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Sample records for soil samples obtained

  1. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  2. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  3. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  4. Evaluation the total exposure of soil sample in Adaya site and the obtain risk assessments for the worker by Res Rad code program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadi, A. M.; Khadim, A. A. N.; Ibrahim, Z. H.; Ali, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluation the total exposure to the worker in Adaya site risk assessment by using Res Rad code program. The study including 5 areas soil sample calculate in the site and analysis it by High Pure Germaniums (Hg) system made (CANBERRA) company. The soil sample simulation by (Res Rad) code program by inter the radioactive isotope concentration and the specification of the contamination zone area, depth and the cover depth of it. The total exposure of same sample was about 9 mSv/year and the (Heast 2001 Morbidity, FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.045 state every 100 worker in the year. There are simple different between Heast 2001 Morbidity and FGR13 Morbidity according to the Dose Conversion Factor (DCF) use it. The (FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.041 state every 100 worker in the year. (Author)

  5. Soil sampling in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de; Ramos Junior, Anthenor Costa

    1997-01-01

    The soil sampling methods used in Goiania's accident (1987) by the environmental team of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are described. The development of this method of soil sampling to a emergency sampling method used in a Nuclear Emergency Exercise in Angra dos Reis Reactor Site (1991) is presented. A new method for soil sampling based on a Chernobyl environmental monitoring experience (1995) is suggested. (author)

  6. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vero, Silvana; Garmendia, Gabriela; González, M Belén; Bentancur, Oscar; Wisniewski, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Psychrotrophic yeasts were isolated from Antarctic soils, selected based on their ability to grow in apple juice at low temperatures, and were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, an isolate of Leucosporidium scottii, designated At17, was identified as a good biocontrol agent for blue and gray mold of two apple cultivars. The selected isolate produced soluble and volatile antifungal substances that were inhibitory to apple pathogens. Siderophore production was also demonstrated, but it did not appear to play a role in pathogen inhibition. The selected yeast had the capacity to form a biofilm when grown in apple juice, which is considered an important attribute of postharvest antagonists to successfully colonize wounds and intact fruit surfaces. At17 was resistant to commonly used postharvest fungicides, so application of a combination of low-dose fungicide along with the biocontrol agent could be used as an integrated management practice. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  8. Soil Gas Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  9. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described

  10. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  11. Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. "These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area," said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

  12. Evaluation of the quality of results obtained in institutions participating in interlaboratory experiments and of the reliability characteristics of the analytical methods used on the basis of certification of standard soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parshin, A.K.; Obol' yaninova, V.G.; Sul' dina, N.P.

    1986-08-20

    Rapid monitoring of the level of pollution of the environment and, especially, of soils necessitates preparation of standard samples (SS) close in properties and material composition to the objects to be analyzed. During 1978-1982 four sets (three types of samples in each) of State Standard Samples of different soils were developed: soddy-podzolic sandy-loamy, typical chernozem, krasnozem, and calcareous sierozem. The certification studies of the SS of the soils were carried out in accordance with the classical scheme of interlab experiment (ILE). More than 100 institutions were involved in the ILE and the total number of independent analytical results was of the order of 10/sup 4/. With such a volume of analytical information at their disposal they were able to find some general characteristics intrinsic to certification studies, to assess the quality of work of the ILE participants with due regard for their specialization, and the reliability characteristics of the analytical methods used.

  13. Analysis of PAH in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeufel, J.; Weisweiler, W.

    1994-01-01

    The supercritical fluid extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from soil samples is described. Carbon dioxide mixed with a small amount of methanol is used for solvent. The results are compared with those obtained by a classical extraction method (that means with the use of organic liquids). The extracted PAH from both procedures can be separated by HPLC and analyzed with UV- and fluorescence detection. (orig.) [de

  14. Validated sampling strategy for assessing contaminants in soil stockpiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lame, Frank; Honders, Ton; Derksen, Giljam; Gadella, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    Dutch legislation on the reuse of soil requires a sampling strategy to determine the degree of contamination. This sampling strategy was developed in three stages. Its main aim is to obtain a single analytical result, representative of the true mean concentration of the soil stockpile. The development process started with an investigation into how sample pre-treatment could be used to obtain representative results from composite samples of heterogeneous soil stockpiles. Combining a large number of random increments allows stockpile heterogeneity to be fully represented in the sample. The resulting pre-treatment method was then combined with a theoretical approach to determine the necessary number of increments per composite sample. At the second stage, the sampling strategy was evaluated using computerised models of contaminant heterogeneity in soil stockpiles. The now theoretically based sampling strategy was implemented by the Netherlands Centre for Soil Treatment in 1995. It was applied to all types of soil stockpiles, ranging from clean to heavily contaminated, over a period of four years. This resulted in a database containing the analytical results of 2570 soil stockpiles. At the final stage these results were used for a thorough validation of the sampling strategy. It was concluded that the model approach has indeed resulted in a sampling strategy that achieves analytical results representative of the mean concentration of soil stockpiles. - A sampling strategy that ensures analytical results representative of the mean concentration in soil stockpiles is presented and validated

  15. Proceedings for extracts obtaining and micronutrients determination in soil samples/ Procedimentos para obtenção de extratos e determinação de micronutrientes em amostras de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mizubuti Brito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The deficiencies or micronutrients excesses in the soil can be diagnosed by several procedures. Among these, the chemical analysis of the soil is a prominence instrument, because it makes possible the previous evaluation of micronutrients available to the plants. In spite of many laboratories accomplish micronutrients chemical analyses in the soil, the lack of methodologies standardisation can commit the reliability of the results. Analytical procedures standardisation is an unquestionable need, when it intend to guarantee quality and credibility to the results. This study was carried out with the objective of comparing analytical procedures, seeking to contribute with new knowledge for definition and methodological standardisation of micronutrients chemical analyses of soil samples. The procedures of decantation for 16 hours and the filtration with filter paper Whatman 42, showed differents contents for iron, cooper, zinc and manganese in soil samples, don’t having possibility for alternative use. The choice of one this procedures it should result in a standardisation to all the participant laboratories of quality control.Deficiências ou excessos de micronutrientes no solo pode ser diagnosticada por diversos procedimentos. Dentre estes se destaca a análise química, uma vez que possibilita a avaliação prévia da disponibilidade destes nutrientes para as plantas. Apesar de muitos laboratórios realizarem análises para micronutrientes em amostras de solo, a falta de padronização de procedimentos metodológicos pode comprometer a comparação de resultados. Uniformizar procedimentos analíticos é uma necessidade indiscutível, quando se pretende garantir qualidade e credibilidade aos resultados. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar procedimentos analíticos, visando contribuir com novos conhecimentos para definição e padronização metodológica para análises químicas de micronutrientes em amostras de solo. A decanta

  16. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  17. A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different

  18. Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis of Soil Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Haseeb, S.M.A.; Hussein, Tanvir; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.H. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron moderation effects were measured in bulk soil samples through prompt gamma ray measurements from water and benzene contaminated soil samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The prompt gamma rays were measured using a cylindrical 76 mm x 76 mm (diameter x height) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. Since neutron moderation effects strongly depend upon hydrogen concentration of the sample, for comparison purposes, moderation effects were studied from samples containing different hydrogen concentrations. The soil samples with different hydrogen concentration were prepared by mixing soil with water as well as benzene in different weight proportions. Then, the effects of increasing water and benzene concentrations on the yields of hydrogen, carbon and silicon prompt gamma rays were measured. Moderation effects are more pronounced in soil samples mixed with water as compared to those from soil samples mixed with benzene. This is due to the fact that benzene contaminated soil samples have about 30% less hydrogen concentration by weight than the water contaminated soil samples. Results of the study will be presented. (authors)

  19. Sampling for validation of digital soil maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Kempen, B.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in digital soil mapping around the world means that appropriate and efficient sampling strategies are needed for validation. Data used for calibrating a digital soil mapping model typically are non-random samples. In such a case we recommend collection of additional independent data and

  20. Sampling depth confounds soil acidification outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the northern Great Plains (NGP) of North America, surface sampling depths of 0-15 or 0-20 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near the soil surface. Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements an...

  1. Soil sampling strategies: Evaluation of different approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia

    2008-01-01

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2σ, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies

  2. Soil sampling strategies: Evaluation of different approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e Protezione dell' Ambiente del Veneto, ARPA Veneto, U.O. Centro Qualita Dati, Via Spalato, 14-36045 Vicenza (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2{sigma}, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies.

  3. Soil sampling strategies: evaluation of different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia

    2008-11-01

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2sigma, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies.

  4. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgran, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  5. Obtaining Samples Representative of Contaminant Distribution in an Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, Ronald; Spane, Frank A.; Narbutovskih, Susan M.; Conley, Scott F.; Webber, William D.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells have been assumed to provide average indications of contaminant concentrations within the aquifer over the well-screen interval. In-well flow circulation, heterogeneity in the surrounding aquifer, and the sampling method utilized, however, can significantly impact the representativeness of samples as contaminant indicators of actual conditions within the surrounding aquifer. This paper identifies the need and approaches essential for providing cost-effective and technically meaningful groundwater-monitoring results. Proper design of the well screen interval is critical. An accurate understanding of ambient (non-pumping) flow conditions within the monitoring well is essential for determining the contaminant distribution within the aquifer. The ambient in-well flow velocity, flow direction and volumetric flux rate are key to this understanding. Not only do the ambient flow conditions need to be identified for preferential flow zones, but also the probable changes that will be imposed under dynamic conditions that occur during groundwater sampling. Once the in-well flow conditions are understood, effective sampling can be conducted to obtain representative samples for specific depth zones or zones of interest. The question of sample representativeness has become an important issue as waste minimization techniques such as low flow purging and sampling are implemented to combat the increasing cost of well purging and sampling at many hazardous waste sites. Several technical approaches (e.g., well tracer techniques and flowmeter surveys) can be used to determine in-well flow conditions, and these are discussed with respect to both their usefulness and limitations. Proper fluid extraction methods using minimal, (low) volume and no purge sampling methods that are used to obtain representative samples of aquifer conditions are presented

  6. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  7. Distribution of pesticide residues in soil and uncertainty of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszter, Gabriela K; Ambrus, Árpád

    2017-08-03

    Pesticide residues were determined in about 120 soil cores taken randomly from the top 15 cm layer of two sunflower fields about 30 days after preemergence herbicide treatments. Samples were extracted with acetone-ethyl acetate mixture and the residues were determined with GC-TSD. Residues of dimethenamid, pendimethalin, and prometryn ranged from 0.005 to 2.97 mg/kg. Their relative standard deviations (CV) were between 0.66 and 1.13. The relative frequency distributions of residues in soil cores were very similar to those observed in root and tuber vegetables grown in pesticide treated soils. Based on all available information, a typical CV of 1.00 was estimated for pesticide residues in primary soil samples (soil cores). The corresponding expectable relative uncertainty of sampling is 20% when composite samples of size 25 are taken. To obtain a reliable estimate of the average residues in the top 15 cm layer of soil of a field up to 8 independent replicate random samples should be taken. To obtain better estimate of the actual residue level of the sampled filed would be marginal if larger number of samples were taken.

  8. Analysis of soil samples from OMRE decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, O.D.; Chapin, J.A.; Hine, R.E.; Mandler, J.W.; Orme, M.P.; Soli, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    In order to establish that the present Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) site does not exceed the criteria for radioactive contamination, samples obtained from the remainder of the facility that was not removed such as soil, concrete pads, various structural materials, and the leach pond area were analyzed to determine their radioactive content. The results of the analyses performed on soil samples are presented. Results of this study indicate that the activity at the OMRE decommissioned area is confined to localized areas (i.e., the leach pond area and reactor area). Comparisons of radionuclide concentrations measured in soil taken from the lip of the leach pond with concentrations in soil obtained outside the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site boundaries indicate that the concentration in the soil at the edge of the leach pond is at background levels. The vertical augering technique was determined to be the best approach for obtaining shallow soil samples at the INEL. Selection of this technique was based on ease of operation and analytical results. Less area is disturbed per sample than with the horizontal trenching and coring techniques. The radionuclide analysis of the samples shows the existence of a few regions in the reactor and leach pond areas that were still above INEL release criteria. These regions have been or are being further decontaminated

  9. Aluminium, extractable from soil samples by the acid ammonium acetate soil-testing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Mäkitie

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available The extractant, 0.5 M acetic acid –0.5 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.65, which is used in soil-testing, extracts relatively high amounts of aluminium from acid soils. The mean values of acetate-extractable aluminium at pH 4.65, 1.75 meq Al/100 g of soil, and of exchangeable aluminium (M KCI extraction, 0.41 meq Al were obtained from a material of 30 samples of acid soils (Table 2. Several other acetic acid ammonium acetate extractants, from M acetic acid to M ammonium acetate solution were also used for studying the extractability of soil aluminium. The soil-testing extractant can be used for the estimation of the soluble amounts of aluminium in acid soils, however, further studies are needed for a better interpretation of the ammonium acetate extractable (at pH 4.65 aluminium in our soils.

  10. Determination of strontium-90 in soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C C

    1976-06-01

    The determination of /sup 90/Sr in soil by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is often interfered with iron which is always present in soil sample. Based on the method given by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, HClO/sub 4/ is added to remove iron ions while the soil sample is analyzed with TBP. The effect of different concentrations of HClO/sub 4/ on extraction yield of iron and chemical yield of yttrium is investigated. The experimental results show that 2N HClO/sub 4/ is the optimum concentration. The chemical yield of yttrium can reach about 60 percent, and all iron ions can be removed. This method has successfully been applied to analyze the soil samples taken from the site of the nuclear power plant in North Taiwan.

  11. Determination of Pu in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Vega C, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of "2"3"8UH "+ in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  12. Determining photon energy absorption parameters for different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuk, Nil; Cakir, Merve; Tumsavas, Zeynal

    2013-01-01

    The mass attenuation coefficients (μ s ) for five different soil samples were measured at 661.6, 1173.2 and 1332.5 keV photon energies. The soil samples were separately irradiated with 137 Cs and 60 Co (370 kBq) radioactive point gamma sources. The measurements were made by performing transmission experiments with a 2″ x 2″ NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, which had an energy resolution of 7% at 0.662 MeV for the gamma-rays from the decay of 137 Cs. The effective atomic numbers (Z eff ) and the effective electron densities (N eff ) were determined experimentally and theoretically using the obtained μ s values for the soil samples. Furthermore, the Z eff and N eff values of the soil samples were computed for the total photon interaction cross-sections using theoretical data over a wide energy region ranging from 1 keV to 15 MeV. The experimental values of the soils were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Sandy loam and sandy clay loam soils demonstrated poor photon energy absorption characteristics. However, clay loam and clay soils had good photon energy absorption characteristics. (author)

  13. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  14. Sampling and analysis of alien materials in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liphard, K G

    1987-02-01

    For the determination of alien materials in soil, sampling is the decisive step. After minute planning, samples can be obtained by probing, boring or abrasion. Some types of substances can be verified by advance sampling, partly already in the field. Inorganic substances present as anions or cations are eluted and determined with water, heavy metals are determined after preparing a number of solutions by spectroscopic methods. Organic alien substances are extracted with solvents and, as a rule, analysed by chromatography.

  15. Statistical sampling approaches for soil monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes three statistical sampling approaches for regional soil monitoring, a design-based, a model-based and a hybrid approach. In the model-based approach a space-time model is exploited to predict global statistical parameters of interest such as the space-time mean. In the hybrid

  16. Cesium-137 retention in irops obtained from various soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyakin, I.V.; Yudintseva, E.V.; Gorina, L.I.

    1974-01-01

    A non-station experiment has shown that the accumulation of cesium-137 in a plant yield depends on the type of soil. The highest contents of cesium-137 were found in the yield of plants from soddy-podzolic sandy loam soils, and the lowest- in those from leached chernozem. The accumulation of radiocesium in the yield of the basic produce strongly depended on the plant species. The amount of cesium-137 differed 5- to 7-fold in different crops

  17. Casingless down-hole for sealing an ablation volume and obtaining a sample for analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Donald T.; Braymen, Steven D.; Anderson, Marvin S.

    1996-10-01

    A casing-less down hole sampling system for acquiring a subsurface sample for analysis using an inductively coupled plasma system is disclosed. The system includes a probe which is pushed into the formation to be analyzed using a hydraulic ram system. The probe includes a detachable tip member which has a soil point mad a barb, with the soil point aiding the penetration of the earth, and the barb causing the tip member to disengage from the probe and remain in the formation when the probe is pulled up. The probe is forced into the formation to be tested, and then pulled up slightly, to disengage the tip member and expose a column of the subsurface formation to be tested. An instrumentation tube mounted in the probe is then extended outward from the probe to longitudinally extend into the exposed column. A balloon seal mounted on the end of the instrumentation tube allows the bottom of the column to be sealed. A source of laser radiation is emitted from the instrumentation tube to ablate a sample from the exposed column. The instrumentation tube can be rotated in the probe to sweep the laser source across the surface of the exposed column. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated sample from the probe to the surface for testing in an inductively coupled plasma system. By testing at various levels in the down-hole as the probe is extracted from the soil, a profile of the subsurface formation may be obtained.

  18. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  19. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. "Small" market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed.

  20. Specification for soil multisensor and soil sampling cone penetrometer probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatate, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Specification requirements for engineering, fabrication, and performance of cone penetrometer (CP) soil multisensor and sampling probes (CP-probes) which are required to support contract procurement for services are presented. The specification provides a documented technical basis of quality assurance that is required to use the probes in an operating Hanford tank farm. The documentation cited in this specification will be incorporated into an operational fielding plan that will address all activities associated with the use of the CP-probes. The probes discussed in this specification support the Hanford Tanks Initiative AX-104 Tank Plume Characterization Sub-task. The probes will be used to interrogate soils and vadose zone surrounding tank AX-104

  1. Impact of cleaning before obtaining midstream urine samples from children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ladelund, Steen

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Microbiological documentation of one uropathogenic bacterium in significant numbers in urine from patients with typical symptoms is the gold standard for diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI). Cleaning before collecting midstream urine (MSU) is reported not to reduce the risk...... of contaminating the sample and was therefore omitted at Hvidovre Hospital as from the autumn of 2006. We evaluate if no cleaning increased the risk of contamination in the Department of Paediatrics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1,858 patients aged 0-15 years who were suspected of UTI delivered two MSUs within...

  2. Analysis of soil samples from Gebeng area using NAA technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Wo, Yii Mei; Hamzah, Mohd Suhaimi; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abdullah; Azman, Muhamad Azfar; Hashim, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development and urbanization will increase number of residence and industrial area. Without proper management and control of pollution, these will give an adverse effect to environment and human life. The objective of this study to identify and quantify key contaminants into the environment of the Gebeng area as a result of industrial and human activities. Gebeng area was gazetted as one of the industrial estate in Pahang state. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Gebeng area base on level of concentration, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. The enrichment factors (EFs) were determined by the elemental rationing method, whilst the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) by comparing of current to continental crustal average concentration of element. Twenty-seven of soil samples were collected from Gebeng area. Soil samples were analysed by using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The obtained data showed higher concentration of iron (Fe) due to abundance in soil compared to other elements. The results of enrichment factor showed that Gebeng area have enrich with elements of As, Br, Hf, Sb, Th and U. Base on the geo-accumulation index (Igeo) classification, the soil quality of Gebeng area can be classified as class 0, (uncontaminated) to Class 3, (moderately to heavily contaminated).

  3. Sample sizes to control error estimates in determining soil bulk density in California forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youzhi Han; Jianwei Zhang; Kim G. Mattson; Weidong Zhang; Thomas A. Weber

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing forest soil properties with high variability is challenging, sometimes requiring large numbers of soil samples. Soil bulk density is a standard variable needed along with element concentrations to calculate nutrient pools. This study aimed to determine the optimal sample size, the number of observation (n), for predicting the soil bulk density with a...

  4. Degradation of aldrin im samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    14 C-aldrin degradation was studied in the laboratory, in samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils, during a period of 240 days. Recovery of radiocarbon decreased with time, although radiocarbon was not incorporated to the soil organic matter as show by soil combustion. In both soils 14 C-aldrin degraded to dieldrin and another compound that showed caracteristics of a hydrosoluble derivative of aldrin 14 C-aldrin was more persistent in sandy soil but amendment of this soil with nutrients or fertilizers did not enhanced aldrin degradation in this soil. (Author) [pt

  5. Comparison of in situ gamma soil analysis and soil sampling data for mapping 241Am and 239Pu soil concentrations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Phelps, P.L.; Huckabay, G.W.; Markwell, F.; Barnes, M.

    1976-01-01

    Soil sampling and in situ 241 Am-gamma counting with an array of four high purity, planar, Ge detectors are compared as means of determining soil concentration contours of plutonium and their associated uncertainties. Results of this survey, which covered an area of approximately 300,000 m 2 , indicate that with one-third the number of sampling locations, the in situ gamma survey provided soil concentration contours with confidence intervals that were about one-third as wide as those obtained with soil sampling. The methods of the survey are described and a discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods is given

  6. Comparison of in situ gamma soil analysis and soil sampling data for mapping 241Am and 239Pu soil concentrations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Phelps, P.L.; Huckabay, G.W.; Markwell, F.R.; Barnes, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    Soil sampling and in situ 241 Am-gamma counting with an array of four high-purity, planar, Ge detectors are compared as means of determining soil concentration contours of plutonium and their associated uncertainties. Results of this survey, which covered an area of approximately 300,000 m 2 , indicate that with one-third the number of sampling locations, the in situ gamma survey provided soil concentration contours with confidence intervals that were about one-third as wide as those obtained with soil sampling. The methods of the survey are described and a discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods is given

  7. Simply obtained global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mungai, D.N.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, C.L.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in

  8. Sr-90 determination in aqueous and soils samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sintas, Maria F.; Cerchietti, Maria L.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the method for Sr-90 determination in aqueous sample and soils. Area and Personal Dosimetry laboratory (DPA) determines the presence of Sr-90 by Liquid Scintillation (LSC) by applying method of the double window and corresponding adjustments. Calibration is performed by standard solutions of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, where spectral 90 Sr and 90 Y zones are optimized. The initial treatment of the liquid samples includes the concentration for evaporation, while the solid ones dissolve for microwave and acidic digestion. The separation of the analyte involves a selective chromatographic extraction. An average efficiency for 90 Sr of 77 ± 1 % was obtained; the factor a/b was 0,85 ± 0,01 and recovery of 82 ± 8 %. The resultant MAD was 0,10 Bq/L in aqueous samples and 0,10 Bq/g in solid samples. (author)

  9. Shrinkage Module of Soil Samples with Different Cement Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Sabry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences in soil's body mass during shrinkage over time have changes in soil physical properties which provide an important reason to check the design of underground foundations in expansive soils. In this paper, a state-of-art of the soil heat stress-strain relationship prediction methods is checked using soil engineering laboratory experiments and Matlab R2013b numerical modelling. The shrinkage of soils with different cement content of (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% with the same water content of 20 percent in room temperature for 24 hours, are critically reviewed in terms of their predictive shrinkage along with their strengths and flexural behaviour. The review highlights the prediction methods present to determine the effect of heat stress on the shrinkage of soil samples with different cement content after classifying the soils into clay, silt and sand depending on their particle size using sieve and hydrometer experiments. The results of the soil engineering laboratory experiments showed that as the cement content increases, the shrinkage of soil decreases as a result of increased elasticity in soil. The numerical analysis using finite element method in Matlab R2013b shows that as the cement content increases the displacement in the soil sample decreases and that the soil sample with 8% cement content has more resistance to shrinkage and less displacement than the soil with 6% cement, which has less resistance to heat stresses and more displacement.

  10. Sampling of soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  11. Fungi obtained on various media from soil under banana trees near Logos in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ihnatowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From the soil samples collected from beneath various banana plant, Musa paradisiaca L., 96 different species of soil fungi were isolated on medium: Ohio-Agar, Littmans-Agar, Martins Rose Bengal-Agar and identified. Four species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated by means of To-Ka-Va trap-hair method.

  12. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry H [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-16

    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  13. Spatial Variability of Soil Physical Properties Obtained with Laboratory Methods and Their Relation to Field Electrical Resistivity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dathe, A.; Nemes, A.; Bloem, E.; Patterson, M.; Gimenez, D.; Angyal, A.; Koestel, J. K.; Jarvis, N.

    2017-12-01

    Soil spatial heterogeneity plays a critical role for describing water and solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Although we have a sound understanding of the physical properties underlying this heterogeneity (like macropores causing preferential water flow), their quantification in a spatial context is still a challenge. To improve existing knowledge and modelling approaches we established a field experiment on an agriculturally used silty clay loam (Stagnosol) in SE Norway. Centimeter to decimeter scale heterogeneities were investigated in the field using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in a quasi-3D and a real 3D approach. More than 100 undisturbed soil samples were taken in the 2x1x1 m3plot investigated with 3D ERT to determine soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and bulk density in the laboratory. A subset of these samples was scanned at the computer tomography (CT) facility at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden, with special emphasis on characterizing macroporosity. Results show that the ERT measurements captured the spatial distribution of bulk densities and reflected soil water contents. However, ERT could not resolve the large variation observed in saturated hydraulic conductivities from the soil samples. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was clearly related to the macroporosity visible in the CT scans obtained from the respective soil cores. Hydraulic conductivities close to saturation mainly changed with depths in the soil profile and therefore with bulk density. In conclusion, to quantify the spatial heterogeneity of saturated hydraulic conductivities scanning methods with a resolution smaller than the size of macropores have to be used. This is feasible only when the information obtained from for example CT scans of soil cores would be upscaled in a meaningful way.

  14. Soils element history, sampling, analyses, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A five year history of the Soils Element of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) is presented. Major projects are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on mound studies and profile studies for the period March 1, 1975, through February 1, 1976. A series of recommendations is made relative to extensions of past efforts of the Soils Element of the NAEG

  15. Determination of total organic phosphorus in samples of mineral soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some observations on the estimation of organic phosphorus in mineral soils are reported. The fact is emphasized that the accuracy of all the methods available is relatively poor. Usually, there are no reasons to pay attention to differences less than about 20 ppm. of organic P. Analyses performed on 345 samples of Finnish mineral soils by the extraction method of MEHTA et. al. (10 and by a simple procedure adopted by the author (successive extractions with 4 N H2SO4 and 0.5 N NaOH at room temperature in the ratio of 1 to 100 gave, on the average, equal results. It seemed to be likely that the MEHTA method removed the organic phosphorus more completely than did the less vigorous method, but in the former the partial hydrolysis of organic phosphorus compounds tends to be higher than in the latter. An attempt was made to find out whether the differences between the respective values for organic phosphorus obtained by an ignition method and the simple extraction method could be connected with any characteristics of the soil. No correlation or only a low correlation coefficient could be calculated between the difference in the results of these two methods and e. g. the pH-value, the content of clay, organic carbon, aluminium and iron soluble in Tamm’s acid oxalate, the indicator of the phosphate sorption capacity, or the »Fe-bound» inorganic phosphorus, respectively. The absolute difference tended to increase with an increase in the content of organic phosphorus. For the 250 samples of surface soils analyzed, the ignition method gave values which were, on the average, about 50 ppm. higher than the results obtained by the extraction procedure. The corresponding difference for the 120 samples from deeper layers was about 20 ppm of organic P. The author recommends, for the present, the determination of the total soil organic phosphorus as an average of the results obtained by the ignition method and the extraction method.

  16. Soil classification basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjun; Zhang, Xiaokang; Zhang, Xinle

    2016-04-01

    Soil taxonomy plays an important role in soil utility and management, but China has only course soil map created based on 1980s data. New technology, e.g. spectroscopy, could simplify soil classification. The study try to classify soils basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples. 148 topsoil samples of typical soils, including Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow soil, were collected from Songnen plain, Northeast China, and the room spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared region (400-2500 nm) were processed with weighted moving average, resampling technique, and continuum removal. Spectral indices were extracted from soil spectral characteristics, including the second absorption positions of spectral curve, the first absorption vale's area, and slope of spectral curve at 500-600 nm and 1340-1360 nm. Then K-means clustering and decision tree were used respectively to build soil classification model. The results indicated that 1) the second absorption positions of Black soil and Chernozem were located at 610 nm and 650 nm respectively; 2) the spectral curve of the meadow is similar to its adjacent soil, which could be due to soil erosion; 3) decision tree model showed higher classification accuracy, and accuracy of Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow are 100%, 88%, 97%, 50% respectively, and the accuracy of Blown soil could be increased to 100% by adding one more spectral index (the first two vole's area) to the model, which showed that the model could be used for soil classification and soil map in near future.

  17. Utilization of Weibull equation to obtain soil-water diffusivity in horizontal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, I.A.

    1982-06-01

    Water movement was studied in horizontal infiltration experiments using laboratory columns of air-dry and homogeneous soil to obtain a simple and suitable equation for soil-water diffusivity. Many water content profiles for each one of the ten soil columns utilized were obtained through gamma-ray attenuation technique using a 137 Cs source. During the measurement of a particular water content profile, the soil column was held in the same position in order to measure changes in time and so to reduce the errors in water content determination. The Weibull equation utilized was excellent in fitting water content profiles experimental data. The use of an analytical function for ν, the Boltzmann variable, according to Weibull model, allowed to obtain a simple equation for soil water diffusivity. Comparisons among the equation here obtained for diffusivity and others solutions found in literature were made, and the unsuitability of a simple exponential variation of diffusivity with water content for the full range of the latter was shown. The necessity of admitting the time dependency for diffusivity was confirmed and also the possibility fixing that dependency on a well known value extended to generalized soil water infiltration studies was found. Finally, it was shown that the soil water diffusivity function given by the equation here proposed can be obtained just by the analysis of the wetting front advance as a function of time. (Author) [pt

  18. Elemental contents in soil samples in Wad Hamid, River Nile State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Khansaa Elawad Elhag

    2016-03-01

    In the present study a total of 30 samples were collected from Wad Hamid River Nile State. Sampling area of (two feddan) of agricultural soil. The sampling area was divided in two locations (fertile and non fertile soil). The samples were analyzed for their content of 13 elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np). 10 samples from location 1 (non-fertile soil) and 20 samples from location 2 (fertile soil). X-ray fluorescence (X RF) Spectrometer (system used based on 1"0"9"Cd excitation 1"0"9"Cd source which has an average energy of 22.6 kev and able to excite the elements from Z = 13 to 92 using K and L lines) used to identify the elemental concentration in soil samples. The reliability of X RF technique as multi elements detecting method for measuring elements concentration in soil sample , (IAEA-SOIL-7) standard reference material was used. Measured values found in agreement with the certified values. The average elemental concentration of K,Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np in location 1 were 878, 29690, 13400, 983, 70380, 10.07, 19.07, 40.92,261.4, 23.59,294.8, 47.82, while the average elemental concentration in location 2 were 9848, 27780, 13076,13076,989, 68135, 9.6, 96.3 19.86, 43.7, 225.5, 22.49, 284.75, 46.15, respectively. comparison between the average elemental concentration in fertile soil and non-fertile was done correlations between element were performed Cluster analyses of element in soil samples were obtained comparison between this study and data from literature were done. The elemental concentration in location 1 (non- fertile soil) are higher than location 2 ( fertile soil) because the plant absorbed fertilizer of soil and transfer most elements in soil to plant. (Author)

  19. Inter comparison of 90Sr and 137Cs contents in biologic samples and natural U in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfen; Zeng Guangjian; Lu Xuequan

    2001-01-01

    The results of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in biologic samples and the natural U in soil samples obtained in a joint effort by fourteen environmental radiation laboratories in the Chinese environmental protection system were analyzed and compared. Two kinds of biologic samples and one kind of soil samples were used for inter comparison. Of which, one kind of biologic samples (biologic powder samples) and the soil samples came from the IAEA samples were environmental and the reference values were known. The another kind of biologic samples were environmental tea-leaf that were taken from a tea garden near Hangzhou. The mean values obtained by all the joined laboratories was used as the reference. The inter comparison results were expressed in terms of the deviation from the reference value. It was found that the deviation of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents of biologic powder samples ranged from -15.4% to 26.5% and -15.0% to 0.4%, respectively. The deviation of the natural U content ranged from -25.5% to 7.3% for the soil samples. For the tea-leaf, the 90 Sr deviation was -22.7% to 19.1%, and the 137 Cs data had a relative large scatter with a ratio of the maximum and the minimum values being about 7. It was pointed out that the analysis results offered by different laboratories might have involved system errors

  20. Method for spiking soil samples with organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Ulla C; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2002-01-01

    We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either...... higher than in control soil, probably due mainly to release of predation from indigenous protozoa. In order to minimize solvent effects on indigenous soil microorganisms when spiking native soil samples with compounds having a low water solubility, we propose a common protocol in which the contaminant...... tagged with luxAB::Tn5. For both solvents, application to the whole sample resulted in severe side effects on both indigenous protozoa and bacteria. Application of dichloromethane to the whole soil volume immediately reduced the number of protozoa to below the detection limit. In one of the soils...

  1. Diffusion probe for gas sampling in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O

    2014-01-01

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of trace gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are determined by complex interactions between biological activity and soil conditions. Soil gas concentration profiles may, in combination with other information about soil conditions, help to understand emission...... controls. This note describes a simple and robust diffusion probe for soil gas sampling as part of flux monitoring programs. It can be deployed with minimum disturbance of in-situ conditions, also at sites with a high or fluctuating water table. Separate probes are used for each sampling depth...... on peat soils used for grazing showed soil gas concentrations of CH4 and N2O as influenced by topography, site conditions, and season. The applicability of the diffusion probe for trace gas monitoring is discussed....

  2. Analysis on soil compressibility changes of samples stabilized with lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea CALARASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage and control the stability of buildings located on difficult foundation soils, several techniques of soil stabilization were developed and applied worldwide. Taking into account the major significance of soil compressibility on construction durability and safety, the soil stabilization with a binder like lime is considered one of the most used and traditional methods. The present paper aims to assess the effect of lime content on soil geotechnical parameters, especially on compressibility ones, based on laboratory experimental tests, for several soil categories in admixture with different lime dosages. The results of this study indicate a significant improvement of stabilized soil parameters, such as compressibility and plasticity, in comparison with natural samples. The effect of lime stabilization is related to an increase of soil structure stability by increasing the bearing capacity.

  3. Optimization of sampling for the determination of the mean Radium-226 concentration in surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.R.; Leggett, R.W.; Espegren, M.L.; Little, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes a field experiment that identifies an optimal method for determination of compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Ra-226 guidelines for soil. The primary goals were to establish practical levels of accuracy and precision in estimating the mean Ra-226 concentration of surface soil in a small contaminated region; to obtain empirical information on composite vs. individual soil sampling and on random vs. uniformly spaced sampling; and to examine the practicality of using gamma measurements in predicting the average surface radium concentration and in estimating the number of soil samples required to obtain a given level of accuracy and precision. Numerous soil samples were collected on each six sites known to be contaminated with uranium mill tailings. Three types of samples were collected on each site: 10-composite samples, 20-composite samples, and individual or post hole samples; 10-composite sampling is the method of choice because it yields a given level of accuracy and precision for the least cost. Gamma measurements can be used to reduce surface soil sampling on some sites. 2 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  4. The use of gamma ray computed tomography to investigate soil compaction due to core sampling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Correchel, Vladia; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus; Brasil, Rene P. Camponez do

    2004-01-01

    Compaction processes can influence soil physical properties such as soil density, porosity, pore size distribution, and processes like soil water and nutrient movements, root system distribution, and others. Soil porosity modification has important consequences like alterations in results of soil water retention curves. These alterations may cause differences in soil water storage calculations and matrix potential values, which are utilized in irrigation management systems. Because of this, soil-sampling techniques should avoid alterations of sample structure. In this work soil sample compaction caused by core sampling devices was investigated using the gamma ray computed tomography technique. A first generation tomograph with fixed source-detector arrangement and translation/rotational movements of the sample was utilized to obtain the images. The radioactive source is 241 Am, with an activity of 3.7 GBq, and the detector consists of a 3 in. x 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Soil samples were taken from an experimental field utilizing cylinders 4.0 cm high and 2.6 cm in diameter. Based on image analyses it was possible to detect compacted regions in all samples next to the cylinder wall due to the sampling system. Tomographic unit profiles of the sample permitted to identify higher values of soil density for deeper regions of the sample, and it was possible to determine the average densities and thickness of these layers. Tomographic analyses showed to be a very useful tool for soil compaction characterization and presented many advantages in relation to traditional methods. (author)

  5. SEAMIST trademark soil sampling for tritiated water: First year's results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.; Martins, S.A.; Houpis, J.L.; Lowry, W.; Cremer, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    SEAMIST trademark is a recently developed sampling system that enables one to measure various soil parameters by means of an inverted, removable, impermeable membrane tube inserted in a borehole. This membrane tube can have various measuring devices installed on it, such as gas ports, adsorbent pads, and electrical sensors. These membrane tubes are made of a laminated polymer. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, has installed two of these systems to monitor tritium in soil resulting from a leak in an underground storage tank. One tube is equipped with gas ports to sample soil vapor and the other with adsorbent pads to sample soil moisture. Borehole stability was maintained using either sand-filled or air-inflated tubes. Both system implementations yielded concentrations or activities that compared well with the measured concentrations of tritium in the soil taken during borehole construction. In addition, an analysis of the data suggest that both systems prevented the vertical migration of tritium in the boreholes. Also, a neutron probe was successfully used in a blank membrane inserted in one of the boreholes to monitor the moisture in the soil without exposing the probe to the tritium. The neutron log showed excellent agreement with the soil moisture content measured in soil samples taken during borehole construction. This paper describes the two SEAMIST trademark systems used and presents sampling results and comparisons

  6. Microbiological evaluation on toxicity amelioration of soil samples contaminated with petroleum-based products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Pauline Liew Woan Ying; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Abdul Khalik Wood; Muhamat Omar

    2004-01-01

    Samples of soil materials from oil sludge landfarm in Melaka and petroleum sludge ready for disposal were analysed on their potentially toxic elements and compounds and their microbial population. These were compared against uncontaminated soil samples from agricultural plots and fresh crude petroleum samples obtained from an oil refinery in Kerteh, Terengganu. Enumeration and isolation of culturable microbial populations in the above samples were conducted using standard plate counts and screening methods. Populations of microorganisms from uncontaminated soils were tested on its potential to degrade petroleum derived products on contaminated soil samples and crude petroleum samples in a laboratory experiment. Microorganisms with great potential to degrade petroleum sludge will be further screened in further bioremediation studies in the field. (Author)

  7. Sampling design for use by the soil decontamination project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.W.; Stevens, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    This report proposes a general approach to the problem and discusses sampling of soil to map the contaminated area and to provide samples for characterizaton of soil components and contamination. Basic concepts in sample design are reviewed with reference to environmental transuranic studies. Common designs are reviewed and evaluated for use with specific objectives that might be required by the soil decontamination project. Examples of a hierarchial design pilot study and a combined hierarchial and grid study are proposed for the Rocky Flats 903 pad area

  8. Exchangeable phosphorus and others parameters in soil samples from Sapucai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti, J F; Zanotti, J F [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1972-01-01

    Soils samples from the alkaline rocks area at Sapucai were studied. The total amount of P in the soils shows to be high, as well as the E value for the 32 P exclangeable phosphorus. Other parameters like V values, TEC, etc., and their relationschip also were analyzed.

  9. Exchangeable phosphorus and others parameters in soil samples from Sapucai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti, J.F.; Zanotti, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    Soils samples from the alkaline rocks area at Sapucai were studied. The total amount of P in the soils shows to be high, as well as the E value for the 32 P exclangeable phosphorus. Other parameters like V values, TEC, etc., and their relationschip also were analyzed

  10. Statistical sampling strategies for survey of soil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews methods for selecting sampling locations in contaminated soils for three situations. In the first situation a global estimate of the soil contamination in an area is required. The result of the surey is a number or a series of numbers per contaminant, e.g. the estimated mean

  11. 14CO2 analysis of soil gas: Evaluation of sample size limits and sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotte, Anja; Wischhöfer, Philipp; Wacker, Lukas; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2017-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of CO2 respired from soils or sediments is a valuable tool to identify different carbon sources. The collection and processing of the CO2, however, is challenging and prone to contamination. We thus continuously improve our handling procedures and present a refined method for the collection of even small amounts of CO2 in molecular sieve cartridges (MSCs) for accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analysis. Using a modified vacuum rig and an improved desorption procedure, we were able to increase the CO2 recovery from the MSC (95%) as well as the sample throughput compared to our previous study. By processing series of different sample size, we show that our MSCs can be used for CO2 samples of as small as 50 μg C. The contamination by exogenous carbon determined in these laboratory tests, was less than 2.0 μg C from fossil and less than 3.0 μg C from modern sources. Additionally, we tested two sampling devices for the collection of CO2 samples released from soils or sediments, including a respiration chamber and a depth sampler, which are connected to the MSC. We obtained a very promising, low process blank for the entire CO2 sampling and purification procedure of ∼0.004 F14C (equal to 44,000 yrs BP) and ∼0.003 F14C (equal to 47,000 yrs BP). In contrast to previous studies, we observed no isotopic fractionation towards lighter δ13C values during the passive sampling with the depth samplers.

  12. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  13. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Kocaeli basin, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakelle, B.; Oeztuerk, N.; Erkol, A.Y.; Koese, A.; Varinlioglu, A.; Yilmaz, F.

    2002-01-01

    The city of Kocaeli is in the western part of Anatolia in Turkey and has a population of approximately 1.000.000. There is no information about radioactivity in the Kocaeli soils samples so far. For this reason, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in soil samples from 27 different sampling stations in Kocaeli Basin and its surroundings have been determined. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils. The typical concentrations of 137 Cs, 238 U, 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th found in surface soil samples ranged from 2 ± 0.6 to 25 ± 6 Bq/kg, from 11 ± 4 to 49 ± 10 Bq/kg, from 161 ± 30 to 964 ± 127 Bq/kg, from 10 ± 4 to 58 ± 11 Bq/kg, and from 11 ± 3 to 65 ± 13 Bq/kg, respectively. (author)

  14. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Dziadowicz, M.; Kopeć, E. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Majewska, U. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Wudarczyk-Moćko, J. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Góźdź, S. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Institute of Public Health, Jan Kochanowski University, IX Wieków Kielc 19, 25-317 Kielce (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  15. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Dziadowicz, M.; Kopeć, E.; Majewska, U.; Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I.; Wudarczyk-Moćko, J.; Góźdź, S.

    2015-01-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  16. Statistical sampling methods for soils monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann M. Abbott

    2010-01-01

    Development of the best sampling design to answer a research question should be an interactive venture between the land manager or researcher and statisticians, and is the result of answering various questions. A series of questions that can be asked to guide the researcher in making decisions that will arrive at an effective sampling plan are described, and a case...

  17. A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, Maria; Zorzi, Paolo de; Sansone, Umberto; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide; Trinkl, Alexander; Benesch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a 'reference site', aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated.

  18. A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Maria [Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: maria.belli@apat.it; Zorzi, Paolo de [Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@isprambiente.it; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: u.sansone@iaea.org; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.shakhashiro@iaea.org; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.gondin-da-fonseca-azeredo@iaea.org; Trinkl, Alexander [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.trinkl@iaea.org; Benesch, Thomas [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: t.benesch@iaea.org

    2009-11-15

    Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a 'reference site', aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated.

