 3.0 and 2.4 t ha-1 in 2009 and 2010, respectively.

  6. Soil physics and the water management of spatially variable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    The physics of macroscopic soil-water behaviour in inert porous materials has been developed by considering water flow to take place in a continuum. This requires the flow region to consist of an assembly of representative elementary volumes, repeated throughout space and small compared with the scale of observations. Soil-water behaviour in swelling soils may also be considered as a continuum phenomenon so long as the soil is saturated and swells and shrinks in the normal range. Macroscale heterogeneity superimposed on the inherent microscale heterogeneity can take many forms and may pose difficulties in the definition and measurement of soil physical properties and also in the development and use of predictive theories of soil-water behaviour. Thus, measurement techniques appropriate for uniform soils are often inappropriate, and criteria for soil-water management, obtained from theoretical considerations of behaviour in equivalent uniform soils, are not applicable without modification when there is soil heterogeneity. The spatial variability of soil-water properties is shown in results from field experiments concerned with water flow measurements; these illustrate both stochastic and deterministic heterogeneity in soil-water properties. Problems of water management of spatially variable soils when there is stochastic heterogeneity appear to present an insuperable problem in the application of theory. However, for soils showing deterministic heterogeneity, soil-water theory has been used in the solution of soil-water management problems. Thus, scaling using similar media theory has been applied to the infiltration of water into soils that vary over a catchment area. Also, the drain spacing to control the water-table height in soils in which the hydraulic conductivity varies with depth has been calculated using groundwater seepage theory. (author)

  7. Potential effect of conservation tillage on sustainable land use : a review of global long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang Xiaobin,; Cai, D.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Oenema, O.; Perdok, U.D.

    2006-01-01

    Although understood differently in different parts of the world, conservation tillage usually includes leaving crop residues on the soil surface to reduce tillage. Through a global review of long-term conservation tillage research, this paper discusses the long-term effect of conservation tillage on

  8. The Effects of Reduced Tillage on Phosphate Transport from Agricultural Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    spring rains contribute much of the annual r ,olf, the rotughness and surface storage capacity provided by fall moldboard plowing may be more...Research Center, Columbia. 60 pp. Triplett, G.R., I).M. Van Doren and B.L. Schmidt. 1968. Effect of corn ( Zea mays L.) ILovtr mulch on no tillage corn yield and water infiltration. Agron, J, 60:236-239. i I SI i ...which probably control the effect of tillage on runoff: Soils which have restricted drainage may be saturated during periods of high precipitation

  9. Soil tension mediates isotope fractionation during soil water evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaj, Marcel; McDonnell, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    Isotope tracing of the water cycle is increasing in its use and usefulness. Many new studies are extracting soil waters and relating these to streamflow, groundwater recharge and plant transpiration. Nevertheless, unlike isotope fractionation factors from open water bodies, soil water fractionation factors are poorly understood and until now, only empirically derived. In contrast to open water evaporation where temperature, humidity and vapor pressure gradient define fractionation (as codified in the well-known Craig and Gordon model), soil water evaporation includes additionally, fractionation by matrix effects. There is yet no physical explanation of kinetic and equilibrium fraction from soil water within the soil profile. Here we present a simple laboratory experiment with four admixtures of soil grain size (from sand to silt to clay). Oven-dried samples were spiked with water of known isotopic composition at different soil water contents. Soils were then stored in sealed bags and the headspace filled with dry air and allowed to equilibrate for 24hours. Isotopic analysis of the headspace vapor was done with a Los Gatos Inc. water vapor isotope analyzer. Soil water potential of subsamples were measured with a water potential meter. We show for the first time that soil tension controls isotope fractionation in the resident soil water. Below a Pf 3.5 the δ-values of 18O and 2H of the headspace vapor is more positive and increases with increasing soil water potential. Surprisingly, we find that the relationship between soil tension and equilibrium fractionation is independent of soil type. However, δ-values of each soil type plot along a distinct evaporation line. These results indicate that equilibrium fractionation is affected by soil tension in addition to temperature. Therefore, at high soil water tension (under dry conditions) equilibrium fractionation is not consistent with current empirical formulations that ignore these effects. These findings may have

  10. Eficiência no uso da água e interferência de plantas daninhas no meloeiro cultivado nos sistemas de plantio direto e convencional Water use efficiency and weed interference in melon crop under conventional and no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.S. Teófilo

