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Sample records for soil samples obtained

  1. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  2. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  3. Soil Gas Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field Branches Quality System and Technical Procedures: This document describes general and specific procedures, methods and considerations to be used and observed when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  4. Evaluation the total exposure of soil sample in Adaya site and the obtain risk assessments for the worker by Res Rad code program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadi, A. M.; Khadim, A. A. N.; Ibrahim, Z. H.; Ali, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluation the total exposure to the worker in Adaya site risk assessment by using Res Rad code program. The study including 5 areas soil sample calculate in the site and analysis it by High Pure Germaniums (Hg) system made (CANBERRA) company. The soil sample simulation by (Res Rad) code program by inter the radioactive isotope concentration and the specification of the contamination zone area, depth and the cover depth of it. The total exposure of same sample was about 9 mSv/year and the (Heast 2001 Morbidity, FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.045 state every 100 worker in the year. There are simple different between Heast 2001 Morbidity and FGR13 Morbidity according to the Dose Conversion Factor (DCF) use it. The (FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.041 state every 100 worker in the year. (Author)

  5. Soil sampling in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de; Ramos Junior, Anthenor Costa

    1997-01-01

    The soil sampling methods used in Goiania's accident (1987) by the environmental team of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are described. The development of this method of soil sampling to a emergency sampling method used in a Nuclear Emergency Exercise in Angra dos Reis Reactor Site (1991) is presented. A new method for soil sampling based on a Chernobyl environmental monitoring experience (1995) is suggested. (author)

  6. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus × domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vero, Silvana; Garmendia, Gabriela; González, M Belén; Bentancur, Oscar; Wisniewski, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Psychrotrophic yeasts were isolated from Antarctic soils, selected based on their ability to grow in apple juice at low temperatures, and were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, an isolate of Leucosporidium scottii, designated At17, was identified as a good biocontrol agent for blue and gray mold of two apple cultivars. The selected isolate produced soluble and volatile antifungal substances that were inhibitory to apple pathogens. Siderophore production was also demonstrated, but it did not appear to play a role in pathogen inhibition. The selected yeast had the capacity to form a biofilm when grown in apple juice, which is considered an important attribute of postharvest antagonists to successfully colonize wounds and intact fruit surfaces. At17 was resistant to commonly used postharvest fungicides, so application of a combination of low-dose fungicide along with the biocontrol agent could be used as an integrated management practice. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Soil sampling for environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The Consultants Meeting on Sampling Strategies, Sampling and Storage of Soil for Environmental Monitoring of Contaminants was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to evaluate methods for soil sampling in radionuclide monitoring and heavy metal surveys for identification of punctual contamination (hot particles) in large area surveys and screening experiments. A group of experts was invited by the IAEA to discuss and recommend methods for representative soil sampling for different kinds of environmental issues. The ultimate sinks for all kinds of contaminants dispersed within the natural environment through human activities are sediment and soil. Soil is a particularly difficult matrix for environmental pollution studies as it is generally composed of a multitude of geological and biological materials resulting from weathering and degradation, including particles of different sizes with varying surface and chemical properties. There are so many different soil types categorized according to their content of biological matter, from sandy soils to loam and peat soils, which make analytical characterization even more complicated. Soil sampling for environmental monitoring of pollutants, therefore, is still a matter of debate in the community of soil, environmental and analytical sciences. The scope of the consultants meeting included evaluating existing techniques with regard to their practicability, reliability and applicability to different purposes, developing strategies of representative soil sampling for cases not yet considered by current techniques and recommending validated techniques applicable to laboratories in developing Member States. This TECDOC includes a critical survey of existing approaches and their feasibility to be applied in developing countries. The report is valuable for radioanalytical laboratories in Member States. It would assist them in quality control and accreditation process

  8. Soil Gas Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  9. Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischhauer, H.L.

    1985-10-01

    Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described

  10. Bioremediation of PAH contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pose a hazard to life. The remediation of such sites can be done using physical, chemical, and biological treatment methods or a combination of them. It is of interest to study the decontamination of soil using bioremediation. The experiments were conducted using Acinetobacter (ATCC 31012) at room temperature without pH or temperature control. In the first series of experiments, contaminated soil samples obtained from Alberta Research Council were analyzed to determine the toxic contaminant and their composition in the soil. These samples were then treated using aerobic fermentation and removal efficiency for each contaminant was determined. In the second series of experiments, a single contaminant was used to prepare a synthetic soil sample. This sample of known composition was then treated using aerobic fermentation in continuously stirred flasks. In one set of flasks, contaminant was the only carbon source and in the other set, starch was an additional carbon source. In the third series of experiments, the synthetic contaminated soil sample was treated in continuously stirred flasks in the first set and in fixed bed in the second set and the removal efficiencies were compared. The removal efficiencies obtained indicated the extent of biodegradation for various contaminants, the effect of additional carbon source, and performance in fixed bed without external aeration

  11. Analysis through neutronic activation of soils samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Padilla Alvarez, R.; Perez Zayas, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the present job they report the results obtained of the analysis by neutronic activation of 30 chemical elements, in 35 representative samples of soils of 17 zones of the western region of Cuba , affected by an epidemic of epidemic neuropathy. (author) [es

  12. Evaluation of the quality of results obtained in institutions participating in interlaboratory experiments and of the reliability characteristics of the analytical methods used on the basis of certification of standard soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parshin, A.K.; Obol' yaninova, V.G.; Sul' dina, N.P.

    1986-08-20

    Rapid monitoring of the level of pollution of the environment and, especially, of soils necessitates preparation of standard samples (SS) close in properties and material composition to the objects to be analyzed. During 1978-1982 four sets (three types of samples in each) of State Standard Samples of different soils were developed: soddy-podzolic sandy-loamy, typical chernozem, krasnozem, and calcareous sierozem. The certification studies of the SS of the soils were carried out in accordance with the classical scheme of interlab experiment (ILE). More than 100 institutions were involved in the ILE and the total number of independent analytical results was of the order of 10/sup 4/. With such a volume of analytical information at their disposal they were able to find some general characteristics intrinsic to certification studies, to assess the quality of work of the ILE participants with due regard for their specialization, and the reliability characteristics of the analytical methods used.

  13. 7 CFR 75.35 - Obtaining samples for lot inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining samples for lot inspections. 75.35 Section 75.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Sampling Provisions and Requirements § 75.35 Obtaining samples for lot inspections. Samples of seed for lot...

  14. Guidelines for soil sampling from agricultural fields

    OpenAIRE

    Trajkova, Fidanka; Zlatkovski, Vasko

    2017-01-01

    Content 1. Introduction 1.1 What is soil? 1.2 What is soil fertility? 1.3 Which nutrients the plants extract from the soil? 2. Basic principles of plant nutrition 3. Why do we need soil analysis? 4. Which are the most important parameters the soil analysis needs to consider? 4.1 pH value of soil sample 4.2 ЕС value of soil sample 4.3 Total nitrogen content 4.4 Content of available phosphorus 4.5 Content of available potassium 4.6 Organic mat...

  15. Validated sampling strategy for assessing contaminants in soil stockpiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lame, Frank; Honders, Ton; Derksen, Giljam; Gadella, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    Dutch legislation on the reuse of soil requires a sampling strategy to determine the degree of contamination. This sampling strategy was developed in three stages. Its main aim is to obtain a single analytical result, representative of the true mean concentration of the soil stockpile. The development process started with an investigation into how sample pre-treatment could be used to obtain representative results from composite samples of heterogeneous soil stockpiles. Combining a large number of random increments allows stockpile heterogeneity to be fully represented in the sample. The resulting pre-treatment method was then combined with a theoretical approach to determine the necessary number of increments per composite sample. At the second stage, the sampling strategy was evaluated using computerised models of contaminant heterogeneity in soil stockpiles. The now theoretically based sampling strategy was implemented by the Netherlands Centre for Soil Treatment in 1995. It was applied to all types of soil stockpiles, ranging from clean to heavily contaminated, over a period of four years. This resulted in a database containing the analytical results of 2570 soil stockpiles. At the final stage these results were used for a thorough validation of the sampling strategy. It was concluded that the model approach has indeed resulted in a sampling strategy that achieves analytical results representative of the mean concentration of soil stockpiles. - A sampling strategy that ensures analytical results representative of the mean concentration in soil stockpiles is presented and validated

  16. Relationship between Cadmium Fractions Obtained by Sequential Extraction of Soil and the Soil Properties in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Paddy Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Honma, Toshimitsu; Ohba, Hirotomo; Makino, Tomoyuki; Ohyama, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    The method for the sequential extraction of cadmium from soil was adapted to investigate the relationship between different chemical forms of cadmium in soils and the soil properties of Cd-contaminated and uncontaminated paddy soils. Air-dried soil samples from each field site were sequentially fractionated into five forms: exchangeable Cd, inorganically bound Cd, organically bound Cd, oxide-occluded fraction, and residual Cd. The average and range of soil properties such as pH, total C, tota...

  17. Strategies for Obtaining Probability Samples of Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery W.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of homeless individuals typically sample subjects from few types of sites or regions within a metropolitan area. This article focuses on the biases that can result from such a practice. We obtained a probability sample of 419 homeless youth from 41 sites (shelters, drop-in centers, and streets) in four regions of Los Angeles County (LAC).…

  18. Comparative analyses of milk and cheese samples obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheese was also produced from the different treatment milk samples to determine keeping quality. Biochemical analysis of the milk samples revealed crude protein, fat and moisture were not significantly (p>0.05) different but the values obtained for total solid and solid not fat were significantly (p<0.05) different. Milk yield ...

  19. Sampling depth confounds soil acidification outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the northern Great Plains (NGP) of North America, surface sampling depths of 0-15 or 0-20 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near the soil surface. Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements an...

  20. Soil sampling strategies: Evaluation of different approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Mufato, Renzo; Sartori, Giuseppe; Stocchero, Giulia [Agenzia Regionale per la Prevenzione e Protezione dell' Ambiente del Veneto, ARPA Veneto, U.O. Centro Qualita Dati, Via Spalato, 14-36045 Vicenza (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    The National Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT) performed a soil sampling intercomparison, inviting 14 regional agencies to test their own soil sampling strategies. The intercomparison was carried out at a reference site, previously characterised for metal mass fraction distribution. A wide range of sampling strategies, in terms of sampling patterns, type and number of samples collected, were used to assess the mean mass fraction values of some selected elements. The different strategies led in general to acceptable bias values (D) less than 2{sigma}, calculated according to ISO 13258. Sampling on arable land was relatively easy, with comparable results between different sampling strategies.

  1. Bioprospecting the lat gene in soil samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seven positives were obtained from the 20 soils. Six of the seven positive were from the Western Ghats and one from the northeast Assam forests. Eighteen actinomycete isolates from the 7 positive soils showed the presence of the lat gene. Only 9 isolates actually produced an antibiotic. These results are discussed.

  2. [Detection of genetically modified organisms obtained from food samples ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Sato, Masaki; Uno, Naomichi; Sato, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    Genetially modified organisms (GMOs) were explored in food samples obtained from November 2000 to March 2003 in the Tokyo area by using PCR and real-time PCR techniques. The existence of Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) was surveyed in processed foods derived from soybeans, such as tofu, boiled soybean, kinako, nama-age, abura-age, natto, miso, soymilk and yuba. RRS was detected in 3 of 37 tofu, 2 of 3 nama-age, 2 of 3 yuba and 3 of 3 abura-age samples. The CBH351 in 70 processed corn foods, NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y in 50 processed potato foods, and 55-1 papaya in 16 papayas were surveyed. These GMOs were not detected among the samples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of RRS and genetically modified (GM) corn were performed in soybean, corn and semi-processed corn products such as corn meal, corn flour and corn grits. RRS was detected in 42 of 178 soybean samples, and the amount of RRS in RRS-positive samples was determined. The content was in the range of 0.1-1.4% in identity-preserved soybeans (non-GMO), and 49.8-78.8% in non-segregated soybeans. On the other hand, GM corns were detected in 8 of 26 samples. The amount of GM corn in GM corn-positive samples was in the range of 0.1-2.0%.

  3. Eukaryotic diversity in historical soil samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moon-van der Staay, S.Y.; Tzeneva, V.A.; Staay, van der G.W.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Smidt, H.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The eukaryotic biodiversity in historical air-dried samples of Dutch agricultural soil has been assessed by random sequencing of an 18S rRNA gene library and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Representatives of nearly all taxa of eukaryotic soil microbes could be identified, demonstrating

  4. Analysis of large soil samples for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, III; Sherrod, L [Aiken, SC

    2009-03-24

    A method of analyzing relatively large soil samples for actinides by employing a separation process that includes cerium fluoride precipitation for removing the soil matrix and precipitates plutonium, americium, and curium with cerium and hydrofluoric acid followed by separating these actinides using chromatography cartridges.

  5. Bioprospecting the lat gene in soil samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the Western Ghats and one from the northeast Assam forests. Eighteen actinomycete isolates from the 7 positive soils showed the presence of the lat gene. Only 9 isolates actually produced an antibiotic. These results are discussed. [Dharwadkar A, Gupta V and Pant A 2003 Bioprospecting the lat gene in soil samples; ...

  6. Distribution of pesticide residues in soil and uncertainty of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszter, Gabriela K; Ambrus, Árpád

    2017-08-03

    Pesticide residues were determined in about 120 soil cores taken randomly from the top 15 cm layer of two sunflower fields about 30 days after preemergence herbicide treatments. Samples were extracted with acetone-ethyl acetate mixture and the residues were determined with GC-TSD. Residues of dimethenamid, pendimethalin, and prometryn ranged from 0.005 to 2.97 mg/kg. Their relative standard deviations (CV) were between 0.66 and 1.13. The relative frequency distributions of residues in soil cores were very similar to those observed in root and tuber vegetables grown in pesticide treated soils. Based on all available information, a typical CV of 1.00 was estimated for pesticide residues in primary soil samples (soil cores). The corresponding expectable relative uncertainty of sampling is 20% when composite samples of size 25 are taken. To obtain a reliable estimate of the average residues in the top 15 cm layer of soil of a field up to 8 independent replicate random samples should be taken. To obtain better estimate of the actual residue level of the sampled filed would be marginal if larger number of samples were taken.

  7. Determination of Pu in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T.; Vega C, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of 238 UH + in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalik Haji Wood.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of soil samples collected from 5 different location around Sungai Lui, Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia. These sample were taken at 22-24 cm from the top of the ground and were analysed using the techniques of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The analysis on soil sample taken above 22-24 cm level were done in order to determine if there is any variation in elemental contents at different sampling levels. The results indicate a wide variation in the contents of the samples. About 30 elements have been analysed. The major ones are Na, I, Cl, Mg, Al, K, Ti, Ca and Fe. Trace elements analysed were Ba, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Ga, As, Zn, Br, Rb, Co, Hf, Zr, Th, U, Sb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu and La. (author)

  9. Statistical sampling approaches for soil monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes three statistical sampling approaches for regional soil monitoring, a design-based, a model-based and a hybrid approach. In the model-based approach a space-time model is exploited to predict global statistical parameters of interest such as the space-time mean. In the hybrid

  10. Cesium-137 retention in irops obtained from various soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyakin, I.V.; Yudintseva, E.V.; Gorina, L.I.

    1974-01-01

    A non-station experiment has shown that the accumulation of cesium-137 in a plant yield depends on the type of soil. The highest contents of cesium-137 were found in the yield of plants from soddy-podzolic sandy loam soils, and the lowest- in those from leached chernozem. The accumulation of radiocesium in the yield of the basic produce strongly depended on the plant species. The amount of cesium-137 differed 5- to 7-fold in different crops

  11. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  12. 7 CFR 201.45 - Obtaining the working sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT... available, the sample shall be thoroughly mixed and placed in a pile and the pile shall be repeatedly...

  13. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. "Small" market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed.

  14. Impact of cleaning before obtaining midstream urine samples from children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Knudsen, Inge Jenny Dahl; Ladelund, Steen

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Microbiological documentation of one uropathogenic bacterium in significant numbers in urine from patients with typical symptoms is the gold standard for diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI). Cleaning before collecting midstream urine (MSU) is reported not to reduce the risk...... of contaminating the sample and was therefore omitted at Hvidovre Hospital as from the autumn of 2006. We evaluate if no cleaning increased the risk of contamination in the Department of Paediatrics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1,858 patients aged 0-15 years who were suspected of UTI delivered two MSUs within...

  15. Simply Obtained Global Radiation, Soil Temperature and SoilMoisture in an Alley Cropping System in Semi-Arid Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungai, D. N.; Stigter, C. J.; Coulson, C. L.; Ng'ang'a, J. K.

    Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in agro-ecosystems these results deserve new attention. They quantify, in a simple but detailed manner, the influence of hedgerows on the microclimate of their intercrop and for comparison provide a sole maize (SM) control. Due to inhomogeneity of Cassia and maize, as well as limited budgets, the sampling methodology and the choice of appropriate equipment, including the sensors, demanded special attention. The diurnal patterns of soil temperatures at 7.5cm depth represented well the shading patterns of the hedgerows. This can be developed into an operational auxiliary methodology of integrated shade quantification. With proper precautions, the developed sampling methodologies showed appropriately the time integrated values of the three microclimatic parameters with enough detail to understand yield differences between treatments and between rows. This approach may therefore be recommended for on-farm quantification of even greater spatial variability of parameters. The limitations of the selected methods are highlighted. Experiences with some alternative methods are also discussed.

  16. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture Classifications for Simulating Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    texture classification. There may be instances where some SSURGO soil areas do not have an assigned soil texture classification, and “Null” will appear as...containing an attribute field for soil texture classification will have been produced. POINT OF CONTACT: The point of contact for technical inquiries is...ERDC/CHL CHETN-X-3 July 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture

  17. Sample sizes to control error estimates in determining soil bulk density in California forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youzhi Han; Jianwei Zhang; Kim G. Mattson; Weidong Zhang; Thomas A. Weber

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing forest soil properties with high variability is challenging, sometimes requiring large numbers of soil samples. Soil bulk density is a standard variable needed along with element concentrations to calculate nutrient pools. This study aimed to determine the optimal sample size, the number of observation (n), for predicting the soil bulk density with a...

  18. Comparison of in situ gamma soil analysis and soil sampling data for mapping 241Am and 239Pu soil concentrations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, J.A.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Phelps, P.L.; Huckabay, G.W.; Markwell, F.R.; Barnes, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    Soil sampling and in situ 241 Am-gamma counting with an array of four high-purity, planar, Ge detectors are compared as means of determining soil concentration contours of plutonium and their associated uncertainties. Results of this survey, which covered an area of approximately 300,000 m 2 , indicate that with one-third the number of sampling locations, the in situ gamma survey provided soil concentration contours with confidence intervals that were about one-third as wide as those obtained with soil sampling. The methods of the survey are described and a discussion of advantages and limitations of both methods is given

  19. Quantitative soil vapor as an alternative to traditional soil sampling for VOCs: Characterization and remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preslo, L.M.; Estes, T. (ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Rancho Cordova, CA (United States)); Kraemer, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    This paper will present the results of a Soil Vapor Demonstration Project that compared pairs of soils and adjacent soil vapor samples. This study was conducted at the Aerojet General Corporation site in Rancho Cordova, CA. The author will describe the use of soil vapor sampling as a better alternative to traditional soil sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds, and as a tool to locate possible DNAPL. The paper will present how the Demonstration Project was performed to substantiate to the U.S. EPA and state agencies that soil vapor is a viable and quantitative sampling methodology. This approach utilized various soil properties including measured soil partitioning coefficients, to calculate VOC mass in soils based on soil vapor data and equilibrium conditions. The results showed that traditional soil samples underestimated the mass of VOCs present in over 90 percent of the soil/soil vapor pairs. The paper also will include observations of other physical parameters which were monitored during the program to assess the effect on the soil vapor concentrations. In addition, the flexibility, speed, and cost-effectiveness of sampling allowed for more comprehensive characterization with a higher level of confidence. The data collected demonstrated that the soil vapor technique provides a more comprehensive evaluation of VOC distribution in the vadose zone than traditional soil sampling.

  20. Simply obtained global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mungai, D.N.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, C.L.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in

  1. Sr-90 determination in aqueous and soils samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Sintas, Maria F.; Cerchietti, Maria L.; Arguelles, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the method for Sr-90 determination in aqueous sample and soils. Area and Personal Dosimetry laboratory (DPA) determines the presence of Sr-90 by Liquid Scintillation (LSC) by applying method of the double window and corresponding adjustments. Calibration is performed by standard solutions of 90 Sr/ 90 Y, where spectral 90 Sr and 90 Y zones are optimized. The initial treatment of the liquid samples includes the concentration for evaporation, while the solid ones dissolve for microwave and acidic digestion. The separation of the analyte involves a selective chromatographic extraction. An average efficiency for 90 Sr of 77 ± 1 % was obtained; the factor a/b was 0,85 ± 0,01 and recovery of 82 ± 8 %. The resultant MAD was 0,10 Bq/L in aqueous samples and 0,10 Bq/g in solid samples. (author)

  2. Exploratory research and development project for soil sampling probe investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurston, G.C.

    1991-02-01

    The report investigates a number of design concepts for a soil sampling probe. The design concepts are shown as a series of figures drawn to scale. The probe would be attached to the lower end of a 2-inch diameter drill casing that is inserted into the ground with a steady downward force. It is intended to be used at soil depths of 0-50 feet. Small soil samples will be gathered through the use of a pneumatic jet or a remotely operated mechanical finger. The soil sample will then be transported pneumatically from the tip of the probe to the surface via a sample line in the center of the drill casing. This is achieved by entraining the soil samples in a stream of clean dry nitrogen. At the surface, the soil sample will be filtered from the carrier gas. The report also considers designs that use a carrier capsule. The soil would be remotely placed in a transport capsule at the tip of the probe and pneumatic pressure would be used to force the capsule up the sample line to the surface for retrieval. The soil sampling is to be done without removing the drill casing or using any of the typical coring tools. The sampling system is specifically aimed at soil that may be contaminated with radioactive or toxic materials. The system is suitable for remote operation with a minimum impact and generation of waste. The concepts may also be useful for remote sampling for other applications. 8 figs

  3. Utilization of Weibull equation to obtain soil-water diffusivity in horizontal infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrini, I.A.

    1982-06-01

    Water movement was studied in horizontal infiltration experiments using laboratory columns of air-dry and homogeneous soil to obtain a simple and suitable equation for soil-water diffusivity. Many water content profiles for each one of the ten soil columns utilized were obtained through gamma-ray attenuation technique using a 137 Cs source. During the measurement of a particular water content profile, the soil column was held in the same position in order to measure changes in time and so to reduce the errors in water content determination. The Weibull equation utilized was excellent in fitting water content profiles experimental data. The use of an analytical function for ν, the Boltzmann variable, according to Weibull model, allowed to obtain a simple equation for soil water diffusivity. Comparisons among the equation here obtained for diffusivity and others solutions found in literature were made, and the unsuitability of a simple exponential variation of diffusivity with water content for the full range of the latter was shown. The necessity of admitting the time dependency for diffusivity was confirmed and also the possibility fixing that dependency on a well known value extended to generalized soil water infiltration studies was found. Finally, it was shown that the soil water diffusivity function given by the equation here proposed can be obtained just by the analysis of the wetting front advance as a function of time. (Author) [pt

  4. Spatial Variability of Soil Physical Properties Obtained with Laboratory Methods and Their Relation to Field Electrical Resistivity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dathe, A.; Nemes, A.; Bloem, E.; Patterson, M.; Gimenez, D.; Angyal, A.; Koestel, J. K.; Jarvis, N.

    2017-12-01

    Soil spatial heterogeneity plays a critical role for describing water and solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Although we have a sound understanding of the physical properties underlying this heterogeneity (like macropores causing preferential water flow), their quantification in a spatial context is still a challenge. To improve existing knowledge and modelling approaches we established a field experiment on an agriculturally used silty clay loam (Stagnosol) in SE Norway. Centimeter to decimeter scale heterogeneities were investigated in the field using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in a quasi-3D and a real 3D approach. More than 100 undisturbed soil samples were taken in the 2x1x1 m3plot investigated with 3D ERT to determine soil water retention, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities and bulk density in the laboratory. A subset of these samples was scanned at the computer tomography (CT) facility at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden, with special emphasis on characterizing macroporosity. Results show that the ERT measurements captured the spatial distribution of bulk densities and reflected soil water contents. However, ERT could not resolve the large variation observed in saturated hydraulic conductivities from the soil samples. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was clearly related to the macroporosity visible in the CT scans obtained from the respective soil cores. Hydraulic conductivities close to saturation mainly changed with depths in the soil profile and therefore with bulk density. In conclusion, to quantify the spatial heterogeneity of saturated hydraulic conductivities scanning methods with a resolution smaller than the size of macropores have to be used. This is feasible only when the information obtained from for example CT scans of soil cores would be upscaled in a meaningful way.

  5. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry H [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-16

    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  6. Soils element history, sampling, analyses, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A five year history of the Soils Element of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) is presented. Major projects are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on mound studies and profile studies for the period March 1, 1975, through February 1, 1976. A series of recommendations is made relative to extensions of past efforts of the Soils Element of the NAEG

  7. Soil classification basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanjun; Zhang, Xiaokang; Zhang, Xinle

    2016-04-01

    Soil taxonomy plays an important role in soil utility and management, but China has only course soil map created based on 1980s data. New technology, e.g. spectroscopy, could simplify soil classification. The study try to classify soils basing on the spectral characteristics of topsoil samples. 148 topsoil samples of typical soils, including Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow soil, were collected from Songnen plain, Northeast China, and the room spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared region (400-2500 nm) were processed with weighted moving average, resampling technique, and continuum removal. Spectral indices were extracted from soil spectral characteristics, including the second absorption positions of spectral curve, the first absorption vale's area, and slope of spectral curve at 500-600 nm and 1340-1360 nm. Then K-means clustering and decision tree were used respectively to build soil classification model. The results indicated that 1) the second absorption positions of Black soil and Chernozem were located at 610 nm and 650 nm respectively; 2) the spectral curve of the meadow is similar to its adjacent soil, which could be due to soil erosion; 3) decision tree model showed higher classification accuracy, and accuracy of Black soil, Chernozem, Blown soil and Meadow are 100%, 88%, 97%, 50% respectively, and the accuracy of Blown soil could be increased to 100% by adding one more spectral index (the first two vole's area) to the model, which showed that the model could be used for soil classification and soil map in near future.

  8. Incorporating limited field operability and legacy soil samples in a hypercube sampling design for digital soil mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumpf, Felix; Schmidt, Karsten; Behrens, Thorsten; Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Buzzo, Giovanni; Dumperth, Christian; Wadoux, Alexandre; Xiang, Wei; Scholten, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Most calibration sampling designs for Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) demarcate spatially distinct sample sites. In practical applications major challenges are often limited field accessibility and the question on how to integrate legacy soil samples to cope with usually scarce resources for field

  9. Elemental contents in soil samples in Wad Hamid, River Nile State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Khansaa Elawad Elhag

    2016-03-01

    In the present study a total of 30 samples were collected from Wad Hamid River Nile State. Sampling area of (two feddan) of agricultural soil. The sampling area was divided in two locations (fertile and non fertile soil). The samples were analyzed for their content of 13 elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np). 10 samples from location 1 (non-fertile soil) and 20 samples from location 2 (fertile soil). X-ray fluorescence (X RF) Spectrometer (system used based on 1 09C d excitation 1 09C d source which has an average energy of 22.6 kev and able to excite the elements from Z = 13 to 92 using K and L lines) used to identify the elemental concentration in soil samples. The reliability of X RF technique as multi elements detecting method for measuring elements concentration in soil sample , (IAEA-SOIL-7) standard reference material was used. Measured values found in agreement with the certified values. The average elemental concentration of K,Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Np in location 1 were 878, 29690, 13400, 983, 70380, 10.07, 19.07, 40.92,261.4, 23.59,294.8, 47.82, while the average elemental concentration in location 2 were 9848, 27780, 13076,13076,989, 68135, 9.6, 96.3 19.86, 43.7, 225.5, 22.49, 284.75, 46.15, respectively. comparison between the average elemental concentration in fertile soil and non-fertile was done correlations between element were performed Cluster analyses of element in soil samples were obtained comparison between this study and data from literature were done. The elemental concentration in location 1 (non- fertile soil) are higher than location 2 ( fertile soil) because the plant absorbed fertilizer of soil and transfer most elements in soil to plant. (Author)

  10. Occurrence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA in water and soil samples collected in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Wójcik-Fatla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [i]Leptospira[/i] is an important re-emerging zoonotic human pathogen, disseminated by sick and carrier animals, water and soil. Weather calamities, such as flooding or cyclones favour the spreading of these bacteria. To check a potential role of natural water and soil in the persistence and spread of [i]Leptospira [/i]on the territory of eastern Poland, 40 samples of natural water and 40 samples of soil were collected from areas exposed to flooding, and 64 samples of natural water and 68 samples of soil were collected from areas not exposed to flooding. Samples of water were taken from various reservoirs (rivers, natural lakes, artificial lakes, canals, ponds, farm wells and samples of soils were taken at the distance of 1–3 meters from the edge of the reservoirs. The samples were examined for the presence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA by nested-PCR. Two out of 40 samples of water (5.0% collected from the area exposed to flooding showed the presence of [i]Leptospira[/i] DNA, while all 40 samples of soil from this area were negative. All samples of water and soil (64 and 68, respectively collected from the areas not exposed to flooding were negative. No significant difference were found between the results obtained in the areas exposed and not exposed to flooding. In conclusion, these results suggest that water and soil have only limited significance in the persistence and dissemination of [i]Leptospira[/i] in eastern Poland.