  19. Laboratory and Airborne BRDF Analysis of Vegetation Leaves and Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Butler, James J.; King, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-based Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0degS, 31.5degE). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20degS, 15.93degE, alt. 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and acacia tree (Acacia greggii) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e. crushed versus whole leaf,) soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e. fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (poplar versus acacia), and vegetation s biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this study, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) over the same general site where the soil and leaf litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne measured BRDF is reported.

  20. PCR detection of Burkholderia multivorans in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Charlotte; Daenekindt, Stijn; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-08-12

    Although semi-selective growth media have been developed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria from the environment, thus far Burkholderia multivorans has rarely been isolated from such samples. Because environmental B. multivorans isolates mainly originate from water samples, we hypothesized that water rather than soil is its most likely environmental niche. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of B. multivorans in water samples from Flanders (Belgium) using a fast, culture-independent PCR assay. A nested PCR approach was used to achieve high sensitivity, and specificity was confirmed by sequencing the resulting amplicons. B. multivorans was detected in 11 % of the water samples (n = 112) and 92 % of the soil samples (n = 25) tested. The percentage of false positives was higher for water samples compared to soil samples, showing that the presently available B. multivorans recA primers lack specificity when applied to the analysis of water samples. The results of the present study demonstrate that B. multivorans DNA is commonly present in soil samples and to a lesser extent in water samples in Flanders (Belgium).

  1. Optimizing Soil Moisture Sampling Locations for Validation Networks for SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, E.; Berg, A. A.; Lindsay, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) is scheduled for launch on Oct 2014. Global efforts are underway for establishment of soil moisture monitoring networks for both the pre- and post-launch validation and calibration of the SMAP products. In 2012 the SMAP Validation Experiment, SMAPVEX12, took place near Carman Manitoba, Canada where nearly 60 fields were sampled continuously over a 6 week period for soil moisture and several other parameters simultaneous to remotely sensed images of the sampling region. The locations of these sampling sites were mainly selected on the basis of accessibility, soil texture, and vegetation cover. Although these criteria are necessary to consider during sampling site selection, they do not guarantee optimal site placement to provide the most efficient representation of the studied area. In this analysis a method for optimization of sampling locations is presented which combines the state-of-art multi-objective optimization engine (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II), with the kriging interpolation technique to minimize the number of sampling sites while simultaneously minimizing the differences between the soil moisture map resulted from the kriging interpolation and soil moisture map from radar imaging. The algorithm is implemented in Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools, which is a multi-platform open-source GIS. The optimization framework is subject to the following three constraints:. A) sampling sites should be accessible to the crew on the ground, B) the number of sites located in a specific soil texture should be greater than or equal to a minimum value, and finally C) the number of sampling sites with a specific vegetation cover should be greater than or equal to a minimum constraint. The first constraint is implemented into the proposed model to keep the practicality of the approach. The second and third constraints are considered to guarantee that the collected samples from each soil texture categories

  2. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Carney, K.J; Basurko, O.C; Pazouki, K.; Marsham, S.; Delany, J; Desai, D.V.; Anil, A.C; Mesbahi, E.

    water, the shape, size and number of ballast tanks and the heterogeneous distribution of organisms within tanks. These factors hinder efforts to obtain samples that truly represent the total ballast water onboard a vessel. A known cell density...

  3. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian France

    Full Text Available Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling. Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  4. Producing Biosurfactants from Purified Microorganisms Obtained from Oil-contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Mokhtarian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil by crude oil can pose serious problems to ecosystems. Soil washing by solutions containing biosurfactants is one of the most efficient methods for the remediation of contaminated soil by crude oil because it removes not only the crude oil but also heavy metals. In this study, five soil samples were taken from fields exposed to oil compounds over the years in order to produce biosurfactants from microorganisms that were capable of degrading oil compounds. Sixteen such microorganisms were isolated. After cultivation, their emulsification strength was examined using E24 test. From among the experimental microorganisms, a gram-negative and rod-shape microorganism called A-12 showed the greatest value of the E24 test index (36%. For each liter of the culture medium containing 365 mg of microorganisms, 3 gr of the biosurfactant compound was produced and separated as dried powder. The purified biosurfactant was used in the soil washing process. Also, the insulated microorganisms were capable of degrading crude oil floating on wastewaters.

  5. Sample collection and sample analysis plan in support of the 105-C/190-C concrete and soil sampling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1996-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan describes the sample collection and sample analysis in support of the 105-C water tunnels and 190-C main pumphouse concrete and soil sampling activities. These analytical data will be used to identify the radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials to support the decontamination and disposal activities

  6. Statistical evaluation of the data obtained from the K East Basin Sandfilter Backwash Pit samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Samples were obtained from different locations from the K Each Sandfilter Backwash Pit to characterize the sludge material. These samples were analyzed chemically for elements, radionuclides, and residual compounds. The analytical results were statistically analyzed to determine the mean analyte content and the associated variability for each mean value

  7. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  8. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  9. Determination of metals in scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris) needles and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludborzs, A.; Viksna, A.

    2000-01-01

    Current report is the finding to apply two modern and powerful methods of microanalysis - Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry - for the analysis of biological and geological materials. For some of the measurements Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used as an arbitrary method. The goal of the research project is to find possible relationships between metals content in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles and the soil samples, which have been taken under the trees. The objectives of the work are analysis of both needles and soils, pH measurements of the soil samples, and handling of a simplified metal speciation analysis in the soil samples. For statistical reliability of the project, seven pine trees from different locations in Latvia have been chosen as the analysis objects. Samples of 20 different age class needles have been collected from the trees and 21 soil sample has been sampled under the trees. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Cd content have been analysed in both samples of the needles and the soils. The obtained measurement data have been processed according to the aim of the project. Relevant questions about causal differences of metal concentrations in different age classes of needles, about subtle working principles of the plant's root system, about the role of some elements in the plant's living processes still remain unanswered. (author)

  10. Use of passive sampling devices to determine soil contaminant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.A. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States)]|[Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States); Hooper, M.J. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); Weisskopf, C.P. [Washington State Univ., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The effective remediation of contaminated sites requires accurate identification of chemical distributions. A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDs) can provide a thorough site assessment. We have been pursuing their application in terrestrial systems and have found that they increase the ease and speed of analysis, decrease solvent usage and overall cost, and minimize the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a higher sampling frequency than is generally the case using traditional methods. PSDs have been used in the field in soils of varying physical properties and have been successful in estimating soil concentrations ranging from 1 {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) to greater than 200 mg/kg (parts per million). They were also helpful in identifying hot spots within the sites. Passive sampling devices show extreme promise as an analytical tool to rapidly characterize contaminant distributions in soil. There are substantial time and cost savings in laboratory personnel and supplies. By selectively excluding common interferences that require sample cleanup, PSDs can be retrieved from the field and processed rapidly (one technician can process approximately 90 PSDs in an 8-h work day). The results of our studies indicate that PSDs can be used to accurately estimate soil contaminant concentrations and provide lower detection limits. Further, time and cost savings will allow a more thorough and detailed characterization of contaminant distributions. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Pumping time required to obtain tube well water samples with aquifer characteristic radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricardo, Carla Pereira; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2011-01-01

    Radon is an inert noble gas, which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in soil, rock and water. Radon isotopes emanated from radium-bearing grains of a rock or soil are released into the pore space. Radon that reaches the pore space is partitioned between the gaseous and aqueous phases. Thus, the groundwater presents a radon signature from the rock that is characteristic of the aquifer. The characteristic radon concentration of an aquifer, which is mainly related to the emanation, is also influenced by the degree of subsurface degassing, especially in the vicinity of a tube well, where the radon concentration is strongly reduced. Looking for the required pumping time to take a tube well water sample that presents the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, an experiment was conducted in an 80 m deep tube well. In this experiment, after twenty-four hours without extraction, water samples were collected periodically, about ten minutes intervals, during two hours of pumping time. The radon concentrations of the samples were determined by using the RAD7 Electronic Radon Detector from Durridge Company, a solid state alpha spectrometric detector. It was realized that the necessary time to reach the maximum radon concentration, that means the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, is about sixty minutes. (author)

  12. Uranium determination in soil samples using Eichrom resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marabini, S.; Serdeiro, Nelidad H.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, the radiochemical methods for uranium activity determination in soil samples by alpha spectrometry, use some techniques like solvent extraction, precipitation and ion exchange in the separation and purification stages. In the last years, some new materials have been developed for using in extraction chromatography, specific for actinides determinations. In the present method the long and tedious stages were eliminated, and the reagents consumption and concentration were minimised. This new procedure was applied to soils since it is one of the most complex matrices. In order to reduce time and chemical reagents, the soil samples up to 0,5 g were leached with nitric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids in hermetic sealed recipients of Teflon at 150 C degrees during 5 hours. UTEVA Eichrom resin was used for uranium separation and purification. The uranium activity concentration was determined by alpha spectrometry. Several standard samples were analysed and the results are presented. (author)

  13. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; Perk, Marcel van der

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations

  14. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, Vienna A-1400 (Austria); Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, TC Utrecht 3508 (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  15. A soil sampling reference site: the challenge in defining reference material for sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; van der Perk, Marcel

    2008-11-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  16. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  17. Soil Characterization by Large Scale Sampling of Soil Mixed with Buried Construction Debris at a Former Uranium Fuel Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, A.J.; Lamantia, L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent soil excavation activities on a site identified the presence of buried uranium contaminated building construction debris. The site previously was the location of a low enriched uranium fuel fabrication facility. This resulted in the collection of excavated materials from the two locations where contaminated subsurface debris was identified. The excavated material was temporarily stored in two piles on the site until a determination could be made as to the appropriate disposition of the material. Characterization of the excavated material was undertaken in a manner that involved the collection of large scale samples of the excavated material in 1 cubic meter Super Sacks. Twenty bags were filled with excavated material that consisted of the mixture of both the construction debris and the associated soil. In order to obtain information on the level of activity associated with the construction debris, ten additional bags were filled with construction debris that had been separated, to the extent possible, from the associated soil. Radiological surveys were conducted of the resulting bags of collected materials and the soil associated with the waste mixture. The 30 large samples, collected as bags, were counted using an In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) unit to determine the average concentration of U-235 present in each bag. The soil fraction was sampled by the collection of 40 samples of soil for analysis in an on-site laboratory. A fraction of these samples were also sent to an off-site laboratory for additional analysis. This project provided the necessary soil characterization information to allow consideration of alternate options for disposition of the material. The identified contaminant was verified to be low enriched uranium. Concentrations of uranium in the waste were found to be lower than the calculated site specific derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) but higher than the NRC's screening values. The methods and results are presented

  18. Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-07-01

    Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (C llr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Preparation and application of radioactive soil samples for intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zequan; Li Zhou; Li Pengxiang; Wang Ruijun; Ren Xiaona

    2014-01-01

    This article summarized the preparation process and intercomparison results of the simulated environmental radioactive soil samples. The components of the matrix were: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, CaO, NaCl, KCl and TiO 2 . All of the components were milled, oven-dried, sieved and then blended together. The homogeneity test was according to GB 15000. 5-1994, and no significant differences were observed. The 3 H analysis soils were spiked natural soils with the moisture content of 15%. Eight laboratories attended this intercomparison. The results proves that the preparation of the simulated soils were suitable for the inter-laboratories comparison. (authors)

  20. Using Environmental Variables for Studying of the Quality of Sampling in Soil Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jafari; Norair Toomanian; R. Taghizadeh Mehrjerdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Methods of soil survey are generally empirical and based on the mental development of the surveyor, correlating soil with underlying geology, landforms, vegetation and air-photo interpretation. Since there are no statistical criteria for traditional soil sampling; this may lead to bias in the areas being sampled. In digital soil mapping, soil samples may be used to elaborate quantitative relationships or models between soil attributes and soil covariates. Because the relationshi...

  1. Specific heat capacities of different clayey samples obtained by differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The thermo-physical properties allow to calculate heat flows and to determine the thermal behaviour of the materials. Temperature influences the rates of the physical, chemical and biological reactions and processes in the soil or a material. Variations in temperature and water content in thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and geochemical processes affect the thermal properties such as density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Therefore, mathematical models that describe the dependence of the thermal properties on temperature and concentration are of interest to be used in computational programs applied to the modelling of coupled thermo-mechanical-hydraulic and chemical (THMC) processes. In this work, the specific heat capacity of different clayey international reference materials was determined. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used for such purpose. DSC is the main tool for determining the specific heat capacities of materials as a function of temperature. The specific heat capacity, c p (J/Kg.K), is a measurement of the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one unit of temperature. A change in temperature, caused by a gain or a loss of heat from a material, depends on the specific heat capacity of the material. Thus, the specific heat capacity is a key and characteristic property of a material and/or substance, which should be determine accurately. The specific heat capacity is an intensive property and, unlike the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, is independent of the dry density of the material. C p of the solid samples was determined by using a SETSYS Evolution 16 thermal analyser coupled to a differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC-DTA) from SETARAM Instrumentation. The thermal analyser system can use a heating rate from 0.01 to 100 C/min under a dynamic argon atmosphere and temperatures ranging from ambient to

  2. Response of soil aggregate stability to storage time of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Roessner, H.

    1993-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the well known phenomenon of changing aggregate stability values as result of soil sample storage. In order to evaluate the impact of soil microbial activity, the soil sample was split into three subsamples. Two samples were sterilized by means of chloroform fumigation and gamma irradiation, respectively. However, the aggregate stability measurements at three different dates were not correlated with the microbial activity (dehydrogenase activity). The moisture content of the aggregate samples seems to be of higher significance. Samples with lower moisture content (range: 0.4 to 1.9%) exhibited higher aggregate stabilities. Thus, airdried aggregate samples without further treatment don't seem to be suitable for standardized stability measurements. (authors)

  3. Occurrence and species distribution of pathogenic Mucorales in unselected soil samples from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, B; Costa, J M; Arné, P; Guillot, J; Chermette, R; Botterel, F; Dannaoui, E

    2018-04-01

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal disease that affects a variety of patient groups. Although Mucorales are mostly opportunistic pathogens originating from soil or decaying vegetation, there are currently few data on prevalence of this group of fungi in the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and diversity of species of Mucorales from soil samples collected in France. Two grams of soil were homogenized in sterile saline and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and RPMI agar supplemented with itraconazole or voriconazole. Both media contained chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The plates were incubated at 35 ± 2 °C and checked daily for fungal growth for a maximum of 7 d. Mucorales were subcultured for purity. Each isolate was identified phenotypically and molecular identification was performed by ITS sequencing. A total of 170 soil samples were analyzed. Forty-one isolates of Mucorales were retrieved from 38 culture-positive samples. Among the recovered isolates, 27 Rhizopus arrhizus, 11 Mucor circinelloides, one Lichtheimia corymbifera, one Rhizopus microsporus and one Cunninghamella bertholletiae were found. Positive soil samples came from cultivated fields but also from other types of soil such as flower beds. Mucorales were retrieved from samples obtained in different geographical regions of France. Voriconazole-containing medium improved the recovery of Mucorales compared with other media. The present study showed that pathogenic Mucorales are frequently recovered from soil samples in France. Species diversity should be further analyzed on a larger number of soil samples from different geographic areas in France and in other countries.

  4. Evaluation of Rock Powdering Methods to Obtain Fine-grained Samples for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Blake, D. F.; Bearman, G.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature XRD/XRF (X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data will improve and the time required for data collection will be reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD results from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, we compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRF instrument such as CHEMIN.

  5. Research on self-absorption corrections for laboratory γ spectral analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zining; Jia Mingyan; Li Huibin; Cheng Ziwei; Ju Lingjun; Shen Maoquan; Yang Xiaoyan; Yan Ling; Fen Tiancheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the calibration results of the point sources,dimensions of HPGe crystal were characterized.Linear attenuation coefficients and detection efficiencies of all kinds of samples were calculated,and the function F(μ) of φ75 mm x 25 mm sample was established. Standard surface source was used to simulate the source of different heights in the soil sample. And the function ε(h) which reflect the relationship between detection efficiencies and heights of the surface sources was determined. The detection efficiency of calibration source can be obtained by integration, F(μ) functions of soil samples established is consistent with the result of MCNP calculation code. Several φ75 mm x 25 mm soil samples were measured by the HPGe spectrometer,and the function F(μ) was used to correct the self absorption. F(μ) functions of soil samples of various dimensions can be calculated by MCNP calculation code established, and self absorption correction can be done. To verify the efficiency of calculation results, φ75 mm x 75 mm soil samples were measured. Several φ75 mm x 25 mm soil samples from aerosphere nuclear testing field was measured by the HPGe spectrometer,and the function F(μ) was used to correct the self absorption. The function F(m) was established, and the technical method which is used to correct the soil samples of unknown area is also given. The correction method of surface source greatly improves the gamma spectrum's metrical accuracy, and it will be widely applied to environmental radioactive investigation. (authors)

  6. Perilymph sampling from the cochlear apex: a reliable method to obtain higher purity perilymph samples from scala tympani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Alec N; Hale, Shane A; Plonkte, Stefan K R

    2006-05-15

    Measurements of drug levels in the fluids of the inner ear are required to establish kinetic parameters and to determine the influence of specific local delivery protocols. For most substances, this requires cochlear fluids samples to be obtained for analysis. When auditory function is of primary interest, the drug level in the perilymph of scala tympani (ST) is most relevant, since drug in this scala has ready access to the auditory sensory cells. In many prior studies, ST perilymph samples have been obtained from the basal turn, either by aspiration through the round window membrane (RWM) or through an opening in the bony wall. A number of studies have demonstrated that such samples are likely to be contaminated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF enters the basal turn of ST through the cochlear aqueduct when the bony capsule is perforated or when fluid is aspirated. The degree of sample contamination has, however, not been widely appreciated. Recent studies have shown that perilymph samples taken through the round window membrane are highly contaminated with CSF, with samples greater than 2microL in volume containing more CSF than perilymph. In spite of this knowledge, many groups continue to sample from the base of the cochlea, as it is a well-established method. We have developed an alternative, technically simple method to increase the proportion of ST perilymph in a fluid sample. The sample is taken from the apex of the cochlea, a site that is distant from the cochlear aqueduct. A previous problem with sampling through a perforation in the bone was that the native perilymph rapidly leaked out driven by CSF pressure and was lost to the middle ear space. We therefore developed a procedure to collect all the fluid that emerged from the perforated apex after perforation. We evaluated the method using a marker ion trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA). TMPA was applied to the perilymph of guinea pigs either by RW irrigation or by microinjection into the apical turn. The

  7. MMRP Guidance Document for Soil Sampling of Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    studies have measured the persistence of HE in the field. Radtke et al. (2002) sampled surface soils at an explosives testing area that had not been...Munitions Residues. CRREL Report CR-92-5. Radtke C. W., D. Gianotto, and F. F. Roberto. 2002. Effects of particulate explosives on estimating

  8. Guidance for Soil Sampling for Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    studies have measured the persistence of HE in the field. Radtke et al. (2002) sampled surface soils at an explosives testing area that had not been...in Eagle River Flats, Alaska: The Role of Munitions Residues. CRREL Report CR-92-5. Radtke C. W., D. Gianotto, and F. F. Roberto. 2002. Effects of

  9. Determination of thorium and uranium contents in soil samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    using CR-39 and LR-115-II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). ... standard soil samples have been determined and compared with its known values. ... measure α-tracks activity [1], where SSNTDs have been used in geology [2–6] ...

  10. Obtaining Self-Samples to Diagnose Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Systematic Review of Patients’ Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Priyamvada; Llewellyn, Carrie; Lau, Jason; Mahmud, Mohammad; Smith, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine screening is key to sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and control. Previous studies suggest that clinic-based screening programmes capture only a small proportion of people with STIs. Self-sampling using non- or minimally invasive techniques may be beneficial for those reluctant to actively engage with conventional sampling methods. We systematically reviewed studies of patients’ experiences of obtaining self-samples to diagnose curable STIs. Methods We conducted an electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, BNI, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant articles published in English between January 1980 and March 2014. Studies were included if participants self-sampled for the diagnosis of a curable STI and had specifically sought participants’ opinions of their experience, acceptability, preferences, or willingness to self-sample. Results The initial search yielded 558 references. Of these, 45 studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six studies assessed patients’ acceptability and experiences of self-sampling. Pooled results from these studies shows that self-sampling is a highly acceptable method with 85% of patients reporting the method to be well received and acceptable. Twenty-eight studies reported on ease of self-sampling; the majority of patients (88%) in these studies found self-sampling an “easy” procedure. Self-sampling was favoured compared to clinician sampling, and home sampling was preferred to clinic-based sampling. Females and older participants were more accepting of self-sampling. Only a small minority of participants (13%) reported pain during self-sampling. Participants were willing to undergo self-sampling and recommend others. Privacy and safety were the most common concerns. Conclusion Self-sampling for diagnostic testing is well accepted with the majority having a positive experience and willingness to use again. Standardization of self-sampling procedures

  11. Bespoke Bias for Obtaining Free Energy Differences within Variationally Enhanced Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, James; Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

    2016-05-10

    Obtaining efficient sampling of multiple metastable states through molecular dynamics and hence determining free energy differences is central for understanding many important phenomena. Here we present a new biasing strategy, which employs the recent variationally enhanced sampling approach (Valsson and Parrinello Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 113, 090601). The bias is constructed from an intuitive model of the local free energy surface describing fluctuations around metastable minima and depends on only a few parameters which are determined variationally such that efficient sampling between states is obtained. The bias constructed in this manner largely reduces the need of finding a set of collective variables that completely spans the conformational space of interest, as they only need to be a locally valid descriptor of the system about its local minimum. We introduce the method and demonstrate its power on two representative examples.

  12. Mobility, bioavailability, and toxic effects of cadmium in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, Z.; Cupr, P.; Zlevorova-Zlamalikova V.; Komarek, J.; Dusek, L.; Holoubek, I.

    2003-01-01

    Total concentration is not a reliable indicator of metal mobility or bioavailability in soils. The physicochemical form determines the behavior of metals in soils and hence the toxicity toward terrestrial biota. The main objectives of this study were the application and comparison of three approaches for the evaluation of cadmium behavior in soil samples. The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in five selected soil samples were evaluated using equilibrium speciation (Windermere humic aqueous mode (WHAM)), extraction procedures (Milli-Q water, DMSO, and DTPA), and a number of bioassays (Microtox, growth inhibition test, contact toxicity test, and respiration). The mobility, represented by the water-extractable fraction corresponded well with the amount of cadmium in the soil solution, calculate using the WHAM (r 2 =0.96, P<0.001). The results of the ecotoxicologica evaluation, which represent the bioavailable fraction of cadmium, correlated well with DTPA extractability and also with the concentration of free cadmium ion, which is recognized as the most bioavailable metal form. The results of the WHAM as well as the results of extraction experiments showed a strong binding of cadmium to organic matter and a weak sorption of cadmium to clay minerals

  13. Sampling and Mapping Soil Erosion Cover Factor for Fort Richardson, Alaska. Integrating Stratification and an Up-Scaling Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Guangxing; Gertner, George; Anderson, Alan B; Howard, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    When a ground and vegetation cover factor related to soil erosion is mapped with the aid of remotely sensed data, a cost-efficient sample design to collect ground data and obtain an accurate map is required...

  14. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records

    OpenAIRE

    Castellanos Rozo, José; Sánchez Nieves, Jimena; Uribe Vélez, Daniel; Moreno Chacón, Leonardo; Melgarejo Muñoz, Luz Marina

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofuran degradation activity (Furadan®3SC) were obtained from soils cultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosum) in Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia), with different records of pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for their ability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mg L-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/ or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those obtai...

  15. How to Perform Precise Soil and Sediment Sampling? One solution: The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabit, L.; Toloza, A.; Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C.; Iurian, A-R.; Owens, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agrienvironmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling to perform detailed analysis of physical, geochemical and biological properties of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC), developed by the SWMCN Laboratory, allows much greater precision in incremental soil/sediment sampling. It facilitates the easy recovery of collected material by using a simple screw-thread extraction system (see Figure 1). The FISC has been designed specifically to enable standardized scientific investigation of shallow soil/sediment samples. In particular, applications have been developed in two IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs): CRP D1.20.11 on “Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area-wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion” and CRP D1.50.15 on “Response to Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture.”

  16. How to Perform Precise Soil and Sediment Sampling? One solution: The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabit, L.; Toloza, A. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, IAEA, Seibersdorf (Austria); Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C. [Environmental Geosciences, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Iurian, A-R. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Owens, P. N. [Environmental Science Program and Quesnel River Research Centre, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agrienvironmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling to perform detailed analysis of physical, geochemical and biological properties of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC), developed by the SWMCN Laboratory, allows much greater precision in incremental soil/sediment sampling. It facilitates the easy recovery of collected material by using a simple screw-thread extraction system (see Figure 1). The FISC has been designed specifically to enable standardized scientific investigation of shallow soil/sediment samples. In particular, applications have been developed in two IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs): CRP D1.20.11 on “Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area-wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion” and CRP D1.50.15 on “Response to Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture.”.

  17. Taxonomic and functional profiles of soil samples from Atlantic forest and Caatinga biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Ralfo G; Carvalho, Fabíola M; Thompson, Claudia E; Faustino, André L F; Nicolini, Fernanda; Pereira, Tatiana S; Silva, Rita C B; Cantão, Mauricio E; Gerber, Alexandra; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F

    2014-06-01

    Although microorganisms play crucial roles in ecosystems, metagenomic analyses of soil samples are quite scarce, especially in the Southern Hemisphere. In this work, the microbial diversity of soil samples from an Atlantic Forest and Caatinga was analyzed using a metagenomic approach. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both samples. Among which, a significant proportion of stress-resistant bacteria associated to organic matter degradation was found. Sequences related to metabolism of amino acids, nitrogen, and DNA and stress resistance were more frequent in Caatinga soil, while the forest sample showed the highest occurrence of hits annotated in phosphorous metabolism, defense mechanisms, and aromatic compound degradation subsystems. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that our samples are close to the desert metagenomes in relation to taxonomy, but are more similar to rhizosphere microbiota in relation to the functional profiles. The data indicate that soil characteristics affect the taxonomic and functional distribution; these characteristics include low nutrient content, high drainage (both are sandy soils), vegetation, and exposure to stress. In both samples, a rapid turnover of organic matter with low greenhouse gas emission was suggested by the functional profiles obtained, reinforcing the importance of preserving natural areas. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Including Below Detection Limit Samples in Post Decommissioning Soil Sample Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To meet the required standards the site owner has to show that the soil at the facility has been sufficiently cleaned up. To do this one must know the contamination of the soil at the site prior to clean up. This involves sampling that soil to identify the degree of contamination. However there is a technical difficulty in determining how much decontamination should be done. The problem arises when measured samples are below the detection limit. Regulatory guidelines for site reuse after decommissioning are commonly challenged because the majority of the activity in the soil at or below the limit of detection. Using additional statistical analyses of contaminated soil after decommissioning is expected to have the following advantages: a better and more reliable probabilistic exposure assessment, better economics (lower project costs) and improved communication with the public. This research will develop an approach that defines an acceptable method for demonstrating compliance of decommissioned NPP sites and validates that compliance. Soil samples from NPP often contain censored data. Conventional methods for dealing with censored data sets are statistically biased and limited in their usefulness.

  19. The Impact of Including Below Detection Limit Samples in Post Decommissioning Soil Sample Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To meet the required standards the site owner has to show that the soil at the facility has been sufficiently cleaned up. To do this one must know the contamination of the soil at the site prior to clean up. This involves sampling that soil to identify the degree of contamination. However there is a technical difficulty in determining how much decontamination should be done. The problem arises when measured samples are below the detection limit. Regulatory guidelines for site reuse after decommissioning are commonly challenged because the majority of the activity in the soil at or below the limit of detection. Using additional statistical analyses of contaminated soil after decommissioning is expected to have the following advantages: a better and more reliable probabilistic exposure assessment, better economics (lower project costs) and improved communication with the public. This research will develop an approach that defines an acceptable method for demonstrating compliance of decommissioned NPP sites and validates that compliance. Soil samples from NPP often contain censored data. Conventional methods for dealing with censored data sets are statistically biased and limited in their usefulness. In this research, additional methods are performed using real data from a monazite manufacturing factory.

  20. Application of instrument neutron-activation analysis in a comparative investigation of soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, D. (Institute po Kriminalistika i Kriminologiya, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative measurement of the contents of 17 chemical elements in soil samples, collected using the existing network from the surface of five cultivated areas in Bulgaria has been carried out. The values obtained have been used to calculate the evaluations psub(i) of the dispersions and for the ordering of the chemical elements according to their importance in criminology. The possibility for criminological comparison of single soil samples using the contents of the five most important elements - Th, Fe, Sc, Ce and Mn has been shown.

  1. Application of instrument neutron-activation analysis in a comparative investigation of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D.

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative measurement of the contents of 17 chemical elements in soil samples, collected using the existing network from the surface of five cultivated areas in Bulgaria has been carried out. The values obtained have been used to calculate the evaluations psub(i) of the dispersions and for the ordering of the chemical elements according to their importance in criminology. The possibility for criminological comparison of single soil samples using the contents of the five most important elements - Th, Fe, Sc, Ce and Mn has been shown. (author)

  2. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously existing concentration

  3. Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2011-07-01

    A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was LIBS limits of detection were LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization.

  4. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences

  5. The use of importance sampling in a trial assessment to obtain converged estimates of radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Lucas, R.

    1986-12-01

    In developing a methodology for assessing potential sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the Department of the Environment has conducted a series of trial assessment exercises. In order to produce converged estimates of radiological risk using the SYVAC A/C simulation system an efficient sampling procedure is required. Previous work has demonstrated that importance sampling can substantially increase sampling efficiency. This study used importance sampling to produce converged estimates of risk for the first DoE trial assessment. Four major nuclide chains were analysed. In each case importance sampling produced converged risk estimates with between 10 and 170 times fewer runs of the SYVAC A/C model. This increase in sampling efficiency can reduce the total elapsed time required to obtain a converged estimate of risk from one nuclide chain by a factor of 20. The results of this study suggests that the use of importance sampling could reduce the elapsed time required to perform a risk assessment of a potential site by a factor of ten. (author)

  6. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Sampsa; Geng, Xiaoyuan; He, Juanxia

    2017-04-01

    Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping. Sampsa Hamalainen, Xiaoyuan Geng, and Juanxia, He. AAFC - Agriculture and Agr-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada. The Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) approach to assist with Digital Soil Mapping has been developed for some time now, however the purpose of this work was to complement LHS with use of multiple spatial resolutions of covariate datasets and variability in the range of sampling points produced. This allowed for specific sets of LHS points to be produced to fulfil the needs of various partners from multiple projects working in the Ontario and Prince Edward Island provinces of Canada. Secondary soil and environmental attributes are critical inputs that are required in the development of sampling points by LHS. These include a required Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and subsequent covariate datasets produced as a result of a Digital Terrain Analysis performed on the DEM. These additional covariates often include but are not limited to Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Length-Slope (LS) Factor, and Slope which are continuous data. The range of specific points created in LHS included 50 - 200 depending on the size of the watershed and more importantly the number of soil types found within. The spatial resolution of covariates included within the work ranged from 5 - 30 m. The iterations within the LHS sampling were run at an optimal level so the LHS model provided a good spatial representation of the environmental attributes within the watershed. Also, additional covariates were included in the Latin Hypercube Sampling approach which is categorical in nature such as external Surficial Geology data. Some initial results of the work include using a 1000 iteration variable within the LHS model. 1000 iterations was consistently a reasonable value used to produce sampling points that provided a good spatial representation of the environmental

  7. Sampling soils for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Schofield, T.G.; White, G.C.; Trujillo, G.

    1981-10-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137 Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500-, and 12 500-cm 3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137 Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137 Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, where CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137 Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2 to 4 aliquots out of an many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137 Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137 Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor

  8. Procedure for intercomparison study for trace elements determination in soil samples by absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez P, L.A.; Benavides M, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the environmental sampling analysis there is very important to establish an adequate methodologies on the laboratories for improvement the quality of the results obtained, so the establishment of a qualified laboratories network for environmental analysis. The objective of this work is to show the working plan for the analysis of eight elements on a Russian soil sample for an interlaboratory comparison with IAEA, by the Absorption spectroscopy technique using flame. (Author)

  9. Radioactivity in Soil Samples Collected in Southern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the attack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the focus effect was of Kosovo and Metohija and southern Serbia) in 1999, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. Cleaning action of depleted uranium was performed by Radiation and Environmental Protection Department of the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, during 2002?2007 at locations: Pljackovica, Bratoselce, Borovac and Reljan. At all locations underwent detailed dosimetric screening and decontamination was performed. Because of the loose soil, DU projectils were found to a depth of 1 m. Found missiles, contaminated soil and radioactive material has been collected and stored on radioactive waste. After cleaning the ground is leveled and another dosimetric prospecting was performed. Monitoring of radioactivity in southern Serbia included determination of gamma emitters as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activities in soil, water and plant. Sampling was carried out at Pljackovica, Borovac, Bratoselce and Reljan in July 2011. This paper presents only the results of measurement of gamma emitters in soil samples and showed the presence of natural radionuclides: 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). Also, the ratio between the 235U and 238U is given. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated. (author)

  10. A self-sampling method to obtain large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Elizabeth R; Moench, Thomas R; Hees, Paul S; Cone, Richard A

    2003-02-01

    Studies of vaginal physiology and pathophysiology sometime require larger volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions than can be obtained by current methods. A convenient method for self-sampling these secretions outside a clinical setting can facilitate such studies of reproductive health. The goal was to develop a vaginal self-sampling method for collecting large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. A menstrual collection device (the Instead cup) was inserted briefly into the vagina to collect secretions that were then retrieved from the cup by centrifugation in a 50-ml conical tube. All 16 women asked to perform this procedure found it feasible and acceptable. Among 27 samples, an average of 0.5 g of secretions (range, 0.1-1.5 g) was collected. This is a rapid and convenient self-sampling method for obtaining relatively large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. It should prove suitable for a wide range of assays, including those involving sexually transmitted diseases, microbicides, vaginal physiology, immunology, and pathophysiology.

  11. Study of Organochlorinated Pesticide Residues and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vlora Gashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the data obtained for organochlorinated pesticides and their residues in the soil samples of agricultural areas. Soil contamination is one of most important factors influencing the quality of agricultural products. Usage of heavy farm equipment, the land drainage, an exces­sive application of agrochemicals, emissions originating from mining, metallurgical, and chemical and coal power plants and transport, all generate a number of undesired substances (nitric and sulphur oxides, PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides, which after deposition in soil may influence crop quality. Thus, input of these contaminants into the environment should be carefully monitored. Levels of organochlorinated pesticides contamination were evaluated in agriculture areas that are in use. 10 soil samples were taken in agricultural areas  Plane of  Dugagjini , Kosovo. Representa­tive soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm top layer of the soil. In the analytical method we combined ultrasonic bath extraction and a Florisil column for samples clean-up. The analysis of the organochlorinated pesticides in soil samples was performed by gas chromatography technique using electron capture detector (GC/ECD. Optima-5 (low/mid polarity, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane 60 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25μm film capillary column was used for isolation and determination of organochlorinated pesticides. Low concentrations of organochlorinated pesticide and their metabolites were found in the studied samples. The presence of organochlorinated pesticides and their residues is probably resulting of their previous uses for agricultural purposes.

  12. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Silva, Alberto Antonio da

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  13. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: rmenezes@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: jairo.dias@ufpe.br, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: jestevez@ceaden.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: edvane.borges@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  14. 105-DR Large sodium fire facility soil sampling data evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the soil sampling activities, soil sample analysis, and soil sample data associated with the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements for meeting clean closure. The report concludes that there is no soil contamination from the waste treatment activities

  15. Isolation of antimicrobial producing Actinobacteria from soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbendary, Afaf Ahmed; Hessain, Ashgan Mohamed; El-Hariri, Mahmoud Darderi; Seida, Ahmed Adel; Moussa, Ihab Mohamed; Mubarak, Ayman Salem; Kabli, Saleh A; Hemeg, Hassan A; El Jakee, Jakeen Kamal

    2018-01-01

    Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the search for novel bioactive compounds from natural and unexplored habitats a necessity. Actinobacteria have important bioactive substances. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from soil samples of Egypt. One hundred samples were collected from agricultural farming soil of different governorates. Twelve isolates have produced activity against the tested microorganisms ( S. aureus , Bacillus cereus , E. coli , K. pneumoniae , P. aeruginosa , S. Typhi, C. albicans , A. niger and A. flavus ). By VITEK 2 system version: 07.01 the 12 isolates were identified as Kocuria kristinae , Kocuria rosea , Streptomyces griseus , Streptomyces flaveolus and Actinobacteria . Using ethyl acetate extraction method the isolates culture's supernatants were tested by diffusion method against indicator microorganisms. These results indicate that Actinobacteria isolated from Egypt farms could be sources of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

  16. Isolation of antimicrobial producing Actinobacteria from soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Ahmed Elbendary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria has made the search for novel bioactive compounds from natural and unexplored habitats a necessity. Actinobacteria have important bioactive substances. The present study investigated antimicrobial activity of Actinobacteria isolated from soil samples of Egypt. One hundred samples were collected from agricultural farming soil of different governorates. Twelve isolates have produced activity against the tested microorganisms (S. aureus, Bacillus cereus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. Typhi, C. albicans, A. niger and A. flavus. By VITEK 2 system version: 07.01 the 12 isolates were identified as Kocuria kristinae, Kocuria rosea, Streptomyces griseus, Streptomyces flaveolus and Actinobacteria. Using ethyl acetate extraction method the isolates culture’s supernatants were tested by diffusion method against indicator microorganisms. These results indicate that Actinobacteria isolated from Egypt farms could be sources of antimicrobial bioactive substances.

  17. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture Classifications for Simulating Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    the general texture classifications. 2. Another source for soil information, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO...is to use another soils dataset that contains soil properties for the areas of interest, such as the Digital Soil Map of the World provided by the...www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/soils/survey/ NOTE: The contents of this technical note are not to be used for advertising

  18. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  19. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-01-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the μ determination. It consists of the μ determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of μ was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  20. Effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity on water-quality samples obtained from wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Gibs, Jacob

    1993-01-01

    Factors that affect the mass of chemical constituents entering a well include the distributions of flow rate and chemical concentrations along and near the screened or open section of the well. Assuming a layered porous medium (with each layer being characterized by a uniform hydraulic conductivity and chemical concentration), a knowledge of the flow from each layer along the screened zone and of the chemical concentrations in each layer enables the total mass entering the well to be determined. Analyses of hypothetical systems and a site at Galloway, NJ, provide insight into the temporal variation of water-quality data observed when withdrawing water from screened wells in heterogeneous ground-water systems.The analyses of hypothetical systems quantitatively indicate the cause-and-effect relations that cause temporal variability in water samples obtained from wells. Chemical constituents that have relatively uniform concentrations with depth may not show variations in concentrations in the water discharged from a well after the well is purged (evacuation of standing water in the well casing). However, chemical constituents that do not have uniform concentrations near the screened interval of the well may show variations in concentrations in the well discharge water after purging because of the physics of ground-water flow in the vicinity of the screen.Water-quality samples were obtained through time over a 30 minute period from a site at Galloway, NJ. The water samples were analyzed for aromatic hydrocarbons, and the data for benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene were evaluated for temporal variations. Samples were taken from seven discrete zones, and the flow-weighted concentrations of benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene all indicate an increase in concentration over time during pumping. These observed trends in time were reproduced numerically based on the estimated concentration distribution in the aquifer and the flow rates from each zone.The results of

  1. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Macêdo, Regina CL; Rosado, Alexandre S; da Mota, Fabio F; Cavalcante, Maria AS; Eulálio, Kelsen D; Filho, Antônio D; Martins, Liline MS; Lazéra, Márcia S; Wanke, Bodo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soi...

  2. Gamma spectroscopy analysis of archived Marshall Island soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, S.; Hoffman, K.; Lavelle, K.; Trauth, A.; Glover, S.E.; Connick, W.; Spitz, H.; LaMont, S.P.; Hamilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    Four samples of archival Marshall Islands soil were subjected to non-destructive, broad energy (17 keV-2.61 MeV) gamma-ray spectrometry analysis using a series of different high-resolution germanium detectors. These archival samples were collected in 1967 from different locations on Bikini Atoll and were contaminated with a range of fission and activation products, and other nuclear material from multiple weapons tests. Unlike samples collected recently, these samples have been stored in sealed containers and have been unaffected by approximately 50 years of weathering. Initial results show that the samples contained measurable but proportionally different concentrations of plutonium, 241 Am, and 137 Cs, and 60 Co. (author)

  3. Characterization of specimens obtained by different sampling methods for evaluation of periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ayako; Sogabe, Kaoru; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2017-12-27

    Quantitative analysis of periodontal bacteria is considered useful for clinical diagnosis, evaluation and assessment of the risk of periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of sampling of saliva, supragingival and subgingival plaque for evaluation of periodontal bacteria. From each of 12 subjects, i) subgingival plaque was collected from the deepest pocket using a sterile paper point, ii) stimulated whole saliva was collected after chewing gum, and iii) supragingival plaque was collected using a tooth brush. These samples were sent to the medical examination laboratory for quantitative analysis of the counts of three periodontal bacterial species: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. The proportions of these bacteria in subgingival plaque were higher than those in saliva or supragingival plaque, but lower in subgingival plaque than in saliva or supragingival plaque. In several cases, periodontal bacteria were below the levels of detection in subgingival plaque. We concluded that samples taken from subgingival plaque may be more useful for evaluating the proportion of periodontal bacteria in deep pockets than is the case for other samples. Therefore, for evaluation of periodontal bacteria, clinicians should consider the characteristics of the specimens obtained using different sampling methods.

  4. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Regina C L; Rosado, Alexandre S; da Mota, Fabio F; Cavalcante, Maria A S; Eulálio, Kelsen D; Filho, Antônio D; Martins, Liline M S; Lazéra, Márcia S; Wanke, Bodo

    2011-05-16

    Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25%) soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100%) were positive by the molecular tool. This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR.

  5. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho Antônio D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25% soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100% were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

  6. Magnetic properties of ultrafine-grained cobalt samples obtained from consolidated nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellah, F.; Cherif, S.M.; Schoenstein, F.; Jouini, N.; Dirras, G. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouziane, K. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)

    2011-08-15

    Co powders having nominal average particle size of 50 and 240 nm were synthesized using a polyol method and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or the emerging spark plasma sintering (SPS) compaction processes. Bulk polycrystalline aggregates were obtained, having average grain sizes of about 200 and 300 nm, respectively. It is found that both nanoparticles and consolidated samples exhibit a soft ferromagnetic behavior. The magnetization reversal likely occurs by nucleation/propagation process. However, a curling process can be involved in the magnetization reversal for the smaller particles. The dynamic measurements provide for the consolidated samples magnetic parameters corresponding to bulk cobalt with vanishing anisotropy. The contribution of the intergranular region is found to be negligible. We can infer that the used consolidation routes insure a good magnetic interfacial contact between the particles. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Prospects of obtaining samples of bottom sediments from subglacial lake Vostok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. И. Васильев

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves the timeliness of obtaining and examining bottom sediments from subglacial Lake Vostok. Predictive geological section of Lake Vostok and information value of bottom sediments have been examined. Severe requirements towards environmental security of lake examinations and sampling of bottom sediments rule out the use of conventional drilling technologies, as they would pollute the lake with injection liquid from the borehole. In order to carry out sampling of bottom sediments from the subglacial lake, it is proposed to use a dynamically balanced tool string, which enables rotary drilling without any external support on borehole walls to transmit counter torque.     A theoretical analysis has been carried out to assess the operation of the tool string, which is a two-mass oscillatory electromechanical system of reciprocating and rotating motion (RRM with two degrees of freedom.