    2012-09-01

    filme de polietileno nos dois sistemas de plantio ou com cobertura morta no plantio direto aumentou a eficiência no uso da água em relação ao solo sem cobertura. No tratamento sem capinas no sistema de plantio convencional, além da perda total na produtividade comercial, a interferência das plantas daninhas aumentou o consumo de água em 9,6%.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the conventional and no-tillage systems and weed management strategies on water use efficiency in melon crop (Cucumis melo. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a randomized block design in split-plots in Mossoró-RN. The plots were constituted of two tillage systems (conventional and no-tillage and the sub-plots of three weed management systems (plastic mulch, weeding, and no weeding. Density and dry weight of the weeds at 30 days after transplanting, commercial and total yield and daily consumption of water were evaluated. Irrigation management was performed by the characteristic soil water curve for each cropping system at 15 and 30 cm of depth and water control by daily reading a set of tensiometers installed to keep the soil above 75% of field capacity. Water use efficiency (USA, given in kg of fruit per m3, was determined based on the crop's yield and water consumption. It was found that the no-tillage system reduced weed density and dry matter in 86.7 and 61%, respectively, compared to conventional tillage, and weed interference reduced commercial yield by 100% under conventional tillage and 36.5% under no-tillage. Soil with plastic mulch under no-tillage and conventional systems, and straw mulching under no-tillage reduced water consumption by 23% (388.8 m3 ha-1, 21% (363.0 m3 ha-1 and 13% (215.0 m3 ha-1, respectively, compared to the weeding treatment under conventional tillage. Soil with plastic mulch under the two tillage systems, or straw mulching under no-tillage increased the efficiency of water use from the ground without cover. In the no

  11. Identifying the Tillage Effects on Phosphorus Export from Phaeozems-Dominated Agricultural Watershed: a Plot-Scale Rainfall-Runoff Study in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyan; Xu, Y. Jun; Xiao, Weihua; Wang, Jianhua; Hao, Cailian; Zhou, Pu; Shi, Min

    2017-12-01

    Evaluating tillage effects on soil phosphorus (P) loss at the plot-scale has significant implication for developing best management practices (BMPs) to protect water quality and soil productivity management in agricultural watersheds. This paper aims to quantify P loss from tilled soils under different rainfall patterns in a Phaeozems-dominated agricultural watershed. Eleven rainfall events were monitored at three experimental sites growing corns with conventional till, conservational till, and no-till during a growing season from July to August in 2013. Mean event mean concentration of dissolved phosphorus was 0.130, 0.213 and 0.614 mg L-1 and mean particulate phosphorus transfer rate was 103.502, 33.359 and 27.127 g ha-1 hr-1, respectively for three tillage practices. Results showed that less tillage practices could significantly reduce sediment runoff and PP loss, accompanied with a moderate reduction of runoff yield. While the proportion of PP has been cut down, the proportion of DP could account for the majority. Hydrological factors, including antecedent soil moisture and rainfall variables, could exert various effects on DP, PP and sediment losses under different tillage conditions. Further, the results of this study imply that the soil P loss management and water quality protection in black soil region of Northeast China should take consideration of diverse effects of tillage on phosphorus loss and the dynamics of P between different forms.

  12. Impacts of conservation tillage on the hydrological and agronomic performance of Fanya juus in the upper Blue Nile (Abbay) river basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, M.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Simane, B.; Van der Zaag, P.; Mohamed, Y.; Wenninger, Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of soil conservation structures (SCS) has been low in high rainfall areas of Ethiopia mainly due to crop yield reduction, increased soil erosion following breaching of SCS, incompatibility with the tradition of cross plowing and water-logging behind SCS. A new type of conservation tillage

  13. Disponibilidade de cátions no solo alterada pelo sistema de manejo Soil cation availability as affected by the tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Pavinato

    2009-08-01

    considerados altos, e é mantida em toda a camada arável do perfil.The management system normally affects soil nutrient availability, as a consequence of tillage practices, crop rotation and crop residues remaining in the cultivated area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the alterations in cation availability in two Oxisols in the Brazilian Cerrado under conventional and no-tillage systems for more than 10 years. The experiments were conducted in Costa Rica, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and in Luziânia, Goiás. Both soils were Oxisols, but one being a Red Latosol (LV and the other a Red-Yellow Latosol (LVA, respectively, under two management systems, no-tillage (SSD and conventional (CV. Soils were collected in PVC tubes from the surface to a depth of 40 cm, and taken to a greenhouse of the Departamento de Produção Vegetal, FCA-UNESP, Botucatu-SP. In these tubes, soybean was grown for 60 days, with and without phosphate application, totaling eight treatments (2 x 2 x 2, with 4 replications. The evaluations were based on the soil solutions collected during soybean growth to evaluate K, Ca and Mg concentrations and on soil analysis after crop harvest (sampled from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-25 and 25-40 cm, to determine pH, OM, K, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Al3+. The tillage system led to changes in K availability in the arable depth layer, where lower availability was observed in no-tillage than in conventional systems. In soils with clayey surface layers, such as the LV soil, the potential to maintain higher available K levels in these layers is greater. In the studied soils the Ca and Mg availability is higher in the upper layers (0-5 cm under no-till as a consequence of the availability of these nutrients from residue decomposition. In the conventional system the availability is lower in the surface layer, although still high, and remains stable in the entire arable soil depth.