  11. Inter comparison of 90Sr and 137Cs contents in biologic samples and natural U in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfen; Zeng Guangjian; Lu Xuequan

    2001-01-01

    The results of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents in biologic samples and the natural U in soil samples obtained in a joint effort by fourteen environmental radiation laboratories in the Chinese environmental protection system were analyzed and compared. Two kinds of biologic samples and one kind of soil samples were used for inter comparison. Of which, one kind of biologic samples (biologic powder samples) and the soil samples came from the IAEA samples were environmental and the reference values were known. The another kind of biologic samples were environmental tea-leaf that were taken from a tea garden near Hangzhou. The mean values obtained by all the joined laboratories was used as the reference. The inter comparison results were expressed in terms of the deviation from the reference value. It was found that the deviation of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs contents of biologic powder samples ranged from -15.4% to 26.5% and -15.0% to 0.4%, respectively. The deviation of the natural U content ranged from -25.5% to 7.3% for the soil samples. For the tea-leaf, the 90 Sr deviation was -22.7% to 19.1%, and the 137 Cs data had a relative large scatter with a ratio of the maximum and the minimum values being about 7. It was pointed out that the analysis results offered by different laboratories might have involved system errors

  12. Analysis on soil compressibility changes of samples stabilized with lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea CALARASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage and control the stability of buildings located on difficult foundation soils, several techniques of soil stabilization were developed and applied worldwide. Taking into account the major significance of soil compressibility on construction durability and safety, the soil stabilization with a binder like lime is considered one of the most used and traditional methods. The present paper aims to assess the effect of lime content on soil geotechnical parameters, especially on compressibility ones, based on laboratory experimental tests, for several soil categories in admixture with different lime dosages. The results of this study indicate a significant improvement of stabilized soil parameters, such as compressibility and plasticity, in comparison with natural samples. The effect of lime stabilization is related to an increase of soil structure stability by increasing the bearing capacity.

  13. Method for spiking soil samples with organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Ulla C; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2002-01-01

    We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either...... higher than in control soil, probably due mainly to release of predation from indigenous protozoa. In order to minimize solvent effects on indigenous soil microorganisms when spiking native soil samples with compounds having a low water solubility, we propose a common protocol in which the contaminant...

  14. Bioprospecting the lat gene in soil samples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Twenty soil communities from the northeastern forests (Assam) and the Western Ghats (Maharashtra) were screened for the presence of the lysine aminotransferase (lat) gene from Nocardia. Hybridization probes and primers were synthesized in accordance with the reported sequence of the Nocardia lat gene from ...

  15. Optimization of sampling for the determination of the mean Radium-226 concentration in surface soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.R.; Leggett, R.W.; Espegren, M.L.; Little, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes a field experiment that identifies an optimal method for determination of compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Ra-226 guidelines for soil. The primary goals were to establish practical levels of accuracy and precision in estimating the mean Ra-226 concentration of surface soil in a small contaminated region; to obtain empirical information on composite vs. individual soil sampling and on random vs. uniformly spaced sampling; and to examine the practicality of using gamma measurements in predicting the average surface radium concentration and in estimating the number of soil samples required to obtain a given level of accuracy and precision. Numerous soil samples were collected on each six sites known to be contaminated with uranium mill tailings. Three types of samples were collected on each site: 10-composite samples, 20-composite samples, and individual or post hole samples; 10-composite sampling is the method of choice because it yields a given level of accuracy and precision for the least cost. Gamma measurements can be used to reduce surface soil sampling on some sites. 2 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Diffusion probe for gas sampling in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O

    2014-01-01

    controls. This note describes a simple and robust diffusion probe for soil gas sampling as part of flux monitoring programs. It can be deployed with minimum disturbance of in-situ conditions, also at sites with a high or fluctuating water table. Separate probes are used for each sampling depth......Soil-atmosphere fluxes of trace gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are determined by complex interactions between biological activity and soil conditions. Soil gas concentration profiles may, in combination with other information about soil conditions, help to understand emission......, in this study ranging from 5 to 100 cm. The probe has a 10 ml diffusion cell with a 3-mm diameter opening covered by a 0.5 mm silicone membrane. At sampling the diffusion cell is flushed with 10 ml N2 containing 50 µl l-1 ethylene (C2H4) as a tracer; tracer recovery is used to calculate sample concentrations...

  17. SEAMIST trademark soil sampling for tritiated water: First year's results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.; Martins, S.A.; Houpis, J.L.; Lowry, W.; Cremer, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    SEAMIST trademark is a recently developed sampling system that enables one to measure various soil parameters by means of an inverted, removable, impermeable membrane tube inserted in a borehole. This membrane tube can have various measuring devices installed on it, such as gas ports, adsorbent pads, and electrical sensors. These membrane tubes are made of a laminated polymer. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, has installed two of these systems to monitor tritium in soil resulting from a leak in an underground storage tank. One tube is equipped with gas ports to sample soil vapor and the other with adsorbent pads to sample soil moisture. Borehole stability was maintained using either sand-filled or air-inflated tubes. Both system implementations yielded concentrations or activities that compared well with the measured concentrations of tritium in the soil taken during borehole construction. In addition, an analysis of the data suggest that both systems prevented the vertical migration of tritium in the boreholes. Also, a neutron probe was successfully used in a blank membrane inserted in one of the boreholes to monitor the moisture in the soil without exposing the probe to the tritium. The neutron log showed excellent agreement with the soil moisture content measured in soil samples taken during borehole construction. This paper describes the two SEAMIST trademark systems used and presents sampling results and comparisons

  18. Comparison of soil moisture products obtained from active and passive microwave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, L.; Vekerdy, Z.; de Jeu, R.

    2009-04-01

    Forty years of research on passive and active microwave observations have led so far to a better understanding of the sensitivity of satellite microwave observations to soil moisture and to a higher confidence in the possibility to retrieve reliable soil moisture from these sensors at small as well as large scale. This research forms the basis of two important new satellite missions: ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission (SMAP) whose main goal is the retrieval of soil moisture at global scale. In view of these missions, the research has been recently focussed more on the development of soil moisture retrieval methods which can be applied at global scale and on their application over the existing scatterometer (ERS scatterometer and Metop ASCAT) and radiometer (SMMR and AMSR-E) data to obtain long time series of global products. In this work, two global soil moisture products, one obtained from radiometer data and the other from scatterometer data, have been compared. The main objective of this comparison is to better understand the potential and limitations for soil moisture retrieval of both the data and the applied method and to investigate the possible complementarity of the different datasets. The two surface soil moisture datasets employed in this study are: the product obtained from AQUA AMSR-E data by the Department of Hydrology and Geo-Environmental Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam and the product retrieved from ERS-2 scatterometer data by the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing of the Vienna University of Technology. The temporal variability from 2003 to 2007, the seasonal trends, the anomalies, the autocorrelations and the correlation between the two global datasets have been analysed. Two in-situ datasets collected by large soil moisture monitoring networks in Oklahoma (Oklahoma Mesonet) and in Australia (OzNet) have been also included in this comparison

  19. Statistical sampling strategies for survey of soil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews methods for selecting sampling locations in contaminated soils for three situations. In the first situation a global estimate of the soil contamination in an area is required. The result of the surey is a number or a series of numbers per contaminant, e.g. the estimated mean

  20. A survey of gastrointestinal nematodes in soil samples in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was to determine the comparative level of soil contamination by these helminthes. Out of the 60 top and deep soil samples collected from high-density areas, 12(20%) were positive for various pathogenic gastrointestinal nematodes. They include Ascaris sp., Toxocara canis, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, ...

  1. Exchangeable phosphorus and others parameters in soil samples from Sapucai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facetti, J.F.; Zanotti, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    Soils samples from the alkaline rocks area at Sapucai were studied. The total amount of P in the soils shows to be high, as well as the E value for the 32 P exclangeable phosphorus. Other parameters like V values, TEC, etc., and their relationschip also were analyzed

  2. Investigation of Properties of Nanocomposite Polyimide Samples Obtained by Fused Deposition Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, I. V.; Vaganov, G. V.; Yudin, V. E.; Ivan'kova, E. M.; Popova, E. N.; Elokhovskii, V. Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Nanomodified polyimide samples were obtained by fused deposition modeling (FDM) using an experimental setup for 3D printing of highly heat-resistant plastics. The mechanical properties and structure of these samples were studied by viscosimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy. A comparative estimation of the mechanical properties of laboratory samples obtained from a nanocomposite based on heat-resistant polyetherimide by FDM and injection molding is presented.

  3. Aggregate breakdown and dispersion of soil samples amended with sugarcane vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Teixeira Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil aggregation is a very complex issue related to important soil attributes and processes. The aggregate breakdown and dispersion of soil samples amended with sugarcane vinasse were evaluated using ultrasonic energy. Vinasse is an important byproduct of sugarcane industries, intensively applied to soils in Brazil as liquid fertilizer. Samples of two Oxisols and one Ultisol were used in this study. The physical and chemical characterization of soils was performed, and the 1 to 2 mm size aggregates (200 g were packed in PVC columns (6.0 cm high and 4.0 cm internal diameter and incubated with sugarcane vinasse under lab conditions for 1, 30 and 60 days. After incubation, aggregates were submitted to levels of ultrasonic energy, and the particle size distribution (53 to 2,000 µm, 2 to 53 µm, and < 2 µm fractions was quantified. Mathematical equations were used to relate the mass of aggregates in each of these fractions to the applied ultrasonic energy, and parameters related to aggregate stability were then obtained. Soils showed an aggregate-hierarchy resulting in a stepwise breakdown under ultrasonic agitation. Considering this soil-aggregation hierarchy, vinasse contributed even in a short time to the bonding between and within 2 to 53 µm aggregates, mainly in the Oxisols. This may be related to organic compounds present in the vinasse, cementing soil particles. Potassium enrichment of soil samples did not contribute to soil dispersion.

  4. LUCAS 2018 - SOIL COMPONENT: Sampling Instructions for Surveyors

    OpenAIRE

    FERNANDEZ UGALDE OIHANE; ORGIAZZI ALBERTO; JONES Arwyn; LUGATO EMANUELE; PANAGOS Panagiotis

    2017-01-01

    The European Commission launched a soil assessment component to the periodic LUCAS Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame Survey in 2009. Composite soil samples from 0-20-cm depth were taken, air-dried and sieved to 2 mm in order to analyse physical and chemical parameters of topsoil in 25 Member States (EU-27 except Bulgaria, Romania, Malta and Cyprus). The aim of the LUCAS Soil Component was to create a harmonised and comparable dataset of main properties of topsoil at the EU. The LUCAS Soil Compon...

  5. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  6. Soil sampling sensor system on a mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peter M.; Hall, Ernest L.; Zhang, Evan

    2003-10-01

    Determining if a segment of property is suitable for use as an aircraft is a vitally important task that is currently performed by humans. However, this task can also put our people in harms way from land mines, sniper and artillery attacks. The objective of this research is to build a soil survey manipulator that can be carried by a lightweight, portable, autonomous vehicle, sensors and controls to navigate in assault zone. The manipulators permit both surface and sub surface measurements. An original soil sampling tube was constructed with linear actuator as manipulator and standard penetrometer as sampling sensor. The controls provide local control of the robot as well as the soil sampling mechanism. GPS has been selected to perform robot global navigation. The robot was constructed and tested on the test field. The results verified the concepts of using soil sampling robot to survey runway is feasible.

  7. X-ray spectrometry and X-ray microtomography techniques for soil and geological samples analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala-Kukuś, A.; Banaś, D.; Braziewicz, J. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Dziadowicz, M.; Kopeć, E. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Majewska, U. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Mazurek, M.; Pajek, M.; Sobisz, M.; Stabrawa, I. [Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, ul. Świetokrzyska 15, 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Wudarczyk-Moćko, J. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Góźdź, S. [Holycross Cancer Center, ul. Artwińskiego 3, 25-734 Kielce (Poland); Institute of Public Health, Jan Kochanowski University, IX Wieków Kielc 19, 25-317 Kielce (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    A particular subject of X-ray fluorescence analysis is its application in studies of the multielemental sample of composition in a wide range of concentrations, samples with different matrices, also inhomogeneous ones and those characterized with different grain size. Typical examples of these kinds of samples are soil or geological samples for which XRF elemental analysis may be difficult due to XRF disturbing effects. In this paper the WDXRF technique was applied in elemental analysis concerning different soil and geological samples (therapeutic mud, floral soil, brown soil, sandy soil, calcium aluminum cement). The sample morphology was analyzed using X-ray microtomography technique. The paper discusses the differences between the composition of samples, the influence of procedures with respect to the preparation of samples as regards their morphology and, finally, a quantitative analysis. The results of the studies were statistically tested (one-way ANOVA and correlation coefficients). For lead concentration determination in samples of sandy soil and cement-like matrix, the WDXRF spectrometer calibration was performed. The elemental analysis of the samples was complemented with knowledge of chemical composition obtained by X-ray powder diffraction.

  8. A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Maria [Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: maria.belli@apat.it; Zorzi, Paolo de [Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@isprambiente.it; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: u.sansone@iaea.org; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.shakhashiro@iaea.org; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.gondin-da-fonseca-azeredo@iaea.org; Trinkl, Alexander [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.trinkl@iaea.org; Benesch, Thomas [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: t.benesch@iaea.org

    2009-11-15

    Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a 'reference site', aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated.

  9. Geochemical and Physical Characteristics of Iraqi Dust and Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-08

    Report: Geochemical and Physical Characteristics of Iraqi Dust and Soil Samples iv ABBREVIATIONS LIST Acronyms ASTM American Society for Testing...gallons of Militec-1 gun lubricant were donated to DRI by 9 Militec, Inc. (11828 Pika Drive, Waldorf, Maryland). All three lubricants also serve as...Report: Geochemical and Physical Characteristics of Iraqi Dust and Soil Samples 37 REFERENCES ASTM ( American Society for Testing and Materials). 2000

  10. Optimizing Soil Moisture Sampling Locations for Validation Networks for SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshani, E.; Berg, A. A.; Lindsay, J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite (SMAP) is scheduled for launch on Oct 2014. Global efforts are underway for establishment of soil moisture monitoring networks for both the pre- and post-launch validation and calibration of the SMAP products. In 2012 the SMAP Validation Experiment, SMAPVEX12, took place near Carman Manitoba, Canada where nearly 60 fields were sampled continuously over a 6 week period for soil moisture and several other parameters simultaneous to remotely sensed images of the sampling region. The locations of these sampling sites were mainly selected on the basis of accessibility, soil texture, and vegetation cover. Although these criteria are necessary to consider during sampling site selection, they do not guarantee optimal site placement to provide the most efficient representation of the studied area. In this analysis a method for optimization of sampling locations is presented which combines the state-of-art multi-objective optimization engine (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, NSGA-II), with the kriging interpolation technique to minimize the number of sampling sites while simultaneously minimizing the differences between the soil moisture map resulted from the kriging interpolation and soil moisture map from radar imaging. The algorithm is implemented in Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools, which is a multi-platform open-source GIS. The optimization framework is subject to the following three constraints:. A) sampling sites should be accessible to the crew on the ground, B) the number of sites located in a specific soil texture should be greater than or equal to a minimum value, and finally C) the number of sampling sites with a specific vegetation cover should be greater than or equal to a minimum constraint. The first constraint is implemented into the proposed model to keep the practicality of the approach. The second and third constraints are considered to guarantee that the collected samples from each soil texture categories

  11. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian France

    Full Text Available Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling. Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  12. Producing Biosurfactants from Purified Microorganisms Obtained from Oil-contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Mokhtarian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil by crude oil can pose serious problems to ecosystems. Soil washing by solutions containing biosurfactants is one of the most efficient methods for the remediation of contaminated soil by crude oil because it removes not only the crude oil but also heavy metals. In this study, five soil samples were taken from fields exposed to oil compounds over the years in order to produce biosurfactants from microorganisms that were capable of degrading oil compounds. Sixteen such microorganisms were isolated. After cultivation, their emulsification strength was examined using E24 test. From among the experimental microorganisms, a gram-negative and rod-shape microorganism called A-12 showed the greatest value of the E24 test index (36%. For each liter of the culture medium containing 365 mg of microorganisms, 3 gr of the biosurfactant compound was produced and separated as dried powder. The purified biosurfactant was used in the soil washing process. Also, the insulated microorganisms were capable of degrading crude oil floating on wastewaters.

  13. A Needed Paradigm Change for Environmental Soil Sampling at Urban Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, J. L.; Bednar, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneous distribution of solid contaminant residues in surface soils creates an unique challenge for collecting soil samples yielding representative and reproducible results. Research over the past decade involving energetic and metallic residues indicates conventional grab sampling yields unreproducible, biased, results with poor precision non-representative of site conditions. Spatially, grab sampling yields information only about the point sampled. However, risk assessment and remedial decisions are based on contaminant distribution over an area. Multiple grab samples are collected for spatial coverage with the number often based on "expert opinion". Recent research suggests new field sampling and laboratory processing procedures encompassed in the Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) and incorporated into United States Environmental Protection (USEPA) Method 8330B for energetics and the update to Method 3050B for metals are necessary to overcome heterogeneity issues. The ISM approach is different from conventional grab sampling due to the focus on a spatially averaged result over a decision unit (DU) obtained by the collection of many increments using a systematic random sampling approach to form a single sample. Total precision error using ISM is typically 100% are observed between field splits and laboratory replicates with conventional grab sampling. Field splitting often employed prior to laboratory sample processing resulted in poor precision and is not recommended. Milling or grinding of soil samples is necessary to reduce the total error of the sample and to obtain acceptable precision, especially in situations where the mean contaminant concentration is expected to be near the action level or other regulatory value.

  14. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  15. Stability of volatile organics in environmental soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Bayne, C.K.; Jenkins, R.A.; Johnson, L.H.; Holladay, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    This report focuses on data generated for the purpose of establishing the stability of 19 volatile organic compounds in environmental soil samples. The study was carried out over a 56 day (for two soils) and a 111 day (for one reference soil) time frame and took into account as many variables as possible within the constraints of budget and time. The objectives of the study were: 1) to provide a data base which could be used to provide guidance on pre-analytical holding times for regulatory purposes; and 2) to provide a basis for the evaluation of data which is generated outside of the currently allowable holding times.

  16. Pumping time required to obtain tube well water samples with aquifer characteristic radon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, Carla Pereira; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Linhares, Maria G.M.; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: mgml@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radon is an inert noble gas, which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in soil, rock and water. Radon isotopes emanated from radium-bearing grains of a rock or soil are released into the pore space. Radon that reaches the pore space is partitioned between the gaseous and aqueous phases. Thus, the groundwater presents a radon signature from the rock that is characteristic of the aquifer. The characteristic radon concentration of an aquifer, which is mainly related to the emanation, is also influenced by the degree of subsurface degassing, especially in the vicinity of a tube well, where the radon concentration is strongly reduced. Looking for the required pumping time to take a tube well water sample that presents the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, an experiment was conducted in an 80 m deep tube well. In this experiment, after twenty-four hours without extraction, water samples were collected periodically, about ten minutes intervals, during two hours of pumping time. The radon concentrations of the samples were determined by using the RAD7 Electronic Radon Detector from Durridge Company, a solid state alpha spectrometric detector. It was realized that the necessary time to reach the maximum radon concentration, that means the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, is about sixty minutes. (author)

  17. Pumping time required to obtain tube well water samples with aquifer characteristic radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricardo, Carla Pereira; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2011-01-01

    Radon is an inert noble gas, which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in soil, rock and water. Radon isotopes emanated from radium-bearing grains of a rock or soil are released into the pore space. Radon that reaches the pore space is partitioned between the gaseous and aqueous phases. Thus, the groundwater presents a radon signature from the rock that is characteristic of the aquifer. The characteristic radon concentration of an aquifer, which is mainly related to the emanation, is also influenced by the degree of subsurface degassing, especially in the vicinity of a tube well, where the radon concentration is strongly reduced. Looking for the required pumping time to take a tube well water sample that presents the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, an experiment was conducted in an 80 m deep tube well. In this experiment, after twenty-four hours without extraction, water samples were collected periodically, about ten minutes intervals, during two hours of pumping time. The radon concentrations of the samples were determined by using the RAD7 Electronic Radon Detector from Durridge Company, a solid state alpha spectrometric detector. It was realized that the necessary time to reach the maximum radon concentration, that means the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, is about sixty minutes. (author)

  18. Obtaining long 16S rDNA sequences using multiple primers and its application on dioxin-containing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Lin; Lee, Chuan-Chun; Lin, Ya-Lan; Yin, Kai-Min; Ho, Chung-Liang; Liu, Tsunglin

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has transformed metagenomics because the high-throughput data allow an in-depth exploration of a complex microbial community. However, accurate species identification with NGS data is challenging because NGS sequences are relatively short. Assembling 16S rDNA segments into longer sequences has been proposed for improving species identification. Current approaches, however, either suffer from amplification bias due to one single primer or insufficient 16S rDNA reads in whole genome sequencing data. Multiple primers were used to amplify different 16S rDNA segments for 454 sequencing, followed by 454 read classification and assembly. This permitted targeted sequencing while reducing primer bias. For test samples containing four known bacteria, accurate and near full-length 16S rDNAs of three known bacteria were obtained. For real soil and sediment samples containing dioxins in various concentrations, 16S rDNA sequences were lengthened by 50% for about half of the non-rare microbes, and 16S rDNAs of several microbes reached more than 1000 bp. In addition, reduced primer bias using multiple primers was illustrated. A new experimental and computational pipeline for obtaining long 16S rDNA sequences was proposed. The capability of the pipeline was validated on test samples and illustrated on real samples. For dioxin-containing samples, the pipeline revealed several microbes suitable for future studies of dioxin chemistry.

  19. Uranium determination in soil samples using Eichrom resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marabini, S.; Serdeiro, Nelidad H.

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, the radiochemical methods for uranium activity determination in soil samples by alpha spectrometry, use some techniques like solvent extraction, precipitation and ion exchange in the separation and purification stages. In the last years, some new materials have been developed for using in extraction chromatography, specific for actinides determinations. In the present method the long and tedious stages were eliminated, and the reagents consumption and concentration were minimised. This new procedure was applied to soils since it is one of the most complex matrices. In order to reduce time and chemical reagents, the soil samples up to 0,5 g were leached with nitric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids in hermetic sealed recipients of Teflon at 150 C degrees during 5 hours. UTEVA Eichrom resin was used for uranium separation and purification. The uranium activity concentration was determined by alpha spectrometry. Several standard samples were analysed and the results are presented. (author)

  20. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto; Perk, Marcel van der

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations

  1. A soil sampling reference site: The challenge in defining reference material for sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Zorzi, Paolo [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@apat.it; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Metrologia Ambientale, Via di Castel Romano, Rome 100-00128 (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, Vienna A-1400 (Austria); Jacimovic, Radojko; Jeran, Zvonka; Sansone, Umberto [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, TC Utrecht 3508 (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    In the frame of the international SOILSAMP project, funded and coordinated by the Italian Environmental Protection Agency, an agricultural area was established as a reference site suitable for performing soil sampling inter-comparison exercises. The reference site was characterized for trace element content in soil, in terms of the spatial and temporal variability of their mass fraction. Considering that the behaviour of long-lived radionuclides in soil can be expected to be similar to that of some stable trace elements and that the distribution of these trace elements in soil can simulate the distribution of radionuclides, the reference site characterised in term of trace elements, can be also used to compare the soil sampling strategies developed for radionuclide investigations.

  2. Radon exhalation rates from some soil samples of Kharar, Punjab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Vimal [Deptt of Physics, M. M. University, Mullana (Ambala)-133 207 (India); Deptt of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147 001 (India); Singh, Tejinder Pal, E-mail: tejinders03@gmail.com [Deptt of Physics, S.A. Jain (P.G.) College, Ambala City- 134 003 (India); Chauhan, R. P. [Deptt of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra- 136 119 (India); Mudahar, G. S. [Deptt of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147 001 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Radon and its progeny are major contributors in the radiation dose received by general population of the world. Because radon is a noble gas, a large portion of it is free to migrate away from radium. The primary sources of radon in the houses are soils and rocks source emanations, emanation from building materials, and entry of radon into a structure from outdoor air. Keeping this in mind the study of radon exhalation rate from some soil samples of the Kharar, Punjab has been carried out using Can Technique. The equilibrium radon concentration in various soil samples of Kharar area of district Mohali varied from 12.7 Bqm{sup −3} to 82.9 Bqm{sup −3} with an average of 37.5 ± 27.0 Bqm{sup −3}. The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples varied from 0.45 to 2.9 mBq/kg/h with an average of 1.4 ± 0.9 mBq/kg/h and radon surface exhalation rates varied from 10.4 to 67.2 mBq/m{sup 2}/h with an average of 30.6 ± 21.8 mBq/m{sup 2}/h. The radon mass and surface exhalation rates of the soil samples of Kharar, Punjab were lower than that of the world wide average.

  3. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  4. Specific heat capacities of different clayey samples obtained by differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The thermo-physical properties allow to calculate heat flows and to determine the thermal behaviour of the materials. Temperature influences the rates of the physical, chemical and biological reactions and processes in the soil or a material. Variations in temperature and water content in thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and geochemical processes affect the thermal properties such as density, specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Therefore, mathematical models that describe the dependence of the thermal properties on temperature and concentration are of interest to be used in computational programs applied to the modelling of coupled thermo-mechanical-hydraulic and chemical (THMC) processes. In this work, the specific heat capacity of different clayey international reference materials was determined. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used for such purpose. DSC is the main tool for determining the specific heat capacities of materials as a function of temperature. The specific heat capacity, c p (J/Kg.K), is a measurement of the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one unit of temperature. A change in temperature, caused by a gain or a loss of heat from a material, depends on the specific heat capacity of the material. Thus, the specific heat capacity is a key and characteristic property of a material and/or substance, which should be determine accurately. The specific heat capacity is an intensive property and, unlike the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, is independent of the dry density of the material. C p of the solid samples was determined by using a SETSYS Evolution 16 thermal analyser coupled to a differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC-DTA) from SETARAM Instrumentation. The thermal analyser system can use a heating rate from 0.01 to 100 C/min under a dynamic argon atmosphere and temperatures ranging from ambient to

  5. Evaluation of Rock Powdering Methods to Obtain Fine-grained Samples for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Blake, D. F.; Bearman, G.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature XRD/XRF (X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data will improve and the time required for data collection will be reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD results from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, we compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRF instrument such as CHEMIN.

  6. Sequential analyses of actinides in large-size soil and sediment samples with total sample dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Maoyi; Xing, Shan; Yang, Yonggang; Song, Lijuan; Ma, Yan; Wang, Yadong; Dai, Xiongxin; Happel, Steffen

    2018-07-01

    There is a growing demand for the determination of actinides in soil and sediment samples for environmental monitoring and tracing, radiological protection, and nuclear forensic reasons. A total sample dissolution method based on lithium metaborate fusion, followed by sequential column chromatography separation, was developed for simultaneous determination of Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in large-size environmental samples by alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometric techniques. The overall recoveries of both Pu and Am for the entire procedure were higher than 70% for large-size soil samples. The method was validated using 20 g of soil samples spiked with known amounts of 239 Pu and 241 Am as well as the certified reference materials IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon sediment) and IAEA-385 (Irish Sea sediment). All the measured results agreed very well with the expected values. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response of soil aggregate stability to storage time of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Roessner, H.

    1993-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the well known phenomenon of changing aggregate stability values as result of soil sample storage. In order to evaluate the impact of soil microbial activity, the soil sample was split into three subsamples. Two samples were sterilized by means of chloroform fumigation and gamma irradiation, respectively. However, the aggregate stability measurements at three different dates were not correlated with the microbial activity (dehydrogenase activity). The moisture content of the aggregate samples seems to be of higher significance. Samples with lower moisture content (range: 0.4 to 1.9%) exhibited higher aggregate stabilities. Thus, airdried aggregate samples without further treatment don't seem to be suitable for standardized stability measurements. (authors)

  8. A practical approach to obtain the soil freezing characteristic curve and the freezing/melting point of a soil-water system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukenthaler, Manuel; Brinkgreve, R.B.J.; Haxaire, A

    2016-01-01

    Knowing that extensive field tests and laboratory tests are time-consuming and expensive, this paper describes a practical approach to obtain crucial properties of frozen soil such as the soil freezing characteristic curve (SFCC), the freezing/melting point of a soil-water system and its hydraulic

  9. Observation of microstructure of silty sand obtained from gelpush sampler and reconstituted sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusa Muhamad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation of microstructure study of natural sand i.e. clean sand with fines (particles adjudged to be smaller than 75μm content < 5% (Gel Push A and silty sand with 35% fine content (Gel Push B obtained by gel-push sampling was described. In addition, some observations from reconstituted samples prepared by dry pluviation and moist tamping were presented. Microstructures were investigated statistically by measuring particle orientation. It was evidence that natural sand (either gel push A and B have a preferred orientation i.e. horizontally oriented. Similar particle orientation trend were observed by dry pluviated sample. Undisturbed and dry pluviated samples shows that they are anisotropic in terms of particles orientation. Moist tamped sample on the other hand, results in fairly random orientation with a slight bias towards vertical, thus does not replicate natural sand fabric.

  10. Bespoke Bias for Obtaining Free Energy Differences within Variationally Enhanced Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, James; Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

    2016-05-10

    Obtaining efficient sampling of multiple metastable states through molecular dynamics and hence determining free energy differences is central for understanding many important phenomena. Here we present a new biasing strategy, which employs the recent variationally enhanced sampling approach (Valsson and Parrinello Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 113, 090601). The bias is constructed from an intuitive model of the local free energy surface describing fluctuations around metastable minima and depends on only a few parameters which are determined variationally such that efficient sampling between states is obtained. The bias constructed in this manner largely reduces the need of finding a set of collective variables that completely spans the conformational space of interest, as they only need to be a locally valid descriptor of the system about its local minimum. We introduce the method and demonstrate its power on two representative examples.

  11. Determination of thorium and uranium contents in soil samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vol. 67, No. 2. — journal of. August 2006 physics pp. 269–276. Determination of thorium and uranium contents in soil samples using SSNTD's passive method ... measure α-tracks activity [1], where SSNTDs have been used in geology [2–6] and ... thorium concentrations in ppm and activities of both uranium and thorium.