  8. Data analysis of a polycrystalline nickel sample obtained with neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, C.B.R.; Mazzochi, V.L.; Araujo Kaschny, J.R. de; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Campos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    A simple analysis of the nickel structure was made. Neutron diffraction data were used, obtained with polycrystalline nickel placed in a cylindrical sample-holder with dimensions of 1,5cm of diameter and 5cm of height. The theoretical intensities were calculated of 3 forms: 1. without considering the temperature and obsorption effects, 2. considering only the temperature effect and 3. considering both the temperature and absorption effects. The disagreement factors found in this 3 cases were, respectively, R 1 = 13.4%, R 2 = 7,7% e R 3 = 7,5%. (L.C.)

  9. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Preston, Rose; Akbarzadeh, Mansoor; Bakthiar, Steven

    2000-01-01

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed

  10. Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples from Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surinder; Singh, Baldev; Kumar, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    Radium, thorium and potassium analysis have been made in soil samples collected from some villages of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India using gamma ray spectrometry. The work has been undertaken keeping in view the health hazard effects of these radioelements in the environment. The results for radium activity are also compared using track etch technique employing radon alpha method developed by Somogyi (Technical reports series no. 310, vol. 1, IAEA, Vienna, 1990, p. 229). The measurements have been taken using 5''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector. The gamma ray lines of 1.46, 1.76 and 2.62 MeV were employed for potassium, radium and thorium analysis. The results for radium content in soil obtained by gamma ray spectrometry agrees with that determined by the track etch technique. The radium activity in soil samples of Hamirpur district is found to be within the safe limits

  11. Estimation of radioactivity in some sand and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, R.P.; Garg, Ajay; Kumar, Sushil; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is composed of the cosmogenic and primordial radionuclides. It is common in the rocks and soil that make up our planet, water and oceans, and in our building materials and homes. Natural radioactivity in sand and soils comes from 238 U and 232 Th series and natural 40 K. Radon is formed from the decay of radium which in turn is formed from uranium. The gaseous radioactive isotope of radon from natural sources has a significant share in the total quantum of natural sources exposure to the human bwings. Gamma radiation from 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K represents the main external source of irradiation of the human body. In the present study, the activity for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K is found to vary from 45 ± 1.2 to 97 ± 4.9 Bq/kg, 63 ± 2.0 to 132 ± 3.2 Bq/kg and 492 ± 5.9 to 1110 ± 10.5 Bq/kg, respectively in the soil samples while the variations have been observed from 63 ± 3.8 to 65 ± 3.7 Bq/kg, 86 ±2.5 to 96 ± 2.6 Bq/kg and 751 ± 7.7 to 824 ± 8.2 Bq/kg, respectively in the sand samples. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Hydraulic Parameters Obtained by Different Measurement Methods for Heterogeneous Gravel Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of soil hydraulic parameters for the van Genuchten function is important to characterize soil water movement for watershed management. Accurate and rapid prediction of soil water flow in heterogeneous gravel soil has become a hot topic in recent years. However, it is difficult to precisely estimate hydraulic parameters in a heterogeneous soil with rock fragments. In this study, the HYDRUS-2D numerical model was used to evaluate hydraulic parameters for heterogeneous gravel soil that was irregularly embedded with rock fragments in a grape production base. The centrifugal method (CM, tensiometer method (TM and inverse solution method (ISM were compared for various parameters in the van Genuchten function. The soil core method (SCM, disc infiltration method (DIM and inverse solution method (ISM were also investigated for measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity. Simulation with the DIM approach revealed a problem of overestimating soil water infiltration whereas simulation with the SCM approach revealed a problem of underestimating water movement as compared to actual field observation. The ISM approach produced the best simulation result even though this approach slightly overestimated soil moisture by ignoring the impact of rock fragments. This study provides useful information on the overall evaluation of soil hydraulic parameters attained with different measurement methods for simulating soil water movement and distribution in heterogeneous gravel soil.

  13. Determination of radiostrontium in soil samples using a crown ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajda, N; Ghods-Esphahani, A; Danesi, P R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Chemistry Unit, PCI Laboratory, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1995-07-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the separation and successive determination of total radiostrontium in soil. The method consists of three basic steps: oxalate precipitation to remove bulk potassium, chromatographic separation of strontium from most inactive and radioactive interferences utilizing a crown ether (Sr. Spec, EIChroM Industries, II. USA), oxalate precipitation of strontium to evaluate the chemical yield. Radiostrontium is then determined by liquid scintillation counting of the dissolved precipitate. When 10 g samples of soil are used the sensitivity of the method is about 10 Bq/kg. The chemical yield is about 80%. The separation and determination of radiostrontium can be carried out in about 8 hours. (author)

  14. Determination of radiostrontium in soil samples using a crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Ghods-Esphahani, A.; Danesi, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    A simple and rapid method has been developed for the separation and successive determination of total radiostrontium in soil. The method consists of three basic steps: oxalate precipitation to remove bulk potassium, chromatographic separation of strontium from most inactive and radioactive interferences utilizing a crown ether (Sr. Spec, EIChroM Industries, II. USA), oxalate precipitation of strontium to evaluate the chemical yield. Radiostrontium is then determined by liquid scintillation counting of the dissolved precipitate. When 10 g samples of soil are used the sensitivity of the method is about 10 Bq/kg. The chemical yield is about 80%. The separation and determination of radiostrontium can be carried out in about 8 hours. (author)

  15. Geochemical porosity values obtained in core samples from different clay-rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Argillaceous formations of low permeability are considered in many countries as potential host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLRW). In order to determine their suitability for waste disposal, evaluations of the hydro-geochemistry and transport mechanisms from such geologic formations to the biosphere must be undertaken. One of the key questions about radionuclide diffusion and retention is to know the chemistry and chemical reactions and sorption processes that will occur in the rock and their effects on radionuclide mobility. In this context, the knowledge of the pore water chemistry is essential for performance assessment purposes. This information allows to establish a reliable model for the main water-rock interactions, which control the physico-chemical parameters and the chemistry of the major elements of the system. An important issue in order to model the pore water chemistry in clayey media is to determine the respective volume accessible to cations and anions, i.e, the amount of water actually available for chemical reactions/solute transport. This amount is usually referred as accessible porosity or geochemical porosity. By using the anion inventories, i.e. the anion content obtained from aqueous leaching, and assuming that all Cl - , Br - and SO4 2- leached in the aqueous extracts originates from pore water, the concentration of a conservative ion can be converted into the real pore water concentration if the accessible porosity is known. In this work, the accessible porosity or geochemical porosity has been determined in core samples belonging to four different formations: Boom Clay from Hades URL (Belgium, BE), Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri (Switzerland, CH), and Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Bure URL (France, FR). The geochemical or chloride porosity was defined as the ratio between the pore water volume containing Cl-bearing pore water and the total volume of a sample

  16. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Good

    Full Text Available Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18O, > 160‰ for δ(2H and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰ were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  17. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Stephen P; Mallia, Derek V; Lin, John C; Bowen, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18)O, > 160‰ for δ(2)H) and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰) were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  18. An evaluation of soil sampling for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, J W; White, G C; Schofield, T G; Trujillo, G

    1983-05-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from an intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500- and 12,500-cm3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, whereas CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2-4 aliquots out of as many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor.

  19. Estimation of radioecological parameters of soil samples from a phosphatic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harb Shaaban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for a set of 31 agricultural soil samples from the Nile River banks in the area of El-Sebaiya city, Aswan Governorate, Egypt were measured by gamma-spectrometry. The study revealed that the average activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 23.2 ± 2.8Bq/kg, 21.1 ± 2.8 Bq/kg, and 218.6 ± 3.7 Bq/kg, respectively. The obtained results of the activity concentrations are within the range of values reported for neighbouring areas in Egypt. The values obtained for the hazard indices and the representative level index in all sampling sites were lower than unity, showing that there is no significant risk arising from the exposure to the soil in the studied area. The absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose in air outdoors and indoors were calculated from 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil, the average values being 32.64 nGy/h, 40.06 µSv, and 160.25 µSv, respectively. The absorbed dose rate at the eastof El-Sebaiya city is higher than that obtained for the west because of higher concentrations of tri-calcium phosphate in the soil. The studied area is not significantly affected by the industrial activities, except for a few isolated spots.

  20. Field sampling of residual aviation gasoline in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Hinlein, E.S.; Yuefeng, Xie; Leach, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two complementary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured field extrusion of core barrels into pint-size Mason jars, while the second consisted of laboratory partitioning of intact stainless steel core sleeves. Soil samples removed from the Mason jars (in the field) and sleeve segments (in the laboratory) were subjected to methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatographic analysis to compare their aviation gasoline content. The barrel extrusion sampling method yielded a vertical profile with 0.10m resolution over an essentially continuous 5.0m interval from the ground surface to the water table. The sleeve segment alternative yielded a more resolved 0.03m vertical profile over a shorter 0.8m interval through the capillary fringe. The two methods delivered precise estimates of the vertically integrated mass of aviation gasoline at a given horizontal location, and a consistent view of the vertical profile as well. In the latter regard, a 0.2m thick lens of maximum contamination was found in the center of the capillary fringe, where moisture filled all voids smaller than the mean pore size. The maximum peak was resolved by the core sleeve data, but was partially obscured by the barrel extrusion observations, so that replicate barrels or a half-pint Mason jar size should be considered for data supporting vertical transport analyses in the absence of sleeve partitions

  1. Classification of Surface and Deep Soil Samples Using Linear Discriminant Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Ali, M.; Daud, M.

    2015-01-01

    A statistical analysis was made of the activity concentrations measured in surface and deep soil samples for natural and anthropogenic gamma-emitting radionuclides. Soil samples were obtained from 48 different locations in Gilgit, Pakistan covering about 50 km/sup 2/ areas at an average altitude of 1550 m above sea level. From each location two samples were collected: one from the top soil (2-6 cm) and another from a depth of 6-10 cm. Four radionuclides including /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, /sup 40/K and /sup 137/Cs were quantified. The data was analyzed using t-test to find out activity concentration difference between the surface and depth samples. At the surface, the median activity concentrations were 23.7, 29.1, 4.6 and 115 Bq kg/sup -1/ for 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K respectively. For the same radionuclides, the activity concentrations were respectively 25.5, 26.2, 2.9 and 191 Bq kg/sup -1/ for the depth samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to explore patterns within the data. A positive significant correlation was observed between the radionuclides /sup 226/Ra and /sup 232/Th. The data from PCA was further utilized in linear discriminant analysis (LDA) for the classification of surface and depth samples. LDA classified surface and depth samples with good predictability. (author)

  2. An intercomparison of sampling techniques among five European laboratories for measurements of radiocaesium in upland pasture and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.; Aarkrog, A.; Colgan, P.A.; McGee, E.; Synnott, H.J.; Johansson, K.J.; Horrill, A.D.; Kennedy, V.H.; Barbayiannis, N.

    1992-02-01

    An intercomparison of sampling procedures used by five European laboratories for the determination of radiocaesium in vegetation and peaty soil was carried out at two locations in Cumbria. The soil sampling procedures included th ecollection of depth profiles in order to obtain information on the vertical distribution of radiocaesium in addition to the total deposition. The number of samples taken by each laboratory varied from one to five. The multiple sampling has given information on the homogeneity of the parameters studied at each location. The parameters comprise soil bulk densities, total deposition of 137 Cs, deposition of 137 Cs in three soil layers, biomass densities, concentrations of 137 Cs in pasture, and activity ratios ( 134 Cs/ 137 Cs) in soil and vegetation. The determination of total deposition of 137 Cs gave no indication of differences between the laboratories. The total depositions of 134 Cs and 137 Cs observed at one site were compared with levels obtained from another study and the two sets of data were found to be in good agreement. The results from the soil profiles do indicate significant differences between laboratories. This covers the vertical distributions of 137 Cs deposition including the 134 Cs/ 137 Cs-activity ratios as well as the soil bulk densities. One laboratory using a coring technique observed difficulties during sampling due to compression of the soil. The coring technique should thus be avoided or applied with extreme care for the sampling of depth profiles in peaty soil. The results from the sampling of pasture show no indication of differences between the laboratories. For the parameters studied the observed variabilities across soil depths and locations range from 10% to 82% in terms of relative standard deviations. A comparison across all results at the two locations indicate a 50% higher field variability at one of the sites relative to the other. (au) (24 tabs., 9 ills., 3 refs.)

  3. Results of Soil Vapor Sampling at SA 6, McClellan Air Force Base, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination in site soil. The soil vapor sampling event was performed in accordance with the Final Sampling and Analysis Plan to Support Recommendation for No Further Investigation at SA 6 (Parsons ES, 1998...

  4. Comparison of soil solution sampling techniques to assess metal fluxes from contaminated soil to groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelot, F; Sappin-Didier, V; Keller, C; Atteia, O

    2014-12-01

    The unsaturated zone plays a major role in elemental fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. A representative chemical analysis of soil pore water is required for the interpretation of soil chemical phenomena and particularly to assess Trace Elements (TEs) mobility. This requires an optimal sampling system to avoid modification of the extracted soil water chemistry and allow for an accurate estimation of solute fluxes. In this paper, the chemical composition of soil solutions sampled by Rhizon® samplers connected to a standard syringe was compared to two other types of suction probes (Rhizon® + vacuum tube and Rhizon® + diverted flow system). We investigated the effects of different vacuum application procedures on concentrations of spiked elements (Cr, As, Zn) mixed as powder into the first 20 cm of 100-cm columns and non-spiked elements (Ca, Na, Mg) concentrations in two types of columns (SiO2 sand and a mixture of kaolinite + SiO2 sand substrates). Rhizon® was installed at different depths. The metals concentrations showed that (i) in sand, peak concentrations cannot be correctly sampled, thus the flux cannot be estimated, and the errors can easily reach a factor 2; (ii) in sand + clay columns, peak concentrations were larger, indicating that they could be sampled but, due to sorption on clay, it was not possible to compare fluxes at different depths. The different samplers tested were not able to reflect the elemental flux to groundwater and, although the Rhizon® + syringe device was more accurate, the best solution remains to be the use of a lysimeter, whose bottom is kept continuously at a suction close to the one existing in the soil.

  5. Chemical and geotechnical analyses of soil samples from Olkiluoto for studies on sorption in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusa, M.; Aemmaelae, K.; Hakanen, M.; Lehto, J.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2009-05-01

    The safety assessment of disposal of spent nuclear fuel will include an estimate on the behavior of nuclear waste nuclides in the biosphere. As a part of this estimate also the transfer of nuclear waste nuclides in the soil and sediments is to be considered. In this study soil samples were collected from three excavator pits in Olkiluoto and the geotechnical and chemical characteristics of the samples were determined. In later stage these results will be used in sorption tests. Aim of these tests is to determine the Kd-values for Cs, Tc and I and later for Mo, Nb and Cl. Results of these sorption tests will be reported later. The geotechnical characteristics studied included dry weight and organic matter content as well as grain size distribution and mineralogy analyses. Selective extractions were carried out to study the sorption of cations into different mineral types. The extractions included five steps in which the cations bound to exchangeable, carbonate, oxides of Fe and Mn, organic matter and residual fractions were determined. For all fractions ICPMS analyses were carried out. In these analyses Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs and Pb were determined. In addition six profiles were taken from the surroundings of two excavator pits for the 137 Cs determination. Besides the samples taken for the characterization of soil, supplement samples were taken from the same layers for the separation of soil water. From the soil water pH, DOC, anions (F, Cl, NO 3 , SO 4 ) and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, S, Cd, Cs, Pb, U) were determined. (orig.)

  6. Saturation and porosity measurements of different soil samples by gamma ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbal, S.; Filiz Baytas, A.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray transmission methods have been used accurately for the study of the properties of soil samples. In this study, the soil samples were collected from various regions of Turkey and a Nal (TI) detector measured the attenuation of strongly collimated monoenergetic gamma beam (from Cs-137) through soil samples. The water saturation and porosity were therefore calculated from the transmission measurements for each soil sample. (authors)

  7. A New Approach To Soil Sampling For Risk Assessment Of Nutrient Mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Barber, N.; Benskin, C.; Reaney, S. M.; Haygarth, P.; Quinn, P. F.; Barker, P. A.; Aftab, A.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Surridge, B.; Perks, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, risks of nutrient and sediment losses from soils are assessed through a combination of field soil nutrient values on soil samples taken over the whole field and the proximity of the field to water courses. The field average nutrient concentration of the soil is used by farmers to determine fertiliser needs. These data are often used by scientists to assess the risk of nutrient losses to water course, though are not really `fit' for this purpose. The Eden Demonstration Test Catchment (http://www.edendtc.org.uk/) is a research project based in the River Eden catchment, NW UK, with the aim of cost effectively mitigating diffuse pollution from agriculture whilst maintaining agricultural productivity. Three instrumented focus catchments have been monitored since 2011, providing high resolution in-stream chemistry and ecological data, alongside some spatial data on soils, land use and nutrient inputs. An approach to mitigation was demonstrated in a small sub-catchment, where surface runoff was identified as the key drivers of nutrient losses, using a suite of runoff attenuation features. Other issues identified were management of hard- standings and soil compaction. A new approach for evaluating nutrient losses from soils is assessed in the Eden DTC project. The Sensitive Catchment Integrated Modelling and Prediction (SCIMAP) model is a risk-mapping framework designed to identify where in the landscape diffuse pollution is most likely to be originating (http://www.scimap.org.uk) and was used to look at the spatial pattern of erosion potential. The aim of this work was to assess if erosion potential identified through the model could be used to inform a new soil sampling strategy, to better assess risk of erosion and risk of transport of sediment-bound phosphorus. Soil samples were taken from areas with different erosion potential. The chemical analysis of these targeted samples are compared to those obtained using more traditional sampling approaches

  8. Determination of elemental in soil samples from Gebeng area using NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Suhaimi Elias; Wo, Y.M.; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development and urbanization will increase number of residence and industrial area. Without proper management and control of pollution, these will give an adverse effect to environment and human life. The objective of this study to identify and quantify key contaminants into the environment of the Gebeng area as a result of industrial and human activities. Gebeng area was gazetted as one of the industrial estate in Pahang state. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Gebeng area base on level of concentration, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. The enrichment factors (EFs) were determined by the elemental rationing method, whilst the geo-accumulation index (I_g_e_o) by comparing of current to continental crustal average concentration of element. Twenty-seven of soil samples were collected from Gebeng area. Soil samples were analysed by using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The obtained data showed higher concentration of iron (Fe) due to abundance in soil compared to other elements. The results of enrichment factor showed that Gebeng area have enrich with elements of As, Br, Hf, Sb, Th and U. Base on the geo-accumulation index (I_g_e_o) classification, the soil quality of Gebeng area can be classified as class 0, (uncontaminated) to Class 3, (moderately to heavily contaminated). (author)

  9. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations

  10. Phylogenetic relationships and acaricidal effects of Beauveria bassiana obtained from cattle farm soils against Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salas, Agustin; Alonso Díaz, Miguel Angel; Alonso Morales, Rogelio Alejandro; Lezama-Gutierrez, Roberto; Cervantes-Chávez, José Antonio

    2018-03-16

    The objectives of the present study were to isolate Beauveria bassiana strains from cattle farms soils, to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among the isolated fungi strains, and to determine the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana isolates on Rhipicephalus microplus engorged ticks, resistant or susceptible to chemical acaricides. Six strains of Beauveria bassiana were obtained and isolated from cattle farms soils by Galleria bait method in Mexican tropics and the acaricidal effect was assessed against 2 populations of R. microplus ("Media Joya" resistant strain or "CLAR" susceptible strain to chemical acaricides) using the adult immersion test. The BbV03 strain produced an 86.7% and a 60% of mortality on resistant and susceptible ticks on day 20, respectively; whereas the mortality scored with the BbV04 strain was 66.7% and 53.5% on resistant and susceptible ticks at the same day, respectively. The BbV03 and BbV04 strains reduced egg-laying on both R. microplus populations. There were not statistical differences in the acaricidal effect of B. bassiana strains, between the R. microplus susceptible or resistant populations (P > 0.05). The BbV03 strain was the most virulent against R. microplus with a LC50 of 2 x 107 and a LC99 of 7 x 108 conidia/ml. We found that the 6 B. bassiana isolated were clustered into the same clade with other previously reported B. bassiana strains (from GenBank); however, they were separated into 3 different sub-clades. This study shows that some B. bassiana strains might be a promising coadjuvant alternative for biological tick control, including those that are resistant to chemical acaricides. Beauveria bassiana is present in the pastures of tropic cattle farms and there are genetic variations between members of the bassiana specie that are living in this ecosystem. This last showed that B. bassiana might play an important roll in the natural control of R. microplus at paddocks of cattle farms.

  11. The main tasks and obtained results within soil protection working group of the Danube countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzatko, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the frame of the Danube Countries Working Community activities was in 1993 constituted independent Soil Protection Working Group (SPWG). Its primary task is to elaborate principles and common soil protection concept in given countries accepted on the level of governments and related authorities, and also to the solution of the solution of the problems on regional levels. Final objective is to implement such concept of soil protection policy, which is able to maintain its quality and productivity potential for next generations also. Based on four years activities coordination could be significance and the SPWG relevance expressed in following topics: (1) Soil pollution and soil degradation, particularly in most pos-communistic countries has been attaining high degree, and in many locations also the threshold of ecological be arability. As reclamation and revitalization of the degraded and polluted soils require long time and considerable financial means, it is not only moral;, even also economically more effective to protect preventively than subsequent reclamation. (2) Main objective of the correct soil protection policy should be its high quality conservation also for the next generations. To this is joined also the protection not only productional, but also non-productional functions, particularly filtrational, transformational and buffering capacibility, including its role and significance, as land and environment. From, in this way considered relationships reality is resulting that the soil protection objectives are not only laws and prohibition approvement, but also active relationships harmonization between the man requirements and soil productivity potential, in order of the sustainable land resources use for the next generations. (3) Based on mentioned realities and relationships we consider the SPWG as an active gremium for elaboration of the the uniform soil protection concepts for governments and responsible organisations that in financial consequence

  12. Classification of soil samples according to their geographic origin using gamma-ray spectrometry and principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragovic, Snezana; Onjia, Antonije

    2006-01-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of soil samples from different locations in Serbia and Montenegro. Based on activities of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 238 U, 235 U, 4 K, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 7 Be) detected by gamma-ray spectrometry, the classification of soils according to their geographical origin was performed. Application of PCA to our experimental data resulted in satisfactory classification rate (86.0% correctly classified samples). The obtained results indicate that gamma-ray spectrometry in conjunction with PCA is a viable tool for soil classification

  13. About the possibility of obtaining cementitious soil composites of high strength on the basis of belozems of carbonate composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, K. A.; Hayroyan, S. G.; Manukyan, E. S.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of manufacturing high strength cementitious soils based on belozems of carbonate composition, which experience compression (no less than 10 MPa), without application of surface active substances is considered. The portland cement of type 400 was used as a binding agent to develop compositions of cementitious soil composites, and the ordinary pipe water was used to obtain solutions of cementitious soils. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the initial ingredients and the granulometric composition of belozems were determined. The measurements showed that the upper and lower plasticity limits, the optimum moisture content, and the maximal density of the skeleton of belozems, as well as the considered compositions of cementitious soils, are insignificant, while the plasticity index of cementitious soils is less than one for belozems. It is experimentally proved that an increase in the portland cement amount lead to an increase in the compressive strength of cementitious soils with a decreasing speed. But for the same amount of portland cement used in the cementitious soil compositions, the values of the strength ratio of the pieces tested at the age of 60 and 28 days remain the same and are approximately equal to 1.2. A comparison of experimental data showed that it seems to be real to manufacture a cementitious soil on the basis of belozems of carbonate composition, which contain 10% of cement of the weight of dry mixture and have strength more than 10 MPa, without adding any surfactants to the material composition.

  14. Differences on soil organic carbon stock estimation according to sampling type in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Consequently, the scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems. In this line, soil organic matter configuration plays an important role in the Soil System (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014). Internationally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. In this sense, many soil researchers have studied this parameter (SOC). However, many of these studies were carried out arbitrarily using entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons or soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness). As a result, the indiscriminate use of both methodologies implies differences with respect to SOC stock (SOCS) quantification. This scenario has been indicated and warned for different researchers (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in the Cardeña and Montoro Natural Park (Spain). This nature reserve is a forested area with 385 km2 in southern Spain. Thirty-seven sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The results obtained show an overestimation of SOCS when SCS sampling approach is used compared to ESP. This supports that methodology selection is very important to SOCS quantification. This research is an assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014

  15. A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE WATER DISTRIBUTION IN A SOIL SAMPLE USING NEUTRON IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šácha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical method by Kang et al. recently proposed for correcting two-dimensional neutron radiography for water quantification in soil. The method was tested on data from neutron imaging of the water infiltration in a soil sample. The raw data were affected by neutron scattering and by beam hardening artefacts. Two strategies for identifying the correction parameters are proposed in this paper. The method has been further developed for the case of three-dimensional neutron tomography. In a related experiment, neutron imaging is used to record ponded-infiltration experiments in two artificial soil samples. Radiograms, i.e., two-dimensional projections of the sample, were acquired during infiltration. A calculation was made of the amount of water and its distribution within the radiograms, in the form of two-dimensional water thickness maps. Tomograms were reconstructed from the corrected and uncorrected water thickness maps to obtain the 3D spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Without the correction, the beam hardening and the scattering effects overestimated the water content values close to the perimeter of the sample, and at the same time underestimated the values close to the centre of the sample. The total water content of the entire sample was the same in both cases. The empirical correction method presented in this study is a relatively accurate, rapid and simple way to obtain the quantitatively determined water content from two-dimensional and three-dimensional neutron images. However, an independent method for measuring the total water volume in the sample is needed in order to identify the correction parameters.

  16. Analysis of core samples from jet grouted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1995-10-01

    Superplasticized cementitious grouts were tested for constructing subsurface containment barriers using jet grouting in July, 1994. The grouts were developed in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test site was located close to the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia was responsible for the placement contract. The jet grouted soil was exposed to the service environment for one year and core samples were extracted to evaluate selected properties. The cores were tested for strength, density, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and cementitious content. The tests provided an opportunity to determine the performance of the grouts and grout-treated soil. Several recommendations arise from the results of the core tests. These are: (1) grout of the same mix proportions as the final grout should be used as a drilling fluid in order to preserve the original mix design and utilize the benefits of superplasticizers; (2) a high shear mixer should be used for preparation of the grout; (3) the permeability under unsaturated conditions requires consideration when subsurface barriers are used in the vadose zone; and (4) suitable methods for characterizing the permeability of barriers in-situ should be applied

  17. Miniaturized Sample Preparation and Rapid Detection of Arsenite in Contaminated Soil Using a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Farhan Siddiqui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods for analyzing heavy metal contamination in soil and water generally require laboratory equipped instruments, complex procedures, skilled personnel and a significant amount of time. With the advancement in computing and multitasking performances, smartphone-based sensors potentially allow the transition of the laboratory-based analytical processes to field applicable, simple methods. In the present work, we demonstrate the novel miniaturized setup for simultaneous sample preparation and smartphone-based optical sensing of arsenic As(III in the contaminated soil. Colorimetric detection protocol utilizing aptamers, gold nanoparticles and NaCl have been optimized and tested on the PDMS-chip to obtain the high sensitivity with the limit of detection of 0.71 ppm (in the sample and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. The performance of the device is further demonstrated through the comparative analysis of arsenic-spiked soil samples with standard laboratory method, and a good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.9917 and the average difference of 0.37 ppm, are experimentally achieved. With the android application on the device to run the experiment, the whole process from sample preparation to detection is completed within 3 hours without the necessity of skilled personnel. The approximate cost of setup is estimated around 1 USD, weight 55 g. Therefore, the presented method offers the simple, rapid, portable and cost-effective means for onsite sensing of arsenic in soil. Combined with the geometric information inside the smartphones, the system will allow the monitoring of the contamination status of soils in a nation-wide manner.

  18. Miniaturized Sample Preparation and Rapid Detection of Arsenite in Contaminated Soil Using a Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohd Farhan; Kim, Soocheol; Jeon, Hyoil; Kim, Taeho; Joo, Chulmin; Park, Seungkyung

    2018-03-04

    Conventional methods for analyzing heavy metal contamination in soil and water generally require laboratory equipped instruments, complex procedures, skilled personnel and a significant amount of time. With the advancement in computing and multitasking performances, smartphone-based sensors potentially allow the transition of the laboratory-based analytical processes to field applicable, simple methods. In the present work, we demonstrate the novel miniaturized setup for simultaneous sample preparation and smartphone-based optical sensing of arsenic As(III) in the contaminated soil. Colorimetric detection protocol utilizing aptamers, gold nanoparticles and NaCl have been optimized and tested on the PDMS-chip to obtain the high sensitivity with the limit of detection of 0.71 ppm (in the sample) and a correlation coefficient of 0.98. The performance of the device is further demonstrated through the comparative analysis of arsenic-spiked soil samples with standard laboratory method, and a good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.9917 and the average difference of 0.37 ppm, are experimentally achieved. With the android application on the device to run the experiment, the whole process from sample preparation to detection is completed within 3 hours without the necessity of skilled personnel. The approximate cost of setup is estimated around 1 USD, weight 55 g. Therefore, the presented method offers the simple, rapid, portable and cost-effective means for onsite sensing of arsenic in soil. Combined with the geometric information inside the smartphones, the system will allow the monitoring of the contamination status of soils in a nation-wide manner.

  19. Radioactivity Levels And Gamma Dose Rate In Soil Samples From Federation Of Bosnia And Herzegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deljkic, D.; Kadic, I.; Ilic, Z.; Vidic, A.

    2015-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in soil samples collected from different regions of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina have been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides are compared with the reported data from different other countries and it is found that measured activity concentrations are comparable with the worldwide measured average values reported by the UNSCEAR. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma - ray spectrometry analysis system at Institute for Public Health FBiH (Radiation Protection Center). The measuring time of all soil samples was 86000 seconds. It was found that the soil specific activity ranges from 24.59 to 161.20 Bq/kg for 226Ra, from 17.60 to 66.45 Bq/kg for 232Th, from 179.50 to 598.04 Bq kg-1 for 40K and from 11.13 to 108.69 Bq/kg for 137Cs with the mean values of 62.34; 46.97; 392.76 and 51.49 Bq/kg, respectively. The radium equivalent activity in all the soil samples is lower than the safe limit (370 Bq/kg), ranges from 63.58 to 287.03 Bq/kg with the mean value of 159.71 Bq/kg. Man-made radionuclide 137Cs is also present in detectable amount in all soil samples. Presence of 137Cs indicates that the samples in this area also receive some fallout from nuclear accident in Chernobyl power plant in 1986. The value of external radiation hazard indices is found to be less than unity (mean value of 0.43). Absorbed dose rates and effective dose equivalents are also determined for the samples. The concentration of radionuclides found in the soil samples during the present study does not pose any potential health hazard to the general public. (author).

  20. Heavy metal levels in soil samples from highly industrialized Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anyakora

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... The effect of heavy metals on the environment is of serious concern and threatens life in all forms. Environmental ... have affected the quality of soil due to contamination of soil with heavy metals and the consequent effects on the ..... tested for remediation of chromium-contaminated soils. (Collen, 2003).

  1. Soil sampling in emergency situations; Amostragem de solos em situacoes de emergencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ramos Junior, Anthenor Costa [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Licenciamento e Controle

    1997-12-31

    The soil sampling methods used in Goiania`s accident (1987) by the environmental team of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are described. The development of this method of soil sampling to a emergency sampling method used in a Nuclear Emergency Exercise in Angra dos Reis Reactor Site (1991) is presented. A new method for soil sampling based on a Chernobyl environmental monitoring experience (1995) is suggested. (author) 15 refs.

  2. Comparing spatial series of soil bulk electrical conductivity as obtained by Time Domain Reflectometry and Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ali; Dragonetti, Giovanna; Comegna, Allessandro; Garre, Sarah; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Conventional ground survey of soil root zone salinity by direct soil sampling are time consuming, costly and destructive. Alternatively, soil salinity can be evaluated by measuring the bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the field. This approach is faster and cheaper, and allows a more intensive surveying. Measurements of σb can be made either in situ or with remote devices. Time domain reflectometry (TDR) sensors allow simultaneous measurements of water content, θ, and σb. They may be calibrated for estimating the electrical conductivity of the soil solution (σw). However, they have a relatively small observation window and thus they are thought to only provide local-scale measurements. The spatial range of the sensors is limited to tens of centimeters and extension of the information to a large area can be problematic. Also, information on the vertical distribution of the σb soil profile may only be obtained by installing sensors at different depths. In this sense, the TDR may be considered as an invasive technique. Compared to the TDR, other geophysical methods based for example on the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) techniques represent an alternative in respect to those traditional for soil salinity characterization. In order to deduce the actual distribution of the bulk electrical conductivity, σb, in the soil profile, one needs to invert the signal coming from ERT sensors. The latter, in turn, depends on the specific depth distribution of the σb, as well as on the electrical configuration of the sensor used. With these premises, the main aim of this study is to estimate the vertical σb distribution starting from resistivity data series measured using the ERT method under different salinity conditions and using TDR data as ground-truth data for calibration and validation of the ERT sensor. This way, limited measured TDR data may be used for translating extensive ERT apparent electrical conductivity, σa, measurements to estimate depth

  3. Radiation hazard indices of soil and water samples in Northern Malaysian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almayahi, B A; Tajuddin, A A; Jaafar, M S

    2012-11-01

    The radioactivity quantity and quality were determined in soil and water samples in Northern Malaysian Peninsula (NMP) using HPGe spectroscopy and GR-135 spectrometer. The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K concentrations in soil samples are 57±2, 68±4 and 427±17 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas in water samples were found to be 2.86±0.79, 3.78±1.73 and 152±12 Bq l(-1), respectively. These concentrations are within those reported from literature in other countries in the world. The radiological hazard indices of the samples were also calculated. The mean values obtained from soil samples are 186 Bq kg(-1), 88 nGy h(-1), 108 μSv y(-1), 0.50 and 0.65 for Radium Equivalent Activity (Ra(eq)), Absorbed Dose Rates (D(R)), Annual Effective Dose Rates (ED), External Hazard Index (H(ex)) and Internal Hazard Index (H(in)) respectively, whereas, for water samples were found to be 20, 10, 13, 0.05 and 0.06, respectively. All the health hazard indices are well below their recommended limits, except in two soil sampling sites which were found to be (*)025 (1.1 H(ex)) and (*)026 (1.1 H(ex), 1.6 H(in)). The calculated and the measured gamma dose rates had a good correlation coefficient, R=0.88. Moreover, the average value radon is 20 (in the range of 7-64) Bq m(-3), a positive correlation (R=0.81) was observed between the (222)Rn and (226)Ra concentrations in samples measured by the SNC continuous radon monitor (model 1029, Sun Nuclear Corporation) and HPGe detector, respectively. Some soils in this study with H(in) and H(ex)samples, therefore, water after processing and filtration is safe and suitable for use in household and industrial purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors associated with number of duodenal samples obtained in suspected celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamban, Leonid; Sorser, Serge; Naydin, Stan; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Shukr, Mousa; Wiemann, Charlotte; Yevsyukov, Daniel; Piper, Michael H; Warren, Bradley; Green, Peter H R

    2017-12-01

     Many people with celiac disease are undiagnosed and there is evidence that insufficient duodenal samples may contribute to underdiagnosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether more samples leads to a greater likelihood of a diagnosis of celiac disease and to elucidate factors that influence the number of samples collected.  We identified patients from two community hospitals who were undergoing duodenal biopsy for indications (as identified by International Classification of Diseases code) compatible with possible celiac disease. Three cohorts were evaluated: no celiac disease (NCD, normal villi), celiac disease (villous atrophy, Marsh score 3), and possible celiac disease (PCD, Marsh score celiac disease had a median of 4 specimens collected. The percentage of patients diagnosed with celiac disease with one sample was 0.3 % compared with 12.8 % of those with six samples ( P  = 0.001). Patient factors that positively correlated with the number of samples collected were endoscopic features, demographic details, and indication ( P  = 0.001). Endoscopist factors that positively correlated with the number of samples collected were absence of a trainee, pediatric gastroenterologist, and outpatient setting ( P  celiac disease significantly increased with six samples. Multiple factors influenced whether adequate biopsies were taken. Adherence to guidelines may increase the diagnosis rate of celiac disease.

  5. Effects of soil water saturation on sampling equilibrium and kinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil-Gon; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Yongseok; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (K sampler/soil ) and the uptake rate constant (k u ) at various soil water saturations. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were deployed into artificial soils spiked with seven selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In dry soil (0% water saturation), both K sampler/soil and k u values were much lower than those in wet soils likely due to the contribution of adsorption of PAHs onto soil mineral surfaces and the conformational changes in soil organic matter. For high molecular weight PAHs (chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), both K sampler/soil and k u values increased with increasing soil water saturation, whereas they decreased with increasing soil water saturation for low molecular weight PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Changes in the sorption capacity of soil organic matter with soil water content would be the main cause of the changes in passive sampling equilibrium. Henry's law constant could explain the different behaviors in uptake kinetics of the selected PAHs. The results of this study would be helpful when passive samplers are deployed under various soil water saturations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of radon and radon-daughter grab samples obtained during the winter and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, is investigating short-term methods for estimating annual average indoor radon-daughter concentrations (RDC). A field study at 40 sample locations in 26 residential structures in Grand Junction, Colorado, was conducted once in the winter and once in the summer. The short-term methods investigated as part of this study include ten-minute radon and radon-daughter grab sampling and hourly RDC measurements. The results of the field study indicate that ten-minute radon grab samples from basement locations are reproducible over different seasons during controlled sampling conditions. Nonbasement radon and RDC grab samples are highly variable even when the use of the location by the occupant is controlled and the ventilation rate is restricted. The grab sampling was performed under controlled occupied conditions. These results confirm that a short-term radon or RDC measurement in a nonbasement location in a house is not a standardized measurement that can be used to infer an annual average concentration. The hourly RDC measurements were performed under three sets of conditions over a 72-hour period. The three sets of conditions were uncontrolled occupied, controlled occupied, and controlled unoccupied. These results indicate that it is not necessary to relocate the occupants during the time of grab sampling. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Hair of the dog: obtaining samples from coyotes and wolves noninvasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Young, Julie; Fannin, Barbara; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stenglein, Jennifer L.; Waits, Lisette P.; Shivik, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Canids can be difficult to detect and their populations difficult to monitor. We tested whether hair samples could be collected from coyotes (Canis latrans) in Texas, USA and gray wolves (C. lupus) in Montana, USA using lure to elicit rubbing behavior at both man-made and natural collection devices. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to determine whether collected hair samples were from coyote, wolf, or nontarget species. Both coyotes and wolves rubbed on man-made barbed surfaces but coyotes in Texas seldom rubbed on hanging barbed surfaces. Wolves in Montana showed a tendency to rub at stations where natural-material collection devices (sticks and debris) were present. Time to detection was relatively short (5 nights and 4 nights for coyotes and wolves, respectively) with nontarget and unknown species comprising approximately 26% of the detections in both locations. Eliciting rubbing behavior from coyotes and wolves using lures has advantages over opportunistic genetic sampling methods (e.g., scat transects) because it elicits a behavior that deposits a hair sample at a fixed sampling location, thereby increasing the efficiency of sampling for these canids. Hair samples from rub stations could be used to provide estimates of abundance, measures of genetic diversity and health, and detection-nondetection data useful for cost-effective population monitoring.

  8. Effect of the grain size of the soil on the measured activity and variation in activity in surface and subsurface soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiti, H.A.; Rega, P.H.; Bradley, D.; Dahan, N.A.; Mugren, K.A.; Dosari, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Correlation between grain size and activity concentrations of soils and concentrations of various radionuclides in surface and subsurface soils has been measured for samples taken in the State of Qatar by gamma-spectroscopy using a high purity germanium detector. From the obtained gamma-ray spectra, the activity concentrations of the 238U (226Ra) and /sup 232/ Th (/sup 228/ Ac) natural decay series, the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K and the fission product radionuclide 137CS have been determined. Gamma dose rate, radium equivalent, radiation hazard index and annual effective dose rates have also been estimated from these data. In order to observe the effect of grain size on the radioactivity of soil, three grain sizes were used i.e., smaller than 0.5 mm; smaller than 1 mm and greater than 0.5 mm; and smaller than 2 mm and greater than 1 mm. The weighted activity concentrations of the 238U series nuclides in 0.5-2 mm grain size of sample numbers was found to vary from 2.5:f:0.2 to 28.5+-0.5 Bq/kg, whereas, the weighted activity concentration of 4 degree K varied from 21+-4 to 188+-10 Bq/kg. The weighted activity concentrations of 238U series and 4 degree K have been found to be higher in the finest grain size. However, for the 232Th series, the activity concentrations in the 1-2 mm grain size of one sample were found to be higher than in the 0.5-1 mm grain size. In the study of surface and subsurface soil samples, the activity concentration levels of 238 U series have been found to range from 15.9+-0.3 to 24.1+-0.9 Bq/kg, in the surface soil samples (0-5 cm) and 14.5+-0.3 to 23.6+-0.5 Bq/kg in the subsurface soil samples (5-25 cm). The activity concentrations of 232Th series have been found to lie in the range 5.7+-0.2 to 13.7+-0.5 Bq/kg, in the surface soil samples (0-5 cm)and 4.1+-0.2 to 15.6+-0.3 Bq/kg in the subsurface soil samples (5-25 cm). The activity concentrations of 4 degree K were in the range 150+-8 to 290+-17 Bq/kg, in the surface

  9. Phosphatase activity in Antarctica soil samples as a biosignature of extant life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shuji; Itoh, Yuki; Takano, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Kaneko, Takeo; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Microbial activities have been detected in such extreme terrestrial environments as deep lithosphere, a submarine hydrothermal systems, stratosphere, and Antarctica. Microorganisms have adapted to such harsh environments by evolving their biomolecules. Some of these biomolecules such as enzymes might have different characteristics from those of organisms in ordinary environments. Many biosignatures (or biomarkers) have been proposed to detect microbial activities in such extreme environments. A number of techniques are proposed to evaluate biological activities in extreme environments including cultivation methods, assay of metabolism, and analysis of bioorganic compounds like amino acids and DNA. Enzyme activities are useful signature of extant life in extreme environments. Among many enzymes, phosphatase could be a good indicator of biological activities, since phosphate esters are essential for all the living terrestrial organisms. In addition, alkaline phosphatase is known as a typical zinc-containing metalloenzyme and quite stable in environments. We analyzed phosphatase activities in Antarctica soil samples to see whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. In addition, we characterized phosphatases extracted from the Antarctica soil samples, and compared with those obtained from other types of environments. Antarctica surface environments are quite severe environments for life since it is extremely cold and dry and exposed to strong UV and cosmic rays. We tried to evaluate biological activities in Antarctica by measuring phosphatase activities. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are measured spectrophotometrically after mixing the powdered sample and p-nitrophenyl phosphate solution (pH 6.5 for ACP, pH 8.0 for ALP). ALP was characterized after extraction from soils with

  10. Nuclear-physical methods of investigation of an element composition in samples of soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hushmurodov, Sh.; Botaev, N.