  14. Soil structure and soil hydraulic properties of Haplic Luvisol used as arable land and grassland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Jirků, V.; Kodeš, V.; Mühlhanselová, M.; Nikodem, A.; Žigová, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 2 (2011), s. 154-161 ISSN 0167-1987 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : soil water retention curve * hydraulic conductivity, * soil micromorphology * conventional tillage, * grassland * soil structure amelioration Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2011

  15. Water repellent soils: the case for unsaturated soil mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckett Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water repellent (or “hydrophobic” or “non-wetting” soils have been studied by soil scientists for well over a century. These soils are typified by poor water infiltration, which leads to increased soil erosion and poor crop growth. However, the importance of water repellence on determining soil properties is now becoming recognised by geotechnical engineers. Water repellent soils may, for example, offer novel solutions for the design of cover systems overlying municipal or mine waste storage facilities. However, investigations into factors affecting their mechanical properties have only recently been initiated. This purpose of this paper is to introduce geotechnical engineers to the concept of water repellent soils and to discuss how their properties can be evaluated under an unsaturated soils framework. Scenarios in which water repellent properties might be relevant in geotechnical applications are presented and methods to quantify these properties in the laboratory and in the field examined.

  16. Persistencia del efecto del subsolado sobre el movimiento del agua en el suelo en siembra directa: Uso de dos modelos teóricos Persistence of subsoiling effect on soil water movement in a no tillage system: Use of two theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C German Soracco

    2009-06-01

    system, characterized by a high axle load, is often used beyond the recommendable soil-moisture range and has led to a generalized increment in the bulk density of the soils. Hydraulic properties are the most affected by this process, and loosening is recommended to improve water entry into the soil profile. Different physico-mathematical models for estimating hydraulic properties based on use of the tension disc infiltrometer method give rise to different and often contradictory results. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of soil loosening on hydraulic properties in plots under no-till management with and without loosening practices, and to evaluate the performance of two theoretical models to detect differences between treatments. The studied variables were Steady State Flux (q∞, Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity (Ksat and Sorptivity (S0, working with a disc infiltrometer. Loosening led to an increase in Ksat with respect to the control. The level of Ksat did not change in control plots after harvesting traffic. In loosened plots, however, harvesting traffic led to a significant decrease in Ksat. Sorptivity values showed no clear dependency on measurement time, treatment or model, suggesting the need for further study. Moreover, it was concluded that q∞ obtained using the disc infiltrometer method could not always be taken as equivalent to Ksat.

  17. Fabrication and evaluation of a reservoir tillage machine to reduce runoff from farms with sprinkler irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A Rostami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, in a lot of farm land due to reasons such as high density, heavy textured soils, steep terrain and a large body of water at each irrigation, rapid and complete absorption of water in the soil does not happen and runoff will be accrued. Improvement of infiltration reduces runoff and thus increases available water capacity. The main methods used to increase the infiltration area: The use of soil amendments, soil management by tillage and conservation farming. These methods may be used separately or together. Reservoir tillage is the process by which small holes or depressions are punched in the soil to prevent runoff of water from irrigation or rainfall. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a new reservoir tillage machine for runoff control in the fields. Materials and Methods Fabricated machine has four main units include three-point hitch, toolbar, frame and tillage unit. Tillage unit was a spider wheel with 6 arms that has 6 Wedge-shaped blades, mounted on them. Each tillage unit mounted on a frame and the frame is attached to the toolbar with a yoke. The toolbar was attached to the tractor by three-point hitch. The movement of tractor caused blades impact soil and spider wheel was rotating. Spider wheel rotation speed was depended on the forward speed of the tractor. Blades were created mini-reservoirs on the soil surface for "In situ" irrigation water or rainwater harvesting. Theoretically distance between basins, created by reservoir tillage machine, fabricated in this study was 57 and 68 cm for Arm's length of 30 and 40 cm respectively. For the construction of machine, first the plan was drawn with SolidWorks software and then the parts of the machine were built based on technical drawings. First tillage unit was constructed and its shaft was based in two bearings. Six of the arms were positioned at 60 degrees from each other around tillage units and connected by welding. For evaluation of machine

  18. Tamanho da subamostra e representatividade da fertilidade do solo no sistema plantio direto Subsample size and soil fertility representativity in the no tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo André Schlindwein