  12. FIELD SAMPLING OF RESIDUAL AVIATION GASOLINE IN SANDY SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two complimentary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured filed extrusion of core barrels into pint size Mason jars, while ...

  13. Levels of Cadmium in Soil, Sediment and Water Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil, sediment and water samples collected from the catchment areas of some selected rivers and streams in Tarkwa and its environs were investigated for the levels of cadmium using the Atomic Absorption spectrophometric technique. From the results, it was observed that cadmium levels were generally higher than the ...

  14. Sampling and Mapping Soil Erosion Cover Factor for Fort Richardson, Alaska. Integrating Stratification and an Up-Scaling Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Guangxing; Gertner, George; Anderson, Alan B; Howard, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    When a ground and vegetation cover factor related to soil erosion is mapped with the aid of remotely sensed data, a cost-efficient sample design to collect ground data and obtain an accurate map is required...

  15. How to Perform Precise Soil and Sediment Sampling? One solution: The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabit, L.; Toloza, A.; Meusburger, K.; Alewell, C.; Iurian, A-R.; Owens, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agrienvironmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling to perform detailed analysis of physical, geochemical and biological properties of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. The Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC), developed by the SWMCN Laboratory, allows much greater precision in incremental soil/sediment sampling. It facilitates the easy recovery of collected material by using a simple screw-thread extraction system (see Figure 1). The FISC has been designed specifically to enable standardized scientific investigation of shallow soil/sediment samples. In particular, applications have been developed in two IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs): CRP D1.20.11 on “Integrated Isotopic Approaches for an Area-wide Precision Conservation to Control the Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Land Degradation and Soil Erosion” and CRP D1.50.15 on “Response to Nuclear Emergencies Affecting Food and Agriculture.”

  16. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously existing concentration

  17. The Impact of Including Below Detection Limit Samples in Post Decommissioning Soil Sample Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To meet the required standards the site owner has to show that the soil at the facility has been sufficiently cleaned up. To do this one must know the contamination of the soil at the site prior to clean up. This involves sampling that soil to identify the degree of contamination. However there is a technical difficulty in determining how much decontamination should be done. The problem arises when measured samples are below the detection limit. Regulatory guidelines for site reuse after decommissioning are commonly challenged because the majority of the activity in the soil at or below the limit of detection. Using additional statistical analyses of contaminated soil after decommissioning is expected to have the following advantages: a better and more reliable probabilistic exposure assessment, better economics (lower project costs) and improved communication with the public. This research will develop an approach that defines an acceptable method for demonstrating compliance of decommissioned NPP sites and validates that compliance. Soil samples from NPP often contain censored data. Conventional methods for dealing with censored data sets are statistically biased and limited in their usefulness. In this research, additional methods are performed using real data from a monazite manufacturing factory.

  18. Spatial variability of soil penetration resistance influenced by season of sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Bonnin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the spatial distribution of soil compaction and the influence of soil water content on the resistance to penetration. The latter variable was described by the cone index. The soil at the study site was a Nitisol and the cone index data were obtained using a penetrometer. Soil resistance was assessed at 5 different depths, i.e. 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, 30-40 cm and deeper than 40 cm, whereas soil water content was measured at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm. Soil water conditions varied during the different samplings. Coefficients of variation for cone index ranged from 16.5% to 45.8% while those for soil water content varied from 8.96% to 21.38%. Results suggested a high correlation between soil resistance, as assessed by the cone index, and soil depth. However, the expected relation with soil water content was not observed. Spatial dependence was observed in 31 out of 35 data series, both cone index and soil water content. This structure was fitted to exponential models with nugget effect varying from 0 to 90% of the sill value. Four of the data series showed a random behaviour. Inverse distance technique was used in order to map the distribution of the variables when no spatial structure was observed. Ordinary kriging showed a smoothing of the maps compared to those from inverse distance weighing. Indicator kriging was used to map the cone index spatial distribution for recommendation of further soil management.

  19. The use of importance sampling in a trial assessment to obtain converged estimates of radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.; Lucas, R.

    1986-12-01

    In developing a methodology for assessing potential sites for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the Department of the Environment has conducted a series of trial assessment exercises. In order to produce converged estimates of radiological risk using the SYVAC A/C simulation system an efficient sampling procedure is required. Previous work has demonstrated that importance sampling can substantially increase sampling efficiency. This study used importance sampling to produce converged estimates of risk for the first DoE trial assessment. Four major nuclide chains were analysed. In each case importance sampling produced converged risk estimates with between 10 and 170 times fewer runs of the SYVAC A/C model. This increase in sampling efficiency can reduce the total elapsed time required to obtain a converged estimate of risk from one nuclide chain by a factor of 20. The results of this study suggests that the use of importance sampling could reduce the elapsed time required to perform a risk assessment of a potential site by a factor of ten. (author)

  20. The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

    2004-07-01

    Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences

  1. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Sampsa; Geng, Xiaoyuan; He, Juanxia

    2017-04-01

    Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) at variable resolutions for enhanced watershed scale Soil Sampling and Digital Soil Mapping. Sampsa Hamalainen, Xiaoyuan Geng, and Juanxia, He. AAFC - Agriculture and Agr-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada. The Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) approach to assist with Digital Soil Mapping has been developed for some time now, however the purpose of this work was to complement LHS with use of multiple spatial resolutions of covariate datasets and variability in the range of sampling points produced. This allowed for specific sets of LHS points to be produced to fulfil the needs of various partners from multiple projects working in the Ontario and Prince Edward Island provinces of Canada. Secondary soil and environmental attributes are critical inputs that are required in the development of sampling points by LHS. These include a required Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and subsequent covariate datasets produced as a result of a Digital Terrain Analysis performed on the DEM. These additional covariates often include but are not limited to Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), Length-Slope (LS) Factor, and Slope which are continuous data. The range of specific points created in LHS included 50 - 200 depending on the size of the watershed and more importantly the number of soil types found within. The spatial resolution of covariates included within the work ranged from 5 - 30 m. The iterations within the LHS sampling were run at an optimal level so the LHS model provided a good spatial representation of the environmental attributes within the watershed. Also, additional covariates were included in the Latin Hypercube Sampling approach which is categorical in nature such as external Surficial Geology data. Some initial results of the work include using a 1000 iteration variable within the LHS model. 1000 iterations was consistently a reasonable value used to produce sampling points that provided a good spatial representation of the environmental

  2. Study of nitrogen losses at the microcosm in undisturbed soil samples subjected to thermal shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cancelo-González

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory thermal shocks of different intensity and rainfall simulations were performed in undisturbed Leptic Umbrisol soil samples. Samples were collected in field using specially designed lysimeter boxes to allow sampling, thermal shocks and surface runoff and subsurface flow water collection during the rainfall simulations. Temperature was recorded during heating and degree-hours of accumulated heat were calculated and nitrogen losses in surface and subsurface water collected after two rainfall simulations were determined. Results show losses of total nitrogen from treatments 200 oC and 67 degrees-hours heat supplied in the leachate obtained after 150 mm of simulated rainfall compared with non-heat treated soils. Is remarkable that soils subjected to higher intensity heat treatments (400 oC and 278 67 degrees-hours show greater losses of N-Nitrate and N-Ammonia by subsurface flow, while this behavior was not observed in the other heat treatments.

  3. Procedure for intercomparison study for trace elements determination in soil samples by absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez P, L.A.; Benavides M, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the environmental sampling analysis there is very important to establish an adequate methodologies on the laboratories for improvement the quality of the results obtained, so the establishment of a qualified laboratories network for environmental analysis. The objective of this work is to show the working plan for the analysis of eight elements on a Russian soil sample for an interlaboratory comparison with IAEA, by the Absorption spectroscopy technique using flame. (Author)

  4. A self-sampling method to obtain large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Elizabeth R; Moench, Thomas R; Hees, Paul S; Cone, Richard A

    2003-02-01

    Studies of vaginal physiology and pathophysiology sometime require larger volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions than can be obtained by current methods. A convenient method for self-sampling these secretions outside a clinical setting can facilitate such studies of reproductive health. The goal was to develop a vaginal self-sampling method for collecting large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. A menstrual collection device (the Instead cup) was inserted briefly into the vagina to collect secretions that were then retrieved from the cup by centrifugation in a 50-ml conical tube. All 16 women asked to perform this procedure found it feasible and acceptable. Among 27 samples, an average of 0.5 g of secretions (range, 0.1-1.5 g) was collected. This is a rapid and convenient self-sampling method for obtaining relatively large volumes of undiluted cervicovaginal secretions. It should prove suitable for a wide range of assays, including those involving sexually transmitted diseases, microbicides, vaginal physiology, immunology, and pathophysiology.

  5. Applying no-depletion equilibrium sampling and full-depletion bioaccessibility extraction to 35 historically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolomé, Nora; Hilber, Isabel; Sosa, Dayana

    2018-01-01

    such soils were obtained from various locations in Switzerland and Cuba. They were exposed to different pollution sources (e.g., pyrogenic and petrogenic) at various distance (i.e., urban to rural) and were subject to different land use (e.g., urban gardening and forest). Passive equilibrium sampling...... coefficients of the soils were highest for skeet soils, followed by traffic, urban garden and rural soils. Lowest values were obtained from soil exposed to petrogenic sources. Applicability of SBE to quantify Cbioacc was restricted by silicone rod sorption capacity, as expressed quantitatively by the Sorption......Assessing the bioaccessibility of organic pollutants in contaminated soils is considered a complement to measurements of total concentrations in risk assessment and legislation. Consequently, methods for its quantification require validation with historically contaminated soils. In this study, 35...

  6. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Silva, Alberto Antonio da

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  7. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: rmenezes@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: jairo.dias@ufpe.br, E-mail: kennedy.eng.ambiental@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: jestevez@ceaden.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: edvane.borges@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: alberto.silva@barreiros.ifpe.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  8. Study of Organochlorinated Pesticide Residues and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Vlora Gashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the data obtained for organochlorinated pesticides and their residues in the soil samples of agricultural areas. Soil contamination is one of most important factors influencing the quality of agricultural products. Usage of heavy farm equipment, the land drainage, an exces­sive application of agrochemicals, emissions originating from mining, metallurgical, and chemical and coal power plants and transport, all generate a number of undesired substances (nitric and sulphur oxides, PAHs, heavy metals, pesticides, which after deposition in soil may influence crop quality. Thus, input of these contaminants into the environment should be carefully monitored. Levels of organochlorinated pesticides contamination were evaluated in agriculture areas that are in use. 10 soil samples were taken in agricultural areas  Plane of  Dugagjini , Kosovo. Representa­tive soil samples were collected from 0-30 cm top layer of the soil. In the analytical method we combined ultrasonic bath extraction and a Florisil column for samples clean-up. The analysis of the organochlorinated pesticides in soil samples was performed by gas chromatography technique using electron capture detector (GC/ECD. Optima-5 (low/mid polarity, 5% phenyl methyl siloxane 60 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25μm film capillary column was used for isolation and determination of organochlorinated pesticides. Low concentrations of organochlorinated pesticide and their metabolites were found in the studied samples. The presence of organochlorinated pesticides and their residues is probably resulting of their previous uses for agricultural purposes.

  9. Effects of physical and chemical heterogeneity on water-quality samples obtained from wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Gibs, Jacob

    1993-01-01

    Factors that affect the mass of chemical constituents entering a well include the distributions of flow rate and chemical concentrations along and near the screened or open section of the well. Assuming a layered porous medium (with each layer being characterized by a uniform hydraulic conductivity and chemical concentration), a knowledge of the flow from each layer along the screened zone and of the chemical concentrations in each layer enables the total mass entering the well to be determined. Analyses of hypothetical systems and a site at Galloway, NJ, provide insight into the temporal variation of water-quality data observed when withdrawing water from screened wells in heterogeneous ground-water systems.The analyses of hypothetical systems quantitatively indicate the cause-and-effect relations that cause temporal variability in water samples obtained from wells. Chemical constituents that have relatively uniform concentrations with depth may not show variations in concentrations in the water discharged from a well after the well is purged (evacuation of standing water in the well casing). However, chemical constituents that do not have uniform concentrations near the screened interval of the well may show variations in concentrations in the well discharge water after purging because of the physics of ground-water flow in the vicinity of the screen.Water-quality samples were obtained through time over a 30 minute period from a site at Galloway, NJ. The water samples were analyzed for aromatic hydrocarbons, and the data for benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene were evaluated for temporal variations. Samples were taken from seven discrete zones, and the flow-weighted concentrations of benzene, toluene, and meta+para xylene all indicate an increase in concentration over time during pumping. These observed trends in time were reproduced numerically based on the estimated concentration distribution in the aquifer and the flow rates from each zone.The results of

  10. Retention and Solute Transport Properties in Disturbed and Undisturbed Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Previatello da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Solute transport parameters can be determined in miscible displacement experiments, usually performed in columns with disturbed (sieved soil samples. Experiments with undisturbed samples are uncommon, due to the difficulty of taking undisturbed samples at the size required for these experiments. Structural alteration of the disturbed material implies modifications in the pore geometry that determines hydraulic properties, including hydraulic conductivity and retention and properties related to miscible displacement. An existing model for prediction of breakthrough curves based on retention properties was tested using material from a medium-textured Ferralsol, and alterations caused by sample disturbance were investigated. Soil water retention curves and miscible displacement parameters were determined in breakthrough experiments with nitrate salts in columns filled with undisturbed and disturbed soil samples. Data obtained from the undisturbed samples showed a higher dispersion, suggesting homogenization of pore geometry and a reduction in the representative elementary volume by the disaggregation and sieving of the soil material. The transport parameters for nitrate determined in disturbed and undisturbed samples were significantly different and the model was able to simulate the observed breakthrough curves after fitting the pore connectivity parameter.

  11. 105-DR Large sodium fire facility soil sampling data evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the soil sampling activities, soil sample analysis, and soil sample data associated with the closure activities at the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility. The evaluation compares these activities to the regulatory requirements for meeting clean closure. The report concludes that there is no soil contamination from the waste treatment activities

  12. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-01-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the μ determination. It consists of the μ determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of μ was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  13. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Macêdo, Regina CL; Rosado, Alexandre S; da Mota, Fabio F; Cavalcante, Maria AS; Eulálio, Kelsen D; Filho, Antônio D; Martins, Liline MS; Lazéra, Márcia S; Wanke, Bodo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soi...

  14. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho Antônio D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25% soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100% were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

  15. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Regina C L; Rosado, Alexandre S; da Mota, Fabio F; Cavalcante, Maria A S; Eulálio, Kelsen D; Filho, Antônio D; Martins, Liline M S; Lazéra, Márcia S; Wanke, Bodo

    2011-05-16

    Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM) were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25%) soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100%) were positive by the molecular tool. This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of carbaryl pesticide and its hydrolysis product in soil and strawberry samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbaş, A

    1998-09-18

    A spectrophotometric method for the determination of carbaryl in soil and strawberry fruit samples is described. The method is based on the coupling of 1-naphthol obtained from hydrolysing carbaryl with diazotised sulphanilic acid in an alkaline medium to form p-(4-hydroxyl-1-naphtylaza)benzenesulphonic acid which has a maximum absorbance at 475 nm. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 0.01-0.1 ppm of carbaryl. The proposed method is sensitive and rapid. The average carbaryl content of strawberry fruits was 6.03 ppm and the average 1-naphthol content of soil samples was 16.29. The samples were obtained from their sources during 1 day after approx. 24 h of rain.

  17. Prospects of obtaining samples of bottom sediments from subglacial lake Vostok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. И. Васильев

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proves the timeliness of obtaining and examining bottom sediments from subglacial Lake Vostok. Predictive geological section of Lake Vostok and information value of bottom sediments have been examined. Severe requirements towards environmental security of lake examinations and sampling of bottom sediments rule out the use of conventional drilling technologies, as they would pollute the lake with injection liquid from the borehole. In order to carry out sampling of bottom sediments from the subglacial lake, it is proposed to use a dynamically balanced tool string, which enables rotary drilling without any external support on borehole walls to transmit counter torque.     A theoretical analysis has been carried out to assess the operation of the tool string, which is a two-mass oscillatory electromechanical system of reciprocating and rotating motion (RRM with two degrees of freedom.

  18. Magnetic properties of ultrafine-grained cobalt samples obtained from consolidated nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellah, F.; Cherif, S.M.; Schoenstein, F.; Jouini, N.; Dirras, G. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouziane, K. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123 (Oman)

    2011-08-15

    Co powders having nominal average particle size of 50 and 240 nm were synthesized using a polyol method and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or the emerging spark plasma sintering (SPS) compaction processes. Bulk polycrystalline aggregates were obtained, having average grain sizes of about 200 and 300 nm, respectively. It is found that both nanoparticles and consolidated samples exhibit a soft ferromagnetic behavior. The magnetization reversal likely occurs by nucleation/propagation process. However, a curling process can be involved in the magnetization reversal for the smaller particles. The dynamic measurements provide for the consolidated samples magnetic parameters corresponding to bulk cobalt with vanishing anisotropy. The contribution of the intergranular region is found to be negligible. We can infer that the used consolidation routes insure a good magnetic interfacial contact between the particles. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Data analysis of a polycrystalline nickel sample obtained with neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, C.B.R.; Mazzochi, V.L.; Araujo Kaschny, J.R. de; Costa, M.S. da; Rizzo, P.; Campos, W.M.S.

    1990-01-01

    A simple analysis of the nickel structure was made. Neutron diffraction data were used, obtained with polycrystalline nickel placed in a cylindrical sample-holder with dimensions of 1,5cm of diameter and 5cm of height. The theoretical intensities were calculated of 3 forms: 1. without considering the temperature and obsorption effects, 2. considering only the temperature effect and 3. considering both the temperature and absorption effects. The disagreement factors found in this 3 cases were, respectively, R 1 = 13.4%, R 2 = 7,7% e R 3 = 7,5%. (L.C.)

  20. COMPARISON OF APPROACHES TO OBTAIN A SAMPLE OF DWELLINGS FOR RADON SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I; Onishchenko, A; Malinovsky, G; Vasilyev, A; Zhukovsky, M

    2017-11-01

    Obtaining of the representative sample of dwellings is a basic requirement to organization of the radon survey. Since random selection is often impossible, quasi-random approaches are used. The aim of the study is to analyze errors in radon exposure assessment that resulted from rejecting the random selection. Both the modeling and experiments were conducted. Three types of errors were observed: shifting of the mean, change of the variance and mixture of the previous two. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Two Step Sample Return Mission of Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; Craft, J.; Chu, P.; Mungas, G.

    2009-12-01

    We are proposing a Mars (or Lunar) Sample Return scheme whereby a sample of regolith is acquired directly into a Mars (or Lunar) Ascent Vehicle using a pneumatic system. We envisage 3 pneumatic tubes to be embedded inside the 3 legs of the lander (for redundancy). Upon landing, the legs will burry themselves into the regolith and the tubes will fill up with regolith. With one puff of gas injected at the base of the tubes, the regolith can be lifted into a sampling chamber onboard of the Mars Ascent Vehicle. An additional chamber can acquire atmospheric gas and dust. The MSR will require 1) an actuator to open/close sampling chamber and 2) a valve to open gas cylinder. In the recent NASA funded study conducted at Mars pressures we have shown that it is possible lift over 5000 grams of soil with only 1 gram of gas.

  2. Estimation of radioactivity in some sand and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, R.P.; Garg, Ajay; Kumar, Sushil; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is composed of the cosmogenic and primordial radionuclides. It is common in the rocks and soil that make up our planet, water and oceans, and in our building materials and homes. Natural radioactivity in sand and soils comes from 238 U and 232 Th series and natural 40 K. Radon is formed from the decay of radium which in turn is formed from uranium. The gaseous radioactive isotope of radon from natural sources has a significant share in the total quantum of natural sources exposure to the human bwings. Gamma radiation from 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K represents the main external source of irradiation of the human body. In the present study, the activity for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K is found to vary from 45 ± 1.2 to 97 ± 4.9 Bq/kg, 63 ± 2.0 to 132 ± 3.2 Bq/kg and 492 ± 5.9 to 1110 ± 10.5 Bq/kg, respectively in the soil samples while the variations have been observed from 63 ± 3.8 to 65 ± 3.7 Bq/kg, 86 ±2.5 to 96 ± 2.6 Bq/kg and 751 ± 7.7 to 824 ± 8.2 Bq/kg, respectively in the sand samples. (author)

  3. Accuracy, precision and robustness of different methods to obtain samples from silages in fermentation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate accuracy, precision and robustness of two methods to obtain silage samples, in comparison with extraction of liquor by manual screw-press. Wet brewery residue alone or combined with soybean hulls and citrus pulp were ensiled in laboratory silos. Liquor was extracted by a manual screw-press and a 2-mL aliquot was fixed with 0.4 mL formic acid. Two 10-g silage samples from each silo were diluted in 20 mL deionized water or 17% formic acid solution (alternative methods. Aliquots obtained by the three methods were used to determine the silage contents of fermentation end-products. The accuracy of the alternative methods was evaluated by comparing mean bias of estimates obtained by manual screw-press and by alternative methods, whereas precision was assessed by the root mean square prediction error and the residual error. Robustness was determined by studying the interaction between bias and chemical components, pH, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and buffer capacity. The 17% formic acid method was more accurate for estimating acetic, butyric and lactic acids, although it resulted in low overestimates of propionic acid and underestimates of ethanol. The deionized water method overestimated acetic and propionic acids and slightly underestimated ethanol. The 17% formic acid method was more precise than deionized water for estimating all organic acids and ethanol. The robustness of each method with respect to variation in the silage chemical composition, IVDMD and pH is dependent on the fermentation end-product at evaluation. The robustness of the alternative methods seems to be critical at the determination of lactic acid and ethanol contents.

  4. Evaluation of Hydraulic Parameters Obtained by Different Measurement Methods for Heterogeneous Gravel Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of soil hydraulic parameters for the van Genuchten function is important to characterize soil water movement for watershed management. Accurate and rapid prediction of soil water flow in heterogeneous gravel soil has become a hot topic in recent years. However, it is difficult to precisely estimate hydraulic parameters in a heterogeneous soil with rock fragments. In this study, the HYDRUS-2D numerical model was used to evaluate hydraulic parameters for heterogeneous gravel soil that was irregularly embedded with rock fragments in a grape production base. The centrifugal method (CM, tensiometer method (TM and inverse solution method (ISM were compared for various parameters in the van Genuchten function. The soil core method (SCM, disc infiltration method (DIM and inverse solution method (ISM were also investigated for measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity. Simulation with the DIM approach revealed a problem of overestimating soil water infiltration whereas simulation with the SCM approach revealed a problem of underestimating water movement as compared to actual field observation. The ISM approach produced the best simulation result even though this approach slightly overestimated soil moisture by ignoring the impact of rock fragments. This study provides useful information on the overall evaluation of soil hydraulic parameters attained with different measurement methods for simulating soil water movement and distribution in heterogeneous gravel soil.

  5. Statistical equivalence of prediction models of the soil sorption coefficient obtained using different log P algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, Carlos José Maria; Sampaio, Silvio César; Dos Reis, Ralpho Rinaldo

    2017-10-01

    The soil sorption coefficient normalized to the organic carbon content (K oc ) is a physicochemical parameter used in environmental risk assessments and in determining the final fate of chemicals released into the environment. Several models for predicting this parameter have been proposed based on the relationship between log K oc and log P. The difficulty and cost of obtaining experimental log P values led to the development of algorithms to calculate these values, some of which are free to use. However, quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies did not detail how or why a particular algorithm was chosen. In this study, we evaluated several free algorithms for calculating log P in the modeling of log K oc , using a broad and diverse set of compounds (n = 639) that included several chemical classes. In addition, we propose the adoption of a simple test to verify if there is statistical equivalence between models obtained using different data sets. Our results showed that the ALOGPs, KOWWIN and XLOGP3 algorithms generated the best models for modeling K oc , and these models are statistically equivalent. This finding shows that it is possible to use the different algorithms without compromising statistical quality and predictive capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Good

    Full Text Available Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18O, > 160‰ for δ(2H and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰ were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  7. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Stephen P; Mallia, Derek V; Lin, John C; Bowen, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18)O, > 160‰ for δ(2)H) and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰) were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  8. Assessment of sampling and analytical uncertainty of trace element contents in arable field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczko, Uwe; Kuchenbuch, Rolf O; Ubelhör, Walter; Nätscher, Ludwig

    2012-07-01

    Assessment of trace element contents in soils is required in Germany (and other countries) before sewage sludge application on arable soils. The reliability of measured element contents is affected by measurement uncertainty, which consists of components due to (1) sampling, (2) laboratory repeatability (intra-lab) and (3) reproducibility (between-lab). A complete characterization of average trace element contents in field soils should encompass the uncertainty of all these components. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the magnitude and relative proportions of uncertainty components for the metals As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl and Zn in three arable fields of different field-scale heterogeneity, based on a collaborative trial (CT) (standardized procedure) and two sampling proficiency tests (PT) (individual sampling procedure). To obtain reference values and estimates of field-scale heterogeneity, a detailed reference sampling was conducted. Components of uncertainty (sampling person, sampling repetition, laboratory) were estimated by variance component analysis, whereas reproducibility uncertainty was estimated using results from numerous laboratory proficiency tests. Sampling uncertainty in general increased with field-scale heterogeneity; however, total uncertainty was mostly dominated by (total) laboratory uncertainty. Reproducibility analytical uncertainty was on average by a factor of about 3 higher than repeatability uncertainty. Therefore, analysis within one single laboratory and, for heterogeneous fields, a reduction of sampling uncertainty (for instance by larger numbers of sample increments and/or a denser coverage of the field area) would be most effective to reduce total uncertainty. On the other hand, when only intra-laboratory analytical uncertainty was considered, total sampling uncertainty on average prevailed over analytical uncertainty by a factor of 2. Both sampling and laboratory repeatability uncertainty were highly variable

  9. An evaluation of soil sampling for 137Cs using various field-sampling volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhan, J W; White, G C; Schofield, T G; Trujillo, G

    1983-05-01

    The sediments from a liquid effluent receiving area at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and soils from an intensive study area in the fallout pathway of Trinity were sampled for 137Cs using 25-, 500-, 2500- and 12,500-cm3 field sampling volumes. A highly replicated sampling program was used to determine mean concentrations and inventories of 137Cs at each site, as well as estimates of spatial, aliquoting, and counting variance components of the radionuclide data. The sampling methods were also analyzed as a function of soil size fractions collected in each field sampling volume and of the total cost of the program for a given variation in the radionuclide survey results. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 137Cs inventory estimates ranged from 0.063 to 0.14 for Mortandad Canyon sediments, whereas CV values for Trinity soils were observed from 0.38 to 0.57. Spatial variance components of 137Cs concentration data were usually found to be larger than either the aliquoting or counting variance estimates and were inversely related to field sampling volume at the Trinity intensive site. Subsequent optimization studies of the sampling schemes demonstrated that each aliquot should be counted once, and that only 2-4 aliquots out of as many as 30 collected need be assayed for 137Cs. The optimization studies showed that as sample costs increased to 45 man-hours of labor per sample, the variance of the mean 137Cs concentration decreased dramatically, but decreased very little with additional labor.

  10. Rapid analysis of 2,4-D in soil samples by modified Soxhlet apparatus using HPLC with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sanjay M; Pandya, Girish H; Kondawar, Vivek K; Gabhane, Sanjay S

    2005-02-01

    The 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) is used as a systemic herbicide to control broadleaf weeds in wheat, corn, range land/pasture land, sorghum, and barley. In this study, a fast and efficient method is developed by selection of modified extraction apparatus and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV conditions for the determination of 2,4-D in soil samples. The method is applied to the study of soil samples collected from the agricultural field. The herbicide is extracted from soil samples by acetonitrile in a modified Soxhlet apparatus. The advantages of the apparatus are that it uses small volume of organic solvent, reduced time of extraction, and better recovery of the analyte. The extract is filtered using a very fine microfiber paper. The total extract is concentrated in a rotatory evaporator, dried under ultrahigh pure N2, and finally reconstituted in 1 mL of acetonitrile. HPLC-UV at 228 nm is used for analysis. The herbicide is identified and quantitated using the HPLC system. The method is validated by the analysis of spiked soil samples. Recoveries obtained varied from 85% to 100% for spiked soil samples. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) and the limit of detection (LOD) are 0.010 and 0.005 parts per million (ppm), respectively, for spiked soil samples. The LOQ and LOD are 0.006 and 0.003 ppm for unspiked soil samples. The measured concentrations of 2,4-D in spiked soil samples are between 0.010 and 0.020 ppm with an average of 0.016 +/- 0.003 ppm. For unspiked soil samples it is between 0.006 ppm and 0.012 ppm with an average of 0.009 +/- 0.002 ppm. The measured concentrations of 2,4-D in soil samples are generally low and do not exceed the regulatory agencies guidelines.