    2002-01-01

    Soil (ground) and vegetative covers of the Earth are one of the most responsive and specific parts of the biosphere with respect to pollution. A proper control after them is of fundamental importance in creating and protecting optical surrounding. Analysis of soils and plants is a necessary and important stage in the process of investigation of microelements' migration in biogeochemical cycles. For this purpose we studied some reserved terrains of Uzbekistan to reveal a level of their contamination by heavy metals, as well as to find out typical and territorial singularities in accumulation of a number of elements by soils and plants. In order to decrease an influence of systematic errors, and to obtain more precise and reliable data, we carried out the element analysis of the samples by different methods, such as gamma-activation analysis, neutron-activation analysis, X-ray spectral analysis, and X-ray fluorescent analysis. As a result of our investigations we have obtained rather great information, which can be used in future to estimate the conditions of the surrounding nature. The investigations allowed us to determine the content of about 40 elements, as well as to show that the data, obtained by different nuclear-physical methods, are in rather good agreement. A reproducibility of the results of the methods, determined in control measurements, depends on the concentration of the analyzed elements, and is equal to 10-35 %. A comparison of the obtained data allowed us to reveal some singularities in element composition of the investigated samples depending on their type and territorial factor. It has been revealed that the data, obtained by different methods, are in rather good agreement. Our investigations allowed us to find out a series of regularities and singularities in accumulation of elements in plants, as well as to show the possibility of using nuclear-physical methods in such investigations

  11. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP

  12. Soil map disaggregation improved by soil-landscape relationships, area-proportional sampling and random forest implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Malone, Brendan P.; Odgers, Nathan

    implementation generally improved the algorithm’s ability to predict the correct soil class. The implementation of soil-landscape relationships and area-proportional sampling generally increased the calculation time, while the random forest implementation reduced the calculation time. In the most successful......Detailed soil information is often needed to support agricultural practices, environmental protection and policy decisions. Several digital approaches can be used to map soil properties based on field observations. When soil observations are sparse or missing, an alternative approach...... is to disaggregate existing conventional soil maps. At present, the DSMART algorithm represents the most sophisticated approach for disaggregating conventional soil maps (Odgers et al., 2014). The algorithm relies on classification trees trained from resampled points, which are assigned classes according...

  13. Joint sampling programme-Verification of data obtained in environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/no., CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Martins, N.S.F.; Vasconcellos, M.L.H.; Zenaro, R.; Peres, S.S.; Pires do Rio, M.A. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/no., CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    The objective of the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Control programme carried out by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) in Brazil is to verify the licensee's compliance with the requirements for environmental monitoring of Brazilian facilities. The Joint Sampling Programme (JSP) is just one part of the control programme. In order to verify that the data reported by the licensees is representative and legitimate, this programme verifies sampling procedures, accuracy and precision of the data and the changes in the environmental conditions. This paper discusses the main findings of this programme that allowed IRD to optimize its available resources to control the monitoring of the eight facilities in Brazil.

  14. Assessment of soil sample quality used for density evaluations through computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Bacchi, Osny O.S.

    2005-01-01

    There are several methods to measure soil bulk density (ρ s ) like the paraffin sealed clod (PS), the volumetric ring (VR), the computed tomography (CT), and the neutron-gamma surface gauge (SG). In order to evaluate by a non-destructive way the possible modifications in soil structure caused by sampling for the PS and VR methods of ρ s evaluation we proposed to use the gamma ray CT method. A first generation tomograph was used having a 241 Am source and a 3 in x 3 in NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal detector coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Results confirm the effect of soil sampler devices on the structure of soil samples, and that the compaction caused during sampling causes significant alterations of soil bulk density. Through the use of CT it was possible to determine the level of compaction and to make a detailed analysis of the soil bulk density distribution within the soil sample. (author)

  15. Edaphic macrofauna as biological indicator of the conservation/disturbance status of soil. Results obtained in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, Grisel

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the degradation status of a soil, a group of variables comprising its physical, chemical and/or biological properties is used. Macrofauna, which includes soil invertebrates higher than 2 mm of diameter, is a biological component that can be used for such purpose. Its taxonomic richness as well as its density, biomass and functional composition change depending on the effect of diverse land uses and managements. This review reaffirms that the macrofauna characteristics and the results obtained, mainly in Cuba, about its variation in ecosystems with different anthropization levels, support the potential use of this fauna as biological indicator of the soil's conservation status. Future studies should consider a lower taxonomic level in the identification of macrofauna, and relate its taxonomic and functional composition to the climate and pedological factors. (author)

  16. A stratified two-stage sampling design for digital soil mapping in a Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaschek, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    The quality of environmental modelling results often depends on reliable soil information. In order to obtain soil data in an efficient manner, several sampling strategies are at hand depending on the level of prior knowledge and the overall objective of the planned survey. This study focuses on the collection of soil samples considering available continuous secondary information in an undulating, 16 km²-sized river catchment near Ussana in southern Sardinia (Italy). A design-based, stratified, two-stage sampling design has been applied aiming at the spatial prediction of soil property values at individual locations. The stratification based on quantiles from density functions of two land-surface parameters - topographic wetness index and potential incoming solar radiation - derived from a digital elevation model. Combined with four main geological units, the applied procedure led to 30 different classes in the given test site. Up to six polygons of each available class were selected randomly excluding those areas smaller than 1ha to avoid incorrect location of the points in the field. Further exclusion rules were applied before polygon selection masking out roads and buildings using a 20m buffer. The selection procedure was repeated ten times and the set of polygons with the best geographical spread were chosen. Finally, exact point locations were selected randomly from inside the chosen polygon features. A second selection based on the same stratification and following the same methodology (selecting one polygon instead of six) was made in order to create an appropriate validation set. Supplementary samples were obtained during a second survey focusing on polygons that have either not been considered during the first phase at all or were not adequately represented with respect to feature size. In total, both field campaigns produced an interpolation set of 156 samples and a validation set of 41 points. The selection of sample point locations has been done using

  17. Isotope determination of sulfur by mass spectrometry in soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina Rossete

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur plays an essential role in plants and is one of the main nutrients in several metabolic processes. It has four stable isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S with a natural abundance of 95.00, 0.76, 4.22, and 0.014 in atom %, respectively. A method for isotopic determination of S by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS in soil samples is proposed. The procedure involves the oxidation of organic S to sulphate (S-SO4(2-, which was determined by dry combustion with alkaline oxidizing agents. The total S-SO4(2- concentration was determined by turbidimetry and the results showed that the conversion process was adequate. To produce gaseous SO2 gas, BaSO4 was thermally decomposed in a vacuum system at 900 ºC in the presence of NaPO3. The isotope determination of S (atom % 34S atoms was carried out by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS. In this work, the labeled material (K2(34SO4 was used to validate the method of isotopic determination of S; the results were precise and accurate, showing the viability of the proposed method.

  18. A simple high performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing paraquat in soil solution samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Mansell, Robert S; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection was developed to analyze paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridinium dichloride) herbicide content in soil solution samples. The analytical method was compared with the liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method using 14C-paraquat. Agreement obtained between the two methods was reasonable. However, the detection limit for paraquat analysis was 0.5 mg L(-1) by the HPLC method and 0.05 mg L(-1) by the LSC method. The LSC method was, therefore, 10 times more precise than the HPLC method for solution concentrations less than 1 mg L(-1). In spite of the high detection limit, the UC (nonradioactive) HPLC method provides an inexpensive and environmentally safe means for determining paraquat concentration in soil solution compared with the 14C-LSC method.

  19. Elemental analysis of water and soil environmental samples in Tabuk area by neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Aseery, Sh.M.; Alamoudi, Z.; Hassan, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The prompt and delayed gamma-rays due to neutron capture in the nuclei of the constituent elements of three soil samples and one drinking water sample have been measured. The 252 Cf and 226 Ra/Be isotopic neutron sources are used for neutron irradiation. Also, the hyper pure germanium detection system is used. The soil samples were from Astra, Tadco and El-Gammaz farms, while the water sample was taken from Tabuk city. In case of prompt gamma-ray analysis, a total of 16 elements were identified and the concentration percentage values by weight were calculated for: C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl,, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Sr ad Pb elements. A comparative study between the results obtained in this work and the results obtained by ICP-MS and EDX-Ray techniques for the same samples is given

  20. Report on the NAT-9 quality control exercise on uranium isotopes in two soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleise, Andreas

    2001-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) section of Nutritional and Health related Environmental Studies (NAHRES) organized a quality control study for laboratories analysing samples from the UNEP field mission to Kosovo. Quality control was the major responsibility of the IAEA in the UN field assessment team. The NAT-9 quality control study consists of two soil materials from the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf. The scope of this exercise was to determine the content of the uranium isotopes U-234, U-235 and U-238. The IAEA did not provide specific instructions, the participants were encouraged to apply their established analytical procedures to the samples. Five laboratories were invited to participate, four laboratories submitted results. For each soil sample 10 laboratory mean values were reported, using ICP-MS (3 laboratories) and α-spectrometry (1 laboratory). The participating laboratories were capable to distinguish the different uranium isotopes. All laboratories obtained the natural uranium ratio between U-235 and U-238. However, the results highlight a particular analytical weak spot. Although the methods of measuring the analytical signals are highly dependable, the sample preparation steps, in particular the sample dissolution procedure, appears to be lacking total quality control and has contributed to the deviations from the reported target values. One laboratory has documented evidence that extensive and well-controlled digestion methods can yield measurement results close to the target values. (author)

  1. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples from Raichur of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, S.; Kerur, B.R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiations present in environment comprise the terrestrial and extraterrestrial radiations. Natural radioactivity measurement, radiation monitoring of the region, dose assessment and interpretation of radiological related parameters are crucial aspects from the public awareness and environmental safety point of view. It is found that values of the radiological parameters obtained for samples in the study area were found within acceptable or permissible limits. The estimated gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be in the range 32 - 162 nGy h -1 . Higher dose rate than that of the normal dose rate were observed in the regions where granitic, granitic gneiss and schist outcrops were prominent area

  2. SAMPLING ADAPTIVE STRATEGY AND SPATIAL ORGANISATION ESTIMATION OF SOIL ANIMAL COMMUNITIES AT VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVELS OF URBANISED TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljuk J.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In work the algorithm of adaptive strategy of optimum spatial sampling for studying of the spatial organisation of communities of soil animals in the conditions of an urbanization have been presented. As operating variables the principal components obtained as a result of the analysis of the field data on soil penetration resistance, soils electrical conductivity and density of a forest stand, collected on a quasiregular grid have been used. The locations of experimental polygons have been stated by means of program ESAP. The sampling has been made on a regular grid within experimental polygons. The biogeocoenological estimation of experimental polygons have been made on a basis of A.L.Belgard's ecomorphic analysis. The spatial configuration of biogeocoenosis types has been established on the basis of the data of earth remote sensing and the analysis of digital elevation model. The algorithm was suggested which allows to reveal the spatial organisation of soil animal communities at investigated point, biogeocoenosis, and landscape.

  3. Characterisation of a reference site for quantifying uncertainties related to soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbizzi, Sabrina; Zorzi, Paolo de; Belli, Maria; Pati, Alessandra; Sansone, Umberto; Stellato, Luisa; Barbina, Maria; Deluisa, Andrea; Menegon, Sandro; Coletti, Valter

    2004-01-01

    An integrated approach to quality assurance in soil sampling remains to be accomplished. - The paper reports a methodology adopted to face problems related to quality assurance in soil sampling. The SOILSAMP project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), is aimed at (i) establishing protocols for soil sampling in different environments; (ii) assessing uncertainties associated with different soil sampling methods in order to select the 'fit-for-purpose' method; (iii) qualifying, in term of trace elements spatial variability, a reference site for national and international inter-comparison exercises. Preliminary results and considerations are illustrated

  4. Effective dielectric functions of samples obtained by evaporation of alkali halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, J.; Grosse, P.; Theiss, W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates the dielectric properties of inhomogeneous samples consisting of small alkali halide particles (NaCl, KBr) on gold-coated substrates. Our reflection measurements in the far infrared can be simulated as a thin layer of the power with an effective dielectric function on a perfectly reflecting substrate. Scanning electron micrographs provide useful information about sample topology. Several mixing formulas (e.g. the Maxwell-Garnett, the Bruggeman- and the Looyenga-formula) lead to effective dielectric functions neglecting the individual arrangement of the particles. The essence of our work is that, in contrast, the general ansatz of the Bergman spectral representation has to be employed in order to take into account topology effects on the dielectric function based on the so-called spectral density g adjustable to the specific situation. (orig.)

  5. Thermal diffusivity and electron transport properties of NTC samples obtained by the photoacoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, S.M.; Aleksic, O.S.; Nikolic, M.V.; Lukovic, D.T.; Pejovic, V.Z.; Nikolic, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity and electron transport parameters of sintered NTC samples were determined by the photoacoustic (PA) technique. Powder mixtures composed of MnO, NiO, CoO and Fe 2 O 3 were milled to nanometer particle size. NTC discs were dry powder pressed and sintered at different temperatures in the range from 900 deg. C to 1300 deg. C for 30 min. A second group of NTC discs was sintered at 1200 deg. C with the sintering time varying from 30 min to 360 min. These NTC samples were polished and exposed to a chopped laser beam in order to plot a response in the acoustic range. The thermal diffusivity of sintered NTC layers based on a metal oxide powder mixture was measured at room temperature by the photoacoustic technique. An increase of thermal diffusivity with the sintering temperature and time of sintering was observed

  6. Thermal diffusivity and electron transport properties of NTC samples obtained by the photoacoustic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, S.M. [Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Aleksic, O.S. [Center for Multidisciplinary Studies of the University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nikolic, M.V. [Center for Multidisciplinary Studies of the University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Lukovic, D.T. [Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Pejovic, V.Z. [Center for Multidisciplinary Studies of the University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava 1, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Nikolic, P.M. [Institute of Technical Sciences of SASA, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)]. E-mail: nikolic@sanu.ac.yu

    2006-07-15

    Thermal diffusivity and electron transport parameters of sintered NTC samples were determined by the photoacoustic (PA) technique. Powder mixtures composed of MnO, NiO, CoO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were milled to nanometer particle size. NTC discs were dry powder pressed and sintered at different temperatures in the range from 900 deg. C to 1300 deg. C for 30 min. A second group of NTC discs was sintered at 1200 deg. C with the sintering time varying from 30 min to 360 min. These NTC samples were polished and exposed to a chopped laser beam in order to plot a response in the acoustic range. The thermal diffusivity of sintered NTC layers based on a metal oxide powder mixture was measured at room temperature by the photoacoustic technique. An increase of thermal diffusivity with the sintering temperature and time of sintering was observed.

  7. Kinetics of exchange of a tracer in soil and clay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti, J.C.; Facetti, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    The kinetics of exchange of a Na tracer in soil and clay samples, provides with a reliable and convenient method for the determination of the different soil fraction ahd their CEC values, In addition, the analysis of the exchanges curves can be used for the identification of the clay present in the soil

  8. Kinetics of exchange of a tracer in soil and clay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti, J C; Facetti, J F [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1971-01-01

    The kinetics of exchange of a Na tracer in soil and clay samples, provides with a reliable and convenient method for the determination of the different soil fraction ahd their CEC values, In addition, the analysis of the exchanges curves can be used for the identification of the clay present in the soil.

  9. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: A North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Ivan J. Fernandez; Daniel D. Richter; Donald S. Ross; Paul W. Hazlett; Scott W. Bailey; Rock Ouimet; Richard A. F. Warby; Arthur H. Johnson; Henry Lin; James M. Kaste; Andrew G. Lapenis; Timothy J. Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest...

  10. Extraction and analysis of 14C-carbofuran radioactivity in soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir; Nashriyah Mat

    2005-01-01

    Carbofuran insecticide or nematicide sprayed onto soil in the agroecosystem will be taken up by plant. Carbofuran residue will pollute the environment and organisms in the food chain. Extraction and analysis of 14 C-carbofuran in soil from lysimeter were carried out. The Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was used to measure radioactivity of 14 C-carbofuran in soil sample. (Author)

  11. Species richness in soil bacterial communities: a proposed approach to overcome sample size bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2008-09-01

    Estimates of species richness based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries are increasingly utilized to gauge the level of bacterial diversity within various ecosystems. However, previous studies have indicated that regardless of the utilized approach, species richness estimates obtained are dependent on the size of the analyzed clone libraries. We here propose an approach to overcome sample size bias in species richness estimates in complex microbial communities. Parametric (Maximum likelihood-based and rarefaction curve-based) and non-parametric approaches were used to estimate species richness in a library of 13,001 near full-length 16S rRNA clones derived from soil, as well as in multiple subsets of the original library. Species richness estimates obtained increased with the increase in library size. To obtain a sample size-unbiased estimate of species richness, we calculated the theoretical clone library sizes required to encounter the estimated species richness at various clone library sizes, used curve fitting to determine the theoretical clone library size required to encounter the "true" species richness, and subsequently determined the corresponding sample size-unbiased species richness value. Using this approach, sample size-unbiased estimates of 17,230, 15,571, and 33,912 were obtained for the ML-based, rarefaction curve-based, and ACE-1 estimators, respectively, compared to bias-uncorrected values of 15,009, 11,913, and 20,909.

  12. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil - Part 2: Guidance for the selection of the sampling strategy, sampling and pre-treatment of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This part of ISO 18589 specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil. This part of ISO 18589 is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities. This part of ISO 18589 is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this part of ISO 18589, such as planning, sampling or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply. Information is provided on scope, normative references, terms and definitions and symbols, principle, sampling strategy, sampling plan, sampling process, pre-treatment of samples and recorded information. Five annexes inform about selection of the sampling strategy according to the objectives and the radiological characterization of the site and sampling areas, diagram of the evolution of the sample characteristics from the sampling site to the laboratory, example of sampling plan for a site divided in three sampling areas, example of a sampling record for a single/composite sample and example for a sample record for a soil profile with soil description. A bibliography is provided

  13. Determination of gold of No. 501 uranium deposits and soil samples by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Maogen; Yao Liying.

    1989-01-01

    The gold determination method is described by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal and presents the results obtained in determining gold of uranium deposits and soil samples

  14. Analysis of Mars Analogue Soil Samples Using Solid-Phase Microextraction, Organic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g(sup -1). The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100% silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

  15. Random sampling or geostatistical modelling? Choosing between design-based and model-based sampling strategies for soil (with discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Classical sampling theory has been repeatedly identified with classical statistics which assumes that data are identically and independently distributed. This explains the switch of many soil scientists from design-based sampling strategies, based on classical sampling theory, to the model-based

  16. Rapid separation method for {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in large soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L., E-mail: sherrod.maxwell@srs.go [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Culligan, Brian K.; Noyes, Gary W. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Building 735-B, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using these two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  17. Towards quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousquet, B.; Sirven, J.-B.; Canioni, L.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of chromium in soil samples is presented. Different emission lines related to chromium are studied in order to select the best one for quantitative features. Important matrix effects are demonstrated from one soil to the other, preventing any prediction of concentration in different soils on the basis of a univariate calibration curve. Finally, a classification of the LIBS data based on a series of Principal Component Analyses (PCA) is applied to a reduced dataset of selected spectral lines related to the major chemical elements in the soils. LIBS data of heterogeneous soils appear to be widely dispersed, which leads to a reconsideration of the sampling step in the analysis process

  18. Sorption and desorption studies of some radionuclides by soil samples. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naggar, H A; Ezz El-Din, M R; Abd El-Gawad, A S [Hot Laborities Center, National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation control, Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The different factors influencing the sorption/desorption of {sup 137} Cs, {sup 60} Co, {sup 241} Am and {sup (152+154)}Eu by soil samples of Inshas area were investigated. Mineralogical analysis of the soil samples were carried out. The amount sorbed per gram soil (X/m) increased as the carrier concentration [C] increased from (10{sup -9} to 10{sup -}1 mol) following a freundlich type isotherm. The distribution coefficient [K d] of the radionuclides was found to be affected by pH. The presence of K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Fe{sup 3+} as competing ions decreases the sorption capacity of the radioisotopes studied. The presence of complexing agents has a significant effect on the mobility of these radioisotopes. On the basis of the results obtained an attempt is being carried out to calculate different transport rates of the relevant isotopes in the investigated media. The mathematical model for the dispersion of the radioisotopes investigated in the groundwater environment was also elucidated. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. An inter-lab comparison determination of radionuclides in soil samples by γ-apectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jingquan; Zhang Shurong; Xu Cuihua

    1986-01-01

    The results of an inter-lab comparison of quantitative determination of radionuclides in two soil samples and in an imitated one used as standard reference material by direct γ-spectrometry are presented and discussed. The methods of preparation of the three samples, its homogeneity and the procedures used in this inter-lab comparison are also described. Fifteen laboratories in China participated in this program. The contents of main radionuclides in the samples were estimated by statistical treatment of the reproted data. More than 91% of these laboratories obtained mean values with relative standard deviation below 20%, and in 88% of them the average values we e within the range of the standard reference values with deviation less than 10%. Statistical analysis showed that random error might be underestimated or systematic error might exist in a few laboratories

  20. Misrepresentation of hydro-erosional processes in rainfall simulations using disturbed soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Edivaldo L.; Pereira, Adalberto A.

    2017-06-01

    Interrill erosion is a primary soil erosion process which consists of soil detachment by raindrop impact and particle transport by shallow flow. Interill erosion affects other soil erosion sub-processes, e.g., water infiltration, sealing, crusting, and rill initiation. Interrill erosion has been widely studied in laboratories, and the use of a sieved soil, i.e., disturbed soil, has become a standard method in laboratory experiments. The aims of our study are to evaluate the hydro-erosional response of undisturbed and disturbed soils in a laboratory experiment, and to quantify the extent to which hydraulic variables change during a rainstorm. We used a splash pan of 0.3 m width, 0.45 m length, and 0.1 m depth. A rainfall simulation of 58 mm h- 1 lasting for 30 min was conducted on seven replicates of undisturbed and disturbed soils. During the experiment, several hydro-physical parameters were measured, including splashed sediment, mean particle size, runoff, water infiltration, and soil moisture. We conclude that use of disturbed soil samples results in overestimation of interrill processes. Of the nine assessed parameters, four displayed greater responses in the undisturbed soil: infiltration, topsoil shear strength, mean particle size of eroded particles, and soil moisture. In the disturbed soil, five assessed parameters displayed greater responses: wash sediment, final runoff coefficient, runoff, splash, and sediment yield. Therefore, contextual soil properties are most suitable for understanding soil erosion, as well as for defining soil erodibility.

  1. Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  2. Chemical structures and thermal properties of polyesters obtained from different samples of bio diesel epoxidized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, Dimitrios; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Nicolau, Aline; Martini, Denise D.; Chagas, Arthur L. das

    2009-01-01

    In this work new structures from oligo esters and polyesters from different oils (olive oil, sunflower oil and linseed oil) were synthesized and characterized. Oligo esters and polyesters were synthesized from the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy-esters, obtained from different oils, with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). Different amounts of the resin 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE) were added in order to increase the capacity of crosslinking. The molar ratio of BDGE used in system was between 0 and 0.066. The intermediate structures, as well as the oligo esters and polyesters produced, were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H - NMR). The thermal behavior of the products was realized through differential scanning calorimetry and Thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the materials chains increases the bonding capacity resulting in a higher molecular weight material which presents good thermal stability. (author)

  3. How much will afforestation of former cropland influence soil C stocks? A synthesis of paired sampling, chronosequence sampling and repeated sampling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesterdal, Lars; Hansen, K.; Stupak, I.; Don, Axel; Poeplau, C.; Leifeld, Jens; van Wesemael, Bas

    2010-05-01

    The need for documentation of land-use change effects on soil C is high on the agenda in most signatory countries to the Kyoto Protocol. Large land areas in Europe have experienced land-use change from cropland to forest since 1990 by direct afforestation as well as abandonment and regrowth of marginally productive cropland. Soil C dynamics following land-use change remain highly uncertain due to a limited number of available studies and due to influence of interacting factors such as land use history, soil type, and climate. Common approaches for estimation of potential soil C changes following land-use change are i) paired sampling of plots with a long legacy of different land uses, ii) chronosequence studies of land-use change, and lastly iii) repeated sampling of plots subject to changed land use. This paper will synthesize the quantitative effects of cropland afforestation on soil C sequestration based on all three approaches and will report on related work within Cost 639. Paired plots of forest and cropland were used to study the general differences between soil C stocks in the two land uses. At 27 sites in Denmark distributed among different regions and soil types forest floor and mineral soil were sampled in and around soil pits. Soil C stocks were higher in forest than cropland (mean difference 22 Mg C ha-1 to 1 m depth). This difference was caused solely by the presence of a forest floor in forests; mineral soil C stocks were similar (108 vs. 109 Mg C ha-1) in the two land uses regardless of soil type and the soil layers considered. The chronosequence approach was employed in the AFFOREST project for evaluation of C sequestration in biomass and soils following afforestation of cropland. Two oak (Quercus robur) and four Norway spruce (Picea abies) afforestation chronosequences (age range 1 to 90 years) were studied in Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands. Forest floor and mineral soil (0-25 cm) C contents were as a minimum unchanged and in most cases there

  4. Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.

    1993-04-01

    This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is a 30.1 year half-life man-made radionuclide produced in the past by atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Natural radioactivity was determined by measuring some radionuclides belonging to Th-232 and U-238 natural radioactive families, and of K-40 concentrations. Several types of soils from Southern Brazil; and soil samples, marine sediments, lichens, mosses and algae collected at King George and other nearby islands (South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica) were analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radioactivity levels of the collected samples and its overall characteristics are analyzed in this work. (author)

  5. Laboratory analysis of soil hydraulic properties of TA-49 soil samples. Volume I: Report summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Hydrologic Testing Laboratory at Daniel B. Stephens ampersand Associates, Inc. (DBS ampersand A) has completed laboratory tests on TA-49 soil samples as specified by Mr. Daniel A. James and summarized in Table 1. Tables 2 through 12 give the results of the specified analyses. Raw laboratory data and graphical plots of data (where appropriate) are contained in Appendices A through K. Appendix L lists the methods used in these analyses. A detailed description of each method is available upon request. Thermal properties were calculated using methods reviewed by Campbell and covered in more detail in Appendix K. Typically, soil thermal conductivities are determined using empirical fitting parameters (five in this case), Some assumptions are also made in the equations used to reduce the raw data. In addition to the requested thermal property measurements, calculated values are also presented as the best available internal check on data quality. For both thermal conductivities and specific heats, calculated and measured values are consistent and the functions often cross. Interestingly, measured thermal conductivities tend to be higher than calculated thermal conductivities around typically encountered in situ moisture contents (±5 percent). While we do not venture an explanation of the difference, sensitivity testing of any problem requiring nonisothermal modeling across this range is in order

  6. Fluoride concentrations in soils, vegetation samples and soil fauna in the direct vicinity of a pollution source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.; Ottow, J.C.G.; Breimer, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Fluoride analyses CF t = total F; F w = water soluble F and F HCI HCI-extractable F) of different soils, vegetation samples and soil fauna (Helix pomatia, Lumbricus spp., arthropodes) in a locally polluted area (for nearly 65 years) clearly revealed an F-accumulation in top soil, vegetation and animals. Based on 1N HCI-extractable fluoride, two contamination zones around the emitting industry could be identified. In the calcareous soils, leaching of fluoride seems to be insignificant because of a strong immobilization as CaF 2 . A highly significant correlation between the F HCI content of soils and Lumbricus spp. (with and without gut content) or Helix pomatia shells was found. Fluoride concentrations in washed leaves of Hedera helix and in decaying grass reached levels of 306 and 997 μgF/g respectively. Saprophagous soil arthropods contained high fluoride levels, up to 732 μgF/g in Armadillidium vulgare. (orig.)

  7. Decomposition of 14C - malathion in three Brazilian soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, C.G.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The degradation of 14 C-malathion in soil was examined using gas chromatography and radiotracer techniques. About half of the malathion added was degraded within a day in soil from three regions of Brazil. Almost all the radiolabelled material extracted from the Red Latosol (Londrina, PR) was malathion, but metabolites were extracted from the 'Sandy' cerrado soil (Planaltina, DF) and Dark-Red Latosol (Passo Fundo, RS). The proportion of metabolites in the extracts increased until most of the malathion was degraded, after four days. Radiocarbon dioxide was liberated from all three soils at similar rates. When about half of the label had been recovered as carbon dioxide after eight weeks, the rate of evolution diminished. (Author) [pt

  8. A Bone Sample Containing a Bone Graft Substitute Analyzed by Correlating Density Information Obtained by X-ray Micro Tomography with Compositional Information Obtained by Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Charwat-Pessler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of bone graft substitutes to promote new bone formation has been increasingly used in the medical field to repair skeletal defects or to replace missing bone in a broad range of applications in dentistry and orthopedics. A common way to assess such materials is via micro computed tomography (µ-CT, through the density information content provided by the absorption of X-rays. Information on the chemical composition of a material can be obtained via Raman spectroscopy. By investigating a bone sample from miniature pigs containing the bone graft substitute Bio Oss®, we pursued the target of assessing to what extent the density information gained by µ-CT imaging matches the chemical information content provided by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Raman images and Raman correlation maps of the investigated sample were used in order to generate a Raman based segmented image by means of an agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting segments, showing chemically related areas, were subsequently compared with the µ-CT image by means of a one-way ANOVA. We found out that to a certain extent typical gray-level values (and the related histograms in the µ-CT image can be reliably related to specific segments within the image resulting from the cluster analysis.

  9. Major and minor elements analysis in soil samples by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro; Ana Maria Graciano; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence were employed to analyze major and minor elements in soil samples collected near Bandeirantes road. Elements of environmental interest, such as Al, Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, V and Zn, which have reference background levels, were determined. The samples were dried in an oven at 40 deg C, were sieved (<2 mm), grinded and were analyzed by INAA and FRX. The aims of this work were: to evaluate the possible variations in the concentration levels in soil due to emission of particulate from vehicles and other anthropogenic sources; to compare the results obtained by using both techniques. This preliminary study showed that the concentration levels of the elements of environmental interest agree with reference values for tropical soils in the sampling sites, except for Ba, which presented higher values. (author)

  10. Use of an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer to Obtain Sample Powder for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipera, S. J.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Sherrit, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    A miniature CHEMIN XRD/XRF (X-Ray Diffraction/X-Ray Fluourescence) instrument is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed in order to enable XRD analysis on an extraterrestrial body is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For XRD powder diffraction analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a 2-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results with poorly prepared powders, the quality of the data will improve if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL is an effective mechanism of sampling rock to produce cores and powdered cuttings. It requires low axial load (XRD/XRF spectrometer such as CHEMIN, powders obtained from the JPL ultrasonic drill were analyzed and the results were compared to carefully prepared powders obtained using a laboratory bench scale Retsch mill.

  11. Amostragem de solo para estudos de fertilidade Sampling soils for fertility studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Catani

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de estabelecer um sistema e técnica mais adequados de se coletar amostras de terra, para fins de estudo de fertilidade. Foram escolhidas duas áreas de solos diferentes. Uma delas com seis hectares, situada na Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, em solo tipo terra roxa legítima ; a outra com quatro hectares e localizada na Fazenda Santa Maria, em Pindorama, em solo do tipo arenito Bauru. A retirada das amostras de cada área foi feita com tubos especialmente construídos para esse fim e obedeceu ao seguinte critério: 1 30 amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área ; 2 10 amostras compostas, formadas de cinco amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área. 3 5 amostras compostas, formadas de 20 amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área. Nessas amostras foram determinados : pH, carbono total, potássio "trocável" e cálcio "trocável". Diante dos dados obtidos e levando-se em conta o trabalho exigido no laboratório, aconselha-se a retirada de três amostras compostas formadas de 20 simples cada uma, em glebas uniformes, de cinco hectares aproximadamente.The following methods of collecting soil samples for fertility studies were compared : 1 thirty individual samples covering the whole area ; 2 ten composite samples, each consisting of five individual samples, covering the whole area ; 3 five composite samples, each consisting of 20 individual samples, covering the whole area. The three types of samples were collected in each of two plots : 1 a six-hectare plot in the Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, representing the "terra roxa" soil; 2 a four-hectare plot in the Santa Maria Farm, Pindorama, where the soil is of the "arenito de Bauru" type. The pH, total carbon, and exchangeable potassium and calcium were determined in the samples. Based on data obtained in the present investigation and considering the amount of work involved in the routine laboratory tests, it is suggested that

  12. Determination of mercury in ash and soil samples by oxygen flask combustion method-Cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Wenhua; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Ohki, Akira

    2008-01-01

    A simple method was developed for the determination of mercury (Hg) in coal fly ash (CFA), waste incineration ash (WIA), and soil by use of oxygen flask combustion (OFC) followed by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS). A KMnO 4 solution was used as an absorbent in the OFC method, and the sample containing a combustion agent and an ash or soil sample was combusted by the OFC method. By use of Hg-free graphite as the combustion agent, the determination of Hg in ash and soil was successfully carried out; the Hg-free graphite was prepared by use of a mild pyrolysis procedure at 500 deg. C. For six certified reference materials (three CFA samples and three soil samples), the values of Hg obtained by this method were in good agreement with the certified or reference values. In addition, real samples including nine CFAs collected from some coal-fired power plants, five WIAs collected from waste incineration plants, and two soils were analyzed by the present method, and the data were compared to those from microwave-acid digestion (MW-AD) method

  13. Measuring 226Ra and 232Th activity in soil and vegetation samples using a method of double γ-coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N.M.; Antovic, I.

    2010-01-01

    A coincidence method for measuring radium and thorium activity has been developed using the PRIPYAT-2M gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer, with six NaI(Tl) detectors and registration geometry close to 4π. It was tested by measuring soil samples from the Northern region of Montenegro, as well as vegetation samples from the same region. The results showed a good agreement with ones obtained by the HPGe spectrometer. (author)

  14. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  15. The standardization of an apparatus for the mixing of soil samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative determination of nematode populations in soils frequently necessitates the mixing of representative soil samples to form a homogeneous, compound sample from which the nematodes are extracted. A mixing apparatus was developed and standardized with the aid of a spectrophotometric technique by which ...

  16. [PHAHs levels in soil samples from the E-waste disassembly sites and their sources allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gao-Feng; Wang, Zi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Soil samples (each with 3 replicates of - 1 kg, at the top 0-5 cm layer) were collected from each of the e-waste disassembly sites and the control site. Also obtained from each disassembly site were samples (each weighing - 0.2 kg) of cable coating,stuffing powder, and circuit boards chipping. The contents of 23 PBB congeners, 12 PBDE congeners, and 27 PCB congeners in soil and in their potential sources, including e-waste residues, were measured using the GC-MS5975B technique. The highest level of PBBs was found in the cable coating among the three e-waste residues, with a concentration of 35.25 ng x g(-1). The contents of low-brominated PBBs (including monobromobiphenyls and dibromobiphenyls) accounted for 38% of the total PBBs concentration observed in cable coating sample. The highest levels of PBDEs and PBDE209 were found in the stuffing powder for electronic component among the collected e-waste residues, with a concentration of 29.71 and 4.19 x 10(3) ng x g(-1). PBDE153 and PBDE183 were the most predominant PBDE congeners, with their concentration accounting for 43% and 24% of the total PBDEs concentration observed in the stuffing powder sample, respectively. Levels of PCBs in cable coating were the highest in these e-waste residues, with a concentration of 680.02 ngx g(-1). The observed values of the three PHAHs in soils from the disassembly site were considerably higher than their corresponding values observed in the control site (p < 0.05), which indicates that these PHAHs from e-waste is the pollution source of local environment.

  17. Sorption of water vapour by the Na+-exchanged clay-sized fractions of some tropical soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yormah, T.B.R.; Hayes, M.H.B.

    1993-09-01

    Water vapour sorption isotherms at 299K for the Na + -exchanged clay-sized (≤ 2μm e.s.d.) fraction of two sets of samples taken at three different depths from a tropical soil profile have been studied. One set of samples was treated (with H 2 O 2 ) for the removal of much of the organic matter (OM); the other set (of the same samples) was not so treated. The isotherms obtained were all of type II and analyses by the BET method yielded values for the Specific Surface Areas (SSA) and for the average energy of adsorption of the first layer of adsorbate (E a ). OM content and SSA for the untreated samples were found to decrease with depth. Whereas removal of organic matter made negligible difference to the SSA of the top/surface soil, the same treatment produced a significant increase in the SSA of the samples taken from the middle and from the lower depths in the profile; the resulting increase was more pronounced for the subsoil. It has been deduced from these results that OM in the surface soil was less involved with the inorganic soil colloids than that in the subsoil. The increase in surface area which resulted from the removal of OM from the subsoil was most probably due to disaggregation. Values of E a obtained show that for all the samples the adsorption of water vapour became more energetic after the oxidative removal of organic matter; the resulting ΔE a also increased with depth. This suggests that in the dry state, the ''cleaned'' surface of the inorganic soil colloids was more energetic than the ''organic-matter-coater surface''. These data provide strong support for the deduction that OM in the subsoil was in a more ''combined'' state than that in the surface soil. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

    2001-01-01

    As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site

  19. Obtaining edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers from sewage sludge using fermentative processes. Short-time effects on soil biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Caballero, Pablo; Paneque, Patricia; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; Tejada, Manuel

    2017-10-28

    In this manuscript, we study the manufacture and effect on soils of different edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (BS) obtained from sewage sludge using Bacillus licheniformis as biological tool. These BS consist of different combinations of organic matter, bacteria and enzymes that were subjected to several treatments. These BS were applied in soil in order to observe their influence on the biochemical properties (enzymatic activities and ergosterol content). Dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase activities and ergosterol content were measured at different incubation days. Only dehydrogenase activity and ergosterol content were significantly stimulated after the application of BS1 and BS4. Rest of the extracellular activities were not stimulated probably because B. licheniformis practically has digested all organic substrates during fermentation process.

  20. Studies and further needed investigations on radioactive contaminants in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belivermis, M.; Kilic, O.; Topcuoglu, S.; Cotuk, Y.; Kalayci, G.; Pestreli, D.

    2009-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the radionuclides were deposited on the marine and terrestrial environments of Turkey and other countries as wet and / or dry fallout. It is well known that, the soil is the main reservoir at the terrestrial environment. The geographic distribution of the Chernobyl radionuclides per unit area is significantly different. Many countries have drawn radiation maps using the radionuclide data of the soil samples. The radioecological monitoring study in the soil samples are also investigated in the our country. However, the exist data is limited for whole region of Turkey. In general, the type study, that make, in uncultivated soil sample use of different soil layers (0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 cm). In our previous studies, the activity concentration of gamma emitting radionuclides were determined in soil samples (0-5 cm) from the Thrace (73 sites) and East and South Marmara (100 sites) regions. Moreover, the mean values of the annual effective dose equivalent were also calculated. In literature, numerous studies have been published concerning vertical migration of 1 37Cs in uncultivated soil samples use of different soil types. However, we have not enough data on this subject. On the other hand, we want to present a previously published data on the vertical distribution of 1 37Cs radionuclide in an uncultivated site in the eastern Black Sea region. It is well known that the determination of soil to plant transfer factors of radiocesium that take account all economically crops on the soil varieties is a need to support dose assessment or countermeasure studies. Previously published IAEA reports, we determined transfer factors for some crops of 1 37Cs radionuclides in cultivated soil samples (0-20 cm depth) in the eastern Black Sea region. At the same time, we have given a new project to IAEA for the determination of transfer factor of radiocesium from soil to some crops for Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant site.

  1. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  2. A generalized transmission method for gamma-efficiency determinations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, J.P.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a generalization of the γ-ray transmission method which is useful for measurements on soil samples, for example, is presented. The correction factor, f, is given, which is a function of the apparent density of the soil and the γ-ray energy. With this method, the need for individual determinations of f, for each energy and apparent soil density is avoided. Although the method has been developed for soils, the general philosophy can be applied to other sample matrices, such as water or vegetables for example. (author)

  3. Use of X-ray diffraction technique and chemometrics to aid soil sampling strategies in traceability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Lucia; Durante, Caterina; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Silvestri, Michele; Cocchi, Marina

    2012-08-30

    Aim of this work is to assess the potentialities of the X-ray powder diffraction technique as fingerprinting technique, i.e. as a preliminary tool to assess soil samples variability, in terms of geochemical features, in the context of food geographical traceability. A correct approach to sampling procedure is always a critical issue in scientific investigation. In particular, in food geographical traceability studies, where the cause-effect relations between the soil of origin and the final foodstuff is sought, a representative sampling of the territory under investigation is certainly an imperative. This research concerns a pilot study to investigate the field homogeneity with respect to both field extension and sampling depth, taking also into account the seasonal variability. Four Lambrusco production sites of the Modena district were considered. The X-Ray diffraction spectra, collected on the powder of each soil sample, were treated as fingerprint profiles to be deciphered by multivariate and multi-way data analysis, namely PCA and PARAFAC. The differentiation pattern observed in soil samples, as obtained by this fast and non-destructive analytical approach, well matches with the results obtained by characterization with other costly analytical techniques, such as ICP/MS, GFAAS, FAAS, etc. Thus, the proposed approach furnishes a rational basis to reduce the number of soil samples to be collected for further analytical characterization, i.e. metals content, isotopic ratio of radiogenic element, etc., while maintaining an exhaustive description of the investigated production areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The speciation and determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Liu Senlin; Xu Changheng; Xiao Xuefu; Chen Ling; Yang Hetao; Maria Belli; Umberto Sansone; Silvia Rosamilia; Stefania Gaudino

    2005-01-01

    A method for speciation and determination of 21 0Pb and 210 Po in soil samples was developed. The speciation was carried out by fractionating the soil samples into 5 fractions which are water soluble or exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter and bound to residue. After mineralisation, 10% solution of each fraction was used to spontaneously deposit polonium on a silver disk at 85-90 degree C and pH 1.5 and 210 Po was measured by α-spectrometry; the remain solution was used to separate lead by anion-exchange resin and purified by precipitation as PbS and PbSO 4 , and 210 Pb was determined by a low background β-counter. IAEA-327 reference material (soil) has been studied for 210 Pb and 210 Po speciation. The results show that: (1) the average yields are 88.7±6.4% for 210 Pb and 93.8±8.2% for 210 Po; (2) if compared to the total 210 Pb activity in the sample, 210 Pb fractions are 0.95% in exchangeable form, 10.6% bound to carbonates, 14.3% bound to Fe-Mn oxides, 7.00% bound to organic matter, and 67.2% bound to residue or acid soluble, and the corresponding values for 210 Po are 0.17%, 0.97%, 21.0%, 0.47% and 77.4%, respectively; and (3) the obtained 210 Pb concentration is in good agreement with the recommended value given by IAEA.

  5. Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of our findings provide evidence that soil may play an important role in transmission of zoonotic parasite diseases to human. In addition, control of high population of animals such as stray dogs and cats is necessary to reduce the distribution of parasites. Key words: Prevalence, parasites, flotation method, Tehran.