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Os corretivos e fertilizantes, quando aplicados de forma localizada, mantêm-se ao longo das linhas de cultivo no sistema plantio direto. Isto se reflete no aumento da variabilidade horizontal dos atributos químicos do solo, causando dificuldades para a coleta de amostras representativas do seu estado de fertilidade. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em dois estudos, em solos cultivados no sistema plantio direto. O primeiro foi com objetivo de relacionar o tamanho da amostra e a variabilidade de fósforo e potássio disponíveis. Para isto, amostrou-se o solo de um experimento e de uma lavoura, em diferentes tamanhos de subamostras e camadas, em Latossolo Vermelho com adubação a lanço. O segundo estudo foi conduzido para testar a eficiência de equipamentos de amostragem com diferentes tamanhos, através da variabilidade dos atributos de fertilidade do solo e o seu efeito no número de subamostras para compor uma amostra composta, dentro de determinados limites de precisão. Para isto, amostraram-se duas lavouras em Latossolo Vermelho, na profundidade de 0-10cm, com trado de rosca e pá de corte; esta no tamanho de 5/10cm (espessura/largura na lavoura de adubação a lanço e 5cm pela largura da entrelinha na lavoura de adubação em linha. As amostras retiradas com trado de rosca apresentaram menores teores de matéria orgânica e potássio disponível na lavoura de adubação em linha e de fósforo disponível em ambos os modos de adubação. Nesta situação, também ocorreu maior variabilidade e, consequentemente, necessidade de coletar um maior número de subamostras para representar o estado de fertilidade no sistema plantio direto. Amostras com 5/10cm (espessura/largura, foram eficientes para representar o estado de fertilidade do solo com adubação a lanço no sistema plantio direto.Fertilizers and lime, when applieds on surface to soil or along crop rows in the no tillage system, increase its residual effect. This results in an

  19. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  20. Influence of Soil Management on Water Retention from Saturation to Oven Dryness and Dominant Soil Water States in a Vertisol under Crop Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Karl; Pachepsky, Yakov; Pederera, Aura; Martinez, Gonzalo; Espejo, Antonio Jesus; Giraldez, Juan Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Unique water transfer and retention properties of Vertisols strongly affect their use in rainfed agriculture in water-limited environments. Despite the agricultural importance of the hydraulic properties of those soils, water retention data dryer than the wilting point are generally scarce, mainly as a result of practical constraints of traditional water retention measurement methods. In this work we provide a detailed description of regionalized water retention data from saturation to oven dryness, obtained from 54 minimally disturbed topsoil (0-0.05m) samples collected at a 3.5-ha experimental field in SW Spain where conventional tillage (CT) and direct drilling (DD) is compared in a wheat-sunflower-legume crop rotation on a Vertisol. Water retention was measured from saturation to oven dryness using sand and sand-kaolin boxes, a pressure plate apparatus and a dew point psychrometer, respectively. A common shape of the water retention curve (WRC) was observed in both tillage systems, with a strong discontinuity in its slope near -0.4 MPa and a decreasing spread from the wet to the dry end. A continuous function, consisting of the sum of a double exponential model (Dexter et al, 2008) and the Groenevelt and Grant (2004) model could be fitted successfully to the data. Two inflection points in the WRC were interpreted as boundaries between the structural and the textural pore spaces and between the textural and the intra-clay aggregate pore spaces. Water retention was significantly higher in DD (ptillage and compaction, increasing and decreasing the amount of the largest pores in CT and DD, respectively, but resulting in a proportionally larger pore space with relevant pore-sizes for water dynamics and agronomic performance. Significant differences in water retention and equivalent pore-sizes at the dry end of the WRC could be associated with the higher organic matter content found in DD. These results explain the superior performance of DD over CT in satisfying

  1. Morfologia e propriedades físicas de solo segundo sistemas de manejo em culturas anuais Morphology and physical properties of soil according to tillage systems in annual crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fuentes-Llanillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualidade física do solo é sua capacidade de sustentar o pleno desenvolvimento das plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar diferentes sistemas de semeadura direta para a produção de grãos em áreas de agricultura familiar sob Latossolo Vermelho no norte do Paraná, Brasil, através do estudo da morfologia e de algumas propriedades físicas do solo. O estudo foi baseado na descrição da estrutura de solo de perfis culturais em áreas cultivadas com lavouras anuais sob diferentes sistemas de manejo de solo (semeadura direta com e sem rotação de culturas, semeadura direta com escarificação eventual e o cultivo mínimo. Concomitantemente à descrição dos perfis foi determinada a resistência do solo a penetração, a densidade do solo, a umidade do solo e o grau de floculação da argila. Cada manejo estudado foi caracterizado por um tipo de estrutura de solo a qualse correlacionou com os valores de resistência, densidade e grau de floculação e em todos os manejos estudados abaixo dos 0,30 m, os perfis analisados apresentavam condições estruturais satisfatórias ao desenvolvimento radicular.Soil physical quality is the ability to sustain the full development of plants. The aim of this research was to study different tillage systems for grain production in family farming enterprises on an Oxisol in northern Parana, Brazil, through the study of morphology and physical properties of soil. The study was based on description of soil structure of soil profiles in cultivated areas with annual crops under different soil management systems (no-tillage with and without crop rotation, no-tillage with eventual chisel ploughing and minimum tillage. Simultaneously with the profiles' description some physical properties were determined such as resistance to penetration, bulk density, soil moisture and the degree of clay flocculation. Each studied soil tillage system was characterized by a type of soil structure and correlated with values of