  11. Field sampling of residual aviation gasoline in sandy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostendorf, D.W.; Hinlein, E.S.; Yuefeng, Xie; Leach, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Two complementary field sampling methods for the determination of residual aviation gasoline content in the contaminated capillary fringe of a fine, uniform, sandy soil were investigated. The first method featured field extrusion of core barrels into pint-size Mason jars, while the second consisted of laboratory partitioning of intact stainless steel core sleeves. Soil samples removed from the Mason jars (in the field) and sleeve segments (in the laboratory) were subjected to methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatographic analysis to compare their aviation gasoline content. The barrel extrusion sampling method yielded a vertical profile with 0.10m resolution over an essentially continuous 5.0m interval from the ground surface to the water table. The sleeve segment alternative yielded a more resolved 0.03m vertical profile over a shorter 0.8m interval through the capillary fringe. The two methods delivered precise estimates of the vertically integrated mass of aviation gasoline at a given horizontal location, and a consistent view of the vertical profile as well. In the latter regard, a 0.2m thick lens of maximum contamination was found in the center of the capillary fringe, where moisture filled all voids smaller than the mean pore size. The maximum peak was resolved by the core sleeve data, but was partially obscured by the barrel extrusion observations, so that replicate barrels or a half-pint Mason jar size should be considered for data supporting vertical transport analyses in the absence of sleeve partitions

  12. A New Approach To Soil Sampling For Risk Assessment Of Nutrient Mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Barber, N.; Benskin, C.; Reaney, S. M.; Haygarth, P.; Quinn, P. F.; Barker, P. A.; Aftab, A.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Surridge, B.; Perks, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, risks of nutrient and sediment losses from soils are assessed through a combination of field soil nutrient values on soil samples taken over the whole field and the proximity of the field to water courses. The field average nutrient concentration of the soil is used by farmers to determine fertiliser needs. These data are often used by scientists to assess the risk of nutrient losses to water course, though are not really `fit' for this purpose. The Eden Demonstration Test Catchment (http://www.edendtc.org.uk/) is a research project based in the River Eden catchment, NW UK, with the aim of cost effectively mitigating diffuse pollution from agriculture whilst maintaining agricultural productivity. Three instrumented focus catchments have been monitored since 2011, providing high resolution in-stream chemistry and ecological data, alongside some spatial data on soils, land use and nutrient inputs. An approach to mitigation was demonstrated in a small sub-catchment, where surface runoff was identified as the key drivers of nutrient losses, using a suite of runoff attenuation features. Other issues identified were management of hard- standings and soil compaction. A new approach for evaluating nutrient losses from soils is assessed in the Eden DTC project. The Sensitive Catchment Integrated Modelling and Prediction (SCIMAP) model is a risk-mapping framework designed to identify where in the landscape diffuse pollution is most likely to be originating (http://www.scimap.org.uk) and was used to look at the spatial pattern of erosion potential. The aim of this work was to assess if erosion potential identified through the model could be used to inform a new soil sampling strategy, to better assess risk of erosion and risk of transport of sediment-bound phosphorus. Soil samples were taken from areas with different erosion potential. The chemical analysis of these targeted samples are compared to those obtained using more traditional sampling approaches

  13. Comparative study on production, purification of penicillin by Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from soil and citrus samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayalan, S Anto Jeya; Darwin, Pramod; Prakash, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore various unexplored locations where Penicillium spp. would be available and study the production of penicillin from the isolated Penicillium spp. in different media with altered carbohydrate source. Methods The collected soil samples were screened for the isolation of Penicillium chrysogenum (P. chrysogenum) by soil dilution plate. The isolated Penicillium species were further grown in different production media with changes in the carbohydrate source. The extracted penicillin from various isolates was analyzed by HPLC for the efficacy of the product. Further the products were screened with various bacterial species including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). And the work was extended to find the possible action on MRSA, along with characterization using other pathogens. Results From the various soil and citrus samples used for analysis, only the soil sample from Government General Hospital of Bangalore, India, and Sanjay Gandhi Hospital, Bangalore, India, showed some potential growth of the desired fungi P. chrysogenum. Different production media showed varied range of growth of Penicillium. Optimum production of penicillin was obtained in maltose which proved maximum zone of inhibition during assay. Characterization of penicillin on pathogens, like wild Escherichia coli strain, Klebsiella spp., and MRSA, gave quite interesting results such as no activity on the later strain as it is resistant. HPLC data provided the analytical and confirmation details of the penicillin produced. Accordingly, the penicillin produced from the soil sample of Government General Hospital had the high milli absorbance unit of 441.5 mAu compared with that of the penicillin produced from Sanjay Gandhi Hospital sample, 85.52 mAu. Therefore, there was a considerable change in quantity of the penicillin produced from both the samples. Conclusions The Penicillium spp. could be possibly rich in hospital contaminants and its environments. This research

  14. Determination of elemental in soil samples from Gebeng area using NAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Suhaimi Elias; Wo, Y.M.; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development and urbanization will increase number of residence and industrial area. Without proper management and control of pollution, these will give an adverse effect to environment and human life. The objective of this study to identify and quantify key contaminants into the environment of the Gebeng area as a result of industrial and human activities. Gebeng area was gazetted as one of the industrial estate in Pahang state. Assessment of elemental pollution in soil of Gebeng area base on level of concentration, enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. The enrichment factors (EFs) were determined by the elemental rationing method, whilst the geo-accumulation index (I geo ) by comparing of current to continental crustal average concentration of element. Twenty-seven of soil samples were collected from Gebeng area. Soil samples were analysed by using Neutron Activation Analyses (NAA) technique. The obtained data showed higher concentration of iron (Fe) due to abundance in soil compared to other elements. The results of enrichment factor showed that Gebeng area have enrich with elements of As, Br, Hf, Sb, Th and U. Base on the geo-accumulation index (I geo ) classification, the soil quality of Gebeng area can be classified as class 0, (uncontaminated) to Class 3, (moderately to heavily contaminated). (author)

  15. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations

  16. Carbon transfer from plant roots to soil - NanoSIMS analyses of undisturbed rhizosphere samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Alix; Hirte, Juliane; Bender, S. Franz; Mayer, Jochen; Gattinger, Andreas; Mueller, Carsten W.

    2017-04-01

    Soils are composed of a wide diversity of organic and mineral compounds, interacting to form complex mosaics of microenvironments. Roots and microorganisms are both key sources of organic carbon (OC). The volume of soil around living roots, i.e. the rhizosphere, is a privileged area for soil microbial activity and diversity. The microscopic observation of embedded soil sections has been applied since the 1950´s and has enabled observation of the rhizosphere at the smallest scale of organism interaction, i.e. at the level of root cells and bacteria (Alexander and Jackson, 1954). However, the observation of microorganisms in their intact environment, especially in soil, remains challenging. Existing microscopic images do not provide clear evidence of the chemical composition of compounds observed in the rhizosphere. Nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is a high spatial resolution method providing elemental and isotopic maps of organic and mineral materials. This technic has been increasingly used in soil science during the last decade (Hermann et al., 2007; Vogel et al., 2014) and more specifically for undisturbed soil sample observations (Vidal et al., 2016). In the present study, NanoSIMS was used to illustrate the biological, physical and chemical processes occurring in the rhizosphere at the microscale. To meet this objective, undisturbed rhizosphere samples were collected from a field experiment in Switzerland where wheat plants were pulse-labelled with 99% 13C-CO2 in weekly intervals throughout the growing season and sampled at flowering. Samples were embedded, sectioned, polished and analyzed with NanoSIMS, obtaining secondary ion images of 12C, 13C, 12C14N, 16O, 31P16O2, and 32S. The δ13C maps were obtained thanks to 12C and 13C images. 13C labelled root cells were clearly distinguished on images and presented highly variable δ13C values. Labelled spots (soil particles, forming microaggregates tightly bound to root cells. Finally, some

  17. The main tasks and obtained results within soil protection working group of the Danube countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzatko, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the frame of the Danube Countries Working Community activities was in 1993 constituted independent Soil Protection Working Group (SPWG). Its primary task is to elaborate principles and common soil protection concept in given countries accepted on the level of governments and related authorities, and also to the solution of the solution of the problems on regional levels. Final objective is to implement such concept of soil protection policy, which is able to maintain its quality and productivity potential for next generations also. Based on four years activities coordination could be significance and the SPWG relevance expressed in following topics: (1) Soil pollution and soil degradation, particularly in most pos-communistic countries has been attaining high degree, and in many locations also the threshold of ecological be arability. As reclamation and revitalization of the degraded and polluted soils require long time and considerable financial means, it is not only moral;, even also economically more effective to protect preventively than subsequent reclamation. (2) Main objective of the correct soil protection policy should be its high quality conservation also for the next generations. To this is joined also the protection not only productional, but also non-productional functions, particularly filtrational, transformational and buffering capacibility, including its role and significance, as land and environment. From, in this way considered relationships reality is resulting that the soil protection objectives are not only laws and prohibition approvement, but also active relationships harmonization between the man requirements and soil productivity potential, in order of the sustainable land resources use for the next generations. (3) Based on mentioned realities and relationships we consider the SPWG as an active gremium for elaboration of the the uniform soil protection concepts for governments and responsible organisations that in financial consequence

  18. Software for micromorphometric characterization of soil pores obtained from 2-D image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cooper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies of soil porosity through image analysis are important to an understanding of how the soil functions. However, the lack of a simplified methodology for the quantification of the shape, number, and size of soil pores has limited the use of information extracted from images. The present work proposes a software program for the quantification and characterization of soil porosity from data derived from 2-D images. The user-friendly software was developed in C++ and allows for the classification of pores in terms of size, shape, and combinations of size and shape. Using raw data generated by image analysis systems, the software calculates the following parameters for the characterization of soil porosity: total area of pore (Tap, number of pores, pore shape, pore shape and pore area, and pore shape and equivalent pore diameter (EqDiam. In this paper, the input file with the raw soil porosity data was generated using the Noesis Visilog 5.4 image analysis system; however other image analysis programs can be used, in which case, the input file requires a standard format to permit processing by this software. The software also shows the descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, variance, and the coefficient of variation of the parameters considering the total number of images evaluated. The results show that the software is a complementary tool to any analysis of soil porosity, allowing for a precise and quick analysis.

  19. Determination of radioactivity levels and hazards of soil and sediment samples in Firtina Valley (Rize, Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaz, A.; Kuecuekoemeroglu, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, TR 61080 (Turkey); Keser, R.; Okumusoglu, N.T.; Korkmaz, F. [Department of Physics, University of Rize, Rize, TR 53100 (Turkey); Karahan, G. [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center P.O. Box 1, Atatuerk Airport, Istanbul, TR 34381 (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, TR 61080 (Turkey)], E-mail: ugurc@ktu.edu.tr

    2007-11-15

    The natural radioactivity levels in soil and sediment samples of Firtina Valley have been determined. To our knowledge, there seems to be no information about radioactivity level in the Firtina Valley soils and sediments so far. For this reason, soil and sediment samples were collected along the Firtina Valley and analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs radioisotopes using high purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations obtained for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Ac, {sup 208}Tl, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs are given in the unit of Bq/kg. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils and sediments. The radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), the absorbed dose rate (D), the external hazard index (H{sub ex}), the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values.

  20. Differences on soil organic carbon stock estimation according to sampling type in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Consequently, the scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems. In this line, soil organic matter configuration plays an important role in the Soil System (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014). Internationally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. In this sense, many soil researchers have studied this parameter (SOC). However, many of these studies were carried out arbitrarily using entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons or soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness). As a result, the indiscriminate use of both methodologies implies differences with respect to SOC stock (SOCS) quantification. This scenario has been indicated and warned for different researchers (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in the Cardeña and Montoro Natural Park (Spain). This nature reserve is a forested area with 385 km2 in southern Spain. Thirty-seven sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The results obtained show an overestimation of SOCS when SCS sampling approach is used compared to ESP. This supports that methodology selection is very important to SOCS quantification. This research is an assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014

  1. A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE WATER DISTRIBUTION IN A SOIL SAMPLE USING NEUTRON IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šácha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical method by Kang et al. recently proposed for correcting two-dimensional neutron radiography for water quantification in soil. The method was tested on data from neutron imaging of the water infiltration in a soil sample. The raw data were affected by neutron scattering and by beam hardening artefacts. Two strategies for identifying the correction parameters are proposed in this paper. The method has been further developed for the case of three-dimensional neutron tomography. In a related experiment, neutron imaging is used to record ponded-infiltration experiments in two artificial soil samples. Radiograms, i.e., two-dimensional projections of the sample, were acquired during infiltration. A calculation was made of the amount of water and its distribution within the radiograms, in the form of two-dimensional water thickness maps. Tomograms were reconstructed from the corrected and uncorrected water thickness maps to obtain the 3D spatial distribution of the water content within the sample. Without the correction, the beam hardening and the scattering effects overestimated the water content values close to the perimeter of the sample, and at the same time underestimated the values close to the centre of the sample. The total water content of the entire sample was the same in both cases. The empirical correction method presented in this study is a relatively accurate, rapid and simple way to obtain the quantitatively determined water content from two-dimensional and three-dimensional neutron images. However, an independent method for measuring the total water volume in the sample is needed in order to identify the correction parameters.

  2. Analysis of core samples from jet grouted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1995-10-01

    Superplasticized cementitious grouts were tested for constructing subsurface containment barriers using jet grouting in July, 1994. The grouts were developed in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test site was located close to the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia was responsible for the placement contract. The jet grouted soil was exposed to the service environment for one year and core samples were extracted to evaluate selected properties. The cores were tested for strength, density, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and cementitious content. The tests provided an opportunity to determine the performance of the grouts and grout-treated soil. Several recommendations arise from the results of the core tests. These are: (1) grout of the same mix proportions as the final grout should be used as a drilling fluid in order to preserve the original mix design and utilize the benefits of superplasticizers; (2) a high shear mixer should be used for preparation of the grout; (3) the permeability under unsaturated conditions requires consideration when subsurface barriers are used in the vadose zone; and (4) suitable methods for characterizing the permeability of barriers in-situ should be applied

  3. Soil map disaggregation improved by soil-landscape relationships, area-proportional sampling and random forest implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Malone, Brendan P.; Odgers, Nathan

    :1,000,000. This finding is probably related to the fact that Jacobsen’s map was more detailed with a larger number of polygons, soil map units and soil types, despite its coarser scale. The results showed that the implementation of soil-landscape relationships, area-proportional sampling and the random forest...... of European Communities (CEC, 1985) respectively, both using the FAO 1974 classification. Furthermore, the effects of implementing soil-landscape relationships, using area proportional sampling instead of per polygon sampling, and replacing the default C5.0 classification tree algorithm with a random forest...... implementation generally improved the algorithm’s ability to predict the correct soil class. The implementation of soil-landscape relationships and area-proportional sampling generally increased the calculation time, while the random forest implementation reduced the calculation time. In the most successful...

  4. Comparison between Urine Protein: Creatinine Ratios of Samples Obtained from Dogs in Home and Hospital Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, M E; Specht, A; Hill, R C

    2015-01-01

    The urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) is used to quantify urine protein excretion and guide recommendations for monitoring and treatment of proteinuria. Home urine samples will have lower UPCs than hospital samples. The objectives were to compare UPCs of samples collected in each setting and to determine whether environment of sample collection might affect staging, monitoring or treatment recommendations. Twenty-four client-owned dogs. Prospective, nonmasked study. Clients collected a urine sample from their dog at home and a second sample was collected at the hospital. Dogs receiving corticosteroids or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were excluded, as were those with urine samples of inadequate volume, no protein on dipstick analysis, or active urine sediment. Samples were refrigerated after collection, dipstick and sediment evaluations were completed and each sample was frozen at -80°C within 12 hours. UPCs were performed on frozen samples within 2 months. From 81 paired samples, 57 were excluded. Of the remaining 24, 12/24 (50%) had higher hospital sample UPCs, 9/24 (38%) had identical UPCs, and 3/24 (12%) had lower hospital UPCs. The UPCs of hospital samples were higher than home samples for the total population (P = .005) and the subset with UPC > 0.5 (P = .001). Setting and related circumstances of urine collection in dogs is associated with UPC differences; results are usually higher in hospital than in home samples. This difference has the potential to affect clinical interpretation. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Pseudomonas matsuisoli sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Hameed, Asif; Hung, Mei-Hua; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Young, Li-Sen; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2015-03-01

    An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and polar-flagellated bacterium, designated strain CC-MHH0089(T), was isolated from a soil sample taken on Matsu Island (Taiwan). Strain CC-MHH0089(T) grew at 15-30 °C and pH 5.0-10.0 and tolerated ≤8 % (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed high pairwise sequence similarity to Pseudomonas azotifigens 6H33b(T) (97.3 %) and Pseudomonas balearica SP1402(T) (96.7 %) and lower sequence similarity to other strains (Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas matsuisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-MHH0089(T) ( = BCRC 80771(T) = JCM 30078(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  6. An investigation of arsenic contamination in Peninsular Malaysia based on Centella asiatica and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, G H; Yap, C K; Maziah, M; Suhaimi, H; Tan, S G

    2013-04-01

    The first objective of this study was to provide data of arsenic (As) levels in Peninsular Malaysia based on soil samples and accumulation of As in Centella asiatica collected from 12 sampling sites in Peninsular Malaysia. The second objective was to assess the accumulation of As in transplanted C. asiatica between control and semi-polluted or polluted sites. Four sites were selected which were UPM (clean site), Balakong (semi-polluted site), Seri Kembangan (semi-polluted site) and Juru (polluted site). The As concentrations of plant and soil samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The As levels ranged from 9.38 to 57.05 μg/g dw in soils, 0.21 to 4.33 μg/g dw in leaves, 0.18 to 1.83 μg/g dw in stems and 1.32-20.76 μg/g dw in roots. All sampling sites had As levels exceeding the CCME guideline (12 μg/g dw) except for Kelantan, P. Pauh, and Senawang with P. Klang having the highest As in soil (57.05 μg/g dw). In C. asiatica, As accumulation was highest in roots followed by leaves and stems. When the As level in soils were higher, the uptake of As in plants would also be increased. After the transplantation of plants to semi-polluted and polluted sites for 3 weeks, all concentration factors were greater than 50 % of the initial As level. The elimination factor was around 39 % when the plants were transplanted back to the clean sites for 3 weeks. The findings of the present study indicated that the leaves, stems and roots of C. asiatica are ideal biomonitors of As contamination. The present data results the most comprehensive data obtained on As levels in Malaysia.

  7. Heavy metal levels in soil samples from highly industrialized Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anyakora

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... The effect of heavy metals on the environment is of serious concern and threatens life in all forms. Environmental ... have affected the quality of soil due to contamination of soil with heavy metals and the consequent effects on the ..... tested for remediation of chromium-contaminated soils. (Collen, 2003).

  8. Factors associated with number of duodenal samples obtained in suspected celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamban, Leonid; Sorser, Serge; Naydin, Stan; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Shukr, Mousa; Wiemann, Charlotte; Yevsyukov, Daniel; Piper, Michael H; Warren, Bradley; Green, Peter H R

    2017-12-01

     Many people with celiac disease are undiagnosed and there is evidence that insufficient duodenal samples may contribute to underdiagnosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether more samples leads to a greater likelihood of a diagnosis of celiac disease and to elucidate factors that influence the number of samples collected.  We identified patients from two community hospitals who were undergoing duodenal biopsy for indications (as identified by International Classification of Diseases code) compatible with possible celiac disease. Three cohorts were evaluated: no celiac disease (NCD, normal villi), celiac disease (villous atrophy, Marsh score 3), and possible celiac disease (PCD, Marsh score celiac disease had a median of 4 specimens collected. The percentage of patients diagnosed with celiac disease with one sample was 0.3 % compared with 12.8 % of those with six samples ( P  = 0.001). Patient factors that positively correlated with the number of samples collected were endoscopic features, demographic details, and indication ( P  = 0.001). Endoscopist factors that positively correlated with the number of samples collected were absence of a trainee, pediatric gastroenterologist, and outpatient setting ( P  celiac disease significantly increased with six samples. Multiple factors influenced whether adequate biopsies were taken. Adherence to guidelines may increase the diagnosis rate of celiac disease.

  9. 7 CFR 42.141 - Obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information for skip lot sampling and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information for skip lot sampling and inspection. 42.141 Section 42.141 Agriculture Regulations of the... skip lot sampling and inspection. The Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information (probability of acceptance) for skip lot sampling and inspection procedures described in § 42.121 is easily obtained from the...

  10. Hair of the dog: obtaining samples from coyotes and wolves noninvasively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E.; Young, Julie; Fannin, Barbara; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stenglein, Jennifer L.; Waits, Lisette P.; Shivik, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Canids can be difficult to detect and their populations difficult to monitor. We tested whether hair samples could be collected from coyotes (Canis latrans) in Texas, USA and gray wolves (C. lupus) in Montana, USA using lure to elicit rubbing behavior at both man-made and natural collection devices. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to determine whether collected hair samples were from coyote, wolf, or nontarget species. Both coyotes and wolves rubbed on man-made barbed surfaces but coyotes in Texas seldom rubbed on hanging barbed surfaces. Wolves in Montana showed a tendency to rub at stations where natural-material collection devices (sticks and debris) were present. Time to detection was relatively short (5 nights and 4 nights for coyotes and wolves, respectively) with nontarget and unknown species comprising approximately 26% of the detections in both locations. Eliciting rubbing behavior from coyotes and wolves using lures has advantages over opportunistic genetic sampling methods (e.g., scat transects) because it elicits a behavior that deposits a hair sample at a fixed sampling location, thereby increasing the efficiency of sampling for these canids. Hair samples from rub stations could be used to provide estimates of abundance, measures of genetic diversity and health, and detection-nondetection data useful for cost-effective population monitoring.

  11. Comparison of radon and radon-daughter grab samples obtained during the winter and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, is investigating short-term methods for estimating annual average indoor radon-daughter concentrations (RDC). A field study at 40 sample locations in 26 residential structures in Grand Junction, Colorado, was conducted once in the winter and once in the summer. The short-term methods investigated as part of this study include ten-minute radon and radon-daughter grab sampling and hourly RDC measurements. The results of the field study indicate that ten-minute radon grab samples from basement locations are reproducible over different seasons during controlled sampling conditions. Nonbasement radon and RDC grab samples are highly variable even when the use of the location by the occupant is controlled and the ventilation rate is restricted. The grab sampling was performed under controlled occupied conditions. These results confirm that a short-term radon or RDC measurement in a nonbasement location in a house is not a standardized measurement that can be used to infer an annual average concentration. The hourly RDC measurements were performed under three sets of conditions over a 72-hour period. The three sets of conditions were uncontrolled occupied, controlled occupied, and controlled unoccupied. These results indicate that it is not necessary to relocate the occupants during the time of grab sampling. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  12. Hydraulic conductivity of saturated soil and preferred flow in samples of land confined

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Gleiciane da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the processes related to the movement of water in soil profile is relevant to the management of soil and water resources. Hydraulic conductivity is an important soil property that affects this movement, but its determination in laboratory conditions requires that samples are contained in cylinders which can cause the presence of preferential flow through the soil wall interface. So, the goal of this work was to test the effect of increasing perimeter and height of the sample ...

  13. Surveillance cultures of samples obtained from biopsy channels and automated endoscope reprocessors after high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu King-Wah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The instrument channels of gastrointestinal (GI endoscopes may be heavily contaminated with bacteria even after high-level disinfection (HLD. The British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines emphasize the benefits of manually brushing endoscope channels and using automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs for disinfecting endoscopes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of decontamination using reprocessors after HLD by comparing the cultured samples obtained from biopsy channels (BCs of GI endoscopes and the internal surfaces of AERs. Methods We conducted a 5-year prospective study. Every month random consecutive sampling was carried out after a complete reprocessing cycle; 420 rinse and swabs samples were collected from BCs and internal surface of AERs, respectively. Of the 420 rinse samples collected from the BC of the GI endoscopes, 300 were obtained from the BCs of gastroscopes and 120 from BCs of colonoscopes. Samples were collected by flushing the BCs with sterile distilled water, and swabbing the residual water from the AERs after reprocessing. These samples were cultured to detect the presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mycobacteria. Results The number of culture-positive samples obtained from BCs (13.6%, 57/420 was significantly higher than that obtained from AERs (1.7%, 7/420. In addition, the number of culture-positive samples obtained from the BCs of gastroscopes (10.7%, 32/300 and colonoscopes (20.8%, 25/120 were significantly higher than that obtained from AER reprocess to gastroscopes (2.0%, 6/300 and AER reprocess to colonoscopes (0.8%, 1/120. Conclusions Culturing rinse samples obtained from BCs provides a better indication of the effectiveness of the decontamination of GI endoscopes after HLD than culturing the swab samples obtained from the inner surfaces of AERs as the swab samples only indicate whether the AERs are free from microbial contamination or not.

  14. Observation of microstructure of silty sand obtained from gelpush sampler and reconstituted sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Muhamad; Bowman, E. T.; Cubrinovski, Misko

    2017-06-01

    Observation of microstructure study of natural sand i.e. clean sand with fines (particles adjudged to be smaller than 75μm) content particle orientation. It was evidence that natural sand (either gel push A and B) have a preferred orientation i.e. horizontally oriented. Similar particle orientation trend were observed by dry pluviated sample. Undisturbed and dry pluviated samples shows that they are anisotropic in terms of particles orientation. Moist tamped sample on the other hand, results in fairly random orientation with a slight bias towards vertical, thus does not replicate natural sand fabric.

  15. Effects of soil water saturation on sampling equilibrium and kinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil-Gon; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Yongseok; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (K sampler/soil ) and the uptake rate constant (k u ) at various soil water saturations. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were deployed into artificial soils spiked with seven selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In dry soil (0% water saturation), both K sampler/soil and k u values were much lower than those in wet soils likely due to the contribution of adsorption of PAHs onto soil mineral surfaces and the conformational changes in soil organic matter. For high molecular weight PAHs (chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), both K sampler/soil and k u values increased with increasing soil water saturation, whereas they decreased with increasing soil water saturation for low molecular weight PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Changes in the sorption capacity of soil organic matter with soil water content would be the main cause of the changes in passive sampling equilibrium. Henry's law constant could explain the different behaviors in uptake kinetics of the selected PAHs. The results of this study would be helpful when passive samplers are deployed under various soil water saturations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the grain size of the soil on the measured activity and variation in activity in surface and subsurface soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiti, H.A.; Rega, P.H.; Bradley, D.; Dahan, N.A.; Mugren, K.A.; Dosari, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Correlation between grain size and activity concentrations of soils and concentrations of various radionuclides in surface and subsurface soils has been measured for samples taken in the State of Qatar by gamma-spectroscopy using a high purity germanium detector. From the obtained gamma-ray spectra, the activity concentrations of the 238U (226Ra) and /sup 232/ Th (/sup 228/ Ac) natural decay series, the long-lived naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K and the fission product radionuclide 137CS have been determined. Gamma dose rate, radium equivalent, radiation hazard index and annual effective dose rates have also been estimated from these data. In order to observe the effect of grain size on the radioactivity of soil, three grain sizes were used i.e., smaller than 0.5 mm; smaller than 1 mm and greater than 0.5 mm; and smaller than 2 mm and greater than 1 mm. The weighted activity concentrations of the 238U series nuclides in 0.5-2 mm grain size of sample numbers was found to vary from 2.5:f:0.2 to 28.5+-0.5 Bq/kg, whereas, the weighted activity concentration of 4 degree K varied from 21+-4 to 188+-10 Bq/kg. The weighted activity concentrations of 238U series and 4 degree K have been found to be higher in the finest grain size. However, for the 232Th series, the activity concentrations in the 1-2 mm grain size of one sample were found to be higher than in the 0.5-1 mm grain size. In the study of surface and subsurface soil samples, the activity concentration levels of 238 U series have been found to range from 15.9+-0.3 to 24.1+-0.9 Bq/kg, in the surface soil samples (0-5 cm) and 14.5+-0.3 to 23.6+-0.5 Bq/kg in the subsurface soil samples (5-25 cm). The activity concentrations of 232Th series have been found to lie in the range 5.7+-0.2 to 13.7+-0.5 Bq/kg, in the surface soil samples (0-5 cm)and 4.1+-0.2 to 15.6+-0.3 Bq/kg in the subsurface soil samples (5-25 cm). The activity concentrations of 4 degree K were in the range 150+-8 to 290+-17 Bq/kg, in the surface

  17. Soil and soil gas sampling in nine potential new waste sites, Central Shops diesel loading and SRS fault areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Geochemical surveys conducted by Microseeps Ltd at S.R.P. during March and April 1988 were carried out in two phases. The first consisted of nine potential new waste site locations as shown in Figure 1. Soil samples to be analyzed for specific chlorinated hydrocarbons were collected at each location. Soil gas samples to be analyzed for C1-C4 hydrocarbons, were collected at six of the nine locations. In all, 165 soil samples and 130 soil gas samples were collected. The second phase consisted of two surveys, the Central Shops diesel loading area and a general S.R.P. 'fault' survey. At the Central Shops area 85 soil gas samples, analyzed for C1-C4 hydrocarbons, plus 30 soil samples, analyzed for diesel range hydrocarbons were collected. The fault survey is composed of 122 soil gas samples analyzed for C1-C4 hydrocarbons, helium and hydrogen. The sampling and analytical techniques are described herein and the data presented in tabular format. All analyses were performed on site in a laboratory provided by S.R.L. Magnetic diskettes containing data in spreadsheet format were given to S.R.L. personnel at the completion of the on-site work

  18. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP.

  19. Soil Sampling Plan for the transuranic storage area soil overburden and final report: Soil overburden sampling at the RWMC transuranic storage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanisich, S.N.