  6. Demonstration of Incremental Sampling Methodology for Soil Containing Metallic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    with a three-year rotation schedule. This rotation schedule enabled train- ing areas to be reseeded and rehabilitated prior to continued use. The only...berm was destroyed with the construction of Landfill 7 though some of its soil appears to have been stockpiled nearby. A description of the northern

  7. Stability of mercury concentration measurements in archived soil and peat samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Burns, Douglas; Nováková, Tereza; Kaňa, Jiří; Rohovec, Jan; Roll, Michal; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2018-01-01

    Archived soil samples can provide important information on the history of environmental contamination and by comparison with recently collected samples, temporal trends can be inferred. Little previous work has addressed whether mercury (Hg) concentrations in soil samples are stable with long-term storage under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we have re-analyzed using cold vapor atomic adsorption spectroscopy a set of archived soil samples that ranged from relatively pristine mountainous sites to a polluted site near a non-ferrous metal smelter with a wide range of Hg concentrations (6 - 6485 µg kg-1). Samples included organic and mineral soils and peats with a carbon content that ranged from 0.2 to 47.7%. Soil samples were stored in polyethylene bags or bottles and held in laboratory rooms where temperature was not kept to a constant value. Mercury concentrations in four subsets of samples were originally measured in 2000, 2005, 2006 and 2007, and re-analyzed in 2017, i.e. after 17, 12, 11 and 10 years of storage. Statistical analyses of either separated or lumped data yielded no significant differences between the original and current Hg concentrations. Based on these analyses, we show that archived soil and peat samples can be used to evaluate historical soil mercury contamination.

  8. Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.moreno@uam.es [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beesley, Luke [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, PO Box 84 (New Zealand); Hartley, William [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring soil pollution is a key aspect in sustainable management of contaminated land but there is often debate over what should be monitored to assess ecological risk. Soil pore water, containing the most labile pollutant fraction in soils, can be easily collected in situ offering a routine way to monitor this risk. We present a compilation of data on concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil pore water collected in field conditions from a range of polluted and non-polluted soils in Spain and the UK during single and repeated monitoring, and propose a simple eco-toxicity test using this media. Sufficient pore water could be extracted for analysis both under semi-arid and temperate conditions, and eco-toxicity comparisons could be effectively made between polluted and non-polluted soils. We propose that in-situ pore water extraction could enhance the realism of risk assessment at some contaminated sites. - Highlights: > In situ pore water sampling successfully evaluates trace elements mobility in soils. > Field sampling proved robust for different soils, sites and climatic regimes. > Measurements may be directly related to ecotoxicological assays. > Both short and long-term monitoring of polluted lands may be achieved. > This method complements other widely used assays for environmental risk assessment. - In situ pore water sampling from a wide variety of soils proves to be a beneficial application to monitor the stability of pollutants in soils and subsequent risk through mobility.

  9. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • There are radioactively contaminated soils having a radioactive cesium transfer of 0.01. • Micro-PIXE analysis has revealed an existence of phosphorus in a contaminated soil. • Radioactive cesium captured by phosphorus compound would be due to radioactive transfer. -- Abstract: Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ∼0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds

  10. Sampling season affects conclusions on soil arthropod community structure responses to metal pollution in Mediterranean urban soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santorufo, L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Maisto, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if the period of sampling affected conclusions on the responses of arthropod community structure to metal pollution in urban soils in the Mediterranean area. Higher temperature and lower precipitation were detected in autumn than in spring. In both samplings, the most

  11. Removal of fission products from waste solutions using 16 different soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangash, M.A.; Hanif, J.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the nuclear sites use pits in the surrounding soils for the storage/disposal of low active waste (LAW) solutions. The characteristics of the soil if not suitable for the fixation or adsorption of the radioactive nuclides, may cause migration of these nuclides to hydrosphere. The phenomenon has the risk of radio toxic pollution for the living bodies therefore minerals composing the soil and their adsorption properties need to be investigated. For this purpose 16 different soil samples were collected from all over Pakistan. Mineralogical composition of the soils was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that most of the samples contained clay minerals, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite. Studies for the removal of fission products like, /sup 137/Cs. /sup 60/Sr and activation product /sup 60/CO from solution were carried out on these samples. The sorption experiments were performed by batch technique using radioactive as tracers. Distribution co-efficient were determined by mixing he element solution at pH 3 with the soil at soil solution ratios of 1 to 20. It is revealed from the experimental data that efficient removal of fission products from solutions is achieved by soil samples containing clay mineral montmorillonite, followed by little and kaolinite. These soils thus can be effectively used for the disposal of low level radioactive waste solutions without causing any environmental hazard. (author)

  12. Natural radioactivity and metal concentrations in soil samples taken along the Izmir - Ankara E-023 highway, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.; Bassari, A.; Erees, F; Cam, S.

    2004-01-01

    The specific activity and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K) were determined in roadside soil obtained from fifteen sites along Izmir-Ankara Highway, using gamma-ray spectrometry. The soil activity ranged from 42.6 to 47.3 Bqkg -1 for 238 U, 31.8 to 36.3 Bqkg -1 for 232 Th, and 432 to 488 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. The highest mean value of 238 U was found in the soil samples obtained from a site close to the intersection of the roads. The study yielded an annual effective dose equivalent in the range of 58 - 80 μSv. The average value falls within the global range of outdoor radiation exposure given in UNSCEAR-2000 publications. Also Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr concentrations were determined in roadside soil. Rb, Sr, Zr and Zn concentrations in roadside soil around the intersection of the roads were higher than maximum concentration levels of these heavy metals in normal soil

  13. Evaluation of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats and dogs in an adapter-modified Ussing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBiasio, John V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Newman, Shelley; Musch, Mark W.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of transport physiology in endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from healthy cats and dogs, as well as dogs with chronic enteropathies. 17 duodenal biopsies from five cats and 51 duodenal biopsies from 13 dogs were obtained. Samples were transferred into an adapter-modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to various absorbagogues and secretagogues. Overall, 78.6% of duodenal samples obtained from cats responded to at least one compound. In duodenal biopsies obtained from dogs, the rate of overall response ranged from 87.5% (healthy individuals; n = 8), to 63.6% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological unremarkable duodenum; n = 15), and 32.1% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases and moderate to severe histopathological lesions; n = 28). Detailed information regarding the magnitude and duration of the response are provided. The adapter-modified Ussing chamber enables investigation of the absorptive and secretory capacity of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from cats and dogs and has the potential to become a valuable research tool. The response of samples was correlated with histopathological findings. PMID:24378587

  14. Fluorescence of soil humic acids and their fractions obtained by tandem size exclusion chromatography-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubetskaya, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Inst. of Bioorganic Chemistry; Trubetskoj, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). Inst. of Basic Biological Problems; Guyot, G.; Richard, C. [UMR CNRS 6505, Aubiere (France). Lab. de Photochimie Moleculaire et Macromoleculaire; Andreux, F. [Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Dijon (France)

    2002-07-01

    Humic acids (HAs) extracted from soils of different origin (chernozem, ferralsol and ranker) and their fractions (A, B and C+D) obtained by tandem size exclusion chromatography-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were investigated by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy in the emission mode. Independently of HA source, high molecular size fractions A and B are shown to be weakly fluorescent. The main fluorophores, especially those emitting at long wavelength (around 500-510 nm), are contained in the polar and low molecular size fractions C+D. As indicated by the observed pH effect, aromatic structures bearing carboxylate and OH substituents may be involved in these longer wavelength emissions. [author].

  15. Colloid mobilization and heavy metal transport in the sampling of soil solution from Duckum soil in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seyong; Ko, Il-Won; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2018-03-24

    Colloid mobilization is a significant process governing colloid-associated transport of heavy metals in subsurface environments. It has been studied for the last three decades to understand this process. However, colloid mobilization and heavy metal transport in soil solutions have rarely been studied using soils in South Korea. We investigated the colloid mobilization in a variety of flow rates during sampling soil solutions in sand columns. The colloid concentrations were increased at low flow rates and in saturated regimes. Colloid concentrations increased 1000-fold higher at pH 9.2 than at pH 7.3 in the absence of 10 mM NaCl solution. In addition, those were fourfold higher in the absence than in the presence of the NaCl solution at pH 9.2. It was suggested that the mobility of colloids should be enhanced in porous media under the basic conditions and the low ionic strength. In real field soils, the concentrations of As, Cr, and Pb in soil solutions increased with the increase in colloid concentrations at initial momentarily changed soil water pressure, whereas the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Al, and Co lagged behind the colloid release. Therefore, physicochemical changes and heavy metal characteristics have important implications for colloid-facilitated transport during sampling soil solutions.

  16. A sampling strategy for estimating plot average annual fluxes of chemical elements from forest soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.; Vries, de W.

    2010-01-01

    A sampling strategy for estimating spatially averaged annual element leaching fluxes from forest soils is presented and tested in three Dutch forest monitoring plots. In this method sampling locations and times (days) are selected by probability sampling. Sampling locations were selected by

  17. Highly efficient detection of paclobutrazol in environmental water and soil samples by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhenjiang, E-mail: lzj1984@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wei, Xi [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); The Affiliated First People' s Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212002 (China); Ren, Kewei; Zhu, Gangbing; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Jiagao; Du, Daolin [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2016-11-01

    A fast and ultrasensitive indirect competitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) was developed for the analysis of paclobutrazol in environmental water and soil samples. Paclobutrazol hapten was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) for producing polyclonal antibodies. Under optimal conditions, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50} value) and limit of detection (LOD, IC{sub 20} value) were 1.09 μg L{sup −} {sup 1} and 0.067 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}, respectively. The LOD of TRFIA was improved 30-fold compared to the already reported ELISA. There was almost no cross-reactivity of the antibody with the other structural analogues of triazole compounds, indicating that the antibody had high specificity. The average recoveries from spiked samples were in the range from 80.2% to 104.7% with a relative standard deviation of 1.0–9.5%. The TRFIA results for the real samples were in good agreement with that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. The results indicate that the established TRFIA has potential application for screening paclobutrazol in environmental samples. - Highlights: • The approach to design and synthesize the PBZ hapten was more straightforward. • A rapid and ultrasensitive TRFIA was developed and applied to the screening of PBZ. • The TRFIA for real soil samples showed reliability and high correlation with HPLC. • The PBZ TRFIA showed high sensitivity, simple operation, a wide range of quantitative analyses and no radioactive hazards.

  18. Bio indication of soil samples from contaminated military sites in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakariadze, N.; Gagelidze, N.; Amiranashvili, L.; Nabakhtiani, G.; Tsigroshvili, Z.

    2005-01-01

    of single element's several parameters (multi-parameter bio-indication) makes possible to determine more precisely state of system under different impacts. Except study of soil samples collected on contaminated territories with an aim of low doses radiation impact (2.3 - 5.5 μZv/h) investigation on soil micro-flora in dynamics, it was decided as well to carry out experiments in earlier determined laboratory conditions in vitro by modeling the real fixed cases. The following changes of microorganisms' phenotype parameters were observed under radioactive impacts of low intensity: 1. General CCU values alternation (attenuation under 226 Ra and increase under 90 Sr); 2. Considerable increase of Bacteria colonies (Citrobacter) diameter ( 226 Ra); 3. Altered biological composition - In control sample percentage ratio of microorganisms main groups (Bacteria, Actinomycetes and Microphyte Fungi - 85/13/2) is typical to Black Earth soils. In contaminated soil this ratio is changed - 52/45/3; 4. Increased CCU and MF of Actinomycetes with melanin pigmentation and carotene synthesizing Bacteria colonies; 5. Attenuation and disappearance of Microphyte Fungi; 6. Altered vegetative and spore forms correlation of Bacillus genus, which depends on time of irradiation and effective equivalent doze obtained. Under high doze of irradiation prevalence of spore forms is observed. On application of gradually increasing doze of irradiation this correlation is approximately 1:1. The results of experiments indicate that under radioactive impacts of low intensity regulatory capacity of soil micro flora system is provided and could be maintained by changes of microorganisms separate parameters regulation. The model of microorganisms different variables behavior will be suggested. (authors)

  19. Sampling Design of Soil Physical Properties in a Conilon Coffee Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira de Jesus Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Establishing the number of samples required to determine values of soil physical properties ultimately results in optimization of labor and allows better representation of such attributes. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of soil physical properties in a Conilon coffee field and propose a soil sampling method better attuned to conditions of the management system. The experiment was performed in a Conilon coffee field in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, under a 3.0 × 2.0 × 1.0 m (4,000 plants ha-1 double spacing design. An irregular grid, with dimensions of 107 × 95.7 m and 65 sampling points, was set up. Soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.20 m depth from each sampling point. Data were analyzed under descriptive statistical and geostatistical methods. Using statistical parameters, the adequate number of samples for analyzing the attributes under study was established, which ranged from 1 to 11 sampling points. With the exception of particle density, all soil physical properties showed a spatial dependence structure best fitted to the spherical model. Establishment of the number of samples and spatial variability for the physical properties of soils may be useful in developing sampling strategies that minimize costs for farmers within a tolerable and predictable level of error.

  20. Genotyping of Toxoplasma Gondii Isolates from Soil Samples in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavalla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect any warm blooded nucleated cells. One of the ways for human infection is ingestion of oocysts directly from soil or via infected fruits or vegetables. To survey the potential role of T. gondii oocyst in soil samples, the present study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran.Methods: A total of 150 soil samples were collected around rubbish dumps, children's play ground, parks and public places. Oocysts recovery was performed by sodium nitrate flotation method on soil samples. For molecular detection, PCR reaction targeting B1 gene was performed and then, the posi­tive results were confirmed using repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in other PCR reaction. Finally, the positive samples were genotyped at the SAG2 locus.Results: Toxoplasma DNA was found in 13 soil samples. After genotyping and RFLP analysis in SAG2 locus, nine positive samples were revealed type III, one positive sample was type I whereas three samples revealed mixed infection (type, I & III.Conclusion: The predominant genotype in Tehran soil samples is type III.

  1. [Methods for the detection of Agrobacterium from plant, soil and water samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, Adriana M; López, Ana C; Balatti, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    The genus Agrobacterium includes phytopathogenic bacteria that induce the development of root crown galls and/or aerial galls at the base of the stem or hairy roots on more than 600 species of plants belonging to 90 dicotyledonous families and non-pathogenic species. These bacteria being natural soil inhabitants are particularly difficult to eradicate, which is a problem in nurseries where more than 80% of infections occur. Since early detection is crucial to avoid the inadvertent spread of the disease, the aim of this work was to develop sensitive and precise identification techniques by using a set of semi-selective and differential culture media in combination with a specific PCR to amplify a partial sequence derived from the virC operon, as well as a multiplex PCR on the basis of 23SrDNA sequences, and biological assays to identify and differentiate species and biovars of Agrobacterium obtained either from soil, water or plant samples. The combination of the different assays allowed us to reduce the number of false positive and negative results from bacteria isolated from any of the three types of samples. Therefore, the combination of multiplex PCR, specific PCR, isolations in semi-selective D1, D1-M and YEM-RCT media combined with bioassays on cut leaves of Kalanchoe and seedlings of California Wonder pepper cultivar constitute an accurate tool to detect species and biovars of Agrobacterium for diagnostic purposes.

  2. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation

  3. Quantitative Field Testing Rotylenchulus reniformis DNA from Metagenomic Samples Isolated Directly from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showmaker, Kurt; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the β-tubulin gene determined the number of Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira 1940 in metagenomic DNA samples isolated from soil. Of note, this outcome was in the presence of other soil-dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including its sister genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from soil. PMID:22194958

  4. The use of human samples obtained during medicolegal autopsies in research: An introduction to current conditions and initiatives in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura-Ito, Takako; Inoue, Yusuke; Muto, Kaori; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2017-04-01

    Background Leftover samples obtained during autopsies are extremely important basic materials for forensic research. However, there are no established practices for research-related use of obtained samples. Objective This study discusses good practice for the secondary use of samples collected during medicolegal autopsies. Methods A questionnaire was posted to all 76 departments of forensic medicine performing medicolegal autopsies in Japan, and 48 responses were received (response rate: 63.2%). As a secondary analysis, we surveyed information provided on department websites. Results Ethical reviews conducted when samples were to be used for research varied greatly among departments, with 21 (43.8%) departments reporting 'fundamentally, all cases are subject to review', eight (16.7%) reporting 'only some are subject to review' and 17 (39.6%) reporting 'none are subject to review'. Information made available on websites indicated that 11 departments had a statement of some type to bereaved families about the potential research use of human samples obtained during autopsies. Nine of these included a notice stating that bereaved families may revoke their consent for use. Several departments used an opt-out system. Conclusion There is no common practice in the field of legal medicine on the ethical use for medical research of leftover samples from medicolegal autopsies. The trust of not only bereaved families but also society in general is required for the scientific validity and social benefits of medical studies using leftover samples from medicolegal autopsies through the use of opt-out consenting and offline and online dissemination and public-relations activities.

  5. Efficiency calibration and measurement of self-absorption correction of environmental gamma spectroscopy of soils samples using Marinelli beaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdi, M. R.; Mostajaboddavati, M.; Hassanzadeh, S.; Faghihian, H.; Rezaee, Kh.; Kamali, M.

    2006-01-01

    A nonlinear function in combination with the method of mixing activity calibrated is applied for fitting the experimental peak efficiency of HPGe spectrometers in 59-2614 keV energy range. The preparation of Marinelli beaker standards of mixed gamma and RG-set at secular equilibrium with its daughter radionuclides was studied. Standards were prepared by mixing of known amounts of 13B a, 241 Am, 152 Eu, 207 Bi, 24 Na, Al 2 O 3 powder and soil. The validity of these standards was checked by comparison with certified standard reference material RG-set and IAEA-Soil-6 Self-absorption was measured for the activity calculation of the gamma-ray lines about series of 238 U daughter, 232 Th series, 137 Cs and 40 K in soil samples. Self-absorption in the sample will depend on a number of factor including sample composition, density, sample size and gamma-ray energy. Seven Marinelli beaker standards were prepared in different degrees of compaction with bulk density ( ρ) of 1.000 to 1.600 g cm -3 . The detection efficiency versus density was obtained and the equation of self-absorption correction factors calculated for soil samples

  6. Levels of Cadmium in Soil, Sediment and Water Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    The agricultural application of phosphate fertilizers represents a direct ... The samples were put into clean plastic containers and sealed. The plastic ... dried samples were ground and homogenized in a porcelain mortar, sieved to 40 mesh size.

  7. Analysis of arsenic and calcium in soil samples by laser ablation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccaglia, Ana M.; Rinaldi, Carlos A.; Ferrero, Juan C.

    2006-01-01

    We present an analytical procedure based on laser ablation mass spectrometry (LAMS) in order to detect and quantify arsenic and calcium in soil samples and we analyze the diverse factors that influence the precision of LAMS, such as laser fluence and matrix effect. The results indicate that a Zn matrix is a good choice for the analysis of those metals in soil samples. This work also provides a method for the direct determination of As in soil samples whose concentrations are lower than 100 ppm with a 70 ppm minimum detection limits (MDL)

  8. Investigation of the uranium content in sediment and soil samples from the Santos and Sao Vicente estuary region, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafim, Ricardo A.M.; Correa, Bianca A.M.; Primi, M.C.; Geraldo, Luiz P.; Yamazaki, Yone M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work the uranium (U) content in sediment and soil samples collected near the Santos and Sao Vicente estuary was determined using the fission track registration technique (SSNTD). The sediment and soil samples after oven-dried and pulverized were prepared in the solution form. Around 10 μL of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector (PCLIGHT) and irradiated at the IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor. After the irradiation and chemical etching of the plastic foils, the fission tracks were counted with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and a PC computer. The U content in the analyzed samples ranged from 3.12 ± 0.55 to 18.3 ± 1.2 ppm for sediments and from 3.21 ± 0.63 to 11.5 ± 1.1 ppm for soils. These results were compared to other values reported in the literature for sediments and soils collected in environments similar to the ones studied in this work The average values for the U content obtained in this work are significant higher (above twice) than the world mean and are in reasonable agreement with results found by other authors for sediments and soils from regions considered as polluted or with a high level of radioactivity. (author)

  9. Occurrence and quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in soil and air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Balderrama-Carmona

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Soil and air inhalation and/or ingestion are important vehicles for these parasites. To our knowledge, the results obtained in the present study represent the first QMRAs for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis due to soil and air inhalation/ingestion in Mexico. In addition, this is the first evidence of the microbial air quality around these parasites in rural zones.

  10. Study on natural radioactive elements in soil and rock samples around Mandya district, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumara, B.C.; Paramesh, L.; Shashikumar, T.S.; Chandrashekara, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The soil is a complex mixture of different compounds and rocks. In the natural environment, it is an important source of exposure to radiation due to naturally occurring, gamma emitting radionuclides which include 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K present in the soil. The study of distribution of these radionuclides in soil and rock is of great importance for radiation protection and measurements. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in soil and rock samples collected in Mandya District, Karnataka state, India have been measured by gamma ray spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K (Bq/kg) are found to be 40.2, 62.3, and 317.5 Bq/kg, respectively, in soil samples and 30.5, 34.4, and 700.2 Bq/kg, respectively, in rock samples. The concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples are found to higher than in rock samples. The concentrations of radionuclides in soil and rock samples in the study area are slightly higher than Indian average and world average values. (author)

  11. Quality control for measurement of soil samples containing 237Np and 241Am as radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Zhang Caihong; Song Hailong; Ren Xiaona; Han Yuhu; Zhang Aiming; Chu Taiwei

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports quality control (QC) for the measurement of soil samples containing 237 Np and 241 Am as radiotracers in migration test of transuranic nuclides. All of the QC were done independently by the QA members of analytical work. It mainly included checking 5%-10% of the total analyzed samples; preparing blank samples, blind replicate sample and spiked samples used as quality control samples to check the quality of analytical work

  12. Decision support tool for soil sampling of heterogeneous pesticide (chlordecone) pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostre, Florence; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie; Achard, Raphaël; Letourmy, Philippe; Cabidoche, Yves-Marie; Cattan, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    When field pollution is heterogeneous due to localized pesticide application, as is the case of chlordecone (CLD), the mean level of pollution is difficult to assess. Our objective was to design a decision support tool to optimize soil sampling. We analyzed the CLD heterogeneity of soil content at 0-30- and 30-60-cm depth. This was done within and between nine plots (0.4 to 1.8 ha) on andosol and ferralsol. We determined that 20 pooled subsamples per plot were a satisfactory compromise with respect to both cost and accuracy. Globally, CLD content was greater for andosols and the upper soil horizon (0-30 cm). Soil organic carbon cannot account for CLD intra-field variability. Cropping systems and tillage practices influence the CLD content and distribution; that is CLD pollution was higher under intensive banana cropping systems and, while upper soil horizon was more polluted than the lower one with shallow tillage (pollution in the soil profile. The decision tool we proposed compiles and organizes these results to better assess CLD soil pollution in terms of sampling depth, distance, and unit at field scale. It accounts for sampling objectives, farming practices (cropping system, tillage), type of soil, and topographical characteristics (slope) to design a relevant sampling plan. This decision support tool is also adaptable to other types of heterogeneous agricultural pollution at field level.

  13. Hay-bait traps are a useful tool for sampling of soil dwelling millipedes and centipedes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuf, I. H.; Chmelík, V.; Dobroruka, I.; Habová, L.; Hudcová, P.; Šipoš, Jan; Stašiov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 510 (2015), s. 197-207 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chilopoda * populations * diplopoda * Diplopoda * Chilopoda * soil sampling * agroecosystem * soil fauna Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015

  14. Soil sampling and extraction methods with possible application to pear thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Bater

    1991-01-01

    Techniques are described for the sampling and extraction of microarthropods from soil and the potential of these methods to extract the larval stages of the pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), from soil cores taken in sugar maple stands. Also described is a design for an emergence trap that could be used to estimate adult thrips...

  15. ANALYSIS OF SOIL AND DUST SAMPLES FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in house dust and soil. Soil and house dust samples were analyzed for PCB by both gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD) and ELISA methods. A correlati...

  16. Utility of the microculture method in non-invasive samples obtained from an experimental murine model with asymptomatic leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Malahat; Cakir-Koc, Rabia; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga Nehir; Canim-Ates, Sezen; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Yesilkir-Baydar, Serap

    2012-07-01

    The sensitivity of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) decreases because of the low number of parasites and antibody amounts in asymptomatic healthy donors who are not suitable for invasive sample acquisition procedures. Therefore, new studies are urgently needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic approaches in non-invasive samples. In this study, the sensitivity of the microculture method (MCM) was compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) methods in an experimental murine model with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. Results showed that the percent of positive samples in ELISA, IFAT, and peripheral blood (PB) -PCR tests were 17.64%, 8.82%, and 5.88%, respectively, whereas 100% positive results were obtained with MCM and MCM-PCR methods. Thus, this study, for the first time, showed that MCM is more sensitive, specific, and economic than other methods, and the sensitivity of PCR that was performed to samples obtained from MCM was higher than sensitivity of the PCR method sampled by PB.

  17. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.

  18. TRAN-STAT: statistics for environmental studies, Number 22. Comparison of soil-sampling techniques for plutonium at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Hahn, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    A summary of a field soil sampling study conducted around the Rocky Flats Colorado plant in May 1977 is preseted. Several different soil sampling techniques that had been used in the area were applied at four different sites. One objective was to comparethe average 239 - 240 Pu concentration values obtained by the various soil sampling techniques used. There was also interest in determining whether there are differences in the reproducibility of the various techniques and how the techniques compared with the proposed EPA technique of sampling to 1 cm depth. Statistically significant differences in average concentrations between the techniques were found. The differences could be largely related to the differences in sampling depth-the primary physical variable between the techniques. The reproducibility of the techniques was evaluated by comparing coefficients of variation. Differences between coefficients of variation were not statistically significant. Average (median) coefficients ranged from 21 to 42 percent for the five sampling techniques. A laboratory study indicated that various sample treatment and particle sizing techniques could increase the concentration of plutonium in the less than 10 micrometer size fraction by up to a factor of about 4 compared to the 2 mm size fraction

  19. Characterization of Volatiles Loss from Soil Samples at Lunar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Smith, Jim; Roush, Ted; Colaprete, Anthony; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Wang, Alex; Paz, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Resource Prospector Integrated Thermal Vacuum Test Program A series of ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations for RP Volatiles loss during sampling operations Hardware performance Sample removal and transfer Concept of operationsInstrumentation5 test campaigns over 5 years have been conducted with RP hardware with advancing hardware designs and additional RP subsystems Volatiles sampling 4 years Using flight-forward regolith sampling hardware, empirically determine volatile retention at lunar-relevant conditions Use data to improve theoretical predictions Determine driving variables for retention Bound water loss potential to define measurement uncertainties. The main goal of this talk is to introduce you to our approach to characterizing volatiles loss for RP. Introduce the facility and its capabilities Overview of the RP hardware used in integrated testing (most recent iteration) Summarize the test variables used thus farReview a sample of the results.

  20. Determination of pyridine in soil and water samples of a polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van

    1994-01-01

    A method for the analyses of pyridine in environmental samples is described. For soil samples a distillation procedure followed by an extraction, an acidic extraction or a Soxhlet extraction can be used. For water samples a distillation procedure followed by extraction can be employed. Deuterated pyridine is used as an internal standard and the extracts are analyzed by GC-MS. The recoveries of the methods are higher than 80%; the detection limits for pyridine are 0.01 mg/kg for soil samples and 0.2 μg/l for water samples. (orig.)

  1. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  2. A study for natural radioactivity levels in some soil samples using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Yousif Hassab El Rasoul

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a few selected soil samples and to study their natural radioactivity using gamma spectrometry. The first sample was a rock phosphate from Nuba mountains region which is being considered as a low cost fertilizer. Another sample came from Miri lake area (Nuba mountains) which is known to have elevated natural radioactivity level. The other four samples came from different other regions in Sudan for comparison. The idea was to identify the radioactive nuclides present in these soil samples, to trace their sources and to determine the activity present in them. (Author)

  3. Determination of radioactivity concentrations in soil samples and dose assessment for Rize Province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Durusoy

    2017-10-01

    The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were compared to the international values reported by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000 and previous studies on the area.

  4. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Toril , E.; Amils , R.; J. Delmas , Robert; Petit , Jean-Robert; Komarek , J.; Elster , J.

    2009-01-01

    Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas), in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic) media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed...

  5. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in aerosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes)

    OpenAIRE

    González-Toril , E.; Amils , R.; Delmas , R. J.; Petit , J.-R.; Komárek , J.; Elster , J.

    2008-01-01

    Four different communities and one culture of pigmented microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation in mineral medium of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas). Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells be...

  6. Mixed functional monomers-based monolithic adsorbent for the effective extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Miao; Zhu, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaojia

    2018-01-05

    Effective extraction is a key step in the determination of sulfonylurea herbicides (SUHs) in complicated samples. According to the chemical properties of SUHs, a new monolithic adsorbent utilizing acrylamidophenylboronic acid and vinylimidazole as mixed functional monomers was synthesized. The new adsorbent was employed as the extraction phase of multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction (MMF-SPME) of SUHs, and the extracted SUHs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Results well evidence that the prepared adsorbent could extract SUHs in environmental waters and soil effectively through multiply interactions such as boronate affinity, dipole-dipole and π-π interactions. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the limits of detection for target SUHs in environmental water and soil samples were 0.018-0.17μg/L and 0.14-1.23μg/kg, respectively. At the same time, the developed method also displayed some analytical merits including wide linear dynamic ranges, good method reproducibility, satisfactory sensitivity and low consume of organic solvent. Finally, the developed were successfully applied to monitor trace SUHs in environmental water and soil samples. The recoveries at three fortified concentrations were in the range of 70.6-119% with RSD below 11% in all cases. The obtained results well demonstrate the excellent practical applicability of the developed MMF-SPME-HPLC-DAD method for the monitoring of SUHs in water and soil samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas), in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic) media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone). The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  8. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in Spain: analysis and evaluation of the results obtained from amniotic fluid samples during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mademont-Soler, Irene; Morales, Carme; Clusellas, Núria; Soler, Anna; Sánchez, Aurora

    2011-08-01

    Chromosome abnormalities are one of the main causes of congenital defects, and establishing their frequency according to the different clinical indications for invasive procedure during pregnancy is especially important for genetic counselling. We analyzed the results of 29,883 amniotic fluid samples referred to our laboratory for cytogenetic studies from 1998 to 2009, which constitutes the largest series of cytogenetic analysis performed on amniotic fluid samples in Spain. The number of samples received tended to increase from 1998 to 2005, but after 2005 it decreased substantially. Cytogenetic results were obtained in 99.5% of the samples, and the detected incidence of chromosome abnormalities was 2.9%. Of these, 48.1% consisted of classical autosomal aneuploidies, trisomy 21 being the most frequent one. The main clinical indications for amniocentesis were positive prenatal screening and advanced maternal age, but referral reasons with highest positive predictive values were, excluding parental chromosome rearrangement, increased nuchal translucency (9.2%) and ultrasound abnormalities (6.6%). In conclusion, performing the karyotype on amniotic fluid samples is a good method for the detection of chromosome abnormalities during pregnancy. The number of cytogenetic studies on amniotic fluid has now decreased, however, due to the implementation of first trimester prenatal screening for the detection of Down syndrome, which allows karyotyping on chorionic villus samples. Our results also show that both ultrasound abnormalities and increased nuchal translucency are excellent clinical indicators for fetal chromosome abnormality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Optimized DNA Analysis Workflow for the Sampling, Extraction, and Concentration of DNA obtained from Archived Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, April D; Hytinen, Madison E; McClain, Aryn M; Miller, Marilyn T; Dawson Cruz, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    DNA profiles have been obtained from fingerprints, but there is limited knowledge regarding DNA analysis from archived latent fingerprints-touch DNA "sandwiched" between adhesive and paper. Thus, this study sought to comparatively analyze a variety of collection and analytical methods in an effort to seek an optimized workflow for this specific sample type. Untreated and treated archived latent fingerprints were utilized to compare different biological sampling techniques, swab diluents, DNA extraction systems, DNA concentration practices, and post-amplification purification methods. Archived latent fingerprints disassembled and sampled via direct cutting, followed by DNA extracted using the QIAamp® DNA Investigator Kit, and concentration with Centri-Sep™ columns increased the odds of obtaining an STR profile. Using the recommended DNA workflow, 9 of the 10 samples provided STR profiles, which included 7-100% of the expected STR alleles and two full profiles. Thus, with carefully selected procedures, archived latent fingerprints can be a viable DNA source for criminal investigations including cold/postconviction cases. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Potential denitrification in arable soil samples at winter temperatures - measurements by 15N gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.; Foerster, I.; Matzel, W.

    1989-01-01

    In samples from the plough horizon of five soils taken after cereal harvest, denitrification was measured as volatilization of N 2 and N 2 O from 15 N nitrate in the absence of O 2 . Nitrate contents lower than 50 ppm N (related to soil dry matter) had only a small effect on denitrification velocity in four of the five soils. In a clay soil dependence on nitrate concentration corresponded to a first-order reaction. Available C was no limiting factor. Even at zero temperatures remarkable N amounts (on average 0.2 ppm N per day) were still denitrified. The addition of daily turnover rates in relation to soil temperatures prevailing from December to March revealed potential turnovers in the 0-to-30-cm layer of the soils to average 28 ± 5 ppm N. (author)

  11. Analysis of medicinal plants and soil sample from Haridwar region by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of leaves and stems of four medicinal plants namely Kalmegh, Amaltas, Moalshri, and Arusa were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Soil from same location was analyzed. Though concentrations of many elements were determined in the plant samples, results of selected elements namely Na, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and As are discussed in this paper. The results show that all medicinal plants analyzed have lower elemental contents except Zn compared to the soil. (author)

  12. 76 FR 11334 - Safety Zone; Soil Sampling; Chicago River, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the North Branch of the Chicago River near Chicago, Illinois. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the North Branch of the Chicago River due to soil sampling in this area. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the soil sampling efforts.

  13. Procedure for plutonium analysis of large (100g) soil and sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.W.T.; Schweiger, J.S.; Mendoza, B.; Stone, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method for the complete dissolution of large soil or sediment samples is described. This method is in routine usage at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the analysis of fall-out levels of Pu in soils and sediments. Intercomparison with partial dissolution (leach) techniques shows the complete dissolution method to be superior for the determination of plutonium in a wide variety of environmental samples. (author)

  14. EG ampersand G Mount Plant, December 1990 and January 1991, D ampersand D soil box sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred eighty-two (682) containers of soil were generated at Mound Plant between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of the excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program sites; these areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building Area. The soils from these areas are part of the Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. These containers of soil are currently in storage at Mound Plant. The purpose of this sampling and analysis was to demonstrate that the D ampersand D soils comply with the waste acceptance requirements of the NTS, as presented In Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements (DOE 1988). The sealed waste packages, constructed of wood or metal, are currently being stored In Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound Plant. For additional historical information concerning the D ampersand D soils, Including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data see the Sampling and Analysis Plan for Mound Plant D ampersand D Soils Packages (EG ampersand G 1991)

  15. Representing major soil variability at regional scale by constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling of remote sensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.; Bruin, de S.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sparse, remote sensing-based sampling approach making use of conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) to assess variability in soil properties at regional scale. The method optimizes the sampling scheme for a defined spatial population based on selected covariates, which are

  16. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of thermal properties of soil and concrete samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagola, Maria Alberdi; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Madsen, Søren

    February 2016 and February 2017. The presented work mainly consists of thermal property measurements. They become important as they form the basis for dimensioning a planned ground source heat pump installation based on closed loop vertical ground heat exchangers. This report complements the report......, the measurements of the properties of the concrete are treated. The work is extended in appendixes.......This document aims to present the laboratory work undertaken to analyse the thermal properties of the soil at two test sites in Denmark and the concrete produced by Centrum Pæle A/S, used to produce the pile heat exchangers studied in the present PhD project. The tasks have been carried out between...

  18. Sample size choices for XRCT scanning of highly unsaturated soil mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly unsaturated soil mixtures (clay, sand and gravel are used as building materials in many parts of the world, and there is increasing interest in understanding their mechanical and hydraulic behaviour. In the laboratory, x-ray computed tomography (XRCT is becoming more widely used to investigate the microstructures of soils, however a crucial issue for such investigations is the choice of sample size, especially concerning the scanning of soil mixtures where there will be a range of particle and void sizes. In this paper we present a discussion (centred around a new set of XRCT scans on sample sizing for scanning of samples comprising soil mixtures, where a balance has to be made between realistic representation of the soil components and the desire for high resolution scanning, We also comment on the appropriateness of differing sample sizes in comparison to sample sizes used for other geotechnical testing. Void size distributions for the samples are presented and from these some hypotheses are made as to the roles of inter- and intra-aggregate voids in the mechanical behaviour of highly unsaturated soils.

  19. Search for Extralunar Materials in Apollo Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.; Honniball, C.; Crites, S.; Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been proposed that the lunar surface is a pristine collector of material from across the solar system. The Moon is exposed to the same meteorite flux as the Earth, but because its surface is unaltered by processes such as plate tectonics, aqueous alteration, or recent volcanism, the Moon may have recorded a much longer meteoritic history than the chemically and physically active Earth. By studying lunar soils at the individual grain level, we have the potential to identify and study material from across the inner solar system. We have developed three hyperspectral imaging microscopes to search a large quantity of lunar soil grains for rare lunar, and extra-lunar minerals. We are using lunar-exotic mineralogy as a tracer to detect extralunar candidates. One hyperspectral microscope covers the 1-2.5 micron region for detection of water and hydroxyl overtones in alteration minerals such as phyllosilicates. The second instrument covers the 2.5 to 5 micron region to characterize the 3 micron water region, and for detection of organics and carbonates. The third covers the thermal infrared for detection of phosphates and zeolites as well as the major lunar silicates. We are examining 1 million grains of varying sizes from Apollo 11 ,12, 14 and 16 landing sites. Using the USGS spectral library and the Tetracorder mineral mapping algorithm, we are matching library mineral spectra with the grain spectra we acquire. To validate our ability to detect and match mineral spectra, we are conducting scans of relevent mineral seperates and mixtures at the individual grain level. Results of this mineral inventory will provide contraints on various models and estimates for material transfer between the terrestrial planets.

  20. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  1. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  2. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes; Siqueira, Maria Celia; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226 Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg -1 ) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg -1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  3. Modifier free supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from sintered UO2, soil and ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Acharya, R.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    Direct extraction of uranium from different samples viz. sintered UO 2 , soil and ores was carried out by modifier free supercritical fluid using tri-n-butyl phosphate-nitric acid (TBP-HNO 3 ) adduct as extractant. These studies showed that pre-equilibration with more concentrated nitric acid helps in better dissolution and extraction of uranium from sintered UO 2 samples. Modifier free supercritical fluid extraction appears attractive with respect to minimization of secondary wastes. This method resulted 80-100% extraction of uranium from different soil/ore samples. The results were confirmed by performing neutron activation analysis of original (before extraction) and residue (after extraction) samples. (author)

  4. Study of anti corrosive behaviour on A I 6061 samples covered with Ni-P alloys obtained by autocatalytic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, M. E; Barbero, J. A; Bubach, E

    2006-01-01

    There are many ways to keep safe an industrial material from corrosion attack.One is covering the piece with a layer of another material which corrosion resistance is higher to the one of the element to protect.The anticorrosion protection mechanism is achieved by the formation of a physical pore less barrier without any defects.This avoid the arrival of those agents from environment responsible of electrochemical attack.In this paper, corrosion resistance of metallic coatings over nuclear usage aluminum samples is analyzed.Our interest is aimed on nickel I phosphorous alloy coatings (Ni I P) obtained by electroless method (autocatalytic) over Al 6061 alloy samples.A comparative study is carried on with different phosphorous contents but always under 12 %.This job is completed with other nickel coating, Vitro vac 0080 (with no phosphorous content) in order to compare structures and anti corrosive properties.Besides, the comparison between mentioned materials and aluminum samples is made.The study is carried on using superficial characterization of each sample with or without coating through a series of complementary techniques such as chemical, electrochemical (linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, polarization resistance determination) and physical (scanning electronic microscopy, hardness determination) techniques.Finally, variable correlation is made as a function of the phosphorous content in the samples used in the experiences.The coating structure obtained is amorphous.It presents no pore or failure and its hardness shows important values.The electrochemical analysis allows to check that anti corrosive protection capacity of Ni-P alloy increases with the phosphorous content in the coat. Al 6061 by itself demonstrate an electrochemically bad behaviour.Substrate I coating adherence is very good [es

  5. Using Environmental Variables for Studying of the Quality of Sampling in Soil Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methods of soil survey are generally empirical and based on the mental development of the surveyor, correlating soil with underlying geology, landforms, vegetation and air-photo interpretation. Since there are no statistical criteria for traditional soil sampling; this may lead to bias in the areas being sampled. In digital soil mapping, soil samples may be used to elaborate quantitative relationships or models between soil attributes and soil covariates. Because the relationships are based on the soil observations, the quality of the resulting soil map depends also on the soil observation quality. An appropriate sampling design for digital soil mapping depends on how much data is available and where the data is located. Some statistical methods have been developed for optimizing data sampling for soil surveys. Some of these methods deal with the use of ancillary information. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of sampling of existing data. Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the central basin of the Iranian plateau (Figure 1. The geologic infrastructure of the area is mainly Cretaceous limestone, Mesozoic shale and sandstone. Air photo interpretation (API was used to differentiate geomorphic patterns based on their formation processes, general structure and morphometry. The patterns were differentiated through a nested geomorphic hierarchy (Fig. 2. A four-level geomorphic hierarchy is used to breakdown the complexity of different landscapes of the study area. In the lower level of the hierarchy, the geomorphic surfaces, which were formed by a unique process during a specific geologic time, were defined. A stratified sampling scheme was designed based on geomorphic mapping. In the stratified simple random sampling, the area was divided into sub-areas referred to as strata based on geomorphic surfaces, and within each stratum, sampling locations were randomly selected (Figure 2. This resulted in 191

  6. The feasible research with measuring radon for taking the soils sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bing, Ge Liangquan; Liu Hefan; Li Yeqiang; Zhang Jinzhao; Song Xiao'an

    2010-01-01

    It explains the mechanism of the separation of soil's radon. Through the designed experiment, it confirms the feasibility of measuring radon for taking the soil's sample. It determines the content of the radon and its sub field with indoor and outside through ways of the activated charcoal adsorption, the initiative suction and the diameter mark etching, also the 226 Ra. The paper indicates: it is feasible with measuring radon for taking the soil's sample, and the stability of data is that indoor data are better than outside's. The temperature, the humidity, the rainfall amount, the intensity and so on are the serious influence of the data. If you want to take a soil's sample, you must avoid the rain as far as possible, and avoid the fault zone, the belt of folded strata and complex geologic structure region, and so on. (authors)

  7. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  8. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials.

  9. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami; Uchida; Hamilton; Robison

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 (99Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (MI) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g(-1) dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for 99Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g(-1) dw under standard operating conditions.

  10. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g -1 dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g -1 dw under standard operating conditions

  11. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  12. Measurement of technetium-99 in Marshall Islands soil samples by ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K. E-mail: k_tagami@nirs.go.jp; Uchida, S.; Hamilton, T.; Robison, W

    2000-07-15

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq g{sup -1} dry weight (dw). The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq g{sup -1} dw under standard operating conditions.