  2. Tightly bound soil water introduces isotopic memory effects on mobile and extractable soil water pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Sarah L; Prechsl, Ulrich E; Pace, Matthew; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-08-01

    Cryogenic vacuum extraction is the well-established method of extracting water from soil for isotopic analyses of waters moving through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. We investigate if soils can alter the isotopic composition of water through isotope memory effects, and determined which mechanisms are responsible for it. Soils with differing physicochemical properties were re-wetted with reference water and subsequently extracted by cryogenic water distillation. Results suggest some reference waters bind tightly to the soil and not all of this tightly bound water is removed during cryogenic vacuum extraction. Kinetic isotopic fractionation occurring when reference water binds to the soil is likely responsible for the 18 O-depletion of re-extracted reference water, suggesting an enrichment of the tightly bound soil water pool. Further re-wetting of cryogenically extracted soils indicates an isotopic memory effect of tightly bound soil water on water added to the soil. The data suggest tightly bound soil water can influence the isotopic composition of mobile soil water. Findings show that soils influence the isotope composition of soil water by (i) kinetic fractionation when water is bound to the soil and (ii) equilibrium fractionation between different soil water pools. These findings could be relevant for plant water uptake investigations and complicate ecohydrological and paleohydrological studies.

  3. Modeling Edge Effects of Tillage Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillage erosion has been recognized as an important factor in redistribution of soil over time and in the development of morphological changes within agricultural fields. Field borders, fences, and vegetated strips that interrupt soil fluxes lead to the creation topographic discontinuities or lynche...

  4. Correction of resistance to penetration by pedofunctions and a reference soil water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Tuzzin de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil penetration resistance is an important indicator of soil compaction and is strongly influenced by soil water content. The objective of this study was to develop mathematical models to normalize soil penetration resistance (SPR, using a reference value of gravimetric soil water content (U. For this purpose, SPR was determined with an impact penetrometer, in an experiment on a Dystroferric Red Latossol (Rhodic Eutrudox, at six levels of soil compaction, induced by mechanical chiseling and additional compaction by the traffic of a harvester (four, eight, 10, and 20 passes; in addition to a control treatment under no-tillage, without chiseling or additional compaction. To broaden the range of U values, SPR was evaluated in different periods. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled to quantify the soil bulk density (BD. Pedotransfer functions were generated correlating the values of U and BD to the SPR values. By these functions, the SPR was adequately corrected for all U and BD data ranges. The method requires only SPR and U as input variables in the models. However, different pedofunctions are needed according to the soil layer evaluated. After adjusting the pedotransfer functions, the differences in the soil compaction levels among the treatments, previously masked by variations of U, became detectable.

  5. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % ( P < 0.05), compared to control. An added feature was that the double mulching system decreased soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an

  6. Integrated double mulching practices optimizes soil temperature and improves soil water utilization in arid environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen; Feng, Fuxue; Zhao, Cai; Yu, Aizhong; Hu, Falong; Chai, Qiang; Gan, Yantai; Guo, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Water shortage threatens agricultural sustainability in many arid and semiarid areas of the world. It is unknown whether improved water conservation practices can be developed to alleviate this issue while increasing crop productivity. In this study, we developed a "double mulching" system, i.e., plastic film coupled with straw mulch, integrated together with intensified strip intercropping. We determined (i) the responses of soil evaporation and moisture conservation to the integrated double mulching system and (ii) the change of soil temperature during key plant growth stages under the integrated systems. Experiments were carried out in northwest China in 2009 to 2011. Results show that wheat-maize strip intercropping in combination with plastic film and straw covering on the soil surface increased soil moisture (mm) by an average of 3.8 % before sowing, 5.3 % during the wheat and maize co-growth period, 4.4 % after wheat harvest, and 4.9 % after maize harvest, compared to conventional practice (control). The double mulching decreased total evapotranspiration of the two intercrops by an average of 4.6 % (P soil temperature in the top 10-cm depth by 1.26 to 1.31 °C in the strips of the cool-season wheat, and by 1.31 to 1.51 °C in the strips of the warm-season maize through the 2 years. Soil temperature of maize strips higher as 1.25 to 1.94 °C than that of wheat strips in the top 10-cm soil depth under intercropping with the double mulching system; especially higher as 1.58 to 2.11 °C under intercropping with the conventional tillage; this allows the two intercrops to grow in a well "collaborative" status under the double mulching system during their co-growth period. The improvement of soil moisture and the optimization of soil temperature for the two intercrops allow us to conclude that wheat-maize intensification with the double mulching system can be used as an effective farming model in alleviating water shortage issues experiencing in water