    1994-12-01

    This Soil Sampling Plan (SSP) has been developed to provide detailed procedural guidance for field sampling and chemical and radionuclide analysis of selected areas of soil covering waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area (TSA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The format and content of this SSP represents a complimentary hybrid of INEL Waste Management--Environmental Restoration Program, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) sampling guidance documentation. This sampling plan also functions as a Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP). The QAPP as a controlling mechanism during sampling to ensure that all data collected are valid, reliabile, and defensible. This document outlines organization, objectives and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) activities to achieve the desired data quality goals. The QA/QC requirements for this project are outlined in the Data Collection Quality Assurance Plan (DCQAP) for the Buried Waste Program. The DCQAP is a program plan and does not outline the site specific requirements for the scope of work covered by this SSP

  20. A nonlethal sampling method to obtain, generate and assemble whole blood transcriptomes from small, wild mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zixia; Gallot, Aurore; Lao, Nga T; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Jebb, David; Bekaert, Michaël; Teeling, Emma C

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of tissue samples from wild populations is a constant challenge in conservation biology, especially for endangered species and protected species where nonlethal sampling is the only option. Whole blood has been suggested as a nonlethal sample type that contains a high percentage of bodywide and genomewide transcripts and therefore can be used to assess the transcriptional status of an individual, and to infer a high percentage of the genome. However, only limited quantities of blood can be nonlethally sampled from small species and it is not known if enough genetic material is contained in only a few drops of blood, which represents the upper limit of sample collection for some small species. In this study, we developed a nonlethal sampling method, the laboratory protocols and a bioinformatic pipeline to sequence and assemble the whole blood transcriptome, using Illumina RNA-Seq, from wild greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). For optimal results, both ribosomal and globin RNAs must be removed before library construction. Treatment of DNase is recommended but not required enabling the use of smaller amounts of starting RNA. A large proportion of protein-coding genes (61%) in the genome were expressed in the blood transcriptome, comparable to brain (65%), kidney (63%) and liver (58%) transcriptomes, and up to 99% of the mitogenome (excluding D-loop) was recovered in the RNA-Seq data. In conclusion, this nonlethal blood sampling method provides an opportunity for a genomewide transcriptomic study of small, endangered or critically protected species, without sacrificing any individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Joint sampling programme-Verification of data obtained in environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/no., CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br; Martins, N.S.F.; Vasconcellos, M.L.H.; Zenaro, R.; Peres, S.S.; Pires do Rio, M.A. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Av. Salvador Allende s/no., CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-11-15

    The objective of the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Control programme carried out by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) in Brazil is to verify the licensee's compliance with the requirements for environmental monitoring of Brazilian facilities. The Joint Sampling Programme (JSP) is just one part of the control programme. In order to verify that the data reported by the licensees is representative and legitimate, this programme verifies sampling procedures, accuracy and precision of the data and the changes in the environmental conditions. This paper discusses the main findings of this programme that allowed IRD to optimize its available resources to control the monitoring of the eight facilities in Brazil.

  2. Comparison of the risk of microbiological contamination between samples of breast milk obtained at home and at a healthcare facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Vera Vanina; Teves, Sergio; López de Volder, Agustina; Ossorio, Fabiana; Aguilar, Nora; Armadans, Marcelo

    2013-04-01

    Breast milk is the best food for preterm infants. Due to their inadequate suction- swallowing action, the administration of expressed breast milk should be done with an orogastric tube. There is little information available regarding the microbiological safety of expressed breast milk. The aim of this article was to evaluate if there were any differences regarding the contamination of breast milk obtained at a healthcare facility versus at home. Cross-sectional study that analyzed pairs of breast milk samples (one obtained at home and the other one at a healthcare facility, the same day) from mothers of hospitalized newborn infants with a gestational age =35 weeks. Samples with over 105CFU/mL of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, or with the presence of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, enterobacterias, Pseudomonas, Salmonella, fungi, and yeast were considered contaminated. A total of 280 breast milk samples (140 pairs) from 53 mothers were analyzed; 139 samples (49.6%; 95% CI: 43.6 to 55.6) were contaminated; contamination was significantly more frequent in the samples obtained at home than in those obtained at a healthcare facility (59.6% versus 39.6%; p = 0.0008; OR 2.25; 95% IC: 1.36 to 3.7). Half of the breast milk samples had bacterial growth, which was more frequent in the samples obtained at home than those obtained at a healthcare facility.

  3. A noninvasive hair sampling technique to obtain high quality DNA from elusive small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Philippe; Henry, Alison; Russello, Michael A

    2011-03-13

    Noninvasive genetic sampling approaches are becoming increasingly important to study wildlife populations. A number of studies have reported using noninvasive sampling techniques to investigate population genetics and demography of wild populations. This approach has proven to be especially useful when dealing with rare or elusive species. While a number of these methods have been developed to sample hair, feces and other biological material from carnivores and medium-sized mammals, they have largely remained untested in elusive small mammals. In this video, we present a novel, inexpensive and noninvasive hair snare targeted at an elusive small mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We describe the general set-up of the hair snare, which consists of strips of packing tape arranged in a web-like fashion and placed along travelling routes in the pikas' habitat. We illustrate the efficiency of the snare at collecting a large quantity of hair that can then be collected and brought back to the lab. We then demonstrate the use of the DNA IQ system (Promega) to isolate DNA and showcase the utility of this method to amplify commonly used molecular markers including nuclear microsatellites, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), mitochondrial sequences (800bp) as well as a molecular sexing marker. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of this novel noninvasive hair snare as a sampling technique for wildlife population biologists. We anticipate that this approach will be applicable to a variety of small mammals, opening up areas of investigation within natural populations, while minimizing impact to study organisms.

  4. Elemental analysis of water and soil environmental samples in Tabuk area by neutron capture gamma-ray spectroscopy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Aseery, Sh.M.; Alamoudi, Z.; Hassan, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The prompt and delayed gamma-rays due to neutron capture in the nuclei of the constituent elements of three soil samples and one drinking water sample have been measured. The 252 Cf and 226 Ra/Be isotopic neutron sources are used for neutron irradiation. Also, the hyper pure germanium detection system is used. The soil samples were from Astra, Tadco and El-Gammaz farms, while the water sample was taken from Tabuk city. In case of prompt gamma-ray analysis, a total of 16 elements were identified and the concentration percentage values by weight were calculated for: C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl,, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Sr ad Pb elements. A comparative study between the results obtained in this work and the results obtained by ICP-MS and EDX-Ray techniques for the same samples is given

  5. Isotope determination of sulfur by mass spectrometry in soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandra Luiza Rodrigues Molina Rossete

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur plays an essential role in plants and is one of the main nutrients in several metabolic processes. It has four stable isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S, and 36S with a natural abundance of 95.00, 0.76, 4.22, and 0.014 in atom %, respectively. A method for isotopic determination of S by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS in soil samples is proposed. The procedure involves the oxidation of organic S to sulphate (S-SO4(2-, which was determined by dry combustion with alkaline oxidizing agents. The total S-SO4(2- concentration was determined by turbidimetry and the results showed that the conversion process was adequate. To produce gaseous SO2 gas, BaSO4 was thermally decomposed in a vacuum system at 900 ºC in the presence of NaPO3. The isotope determination of S (atom % 34S atoms was carried out by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS. In this work, the labeled material (K2(34SO4 was used to validate the method of isotopic determination of S; the results were precise and accurate, showing the viability of the proposed method.

  6. Environmental Assessment of Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Hazama

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts and hazards due to the unstoppable hot mud flow by the East Java ‘LUSI’ Mud Volcano are increasing since its unexpected eruption on May 29, 2006. Analysis should be undertaken, not only to examine its impact on human health and the environment, but also to explore the potential benefits of the mud flow. One may be able to tap the mud flow as a material source for brick and cement. Recently there has been great concern about the health risks associated with exposure to natural radioactivity present in soil and building materials all over the world. In this context, measurements for natural radioactive isotopes such as 238U and 232Th series, and 40K in mud samples were carried out using the HPGe (High-Purity Germanium detector to determine the re-usability of the mud. 226Ra, 232Th and 40K activity concentrations were found to be 13±1, 15±1 and 111±3 Bq/kg (1 Bq = 1 sec-1, respectively, and the corresponding activity index was found to be 0.16±0.02. These values were compared with previous data and our measured accuracy was improved by a factor of nine at the maximum. Radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and annual effective dose equivalent were also evaluated and all were found to be within acceptable limits.

  7. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples from Raichur of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, S.; Kerur, B.R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiations present in environment comprise the terrestrial and extraterrestrial radiations. Natural radioactivity measurement, radiation monitoring of the region, dose assessment and interpretation of radiological related parameters are crucial aspects from the public awareness and environmental safety point of view. It is found that values of the radiological parameters obtained for samples in the study area were found within acceptable or permissible limits. The estimated gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be in the range 32 - 162 nGy h -1 . Higher dose rate than that of the normal dose rate were observed in the regions where granitic, granitic gneiss and schist outcrops were prominent area

  8. Report on the NAT-9 quality control exercise on uranium isotopes in two soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleise, Andreas

    2001-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) section of Nutritional and Health related Environmental Studies (NAHRES) organized a quality control study for laboratories analysing samples from the UNEP field mission to Kosovo. Quality control was the major responsibility of the IAEA in the UN field assessment team. The NAT-9 quality control study consists of two soil materials from the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf. The scope of this exercise was to determine the content of the uranium isotopes U-234, U-235 and U-238. The IAEA did not provide specific instructions, the participants were encouraged to apply their established analytical procedures to the samples. Five laboratories were invited to participate, four laboratories submitted results. For each soil sample 10 laboratory mean values were reported, using ICP-MS (3 laboratories) and α-spectrometry (1 laboratory). The participating laboratories were capable to distinguish the different uranium isotopes. All laboratories obtained the natural uranium ratio between U-235 and U-238. However, the results highlight a particular analytical weak spot. Although the methods of measuring the analytical signals are highly dependable, the sample preparation steps, in particular the sample dissolution procedure, appears to be lacking total quality control and has contributed to the deviations from the reported target values. One laboratory has documented evidence that extensive and well-controlled digestion methods can yield measurement results close to the target values. (author)

  9. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS ? (ABSTRACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  10. FIELD-SCALE STUDIES: HOW DOES SOIL SAMPLE PRETREATMENT AFFECT REPRESENTATIVENESS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples from field-scale studies are very heterogeneous and can contain large soil and rock particles. Oversize materials are often removed before chemical analysis of the soil samples because it is not practical to include these materials. Is the extracted sample representativ...

  11. Qualitative Parameters of Pasture Samples Obtained from Different Farms in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Pejchova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was a representation of chemical composition of pasture samples from different farms and NDF degradability examination by in sacco method. The experiment took place on three farms with different altitudes. All samples were analyzed for ash, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. NDF degradability was evaluated by in sacco method in chosen herbs from samples of pasture. During the grazing season in a sward reduces the content of NL and at the same time increases the content of CF. During the pasture period declines the share of clovers in growth and on the contrary significantly higher proportion of grasses. The highest NDF degradability all the time of incubation in the rumen was in Taraxacum officinale and varied from 453.1 g.kg-1 NDF in 6 h of incubation to 882.1 g.kg-1 NDF in 72 h of incubation. The lowest NDF degradability was in Rumex obtusifolius (198.1 to 581.8 g.kg-1 NDF and Ranunculus acris (278.6 to 566 g.kg-1 NDF.Differences between farms are minimal.

  12. Analysis of the Magnetocaloric Effect in Powder Samples Obtained by Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, J. S.; Ipus, J. J.; Moreno-Ramírez, L. M.; Borrego, J. M.; Lozano-Pérez, S.; Franco, V.; Conde, C. F.; Conde, A.

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetocaloric effect (MCE) close to room temperature in FeRh and particularly in Gd5Si2Ge2 compounds, the study of this phenomenon has experienced an exponential growth. Among the different techniques used to produce magnetocaloric materials, ball milling has been shown as a very versatile one and presents several advantages over other preparation techniques ( e.g., easy scale-up to industrial production). Although a general decrease of the peak value of the magnetic entropy change is observed for milled samples, it can be compensated by the large broadening of the MCE peak, leading to an increase of the refrigeration capacity. In this short review, several aspects inherent to powder samples affecting MCE will be discussed, such as the relevant effect of the demagnetizing field, the possible multiphase character, and the presence of Curie temperature distributions. In mechanically alloyed samples, the two latter factors are typically affected by the degree of integration of the different starting constituents.

  13. SAMPLING ADAPTIVE STRATEGY AND SPATIAL ORGANISATION ESTIMATION OF SOIL ANIMAL COMMUNITIES AT VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVELS OF URBANISED TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljuk J.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In work the algorithm of adaptive strategy of optimum spatial sampling for studying of the spatial organisation of communities of soil animals in the conditions of an urbanization have been presented. As operating variables the principal components obtained as a result of the analysis of the field data on soil penetration resistance, soils electrical conductivity and density of a forest stand, collected on a quasiregular grid have been used. The locations of experimental polygons have been stated by means of program ESAP. The sampling has been made on a regular grid within experimental polygons. The biogeocoenological estimation of experimental polygons have been made on a basis of A.L.Belgard's ecomorphic analysis. The spatial configuration of biogeocoenosis types has been established on the basis of the data of earth remote sensing and the analysis of digital elevation model. The algorithm was suggested which allows to reveal the spatial organisation of soil animal communities at investigated point, biogeocoenosis, and landscape.

  14. Characterisation of a reference site for quantifying uncertainties related to soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbizzi, Sabrina; Zorzi, Paolo de; Belli, Maria; Pati, Alessandra; Sansone, Umberto; Stellato, Luisa; Barbina, Maria; Deluisa, Andrea; Menegon, Sandro; Coletti, Valter

    2004-01-01

    An integrated approach to quality assurance in soil sampling remains to be accomplished. - The paper reports a methodology adopted to face problems related to quality assurance in soil sampling. The SOILSAMP project, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency of Italy (APAT), is aimed at (i) establishing protocols for soil sampling in different environments; (ii) assessing uncertainties associated with different soil sampling methods in order to select the 'fit-for-purpose' method; (iii) qualifying, in term of trace elements spatial variability, a reference site for national and international inter-comparison exercises. Preliminary results and considerations are illustrated

  15. Determination of gold of No. 501 uranium deposits and soil samples by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Maogen; Yao Liying.

    1989-01-01

    The gold determination method is described by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal and presents the results obtained in determining gold of uranium deposits and soil samples

  16. 210PO concentration in soil samples of Botswana | Murty | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botswana's economy mainly depends on diamonds, which involves huge mining activity which in turn involves excavating huge amounts of soil. It is well known that soils do possess radioactivity. Due to this, it is important to assess the activity levels of radionuclides. This paper deals with the distribution and enrichment of ...

  17. Kinetics of exchange of a tracer in soil and clay samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti, J.C.; Facetti, J.F.

    1971-01-01

    The kinetics of exchange of a Na tracer in soil and clay samples, provides with a reliable and convenient method for the determination of the different soil fraction ahd their CEC values, In addition, the analysis of the exchanges curves can be used for the identification of the clay present in the soil

  18. Analysis of Mars Analogue Soil Samples Using Solid-Phase Microextraction, Organic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g(sup -1). The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100% silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

  19. An inter-lab comparison determination of radionuclides in soil samples by γ-apectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jingquan; Zhang Shurong; Xu Cuihua

    1986-01-01

    The results of an inter-lab comparison of quantitative determination of radionuclides in two soil samples and in an imitated one used as standard reference material by direct γ-spectrometry are presented and discussed. The methods of preparation of the three samples, its homogeneity and the procedures used in this inter-lab comparison are also described. Fifteen laboratories in China participated in this program. The contents of main radionuclides in the samples were estimated by statistical treatment of the reproted data. More than 91% of these laboratories obtained mean values with relative standard deviation below 20%, and in 88% of them the average values we e within the range of the standard reference values with deviation less than 10%. Statistical analysis showed that random error might be underestimated or systematic error might exist in a few laboratories

  20. Chemical structures and thermal properties of polyesters obtained from different samples of bio diesel epoxidized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, Dimitrios; Reiznautt, Quelen B.; Nicolau, Aline; Martini, Denise D.; Chagas, Arthur L. das

    2009-01-01

    In this work new structures from oligo esters and polyesters from different oils (olive oil, sunflower oil and linseed oil) were synthesized and characterized. Oligo esters and polyesters were synthesized from the reaction of fatty acid methyl epoxy-esters, obtained from different oils, with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine (TEA). Different amounts of the resin 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDGE) were added in order to increase the capacity of crosslinking. The molar ratio of BDGE used in system was between 0 and 0.066. The intermediate structures, as well as the oligo esters and polyesters produced, were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ( 1 H - NMR). The thermal behavior of the products was realized through differential scanning calorimetry and Thermogravimetric analyses. The presence of BDGE in the materials chains increases the bonding capacity resulting in a higher molecular weight material which presents good thermal stability. (author)

  1. Signal Processing and Sampling Method for Obtaining Time Series Corresponding to Higher Order Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Sterian

    2010-01-01

    accuracy some significant quantities corresponding to the dynamic system. For fast phenomena, such significant quantities are represented by the derivatives of the received signals. In case of advanced computer modeling, the received signal should be filtered and converted into a time series corresponding to the estimated values for the dynamic system through a sampling procedure. This paper will show that present-day methods for computing in a robust manner the first derivative of a received signal (using an oscillating system working on a limited time interval and a supplementary differentiation method can be extended to the robust computation of higher order derivatives of the received signal by using a specific set of second-order oscillating systems (working also on limited time intervals so as estimative values for higher-order derivatives are to be directly generated (avoiding the necessity of additional differentiation or amplifying procedures, which represent a source of supplementary errors in present-day methods.

  2. Females sample more males at high nesting densities, but ultimately obtain less attractive mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinghitella, Robin M; Stehle, Chelsea; Boughman, Janette W

    2015-09-18

    Sexual selection is largely driven by the availability of mates. Theory predicts that male competition and female choice should be density-dependent, with males competing more intensely at relatively high density, and females becoming increasingly discriminating when there are more males from whom to choose. Evidence for flexible mating decisions is growing, but we do not understand how environmental variation is incorporated into mate sampling strategies. We mimicked threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) breeding conditions in pools with high and low densities of nesting males and allowed females to search for mates to determine whether 1) mate search strategies change with the density of breeding males and 2) pre-copulatory components of mate choice (signalling, competition, search patterns, and mating decisions) are modified in parallel. While females sampled more males at high male density, suggesting greater opportunity for sexual selection, the expanded search did not result in females choosing males with more attractive sexual signals. This is likely because red throat colouration was twice as great when half as many males competed. Instead, females chose similarly at high and low male density, using a relative strategy to compare male traits amongst potential suitors. Reduced throat colour could reflect a trade-off with costly male competition. However, we did not observe more intense competition at higher relative density. Density-dependent signalling appears largely responsible for females associating with males who have more attractive signals at low density. If we lacked knowledge of plasticity in signalling, we might have concluded that females are more discriminating at low male density. To understand interactions between mate choice and population dynamics, we should consider how components of mate choice that precede the mating decision interact.

  3. A simple screening method for the determination of 230Th in soil and sediment samples by gamma-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.C.; Rodriguez, P.B.; Tome, F.V.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and easy to perform method for the determination of 230 Th in soil and sediment samples using gamma-spectrometry is proposed and compared with the more usual procedure using alpha-particle spectrometry. The proposed method involves an efficiency calibration for the specific determination of this radionuclide instead of a complete calibration of the spectra. A single density parameter is introduced to correct the efficiencies obtained from the reference sources. The activities of 230 Th determined by gamma-spectrometry and alpha-particle spectrometry are compared. The minimum detectable activity values obtained are completely adequate for 230 Th determination in soil and sediment samples, in which 230 Th activities are usually fairly high. Thus, this procedure is intended as a very easy way to obtain the activity of this radionuclide in these types of samples, at least as a screening method before carrying out other more laborious procedures. (author)

  4. Study on a pattern classification method of soil quality based on simplified learning sample dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiahua; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Tian, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the massive soil information in current soil quality grade evaluation, this paper constructed an intelligent classification approach of soil quality grade depending on classical sampling techniques and disordered multiclassification Logistic regression model. As a case study to determine the learning sample capacity under certain confidence level and estimation accuracy, and use c-means algorithm to automatically extract the simplified learning sample dataset from the cultivated soil quality grade evaluation database for the study area, Long chuan county in Guangdong province, a disordered Logistic classifier model was then built and the calculation analysis steps of soil quality grade intelligent classification were given. The result indicated that the soil quality grade can be effectively learned and predicted by the extracted simplified dataset through this method, which changed the traditional method for soil quality grade evaluation. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  5. Normalization of gene expression measurement of tissue samples obtained by transurethral resection of bladder tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop LA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Pop,1,* Valentina Pileczki,1,2,* Roxana M Cojocneanu-Petric,1 Bogdan Petrut,3,4 Cornelia Braicu,1 Ancuta M Jurj,1 Rares Buiga,5 Patriciu Achimas-Cadariu,6,7 Ioana Berindan-Neagoe1,8 1The Research Center for Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 2Department of Analytical Chemistry, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 3Department of Surgery II – Urology, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 4Department of Urology, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 5Department of Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 6Department of Surgery, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania; 7Department of Surgical Oncology and Gynecological Oncology, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof Dr Ion Chiricuţă”, Cluj-Napoca, Cluj, Romania *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sample processing is a crucial step for all types of genomic studies. A major challenge for researchers is to understand and predict how RNA quality affects the identification of transcriptional differences (by introducing either false-positive or false-negative errors. Nanotechnologies help improve the quality and quantity control for gene expression studies. Patients and methods: The study was performed on 14 tumor and matched normal pairs of tissue from patients with bladder urothelial carcinomas. We assessed the RNA quantity by using the NanoDrop spectrophotometer and the quality by nano-microfluidic capillary electrophoresis technology provided by Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. We evaluated the amplification status of three

  6. Cesium-137 and natural radionuclides in soils from southern Brazil and soils and others environmental samples from Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, L.A.

    1993-04-01

    This work presents a study of environmental artificial and natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from the Southern Brazil and in soils and other environmental samples form Antarctica. Artificial radioactivity was determined by measuring Cs-137 which is a 30.1 year half-life man-made radionuclide produced in the past by atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Natural radioactivity was determined by measuring some radionuclides belonging to Th-232 and U-238 natural radioactive families, and of K-40 concentrations. Several types of soils from Southern Brazil; and soil samples, marine sediments, lichens, mosses and algae collected at King George and other nearby islands (South Shetland Archipelago, Antarctica) were analyzed. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to measure radioactivity levels of the collected samples and its overall characteristics are analyzed in this work. (author)

  7. A Bone Sample Containing a Bone Graft Substitute Analyzed by Correlating Density Information Obtained by X-ray Micro Tomography with Compositional Information Obtained by Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Charwat-Pessler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of bone graft substitutes to promote new bone formation has been increasingly used in the medical field to repair skeletal defects or to replace missing bone in a broad range of applications in dentistry and orthopedics. A common way to assess such materials is via micro computed tomography (µ-CT, through the density information content provided by the absorption of X-rays. Information on the chemical composition of a material can be obtained via Raman spectroscopy. By investigating a bone sample from miniature pigs containing the bone graft substitute Bio Oss®, we pursued the target of assessing to what extent the density information gained by µ-CT imaging matches the chemical information content provided by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Raman images and Raman correlation maps of the investigated sample were used in order to generate a Raman based segmented image by means of an agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting segments, showing chemically related areas, were subsequently compared with the µ-CT image by means of a one-way ANOVA. We found out that to a certain extent typical gray-level values (and the related histograms in the µ-CT image can be reliably related to specific segments within the image resulting from the cluster analysis.

  8. Use of an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer to Obtain Sample Powder for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipera, S. J.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Sherrit, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    A miniature CHEMIN XRD/XRF (X-Ray Diffraction/X-Ray Fluourescence) instrument is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed in order to enable XRD analysis on an extraterrestrial body is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For XRD powder diffraction analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a 2-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results with poorly prepared powders, the quality of the data will improve if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL is an effective mechanism of sampling rock to produce cores and powdered cuttings. It requires low axial load (XRF spectrometer such as CHEMIN, powders obtained from the JPL ultrasonic drill were analyzed and the results were compared to carefully prepared powders obtained using a laboratory bench scale Retsch mill.

  9. Genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from humans and bovine mastitis samples in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that also causes important infections in cattle and sheep. The present study aimed to test genetic diversity among strains of S. aureus isolated from cattle (n=34 and humans (n=22 by DNA typing. Materials and Methods: Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP is the genotyping tool used in the study. The presence of the mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes among these strain groups was also checked. Results: A dendrogram deduced from FAFLP showed that all the strains clustered into 10 groups (A-J with a relative genetic divergence of less than 8%. Sixty-seven percent of the isolates from bovine sources clustered together in two clades (A and H, while another major cluster with 13 isolates (59% (Cluster G had all strains from a human host. The remaining strains from both the hosts clustered independently into smaller clusters with the exception of two strains of human origin, which clustered along with a bovine cluster. Thirteen strains belonging to cluster G were highly clonal. About 77% of strains obtained from human infections were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, whereas only 29% of strains from bovine origin were MRSA. Only three strains from human origin showed PVL positive, while no strain from cattle had PVL genes. The complete absence of PVL genes in all the bovine strains in the study appears to be significant. Conclusions: FAFLP can be successfully applied to assess the genetic relationship of S. aureus isolates from different hosts. The study also provided the valuable epidemiological data on S. aureus from bovine sources in India, which is lacking.

  10. Major and minor elements analysis in soil samples by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, Claudia Petronilho Ribeiro; Ana Maria Graciano; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence were employed to analyze major and minor elements in soil samples collected near Bandeirantes road. Elements of environmental interest, such as Al, Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, V and Zn, which have reference background levels, were determined. The samples were dried in an oven at 40 deg C, were sieved (<2 mm), grinded and were analyzed by INAA and FRX. The aims of this work were: to evaluate the possible variations in the concentration levels in soil due to emission of particulate from vehicles and other anthropogenic sources; to compare the results obtained by using both techniques. This preliminary study showed that the concentration levels of the elements of environmental interest agree with reference values for tropical soils in the sampling sites, except for Ba, which presented higher values. (author)

  11. Design of a protocol for obtaining genomic DNA from saliva using mouthwash: Samples taken from patients with periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Ángel Chávez; Volante, Beatriz Buentello; Hernández, María Esther Ocharán; Mendoza, Claudia Camelia Calzada; Pliego, Arturo Flores; Baptista Gonzalez, Héctor A.; Juárez, Higinio Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Background Obtaining high quality genomic DNA safely and economically is vital for diverse studies of large populations aimed at evaluating the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to disease. Aim This study was to test a protocol for the extraction of high quality genomic DNA from saliva samples obtained with mouthwash and taken from patients with periodontal disease. Methods Saliva samples were taken from 60 patients and then stored at room temperature. DNA extraction was carried out at distinct post-sampling times (10, 20 and 30 days). Evaluation of genomic DNA was performed with spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and PCR genotyping and sequencing. Results The greatest concentration of DNA obtained was 352 μg at 10 days post-sampling, followed by 121.025 μg and 19.59 μg at 20 and 30 days, respectively. When determining the purity of DNA with the spectrophotometric ratio of 260/230, the relations of 1.20, 1.40 and 0.781 were obtained for 10, 20 and 30 days, respectively. In all samples, it was possible to amplify the product of 485 bp and the sequence of the amplicons showed 95% similarity to the reference sequence. Conclusion The present protocol represents an easy, safe and economical technique for obtaining high quality genomic DNA. PMID:27195211

  12. [PHAHs levels in soil samples from the E-waste disassembly sites and their sources allocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gao-Feng; Wang, Zi-Jian

    2009-06-15

    Soil samples (each with 3 replicates of - 1 kg, at the top 0-5 cm layer) were collected from each of the e-waste disassembly sites and the control site. Also obtained from each disassembly site were samples (each weighing - 0.2 kg) of cable coating,stuffing powder, and circuit boards chipping. The contents of 23 PBB congeners, 12 PBDE congeners, and 27 PCB congeners in soil and in their potential sources, including e-waste residues, were measured using the GC-MS5975B technique. The highest level of PBBs was found in the cable coating among the three e-waste residues, with a concentration of 35.25 ng x g(-1). The contents of low-brominated PBBs (including monobromobiphenyls and dibromobiphenyls) accounted for 38% of the total PBBs concentration observed in cable coating sample. The highest levels of PBDEs and PBDE209 were found in the stuffing powder for electronic component among the collected e-waste residues, with a concentration of 29.71 and 4.19 x 10(3) ng x g(-1). PBDE153 and PBDE183 were the most predominant PBDE congeners, with their concentration accounting for 43% and 24% of the total PBDEs concentration observed in the stuffing powder sample, respectively. Levels of PCBs in cable coating were the highest in these e-waste residues, with a concentration of 680.02 ngx g(-1). The observed values of the three PHAHs in soils from the disassembly site were considerably higher than their corresponding values observed in the control site (p < 0.05), which indicates that these PHAHs from e-waste is the pollution source of local environment.

  13. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  14. Sorption of water vapour by the Na+-exchanged clay-sized fractions of some tropical soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yormah, T.B.R.; Hayes, M.H.B.

    1993-09-01

    Water vapour sorption isotherms at 299K for the Na + -exchanged clay-sized (≤ 2μm e.s.d.) fraction of two sets of samples taken at three different depths from a tropical soil profile have been studied. One set of samples was treated (with H 2 O 2 ) for the removal of much of the organic matter (OM); the other set (of the same samples) was not so treated. The isotherms obtained were all of type II and analyses by the BET method yielded values for the Specific Surface Areas (SSA) and for the average energy of adsorption of the first layer of adsorbate (E a ). OM content and SSA for the untreated samples were found to decrease with depth. Whereas removal of organic matter made negligible difference to the SSA of the top/surface soil, the same treatment produced a significant increase in the SSA of the samples taken from the middle and from the lower depths in the profile; the resulting increase was more pronounced for the subsoil. It has been deduced from these results that OM in the surface soil was less involved with the inorganic soil colloids than that in the subsoil. The increase in surface area which resulted from the removal of OM from the subsoil was most probably due to disaggregation. Values of E a obtained show that for all the samples the adsorption of water vapour became more energetic after the oxidative removal of organic matter; the resulting ΔE a also increased with depth. This suggests that in the dry state, the ''cleaned'' surface of the inorganic soil colloids was more energetic than the ''organic-matter-coater surface''. These data provide strong support for the deduction that OM in the subsoil was in a more ''combined'' state than that in the surface soil. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  15. The standardization of an apparatus for the mixing of soil samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative determination of nematode populations in soils frequently necessitates the mixing of representative soil samples to form a homogeneous, compound sample from which the nematodes are extracted. A mixing apparatus was developed and standardized with the aid of a spectrophotometric technique by which ...