  13. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  14. Rapid assessment of soil and groundwater tritium by vegetation sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A rapid and relatively inexpensive technique for defining the extent of groundwater contamination by tritium has been investigated. The technique uses existing vegetation to sample the groundwater. Water taken up by deep rooted trees is collected by enclosing tree branches in clear plastic bags. Water evaporated from the leaves condenses on the inner surface of the bag. The water is removed from the bag with a syringe. The bags can be sampled many times. Tritium in the water is detected by liquid scintillation counting. The water collected in the bags has no color and counts as well as distilled water reference samples. The technique was used in an area of known tritium contamination and proved to be useful in defining the extent of tritium contamination

  15. Spatial Variation of Soil Lead in an Urban Community Garden: Implications for Risk-Based Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdalski, Lauren; Lemke, Lawrence D; McElmurry, Shawn P

    2014-01-01

    Soil lead pollution is a recalcitrant problem in urban areas resulting from a combination of historical residential, industrial, and transportation practices. The emergence of urban gardening movements in postindustrial cities necessitates accurate assessment of soil lead levels to ensure safe gardening. In this study, we examined small-scale spatial variability of soil lead within a 15 × 30 m urban garden plot established on two adjacent residential lots located in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Eighty samples collected using a variably spaced sampling grid were analyzed for total, fine fraction (less than 250 μm), and bioaccessible soil lead. Measured concentrations varied at sampling scales of 1-10 m and a hot spot exceeding 400 ppm total soil lead was identified in the northwest portion of the site. An interpolated map of total lead was treated as an exhaustive data set, and random sampling was simulated to generate Monte Carlo distributions and evaluate alternative sampling strategies intended to estimate the average soil lead concentration or detect hot spots. Increasing the number of individual samples decreases the probability of overlooking the hot spot (type II error). However, the practice of compositing and averaging samples decreased the probability of overestimating the mean concentration (type I error) at the expense of increasing the chance for type II error. The results reported here suggest a need to reconsider U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampling objectives and consequent guidelines for reclaimed city lots where soil lead distributions are expected to be nonuniform. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Sampling and analysis plan for Mount Plant D ampersand D soils packages, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    There are currently 682 containers of soils in storage at Mound Plant, generated between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program sites. These areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building area. The soils from these areas are part of Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The sealed waste packages, constructed of either wood or metal, are currently being stored in Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound facility. At a meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada on October, 26, 1990, DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE-NV) and NTS representatives requested that the Mound Plant D ampersand D soils proposed for shipment to NTS be sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents. On December 14, 1990, DOE-NV also requested that additional analyses be performed on the soils from one of the soils boxes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), particle size distribution, and free liquids. The purpose of this plan is to document the proposed sampling and analyses of the packages of D ampersand D soils produced prior to October 31, 1990. In order to provide a thorough description of the soils excavated from the WTS and SM areas, sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide historical Information concerning the D ampersand D soils, including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data

  17. Behaviour of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers obtained from sewage sludge and chicken feathers. Effects on soil biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    We studied the behaviour of oxyfluorfen herbicide at a rate of 4 l ha(-1) on biological properties of a Calcaric Regosol amended with two edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (SS, derived from sewage sludge; and CF, derived from chicken feathers). Oxyfluorfen was surface broadcast on 11 March 2013. Two days after application of oxyfluorfen to soil, both biostimulants/biofertilizers (BS) were also applied to the soil. An unamended soil without oxyfluorfen was used as control. For 2, 4, 7, 9, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of the application of herbicide to the soil and for each treatment, the soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities were measured. For 2, 7, 30 and 120 days of the application of herbicide to the soil and for each treatment, soil microbial community was determined. The application of both BS to soil without the herbicide increased the enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity, mainly at 7 days of beginning the experiment. However, this stimulation was higher in the soil amended with SS than for CF. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly, the low-molecular-weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms is responsible for less inhibition of these soil biological properties.

  18. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples | Steiner-Asiedu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was ...

  19. Influence of sintering parameters in the ferroelectric properties os strontium bismuth tantalate samples obtained by oxide mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R.R. de; Pereira, A.S.; Sousa, V.C.; Egea, J.R.J.

    2012-01-01

    The family of compounds layered-type perovskite, know as Aurivilius presents great alternative not only by the absence of lead in the composition, but because the polarization retention, replacing PZT in FeRAM devices. The strontium bismuth tantalate (SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 ) or SBT is ferroelectric material that has attracted considerable interest, since it has high fatigue resistance, supporting high hysteresis loops, with the change in polarization.Checking polarization and depolarization currents stimulated by temperature it is possible to obtain, for example, information about the nature of charges and about the activation energy for the process of dielectric relaxation. For analysis of ferroelectric properties of this compound, it is essential to obtain specimens with a relative density around 95%. Thus, it is important the optimization of the sintering process in order to obtain a ceramic body with a high densification. The influence of sintering parameters to obtain SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 in the polarization properties and in the microstructure of sintered samples was investigated by thermostimulated currents and electronic microscopy, respectively. Results show that variation of these parameters may cause changes in the ferroelectric properties of the material. (author)

  20. Rietveld analysis using powder diffraction data with anomalous scattering effect obtained by focused beam flat sample method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Masahiko, E-mail: masahiko@spring8.or.jp; Katsuya, Yoshio, E-mail: katsuya@spring8.or.jp; Sakata, Osami, E-mail: SAKATA.Osami@nims.go.jp [Synchrotron X-ray Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    Focused-beam flat-sample method (FFM) is a new trial for synchrotron powder diffraction method, which is a combination of beam focusing optics, flat shape powder sample and area detectors. The method has advantages for X-ray diffraction experiments applying anomalous scattering effect (anomalous diffraction), because of 1. Absorption correction without approximation, 2. High intensity X-rays of focused incident beams and high signal noise ratio of diffracted X-rays 3. Rapid data collection with area detectors. We applied the FFM to anomalous diffraction experiments and collected synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (inverse spinel structure) using X-rays near Fe K absorption edge, which can distinguish Co and Fe by anomalous scattering effect. We conducted Rietveld analyses with the obtained powder diffraction data and successfully determined the distribution of Co and Fe ions in CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal structure.

  1. Rietveld analysis using powder diffraction data with anomalous scattering effect obtained by focused beam flat sample method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masahiko; Katsuya, Yoshio; Sakata, Osami

    2016-01-01

    Focused-beam flat-sample method (FFM) is a new trial for synchrotron powder diffraction method, which is a combination of beam focusing optics, flat shape powder sample and area detectors. The method has advantages for X-ray diffraction experiments applying anomalous scattering effect (anomalous diffraction), because of 1. Absorption correction without approximation, 2. High intensity X-rays of focused incident beams and high signal noise ratio of diffracted X-rays 3. Rapid data collection with area detectors. We applied the FFM to anomalous diffraction experiments and collected synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data of CoFe_2O_4 (inverse spinel structure) using X-rays near Fe K absorption edge, which can distinguish Co and Fe by anomalous scattering effect. We conducted Rietveld analyses with the obtained powder diffraction data and successfully determined the distribution of Co and Fe ions in CoFe_2O_4 crystal structure.

  2. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  3. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  4. Rapid Fractionation and Isolation of Whole Blood Components in Samples Obtained from a Community-based Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckle, Amy; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro; Coulborn, Rebecca M; Soliven, Richelo; Meier, Helen; Wildman, Derek E

    2015-11-30

    Collection and processing of whole blood samples in a non-clinical setting offers a unique opportunity to evaluate community-dwelling individuals both with and without preexisting conditions. Rapid processing of these samples is essential to avoid degradation of key cellular components. Included here are methods for simultaneous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), DNA, RNA and serum isolation from a single blood draw performed in the homes of consenting participants across a metropolitan area, with processing initiated within 2 hr of collection. We have used these techniques to process over 1,600 blood specimens yielding consistent, high quality material, which has subsequently been used in successful DNA methylation, genotyping, gene expression and flow cytometry analyses. Some of the methods employed are standard; however, when combined in the described manner, they enable efficient processing of samples from participants of population- and/or community-based studies who would not normally be evaluated in a clinical setting. Therefore, this protocol has the potential to obtain samples (and subsequently data) that are more representative of the general population.

  5. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in residential soil and drinking water obtained from springs and wells in Rosia Montana area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in n=84 residential soil samples, in Rosia Montana area, analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are...

  6. Degradation of hydrocarbons in soil samples analyzed within accepted analytical holding times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.; Thomey, N.; Dietlein, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    Samples which are collected in conjunction with subsurface investigations at leaking petroleum storage tank sites and petroleum refineries are routinely analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX), and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Water samples are preserved by the addition of hydrochloric acid and maintained at four degrees centigrade prior to analysis. This is done to prevent bacterial degradation of hydrocarbons. Chemical preservation is not presently performed on soil samples. Instead, the samples are cooled and maintained at four degrees centigrade. This study was done to measure the degree of degradation of hydrocarbons in soil samples which are analyzed within accepted holding times. Soil samples were collected and representative subsamples were prepared from the initial sample. Subsamples were analyzed in triplicate for BTEX and TPH throughout the length of the approved holding times to measure the extent of sample constituent degradation prior to analysis. Findings imply that for sandy soils, BTEX and TPH concentrations can be highly dependent upon the length of time which elapses between sample collection and analysis

  7. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds with the areas of 0.2–3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE. Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R, soil erodibility factor (K, slope steepness factor (S, and slope length factor (L derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

  8. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuiqing; Zhu, Zhengyuan; Wang, Li; Liu, Baoyuan; Xie, Yun; Wang, Guannan; Li, Yishan

    2018-03-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds) with the areas of 0.2-3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE). Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST) method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs) in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope steepness factor (S), and slope length factor (L) derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME) being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data

  9. Isolation and Screening of Potential Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Bacteria from Soil Sample for Degradation of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupal Govinda Shrestha

    2016-11-01

    them with the aptitude to produce stable enzymes, little emphasis has been given to cellulose/xylanase production from bacteria. Seven soil samples were collected from eastern hilly districts of Nepal viz. Taplejung, Panchthar and Sankhuwasabha districts, from soil surface and at depth of 10cm to 20cm, and were isolated separately. From the seven soil samples, four bacterial isolates were obtained. Isolates (PSS, P1D, TLC, SNK were then screened for cellulolytic/xylanolytic activity using Congo red assay on Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC/xylan agar plates. The enzyme activity obtained from isolates was dependent on substrate concentration. The activity of enzymes produced by isolates were also measured and compared on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. Among those samples, the greatest zone of inhibition in both CMC (1.3 cm and xylan (1.0 cm agar media was seen in isolate P1D. It also produced the highest activity of endoglucanase and xylanase i.e. activity 0.035 U/mL and 0.050 U/mL respectively at 0.010 mg mL-1 standard substrate concentration of CMC and xylan.

  10. Perspectives among a Diverse Sample of Women on the Possibility of Obtaining Oral Contraceptives Over the Counter: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sarah; Burns, Bridgit; Davis, Laura; Yeung, Miriam; Scott, Cherisse; Grindlay, Kate; Grossman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing support among stakeholders in the United States to make oral contraceptives (OCs) available over the counter (OTC). Previous research on the topic has focused on representative samples of U.S. women, Latina women, low-income women, and abortion clients. However, little is known about the perspectives of African American women, Asian American women, and young women. We conducted 14 focus group discussions with 138 women. Twenty-three percent of participants were ages 18 or younger, 61% were African American, and 26% were Asian American/Pacific Islander. Community organizations recruited participants through convenience sampling and hosted the discussions. Focus groups were transcribed and coded thematically. Women reported potential benefits of OTC access, including convenience and privacy. Many believed OTC availability of OCs would help to reduce unintended pregnancy and help to destigmatize birth control. Participants also expressed concerns about OTC access, such as worry that first-time users and young adolescents would not have enough information to use the pill safely and effectively, as well as concerns about whether women would still obtain preventive screenings. Women were also worried that the cost of OTC OCs would be higher if insurance no longer covered them. Overall, women were interested in the option of obtaining the pill OTC. Future research and advocacy efforts should explore women's concerns, including whether adolescents can effectively use OTC pills and ensuring insurance coverage for OTC contraception. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Online recovery of radiocesium from soil, tissue paper and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of recovery of radio-cesium from soil, tissue papers, and plant samples has been evaluated by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) route employing calix(4)arene-mono(crown-6) (CC) dissolved in acetonitrile. These studies showed that quantitative recovery of 137 Cs from soil samples was difficult under the conditions of these studies. However, experiments performed on tissue papers (cellulose matrix) showed quantitative recovery of 137 Cs. On the other hand, 137 Cs recovery from plant samples varied between ∼50 % (for stems) and ∼67.2 % (for leaves) employing 1x10 -3 M CC + 4 M HNO 3 dissolved in acetonitrile. (author)

  12. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol....... These are separated and identified using High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) with fluorescence detection. As an additional detection method Infra Red spectrometry (IR) is employed for selected samples. The methods have been used on aerosol, soil and other samples....

  13. Radon exhalation rates from soil and sand samples collected from the vicinity of Yamuna river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.K.; Sushil Kumar; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Soil, sand and stones are the most popular building materials for Indian dwellings. Radon is released into ambient air from these materials due to ubiquitous uranium and radium in them, thus increasing the airborne radon concentration. The radioactivity in sand and soils is related to radioactivity in the rocks from which they are formed. These materials contain varying amount of uranium. In the present investigation, the radon emanated from soil and sand samples from different locations in the vicinity of Yamuna river has been estimated. The samples have been collected from different locations near the Yamuna river. The samples collecting sites are from Yamunanagar in Haryana to Delhi. The radon concentration in different samples has been calculated, based upon the data, the mass and the surface exhalation rates of radon emanated from them have also been calculated

  14. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-05

    the second principal component (PC2) is recorded by C18:3 n-3, and C20:3 n-6, being present in a higher amount in the samples treated by the modified Soxhlet extraction, while C22:5 n-3, C20:3 n-3, C22:1 and C20:4, C16 and C18 negatively influence the score values of the PC2, showing significantly increased level in the samples treated by ASE method. Hotelling's paired T-square test used on the first three principal components for confirmation of differences in individual fatty acid content obtained by ASE and Soxhlet method in carp muscle showed statistically significant difference between these two data sets (T(2)=161.308, p<0.001). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Le Cong; Tao, Chau Van; Thong, Luong Van; Linh, Duong Mong [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Physics and Engineering Physics; Dong, Nguyen Van [University of Science Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Faculty of Chemistry

    2011-08-15

    In this study, a simple procedure for the determination of natural uranium, thorium and radium isotopes in water and soil samples by alpha spectroscopy is described. This procedure allows a sequential extraction polonium, uranium, thorium and radium radionuclides from the same sample in two to three days. It was tested and validated with the analysis of certified reference materials from the IAEA. (orig.)

  16. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  17. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Sudhir; Asha Rani; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells having depths ranging from 50 to 600 feet. All the soil gas measurements have been carried out at 100 cm depth. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l -1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l -1 . Only in one water sample radon concentration is found to be higher than the safe limit of 11 Bq l -1 recommended US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991). The measured value of radon concentration in all ground water samples is within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l -1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008). The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60 μSV y -1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y -1 . The total annual effective dose from all locations of our studied area is found to be well within the safe limit 0.1 mSv y -1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (ED, 1998). Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10050 Bq m -3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m -3 , The radon concentration observed from the soil samples from our study area lies within the range reported by other investigators. Moreover a positive correlation of radon concentration in water with soil samples has been observed. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard. (author)

  18. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  19. Atomic absorption determination of metals in soils using ultrasonic sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmilenko, F.A.; Smityuk, N.M.; Baklanov, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    It was shown that ultrasonic treatment accelerates sample preparation of soil extracts from chernozem into different solvents by a factor of 6 to 60. These extracts are used for the atomic absorption determination of soluble species of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The optimum ultrasound parameters (frequency, intensity, and treatment time) were found for preparing soil extracts containing analytes in concentrations required in agrochemical procedures. Different extractants used to extract soluble heavy metals from soils of an ordinary chernozem type in agrochemical procedures using ultrasonic treatment were classified in accordance with the element nature [ru

  20. A method for assessing residual NAPL based on organic chemical concentrations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Mackay, D.M.; Cherry, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Ground water contamination by non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals is a serious concern at many industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. NAPL in the form of immobile residual contamination, or pools of mobile or potentially mobile NAPL, can represent continuing sources of ground water contamination. In order to develop rational and cost-effective plans for remediation of soil and ground water contamination at such sites, it is essential to determine if non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals are present in the subsurface and delineate the zones of NAPL contamination. Qualitatively, soil analyses that exhibit chemical concentrations in the percent range or >10,000 mg/kg would generally be considered to indicate the presence of NAPL. However, the results of soil analyses are seldom used in a quantitative manner to assess the possible presence of residual NAPL contamination when chemical concentrations are lower and the presence of NAPL is not obvious. The assessment of the presence of NAPL in soil samples is possible using the results of chemical and physical analyses of the soil, and the fundamental principles of chemical partitioning in unsaturated or saturated soil. The method requires information on the soil of the type typically considered in ground water contamination studies and provides a simple tool for the investigators of chemical spill and waste disposal sites to assess whether soil chemical analyses indicate the presence of residual NAPL in the subsurface

  1. Optimal sample size of signs for classification of radiational and oily soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babayev, M.P.; Iskenderov, S.M.; Aghayev, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : This article tells about classification of radiational and oily soils that should be in essence a compact intelligence system which contains maximum information on classes of soil objects in the accepted feature space. The stored experience shows that the volume of the most informative soil signs can make up maximum 7-8 indexes. More correct approach to our opinion for a sample of the most informative (most important) indexes is the method of testing and mistakes, that is the experimental method, allowing to make use a wide experience and intuition of the researcher, or group of the researchers, engaged for many years in the field of soil science. At this operational stage of the formal device of soils classification, to say more concrete, the assessment section of selfdescriptiveness of soil signs of this formal device, in our opinion, is purely mathematized and in some cases even not reflect the true picture. In this case it will be calculated 21 pair of correlative elements between the selected soil signs as a measure of the linear communication. The volume of the correlative row will be equal to 6, as the increase in volume of the correlative row can sharply increase the volume calculation. Pertinently to note that, it is the first time an attempt is made to create correlative matrixes of the most important signs of radiation and oily soils

  2. Activity Concentration for Surface Soil Samples Collected from Arrant, Qena, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Salahel Din, K.; Abbady, A.; Moustafa, M.

    2010-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from four regions from Armant area. Qena, Upper Egypt for measure their natural radioactivity concentrations due to Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 radionuclides. Thirty-Four surface soil samples were analyzed by using low-level gamma-spectrometric analysis. The average activity concentration for Ra-226 in (Bq/kg) in the collected soil samples were found to be 27.3 ±3.2, 11.4±1.09, 10.6±1.2, and 11.4±1.02 while the average value for Th-232 were 15.1±1.4, 11.1±0.77, 10.8 ± 0.72 and 11.1 ± 0.8 (Bq/kg) for soil samples from North, South, West and East. The corresponding average values for K-40 were 521.4±16.8, 463±14.8, 488.9±15.6 and 344.5±10.7 (Bq/kg), respectively. Based on radionuclides concentration in surface soil samples the radiological effects can be assessed

  3. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  4. Critical evaluation of distillation procedure for the determination of methylmercury in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pablo A; Hintelman, Holger; Quiroz, Waldo; Bravo, Manuel A

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the efficiency of distillation process for extracting monomethylmercury (MMHg) from soil samples was studied and optimized using an experimental design methodology. The influence of soil composition on MMHg extraction was evaluated by testing of four soil samples with different geochemical characteristics. Optimization suggested that the acid concentration and the duration of the distillation process were most significant and the most favorable conditions, established as a compromise for the studied soils, were determined to be a 70 min distillation using an 0.2 M acid. Corresponding limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.21 and 0.7 pg absolute, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied with satisfactory results to soil samples and was compared to a reference methodology based on isotopic dilution analysis followed by gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IDA-GC-ICP-MS). Using the optimized conditions, recoveries ranged from 82 to 98%, which is an increase of 9-34% relative to the previously used standard operating procedure. Finally, the validated methodology was applied to quantify MMHg in soils collected from different sites impacted by coal fired power plants in the north-central zone of Chile, measuring MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.091 to 2.8 ng g -1 . These data are to the best of our knowledge the first MMHg measurements reported for Chile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Separation techniques for low-level determination of actinides in soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikenberg, J. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Department Logistics for Radiation Safety and Security, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)], E-mail: jost.eikenberg@psi.ch; Jaeggi, M.; Beer, H.; Ruethi, M.; Zumsteg, I. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Department Logistics for Radiation Safety and Security, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2009-05-15

    The separation methods for soil samples applied at PSI are based on extraction chromatography and ion exchange. After sample leaching, the actinides are pre-concentrated via precipitation using oxalic acid. Besides the classical separation methods applying the extraction chromatographic resins U/TEVA{sup TM} (for U, Th), TRU{sup TM} (Pu, Am), new methods were recently implemented to increase the radiochemical recovery of particularly trivalent Am and Cm. These methods do not require initial reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) but stabilize Pu on the tetravalent oxidation state using a mixture of NaNO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in strong acidic medium. The Pu-fraction is then fixed along with Th onto Dowex AG 1-X2 anion exchanger resin. Th is eluted via complexation with 10 M HCl, Pu via reduction with HI. The fractions of Am+Cm and U are loaded onto DGA{sup TM} resin. This resin shows extraordinary high distribution coefficients (k'-values) exceeding 10{sup 4} (for Am) in strong nitric acid medium. The separation between U and Am is obtained quantitatively by decreasing the HNO{sub 3} concentration from 3 to 0.25 M (stripping of the U-fraction) while Am can be easily eluted thereafter using 0.25 M HCl as complexation compound.

  6. Determination of 137Cs activities in soil samples from east and south Marmara region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Oe.; Belivermis, M.; Cotuk, Y.; Coskun, M.; Cayir, A.; Kuecer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 1 37Cs, 4 0K and physico-chemical parameters of soil samples collected from 99 sampling stations in the east and south of Marmara Region of Turkey were determined. The study region was divided into 20 x 20 km grids and soil samples collected randomly in each square from 0-5 cm surface layer. Activities were measured by means of multichannel gamma analyser provided with high purity germanium detector. Relations among 1 37Cs concentrations and physico-chemical parameters of soils and climatic factors of the region were evaluated. Arc View GIS version 3.1 was used mapping of study area. Distribution of radionuclide concentrations in the region illustrated with contour maps using Surfer 8.0 for Windows. The range of activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 4 0K were measured to be 0.92-153.72 and 69.24-1085.57 Bq/kg respectively

  7. Determination of Pu in soil samples; Determinacion de Pu en muestras de suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: carioli_32907@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of {sup 238}UH {sup +} in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  8. Optimization of deconvolution software used in the study of spectra of soil samples from Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDRIAMADY NARIMANANA, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform the deconvolution of gamma spectra by using the deconvolution peak program. Synthetic spectra, reference materials and ten soil samples with various U-238 activities from three regions of Madagascar were used. This work concerns : soil sample spectra with low activities of about (47±2) Bq.kg -1 from Ankatso, soil sample spectra with average activities of about (125±2)Bq.kg -1 from Antsirabe and soil sample spectra with high activities of about (21100± 120) Bq.kg -1 from Vinaninkarena. Singlet and multiplet peaks with various intensities were found in each soil spectrum. Interactive Peak Fit (IPF) program in Genie-PC from Canberra Industries allows to deconvoluate many multiplet regions : quartet within 235 keV-242 keV, Pb-214 and Pb-212 within 294 keV -301 keV; Th-232 daughters within 582 keV - 584 keV; Ac-228 within 904 keV -911 keV and within 964 keV-970 keV and Bi-214 within 1401 keV - 1408 keV. Those peaks were used to quantify considered radionuclides. However, IPF cannot resolve Ra-226 peak at 186,1 keV. [fr

  9. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in aerosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2008-04-01

    Four different communities and one culture of pigmented microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation in mineral medium of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas). Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed the identification of sequences belonging to Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the maritime Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clone). The only microorganism identified in the maritime Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. The two snow samples from the Alps only shared one common microorganism. Most of the identified microorganisms have been detected previously in cold environments (Dietzia kujamenisi, Pseudonocardia Antarctica, Hydrogenophaga palleronii and Brebundimonas sp.), marine sediments (Aquiflexus balticus, Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes, Pseudomonas sp. and one uncultured Alphaproteobacteria), and soils and rocks (Pseudonocardia sp., Agrobactrium sp., Limnobacter sp. and two uncultured Alphaproteobacetria clones). Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those

  10. High-throughput diagnosis of potato cyst nematodes in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex; Evans, Fiona; Mulholland, Vincent; Cole, Yvonne; Pickup, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a damaging soilborne pest of potatoes which can cause major crop losses. In 2010, a new European Union directive (2007/33/EC) on the control of PCN came into force. Under the new directive, seed potatoes can only be planted on land which has been found to be free from PCN infestation following an official soil test. A major consequence of the new directive was the introduction of a new harmonized soil sampling rate resulting in a threefold increase in the number of samples requiring testing. To manage this increase with the same staffing resources, we have replaced the traditional diagnostic methods. A system has been developed for the processing of soil samples, extraction of DNA from float material, and detection of PCN by high-throughput real-time PCR. Approximately 17,000 samples are analyzed each year using this method. This chapter describes the high-throughput processes for the production of float material from soil samples, DNA extraction from the entire float, and subsequent detection and identification of PCN within these samples.

  11. Effects of Spatial Sampling Interval on Roughness Parameters and Microwave Backscatter over Agricultural Soil Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ernesto Barber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial sampling interval, as related to the ability to digitize a soil profile with a certain number of features per unit length, depends on the profiling technique itself. From a variety of profiling techniques, roughness parameters are estimated at different sampling intervals. Since soil profiles have continuous spectral components, it is clear that roughness parameters are influenced by the sampling interval of the measurement device employed. In this work, we contributed to answer which sampling interval the profiles needed to be measured at to accurately account for the microwave response of agricultural surfaces. For this purpose, a 2-D laser profiler was built and used to measure surface soil roughness at field scale over agricultural sites in Argentina. Sampling intervals ranged from large (50 mm to small ones (1 mm, with several intermediate values. Large- and intermediate-sampling-interval profiles were synthetically derived from nominal, 1 mm ones. With these data, the effect of sampling-interval-dependent roughness parameters on backscatter response was assessed using the theoretical backscatter model IEM2M. Simulations demonstrated that variations of roughness parameters depended on the working wavelength and was less important at L-band than at C- or X-band. In any case, an underestimation of the backscattering coefficient of about 1-4 dB was observed at larger sampling intervals. As a general rule a sampling interval of 15 mm can be recommended for L-band and 5 mm for C-band.

  12. Study of the behavior to corrosion of samples of nuclear grade aluminium sheathed in nickel-phosphorous alloys obtained autocatalytically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maria Eugenia; Barbero, Jose Alfredo; Bubach, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    One of the ways to protect an industrially important metallic material against corrosion is by covering the piece with an approximately 1 μm layer of a material whose resistance to corrosion is greater than the element being protected. The mechanism by which the anticorrosive protection is obtained is with the formation of a pore free physical barrier without defects that impedes the arrival of the agents responsible for the electrochemical attack. Other sacrifice anodes such as aluminum or zinc have protective forms based on their dissolution as a consequence of their less electrochemically noble behavior to preserve the material. This work studies the resistance to the corrosion of metallic coatings on nuclear grade aluminum substrates. The focus is on coating nickel-phosphorous (ni-P) alloys obtained autocatalytically from aluminum 6061. A comparative study is carried out of a series of electroless nickel coatings containing different amounts of the latter element, but without surpassing the threshold of 12%. The work includes the study of another nickel coating, Vitrovac 0080 (without phosphorous content) in order to compare structures and anticorrosive properties. These materials are also compared with the Al6061 substrate without any kind of coating. The study is carried out with surface characterization of each one of the samples with or without coating using a series of complementary techniques, such as chemical and electrochemical techniques (linear-sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, determination of the polarization resistance) and physical techniques (SEM microscopy, determination of micro-hardness). The correlation of variables is carried out later as a function of the phosphorous content of the test samples. The structures obtained from the coatings are amorphous. They have no pores or faults and have high hardness values. The electrochemical study proves that the anticorrosive protection capacity of the Ni-P alloy increases along with the

  13. EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayumbu, P.; Phiri, L.K.; Mambo, A.; Sokotela, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm

  14. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples of Ayranci, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Osman; Eke, Canel; Boztosun, Ismail; Emin Korkmaz, M.

    2015-04-01

    The specific activity, radiation hazard index and the annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radioactive elements (238U, 232Th and 40K) were determined in soil samples collected from 12 different locations in Ayranci region by using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The measured activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in studied soil samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries and the internationally reported values. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  15. Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples at South Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poojitha, C.G.; Pranesha, T.S.; Ganesh, K.E.; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples collected from different locations of South Bengaluru city were measured using scintillation based Smart radon thoron monitor (RnDuo). It has been observed that the mass exhalation rate estimated due to presence of radon concentration in soil samples ranges from 39.18 - 265.58 mBq/kg/h with an average value of 115.64 mBq/kg/h. Finally we compare our results with similar investigation from different parts of India. (author)

  16. Mapping of depleted uranium with in situ spectrometry and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebell, P.; Reginatto, M.; Monetti, M.; Faller, S.; Davis, L.

    1999-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) has been developed in the past two decades as a highly effective material for armor penetrating rounds and vehicle shielding. There is now a growing interest in the defense community to determine the presence and extent of DU contamination quickly and with a minimum amount of intrusive sampling. We report on a new approach using deconvolution techniques to quantitatively map DU contamination in surface soil. This approach combines data from soil samples with data from in situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements to produce an accurate and detailed map of DU contamination. Results of a field survey at the Aberdeen Proving Ground are presented. (author)

  17. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John T.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Shah, Sanjiv; Pemberton, A; Schaefer III, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries.

  18. The Effect of Sample Size and Data Numbering on Precision of Calibration Model to predict Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohamadi Monavar

    2017-10-01

    models, then other15 samples were added randomly to the previous set and it was done continuously. Finally, seven groups (15, 30... 105 were placed in each category. Results and Discussion All regression models on the whole pre-processed soil spectra were obtained in absorption mode. By increasing the number of samples in the calibration set of random group, RMSE was decreased from 0.2 to 0.13 nonlinearly. RMSE in the chemical test was also decreased almost linearly from 0.17 to 0.11. At the same time, R2 and RPD were increased from 0.46 to 0.72 and from 1.3 to 2.0 respectively. Finally, in categories based on PCA, the RMSE fell down almost linearly (0.19-0.13. Potassium prediction model with the least amount of R2 (0.48 and phosphorus with highest number of errors (RMSE = 5.28 were the weakest models in whole data. Other properties of the soil had a higher coefficient of determination (R2> 0.5. Therefore, prediction models had acceptable accuracy. At least 77, 105 and 105 samples are required for precise calibration model of OC, nitrogen and pH respectively. Due to the different conditions of farms, comparing these results with previous findings is very complex. Furthermore, model accuracy did not improve by increasing data of calibration models to the total number of samples. While in previous studies, more precise model was calibrated by considering the entire data sets. Among all factors of soil, acidity has little dependence on the other soil properties. The pH modeling is also confirmed by Moros (2009 however, the more error was reported here. There is no certain pH range in the NIR spectra, and usually it is distinguishable from the other properties of the soil (Kuang and Mouazen, 2011. Conclusions Spectroscopic methods exhibited good potential for detecting soil properties. MSC and BC can effectively remove irrelevant information to improve prediction accuracy. Using different methods to select numbers of data for the calibration models presented similar results

  19. Measurement of radionuclide activities of uranium-238 series in soil samples by gamma spectrometry: case of Vinaninkarena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrianantenaina, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the activity level of radionuclides of uranium-238 series. Eight soil samples are collected at Rural Commune of Vinaninkarena. After obtaining secular equilibrium, these samples have been measured using gamma spectrometry system in the Nuclear Analyses and Techniques Department of INSTN-Madagascar, with HPGe detector (30 % relative efficiency) and a Genie 2000 software. Activities obtained vary from (78±2)Bq.kg -1 to (49 231 ± 415)Bq.kg -1 . Among these eight samples, three activity levels are shown. Low activity is an activity which has value lower or equal to (89±3)Bq.kg -1 . Average activity is an activity which has value between (186± 1)Bq.kg -1 and (1049 ±7)Bq.kg -1 . And high activity is an activity which has value higher or equal to (14501±209)Bq.kg -1 . According to UNSCEAR 2000, these value are all higher than the world average value which is 35 Bq.kg -1 .It is due to the localities of sampling points. The variation of the activity level depends on radionuclide concentration of uranium-238 series in the soil. [fr

  20. Sampling methods for pasture, soil and deposition for radioactivity emergency preparedness in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare sampling techniques for pasture, soil and deposition, planned for radioactivity surveillance in emergency situations in the Nordic countries. The basis of the survey was a questionnaire, sent to radiation protection authorities and laboratories. Sampling of pasture is performed with a cutting height between 1 and 5 cm above the ground from an area of about 1 m 2 . The sampling plots are usually randomly positioned. Soil samples, 3 to 20 cores in various patterns, are generally taken by a corer of varying diameter. For deposition sampling, precipitation collectors of different sizes are used. When comparing results, the differences between laboratories should be borne in mind so that proper corrections can be made. It is, however, important to consider that, especially in an emergency situation, the use of standardised methods may worsen the results if these methods are not part of the daily work. (orig.)

  1. Uranium, radium and radon exhalation study in some soil samples using track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmanjit, Singh; Joga, Singh; Surinder, Singh; Bajwa, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Uranium, radium concentration and radon exhalation rates have been determined in the soil samples collected from some areas of Punjab using the L.R.-115 nuclear track detectors. Radium concentration in these samples has been found to be varying from 0.80 to 5.34 Bq Kg-1. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to be varying from 0.99 to 6.60 mBq Kg -1 h -1 (32.82 to 218.49 mBqm -2 h -1 ). A good correlation has been observed between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration observed in the soil samples. The uranium concentration in all these samples is being carried out and the other correlations will also be established. (authors)

  2. Spatial heavy metals Zn and Cr distribution in soil samples taken from Tatra Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stobinski, M.; Misiak, R.; Kubica, B.

    2008-03-01

    The basic issue of presented report is showing the spatial heavy metals (Zn and Cr) distribution in soil samples taken from High Mts area. The expertise was done using two analytical techniques: AAS (atomic absorption spectroscopy) and micro-PIXIE (proton induced X-ray emission).Given heavy metals concentration were originated either from soil surface (10 cm depth) or from the whole soil profile. Our evaluation indicates that the Zn and Cr levels measured for mountains region were comparable to the data presented by other authors. Furthermore, the amount of heavy metals is strongly correlated with its natural concentration in parental rock.We also observed that zinc was prone to accumulate in surface, rich in organic matter, soil levels. (author)

  3. The Viking X ray fluorescence experiment - Sampling strategies and laboratory simulations. [Mars soil sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.; Castro, A. J.; Clark, B. C.; Toulmin, P., III; Rose, H., Jr.; Keil, K.; Gooding, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Ten samples of Mars regolith material (six on Viking Lander 1 and four on Viking Lander 2) have been delivered to the X ray fluorescence spectrometers as of March 31, 1977. An additional six samples at least are planned for acquisition in the remaining Extended Mission (to January 1979) for each lander. All samples acquired are Martian fines from the near surface (less than 6-cm depth) of the landing sites except the latest on Viking Lander 1, which is fine material from the bottom of a trench dug to a depth of 25 cm. Several attempts on each lander to acquire fresh rock material (in pebble sizes) for analysis have yielded only cemented surface crustal material (duricrust). Laboratory simulation and experimentation are required both for mission planning of sampling and for interpretation of data returned from Mars. This paper is concerned with the rationale for sample site selections, surface sampler operations, and the supportive laboratory studies needed to interpret X ray results from Mars.

  4. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  5. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H ex , D , and Ra eq ), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  6. Measurement of activity concentration of primordial radionuclides in the soil samples of Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Saiyad Musthafa, M.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Shahul Hameed, M.M.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uranium ( 238 U), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K) are considered to be Primordial radionuclides which are widely distributed in the earth's crust. Gamma-radiation from these radionuclides represents the main external source of irradiation for the human body. Human beings are exposed outdoors to the natural terrestrial radiation that originates predominantly from the upper 30 cm of the soil. A pilot project was therefore initiated aiming at systematically measuring the terrestrial gamma radiation in Tiruchirappalli city, Tamil Nadu, South India and to establish baseline data on the terrestrial background radiation level determining its contribution to the annual effective dose equivalent to the human population. The natural radioactivity concentrations were studied in soil samples collected from 50 locations in Tiruchirappalli city. The concentration varies significantly over different soil types and the highest radioactivity was measured over soil types of granite origin followed by red soil and alluvial loam. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K in soil samples are found to be 81.78 Bq.kg -1 , 32.62 Bq.kg -1 , and 551.35 Bq.kg -1 respectively. The calculated gamma dose from the soil is in the range between 38.86nGy.h -1 and 240.59 nGy.h -1 with a mean value of 89.76 nGy.h -1 . The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.11mSv.y -1 which is low as compared with the maximum permissible effective dose equivalent of 1mSv.y -1 (ICRP,1991). In the present study it is observed that the major sources of gamma radiation in soils are mainly derived from rocky area with granite basement. (author)

  7. Dielectrophoretic sample preparation for environmental monitoring of microorganisms: Soil particle removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Henry O; McDonnell, Martin C; Hughes, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    Detection of pathogens from environmental samples is often hampered by sensors interacting with environmental particles such as soot, pollen, or environmental dust such as soil or clay. These particles may be of similar size to the target bacterium, preventing removal by filtration, but may non-specifically bind to sensor surfaces, fouling them and causing artefactual results. In this paper, we report the selective manipulation of soil particles using an AC electrokinetic microfluidic system. Four heterogeneous soil samples (smectic clay, kaolinitic clay, peaty loam, and sandy loam) were characterised using dielectrophoresis to identify the electrical difference to a target organism. A flow-cell device was then constructed to evaluate dielectrophoretic separation of bacteria and clay in a continous flow through mode. The average separation efficiency of the system across all soil types was found to be 68.7% with a maximal separation efficiency for kaolinitic clay at 87.6%. This represents the first attempt to separate soil particles from bacteria using dielectrophoresis and indicate that the technique shows significant promise; with appropriate system optimisation, we believe that this preliminary study represents an opportunity to develop a simple yet highly effective sample processing system.

  8. GEMAS: Colours of dry and moist agricultural soil samples of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Martin; Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    High resolution HDR colour images of all Ap samples from the GEMAS survey were acquired using a GeoTek Linescan camera. Three measurements of dry and wet samples with increasing exposure time and increasing illumination settings produced a set of colour images at 50μm resolution. Automated image processing was used to calibrate the six images per sample with respect to the synchronously measured X-Rite colorchecker chart. The calibrated images were then fit to Munsell soil colours that were measured in the same way. The results provide overview maps of dry and moist European soil colours. Because colour is closely linked to iron mineralogy, carbonate, silicate and organic carbon content the results can be correlated to magnetic, mineralogical, and geochemical properties. In combination with the full GEMAS chemical and physical measurements, this yields a valuable data set for calibration and interpretation of visible satellite colour data with respect to chemical composition and geological background, soil moisture, and soil degradation. This data set will help to develop new methods for world-wide characterization and monitoring of agricultural soils which is essential for quantifying geologic and human impact on the critical zone environment. It furthermore enables the scientific community and governmental authorities to monitor consequences of climatic change, to plan and administrate economic and ecological land use, and to use the data set for forensic applications.

  9. Analysis of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Purola area of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manjulata; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Prasad, Mukesh; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2015-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are widely spread in the earth's environment, being distributed in soil, rocks, water, air, plants and even within the human body. All of these sources have contributed to an increase in the levels of environmental radioactivity and population radiation doses. This paper presents the activity level due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples of Purola area in Garhwal Himalaya region. The measured activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in collected soil samples of Purola was found to vary from 13±10 to 55±10 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 31±2 Bq kg(-1), 13±10 to 101±13 Bq kg(-1) with an average 30±3 Bq kg(-1) and 150±81 to 1310±154 Bq kg(-1) with an average 583±30 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity in collected soil samples was found to vary from 47 to 221 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 115 Bq kg(-1). The total absorbed gamma dose rate in this area was found to vary from 22 to 93 nGy h(-1) with an average of 55 nGy h(-1). The distribution of these radionuclides in the soil of study area is discussed in details. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  11. An Open-source Low-cost Portable Apparatus for Soil Fauna Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis; Wagner, Karl; Grillakis, Manolis; Apostolakis, Antonios; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    A low-cost apparatus for the extraction of living soil animals from soil or litter samples is presented. The main unit consists of a modular bank system with three horizontal shelves designed to accommodate lamps and soil samples over funnel and jar systems for animal collection, thus serving as a practical and standardized modification of the well-documented Berlese-Tullgren funnel. Shelves are vertically adjustable, sliding on 5 mm threaded rods and securing with wing nuts for easy assembly/disassembly and stability. Shelf material is 4 mm plywood (or similar), laser-cut (or similar) to accommodate lamp sockets, tubes and funnels at respective levels. Soil samples are inserted in 10 cm tubes from standard Ø50 mm PVC piping that can also function as direct collection corers for softer soils. Tubes are fitted in the tube bank shelf, each directly under a 25 W reflector lamp and over a funnel and jar system. Lamps are located 25 mm over the tubes' top creating a relatively constant 10 oC temperature gradient that drives soil animals away from heat and light, and towards the bottom end of the tube which is fitted with a suitable fabric mesh. Standard 106 ml panelled jars, filled with a safe-to-handle preservative (e.g. propylene glycol) to the lower end of the funnel fitted in them, trap and preserve soil organisms until identification. The apparatus offers flat-pack portability and scalability using low-cost standard material. Design specifications and Drawing eXchange Format (dxf) files for apparatus reproduction are provided.

  12. The influence of technological parameters on the dynamic behavior of "liquid wood" samples obtained by injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavanescu Mazurchevici, Simona; Carausu, Constantin; Comaneci, Radu; Nedelcu, Dumitru

    2017-10-01

    The plastic products contribute to environmental pollution. Replacing the plastic materials with biodegradable materials with superior properties is an absolute necessity and important research direction for the near future. The first steps in this regard were the creation of composite materials containing natural fibers with positive effects on the environment that have penetrated in different fields. The bioplastics and biocomposites made from natural fibers is a topical solution. The next step was made towards obtaining biodegradable and recyclable materials based on cellulose, lignin and no carcinogens. In this category fall the "liquid wood" with a use up to five times without affecting the mechanical properties. "Liquid wood" is a high quality thermoplastic biocomposite. "Liquid wood" is a biopolymer composite divided in three categories, ARBOFORM®, ARBOBLEND® and ARBOFILL®, which have differed composition in terms of lignin percentage, being delivered by Tecnaro, as granules, [1]. The paper's research was focus on Arboform L V3 Nature and Arboform L V3 Nature reinforced with aramid fiber. In the experimental plan were taken into account six parameters (Dinj - direction of injection [°]; Ttop - melting temperature [°C]; Pinj - injection pressure [MPa] Ss - speed [m/min]; tinj - injection time [s] and tc - cooling time [s]) each with two levels, research carried on by Taguchi methodology. Processing Taguchi method allowed both Taguchi setting work parameters influence on storage modulus and damping as the size and influence their ranking. Experimental research concerning the influence technological parameters on storage modulus of samples obtained by injection from Arboform L V3 Nature yielded an average of 6055MPa and descending order as follows: Trac, Ss, Pinj, Dinj and Ttop. The average of model for reinforced material was 6419MPa and descending order of parameters influence such as: Dinj, Trac, Ttop, tinj, Ss and Pinj.