  7. Effect of tillage system and straw management on organic matter dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hazarika , Samarendra; Parkinson , Robert; Bol , Roland; Dixon , Liz; Russell , Peter; Donovan , Sarah; Allen , Debbie

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The choice of cultivation system in arable agriculture exerts a strong influence not only on soil health and crop productivity but also on the wider environment. Conservation tillage using non-inversion methods conserves soil carbon, reduces erosion risk and enhances soil quality. In addition, conservation tillage has been shown to sequester more carbon within the soil than inversion tillage, reducing carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere. Stable, well structured top...

  8. Resistência mecânica do solo à penetração influenciada pelo tráfego de uma colhedora em dois sistemas de manejo do solo Soil strength as affected by combine wheel traffic and two soil tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Rodrigues da Silva

    2000-10-01

    plantio direto possui um estado de compactação mais elevado, causado pelo acúmulo de pressões mecânicas a que o solo é submetido anualmente. Entretanto, a produtividade da cultura da soja não diferiu entre os sistemas de manejo do solo, permanecendo em torno de 3,15Mg ha-1.The increase of soil mechanical resistance may limit plant growth and productivity. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of wheel traffic caused by a grain harvester (combine on penetration resistance for two soil tillage systems. The treatments were: no tillage, no wheel traffic and wheel traffic by a soybean harvester; tillage, no wheel traffic and at wheel traffic by a soybean harvester. Soil penetration resistance with a cone penetrograph with electronic readings for each 0.15cm depth, and soil moisture were determined down to a depth of the 40cm, at two soil conditions (dry and wet, on a clayey Haplortox (LE. The combine front-axle load was 5.0Mg and the wheel contact area was 0.283m², yielding a ground pressure of 0.0884MPa. For high soil moisture the soil resistance difference between treatments was low (smaller than 2,0MPa, not limiting to root growth. However, for the second evaluation, about 30 days after the first, when the soil was drier, soil compaction in the layer from 5 to 17cm caused by wheel traffic was observed. Soil water content influenced the values of soil resistance. Critical values, considered as penetration resistance greater than 2MPa, were mainly observed for the no tillage system, specially for the 7.5 to 17.0cm layer. The no tillage system had a greater state of compaction than the tilled soil, because of yearly load accumulations. Soybean yield was not different between the tillage systems, with an average of 3.15Mg ha-1 yield.

  9. Water–use efficiency of dryland wheat in response to mulching and tillage practices on the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-fang; Shangguan, Zhou-ping

    2015-01-01

    Mulching and tillage are widely considered to be major practices for improving soil and water conservation where water is scarce. This paper studied the effects of FM (flat mulching), RFM (ridge-furrow mulching), SM (straw mulching), MTMC (mulching with two materials combined), MOM (mulching with other materials), NT (no-tillage) ST (subsoiling tillage) and RT (rotational tillage) on wheat yield based on a synthesis of 85 recent publications (including 2795 observations at 24 sites) in the Loess Plateau, China. This synthesis suggests that wheat yield was in the range of 259–7898 kg ha−1 for FM and RFM. The sequence of water use efficiency (WUE) effect sizes was similar to that of wheat yield for the practices. Wheat yields were more sensitive to soil water at planting covered by plastic film, wheat straw, liquid film, water-permeable plastic film and sand compared to NT, ST and RT. RFM and RT increased the yields of wheat by 18 and 15%, respectively, and corresponding for WUE by 20.11 and 12.50%. This synthesis demonstrates that RFM was better for avoiding the risk of reduced production due to lack of precipitation; however, under conditions of better soil moisture, RT and MTMC were also economic. PMID:26192158

  10. Effect of tillage on earthworms over short- and medium-term in conventional and organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.; Eswaramurthy, T.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms play an important role in many soil functions and are affected by soil tillage in agricultural soils. However, effects of tillage on earthworms are often studied without considering species and their interactions with soil properties. Furthermore, many field studies are based on one-time

  11. Relationship between tillage intensity and initial growth of loblolly pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Chad Lincoln; Rodney E. Will; Emily A. Carter; John R. Britt; Lawrence A. Morris

    2006-01-01

    To determine the relationship between changes in soil attributes associated with differing tillage intensities and growth of loblolly pine seedlings, we measured soil moisture, nitrogen (N) availability, and soil strength across a range of tillage treatments on an Orangeburg soil series near Cuthbert, GA (four replications). We then correlated these measurements to the...