  16. Measurements of Plutonium and Americium in Soil Samples from Project 57 using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John L. Bowen; Rowena Gonzalez; David S. Shafer

    2001-01-01

    As part of the preliminary site characterization conducted for Project 57, soils samples were collected for separation into several size-fractions using the Suspended Soil Particle Sizing System (SSPSS). Soil samples were collected specifically for separation by the SSPSS at three general locations in the deposited Project 57 plume, the projected radioactivity of which ranged from 100 to 600 pCi/g. The primary purpose in focusing on samples with this level of activity is that it would represent anticipated residual soil contamination levels at the site after corrective actions are completed. Consequently, the results of the SSPSS analysis can contribute to dose calculation and corrective action-level determinations for future land-use scenarios at the site

  17. [Evaluating the applicability of medical examinations constituting "the protocol of obtaining a blood sample" in measuring the degree of intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelgardt, Piotr; Grzech, Weronika; Drzewiecki, Jarosław; Sliwka, Karol

    2010-01-01

    Breathalysing and blood analysis is the basic instrument of measuring the level of intoxication. Prior to collecting a blood sample, an individual suspected of being under the influence of alcohol is examined by a physician, who fills out the "protocol of obtaining a blood sample". This work aims at evaluating the applicability of the described examination in measuring the level of intoxication. In order to do so, our team analyzed 352 "protocols of obtaining blood sample" referred to the Forensic Laboratory KWP in Bydgoszcz, Poland, and compared them with the results of blood analysis. The results of the above analysis point to the fact that the elements of medical examination constituting "the protocol of obtaining a blood sample" are of a minor usefulness in determining the degree of intoxication with ethyl alcohol. The smell from the mouth and the conclusions formulated the examining physician prove to be the most useful. The summary usage of deviations from the norm does not seem to increase the usefulness of methods used within "the protocol of obtaining a blood sample" in evaluating the degree of intoxication.

  18. Obtaining edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers from sewage sludge using fermentative processes. Short-time effects on soil biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Caballero, Pablo; Paneque, Patricia; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; Tejada, Manuel

    2017-10-28

    In this manuscript, we study the manufacture and effect on soils of different edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (BS) obtained from sewage sludge using Bacillus licheniformis as biological tool. These BS consist of different combinations of organic matter, bacteria and enzymes that were subjected to several treatments. These BS were applied in soil in order to observe their influence on the biochemical properties (enzymatic activities and ergosterol content). Dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase activities and ergosterol content were measured at different incubation days. Only dehydrogenase activity and ergosterol content were significantly stimulated after the application of BS1 and BS4. Rest of the extracellular activities were not stimulated probably because B. licheniformis practically has digested all organic substrates during fermentation process.

  19. Atrazine, triketone herbicides, and their degradation products in sediment, soil and surface water samples in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchanska, Hanna; Sajdak, Marcin; Szczypka, Kornelia; Swientek, Angelika; Tworek, Martyna; Kurek, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the sediment, soil and surface water contamination with selected popular triketone herbicides (mesotrione (MES) and sulcotrione(SUL)), atrazine (ATR) classified as a possible carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical, as well as their degradation products, in Silesia (Poland). Seventeen sediment samples, 24 soil samples, and 64 surface water samples collected in 2014 were studied. After solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). Ten years after the withdrawal from the use, ATR was not detected in any of the collected samples; however, its degradation products are still present in 41 % of sediment, 71 % of soil, and 8 % of surface water samples. SUL was determined in 85 % of soil samples; its degradation product (2-chloro-4-(methylosulfonyl) benzoic acid (CMBA)) was present in 43 % of soil samples. In 17 % of sediment samples, CMBA was detected. Triketones were detected occasionally in surface water samples. The chemometric analysis (clustering analysis (CA), single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), N-Way ANOVA) was applied to find relations between selected soil and sediment parameters and herbicides concentration. In neither of the studied cases a statistically significant relationship between the concentrations of examined herbicides, their degradation products and soil parameters (organic carbon (OC), pH) was observed.

  20. Determination of Total Chromium and Chromium Species in Kombolcha Tannery Wastewater, Surrounding Soil, and Lettuce Plant Samples, South Wollo, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun Belayneh Asfaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the determination of total chromium (total Cr, Cr(III, and Cr(VI in Kombolcha leather industrial wastewater and the surrounding (soil and lettuce plant samples where the wastewater flows. The levels of total Cr, Cr(VI, and Cr(III in wastewater, soil, and lettuce plant samples were determined by FAAS, UV/Vis spectrophotometer, and difference (Cr(VI from total Cr, respectively. Among all samples taken, the maximum amounts of total Cr, Cr(III, and Cr(VI were obtained at the discharging point and the minimum amounts of total Cr and Cr(III were found downstream (400 m from the junction of Kombolcha leather industrial wastewater. On the other hand, the minimum concentration of Cr(VI was obtained in lettuce plant sample. The amounts of total Cr in all samples except soil sample were above the permissible limit as set by WHO/FAO. The concentrations of Cr(III in all wastewater samples were above the permissible level, whereas the concentration of Cr(VI in wastewater was above the permissible level except 400 m from the junction. The result showed that a remarkable elimination of total Cr and Cr species has not been achieved by this leather industry as its level was not much decreased when entered into the water systems. Therefore, effective treatment methods should be applied to the wastewater for the wellbeing of the surroundings.

  1. Task summary for cone penetrating testing sounding and soil and groundwater sampling Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), located in Mississippi, was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion testes conducted deep underground in the Tatum Salt Dome between 1964 and 1970. As a consequence radionuclides generated during the testing were released into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. US DOE is conducting a series of investigations as a part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (under CERCLA) This report summarizes the cone penetrometer testing (CPT) and sampling program conducted in fall 1993, providing a description of the activities and a discussion of the results. The objectives of the CPT program were to determine subsurface conditions and stratification; determine the depth to the potentiometric surface; obtain soil samples from predetermined depths; obtain groundwater samples at predetermined depths.

  2. Task summary for cone penetrating testing sounding and soil and groundwater sampling Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), located in Mississippi, was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion testes conducted deep underground in the Tatum Salt Dome between 1964 and 1970. As a consequence radionuclides generated during the testing were released into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. US DOE is conducting a series of investigations as a part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (under CERCLA) This report summarizes the cone penetrometer testing (CPT) and sampling program conducted in fall 1993, providing a description of the activities and a discussion of the results. The objectives of the CPT program were to determine subsurface conditions and stratification; determine the depth to the potentiometric surface; obtain soil samples from predetermined depths; obtain groundwater samples at predetermined depths

  3. Use of X-ray diffraction technique and chemometrics to aid soil sampling strategies in traceability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Lucia; Durante, Caterina; Marchetti, Andrea; Sighinolfi, Simona; Silvestri, Michele; Cocchi, Marina

    2012-08-30

    Aim of this work is to assess the potentialities of the X-ray powder diffraction technique as fingerprinting technique, i.e. as a preliminary tool to assess soil samples variability, in terms of geochemical features, in the context of food geographical traceability. A correct approach to sampling procedure is always a critical issue in scientific investigation. In particular, in food geographical traceability studies, where the cause-effect relations between the soil of origin and the final foodstuff is sought, a representative sampling of the territory under investigation is certainly an imperative. This research concerns a pilot study to investigate the field homogeneity with respect to both field extension and sampling depth, taking also into account the seasonal variability. Four Lambrusco production sites of the Modena district were considered. The X-Ray diffraction spectra, collected on the powder of each soil sample, were treated as fingerprint profiles to be deciphered by multivariate and multi-way data analysis, namely PCA and PARAFAC. The differentiation pattern observed in soil samples, as obtained by this fast and non-destructive analytical approach, well matches with the results obtained by characterization with other costly analytical techniques, such as ICP/MS, GFAAS, FAAS, etc. Thus, the proposed approach furnishes a rational basis to reduce the number of soil samples to be collected for further analytical characterization, i.e. metals content, isotopic ratio of radiogenic element, etc., while maintaining an exhaustive description of the investigated production areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of parasites in soil samples in Tehran public places ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of our findings provide evidence that soil may play an important role in transmission of zoonotic parasite diseases to human. In addition, control of high population of animals such as stray dogs and cats is necessary to reduce the distribution of parasites. Key words: Prevalence, parasites, flotation method, Tehran.

  5. Evaluation of Molecular Methods To Improve the Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil and Water Samples from Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappik, Michael; Dance, David A B; Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Pierret, Alain; Ribolzi, Olivier; Davong, Viengmon; Silisouk, Joy; Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Newton, Paul N; Dittrich, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a severe and potentially fatal disease of humans and animals. It is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and is found in soil and surface water. The environmental distribution of B. pseudomallei worldwide and within countries where it is endemic, such as the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), remains unclear. However, this knowledge is important to our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of B. pseudomallei and to facilitate public health interventions. Sensitive and specific methods to detect B. pseudomallei in environmental samples are therefore needed. The aim of this study was to compare molecular and culture-based methods for the detection of B. pseudomallei in soil and surface water in order to identify the optimal approach for future environmental studies in Laos. Molecular detection by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was attempted after DNA extraction directly from soil or water samples or after an overnight enrichment step. The positivity rates obtained by qPCR were compared to those obtained by different culture techniques. The rate of detection from soil samples by qPCR following culture enrichment was significantly higher (84/100) than that by individual culture methods and all culture methods combined (44/100; P Lao environmental samples and is recommended as the preferred method for future surveys. Copyright © 2015, Knappik et al.

  6. Evaluation of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats and dogs in an adapter-modified Ussing chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBiasio, John V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Newman, Shelley; Musch, Mark W.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of transport physiology in endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from healthy cats and dogs, as well as dogs with chronic enteropathies. 17 duodenal biopsies from five cats and 51 duodenal biopsies from 13 dogs were obtained. Samples were transferred into an adapter-modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to various absorbagogues and secretagogues. Overall, 78.6% of duodenal samples obtained from cats responded to at least one compound. In duodenal biopsies obtained from dogs, the rate of overall response ranged from 87.5% (healthy individuals; n = 8), to 63.6% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological unremarkable duodenum; n = 15), and 32.1% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases and moderate to severe histopathological lesions; n = 28). Detailed information regarding the magnitude and duration of the response are provided. The adapter-modified Ussing chamber enables investigation of the absorptive and secretory capacity of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from cats and dogs and has the potential to become a valuable research tool. The response of samples was correlated with histopathological findings. PMID:24378587

  7. Fluorescence of soil humic acids and their fractions obtained by tandem size exclusion chromatography-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubetskaya, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). Shemyakin and Ovchinnikov Inst. of Bioorganic Chemistry; Trubetskoj, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). Inst. of Basic Biological Problems; Guyot, G.; Richard, C. [UMR CNRS 6505, Aubiere (France). Lab. de Photochimie Moleculaire et Macromoleculaire; Andreux, F. [Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Dijon (France)

    2002-07-01

    Humic acids (HAs) extracted from soils of different origin (chernozem, ferralsol and ranker) and their fractions (A, B and C+D) obtained by tandem size exclusion chromatography-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were investigated by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy in the emission mode. Independently of HA source, high molecular size fractions A and B are shown to be weakly fluorescent. The main fluorophores, especially those emitting at long wavelength (around 500-510 nm), are contained in the polar and low molecular size fractions C+D. As indicated by the observed pH effect, aromatic structures bearing carboxylate and OH substituents may be involved in these longer wavelength emissions. [author].

  8. Sampling season affects conclusions on soil arthropod community structure responses to metal pollution in Mediterranean urban soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santorufo, L.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Maisto, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if the period of sampling affected conclusions on the responses of arthropod community structure to metal pollution in urban soils in the Mediterranean area. Higher temperature and lower precipitation were detected in autumn than in spring. In both samplings, the most

  9. Natural radioactivity and metal concentrations in soil samples taken along the Izmir - Ankara E-023 highway, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.; Bassari, A.; Erees, F; Cam, S.

    2004-01-01

    The specific activity and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K) were determined in roadside soil obtained from fifteen sites along Izmir-Ankara Highway, using gamma-ray spectrometry. The soil activity ranged from 42.6 to 47.3 Bqkg -1 for 238 U, 31.8 to 36.3 Bqkg -1 for 232 Th, and 432 to 488 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. The highest mean value of 238 U was found in the soil samples obtained from a site close to the intersection of the roads. The study yielded an annual effective dose equivalent in the range of 58 - 80 μSv. The average value falls within the global range of outdoor radiation exposure given in UNSCEAR-2000 publications. Also Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr concentrations were determined in roadside soil. Rb, Sr, Zr and Zn concentrations in roadside soil around the intersection of the roads were higher than maximum concentration levels of these heavy metals in normal soil

  10. Polyphasic characterization of bacteria obtained from upland rice cultivated in Cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Fabiana Braga

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to characterize 20 isolates obtained from upland rice plants, based on phenotypic (morphology, enzymatic activity, inorganic phosphate solubilization, carbon source use, antagonism, genotypic assays (16S rRNA sequencing and plant growth promotion. Results showed a great morphological, metabolic and genetic variability among bacterial isolates. All isolates showed positive activity for catalase and protease enzymes and, 90% of the isolates showed positive activity for amylase, catalase and, nitrogenase. All isolates were able to metabolize sucrose and malic acid in contrast with mannitol, which was metabolized only by one isolate. For the other carbon sources, we observed a great variability in its use by the isolates. Most isolates showed antibiosis against Rhizoctonia solani (75% and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (55% and, 50% of them showed antibiosis against both pathogens. Six isolates showed simultaneous ability of antibiosis, inorganic phosphate solubilization and protease activity. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene all the isolates belong to Bacillus genus. Under greenhouse conditions, two isolates (S4 and S22 improved to about 24%, 25%, 30% and 31% the Total N, leaf area, shoot dry weight and root dry weight, respectively, of rice plants, indicating that they should be tested for this ability under field conditions.

  11. Colloid mobilization and heavy metal transport in the sampling of soil solution from Duckum soil in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seyong; Ko, Il-Won; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2018-03-24

    Colloid mobilization is a significant process governing colloid-associated transport of heavy metals in subsurface environments. It has been studied for the last three decades to understand this process. However, colloid mobilization and heavy metal transport in soil solutions have rarely been studied using soils in South Korea. We investigated the colloid mobilization in a variety of flow rates during sampling soil solutions in sand columns. The colloid concentrations were increased at low flow rates and in saturated regimes. Colloid concentrations increased 1000-fold higher at pH 9.2 than at pH 7.3 in the absence of 10 mM NaCl solution. In addition, those were fourfold higher in the absence than in the presence of the NaCl solution at pH 9.2. It was suggested that the mobility of colloids should be enhanced in porous media under the basic conditions and the low ionic strength. In real field soils, the concentrations of As, Cr, and Pb in soil solutions increased with the increase in colloid concentrations at initial momentarily changed soil water pressure, whereas the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Al, and Co lagged behind the colloid release. Therefore, physicochemical changes and heavy metal characteristics have important implications for colloid-facilitated transport during sampling soil solutions.

  12. Highly efficient detection of paclobutrazol in environmental water and soil samples by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhenjiang, E-mail: lzj1984@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wei, Xi [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); The Affiliated First People' s Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212002 (China); Ren, Kewei; Zhu, Gangbing; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Jiagao; Du, Daolin [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2016-11-01

    A fast and ultrasensitive indirect competitive time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) was developed for the analysis of paclobutrazol in environmental water and soil samples. Paclobutrazol hapten was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) for producing polyclonal antibodies. Under optimal conditions, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50} value) and limit of detection (LOD, IC{sub 20} value) were 1.09 μg L{sup −} {sup 1} and 0.067 μg L{sup −} {sup 1}, respectively. The LOD of TRFIA was improved 30-fold compared to the already reported ELISA. There was almost no cross-reactivity of the antibody with the other structural analogues of triazole compounds, indicating that the antibody had high specificity. The average recoveries from spiked samples were in the range from 80.2% to 104.7% with a relative standard deviation of 1.0–9.5%. The TRFIA results for the real samples were in good agreement with that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. The results indicate that the established TRFIA has potential application for screening paclobutrazol in environmental samples. - Highlights: • The approach to design and synthesize the PBZ hapten was more straightforward. • A rapid and ultrasensitive TRFIA was developed and applied to the screening of PBZ. • The TRFIA for real soil samples showed reliability and high correlation with HPLC. • The PBZ TRFIA showed high sensitivity, simple operation, a wide range of quantitative analyses and no radioactive hazards.

  13. An improved procedure for determining oil content in wet soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, P.Y.P.; Johnson, R.L.; Acharya, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of extraction method, moisture and oil content, soil type, extraction time, sample stirring, method of oil-spiking and drying of samples on oil recovery. Two extraction methods, Dean and Stark and Soxhlet, were tested. Soil moisture showed a highly significant effect on oil recovery. A quadratic regression equation of the Dean and Stark extraction method provided an excellent description of the relationship between oil recovery and soil moisture content, and therefore can be used to quantify oil recovery from soil samples with different moisture levels. The equation predicted a decline in percent oil recovery when soil moisture exceeded 30%. The Dean and Stark method was more efficient in extracting oil, especially at higher oil and moisture contents. Both oil and water recoveries of water saturated samples increased with extended extraction tie and sample stirring, but air- and oven-drying of contaminated samples caused oil to volatilize and thus could lead to an underestimation of oil contents. The water content of the soil prior to being spiked with oil did not affect oil recovery efficiency. In a mass balance experiment the were able to account for more than 97% of the total constituents (oil, water and solids) in the samples. The equation they developed provided a more accurate quantification of oil recovery from soil at different moisture levels than was previously available

  14. Bio indication of soil samples from contaminated military sites in Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakariadze, N.; Gagelidze, N.; Amiranashvili, L.; Nabakhtiani, G.; Tsigroshvili, Z. [GEO-ECO TAO, Geo-Ecology, Testing and Assessment Operations, Tbilisi (Georgia)

    2005-07-01

    difference. Simultaneous study of single element's several parameters (multi-parameter bio-indication) makes possible to determine more precisely state of system under different impacts. Except study of soil samples collected on contaminated territories with an aim of low doses radiation impact (2.3 - 5.5 {mu}Zv/h) investigation on soil micro-flora in dynamics, it was decided as well to carry out experiments in earlier determined laboratory conditions in vitro by modeling the real fixed cases. The following changes of microorganisms' phenotype parameters were observed under radioactive impacts of low intensity: 1. General CCU values alternation (attenuation under {sup 226}Ra and increase under {sup 90}Sr); 2. Considerable increase of Bacteria colonies (Citrobacter) diameter ({sup 226}Ra); 3. Altered biological composition - In control sample percentage ratio of microorganisms main groups (Bacteria, Actinomycetes and Microphyte Fungi - 85/13/2) is typical to Black Earth soils. In contaminated soil this ratio is changed - 52/45/3; 4. Increased CCU and MF of Actinomycetes with melanin pigmentation and carotene synthesizing Bacteria colonies; 5. Attenuation and disappearance of Microphyte Fungi; 6. Altered vegetative and spore forms correlation of Bacillus genus, which depends on time of irradiation and effective equivalent doze obtained. Under high doze of irradiation prevalence of spore forms is observed. On application of gradually increasing doze of irradiation this correlation is approximately 1:1. The results of experiments indicate that under radioactive impacts of low intensity regulatory capacity of soil micro flora system is provided and could be maintained by changes of microorganisms separate parameters regulation. The model of microorganisms different variables behavior will be suggested. (authors)

  15. Measurement of thermal properties of soil and concrete samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagola, Maria Alberdi; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Madsen, Søren

    This document aims to present the laboratory work undertaken to analyse the thermal properties of the soil at two test sites in Denmark and the concrete produced by Centrum Pæle A/S, used to produce the pile heat exchangers studied in the present PhD project. The tasks have been carried out between...... “Thermal response testing of precast pile heat exchangers: fieldwork report” by (Alberdi-Pagola et al., 2017). The report is organized as follows: first, the measurement methods and the test procedures are described. Second, the soils at both test sites are described, together with the measurements. Third......, the measurements of the properties of the concrete are treated. The work is extended in appendixes....

  16. [Methods for the detection of Agrobacterium from plant, soil and water samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, Adriana M; López, Ana C; Balatti, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    The genus Agrobacterium includes phytopathogenic bacteria that induce the development of root crown galls and/or aerial galls at the base of the stem or hairy roots on more than 600 species of plants belonging to 90 dicotyledonous families and non-pathogenic species. These bacteria being natural soil inhabitants are particularly difficult to eradicate, which is a problem in nurseries where more than 80% of infections occur. Since early detection is crucial to avoid the inadvertent spread of the disease, the aim of this work was to develop sensitive and precise identification techniques by using a set of semi-selective and differential culture media in combination with a specific PCR to amplify a partial sequence derived from the virC operon, as well as a multiplex PCR on the basis of 23SrDNA sequences, and biological assays to identify and differentiate species and biovars of Agrobacterium obtained either from soil, water or plant samples. The combination of the different assays allowed us to reduce the number of false positive and negative results from bacteria isolated from any of the three types of samples. Therefore, the combination of multiplex PCR, specific PCR, isolations in semi-selective D1, D1-M and YEM-RCT media combined with bioassays on cut leaves of Kalanchoe and seedlings of California Wonder pepper cultivar constitute an accurate tool to detect species and biovars of Agrobacterium for diagnostic purposes.

  17. Sampling plan for using a motorized penetrometer in soil compaction evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindolfo Storck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to estimate the size of blocks of observations of resistance to penetration, obtained by a motorized digital penetrometer, and the number of blocks with semi-amplitude of the confidence interval between 5 and 20% of the mean penetration resistance, for different soil depth ranges and cone diameters. Data were collected in two contrasting plots of a crop-livestock integration experiment, located in Abelardo Luz, SC, Brazil. Ten blocks were delimited and the resistance to penetration was determined in 20 points spaced by 20 cm, using a motorized digital soil penetrometer. To estimate the mean of resistance to penetration, 12 blocks of four points per experimental plot should be used for a semi-amplitude of the confidence interval equal to 10% of the mean (1 - p = 0.95. Twenty random points may be sampled to estimate mean of penetration resistance for a semiamplitude confidence interval of 10% of the man (1 - p = 0.95. The sample size for the layer of 0-10 cm is larger than in the deeper layers (0-20, 0-30 and 0-40 cm and smaller for cones with larger diameter.

  18. Isolation and characterization of entomopathogenic bacteria from soil samples from the western region of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Graciela; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Díaz, Manuel; Companionis, Ariamys; Menéndez, Zulema; Gato, René

    2013-06-01

    The use of insect pathogens is a viable alternative for insect control because of their relative specificity and lower environmental impact. The search for wild strains against dipterans could have an impact on mosquito control programs. We have made an extensive screening of soil in western Cuba to find bacteria with larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. A total of 150 soil samples were collected and isolates were identifying using the API 50 CHB gallery. Phenotypic characteristics were analyzed by hierarchical ascending classification. Quantitative bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions following the World Health Organization protocol in order to ascertain the toxicity and efficacy of isolates. The protein profiles of the crystal components were determined by SDS-PAGE. Eight hundred and eighty-one bacterial isolates were obtained, and 13 isolates with entomopathogenic activity were isolated from nine samples. Nine isolates displayed higher entomopathogenic activity against both Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti compared with the reference strain 266/2. All toxic isolates showed higher biological potency than the 266/2 strain. These isolates with high entomopathogenic activity displayed a protein pattern similar to the B. thuringiensis var. israelensis IPS-82 and 266/2 strains. These results are a valuable tool for the control of Diptera of medical importance. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Sampling Design of Soil Physical Properties in a Conilon Coffee Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira de Jesus Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Establishing the number of samples required to determine values of soil physical properties ultimately results in optimization of labor and allows better representation of such attributes. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of soil physical properties in a Conilon coffee field and propose a soil sampling method better attuned to conditions of the management system. The experiment was performed in a Conilon coffee field in Espírito Santo state, Brazil, under a 3.0 × 2.0 × 1.0 m (4,000 plants ha-1 double spacing design. An irregular grid, with dimensions of 107 × 95.7 m and 65 sampling points, was set up. Soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.20 m depth from each sampling point. Data were analyzed under descriptive statistical and geostatistical methods. Using statistical parameters, the adequate number of samples for analyzing the attributes under study was established, which ranged from 1 to 11 sampling points. With the exception of particle density, all soil physical properties showed a spatial dependence structure best fitted to the spherical model. Establishment of the number of samples and spatial variability for the physical properties of soils may be useful in developing sampling strategies that minimize costs for farmers within a tolerable and predictable level of error.

  20. Genotyping of Toxoplasma Gondii Isolates from Soil Samples in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavalla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect any warm blooded nucleated cells. One of the ways for human infection is ingestion of oocysts directly from soil or via infected fruits or vegetables. To survey the potential role of T. gondii oocyst in soil samples, the present study was conducted in Tehran City, Iran.Methods: A total of 150 soil samples were collected around rubbish dumps, children's play ground, parks and public places. Oocysts recovery was performed by sodium nitrate flotation method on soil samples. For molecular detection, PCR reaction targeting B1 gene was performed and then, the posi­tive results were confirmed using repetitive 529 bp DNA fragment in other PCR reaction. Finally, the positive samples were genotyped at the SAG2 locus.Results: Toxoplasma DNA was found in 13 soil samples. After genotyping and RFLP analysis in SAG2 locus, nine positive samples were revealed type III, one positive sample was type I whereas three samples revealed mixed infection (type, I & III.Conclusion: The predominant genotype in Tehran soil samples is type III.

  1. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-01-01

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation

  2. Effect of plastic mulching on mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome abundance in soil samples from asparagus crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, K; Schmidt-Heydt, M; Stoll, D; Diehl, D; Ziegler, J; Geisen, R; Schaumann, G E

    2015-11-01

    Plastic mulching (PM) is widely used in modern agriculture because of its advantageous effects on soil temperature and water conservation, factors which strongly influence the microbiology of the soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of PM on mycotoxin occurrence in relation with mycobiome abundance/diversity and soil physicochemical properties. Soil samples were collected from green (GA) and white asparagus (WA) crops, the last under PM. Both crops were cultivated in a ridge-furrow-ridge system without irrigation. Samples were analyzed for mycotoxin occurrence via liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Total colony-forming unit was indicative of mycobiome abundance, and analysis of mycobiome diversity was performed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. PM avoided the drop of soil temperature in winter and allowed higher soil temperature in early spring compared to non-covered soil. Moreover, the use of PM provided controlled conditions for water content in soil. This was enough to generate a dissimilar mycotoxin occurrence and mycobiome diversity/abundance in covered and non-covered soil. Mycotoxin soil contamination was confirmed for deoxynivalenol (DON), range LOD to 32.1 ng/g (LOD = 1.1 ng/g). The DON values were higher under PM (average 16.9 ± 10.1 ng/g) than in non-covered soil (9.1 ± 7.9 ng/g); however, this difference was not statically significant (p = 0.09). Mycobiome analysis showed a fungal compartment up to fivefold higher in soil under PM compared to GA. The diversity of the mycobiome varied between crops and also along the soil column, with an important dominance of Fusarium species at the root zone in covered soils.

  3. Occurrence and quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in soil and air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Balderrama-Carmona

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Soil and air inhalation and/or ingestion are important vehicles for these parasites. To our knowledge, the results obtained in the present study represent the first QMRAs for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis due to soil and air inhalation/ingestion in Mexico. In addition, this is the first evidence of the microbial air quality around these parasites in rural zones.

  4. Analysis of arsenic and calcium in soil samples by laser ablation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccaglia, Ana M.; Rinaldi, Carlos A.; Ferrero, Juan C.

    2006-01-01

    We present an analytical procedure based on laser ablation mass spectrometry (LAMS) in order to detect and quantify arsenic and calcium in soil samples and we analyze the diverse factors that influence the precision of LAMS, such as laser fluence and matrix effect. The results indicate that a Zn matrix is a good choice for the analysis of those metals in soil samples. This work also provides a method for the direct determination of As in soil samples whose concentrations are lower than 100 ppm with a 70 ppm minimum detection limits (MDL)

  5. Utility of the microculture method in non-invasive samples obtained from an experimental murine model with asymptomatic leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Malahat; Cakir-Koc, Rabia; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga Nehir; Canim-Ates, Sezen; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Yesilkir-Baydar, Serap

    2012-07-01

    The sensitivity of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) decreases because of the low number of parasites and antibody amounts in asymptomatic healthy donors who are not suitable for invasive sample acquisition procedures. Therefore, new studies are urgently needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic approaches in non-invasive samples. In this study, the sensitivity of the microculture method (MCM) was compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) methods in an experimental murine model with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. Results showed that the percent of positive samples in ELISA, IFAT, and peripheral blood (PB) -PCR tests were 17.64%, 8.82%, and 5.88%, respectively, whereas 100% positive results were obtained with MCM and MCM-PCR methods. Thus, this study, for the first time, showed that MCM is more sensitive, specific, and economic than other methods, and the sensitivity of PCR that was performed to samples obtained from MCM was higher than sensitivity of the PCR method sampled by PB.

  6. Effect of aggregation of horn fly populations within cattle herds and consequences for sampling to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyk, T J; Steelman, C D

    2004-07-01

    Reanalysis of counts of horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), obtained from a variety of cattle herds indicated that aggregation of the flies within herds decreased as mean fly density increased. Aggregation was also related to the proportion of fly-resistant and fly-susceptible cattle in a herd. Herds were grouped according to their degree of horn fly aggregation. Low aggregation herds included larger framed Angus, Horned Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Red Poll breeds. Moderate aggregation occurred with Brahman, Charolais, small-framed Angus, mixed cows, and Hereford x Charolais cross. High aggregation occurred with Chianina and mixed herds. Relationships between the sample means and variances varied among aggregation groups. A resampling approach was used to determine the influence of random sampling of a herd on the proportion of horn fly population estimates within fixed percentages of the true mean. The proportion of sample means within +/- 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the true means varied with the proportion of the herd sampled, the mean and variance of fly density, and herd size. Recommendations for obtaining sample size to estimate fly density within a fixed percentage of the true mean are given.