  13. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Toril

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia, from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas, in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one. Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones. These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone. The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp. was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  14. Contamination of Soil Samples of Public Parks with Toxocara spp. Eggs in Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid GHASHGHAEI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a zoonotic helminth infection, occurring in humans by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis and less frequently Toxocara cati. The present study was conducted to determine the existence of Toxocara spp. eggs by using the sucrose flotation method. A total of 150 soil samples were collected randomly from 7 public parks in Kermanshah city between September and December 2014 for investigating the presence of infective stages of parasites and to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 27 (18% were infected with eggs of Toxocara spp. eggs. The present investigation showed that humans (especially children from urban areas are at risk of acquiring helminth infection from contaminated soil. Since this host species is capable of transmitting zoonotic agents to both animals and humans, animal populations, including stray dogs and cats, have to be controlled to minimize the distribution of parasites.

  15. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME in Determination of Pesticide Residues in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles and application possibilities of the methods based on solid phase microextraction (SPME in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented in the paper. The most important experimental parameters which affect SPME efficacy inpesticide determination (type and thickness of microextraction fiber, duration of microextraction,temperature at which it is conducted, effect of addition of salts (the effect of efflorescence,temperature and time of desorption, the choice of optimal solvent for pesticide exctraction from the soil and the optimal number of extraction steps, as well as general guidelines for their optimization are also shown. In the end, current applications of SPMEmethods in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented.

  16. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices in different soil samples from Assiut governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, S.A.M.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Hefni, M.A.; El-Kamel, A.H; Nesreen, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazard radiological levels. So, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks and to have a baseline for future changes in the environmental radioactivity due to human activities. Determine the radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in surface and 20 cm soil samples collected beside Assiut fertilizer plant, Assiut government in south Upper Egypt, to assess their contribution to the external dose exposure. The contents of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3”x 3”]. The total absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk and the external hazard index, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil, were calculated

  17. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Rare Earth Elements Pattern in Weathered Japanese Soil Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hosoda, M.; Takahashi, H.; Sorimachi, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tokonami, S.; Uchida, S.

    2011-01-01

    From the viewpoint of radiation protection, determination of natural radionuclides e.g. thorium and uranium in soil samples are important. Accurate methods for determination of Th and U is gaining importance. The geochemical behavior of Th, U and rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively close to one another while compared to other elements in geological environment. Radioactive elements like 232 Th and 238 U along with their decay products (e.g. 226 Ra) are present in most of the environmental matrices and can be transferred to living bodies by different pathways that can lead to sources of exposure of man. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor these natural radionuclides in weathered soil samples to assess the possible hazards. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K in soils have been measured using a g γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The thorium, uranium and REEs were determined from the same sample using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Granitic rocks contain higher amounts of Th, U and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils, as soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water and gases. In this paper, we have discussed about distribution pattern of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite and ryolite) collected from two prefectures in Japan: 1. Gifu and 2. Okinawa. (author)

  18. Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. isolated from a biofilm sample obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Strain K-20(T), a Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, which produces a pale pink pigment (R2A agar medium, 30℃, seven days) was isolated from a sample of biofilm obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequences (1,439 bp) showed that the strain (accession number: AB297501) was related to Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) and Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) with 97.4% and 96.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Strain K-20(T) formed a distinct cluster with Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) in the phylogenetic tree at a high bootstrap value (93%); however, distance was recognized between the strains. In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization level between strain K-20(T) and Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073(T) was 33%. The taxonomic data indicate that K-20(T) (=JCM 14634(T) =KCTC 32152(T)) should be classified in the genus Roseomonas as the type strain of a novel species, Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov.

  19. Real-Time PCR in faecal samples of Triatoma infestans obtained by xenodiagnosis: proposal for an exogenous internal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Nicolás; Muñoz, Catalina; Nazal, Nicolás; Saavedra, Miguel; Martínez, Gabriela; Araya, Eduardo; Apt, Werner; Zulantay, Inés

    2012-03-26

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proved to be a sensitive technique to detect Trypanosoma cruzi in the chronic phase of Chagas disease, which is characterized by low and fluctuating parasitemia. Another technique proposed for parasitological diagnosis in this phase of infection combines a microscopic search for motile trypomastigote forms in faecal samples (FS) obtained by xenodiagnosis (XD) with conventional PCR (XD-PCR). In this study we evaluate the use of human blood DNA as an exogenous internal control (EIC) for real time PCR (qPCR) combined with XD (XD-qPCR) using chromosome 12 (X12) detection. None of the FS-XD evaluated by qPCR amplified for X12. Nevertheless, all the EIC-FS-XD mixtures amplified for X12. We determined that X12 is useful as an EIC for XD-qPCR because we showed that the FS-XD does not contain human DNA after 30 or more days of XD incubation. This information is relevant for research on T. cruzi by XD-qPCR since it allows ruling out inhibition and false negative results due to DNA loss during the process of extraction and purification.

  20. Integration of electromagnetic induction sensor data in soil sampling scheme optimization using simulated annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, E; Castrignanò, A; Buttafuoco, G; De Benedetto, D; Passarella, G

    2015-07-01

    Soil survey is generally time-consuming, labor-intensive, and costly. Optimization of sampling scheme allows one to reduce the number of sampling points without decreasing or even increasing the accuracy of investigated attribute. Maps of bulk soil electrical conductivity (EC a ) recorded with electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors could be effectively used to direct soil sampling design for assessing spatial variability of soil moisture. A protocol, using a field-scale bulk EC a survey, has been applied in an agricultural field in Apulia region (southeastern Italy). Spatial simulated annealing was used as a method to optimize spatial soil sampling scheme taking into account sampling constraints, field boundaries, and preliminary observations. Three optimization criteria were used. the first criterion (minimization of mean of the shortest distances, MMSD) optimizes the spreading of the point observations over the entire field by minimizing the expectation of the distance between an arbitrarily chosen point and its nearest observation; the second criterion (minimization of weighted mean of the shortest distances, MWMSD) is a weighted version of the MMSD, which uses the digital gradient of the grid EC a data as weighting function; and the third criterion (mean of average ordinary kriging variance, MAOKV) minimizes mean kriging estimation variance of the target variable. The last criterion utilizes the variogram model of soil water content estimated in a previous trial. The procedures, or a combination of them, were tested and compared in a real case. Simulated annealing was implemented by the software MSANOS able to define or redesign any sampling scheme by increasing or decreasing the original sampling locations. The output consists of the computed sampling scheme, the convergence time, and the cooling law, which can be an invaluable support to the process of sampling design. The proposed approach has found the optimal solution in a reasonable computation time. The

  1. Alpha liquid-scintillation spectrometry used for the measurement of uranium/thorium-disequilibria in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueeg, B.; Tschachtli, T.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1997-01-01

    For the measurements of low-level radioactivity of natural samples. It is of interest to have a system with high counting efficiency. Alpha liquid-scintillation spectrometry is attractive, because it offers a 4 π geometry. Some chemical separation can be obtained using extractive scintillators. Due to quenching problems for natural samples, additional separation power is needed. A new sample preparation method was developed employing extraction chromatographic resin for measuring 238 U, 234 U, 232 Th, 230 Th, 228 Th and 226 Ra in soil samples, without using any uranium- or thorium-tracer for determining the chemical yields. This method was tested by analyzing the two different reference materials, IAEA-375, soil from Tschernobyl, as well as IAEA SDA-1, a deep-sea sediment with a high calcium content. For all analyzed radionuclides the recoveries were better than 90% with errors (confidence level of 95%) smaller than 5%. The minimal detectable concentration ranges between 0.2 and 0.8 Bq/kg, based on a one gram aliquot of sample and 80'000 seconds counting time. (orig.)

  2. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg -1 . The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg -1 . High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type. (authors)

  3. Determination of 129I in large soil samples after alkaline wet disintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W.

    1992-01-01

    Large soil samples (up to 500 g) can conveniently be disintegrated by hydrogen peroxide in an utility tank under alkaline conditions to determine subsequently 129 I by neutron activation analysis. Interfering elements such as Br are removed already before neutron irradiation to reduce the radiation exposure of the personnel. The precision of the method is 129 I also by the combustion method. (orig.)

  4. Soil and Water – What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concerns of a potential terrorist’s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

  5. New technologies to detect and monitor Phytophthora ramorum in plant, soil, and water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Russell; Nathan McOwen; Robert Bohannon

    2013-01-01

    The focus of our research efforts has been to develop methods to quickly identify plants, soil, and water samples infested with Phytophthora spp., and to rapidly confirm the findings using novel isothermal DNA technologies suitable for field use. These efforts have led to the development of a rapid Immunostrip® that reliably detects...

  6. Portable automation of static chamber sample collection for quantifying soil gas flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled in a given time period is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. However, the static chamber method can limit spatial ...

  7. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  8. Isolation and identification of phytase-producing strains from soil samples and optimization of production parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Penicillium sp. isolated from a soil sample near Qazvin, was able to produce highly active phytase in optimized environmental conditions, which could be a suitable candidate for commercial production of phytase to be used as complement in poultry feeding industries.

  9. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates...

  10. In situ sampling of small volumes of soil solution using modified micro-suction cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Jianbo; Hoffland, E.

    2007-01-01

    Two modified designs of micro-pore-water samplers were tested for their capacity to collect unbiased soil solution samples containing zinc and citrate. The samplers had either ceramic or polyethersulfone (PES) suction cups. Laboratory tests of the micro-samplers were conducted using (a) standard

  11. Pore water sampling in acid sulfate soils: a new peeper method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Scott G; Burton, Edward D; Keene, Annabelle F; Bush, Richard T; Sullivan, Leigh A; Isaacson, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the design, deployment, and application of a modified equilibration dialysis device (peeper) optimized for sampling pore waters in acid sulfate soils (ASS). The modified design overcomes the limitations of traditional-style peepers, when sampling firm ASS materials over relatively large depth intervals. The new peeper device uses removable, individual cells of 25 mL volume housed in a 1.5 m long rigid, high-density polyethylene rod. The rigid housing structure allows the device to be inserted directly into relatively firm soils without requiring a supporting frame. The use of removable cells eliminates the need for a large glove-box after peeper retrieval, thus simplifying physical handling. Removable cells are easily maintained in an inert atmosphere during sample processing and the 25-mL sample volume is sufficient for undertaking multiple analyses. A field evaluation of equilibration times indicates that 32 to 38 d of deployment was necessary. Overall, the modified method is simple and effective and well suited to acquisition and processing of redox-sensitive pore water profiles>1 m deep in acid sulfate soil or any other firm wetland soils.

  12. Study of Cs/sup 137/ contamination in soil and food samples of Jhangar valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, Z.S.; Khan, H.M.; Aslam, M.; Iqbal, S.; Orfi, S.D.

    2001-01-01

    Chernobyl accident has been the main source of artificial radioactive contamination throughout the world and its effects have been found in Pakistan as well. In the present study, activities of an important anthropogenic radionuclide, Cs/sup 137/ in soil and food samples of Jhangar Valley of Pakistan have been determined using PC based gamma spectrometer. Soil-375 from IAEA was used as reference material. The soil samples were collected from the agricultural fields of the selected area while food samples, grown in the selected area, were collected from the fields or from local market. After proper treatment, the samples were analyzed using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The following values for average specific activity of Cs/sup 137/ were found: soil (range 1.3-46.8 Bq/kg) (12.0 Bq/kg), wheat (0.9 +- 0.05 Bq/kg), millet (1.5 +- 0.06 Bq/kg), lentils (2.0 +- 0.1 Bq/kg), potato (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg) and cauliflower (0.6 +- 0.03 Bq/kg). The results have been discussed and compared with other data available in the literature. (author)

  13. Distribution coefficients for 85Sr and 137Cs in Japanese agricultural soils and their correlations with soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei-Ishikawa, N.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, soil-soil solution distribution coefficients (K d ) of Sr and Cs were obtained for 112 Japanese agricultural soil samples (50 paddy soil and 62 upland soil samples) using batch sorption test. The relationships between Sr- or Cs-K d values and soil properties were discussed. Furthermore, the amount of Cs fixed in soil was estimated for 22 selected soil samples using a sequential extraction method. Then, cross effects of some soil properties for Cs fixation were evaluated. (author)

  14. Experimental data obtained by the characterization and leaching of industrially lead contaminated soil projected to the stored in a repository.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set contains the elemental composition, pH, and surface area, TOC, IC and bulk density of the soils to be deposited in a repository. Additionally, contains...

  15. Source Identification and Sequential Leaching of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples Collected from Selected Dump Sites in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    , E.E. Awokunmi; , S.S. Asaolu; , O.O Ajayi; , A.O. Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    Ten heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr and Sn) in fractioned and bulk soil samples collected from four dump sites located in AdoEkiti and Ikere -Ekiti, South western Nigeria were analysed using a modified Tessier’s procedure and acid digestion to obtain the distribution pattern of metal in this region. The metals were found to have been distributed in all phases with Fe, Cr, and Sn dominating the residual fraction (90.12 - 94.88%), Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn were found in all the extrac...

  16. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.vanderperk@geo.uu.nl; De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Laboratori, Misure ed Attivita di Campo, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeran, Zvonka; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  17. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Perk, Marcel; de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto; Jeran, Zvonka; Jaćimović, Radojko

    2008-11-01

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  18. Portable Automation of Static Chamber Sample Collection for Quantifying Soil Gas Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Morgan P.; Groh, Tyler A.; Parkin, Timothy B.; Williams, Ryan J.; Isenhart, Thomas M.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2018-01-01

    Quantification of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. An automated system for collecting gas samples from chambers in the field would eliminate the need for personnel to return to the chamber during a flux measurement period and would allow a single technician to sample multiple chambers simultaneously. This study describes Chamber Automated Sampling Equipment (FluxCASE) to collect and store chamber headspace gas samples at assigned time points for the measurement of soil gas flux. The FluxCASE design and operation is described, and the accuracy and precision of the FluxCASE system is evaluated. In laboratory measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) concentrations of a standardized gas mixture, coefficients of variation associated with automated and manual sample collection were comparable, indicating no loss of precision. In the field, soil gas fluxes measured from FluxCASEs were in agreement with manual sampling for both N2O and CO2. Slopes of regression equations were 1.01 for CO2 and 0.97 for N2O. The 95% confidence limits of the slopes of the regression lines included the value of one, indicating no bias. Additionally, an expense analysis found a cost recovery ranging from 0.6 to 2.2 yr. Implementing the FluxCASE system is an alternative to improve the efficiency of the static chamber method for measuring soil gas flux while maintaining the accuracy and precision of manual sampling.

  19. Planning spatial sampling of the soil from an uncertain reconnaissance variogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. Murray; Hamilton, Elliott M.; Kaninga, Belinda; Maseka, Kakoma K.; Mutondo, Moola; Sakala, Godfrey M.; Watts, Michael J.

    2017-12-01

    An estimated variogram of a soil property can be used to support a rational choice of sampling intensity for geostatistical mapping. However, it is known that estimated variograms are subject to uncertainty. In this paper we address two practical questions. First, how can we make a robust decision on sampling intensity, given the uncertainty in the variogram? Second, what are the costs incurred in terms of oversampling because of uncertainty in the variogram model used to plan sampling? To achieve this we show how samples of the posterior distribution of variogram parameters, from a computational Bayesian analysis, can be used to characterize the effects of variogram parameter uncertainty on sampling decisions. We show how one can select a sample intensity so that a target value of the kriging variance is not exceeded with some specified probability. This will lead to oversampling, relative to the sampling intensity that would be specified if there were no uncertainty in the variogram parameters. One can estimate the magnitude of this oversampling by treating the tolerable grid spacing for the final sample as a random variable, given the target kriging variance and the posterior sample values. We illustrate these concepts with some data on total uranium content in a relatively sparse sample of soil from agricultural land near mine tailings in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia.

  20. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  1. Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2A, Analytical data packages September--October 1991 sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Riordan, C.J. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. (United States); Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K. [Normandeau Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled solely of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

  2. Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2B: Analytical data packages, January--February 1992 sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Riordan, C.J. [Metcalf and Eddy (United States); Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

  3. Modification of gDNA extraction from soil for PCR designed for the routine examination of soil samples contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecka, A; Gawor, J

    2008-06-01

    A modification of gDNA extraction was developed for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, intended for the detection and differentiation of Toxocara spp. eggs in soil or sediments. Sand samples from sandpits confirmed as being contaminated with Toxocara spp. eggs by the flotation technique were analysed by PCR. The use of proteinase K made it possible to obtain genomic DNA from the sample without needing to isolate eggs using flotation or to inactivate PCR inhibitors present in the sand. Specific primers in the PCR reaction allowed discrimination between T. canis and T. cati eggs. The modification simplified the procedure, thanks to eliminating the step of gDNA isolation from eggs, which is both laborious and difficult.

  4. Application of high resolution x-ray spectrometry preceded by neutron activation for elemental analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Rivero, A.; Capote Rodriguez, G.; Padilla Alvarez, R.; Herrera Peraza, E.

    1997-01-01

    Utilization of High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometry preceded by activation of the samples by irradiation with neutron fluxes (NAA-RX) is a relatively modern trend in application of nuclear techniques. This method may complement advantageously the usual Neutron Activation Analysis by means of Gamma Spectrometry (NAA-G). In this work results obtained by the application of NAA-RX for non-destructive analysis of Cuban soil samples are discussed. The samples were irradiated with reactor neutron fluxes and the induced characteristic X-rays were measured by using Si(Li)-detector. Concentrations of Fe, Zn and Eu as determined by NAA-RX are compared with both NAA-G and XRF data. For the elaboration of X-Ray and Gamma Spectra the computer programs AXIL and ACTAN were used respectively. (author) [es

  5. Application of high resolution x-ray spectrometry preceded by neutron activation for elemental analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Rivero, A.; Capote Rodriguez, G.; Herrera Peraza, E.

    1996-01-01

    Utilization of High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometry preceded by activation of the samples by irradiation with neutron fluxes (NAA R X) is a relatively modern trend in application of nuclear techniques. This method may complement advantageously the usual Neutron Activation Analysis by means of Gamma Spectrometry (NAA-G) In this work results obtained by the application of NAA-RX for non-destructive analysis of Cuban soil samples are discussed. The samples were irradiated with reactor neutron fluxes and the induced characteristic X-rays were measured by using Si(li)-detector. Concentrations of Fe, Zn and Eu as determined by NAA-RX are compared with both NAA-G and XRF data. For the elaboration of X-ray and Gamma Spectra the computer programs AXIL and ACTAN were used respectively

  6. Study of lead pollution in air, soil and water samples of Quetta city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khan, G.M.; Akbar, S.; Panezai, M.A.; Haq, Z.U.

    2011-01-01

    This study briefly presents the collected data of lead pollution in the environment of Quetta City in Balochistan, Pakistan. The samples were collected from different sites. The analysis of lead was carried out in underground water samples, the exhaust of different vehicles, roadside and sewage soils from selected points of Quetta City. The average discharge resulted in deposition by motorcycles (29.12 g/h), cars (44.47 g/h), wagons (176.54 g/h) and buses (141.52 g/h). The maximum deposition was 222.96 g/h from auto-rickshaws. The value for lead in smoke of different vehicles seems quite high when extrapolated to the large number of such vehicles for a longer time. The concentration of lead in roadside soil varied from 73.3 mg/kg (T and T closed colony) to 731.9 mg/kg (Sirki road bus-stop). The average content of lead in sewage soil of City Nala is 1250.6 mg/kg. The level of lead was more than WHO standards for such soils. The lead quantity in all 24 tube- well water samples, was slightly above the WHO standards (10 macro g/L).The results of this study were comparable to similar study in twin cities of Rawalpindi and islamabad. (author)

  7. 1996 Phase 2 soil sampling at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report consolidates 1996 soil sampling data collected from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin Site. This report is intended to be a data reference and does not make comparisons or conclusions regarding specific regulatory criteria. Chemical and radiological data were collected to support cleanup activities at the Hanford Site; soil sampling occurred beneath and next to the former basin structures. The 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, which consisted of four adjoining concrete basins, were located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, north of the retired 105-H Reactor. Originally, the basins were built as part of the 100-H water treatment structures. The four basins were inactive from the mid-1960's until 1973 when radioactive and dangerous (mixed) waste from the 300 Area Fuel Fabrication Facility was shipped to the basins for storage and treatment. The basins were used for solar evaporation of the waste. The last shipment of waste to the 183-H Basins took place in November 1985. Decontamination of the cement structure took place in 1995. The structure has subsequently been dismantled and disposed. Chapters 2.0 through 4.0 present summary information about sampling (1) beneath the loading ramp and berm piles, (2) in shallow soils beneath the former basin floor, and (3) deep vadose soils. Detailed data are provided in the appendices

  8. Multiresidual determination of pesticides in agricultural soil sample using Quechers extraction methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Garcia, Consuelo del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a sustainable agricultural production there are used different organic and inorganic products, among them we found the fertilizers and pesticides. When they are applied most of the product falls to the ground, generating significant sources of pollution in the areas near the application and depending on the mobility of the pesticide, it can reach more remote areas. That is why it is important to determine the pesticide residues in soil after their application, being the selection of the extraction method crucial for the subsequent traces detection. In the present work there was evaluated the QUECHERS extraction technique, a method used in food but modified for a different and complex matrix like soil in order to achieve acceptable efficiencies multi-residue extraction of 20 pesticides and their subsequent determination by gas chromatography with electron capture and mass detection. The method was applied for the determination of pesticides in three soil samples from an agricultural site with different slopes between them. The Results indicated that 75% of the pesticides tested had acceptable efficiencies, thus meeting the objective of achieving multiresidue determination of pesticides in agricultural soil samples by extraction methodology QUECHERS. Besides, the presence of the fungicide penconazole was only detected in the three samples, being the highest concentration of pesticide found in the area with less slope (V_A_B_A_J_O) (author)

  9. Selective separation of iron from uranium in quantitative determination of traces of uranium by alpha spectrometry in soil/sediment sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, R K; Narayanan, Usha; Karpe, Rupali; Kumar, Ajay; Ranade, A; Ramachandran, V

    2009-04-01

    During this work, controlled redox potential methodology was adopted for the complete separation of traces of uranium from the host matrix of mixed hydroxide of Iron. Precipitates of Fe(+2) and Fe(+3) along with other transuranic elements were obtained from acid leached solution of soil by raising the pH to 9 with 14N ammonia solution. The concentration of the uranium observed in the soil samples was 200-600 ppb, whereas in sediment samples, the concentration range was 61-400 ppb.

  10. Determination method for 129I in soil samples by MIP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uezu, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masanao; Fujita, Hiroki; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Maruo, Yoshihiro

    2001-01-01

    The radioactive iodine-129 ( 129 I) is an important radionuclide for environmental assessment because it has a long half-life and is accumulated in the thyroid gland in humans. A new analytical technique by Microwave Induced Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MIP-MS) was applied to the determination of 129 I in soil samples. In environmental samples, a large amount of matrix elements are present. Therefore, the matrix elements were eliminated by ashing at 1000degC, and iodine isotopes were trapped by an activated charcoal and finally extracted by 10% tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The concentration of 129 I in a soil samples were compared between results of neutron activation analysis and MIP-MS method. The results showed an excellent agreement. (author)

  11. Environmental monitoring of fluoride emissions using precipitation, dust, plant and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzaring, J.; Hrenn, H.; Schumm, C.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    2006-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride producing chemical plant in Germany. In all samples the influence of emissions was discernible up to a distance of 500 m from the plant. However, fluoride concentrations in plant bioindicators (leaves of birch and black berry) and in bulk precipitation showed a more pronounced relationship with the distance from the source than fluoride concentrations in soil. Vegetables sampled in the vicinity of the plant also had elevated concentrations of fluoride, but only the consumption of larger quantities of this material would lead to exceedances of recommended daily F-intake. The present study did not indicate the existence of low phytotoxicity thresholds for fluoride in the plant species used in the study. Even at very high fluoride concentrations in leaf tissue (963 ppm) plants did not show injury due to HF. Dust sampling downwind of the chemical plant confirmed that particulate fluoride was of minor importance in the study area. - A pronounced pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride emitting chemical plant in Germany

  12. Sorption, desorption and mineralisation of the herbicides glyphosate and MCPA in samples from two Danish soil and subsurface profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Sebastian R.; Schultz, Anne; Jacobsen, Ole S.; Aamand, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The vertical distribution of the sorption, desorption and mineralisation of glyphosate and MCPA was examined in samples from two contrasting soil and subsurface profiles, obtained from a sandy agricultural site and a non-agricultural clay rich site. The highest mineralisation of [ 14 C-methylen]glyphosate, with 9.3-14.7% degraded to 14 CO 2 within 3 months was found in the deepest sample from the clay site. In the deeper parts of the sandy profile high sorption and low desorption of glyphosate coincided with no or minor mineralisation indicating a limited glyphosate bioavailability. MCPA was readily mineralised except in the deepest samples from both sites. The highest MCPA mineralisation was detected just below the surface layers with 72% or 44% degraded to 14 CO 2 at the sandy or the clay sites, respectively. MCPA sorped to a minor extent in all samples and no indications of sorption-controlled mineralisation was revealed. None of the herbicides were mineralised under anoxic conditions. - Natural attenuation potential of the herbicides glyphosate and MCPA was assessed in soil and subsurface profiles

  13. Sorption, desorption and mineralisation of the herbicides glyphosate and MCPA in samples from two Danish soil and subsurface profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Sebastian R. [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)]. E-mail: srs@geus.dk; Schultz, Anne [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Jacobsen, Ole S. [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Aamand, Jens [Department of Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2006-05-15

    The vertical distribution of the sorption, desorption and mineralisation of glyphosate and MCPA was examined in samples from two contrasting soil and subsurface profiles, obtained from a sandy agricultural site and a non-agricultural clay rich site. The highest mineralisation of [{sup 14}C-methylen]glyphosate, with 9.3-14.7% degraded to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} within 3 months was found in the deepest sample from the clay site. In the deeper parts of the sandy profile high sorption and low desorption of glyphosate coincided with no or minor mineralisation indicating a limited glyphosate bioavailability. MCPA was readily mineralised except in the deepest samples from both sites. The highest MCPA mineralisation was detected just below the surface layers with 72% or 44% degraded to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} at the sandy or the clay sites, respectively. MCPA sorped to a minor extent in all samples and no indications of sorption-controlled mineralisation was revealed. None of the herbicides were mineralised under anoxic conditions. - Natural attenuation potential of the herbicides glyphosate and MCPA was assessed in soil and subsurface profiles.

  14. Analysis of ground water and soil samples from severely arsenic affected blocks of Murshidabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Biswas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of groundwater and soil by arsenic is a serious threat to existence of mankind on the globe. Arsenic contaminates soil and groundwater by natural biogeochemical cycles. However, due to anthropogenic activities like indiscriminant use of arsenic in disinfectants, weedicides, medicines and fertilizers, arsenic toxicity is a severe environmental issue, both at national and global level. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization prescribed the permissible limit of arsenic in drinking water to be 10 µg/l. Exposure to arsenic at higher levels over a considerable period of time leads to skin lesions and cancer, disorders of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and renal systems. Murshidabad is one of the severely arsenic affected districts of West Bengal. We have analyzed soil and groundwater samples from some of the highly arsenic affected blocks of Murshidabad district. Both the soil and groundwater samples have an alkaline pH, a characteristic of the presence of arsenic in the tested samples. Unfortunately, the socio-economic conditions of these villages force the residents to use groundwater as the source of drinking water. Presence of considerably high amount of total dissolved solids in water samples make them further unfit for consumption. High amount of phosphate and iron present in some of the water samples takes a toll on the detoxification and excretory system of the body, if those water samples are consumed on a regular manner. Contamination of soil by the aforesaid contaminants results in biomagnification of these pollutants in the food chain. We could also isolate certain potentially arsenic resistant bacteria from the contaminated soil and water samples. At the next level we have surveyed an arsenic affected village to analyze the clinical manifestation of arsenic poisoning. In this village subjects developed rampant skin lesions throughout the body due to exposure to arsenic

  15. Environmental radiation in coal and soil samples from Savannah area (Chatham County, GA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, D.; Ghuman, G.S.; Chandra, K.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation measurements were made in coal and fly ash samples from Savannah Electric ampersand Power Company (SEPCO) plant on the Savannah River and the soil core samples from three sites along the flow gradient of Savannah State University Campus Creek. The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude of natural radiation due to radon and potassium in the Savannah area and possible effect of external factors such as the operations at Savannah River Site (SRS). The instrument used for this purpose was Geiger Counter Model 500 (Tennelec/Nucleus, Inc.) which was standardized with known samples of Sr-90 (0.1 μCi t 1/2 = 28.6 yrs., beta radiation) and Co-60 (1.0 μCi t 1/2 = 5.27 yrs., gamma radiation). Beta and gamma radiations in the samples were differentiated with the help of polyethylene and lead absorbers. Results showed quite low radioactivity in bituminous coal from SEPCO plant and it reduced by a factor of 0.5 and 0.25 in fly ash and weathered fly ash, respectively. Radioactivity of soil samples was slightly greater in the top soil (0-3 cm) of two sites and it decreased markedly with depth (20 cm). Site III soil samples containing lime shells had a negligible radioactivity because carbonate rocks developed from calcareous skeletal matter have low radioactivity from their beginning. Radioactivity appeared to be mainly associated with the fine textured top soil of two sites (high clay content) and it exhibited very little leaching downward into lower layers. Clay particles with greater radioactivity, are formed from the decomposition of feldspars and micas which contain a large fraction of earth's potassium fraction. Measurements with the use of absorbers indicated that the observed radiation in all the samples was mainly due to the gamma rays. A comparison with the radioactivity in coal dust and fly ash samples from SRS revealed that the Savannah samples contained extremely low radiation, which may be due only to the natural sources

  16. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol...

  17. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  18. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  19. Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

  20. Assessing representativeness of sampling methods for reaching men who have sex with men: a direct comparison of results obtained from convenience and probability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra; Spindler, Hilary; Scheer, Susan; Valleroy, Linda; Lansky, Amy

    2007-07-01

    Convenience samples are used to determine HIV-related behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) without measuring the extent to which the results are representative of the broader MSM population. We compared results from a cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited from gay bars between June and October 2001 to a random digit dial telephone survey conducted between June 2002 and January 2003. The men in the probability sample were older, better educated, and had higher incomes than men in the convenience sample, the convenience sample enrolled more employed men and men of color. Substance use around the time of sex was higher in the convenience sample but other sexual behaviors were similar. HIV testing was common among men in both samples. Periodic validation, through comparison of data collected by different sampling methods, may be useful when relying on survey data for program and policy development.

  1. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  3. Investigation of the variation of the specific heat capacity of local soil samples from the Niger delta, Nigeria with moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, C.O.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1987-11-01

    Results of an investigation of the variation, with moisture content, of the specific heat capacity of samples of three texturally different types of soil (clayey, sandy and sandy loam) obtained from the Niger delta area of Nigeria, are presented. The results show that the specific heat capacities of the soils studied, increase with moisture content. This increase is found to be linear for the entire range of moisture contents considered (0-25%), in the case of the sandy loam soil while for the clayey and sandy soils the specific heat capacity is found to increase linearly with moisture content up to about 15% after which the increase becomes parabolic. The rate of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content appears to be highest in the clayey soil and lowest in the sandy soil. It is thought that the differences in the rates of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content, observed for the soils, reflect the soils' water-retention capacities. (author) 3 refs, 5 figs

  4. Can The Pore Scale Geometry Explain Soil Sample Scale Hydrodynamic Properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Smet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the development of new visualization techniques has brought incredible insights into our understanding of how soil structure affects soil function. X-ray microtomography is a technique often used by soil scientists but challenges remain with the implementation of the procedure, including how well the samples represent the uniqueness of the pore network and structure and the systemic compromise between sample size and resolution. We, therefore, chose to study soil samples from two perspectives: a macroscopic scale with hydrodynamic characterization and a microscopic scale with structural characterization through the use of X-ray microtomography (X-ray μCT at a voxel size of 21.53 μm3 (resampled at 433 μm3. The objective of this paper is to unravel the relationships between macroscopic soil properties and microscopic soil structure. The 24 samples came from an agricultural field (Cutanic Luvisol and the macroscopic hydrodynamic properties were determined using laboratory measurements of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, air permeability (ka, and retention curves (SWRC. The X-ray μCT images were segmented using a global method and multiple microscopic measurements were calculated. We used Bayesian statistics to report the credible correlation coefficients and linear regressions models between macro- and microscopic measurements. Due to the small voxel size, we observed unprecedented relationships, such as positive correlations between log(Ks and a μCT global connectivity indicator, the fractal dimension of the μCT images or the μCT degree of anisotropy. The air permeability measured at a water matric potential of −70 kPa was correlated to the average coordination number and the X-ray μCT porosity, but was best explained by the average pore volume of the smallest pores. Continuous SWRC were better predicted near saturation when the pore-size distributions calculated on the X-ray μCT images were used as model input. We

  5. Detection and Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus in Self-Obtained Cervicovaginal Samples by Using the FTA Cartridge: New Possibilities for Cervical Cancer Screening ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenselink, Charlotte H.; de Bie, Roosmarie P.; van Hamont, Dennis; Bakkers, Judith M. J. E.; Quint, Wim G. V.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Bekkers, Ruud L. M.; Melchers, Willem J. G.

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping in self-sampled genital smears applied to an indicating FTA elute cartridge (FTA cartridge). The study group consisted of 96 women, divided into two sample sets. All samples were analyzed by the HPV SPF10-Line Blot 25. Set 1 consisted of 45 women attending the gynecologist; all obtained a self-sampled cervicovaginal smear, which was applied to an FTA cartridge. HPV results were compared to a cervical smear (liquid based) taken by a trained physician. Set 2 consisted of 51 women who obtained a self-sampled cervicovaginal smear at home, which was applied to an FTA cartridge and to a liquid-based medium. DNA was obtained from the FTA cartridges by simple elution as well as extraction. Of all self-obtained samples of set 1, 62.2% tested HPV positive. The overall agreement between self- and physician-obtained samples was 93.3%, in favor of the self-obtained samples. In sample set 2, 25.5% tested HPV positive. The overall agreement for high-risk HPV presence between the FTA cartridge and liquid-based medium and between DNA elution and extraction was 100%. This study shows that HPV detection and genotyping in self-obtained cervicovaginal samples applied to an FTA cartridge is highly reliable. It shows a high level of overall agreement with HPV detection and genotyping in physician-obtained cervical smears and liquid-based self-samples. DNA can be obtained by simple elution and is therefore easy, cheap, and fast. Furthermore, the FTA cartridge is a convenient medium for collection and safe transport at ambient temperatures. Therefore, this method may contribute to a new way of cervical cancer screening. PMID:19553570

  6. Detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus in self-obtained cervicovaginal samples by using the FTA cartridge: new possibilities for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenselink, Charlotte H; de Bie, Roosmarie P; van Hamont, Dennis; Bakkers, Judith M J E; Quint, Wim G V; Massuger, Leon F A G; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Melchers, Willem J G

    2009-08-01

    This study assesses human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping in self-sampled genital smears applied to an indicating FTA elute cartridge (FTA cartridge). The study group consisted of 96 women, divided into two sample sets. All samples were analyzed by the HPV SPF(10)-Line Blot 25. Set 1 consisted of 45 women attending the gynecologist; all obtained a self-sampled cervicovaginal smear, which was applied to an FTA cartridge. HPV results were compared to a cervical smear (liquid based) taken by a trained physician. Set 2 consisted of 51 women who obtained a self-sampled cervicovaginal smear at home, which was applied to an FTA cartridge and to a liquid-based medium. DNA was obtained from the FTA cartridges by simple elution as well as extraction. Of all self-obtained samples of set 1, 62.2% tested HPV positive. The overall agreement between self- and physician-obtained samples was 93.3%, in favor of the self-obtained samples. In sample set 2, 25.5% tested HPV positive. The overall agreement for high-risk HPV presence between the FTA cartridge and liquid-based medium and between DNA elution and extraction was 100%. This study shows that HPV detection and genotyping in self-obtained cervicovaginal samples applied to an FTA cartridge is highly reliable. It shows a high level of overall agreement with HPV detection and genotyping in physician-obtained cervical smears and liquid-based self-samples. DNA can be obtained by simple elution and is therefore easy, cheap, and fast. Furthermore, the FTA cartridge is a convenient medium for collection and safe transport at ambient temperatures. Therefore, this method may contribute to a new way of cervical cancer screening.

  7. Determination of uranium and thorium isotopes in soil samples by coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Quang Huy; Trinh Thi Bich; Nguyen Van Suc

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a procedure to prepare soil samples for U and Th isotope measurement by alpha-spectrometry after coprecipitation with LaF 3 . In this procedure the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was performed by Zn metal in 4M HCl solution. The recoveries of chemical separation equal to ε U-chemistry = 78±4% for uranium and ε Th-chemistry = 82±4% for thorium. Canberra alpha-spectrometer was used with PIPS detectors of A-1200-37-AM Model of 1200 mm 2 active area. The counting efficiency of the measuring system equals to ε counting = 18% and the total efficiencies were ε U = ε counting - ε U-chemistry = 14.0 ± 0.7% for uranium and ε Th = ε counting - ε Th-chemistry = 14.7 ± 0.7% for thorium. The recoveries of chemical separation were rather high (about 80%), that leads to the use of a small weight of soil sample (about 0.5 g). The efficiencies were also stable, that allows analyzing the soil sample without using radiotracers. They are advantages of the sample preparation procedure of this work. (author)

  8. Review of sample preparation techniques for the analysis of pesticide residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, José L; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Albero, Beatriz; García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the sample preparation techniques used for the analysis of pesticides in soil. The present status and recent advances made during the last 5 years in these methods are discussed. The analysis of pesticide residues in soil requires the extraction of analytes from this matrix, followed by a cleanup procedure, when necessary, prior to their instrumental determination. The optimization of sample preparation is a very important part of the method development that can reduce the analysis time, the amount of solvent, and the size of samples. This review considers all aspects of sample preparation, including extraction and cleanup. Classical extraction techniques, such as shaking, Soxhlet, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and modern techniques like pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) are reviewed. The different cleanup strategies applied for the purification of soil extracts are also discussed. In addition, the application of these techniques to environmental studies is considered.

  9. Isotope ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in soil samples from different areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Shinnosuke

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium concentrations and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soil samples from Japan and other areas in the world (including IAEA standard reference materials) were determined by ICP-MS. The range of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios observed in 21 Japanese soil samples was 0.155 - 0.194 and the average was 0.180 ± 0.011, which is comparable to the global fallout value. A low ratio of about 0.05, which is derived from Pu-bomb, was found in samples from Nishiyama (Nagasaki) and Mururoa Atoll (IAEA-368), while a high ratio of about 0.31 was found in a sample from Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands). The ratio for Irish Sea sediment (IAEA-135) was 0.21, which was higher than the global fallout value, suggesting the influence by the contamination from the Sellafield facility. The 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in soils from the Chernobyl area were determined, and the ratio was found to be very high (about 0.4), indicating the high burn-up grade of the reactor fuel. These results show that the 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratio can be used as a finger print to identify the source of the contamination. (author)

  10. LEAK AND GAS PERMEABILITY TESTING DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING AT HAL'S CHEVRON LUST SITE IN GREEN RIVER, UTAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of gas permeability and leak testing during active soil-gas sampling at Hal’s Chevron LUST Site in Green River, Utah are presented. This study was conducted to support development of a passive soil-gas sampling method. Gas mixtures containing helium and methane were...

  11. Thorium, uranium and rare earth elements concentration in weathered Japanese soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kamagata, Sadatoshi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    The geochemical behavior of thorium, uranium and rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively close to one another while compared to other elements in a geological environment. Radioactive elements like 232 Th and 238 U along with their decay products (e.g. 226 Ra) are present in most environmental matrices and can be transferred to living bodies by different pathways which can lead to the sources of exposure to man. For these reasons, it has been necessary to monitor those natural radionuclides in weathered soil samples to assess the possible hazards. It has been observed that granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. To better understand the interaction between REEs and soils, the nature of soils must be considered. In this paper, we discussed the distribution pattern of 232 Th and 238 U along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite and ryolite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: (1) Kobe city in Hyogo prefecture and (2) Mutsu city and Higashidori village in Aomori prefecture. (author)

  12. Solving mercury (Hg) speciation in soil samples by synchrotron X-ray microspectroscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, Roberto; Santoro, Anna; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Vekemans, Bart; Medici, Luca; Janssens, Koen; Göttlicher, Jörg; Denecke, Melissa A; Mangold, Stefan; Ruggiero, Pacifico

    2010-08-01

    Direct mercury (Hg) speciation was assessed for soil samples with a Hg concentration ranging from 7 up to 240 mg kg(-1). Hg chemical forms were identified and quantified by sequential extractions and bulk- and micro-analytical techniques exploiting synchrotron generated X-rays. In particular, microspectroscopic techniques such as mu-XRF, mu-XRD and mu-XANES were necessary to solve bulk Hg speciation, in both soil fractions soil samples were metacinnabar (beta-HgS), cinnabar (alpha-HgS), corderoite (Hg(3)S(2)Cl(2)), and an amorphous phase containing Hg bound to chlorine and sulfur. The amount of metacinnabar and amorphous phases increased in the fraction soil components was observed. All the observed Hg-species originated from the slow weathering of an inert Hg-containing waste material (K106, U.S. EPA) dumped in the area several years ago, which is changing into a relatively more dangerous source of pollution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in samples of soil from some areas of Republic of Macedonia by using gamma spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorovik Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the importance of the distribution and transfer of radio nuclides in soil, an attempt was made in this work to determine the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in the same. The concentrations of activity in the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radio nuclides, as follows, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in samples of soil collected from some parts of Republic of Macedonia, i.e. from three major cities in the Republic of Macedonia. The samples are taken by means of a special dosage dispenser which enables sampling of samples at a depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-15cm, thus disabling the sampling above these layers of soil. An identification of radio nuclides and assessment of their activity has been performed by applying gamma spectrometry. The time of counting for each sample was 65000 s. in order to obtain statistically small mistake. The spectrums were analyzed by a commercially available software GENIE-2000 received from Canberra, Austria. The activity of soil had wide range of values: 20.3 to 82.9 Bq kg-1for 226Ra, 16.1 to 82.5 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 325 to 799.0 Bq kg-1for 40К and 9.1 to 24.3 Bq kg-1for 137Cs, respectively. The concentrations of these radio nuclides have been compared with the available data from the other countries. Natural environmental radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geological and geographical conditions. Namely, the specific levels of terrestrial environmental radiation are related to the type of rocks from which the soils originate. The obtained data indicate that the average value of activity of 232Th is about higher than the one of 226Ra The concentration of activity of 40К in the soil has greater value than 32Th and 226Ra in all soils. The causes for the existence of 137Cs in these soils are the nuclear explosions, waste radioactive materials and other incidents. It reaches the

  14. Applying no-depletion equilibrium sampling and full-depletion bioaccessibility extraction to 35 historically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolomé, Nora; Hilber, Isabel; Sosa, Dayana

    2018-01-01

    Assessing the bioaccessibility of organic pollutants in contaminated soils is considered a complement to measurements of total concentrations in risk assessment and legislation. Consequently, methods for its quantification require validation with historically contaminated soils. In this study, 35...... with polyoxymethylene was used to determine freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) with silicone rods was used to determine the bioaccessible PAH concentrations (Cbioacc) of these soils. The organic carbon partition...... Capacity Ratio (SCR); particularly for soils with very high KD. The source of contamination determined bioaccessible fractions (fbioacc). The smallest fbioacc were obtained with skeet soils (15%), followed by the pyrogenically influenced soils, rural soils, and finally, the petrogenically contaminated soil...