  12. Evolution of physical properties of soils according to tillage systems on annual crops/ Evolução de propriedades físicas do solo em função dos sistemas de manejo em culturas anuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério R. M. Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil management must keep the soil physical properties next to the original conditions in natural systems to assure the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review synthesizes the effects of conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-tillage systems of annual crops, on soil physical properties as bulk density, porosity, soil resistance to root penetration, infiltration speed, hydraulic conductivity,compressibility, organic matter level, soil aggregate size and stability. No-tillage presents advantages on organic matter level, size and stability of aggregates, compressibility and hydraulic conductivity but has limitations on bulk density and resistance to root penetration. Minimum tillage with chisel plow is specially efficient in relation to infiltration speed and hydraulic conductivity, and intermediate between conventional and no-tillage in other aspects. Conventional tillage with total pulverization of soil surface,mainly on tropical conditions, presents the less favorable scores on soil physical properties, close to minimum tillage and no-till only in few circumstances, and frequently the most different from the natural conditions. The conservation systems by their side, despite of similarities in some aspects with natural conditions, are not able to reproduce the conditions of natural forests, savannas or natural pastures, but are in the sustainability direction.Para assegurar a sustentabilidade do sistema produtivo, o manejo do solo deve manter as propriedades físicas do solo o mais próximo das condições originais em que este se encontrava na natureza. Esta revisão sintetiza os efeitos de três sistemas de manejo de solo (convencional, mínimo e direto em culturas anuais sobre as propriedades físicas do solo como densidade, porosidade, resistência à penetração, velocidade de infiltração, condutividade hidráulica, compressibilidade, nível de matéria orgânica, tamanho e estabilidade de agregados. O plantio direto

  13. Water and nitrogen distribution in uncropped ridgetilled soil under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ridge-tillage configuration, with placement of nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) or its source in the elevated portion of the ridge, can potentially isolate fertilizer from downward water flow and minimize nitrate leaching. In the experiment, the simultaneous distribution of water, nitrate, and ammonium under three ridge widths was ...

  14. Tillage Effects on Maize Performance and Physical Properties of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The effects of six tillage methods on soil physical properties maize (Zea mays L.) germination, growth and yield were evaluated in field experiments during 1995 and 1996 cropping seasons. The selected treatments represented both conventional and conservation tillage practices common within the study area.

  15. Soil-profile distribution of organic C and N at the end of 6 years of tillage and grazing management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total soil nitrogen (TSN) are key determinants for evaluating agricultural management practices to address climate change, environmental quality, and soil productivity issues. We determined SOC, TSN, and particulate organic C and N depth distributions and cum...

  16. Predicting the water-drop energy required to breakdown dry soil aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Bazzoffi, P.

    1995-04-01

    The raindrop energy required to breakdown dry soil aggregates is an index of structural stability which has been found very useful in modelling soil erosion process and in evaluating the suitability of tillage implements for different soils. The aim of this research was to develop and validate a model for predicting the specific water-drop energy required to breakdown aggregates (D) as influenced by soil properties. Air-dry aggregates (2-4 mm in diameter), collected from 15 surface (0-20 cm) soils in north central Italy were used for this study. The actual and natural log-transformed D values were regressed on the soil properties. Clay content, wilting point moisture content (WP) and percent water-stable aggregates (WSA) > 2.0 mm were good predictors of D. Empirical models developed from either clay content or WP predicted D in 70% of the test soils whereas the model developed from WSA > 2.0 mm predicted D in 90% of the test soils. The correlation coefficients (r) between measured and predicted D were 0.961, 0.963 and 0.997 respectively, for models developed from clay, WP and WSA > 2.0 mm. The validity of these models need to be tested on other soils with a wider variation in properties than those used to developed the models. (author). 42 refs, 5 tabs

  17. A global analysis of alternative tillage and crop establishment practices for economically and environmentally efficient rice production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debashis; Ladha, Jagdish Kumar; Rana, Dharamvir Singh; Jat, Mangi Lal; Gathala, Mahesh Kumar; Yadav, Sudhir; Rao, Adusumilli Narayana; Ramesha, Mugadoli S; Raman, Anitha

    2017-08-24

    Alternative tillage and rice establishment options should aim at less water and labor to produce similar or improved yields compared with traditional puddled-transplanted rice cultivation. The relative performance of these practices in terms of yield, water input, and economics varies across rice-growing regions. A global meta and mixed model analysis was performed, using a dataset involving 323 on-station and 9 on-farm studies (a total of 3878 paired data), to evaluate the yield, water input, greenhouse gas emissions, and cost and net return with five major tillage/crop establishment options. Shifting from transplanting to direct-seeding was advantageous but the change from conventional to zero or reduced tillage reduced yields. Direct-seeded rice under wet tillage was the best alternative with yield advantages of 1.3-4.7% (p Direct-seeding under zero tillage was another potential alternative with high savings in water input and cost of cultivation, with no yield penalty. The alternative practices reduced methane emissions but increased nitrous oxide emissions. Soil texture plays a key role in relative yield advantages, and therefore refinement of the practice to suit a specific agro-ecosystem is needed.