  7. Determination of lead-210 in standard samples of soil, ores, and mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    Up to 5-G samples were dissolved in hyrofluoric acid and pyrosulfate fusion in the presence of bismuth tracer. The cake was dissolved in hydrochloric acid and bismuth-210 was extracted into diethyldithiocarbamate, separating it from most interferences including its lead-210 parent. Bismuth was then coprecipitated with barium sulfate and counted in a low-background β counter through a 6 mg/cm 2 aluminum absorber to remove α particles from polonium-210. After the sample was counted, the barium sulfate was dissolved in alkaline ehtylenediaminetetraacetic acid, excess potassium iodide was added, and the solution was acidified. The yellow bismuth-iodide complex was measured in a spectrophotometer and the absorbance was compared with that from an identical aliquot of the bismuth solution to determine the chemical yield. Some results obtained in the analysis of soil, uranium ores, and mill tailings that were prepared for use as standards are given. When sufficient activity was present, the relative experimental standard deviations of 10 individual measurements about their own mean was less than 2%. On standards, the results obtained were within 3% of the known values at the 95% confidence level. Chemical yields were generally higher than 98% overall and were determined to better than 0.5%. Detection limits are about 0.1 pCi/g for 5-g samples and 6-h counts

  8. Quality control for measurement of soil samples containing 237Np and 241Am as radiotracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Lianmao; Zhang Caihong; Song Hailong; Ren Xiaona; Han Yuhu; Zhang Aiming; Chu Taiwei

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports quality control (QC) for the measurement of soil samples containing 237 Np and 241 Am as radiotracers in migration test of transuranic nuclides. All of the QC were done independently by the QA members of analytical work. It mainly included checking 5%-10% of the total analyzed samples; preparing blank samples, blind replicate sample and spiked samples used as quality control samples to check the quality of analytical work

  9. Hay-bait traps are a useful tool for sampling of soil dwelling millipedes and centipedes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tuf, I. H.; Chmelík, V.; Dobroruka, I.; Habová, L.; Hudcová, P.; Šipoš, Jan; Stašiov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 510 (2015), s. 197-207 ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : chilopoda * populations * diplopoda * Diplopoda * Chilopoda * soil sampling * agroecosystem * soil fauna Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2015

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.

  11. MMRP Guidance Document for Soil Sampling of Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    ammunition and ordnance and are known to be deleterious to human and animal health. Such metals are, therefore, of concern to the military, both at... animals . When contaminants are present within the soil matrix, this further complicates an already very heterogeneous material. 5.2 Discrete...7130 2470 24,100 21,800 20.5 Manganese 716 652 715 707 703 507 555 645 1100 Nickel 12.7 18.2 10.2 10.3 11.0 11.3 12.9 14.7 9.9 Thallium 10 11 14 14

  12. Guidance for Soil Sampling for Energetics and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    ammunition and ordnance and are known to be deleterious to human and animal health. Such metals are, therefore, of concern to the military, both at... animals . When contaminants are present within the soil matrix, this further complicates an already very heterogeneous material. 5.2 Discrete...7130 2470 24,100 21,800 20.5 Manganese 716 652 715 707 703 507 555 645 1100 Nickel 12.7 18.2 10.2 10.3 11.0 11.3 12.9 14.7 9.9 Thallium 10 11 14 14

  13. Characterization of Volatiles Loss from Soil Samples at Lunar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Smith, Jim; Roush, Ted; Colaprete, Anthony; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Wang, Alex; Paz, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Resource Prospector Integrated Thermal Vacuum Test Program A series of ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations for RP Volatiles loss during sampling operations Hardware performance Sample removal and transfer Concept of operationsInstrumentation5 test campaigns over 5 years have been conducted with RP hardware with advancing hardware designs and additional RP subsystems Volatiles sampling 4 years Using flight-forward regolith sampling hardware, empirically determine volatile retention at lunar-relevant conditions Use data to improve theoretical predictions Determine driving variables for retention Bound water loss potential to define measurement uncertainties. The main goal of this talk is to introduce you to our approach to characterizing volatiles loss for RP. Introduce the facility and its capabilities Overview of the RP hardware used in integrated testing (most recent iteration) Summarize the test variables used thus farReview a sample of the results.

  14. Sampling protocol recommendations for measuring soil organic carbon stocks in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, Oliver; Veldkamp, Edzo; Corre, Marife D.

    2013-04-01

    In the tropics, there is an urgent need for cost effective sampling approaches to quantify soil organic carbon (SOC) changes associated with land-use change given the lack of reliable data. The tropics are especially important considering the high deforestation rates, the huge belowground carbon pool and the fast soil carbon turnover rates. In the framework of a pan-tropic (Peru, Cameroon and Indonesia) land-use change study, some highly relevant recommendations on the SOC stocks sampling approaches have emerged. In this study, where we focused on deeply weathered mineral soils, we quantified changes in SOC stock following land-use change (deforestation and subsequent establishment of other land-uses). We used a space-for-time substitution sampling approach, measured SOC stocks in the top three meters of soil and compared recently converted land-uses with adjacent reference forest plots. In each respective region we investigated the most predominant land-use trajectories. In total 157 plots were established across the three countries, where soil samples were taken to a depth of three meters from a central soil pit and from the topsoil (to 0.5m) from 12 pooled composite samples. Finding 1 - soil depth: despite the fact that the majority of SOC stock from the three meter profile is found below one meter depth (50 to 60 percent of total SOC stock), the significant changes in SOC were only measured in the top meter of soil, while the subsoil carbon stock remained relatively unchanged by the land-use conversion. The only exception was for older (>50 yrs) cacao plantations in Cameroon where significant decreases were found below one meter. Finding 2 - pooled composite samples taken across the plot provided more spatially representative estimates of SOC stocks than samples taken from the central soil pit.

  15. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  16. A study for natural radioactivity levels in some soil samples using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Yousif Hassab El Rasoul

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a few selected soil samples and to study their natural radioactivity using gamma spectrometry. The first sample was a rock phosphate from Nuba mountains region which is being considered as a low cost fertilizer. Another sample came from Miri lake area (Nuba mountains) which is known to have elevated natural radioactivity level. The other four samples came from different other regions in Sudan for comparison. The idea was to identify the radioactive nuclides present in these soil samples, to trace their sources and to determine the activity present in them. (Author)

  17. Prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis in Spain: analysis and evaluation of the results obtained from amniotic fluid samples during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mademont-Soler, Irene; Morales, Carme; Clusellas, Núria; Soler, Anna; Sánchez, Aurora

    2011-08-01

    Chromosome abnormalities are one of the main causes of congenital defects, and establishing their frequency according to the different clinical indications for invasive procedure during pregnancy is especially important for genetic counselling. We analyzed the results of 29,883 amniotic fluid samples referred to our laboratory for cytogenetic studies from 1998 to 2009, which constitutes the largest series of cytogenetic analysis performed on amniotic fluid samples in Spain. The number of samples received tended to increase from 1998 to 2005, but after 2005 it decreased substantially. Cytogenetic results were obtained in 99.5% of the samples, and the detected incidence of chromosome abnormalities was 2.9%. Of these, 48.1% consisted of classical autosomal aneuploidies, trisomy 21 being the most frequent one. The main clinical indications for amniocentesis were positive prenatal screening and advanced maternal age, but referral reasons with highest positive predictive values were, excluding parental chromosome rearrangement, increased nuchal translucency (9.2%) and ultrasound abnormalities (6.6%). In conclusion, performing the karyotype on amniotic fluid samples is a good method for the detection of chromosome abnormalities during pregnancy. The number of cytogenetic studies on amniotic fluid has now decreased, however, due to the implementation of first trimester prenatal screening for the detection of Down syndrome, which allows karyotyping on chorionic villus samples. Our results also show that both ultrasound abnormalities and increased nuchal translucency are excellent clinical indicators for fetal chromosome abnormality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An Optimized DNA Analysis Workflow for the Sampling, Extraction, and Concentration of DNA obtained from Archived Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, April D; Hytinen, Madison E; McClain, Aryn M; Miller, Marilyn T; Dawson Cruz, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    DNA profiles have been obtained from fingerprints, but there is limited knowledge regarding DNA analysis from archived latent fingerprints-touch DNA "sandwiched" between adhesive and paper. Thus, this study sought to comparatively analyze a variety of collection and analytical methods in an effort to seek an optimized workflow for this specific sample type. Untreated and treated archived latent fingerprints were utilized to compare different biological sampling techniques, swab diluents, DNA extraction systems, DNA concentration practices, and post-amplification purification methods. Archived latent fingerprints disassembled and sampled via direct cutting, followed by DNA extracted using the QIAamp® DNA Investigator Kit, and concentration with Centri-Sep™ columns increased the odds of obtaining an STR profile. Using the recommended DNA workflow, 9 of the 10 samples provided STR profiles, which included 7-100% of the expected STR alleles and two full profiles. Thus, with carefully selected procedures, archived latent fingerprints can be a viable DNA source for criminal investigations including cold/postconviction cases. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Determination of radioactivity concentrations in soil samples and dose assessment for Rize Province, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Durusoy

    2017-10-01

    The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were compared to the international values reported by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2000 and previous studies on the area.

  20. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas), in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic) media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone). The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  2. Mixed functional monomers-based monolithic adsorbent for the effective extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Miao; Zhu, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaojia

    2018-01-05

    Effective extraction is a key step in the determination of sulfonylurea herbicides (SUHs) in complicated samples. According to the chemical properties of SUHs, a new monolithic adsorbent utilizing acrylamidophenylboronic acid and vinylimidazole as mixed functional monomers was synthesized. The new adsorbent was employed as the extraction phase of multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction (MMF-SPME) of SUHs, and the extracted SUHs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Results well evidence that the prepared adsorbent could extract SUHs in environmental waters and soil effectively through multiply interactions such as boronate affinity, dipole-dipole and π-π interactions. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the limits of detection for target SUHs in environmental water and soil samples were 0.018-0.17μg/L and 0.14-1.23μg/kg, respectively. At the same time, the developed method also displayed some analytical merits including wide linear dynamic ranges, good method reproducibility, satisfactory sensitivity and low consume of organic solvent. Finally, the developed were successfully applied to monitor trace SUHs in environmental water and soil samples. The recoveries at three fortified concentrations were in the range of 70.6-119% with RSD below 11% in all cases. The obtained results well demonstrate the excellent practical applicability of the developed MMF-SPME-HPLC-DAD method for the monitoring of SUHs in water and soil samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors affecting survival of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Heather P; Casey, Pat G; Cotter, Jeni; Gahan, Cormac G M; Hill, Colin

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the ability of several strains of L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains to survive in local soil samples in vitro. Survival of three L. monocytogenes strains, EGDe, CD83, and CD1038, and three L. innocua strains, CLIP, FH2117, FH2152, was monitored in soil samples by direct enumeration of colony-forming units on selective agar. The study did not demonstrate any species-specific difference in soil survival, and all Listeria strains exhibited a marked decline in numbers over time. Bioluminescence imaging approaches to detect lux-tagged strains in soil proved largely ineffective, most likely due to the reduced metabolic activity of strains in this environment. We investigated the influence of specific factors including the presence of a background microbiota, growth temperature, moisture and strain motility upon persistence in this environment. A sequenced L. monocytogenes strain, EGDe, was capable of active growth in sterile soil yet exhibited a decline in the presence of the normal soil microbiota. Furthermore, greater survival was seen at lower incubation temperatures in normal soil. Finally, we demonstrated a direct correlation between motility and survival of L. monocytogenes in soil with highly motile L. monocytogenes strains exhibiting greater soil survival than non-motile mutants.

  4. Analysis of medicinal plants and soil sample from Haridwar region by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of leaves and stems of four medicinal plants namely Kalmegh, Amaltas, Moalshri, and Arusa were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Soil from same location was analyzed. Though concentrations of many elements were determined in the plant samples, results of selected elements namely Na, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and As are discussed in this paper. The results show that all medicinal plants analyzed have lower elemental contents except Zn compared to the soil. (author)

  5. Determination of pyridine in soil and water samples of a polluted area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.J.B.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van

    1994-01-01

    A method for the analyses of pyridine in environmental samples is described. For soil samples a distillation procedure followed by an extraction, an acidic extraction or a Soxhlet extraction can be used. For water samples a distillation procedure followed by extraction can be employed. Deuterated

  6. The Application of EM38: Determination of Soil Parameters, Selection of Soil Sampling Points and Use in Agriculture and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Heil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate assessment of within-field variation is essential for detecting field-wide heterogeneity and contributing to improvements in the management of agricultural lands. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of field scale characterization by electromagnetic induction, firstly with a focus on the applications of EM38 to salinity, soil texture, water content and soil water turnover, soil types and boundaries, nutrients and N-turnover and soil sampling designs. Furthermore, results concerning special applications in agriculture, horticulture and archaeology are included. In addition to these investigations, this survey also presents a wide range of practical methods for use. Secondly, the effectiveness of conductivity readings for a specific target in a specific locality is determined by the intensity at which soil factors influence these values in relationship to the desired information. The interpretation and utility of apparent electrical conductivity (ECa readings are highly location- and soil-specific, so soil properties influencing the measurement of ECa must be clearly understood. From the various calibration results, it appears that regression constants for the relationships between ECa, electrical conductivity of aqueous soil extracts (ECe, texture, yield, etc., are not necessarily transferable from one region to another. The modelling of ECa, soil properties, climate and yield are important for identifying the location to which specific utilizations of ECa technology (e.g., ECa−texture relationships can be appropriately applied. In general, the determination of absolute levels of ECa is frequently not possible, but it appears to be quite a robust method to detect relative differences, both spatially and temporally. Often, the use of ECa is restricted to its application as a covariate or the use of the readings in a relative sense rather than as absolute terms.

  7. Sample size choices for XRCT scanning of highly unsaturated soil mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jonathan C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly unsaturated soil mixtures (clay, sand and gravel are used as building materials in many parts of the world, and there is increasing interest in understanding their mechanical and hydraulic behaviour. In the laboratory, x-ray computed tomography (XRCT is becoming more widely used to investigate the microstructures of soils, however a crucial issue for such investigations is the choice of sample size, especially concerning the scanning of soil mixtures where there will be a range of particle and void sizes. In this paper we present a discussion (centred around a new set of XRCT scans on sample sizing for scanning of samples comprising soil mixtures, where a balance has to be made between realistic representation of the soil components and the desire for high resolution scanning, We also comment on the appropriateness of differing sample sizes in comparison to sample sizes used for other geotechnical testing. Void size distributions for the samples are presented and from these some hypotheses are made as to the roles of inter- and intra-aggregate voids in the mechanical behaviour of highly unsaturated soils.

  8. Rapid gamma spectrometric analysis of soil samples after radioactive fallout using a "conjugate view" technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, M; Fahlström, M; Ossipova, N; Rosén, K

    2017-10-01

    A method for fast determination of the activity in soil samples by measuring a fresh soil core sample from both ends with an HPGe-detector is proposed. The method was tested by simulations, as well as by measurements on spiked soil samples. Both simulations and measurements showed that the geometrical mean of the count rates when the sample is measured twice, with the bottom and the top end, respectively, facing the detector closely resembles the count rate from a measurement on a homogenized sample. Therefore, an efficiency calibration for homogenized samples could be used even if the activity is highly inhomogeneous in the soil core, as is the case with fresh fallout. It was also shown that by studying the ratio between the two measurements, a rough estimation of the extent of penetration of the radionuclide in the soil can be found. This will enhance the possibility to make rapid estimations of the soil inventory by field gamma spectrometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Viability of lymph node samples obtained by echobronchoscopy in the study of epigenetic alterations in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; De Chiara, Loretta; Botana-Rial, Maribel; González-Piñeiro, Ana; Tardio-Baiges, Antoni; Núñez-Delgado, Manuel; Valverde Pérez, Diana; Fernández-Villar, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of microscopic lymph node metastasis in lung cancer is challenging despite the constant advances in tumor staging. The analysis of the methylation status of certain genes in lymph node samples could improve the diagnostic capability of conventional cyto-histological methods. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of methylation studies using cytological lymph node samples. Prospective study including 88 patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of non-small cell lung cancer, in which an echobronchoscopy was performed on mediastinal or hilar lymph nodes for diagnostic and/or staging. DNA was extracted from cytological lymph node samples and sodium bisulfite modification was performed. Methylation studies for p16/INK4a and SHOX2 were accomplished by MS-qPCR and pyrosequencing. The methodology used in our study yielded optimal/good DNA quality in 90% of the cases. No differences in DNA concentration were observed with respect to the lymph node biopsied and final diagnosis. Methylation analyses using MS-qPCR and pyrosequencing were not possible in a small number of samples mainly due to low DNA concentration, inadequate purity, fragmentation and/or degradation as a consequence of bisulfite conversion. Methylation quantification using MS-qPCR and pyrosequencing of cytological lymph node samples obtained using echobronchoscopy is feasible if an appropriate DNA concentration is obtained, notably contributing to the identification of epigenetic biomarkers capable of improving decision-making for the benefit of potentially curable lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of anti corrosive behaviour on A I 6061 samples covered with Ni-P alloys obtained by autocatalytic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, M. E; Barbero, J. A; Bubach, E

    2006-01-01

    There are many ways to keep safe an industrial material from corrosion attack.One is covering the piece with a layer of another material which corrosion resistance is higher to the one of the element to protect.The anticorrosion protection mechanism is achieved by the formation of a physical pore less barrier without any defects.This avoid the arrival of those agents from environment responsible of electrochemical attack.In this paper, corrosion resistance of metallic coatings over nuclear usage aluminum samples is analyzed.Our interest is aimed on nickel I phosphorous alloy coatings (Ni I P) obtained by electroless method (autocatalytic) over Al 6061 alloy samples.A comparative study is carried on with different phosphorous contents but always under 12 %.This job is completed with other nickel coating, Vitro vac 0080 (with no phosphorous content) in order to compare structures and anti corrosive properties.Besides, the comparison between mentioned materials and aluminum samples is made.The study is carried on using superficial characterization of each sample with or without coating through a series of complementary techniques such as chemical, electrochemical (linear sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, polarization resistance determination) and physical (scanning electronic microscopy, hardness determination) techniques.Finally, variable correlation is made as a function of the phosphorous content in the samples used in the experiences.The coating structure obtained is amorphous.It presents no pore or failure and its hardness shows important values.The electrochemical analysis allows to check that anti corrosive protection capacity of Ni-P alloy increases with the phosphorous content in the coat. Al 6061 by itself demonstrate an electrochemically bad behaviour.Substrate I coating adherence is very good [es

  11. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de; Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes; Siqueira, Maria Celia; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de

    2009-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific 226 Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg -1 ) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg -1 for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  12. Radionuclides and heavy metal contents in phosphogypsum samples in comparison to cerrado soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Oliveira, Kerley Alberto Pereira de, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: kapo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena Tirollo; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.b [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), MG (Brazil); Siqueira, Maria Celia, E-mail: mc.ufscar@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carneiro, Maria Eleonora Deschamps Pires, E-mail: eleonora.deschamps@meioambiente.mg.gov.b [Fundacao Estadual do Meio Ambiente (FEAM), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Gestao de Residuos Solidos; Silva, David Faria da; Mello, Jaime Wilson Vargas de, E-mail: davidf.agro@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos

    2009-09-15

    Phosphogypsum (PG) or agricultural gypsum, a solid waste from the phosphate fertilizer industry, is used as soil amendment, especially on soils in the Cerrado region, in Brazil. This material may however contain natural radionuclides and metals which can be transferred to soils, plants and water sources. This paper presents and discusses the results of physical and chemical analyses that characterized samples of PG and compares them to the results found in two typical soils of the Cerrado, a clayey and sandy one. These analyses included: solid waste classification, evaluation of organic matter content and of P, K, Ca, Mg, and Al concentrations and of the mineralogical composition. Natural radionuclides and metal concentrations in PG and soil samples were also measured. Phosphogypsum was classified as Class II A - not dangerous, not inert, not corrosive and not reactive. The organic matter content in the soil samples was low and potential acidity high. In the mean, the specific {sup 226}Ra activity in the phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. In addition, this study verified that natural radionuclides and metals concentrations in PG were lower than in the clayey Oxisol of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These results indicated that the application of phosphogypsum as soil amendment in agriculture would not cause a significant impact on the environment. (author)

  13. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Eleotério de Aquino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a great lack of information from soil surveys in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The use of tools such as geostatistics may improve environmental planning, use and management. In this study, we aimed to use scaled semivariograms in sample design of soil physical properties of some environments in Amazonas. We selected five areas located in the south of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, with varied soil uses, such as forest, archaeological dark earth (ADE, pasture, sugarcane cropping, and agroforestry. Regular mesh grids were set up in these areas with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m from each other. At these points, we determined the particle size composition, soil resistance to penetration, moisture, soil bulk density and particle density, macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity, and aggregate stability in water at a depth of 0.00-0.20 m. Descriptive and geostatistical analyses were performed. The sample density requirements were lower in the pasture area but higher in the forest. We concluded that managed-environments had differences in their soil physical properties compared to the natural forest; notably, the soil in the ADE environment is physically improved in relation to the others. The physical properties evaluated showed a structure of spatial dependence with a slight variability of the forest compared to the others. The use of the range parameter of the semivariogram analysis proved to be effective in determining an ideal sample density.

  14. Soil and sediment sample analysis for the sequential determination of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, H; Levent, D; Barci, V; Barci-Funel, G; Hurel, C

    2008-02-15

    A new sequential method for the determination of both natural (U, Th) and anthropogenic (Sr, Cs, Pu, Am) radionuclides has been developed for application to soil and sediment samples. The procedure was optimised using a reference sediment (IAEA-368) and reference soils (IAEA-375 and IAEA-326). Reference materials were first digested using acids (leaching), 'total' acids on hot plate, and acids in microwave in order to compare the different digestion technique. Then, the separation and purification were made by anion exchange resin and selective extraction chromatography: transuranic (TRU) and strontium (SR) resins. Natural and anthropogenic alpha radionuclides were separated by uranium and tetravalent actinide (UTEVA) resin, considering different acid elution medium. Finally, alpha and gamma semiconductor spectrometer and liquid scintillation spectrometer were used to measure radionuclide activities. The results obtained for strontium-90, cesium-137, thorium-232, uranium-238, plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 isotopes by the proposed method for the reference materials provided excellent agreement with the recommended values and good chemical recoveries. Plutonium isotopes in alpha spectrometry planchet deposits could be also analysed by ICPMS.

  15. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  16. [Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Respiration in a Larch Plantation of North China at Different Sampling Scales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun-xia; Liang, Ya-nan; Li, Hong-jian; Li, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on observations of soil respiration rate (Rs) and both biotic and abiotic factors in Pangquangou Nature Reserve at three sampling scales (4, 2, and 1 m), we studied the spatial heterogeneity of Rs and the factors, and analyzed impacts of soil temperature at the 5, 10 and 15 cm depth (T5, T10, T15), soil moisture over the depth of 0-10 cm (Ws), and soil total nitrogen (N), soil total organic carbon (C), ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N), soil total sulfur (S), litter fall mass (Lw) and litter fall moisture (Lm) on the spatial heterogeneity of Rs, respectively. We also calculated the minimum sampling number of all the factors at different confidence levels and under the responding estimation accuracy. The results showed that: (1) the spatial heterogeneity of C/N at 4 m sampling scale, Ws at 2 m sampling scale and T10, T15 at 1 m sampling scale had low variability, while the spatial variation of Rs and other related factors had medium variability. Coefficients of variation of Rs, C/N and S decreased with the increase of the sampling scales, but those of N, C, Ws, T₅, T₁₀, T₁₅, Lw and Lm showed contrary trend; (2) the spatial autocorrelation of Rs, Ws, T₅, T₁₀, T₁₅, Lw and Lm decreased with the decrease of sampling scales but the spatial autocorrelation of C, N, C/N increased with the decrease of sampling scales, and the spatial autocorrelation of S decreased with the decrease of the sampling scales at initial stage and then increased; (3) the key factors that influenced the spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration were different at different sampling scales. Soil temperature was the key factor influencing the spatial heterogeneity of Rs at a larger scale. However, at a smaller scale, the spatial heterogeneity of Rs was influenced by C, Lw and Lm; (4) the minimum sampling number for soil respiration measurement and its influencing factors reduced greatly with the decrease of confidence level and responding estimation accuracy. The sampling

  17. The feasible research with measuring radon for taking the soils sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bing, Ge Liangquan; Liu Hefan; Li Yeqiang; Zhang Jinzhao; Song Xiao'an

    2010-01-01

    It explains the mechanism of the separation of soil's radon. Through the designed experiment, it confirms the feasibility of measuring radon for taking the soil's sample. It determines the content of the radon and its sub field with indoor and outside through ways of the activated charcoal adsorption, the initiative suction and the diameter mark etching, also the 226 Ra. The paper indicates: it is feasible with measuring radon for taking the soil's sample, and the stability of data is that indoor data are better than outside's. The temperature, the humidity, the rainfall amount, the intensity and so on are the serious influence of the data. If you want to take a soil's sample, you must avoid the rain as far as possible, and avoid the fault zone, the belt of folded strata and complex geologic structure region, and so on. (authors)

  18. Tissue Microarray Technology for Molecular Applications: Investigation of Cross-Contamination between Tissue Samples Obtained from the Same Punching Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vassella

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue microarray (TMA technology allows rapid visualization of molecular markers by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In addition, TMA instrumentation has the potential to assist in other applications: punches taken from donor blocks can be placed directly into tubes and used for nucleic acid analysis by PCR approaches. However, the question of possible cross-contamination between samples punched with the same device has frequently been raised but never addressed. Methods: Two experiments were performed. (1 A block from mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB positive tissue and a second from an uninfected patient were aligned side-by-side in an automated tissue microarrayer. Four 0.6 mm punches were cored from each sample and placed inside their corresponding tube. Between coring of each donor block, a mechanical cleaning step was performed by insertion of the puncher into a paraffin block. This sequence of coring and cleaning was repeated three times, alternating between positive and negative blocks. A fragment from the 6110 insertion sequence specific for mycobacterium tuberculosis was analyzed; (2 Four 0.6 mm punches were cored from three KRAS mutated colorectal cancer blocks, alternating with three different wild-type tissues using the same TMA instrument (sequence of coring: G12D, WT, G12V, WT, G13D and WT. Mechanical cleaning of the device between each donor block was made. Mutation analysis by pyrosequencing was carried out. This sequence of coring was repeated manually without any cleaning step between blocks. Results/Discussion: In both analyses, all alternating samples showed the expected result (samples 1, 3 and 5: positive or mutated, samples 2, 4 and 6: negative or wild-type. Similar results were obtained without cleaning step. These findings suggest that no cross-contamination of tissue samples occurs when donor blocks are punched using the same device, however a cleaning step is nonetheless recommended. Our

  19. Correlation of lithium levels between drinking water obtained from different sources and scalp hair samples of adult male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Shahnawaz; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Muhammad Balal

    2017-10-01

    There is some evidence that natural levels of lithium (Li) in drinking water may have a protective effect on neurological health. In present study, we evaluate the Li levels in drinking water of different origin and bottled mineral water. To evaluate the association between lithium levels in drinking water with human health, the scalp hair samples of male subjects (25-45 years) consumed drinking water obtained from ground water (GW), municipal treated water (MTW) and bottled mineral water (BMW) from rural and urban areas of Sindh, Pakistan were selected. The water samples were pre-concentrated five to tenfold at 60 °C using temperature-controlled electric hot plate. While scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven, prior to determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The Li content in different types of drinking water, GW, MTW and BMW was found in the range of 5.12-22.6, 4.2-16.7 and 0.0-16.3 µg/L, respectively. It was observed that Li concentration in the scalp hair samples of adult males consuming ground water was found to be higher, ranged as 292-393 μg/kg, than those who are drinking municipal treated and bottle mineral water (212-268 and 145-208 μg/kg), respectively.

  20. Rapid Fractionation and Isolation of Whole Blood Components in Samples Obtained from a Community-based Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckle, Amy; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro; Coulborn, Rebecca M; Soliven, Richelo; Meier, Helen; Wildman, Derek E

    2015-11-30

    Collection and processing of whole blood samples in a non-clinical setting offers a unique opportunity to evaluate community-dwelling individuals both with and without preexisting conditions. Rapid processing of these samples is essential to avoid degradation of key cellular components. Included here are methods for simultaneous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), DNA, RNA and serum isolation from a single blood draw performed in the homes of consenting participants across a metropolitan area, with processing initiated within 2 hr of collection. We have used these techniques to process over 1,600 blood specimens yielding consistent, high quality material, which has subsequently been used in successful DNA methylation, genotyping, gene expression and flow cytometry analyses. Some of the methods employed are standard; however, when combined in the described manner, they enable efficient processing of samples from participants of population- and/or community-based studies who would not normally be evaluated in a clinical setting. Therefore, this protocol has the potential to obtain samples (and subsequently data) that are more representative of the general population.

  1. Behaviour of oxyfluorfen in soils amended with edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers obtained from sewage sludge and chicken feathers. Effects on soil biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    We studied the behaviour of oxyfluorfen herbicide at a rate of 4 l ha(-1) on biological properties of a Calcaric Regosol amended with two edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (SS, derived from sewage sludge; and CF, derived from chicken feathers). Oxyfluorfen was surface broadcast on 11 March 2013. Two days after application of oxyfluorfen to soil, both biostimulants/biofertilizers (BS) were also applied to the soil. An unamended soil without oxyfluorfen was used as control. For 2, 4, 7, 9, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of the application of herbicide to the soil and for each treatment, the soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities were measured. For 2, 7, 30 and 120 days of the application of herbicide to the soil and for each treatment, soil microbial community was determined. The application of both BS to soil without the herbicide increased the enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity, mainly at 7 days of beginning the experiment. However, this stimulation was higher in the soil amended with SS than for CF. The application of herbicide in organic-amended soils decreased the inhibition of soil enzymatic activities and soil biodiversity. Possibly, the low-molecular-weight protein content easily assimilated by soil microorganisms is responsible for less inhibition of these soil biological properties.