  15. Poly-use multi-level sampling system for soil-gas transport analysis in the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Philipp A; Chiri, Eleonora; Schroth, Martin H

    2013-10-01

    Soil-gas turnover is important in the global cycling of greenhouse gases. The analysis of soil-gas profiles provides quantitative information on below-ground turnover and fluxes. We developed a poly-use multi-level sampling system (PMLS) for soil-gas sampling, water-content and temperature measurement with high depth resolution and minimal soil disturbance. It is based on perforated access tubes (ATs) permanently installed in the soil. A multi-level sampler allows extraction of soil-gas samples from 20 locations within 1 m depth, while a capacitance probe is used to measure volumetric water contents. During idle times, the ATs are sealed and can be equipped with temperature sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments in a field lysimeter showed good agreement of soil-gas samples and water-content measurements compared with conventional techniques, while a successfully performed gas-tracer test demonstrated the feasibility of the PMLS to determine soil-gas diffusion coefficients in situ. A field application of the PMLS to quantify oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in a field lysimeter and in the forefield of a receding glacier yielded activity coefficients and soil-atmosphere fluxes well in agreement with previous studies. With numerous options for customization, the presented tool extends the methodological choices to investigate soil-gas transport in the vadose zone.

  16. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte

    and then identify high risk areas. The uptake of BTEX into trees varies to a greater extent with the tree species and the site conditions than chlorinated solvents, which lead to greater uncertainty. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the methods supplement each other. Based on results......Site characterization is often time consuming and a financial burden for the site owners, which raises a demand for rapid and inexpensive (pre)screening methods. Phytoscreening by tree coring has shown to be a useful tool to detect subsurface contamination, especially of chlorinated solvents...... suitable as initial screening methods for site characterization. The aim of this study is to compare tree coring and soil gas sampling to evaluate to which extent tree coring may supplement or substitute soil gas sampling as a site contaminant screening tool. And where both methods are feasible, evaluate...

  17. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from undisturbed soil cores sampled along a natural clay gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    correlated to the accumulated outflow and was described as a diffusion controlled process, using ¾(accumulated outflow). The mass of leached particles was positively correlated to the clay content as well as to water-dispersible colloids. Particulate phosphorus (P) was linearly correlated to concentration......The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus...

  18. Gamma Radiation Dose from Radionuclides in Soil Samples of Udagamandalam (Ooty) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvasekarapandian, S.; Muguntha Manikandan, N.; Sivakumar, R.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Meenakshisundram, V.; Ragunath, V.M.; Gajendran, V.

    1999-01-01

    The systematic study of background radiation and the distribution of radionuclides in the environment of Udagamandalam in Nilgiri District of Tamil Nadu has been made. Gamma spectrometric analysis of the soil samples of this area has been carried out. The measured gamma dose in air is in the range 31.6 nGy.h -1 - 221.1 nGy.h -1 with a mean value 121.8 nGy.h -1 . The average activities of the 232 Th series, 238 U series and 40 K in soil samples are 114.6 ± 52.5 Bq.kg -1 , 43.2 ± 23.2 Bq.kg -1 and 274.6 ± 86.7 Bq.kg -1 respectively. (author)

  19. Radioactivity measurements and risk assessments in soil samples at south and middle of Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.; Al Dosari, M.; Amr, M.A.; Al-Saad, K.A.; Helal, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Health risks associated with the exposure to the natural radioactivity present in soil materials has great concern all over the world. Thus soil samples collected from an urban area at south and middle of Qatar in order to measure natural radioactivity, 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th and the artificial 137 Cs using gamma-ray spectrometry method.The soil activity concentrations ranges from 25.01- 40.31 for 226 Ra, 12.37- 4.99 for 232 Th and 133.8 - 250.1 for 40 K with mean values of 57, 87 and 207 Bq/ kg, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides are compared with the available data from other countries. The average and ranges of activity concentration of 226 Ra in Qatar soil areas are very much comparable to the world Figures. However, the concentration for 232 Th is comparable to other Gulf area and lower than that for Egypt and the world figures.The concentration for 40 K is lower as compared with Egypt, world, and Kuwait figures but comparable to Oman figures.The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq) in these soil samples ranges from 74.45 Bq/ kg to 41.21 Bq/ kg) with mean value of 57.4 Bq/ kg which is far below the safe limit (permissible) limit (370 Bq/ kg). The calculated values for external hazard index Hex for the soil samples range from 0.102 - 0.21 and average concentration of 0.164 which is lower than other values reported .However these values are lower than unity; therefore, the soil from these regions is safe and can be used as a construction material without posing any significant radiological threat to population.The absorbed dose rate calculated from activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ranges between 11.529 - 21.446, 2.383 - 11.744, and 5.304 -10.357 n Gy/ h, respectively and the total average absorbed dose rate 28.915 n Gy/ h which are lower than the world wide average absorbed dose rate 51 n Gy/ h. The total absorbed dose in the study area ranges from 20.146 - 40.389 n Gy/ h with an average value of 28.915 n Gy/ h .The

  20. Assessing NIR & MIR Spectral Analysis as a Method for Soil C Estimation Across a Network of Sampling Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, S.; Ogle, S.; Borch, T.; Rock, B.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring soil C stocks is critical to assess the impact of future climate and land use change on carbon sinks and sources in agricultural lands. A benchmark network for soil carbon monitoring of stock changes is being designed for US agricultural lands with 3000-5000 sites anticipated and re-sampling on a 5- to10-year basis. Approximately 1000 sites would be sampled per year producing around 15,000 soil samples to be processed for total, organic, and inorganic carbon, as well as bulk density and nitrogen. Laboratory processing of soil samples is cost and time intensive, therefore we are testing the efficacy of using near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectral methods for estimating soil carbon. As part of an initial implementation of national soil carbon monitoring, we collected over 1800 soil samples from 45 cropland sites in the mid-continental region of the U.S. Samples were processed using standard laboratory methods to determine the variables above. Carbon and nitrogen were determined by dry combustion and inorganic carbon was estimated with an acid-pressure test. 600 samples are being scanned using a bench- top NIR reflectance spectrometer (30 g of 2 mm oven-dried soil and 30 g of 8 mm air-dried soil) and 500 samples using a MIR Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) with a DRIFT reflectance accessory (0.2 g oven-dried ground soil). Lab-measured carbon will be compared to spectrally-estimated carbon contents using Partial Least Squares (PLS) multivariate statistical approach. PLS attempts to develop a soil C predictive model that can then be used to estimate C in soil samples not lab-processed. The spectral analysis of soil samples either whole or partially processed can potentially save both funding resources and time to process samples. This is particularly relevant for the implementation of a national monitoring network for soil carbon. This poster will discuss our methods, initial results and potential for using NIR and MIR spectral

  1. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile. - Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a polluted soil can be realistically interpreted by in-situ soil pore water sampling.

  2. Multielemental analysis of soil samples from the Assin District of Central Region in Ghana using nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyemang, O.

    2008-06-01

    Macronutrients, micronutrients, pH, salinity and moisture content were determined in soil samples from six farms in two farming towns in Assin North District in the Central Region of Ghana namely Assin Akonfudi and Assin Bereku. Soil samples were taken from cocoa farms, orange farms and palm oil plantations at three different depths. The nutrients determined were Primary macronutrients that was K, Secondary macronutrients that were Ca, Mg and Micronutrients that were, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Na and Se and Neutron Activation method and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry were used for the elemental analysis. The pHs were within the acidic range, ranging from 4.50-6.44. The top soil (0-5cm) had the higher pH followed by soil at the depth of 5-30cm and then soil at the depth of 30-40cm that is the pH decreased with depth. The salinity rather increased with depth ranging from 0.3l-2.98dS/m and the moisture content also ranged from 0.5-2.04%. For the soil samples taken from the cocoa farms, K recorded the highest concentration and Mo recorded the lowest concentration in the soil. For soil samples taken from orange farms, Ca recorded the highest concentration and Se recorded the lowest concentration in the soil and for soil samples taken from the palm oil plantations, Fe recorded the highest concentration and Mo recorded the lowest concentration in soil. The macronutrients ranged from 28591.19-6.49 mg/kg and the micronutrients ranged from <0.0004-20344.50 mg/kg. Soils in the cocoa farms were found to be more rich in nutrients and the soils in the palm oil plantations were found to be least rich in nutrients

  3. Geochemical soil sampling for deeply-buried mineralized breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, K.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thousands of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in the canyons and on the plateaus of northwestern Arizona; some host high-grade uranium deposits. The mineralized pipes are enriched in Ag, As, Ba, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn. These breccia pipes formed as sedimentary strata collapsed into solution caverns within the underlying Mississippian Redwall Limestone. A typical pipe is approximately 100 m (300 ft) in diameter and extends upward from the Redwall Limestone as much as 1000 m (3000 ft). Unmineralized gypsum and limestone collapses rooted in the Lower Permian Kaibab Limestone or Toroweap Formation also occur throughout this area. Hence, development of geochemical tools that can distinguish these unmineralized collapse structures, as well as unmineralized breccia pipes, from mineralized breccia pipes could significantly reduce drilling costs for these orebodies commonly buried 300-360 m (1000-1200 ft) below the plateau surface. Design and interpretation of soil sampling surveys over breccia pipes are plagued with several complications. (1) The plateau-capping Kaibab Limestone and Moenkopi Formation are made up of diverse lithologies. Thus, because different breccia pipes are capped by different lithologies, each pipe needs to be treated as a separate geochemical survey with its own background samples. (2) Ascertaining true background is difficult because of uncertainties in locations of poorly-exposed collapse cones and ring fracture zones that surround the pipes. Soil geochemical surveys were completed on 50 collapse structures, three of which are known mineralized breccia pipes. Each collapse structure was treated as an independent geochemical survey. Geochemical data from each collapse feature were plotted on single-element geochemical maps and processed by multivariate factor analysis. To contrast the results between geochemical surveys (collapse structures), a means of quantifying the anomalousness of elements at each site was developed. This

  4. Analysis of techniques of sample attack for soil and mineral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, J.R.; Chiu, N.W.

    1985-05-01

    Four methods of sample attack were evaluated in the laboratory for use in the determination of uranium, radium-226, thorium-232, thorium-230, thorium-228, and lead-210. The methods evaluated were (1) KF/pyrosulfate fusion; (2) Sodium carbonate fusion; (3) Nitric, perchloric, hydrofluoric acid digestion; and, (4) combination nitric, perchloric, hydrofluoric acid/pyrosulfate fusion. Five samples were chosen for evaluation; two were mine tailings from Bancroft, Ontario and Beaverlodge, Saskatchewan, one was a synthetic uranium ore-silica mixture and two were soil samples supplied by AECB. The KF/pyrosulfate dissolution procedure was found to be the fastest and, overall, most accurate dissolution method for the analysis of 1-20 samples. For larger numbers of samples the three acid/pyrosulfate fusion combination was shown to have some merit

  5. Automated facility for analysis of soil samples by neutron activation, counting, and data control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voegele, A.L.; Jesse, R.H.; Russell, W.L.; Baker, J.

    1978-01-01

    An automated facility remotely and automatically analyzes soil, water, and sediment samples for uranium. The samples travel through pneumatic tubes and switches to be first irradiated by neutrons and then counted for resulting neutron and gamma emission. Samples are loaded into special carriers, or rabbits, which are then automatically loaded into the pneumatic transfer system. The sample carriers have been previously coded with an identification number, which can be automatically read in the system. This number is used for correlating and filing data about the samples. The transfer system, counters, and identification system are controlled by a network of microprocessors. A master microprocessor initiates routines in other microprocessors assigned to specific tasks. The software in the microprocessors is unique for this type of application and lends flexibility to the system

  6. Determination of irradiated reactor uranium in soil samples in Belarus using 236U as irradiated uranium tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Vladislav P; Matusevich, Janna L; Kudrjashov, Vladimir P; Boulyga, Sergei F; Becker, J Sabine

    2002-12-01

    This work presents experimental results on the distribution of irradiated reactor uranium from fallout after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in comparison to natural uranium distribution in different soil types. Oxidation processes and vertical migration of irradiated uranium in soils typical of the 30 km relocation area around Chernobyl NPP were studied using 236U as the tracer for irradiated reactor uranium and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as the analytical method for uranium isotope ratio measurements. Measurements of natural uranium yielded significant variations of its concentration in upper soil layers from 2 x 10(-7) g g(-1) to 3.4 x 10(-6) g g(-1). Concentrations of irradiated uranium in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers at the investigated sampling sites varied from 5 x 10(-12) g g(-1) to 2 x 10(-6) g g(-1) depending on the distance from Chernobyl NPP. In the majority of investigated soil profiles 78% to 97% of irradiated "Chernobyl" uranium is still contained in the upper 0-10 cm soil layers. The physical and chemical characteristics of the soil do not have any significant influence on processes of fuel particle destruction. Results obtained using carbonate leaching of 236U confirmed that more than 60% of irradiated "Chernobyl" uranium is still in a tetravalent form, ie. it is included in the fuel matrix (non-oxidized fuel UO2). The average value of the destruction rate of fuel particles determined for the Western radioactive trace (k = 0.030 +/- 0.005 yr(-1)) and for the Northern radioactive trace (k = 0.035 + 0.009 yr(-1)) coincide within experimental errors. Use of leaching of fission products in comparison to leaching of uranium for study of the destruction rate of fuel particles yielded poor coincidence due to the fact that use of fission products does not take into account differences in the chemical properties of fission products and fuel matrix (uranium).

  7. Elemental analysis of soil and plant samples at El-Manzala lake neutron activation analysis technique. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eissa, E A; Rofail, N B; Hassan, A M [Reactor and Neutron Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Haleem, A S [Radiactive Environment Pollution Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); El-Abbady, W H [Phsics Department, Faculty of Science , Al-Azhar University, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from from two locations, Bahr El-Baker, and Bahr kados at the manzala lake, where, where high pollution is expected. The samples were especially treated and prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The irradiation facilities of the first egyptian research reactor (ET-R R-1), and the hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for analysis. Among the 34 identified Fe, Co, As, Cd, Te, La, Sm, Rb, Hg, Th, and U are of a special significance because of the their toxic deleterious impact on living organisms. This work is part of a research project concerning pollution studies on the river Nile and some lakes of egypt. The data obtained in the present work stands as a reference basic record for any future follow up of contamination level. 1 tab.

  8. Elemental analysis of soil and plant samples at El-Manzala lake neutron activation analysis technique. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.; Abd El-Haleem, A.S.; El-Abbady, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from from two locations, Bahr El-Baker, and Bahr kados at the manzala lake, where, where high pollution is expected. The samples were especially treated and prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The irradiation facilities of the first egyptian research reactor (ET-R R-1), and the hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for analysis. Among the 34 identified Fe, Co, As, Cd, Te, La, Sm, Rb, Hg, Th, and U are of a special significance because of the their toxic deleterious impact on living organisms. This work is part of a research project concerning pollution studies on the river Nile and some lakes of egypt. The data obtained in the present work stands as a reference basic record for any future follow up of contamination level. 1 tab

  9. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  10. Radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples of Hassan district of South Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesha, B.G.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m"-"3 and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg"-"1. Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m"-"2 h"-"1, and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg"-"1 h"-"1. (authors)

  11. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  12. The Benefits of Sample Return: Connecting Apollo Soils and Diviner Lunar Radiometer Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson-Hanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has produced the first global, high resolution, thermal infrared observations of an airless body. The Moon, which is the most accessible member of this most abundant class of solar system objects, is also the only body for which we have extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of a representative suite of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations of the lunar surface. We find that analyses of Diviner observations of individual sampling stations and SLE measurements of returned Apollo soils show good agreement, while comparisons to thermal infrared reflectance under terrestrial conditions do not agree well, which underscores the need for SLE measurements and validates the Diviner compositional dataset. Future work includes measurement of additional soils in SLE and cross comparisons with measurements in JPL Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL).

  13. Estimation of the Vertical Distribution of Radiocesium in Soil on the Basis of the Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Spectra Obtained via Aerial Radiation Monitoring Using an Unmanned Helicopter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Kotaro; Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishida, Mutsushi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Nishimura, Taku; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2017-08-17

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter. The estimates are based on actual measurement data collected at an extended farm. In this method, the change in the ratio of direct gamma rays to scattered gamma rays at various depths in the soil was utilized to quantify the vertical distribution of radiocesium. The results show a positive correlation between the abovementioned and the actual vertical distributions of radiocesium measured in the soil samples. A vertical distribution map was created on the basis of this ratio using a simple equation derived from the abovementioned correlation. This technique can provide a novel approach for effective selection of high-priority areas that require decontamination.

  14. Estimation of the Vertical Distribution of Radiocesium in Soil on the Basis of the Characteristics of Gamma-Ray Spectra Obtained via Aerial Radiation Monitoring Using an Unmanned Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Kotaro; Sasaki, Miyuki; Ishida, Mutsushi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2017-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, the vertical distribution of radiocesium in soil has been investigated to better understand the behavior of radiocesium in the environment. The typical method used for measuring the vertical distribution of radiocesium is troublesome because it requires collection and measurement of the activity of soil samples. In this study, we established a method of estimating the vertical distribution of radiocesium by focusing on the characteristics of gamma-ray spectra obtained via aerial radiation monitoring using an unmanned helicopter. The estimates are based on actual measurement data collected at an extended farm. In this method, the change in the ratio of direct gamma rays to scattered gamma rays at various depths in the soil was utilized to quantify the vertical distribution of radiocesium. The results show a positive correlation between the abovementioned and the actual vertical distributions of radiocesium measured in the soil samples. A vertical distribution map was created on the basis of this ratio using a simple equation derived from the abovementioned correlation. This technique can provide a novel approach for effective selection of high-priority areas that require decontamination. PMID:28817098

  15. A quantitative method to detect explosives and selected semivolatiles in soil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J.; Robitaille, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides

  16. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  17. A study of heavy metal content and NORM in soil sample outside Lynas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. Gebeng, Kuantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Azera Izzati Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Lynas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. is established to build a processing plant of the rare earth lanthanides elements used to produce the starting material for manufacturing high-tech products analysed as cell phones, magnets, computer memory and many more. Analysis of soil samples was carried out outside the Lynas Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of radionuclide activity concentration of natural elements in soil samples of 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U. A total of five heavy metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb were analysed for concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples. The analysis was performed and analysed using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for the composition and concentration of heavy metals and Gamma Ray Spectrometer is to determine the radionuclide activity concentration of natural elements. Results showed that the concentrations of radionuclides activities for 40 K, 232 Th and 238 U are different at all stations. 40 K radionuclide has the highest radioactivity in the Station 3, which is 385 ± 4 Bq/ kg. For 232 Th and 238 U radionuclides have a high concentration of activity at Station 2 which are 102 ± 3 Bq/ kg and 105 ± 4 Bq/ kg, respectively. According to UNSCEAR 2000 average value, the value obtained exceeds the prescribed level. For heavy metal analysis showed there were only three heavy metals which could be found, namely As, Cr and Cu. For the highest concentration of As element has found at Station 5, which is 25.5 ± 2.1 ppm. For Cr and Cu element, high concentrations has found at Station 5 and Station 1, which are 225 ± 35 ppm and 95 ± ppm, respectively. (author)

  18. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples in the Region Vranje (Bratoselce Village) for the period 2001-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremic-savkovic, M.; Pantelic, G.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vuletic, V.; Javorina, L.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic examination of radioactive contamination of soil samples was established at the Institute for Occupational and Radiological Health. With the bombing of our country (Spring 1999) the monitoring of radioactivity has changed. We also measured the activities of uranium and it descendants. This paper presents the results of radioactivity monitoring of the soil in small area 700 m near village Bratoselce in region Vranje during the period 2001 - 2004. From 2001 to 2004, we collected different samples from this fenced area as well as outside this area assuming not to be contaminated, before, during and after decontamination. Some soil samples were made as a mix of small samples from a large area of location. Other samples were taken at the points formerly designated as contaminated or from shell-craters seen on the fenced area surface. All samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and measurements of alpha and beta activity. On the basis of measurements of soil activities, analysis of 238 U and 235 U, as well as in comparison with natural activity ratio being 21.4, it may be concluded that depleted uranium contamination was present both in the fenced area and outside it, because this ratio in the samples of soil was found to be 34 to 73. Natural activity in soil samples was slightly higher in relation to mean soil activity in Serbia. (authors)

  19. Autofluorescence in samples obtained from chronic biofilm infections – “all that glitters is not gold”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen Robert; Kragh, Kasper N.; Schrøder, Stine

    2015-01-01

    When looking at tissue sections of ex vivo samples, autofluorescence can be a major cause of artifacts and misinterpretations. We here reiterate evidence that autofluorescing granules, often hemosiderin but also ceroid or mucinogen granules, are severe obstacles when imaging and diagnosing biofil...

  20. Histopathological examination of nerve samples from pure neural leprosy patients: obtaining maximum information to improve diagnostic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Gomes Antunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nerve biopsy examination is an important auxiliary procedure for diagnosing pure neural leprosy (PNL. When acid-fast bacilli (AFB are not detected in the nerve sample, the value of other nonspecific histological alterations should be considered along with pertinent clinical, electroneuromyographical and laboratory data (the detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA with polymerase chain reaction and the detection of serum anti-phenolic glycolipid 1 antibodies to support a possible or probable PNL diagnosis. Three hundred forty nerve samples [144 from PNL patients and 196 from patients with non-leprosy peripheral neuropathies (NLN] were examined. Both AFB-negative and AFB-positive PNL samples had more frequent histopathological alterations (epithelioid granulomas, mononuclear infiltrates, fibrosis, perineurial and subperineurial oedema and decreased numbers of myelinated fibres than the NLN group. Multivariate analysis revealed that independently, mononuclear infiltrate and perineurial fibrosis were more common in the PNL group and were able to correctly classify AFB-negative PNL samples. These results indicate that even in the absence of AFB, these histopathological nerve alterations may justify a PNL diagnosis when observed in conjunction with pertinent clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data.

  1. Histopathological examination of nerve samples from pure neural leprosy patients: obtaining maximum information to improve diagnostic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sérgio Luiz Gomes; Chimelli, Leila; Jardim, Márcia Rodrigues; Vital, Robson Teixeira; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Corte-Real, Suzana; Hacker, Mariana Andréa Vilas Boas; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Nerve biopsy examination is an important auxiliary procedure for diagnosing pure neural leprosy (PNL). When acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are not detected in the nerve sample, the value of other nonspecific histological alterations should be considered along with pertinent clinical, electroneuromyographical and laboratory data (the detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA with polymerase chain reaction and the detection of serum anti-phenolic glycolipid 1 antibodies) to support a possible or probable PNL diagnosis. Three hundred forty nerve samples [144 from PNL patients and 196 from patients with non-leprosy peripheral neuropathies (NLN)] were examined. Both AFB-negative and AFB-positive PNL samples had more frequent histopathological alterations (epithelioid granulomas, mononuclear infiltrates, fibrosis, perineurial and subperineurial oedema and decreased numbers of myelinated fibres) than the NLN group. Multivariate analysis revealed that independently, mononuclear infiltrate and perineurial fibrosis were more common in the PNL group and were able to correctly classify AFB-negative PNL samples. These results indicate that even in the absence of AFB, these histopathological nerve alterations may justify a PNL diagnosis when observed in conjunction with pertinent clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data.

  2. 7 CFR 42.141 - Obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information for skip lot sampling and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... sampling plan for normal condition of container inspection from Table I or Table I-A of § 42.109. (b) For a... procedures. For example, let's assume the lot size is 6,001 to 12,000 containers, and we use the single...

  3. Calculation of coincidence summing corrections for a specific small soil sample geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmer, R.G.; Gehrke, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Previously, a system was developed at the INEL for measuring the {gamma}-ray emitting nuclides in small soil samples for the purpose of environmental monitoring. These samples were counted close to a {approx}20% Ge detector and, therefore, it was necessary to take into account the coincidence summing that occurs for some nuclides. In order to improve the technical basis for the coincidence summing corrections, the authors have carried out a study of the variation in the coincidence summing probability with position within the sample volume. A Monte Carlo electron and photon transport code (CYLTRAN) was used to compute peak and total efficiencies for various photon energies from 30 to 2,000 keV at 30 points throughout the sample volume. The geometry for these calculations included the various components of the detector and source along with the shielding. The associated coincidence summing corrections were computed at these 30 positions in the sample volume and then averaged for the whole source. The influence of the soil and the detector shielding on the efficiencies was investigated.

  4. Levels and effects of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjulata Yadav; Mukesh Rawat; Anoop Dangwal; Mukesh Prasad; Gusain, G.S.; Ramola, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of natural radionuclide gives significant parameter to assess the presence of gamma radioactivity and its radiological effect in our environment. Natural radionuclides are present in the form of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil, rocks, water, air, and building materials. Distribution of natural radionuclides depends on the type of minerals present in the soil and rocks. For this purpose gamma spectrometer is used as tool for finding the concentration of these radionuclides. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in these soil samples were found to vary from of 8 ± 1 Bq/kg to 50 ± 10 Bq/kg with an average 20 Bq/kg, 7 ± 1-88 ± 16 Bq/kg with an Average 26 Bq/kg and 115 ± 18-885 ± 132 Bq/kg with an average 329 Bq/kg, respectively. In this paper, we are presenting the radiological effect due to distribution of natural radionuclide present in soil of Garhwal Himalaya. (author)

  5. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K ranged from ≤2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232 Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238 U and 40 K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Ra eq , the absorbed dose rate D R , the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (H ex ) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills. - Highlights: ► Soil radioactivity is used for base line data in future impact assessment. ► We report the results of radiation hazard parameters in soils of Yelagiri hills. ► The level of the natural radiation in the studied area does not exceed the norm.

  6. [Physical and chemical methods for eliminating propagules of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi from soil samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covacevich, Fernanda; Castellari, Claudia C; Echeverría, Hernán E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate methods to eliminate or reduce the number of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from soil samples without affecting their edaphic or microbiological properties. At an early trial we evaluated moist heat (autoclaving), dry heat (oven), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and formaldehyde at a range of 100.0-3.3μl/g and 16.7-3.3μl/g respectively. There was no germination in plants of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) sown on substrates receiving NaClO (100.0-33.3μl/g), whereas autoclaving significantly increased the available soil phosphorous content. Both treatments failed to eradicate AMF colonization at 9 weeks; therefore, they were discarded. In a second trial, oven and formaldehyde (10.0μl/g) treatments were analyzed to assess the effects of seed decontamination and AMF reinoculation. Both procedures were effective in reducing or eliminating indigenous AMF at a range of soil P availability of 12-29mg/kg. However, the time between soil treatment and AMF multiplication and safety requirements were greater in the case of formaldehyde application. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Solving mercury (Hg) speciation in soil samples by synchrotron X-ray microspectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzano, Roberto; Santoro, Anna; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Vekemans, Bart; Medici, Luca; Janssens, Koen; Goettlicher, Joerg; Denecke, Melissa A.; Mangold, Stefan; Ruggiero, Pacifico

    2010-01-01

    Direct mercury (Hg) speciation was assessed for soil samples with a Hg concentration ranging from 7 up to 240 mg kg -1 . Hg chemical forms were identified and quantified by sequential extractions and bulk- and micro-analytical techniques exploiting synchrotron generated X-rays. In particular, microspectroscopic techniques such as μ-XRF, μ-XRD and μ-XANES were necessary to solve bulk Hg speciation, in both soil fractions 3 S 2 Cl 2 ), and an amorphous phase containing Hg bound to chlorine and sulfur. The amount of metacinnabar and amorphous phases increased in the fraction <2 μm. No interaction among Hg-species and soil components was observed. All the observed Hg-species originated from the slow weathering of an inert Hg-containing waste material (K106, U.S. EPA) dumped in the area several years ago, which is changing into a relatively more dangerous source of pollution. - Direct mercury (Hg) speciation in chlor-alkali plant contaminated soils enabled the identification of potentially dangerous Hg-S/Cl amorphous species.

  8. Low level measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1984-01-01

    To detect a possible contribution of airborne radioactivity from stack effluents to the soil radioactivity, several radionuclides in the soil around a coal-fired power plant have been determined. A plant situated in a rural region of Bavaria was selected to minimize contributions from other civilisatory sources. The soil sampling network consisted of 5 concentric circles with diameters between 0.4 and 5.2 km around the plant, 16 sampling points being distributed regularly on each circle. Radiochemical analysis techniques for 210 Pb and 210 Po in soil samples of several grams has to be developed. They include a wet dissolution procedure, simultaneous precipitation of lead and polonium as the sulfides, purification via lead sulfate, counting of the lead as the chromate in a low-level beta counter and alpha spectrometric determination of the 210 Po in a gridded ionization chamber. The 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were counted by low level gamma spectrometry. Specific activities found were in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 pCi g -1 for 210 Pb and 0.3 to 1.6 pCi g -1 for 226 Ra. The distribution patterns of 210 Po and 210 Pb around the plant were found to be similar. They were different, however, from that of 226 Ra. The highest 210 Pb/ 226 Ra activity ratio was 3.9 at a distance of 0.76 km SSE from the plant. Nevertheless, the evidence is not considered to be sufficient to attribute these observations unambiguously to plant release. (orig.)

  9. Low level measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Bunzl, K.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1984-06-15

    To detect a possible contribution of airborne radioactivity from stack effluents to the soil radioactivity, several radionuclides in the soil around a coal-fired power plant have been determined. A plant situated in a rural region of Bavaria was selected to minimize contributions from other civilisatory sources. The soil sampling network consisted of 5 concentric circles with diameters between 0.4 and 5.2 km around the plant, 16 sampling points being distributed regularly on each circle. Radiochemical analysis techniques for /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in soil samples of several grams has to be developed. They include a wet dissolution procedure, simultaneous precipitation of lead and polonium as the sulfides, purification via lead sulfate, counting of the lead as the chromate in a low-level beta counter and alpha spectrometric determination of the /sup 210/Po in a gridded ionization chamber. The /sup 238/U, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K were counted by low level gamma spectrometry. Specific activities found were in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 pCi g/sup -1/ for /sup 210/Pb and 0.3 to 1.6 pCi g/sup -1/ for /sup 226/Ra. The distribution patterns of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb around the plant were found to be similar. They were different, however, from that of /sup 226/Ra. The highest /sup 210/Pb//sup 226/Ra activity ratio was 3.9 at a distance of 0.76 km SSE from the plant. Nevertheless, the evidence is not considered to be sufficient to attribute these observations unambiguously to plant release.

  10. Evidence for involvement of gut-associated denitrifying bacteria in emission of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) by earthworms obtained from garden and forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, C; Griesshammer, A; Schmittroth, M; Drake, H L

    1999-08-01

    Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus rubellus, and Octolasion lacteum) obtained from nitrous oxide (N(2)O)-emitting garden soils emitted 0.14 to 0.87 nmol of N(2)O h(-1) g (fresh weight)(-1) under in vivo conditions. L. rubellus obtained from N(2)O-emitting forest soil also emitted N(2)O, which confirmed previous observations (G. R. Karsten and H. L. Drake, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:1878-1882, 1997). In contrast, commercially obtained Lumbricus terrestris did not emit N(2)O; however, such worms emitted N(2)O when they were fed (i.e., preincubated in) garden soils. A. caliginosa, L. rubellus, and O. lacteum substantially increased the rates of N(2)O emission of garden soil columns and microcosms. Extrapolation of the data to in situ conditions indicated that N(2)O emission by earthworms accounted for approximately 33% of the N(2)O emitted by garden soils. In vivo emission of N(2)O by earthworms obtained from both garden and forest soils was greatly stimulated when worms were moistened with sterile solutions of nitrate or nitrite; in contrast, ammonium did not stimulate in vivo emission of N(2)O. In the presence of nitrate, acetylene increased the N(2)O emission rates of earthworms; in contrast, in the presence of nitrite, acetylene had little or no effect on emission of N(2)O. In vivo emission of N(2)O decreased by 80% when earthworms were preincubated in soil supplemented with streptomycin and tetracycline. On a fresh weight basis, the rates of N(2)O emission of dissected earthworm gut sections were substantially higher than the rates of N(2)O emission of dissected worms lacking gut sections, indicating that N(2)O production occurred in the gut rather than on the worm surface. In contrast to living earthworms and gut sections that produced N(2)O under oxic conditions (i.e., in the presence of air), fresh casts (feces) from N(2)O-emitting earthworms produced N(2)O only under anoxic conditions. Collectively, these results indicate that gut

  11. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling. Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area

  12. Soil sample moisture content as a function of time during oven drying for gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, R.R.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    In routine gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of collected soil samples, procedure often calls to remove soil moisture by oven drying overnight at a temperature of 100 deg. C . Oven drying not only minimizes the gamma-ray self-attenuation of soil samples due to the absence of water during the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, but also allows for a straightforward calculation of the specific activity of radionuclides in soil, historically based on the sample dry weight. Because radon exhalation is strongly dependent on moisture , knowledge of the oven-drying time dependence of the soil moisture content, combined with radon exhalation measurements during oven drying and at room temperature for varying soil moisture contents, would allow conclusions to be made on how the oven-drying radon exhalation rate depends on soil moisture content. Determinations of the oven-drying radon exhalation from soil samples allow corrections to be made for the immediate laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy of radionuclides in the natural uranium decay chain. This paper presents the results of soil moisture content measurements during oven drying and suggests useful empirical fits to the moisture data

  13. On-Site Processing and Subsampling of Surface Soil Samples for the Analysis of Explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hewitt, Alan D

    2003-01-01

    The on-site implementation of a sampling and analysis plan for the determination of explosives residues exposed a large uncertainty in our ability to quickly obtain representative subsamples from either large (>500 g...

  14. Determination of 7BE in soil sample by gamma spectrometry for erosion researchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Alexander D.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Amaral, Angela M.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2015-01-01

    Cosmogenic 7 Be is a natural radiotracer produced in the stratosphere and troposphere and reached to the Earth surface via wet and dry fallout and hence its measurement for research of erosion in soils is very significant. The 7 Be radio analyse based on gamma spectrometry technique has been a routine methodology for decades and although is the reference procedure is not free of analytical interference. 7 Be is a β-γ emitting radionuclide (Eγ = 477.59 keV, T½ = 53.12d) and depending on the chemical profile of the soil its determination is susceptible to 228 Ac (E γ = 478.40 keV, T½ = 6.15h) interference. The aim of this work was to establish an analytical protocol for the 7 Be determination in soil samples from Juatuba-Mg region in different sampling periods of dry and rainy seasons for erosion studies and to establish some methodologies for evaluating and correcting the interference level of 228 Ac in the 7 Be activity measurements by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  15. Measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rate from soil samples of Kumaun Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Poonam; Singh, Kuldeep; Agarwal, T. K.; Joshi, Manish; Pant, Preeti; Kandari, Tushar; Ramola, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    The source terms, i.e., exhalation and emanation from soil and building materials are the primary contributors to the radon (222Rn)/thoron (220Rn) concentration levels in the dwellings, while the ecological constraints like ventilation rate, temperature, pressure, humidity, etc., are the influencing factors. The present study is focused on Almora District of Kumaun, located in Himalayan belt of Uttarakhand, India. For the measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates, 24 soil samples were collected from different locations. Gamma radiation level was measured at each of these locations. Chamber technique associated with Smart Rn Duo portable monitor was employed for the estimation of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates. Radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) concentrations were also measured in soil samples using NaI(Tl) scintillation based gamma ray spectrometry. The mass exhalation rate for 222Rn was varying between 16 and 54 mBq/kg/h, while the 220Rn surface exhalation rate was in the range of 0.65-6.43 Bq/m2/s. Measured gamma dose rate for the same region varied from 0.10 to 0.31 µSv/h. Inter-correlation of exhalation rates and intra-correlation with background gamma levels were studied.

  16. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: Species stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.E.; Morman, S.A.; Hageman, P.L.; Hoefen, T.M.; Plumlee, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10 ??C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present

  17. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species, stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10° C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present

  18. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S. [Denver Federal Center, US Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    2011-11-15

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10 C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present, but

  19. Studies on the competitive sorption of divalent metal ions to natural soil samples using a multitracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, R.; Hirashima, H.; Sawamura, S.

    1997-01-01

    Speciation of minor or trace amount of pollutants, such as heavy metals and radionuclides released from atmospheric precipitation and water streams have been studied in order to elucidate their fates in the environment through 'in situ' observations or laboratory experiments. The authors have investigated sorption of heavy metals on various natural samples radiometrically ( 65 Zn as a tracer). A sequential extraction technique was found to be very effective to elucidate possible scavengers (minerals) of heavy metals in some cases. A sediment with low CEC does not sorb Zn (ii) ions to a great extent. It is thus considered that the zinc sorption occurs competitively with protons present in the aqueous media. Divalent copper and cadmium ions also behaved similarly to Zn(II), which was obtained electrochemically with the ion selective electrodes of Cu(II) and Cd(II). This time the authors investigated the competitive sorption of Mn(ii) and Zn(II) to natural soils using a radiotracer technique, which was considered to be useful to evaluate relative importance of the sorption of each metal ion without serious matrix effects. Quite different properties appeared among those metal ions used independently or simultaneously as a tracer. Proton exchange process may be important for the Zn(II) sorption, whereas a solid-solution partition is supposed to control the Mn(ii) uptake, when each of them was examined independently as a sorbate. In contrast, simultaneous use of those tracers to a soil suspension had great effects on the result; the maximum sorption (A m ) of Zn(II) increased, and Mn(II) behaved like a sorbate which tends to occupy specific sites of the soil surfaces. Those results indicate that the sorption of minor and/or trace elements to natural soils would not be evaluated through a series of experiments with a single sorbate

  20. Microbial diversity in firework chemical exposed soil and water samples collected in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasarathan, P; Theriappan, P; Ashokraja, C

    2010-03-01

    Microbial diversity of soil and water samples collected from pyrochemicals exposed areas of Virdhunagar district (Tamil Nadu, India) was studied. Soil and water samples from cultivable area, waste land and city area of the same region were also studied for a comparative acount. There is a remarkable reduction in total heterotrophic bacterial population (THB) in pyrochemicals exposed soil and water samples (42 × 10(4) CFU/g and 5.6 × 10(4) CFU/ml respectively), compared to the THB of cultivable area soil and water samples (98 × 10(7) CFU/g and 38.6 × 10(7) CFU/ml). The generic composition the THB of the pyrochemicals exposed samples too exhibited considerable change compared to other samples. Pseudomonas sp. was the predominant one (41.6%) followed by Achromobacter sp. (25%) in pyrochemical exposed soil and Pseudomonas sp. was the predominant one (25%) in pyrochemical exposed water samples followed by Bacillus sp. (25%) and Micrococcus sp. (16.6%). It was observed that Cornybacterium sp. and Micrococcus sp. were absent completely in pyrochemical exposed soil and Achromobacter sp. was missing in the pyrochemical exposed water samples, which were present in the other samples. The outcome of this study clearly demonstrates that pollutants such as chemicals used in pyrotechniques affect the microbial biodiversity and suitable measures have to be taken to control the pollution level and to save biodiversity.

  1. Residual neutron-induced radionuclides in a soil sample collected in the vicinity of the criticality accident site in Tokai-mura, Japan: A Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Takashi; Hosotani, Risa; Komura, Kazuhisa; Muroyama, Toshiharu; Kofuji, Hisaki; Murata, Yoshimasa; Kimura, Shinzo; Kumar Sahoo, Sarata; Yonehara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Yoshito; Ban-nai, Tada-aki

    2000-01-01

    Residual neutron-induced radionuclides were measured in a soil sample collected in the vicinity of the location where a criticality accident occurred (in Tokai-mura, from 30 September to 1 October, 1999). Concentrations of 24 Na, 140 La, 122 Sb, 59 Fe, 124 Sb, 46 Sc, 65 Zn, 134 Cs and 60 Co in the soil sample were determined by γ-ray spectrometry, and neutron activation analysis was carried out for selected target elements in the sample. Tentative estimates of the apparent thermal and epithermal neutron fluences which reached the sample were obtained through combined analyses of 59 Fe/ 58 Fe, 124 Sb/ 123 Sb, 46 Sc/ 45 Sc, 65 Zn/ 64 Zn, 134 Cs/ 133 Cs and 60 Co/ 59 Co

  2. Results of 90Sr and 239+240Pu, 238Pu, 241Am measurements in some samples of mushrooms and forest soil from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; Larosa, J.; Ghods, A.

    1992-01-01

    Strontium-90, plutonium and americium activity concentrations in a few samples of forest soils, some species of mushrooms and fern leaves were determined. These results are compared with caesium activity concentrations in the same materials obtained in a previous work. Radiochemical procedures are described. The origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident or nuclear test explosion release) is discussed. The 90 Sr activity concentration ranges from 0.6 Bq/kg (mushroom samples) to 48.4 Bq/kg (fern leaves). For 239+240 Pu, it ranges from not detected above background (mushrooms, fern) to 10.8 Bq/kg (humus layer of forest soil). The maximum concentration of 241 Am is found to be 2.4 Bq/kg (humus sample) and for 238 Pu it is 0.85 Bq/kg (also in the humus sample). (author). 12 refs, 9 figs, 7 tabs

  3. Prevalence, Virulence Potential, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Bovine Raw Milk Samples Obtained From Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjita; Sharma, Vishnu; Dahiya, Dinesh Kumar; Khan, Aarif; Mathur, Manisha; Sharma, Amit

    2017-03-01

    Listeriosis is a serious foodborne disease of a global concern, and can effectively be controlled by a continuous surveillance of the virulent and multidrug-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes. This study was planned to investigate prevalence of L. monocytogenes in bovine raw milk samples. A total of 457 raw milk samples collected from 15 major cities in Rajasthan, India, were analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes by using standard microbiological and molecular methods. Five of the 457 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Multiplex serotyping showed that 3/5 strains belonged to serotype 4b followed by one strain each to 1/2a and to 1/2c. Further virulence potential assessment indicated that all strains possessed inlA and inlC internalins, and, in addition, two strains also possessed the gene for inlB. All strains were positive for Listeriolysin O (LLO) and showed phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity on an in vitro agar medium with variations in production levels among the strains. A good correlation between the in vitro pathogenicity test and the chick embryo test was observed, as the strains showing higher LLO and PI-PLC activity were found to be lethal to fertilized chick embryos. All strains were resistant to the majority of antibiotics and were designated as multidrug-resistant strains. However, these strains were susceptible to 9 of the 22 tested antibiotics. The maximu