  18. Isotopic fractionation of soil water during evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Salati, E.; Matsui, E.

    1974-01-01

    The study of the variation of D/H relation in soil water during evaporation is studied. The isotopic fractionation of soil water has been observed in two soils of light and heavy texture. Soil columns were utilized. Soil water has been extracted in a system operated under low pressure and the gaseous hydrogen was obtained by the decomposition of water through the use of metalic uranium and was analysed in a GD-150 mass spectrometer for its deuterium content. The variation of the delta sub(eta) 0 / 00 value during the evaporation showed that for water held at potentials below 15 atm, the deuterium content of soil water stays practically constant. For water held at potentials higher than 15 atm, corresponding to the third stage of evaporation, there is a strong tendency of a constant increase of delta sub(eta) 0 / 00 of the remaining water [pt

  19. Agregação de Latossolo Vermelho sob diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo, após um único cultivo com girassol Soil aggregation of Red Latosols under different tillage systems after sunflower cropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. G. Ungaro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, no presente trabalho, o efeito de um único cultivo de girassol na agregação de Latossolo Vermelho submetidos a diferentes sistemas de preparo, em número de quatro: grade aradora + grade niveladora (GA, grade niveladora (GN, semeadura direta na palha (SP e plantio direto (PD, no outono-inverno; exceto no PD, foi passado o escarificador + grade niveladora na primavera-verão semeando-se, em seguida, a soja e, no outono-inverno o girassol. As avaliações dos agregados de solo foram feitas antes do plantio e após a colheita do girassol, em propriedades particulares em Cândido Mota e Pedrinhas Paulista, SP, cujo cultivo do girassol melhorou a agregação, independentemente do sistema de preparo utilizado.The objective of the present research was to evaluate the effect of single sunflower crop on soil aggregation under different tillage systems. Four tillage systems were used: heavy disk harrow + leveling harrow (GA, leveling harrow (GN, sowing on straw (SP without tillage (PD, in the autumn-winter, and chisel plow + leveling harrow in the spring-summer cultivation, except for PD treatment. The research was conducted under field conditions in Candido Mota and Pedrinhas Paulista, Sao Paulo State. Soybean was sowed in the spring-summer season and sunflower in the autumn-winter. The soil aggregates were evaluated before sowing and after sunflower harvest. The use of sunflower crop induced a better soil aggregation in both places, for all tillage systems.

  20. N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from a fallow–wheat rotation with low N input in conservation and conventional tillage under a Mediterranean agroecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez-Rio, Angela, E-mail: angela.tellez@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Marco, Sonia [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navas, Mariela; López-Solanilla, Emilia [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Biotecnología y Genómica de Plantas UPM-INIA. Dpto Biotecnología. E.T.S.I. Agrónomos. Technical University of Madrid. Campus Montegancedo, UPM. Autovía M-40, Salida 38 N, 36S. 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón. Madrid (Spain); Tenorio, Jose Luis [Dpto. de Medio Ambiente, INIA. Ctra. de La Coruña km. 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallejo, Antonio [E.T.S.I. Agrónomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Conservation agriculture that includes no tillage (NT) or minimum tillage (MT) and crop rotation is an effective practice to increase soil organic matter in Mediterranean semiarid agrosystems. But the impact of these agricultural practices on greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}), is variable depending mainly on soil structure and short/long-term tillage. The main objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of three tillage systems (NT, MT and conventional tillage (CT)) and land-covers (fallow/wheat) on the emissions of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} in a low N input agricultural system during one year. This was achieved by measuring crop yields, soil mineral N and dissolved organic C contents, and fluxes of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}. Total cumulative N{sub 2}O emissions were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the tillage systems or between fallow and wheat. The only difference was produced in spring, when N{sub 2}O emissions were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fallow than in wheat subplots, and NT reduced N{sub 2}O emissions (P < 0.05) compared with MT and CT. Taking into account the water filled pore space (WFPS), both nitrification and denitrification could have occurred during the experimental period. Denitrification capacity in March was similar in all tillage systems, in spite of the higher DOC content maintained in the topsoil of NT. This could be due to the similar denitrifier densities, targeted by nirK copy numbers at that time. Cumulative CH{sub 4} fluxes resulted in small net uptake for all treatments, and no significant differences were found among tillage systems or between fallow and wheat land-covers. These results suggest that under a coarse-textured soil in low N agricultural systems, the impact of tillage on GHG is very low and that the fallow cycle within a crop rotation is not a useful strategy to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: • Tillage systems and land-covers with low N