  2. Limitations and recommendations for successful DNA extraction from forensic soil samples: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Soil is commonly used in forensic casework to provide discriminatory power to link a suspect to a crime scene. Standard analyses examine the intrinsic properties of soils, including mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour; however, soils can also support a vast amount of organisms, which can be examined using DNA fingerprinting techniques. Many previous genetic analyses have relied on patterns of fragment length variation produced by amplification of unidentified taxa in the soil extract. In contrast, the development of advanced DNA sequencing technologies now provides the ability to generate a detailed picture of soil microbial communities and the taxa present, allowing for improved discrimination between samples. However, DNA must be efficiently extracted from the complex soil matrix to achieve accurate and reproducible DNA sequencing results, and extraction efficacy is highly dependent on the soil type and method used. As a result, a consideration of soil properties is important when estimating the likelihood of successful DNA extraction. This would include a basic understanding of soil components, their interactions with DNA molecules and the factors that affect such interactions. This review highlights some important considerations required prior to DNA extraction and discusses the use of common chemical reagents in soil DNA extraction protocols to achieve maximum efficacy. Together, the information presented here is designed to facilitate informed decisions about the most appropriate sampling and extraction methodology, relevant both to the soil type and the details of a specific forensic case, to ensure sufficient DNA yield and enable successful analysis. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples | Steiner-Asiedu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was ...

  4. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  5. Fast low-pressurized microwave-assisted extraction of benzotriazole, benzothiazole and benezenesulfonamide compounds from soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speltini, Andrea; Sturini, Michela; Maraschi, Federica; Porta, Alessio; Profumo, Antonella

    2016-01-15

    Benzotriazoles (BTRs), benzothiazoles (BTs) and benzenesulfonamides (BSAs), compounds largely used in industrial and household applications, are ubiquitous emerging contaminants. In this work a novel, straightforward procedure for the simultaneous determination of two BTRs (1H-benzotriazole, 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole), three BTs (benzothiazole, 2-hydroxybenzothiazole, 2-methylthiobenzothiazole) and two BSAs (benzenesulfonamide, toluenesulfonamide) in soil has been developed. The target analytes were extracted from soil by a single low-pressurized microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) cycle (120°C, 10min) and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. For all the seven analytes, quantitative extraction yields (72-119%, n=4) were observed from recovery tests on soil samples (1g) spiked with 5, 10 and 50mg kg(-1), using 4mL water-methanol (85:15) as extracting solution. For the lower concentrations levels (100, 250 and 500μg kg(-1)), the analytes were extracted from soil samples (2-3g) using 6mL methanol, and the extract was pre-concentrated by evaporation before analysis; recoveries in the range 70-117% were obtained (n=4). Suitable intra-day and inter-day precision were observed, with values of relative standard deviation generally below 6% and 11% (n=4), respectively. Linearity was evaluated in the concentration range 0.5-10mg L(-1) by matrix-matched standards, obtaining r(2)>0.9996. The experimental method quantification limit (MQL) was 100μg kg(-1). The entire procedure has been successfully applied to the analysis of real impacted soil samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in residential soil and drinking water obtained from springs and wells in Rosia Montana area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in n=84 residential soil samples, in Rosia Montana area, analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are...

  7. Application of ASE 200 extractor for extraction of PCB from soil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodak-Kobasic, V.; Picer, M.; Picer, N.; Kovac, T. [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    2004-09-15

    During the recent war in Croatia, the karstic area of this country has been endangered by hazardous waste. This pollution is especially dangerous because the area of the karst has very porous ground and existed the possibility of jeopardize the sources of water. Thus, the determination of toxicant levels of PCB concentration in environmental samples is of a great importance. Our group for the determining of the organic pollutants, which is for many years active in problem of pollution environment with PCBs in Croatia, has started analyzes the PCBs in the warfare-polluted area. Results of the analysis of the polychlorinated biphenyls in the soil from E.T.S. Zadar (110/35 kV) indicate significant contamination. Until recently for extraction of PCBs and chlorinated insecticides from soil and sediment samples we have mostly used Soxhlet extraction. Recently we have possibilities to use Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for extraction of PCBs from dry soil samples collected in vicinity of ETS Zadar. It has been described using the accelerated solvent extraction for the extraction various organic pollutants from solid samples. This method is significantly faster and in same time with significantly less solvent consumption in comparison with other methods of organic pollutants extraction. Dionex corporation also stressed the potential concerns about possibilities of carryover and cross-contamination for high contaminated soil. In this work, we have studied the extraction efficiency of the PCBs from soil samples and problem of cross contamination during using ASE apparatus for extraction PCBs of soil samples contaminated with PCBs in extremely variable levels. It has to be stressed that these soil samples were naturally contaminated before 12 years during rocket attack on ETS Zadar.

  8. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-05

    the second principal component (PC2) is recorded by C18:3 n-3, and C20:3 n-6, being present in a higher amount in the samples treated by the modified Soxhlet extraction, while C22:5 n-3, C20:3 n-3, C22:1 and C20:4, C16 and C18 negatively influence the score values of the PC2, showing significantly increased level in the samples treated by ASE method. Hotelling's paired T-square test used on the first three principal components for confirmation of differences in individual fatty acid content obtained by ASE and Soxhlet method in carp muscle showed statistically significant difference between these two data sets (T(2)=161.308, p<0.001). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and Screening of Potential Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Bacteria from Soil Sample for Degradation of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupal Govinda Shrestha

    2016-11-01

    them with the aptitude to produce stable enzymes, little emphasis has been given to cellulose/xylanase production from bacteria. Seven soil samples were collected from eastern hilly districts of Nepal viz. Taplejung, Panchthar and Sankhuwasabha districts, from soil surface and at depth of 10cm to 20cm, and were isolated separately. From the seven soil samples, four bacterial isolates were obtained. Isolates (PSS, P1D, TLC, SNK were then screened for cellulolytic/xylanolytic activity using Congo red assay on Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC/xylan agar plates. The enzyme activity obtained from isolates was dependent on substrate concentration. The activity of enzymes produced by isolates were also measured and compared on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. Among those samples, the greatest zone of inhibition in both CMC (1.3 cm and xylan (1.0 cm agar media was seen in isolate P1D. It also produced the highest activity of endoglucanase and xylanase i.e. activity 0.035 U/mL and 0.050 U/mL respectively at 0.010 mg mL-1 standard substrate concentration of CMC and xylan.

  10. Regional soil erosion assessment based on a sample survey and geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuiqing; Zhu, Zhengyuan; Wang, Li; Liu, Baoyuan; Xie, Yun; Wang, Guannan; Li, Yishan

    2018-03-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most significant environmental problems in China. From 2010 to 2012, the fourth national census for soil erosion sampled 32 364 PSUs (Primary Sampling Units, small watersheds) with the areas of 0.2-3 km2. Land use and soil erosion controlling factors including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length, slope steepness, biological practice, engineering practice, and tillage practice for the PSUs were surveyed, and the soil loss rate for each land use in the PSUs was estimated using an empirical model, the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE). Though the information collected from the sample units can be aggregated to estimate soil erosion conditions on a large scale; the problem of estimating soil erosion condition on a regional scale has not been addressed well. The aim of this study is to introduce a new model-based regional soil erosion assessment method combining a sample survey and geostatistics. We compared seven spatial interpolation models based on the bivariate penalized spline over triangulation (BPST) method to generate a regional soil erosion assessment from the PSUs. Shaanxi Province (3116 PSUs) in China was selected for the comparison and assessment as it is one of the areas with the most serious erosion problem. Ten-fold cross-validation based on the PSU data showed the model assisted by the land use, rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), slope steepness factor (S), and slope length factor (L) derived from a 1 : 10 000 topography map is the best one, with the model efficiency coefficient (ME) being 0.75 and the MSE being 55.8 % of that for the model assisted by the land use alone. Among four erosion factors as the covariates, the S factor contributed the most information, followed by K and L factors, and R factor made almost no contribution to the spatial estimation of soil loss. The LS factor derived from 30 or 90 m Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data

  11. Online recovery of radiocesium from soil, tissue paper and plant samples by supercritical fluid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Mohapatra, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of recovery of radio-cesium from soil, tissue papers, and plant samples has been evaluated by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) route employing calix(4)arene-mono(crown-6) (CC) dissolved in acetonitrile. These studies showed that quantitative recovery of 137 Cs from soil samples was difficult under the conditions of these studies. However, experiments performed on tissue papers (cellulose matrix) showed quantitative recovery of 137 Cs. On the other hand, 137 Cs recovery from plant samples varied between ∼50 % (for stems) and ∼67.2 % (for leaves) employing 1x10 -3 M CC + 4 M HNO 3 dissolved in acetonitrile. (author)

  12. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol....... These are separated and identified using High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) with fluorescence detection. As an additional detection method Infra Red spectrometry (IR) is employed for selected samples. The methods have been used on aerosol, soil and other samples....

  13. Development of Sampling Methods for Powders and Soil for Detection of Biothreat Agents by Electrochemiluminecence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    DEC03; dairy creamer, lot number DPG 13MAY04; and flour, lot number DPGLJ24MAY05. In addition, flour (white, enriched, all purpose, Safeway brand...and dairy Rcreamer (Coffee Mate , Carnation, Nestl6) were purchased from Canada Safeway Ltd. (Medicine Hat, AB). The soil was from the Suffield...matrix to diluent ratios was obtained by using VEEV MINITubes and positive control antigens with flour from a different source ( Safeway brand) and soil

  14. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  15. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  16. Occurence of the phthalate esters in soil and street dust samples from the Novi Sad city area, Serbia, and the influence on the children's and adults' exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbić, Biljana D; Ji, Yaqin; Đurišić-Mladenović, Nataša; Zhao, Jie

    2016-07-15

    This is the first study reporting the presence of 6 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in 60 composite soil and street dust samples collected in the urban zone of Novi Sad, the second largest city in Serbia. The results were further used to assess children's and adults' PAEs nondietary daily intakes (DIs) through incidental soil and dust ingestion and/or dermal absorption. The study could be regarded as the important baseline for future monitoring of PAEs in the urban environments, particularly as it contributes to the rare data on PAEs occurence in the street dust. All 6 PAEs were detected in every analyzed soil and street dust samples from 0.0002mgkg(-1) to 4.82mgkg(-1), with the highest level obtained for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), which was the most dominant PAE (70-96%). The highest total PAEs (Σ6PAEs) contents in soil (2.12mgkg(-1)) and street dust (5.45mgkg(-1)) samples were obtained for the samples from city parks. In all soil samples, Σ6PAEs exceeded the soil sustainable quality limit sets by the relevant Serbian Regulation, but were much lower than the limit requiring remediation measures. Concerning the estimated DIs, children were more susceptible to PAEs intake than adults regardless of the exposure routes. All the estimated DIs values were far below the known reference values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrated Field Lysimetry and Porewater Sampling for Evaluation of Chemical Mobility in Soils and Established Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Travis W.; Polizzotto, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    Potentially toxic chemicals are routinely applied to land to meet growing demands on waste management and food production, but the fate of these chemicals is often not well understood. Here we demonstrate an integrated field lysimetry and porewater sampling method for evaluating the mobility of chemicals applied to soils and established vegetation. Lysimeters, open columns made of metal or plastic, are driven into bareground or vegetated soils. Porewater samplers, which are commercially available and use vacuum to collect percolating soil water, are installed at predetermined depths within the lysimeters. At prearranged times following chemical application to experimental plots, porewater is collected, and lysimeters, containing soil and vegetation, are exhumed. By analyzing chemical concentrations in the lysimeter soil, vegetation, and porewater, downward leaching rates, soil retention capacities, and plant uptake for the chemical of interest may be quantified. Because field lysimetry and porewater sampling are conducted under natural environmental conditions and with minimal soil disturbance, derived results project real-case scenarios and provide valuable information for chemical management. As chemicals are increasingly applied to land worldwide, the described techniques may be utilized to determine whether applied chemicals pose adverse effects to human health or the environment. PMID:25045915

  18. Atomic absorption determination of metals in soils using ultrasonic sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmilenko, F.A.; Smityuk, N.M.; Baklanov, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    It was shown that ultrasonic treatment accelerates sample preparation of soil extracts from chernozem into different solvents by a factor of 6 to 60. These extracts are used for the atomic absorption determination of soluble species of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The optimum ultrasound parameters (frequency, intensity, and treatment time) were found for preparing soil extracts containing analytes in concentrations required in agrochemical procedures. Different extractants used to extract soluble heavy metals from soils of an ordinary chernozem type in agrochemical procedures using ultrasonic treatment were classified in accordance with the element nature [ru

  19. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION OF SOIL SAMPLES FOR PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (SOP-2.20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for collecting soil samples from the child's outdoor play area to measure for persistent organic pollutants. Soil samples are collected by scraping up the top 0.5 cm of soil in a 0.095 m2 (1 ft2) area in the middle of the child's play area.

  20. A method for assessing residual NAPL based on organic chemical concentrations in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, S.; Mackay, D.M.; Cherry, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Ground water contamination by non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals is a serious concern at many industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. NAPL in the form of immobile residual contamination, or pools of mobile or potentially mobile NAPL, can represent continuing sources of ground water contamination. In order to develop rational and cost-effective plans for remediation of soil and ground water contamination at such sites, it is essential to determine if non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) chemicals are present in the subsurface and delineate the zones of NAPL contamination. Qualitatively, soil analyses that exhibit chemical concentrations in the percent range or >10,000 mg/kg would generally be considered to indicate the presence of NAPL. However, the results of soil analyses are seldom used in a quantitative manner to assess the possible presence of residual NAPL contamination when chemical concentrations are lower and the presence of NAPL is not obvious. The assessment of the presence of NAPL in soil samples is possible using the results of chemical and physical analyses of the soil, and the fundamental principles of chemical partitioning in unsaturated or saturated soil. The method requires information on the soil of the type typically considered in ground water contamination studies and provides a simple tool for the investigators of chemical spill and waste disposal sites to assess whether soil chemical analyses indicate the presence of residual NAPL in the subsurface

  1. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  2. Characterization of bacterial strains capable of desulphurisation in soil and sediment samples from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniek, Douglas; Figueiredo, Débora; Pylro, Victor Satler; Duarte, Gabriela Frois

    2010-09-01

    The presence of sulphur in fossil fuels and the natural environment justifies the study of sulphur-utilising bacterial species and genes involved in the biodesulphurisation process. Technology has been developed based on the natural ability of microorganisms to remove sulphur from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chains. This biotechnology aims to minimise the emission of sulphur oxides into the atmosphere during combustion and prevent the formation of acid rain. In this study, the isolation and characterization of desulphurising microorganisms in rhizosphere and bulk soil samples from Antarctica that were either contaminated with oil or uncontaminated was described. The growth of selected isolates and their capacity to utilise sulphur based on the formation of the terminal product of desulphurisation via the 4S pathway, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, was analysed. DNA was extracted from the isolates and BOX-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to obtain a genomic diversity profile of cultivable desulphurising bacterial species. Fifty isolates were obtained showing the ability of utilising dibenzothiophene as a substrate and sulphur source for maintenance and growth when plated on selective media. However, only seven genetically diverse isolates tested positive for sulphur removal using the Gibbs assay. DNA sequencing revealed that these isolates were related to the genera Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas.

  3. Critical evaluation of distillation procedure for the determination of methylmercury in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Pablo A; Hintelman, Holger; Quiroz, Waldo; Bravo, Manuel A

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, the efficiency of distillation process for extracting monomethylmercury (MMHg) from soil samples was studied and optimized using an experimental design methodology. The influence of soil composition on MMHg extraction was evaluated by testing of four soil samples with different geochemical characteristics. Optimization suggested that the acid concentration and the duration of the distillation process were most significant and the most favorable conditions, established as a compromise for the studied soils, were determined to be a 70 min distillation using an 0.2 M acid. Corresponding limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.21 and 0.7 pg absolute, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied with satisfactory results to soil samples and was compared to a reference methodology based on isotopic dilution analysis followed by gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IDA-GC-ICP-MS). Using the optimized conditions, recoveries ranged from 82 to 98%, which is an increase of 9-34% relative to the previously used standard operating procedure. Finally, the validated methodology was applied to quantify MMHg in soils collected from different sites impacted by coal fired power plants in the north-central zone of Chile, measuring MMHg concentrations ranging from 0.091 to 2.8 ng g -1 . These data are to the best of our knowledge the first MMHg measurements reported for Chile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Separation techniques for low-level determination of actinides in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberg, J; Jäggi, M; Beer, H; Rüthi, M; Zumsteg, I

    2009-05-01

    The separation methods for soil samples applied at PSI are based on extraction chromatography and ion exchange. After sample leaching, the actinides are pre-concentrated via precipitation using oxalic acid. Besides the classical separation methods applying the extraction chromatographic resins U/TEVA (for U, Th), TRU (Pu, Am), new methods were recently implemented to increase the radiochemical recovery of particularly trivalent Am and Cm. These methods do not require initial reduction of Pu(IV) to Pu(III) but stabilize Pu on the tetravalent oxidation state using a mixture of NaNO(2)/H(2)O(2) in strong acidic medium. The Pu-fraction is then fixed along with Th onto Dowex AG 1-X2 anion exchanger resin. Th is eluted via complexation with 10M HCl, Pu via reduction with HI. The fractions of Am+Cm and U are loaded onto DGA resin. This resin shows extraordinary high distribution coefficients (k'-values) exceeding 10(4) (for Am) in strong nitric acid medium. The separation between U and Am is obtained quantitatively by decreasing the HNO(3) concentration from 3 to 0.25 M (stripping of the U-fraction) while Am can be easily eluted thereafter using 0.25 M HCl as complexation compound.

  5. Utility of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFI to Detect Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patpong Rongkard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Culture is the gold standard for the detection of environmental B. pseudomallei. In general, soil specimens are cultured in enrichment broth for 2 days, and then the culture broth is streaked on an agar plate and incubated further for 7 days. However, identifying B. pseudomallei on the agar plates among other soil microbes requires expertise and experience. Here, we evaluate a lateral flow immunoassay (LFI developed to detect B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS in clinical samples as a tool to detect B. pseudomallei in environmental samples.First, we determined the limit of detection (LOD of LFI for enrichment broth of the soil specimens. Soil specimens (10 grams/specimen culture negative for B. pseudomallei were spiked with B. pseudomallei ranging from 10 to 105 CFU, and incubated in 10 ml of enrichment broth in air at 40°C. Then, on day 2, 4 and 7 of incubation, 50 μL of the upper layer of the broth were tested on the LFI, and colony counts to determine quantity of B. pseudomallei in the broth were performed. We found that all five soil specimens inoculated at 10 CFU were negative by LFI on day 2, but four of those five specimens were LFI positive on day 7. The LOD of the LFI was estimated to be roughly 3.8x106 CFU/ml, and culture broth on day 7 was selected as the optimal sample for LFI testing. Second, we evaluated the utility of the LFI by testing 105 soil samples from Northeast Thailand. All samples were also tested by standard culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR targeting orf2. Of 105 soil samples, 35 (33% were LFI positive, 25 (24% were culture positive for B. pseudomallei, and 79 (75% were qPCR positive. Of 11 LFI positive but standard culture negative specimens, six were confirmed by having the enrichment broth on day 7 culture positive for B. pseudomallei, and an additional three by qPCR. The LFI had 97% (30/31 sensitivity to detect soil specimens culture positive for B. pseudomallei.The LFI can be used to detect B

  6. Representativeness of laboratory sampling procedures for the analysis of trace metals in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Jean-Sébastien; Boudreault, Jean-Philippe; Bost, Régis; Sona, Mirela; Duhaime, François; Éthier, Yannic

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the representativeness of laboratory sampling protocols for purposes of trace metal analysis in soil. Five laboratory protocols were compared, including conventional grab sampling, to assess the influence of sectorial splitting, sieving, and grinding on measured trace metal concentrations and their variability. It was concluded that grinding was the most important factor in controlling the variability of trace metal concentrations. Grinding increased the reproducibility of sample mass reduction by rotary sectorial splitting by up to two orders of magnitude. Combined with rotary sectorial splitting, grinding increased the reproducibility of trace metal concentrations by almost three orders of magnitude compared to grab sampling. Moreover, results showed that if grinding is used as part of a mass reduction protocol by sectorial splitting, the effect of sieving on reproducibility became insignificant. Gy's sampling theory and practice was also used to analyze the aforementioned sampling protocols. While the theoretical relative variances calculated for each sampling protocol qualitatively agreed with the experimental variances, their quantitative agreement was very poor. It was assumed that the parameters used in the calculation of theoretical sampling variances may not correctly estimate the constitutional heterogeneity of soils or soil-like materials. Finally, the results have highlighted the pitfalls of grab sampling, namely, the fact that it does not exert control over incorrect sampling errors and that it is strongly affected by distribution heterogeneity.

  7. Study of the behavior to corrosion of samples of nuclear grade aluminium sheathed in nickel-phosphorous alloys obtained autocatalytically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maria Eugenia; Barbero, Jose Alfredo; Bubach, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    One of the ways to protect an industrially important metallic material against corrosion is by covering the piece with an approximately 1 μm layer of a material whose resistance to corrosion is greater than the element being protected. The mechanism by which the anticorrosive protection is obtained is with the formation of a pore free physical barrier without defects that impedes the arrival of the agents responsible for the electrochemical attack. Other sacrifice anodes such as aluminum or zinc have protective forms based on their dissolution as a consequence of their less electrochemically noble behavior to preserve the material. This work studies the resistance to the corrosion of metallic coatings on nuclear grade aluminum substrates. The focus is on coating nickel-phosphorous (ni-P) alloys obtained autocatalytically from aluminum 6061. A comparative study is carried out of a series of electroless nickel coatings containing different amounts of the latter element, but without surpassing the threshold of 12%. The work includes the study of another nickel coating, Vitrovac 0080 (without phosphorous content) in order to compare structures and anticorrosive properties. These materials are also compared with the Al6061 substrate without any kind of coating. The study is carried out with surface characterization of each one of the samples with or without coating using a series of complementary techniques, such as chemical and electrochemical techniques (linear-sweep voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, determination of the polarization resistance) and physical techniques (SEM microscopy, determination of micro-hardness). The correlation of variables is carried out later as a function of the phosphorous content of the test samples. The structures obtained from the coatings are amorphous. They have no pores or faults and have high hardness values. The electrochemical study proves that the anticorrosive protection capacity of the Ni-P alloy increases along with the

  8. Determination of Pu in soil samples; Determinacion de Pu en muestras de suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres C, C. O.; Hernandez M, H.; Romero G, E. T. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: carioli_32907@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The irreversible consequences of accidents occurring in nuclear plants and in nuclear fuel reprocessing sites are mainly the distribution of different radionuclides in different matrices such as the soil. The distribution in the superficial soil is related to the internal and external exposure to the radiation of the affected population. The internal contamination with radionuclides such as Pu is of great relevance to the nuclear forensic science, where is important to know the chemical and isotopic compositions of nuclear materials. The objective of this work is to optimize the radiochemical separation of plutonium (Pu) from soil samples and to determine their concentration. The soil samples were prepared using acid digestion assisted by microwave; purification of Pu was carried out with AG1X8 resin using ion exchange chromatography. Pu isotopes were measured using ICP-SFMS. In order to reduce the interference due to the presence of {sup 238}UH {sup +} in the samples, a solvent removal system (Apex) was used. In addition, the limit of detection and quantification of Pu was determined. It was found that the recovery efficiency of Pu in soil samples ranges from 70 to 93%. (Author)

  9. Optimization of deconvolution software used in the study of spectra of soil samples from Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDRIAMADY NARIMANANA, S.F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to perform the deconvolution of gamma spectra by using the deconvolution peak program. Synthetic spectra, reference materials and ten soil samples with various U-238 activities from three regions of Madagascar were used. This work concerns : soil sample spectra with low activities of about (47±2) Bq.kg -1 from Ankatso, soil sample spectra with average activities of about (125±2)Bq.kg -1 from Antsirabe and soil sample spectra with high activities of about (21100± 120) Bq.kg -1 from Vinaninkarena. Singlet and multiplet peaks with various intensities were found in each soil spectrum. Interactive Peak Fit (IPF) program in Genie-PC from Canberra Industries allows to deconvoluate many multiplet regions : quartet within 235 keV-242 keV, Pb-214 and Pb-212 within 294 keV -301 keV; Th-232 daughters within 582 keV - 584 keV; Ac-228 within 904 keV -911 keV and within 964 keV-970 keV and Bi-214 within 1401 keV - 1408 keV. Those peaks were used to quantify considered radionuclides. However, IPF cannot resolve Ra-226 peak at 186,1 keV. [fr

  10. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in aerosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2008-04-01

    Four different communities and one culture of pigmented microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation in mineral medium of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas). Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. The phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed the identification of sequences belonging to Proteobacteria (Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the maritime Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clone). The only microorganism identified in the maritime Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. The two snow samples from the Alps only shared one common microorganism. Most of the identified microorganisms have been detected previously in cold environments (Dietzia kujamenisi, Pseudonocardia Antarctica, Hydrogenophaga palleronii and Brebundimonas sp.), marine sediments (Aquiflexus balticus, Pseudomonas pseudoalkaligenes, Pseudomonas sp. and one uncultured Alphaproteobacteria), and soils and rocks (Pseudonocardia sp., Agrobactrium sp., Limnobacter sp. and two uncultured Alphaproteobacetria clones). Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those

  11. High-throughput diagnosis of potato cyst nematodes in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alex; Evans, Fiona; Mulholland, Vincent; Cole, Yvonne; Pickup, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Potato cyst nematode (PCN) is a damaging soilborne pest of potatoes which can cause major crop losses. In 2010, a new European Union directive (2007/33/EC) on the control of PCN came into force. Under the new directive, seed potatoes can only be planted on land which has been found to be free from PCN infestation following an official soil test. A major consequence of the new directive was the introduction of a new harmonized soil sampling rate resulting in a threefold increase in the number of samples requiring testing. To manage this increase with the same staffing resources, we have replaced the traditional diagnostic methods. A system has been developed for the processing of soil samples, extraction of DNA from float material, and detection of PCN by high-throughput real-time PCR. Approximately 17,000 samples are analyzed each year using this method. This chapter describes the high-throughput processes for the production of float material from soil samples, DNA extraction from the entire float, and subsequent detection and identification of PCN within these samples.

  12. Comparative analysis of the sensitivity of metagenomic sequencing and PCR to detect a biowarfare simulant (Bacillus atrophaeus in soil samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Plaire

    Full Text Available To evaluate the sensitivity of high-throughput DNA sequencing for monitoring biowarfare agents in the environment, we analysed soil samples inoculated with different amounts of Bacillus atrophaeus, a surrogate organism for Bacillus anthracis. The soil samples considered were a poorly carbonated soil of the silty sand class, and a highly carbonated soil of the silt class. Control soil samples and soil samples inoculated with 10, 103, or 105 cfu were processed for DNA extraction. About 1% of the DNA extracts was analysed through the sequencing of more than 108 reads. Similar amounts of extracts were also studied for Bacillus atrophaeus DNA content by real-time PCR. We demonstrate that, for both soils, high-throughput sequencing is at least equally sensitive than real-time PCR to detect Bacillus atrophaeus DNA. We conclude that metagenomics allows the detection of less than 10 ppm of DNA from a biowarfare simulant in complex environmental samples.

  13. Comparative analysis of the sensitivity of metagenomic sequencing and PCR to detect a biowarfare simulant (Bacillus atrophaeus) in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaire, Delphine; Puaud, Simon; Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Elalouf, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of high-throughput DNA sequencing for monitoring biowarfare agents in the environment, we analysed soil samples inoculated with different amounts of Bacillus atrophaeus, a surrogate organism for Bacillus anthracis. The soil samples considered were a poorly carbonated soil of the silty sand class, and a highly carbonated soil of the silt class. Control soil samples and soil samples inoculated with 10, 103, or 105 cfu were processed for DNA extraction. About 1% of the DNA extracts was analysed through the sequencing of more than 108 reads. Similar amounts of extracts were also studied for Bacillus atrophaeus DNA content by real-time PCR. We demonstrate that, for both soils, high-throughput sequencing is at least equally sensitive than real-time PCR to detect Bacillus atrophaeus DNA. We conclude that metagenomics allows the detection of less than 10 ppm of DNA from a biowarfare simulant in complex environmental samples.

  14. Ground-Water Issue: Soil sampling and analysis for volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T.E.; Crockett, A.B.; Siegrist, R.L.; Zarrabi, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water scientists that represents EPA's Regional Superfund Offices. The forum was organized to exchange up-to-date information related to groundwater remediation at Superfund sites. Sampling of soils for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an issue identified by the Ground Water Forum as a concern of Superfund decision makers. Concerns over data quality have raised many questions related to sampling soils for VOCs. This paper was prepared in response to some of these questions and concerns expressed by Remedial Project Managers (RPMs) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs). 53 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples at South Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poojitha, C.G.; Pranesha, T.S.; Ganesh, K.E.; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples collected from different locations of South Bengaluru city were measured using scintillation based Smart radon thoron monitor (RnDuo). It has been observed that the mass exhalation rate estimated due to presence of radon concentration in soil samples ranges from 39.18 - 265.58 mBq/kg/h with an average value of 115.64 mBq/kg/h. Finally we compare our results with similar investigation from different parts of India. (author)

  16. The Effect of Sample Size and Data Numbering on Precision of Calibration Model to predict Soil Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohamadi Monavar

    2017-10-01

    models, then other15 samples were added randomly to the previous set and it was done continuously. Finally, seven groups (15, 30... 105 were placed in each category. Results and Discussion All regression models on the whole pre-processed soil spectra were obtained in absorption mode. By increasing the number of samples in the calibration set of random group, RMSE was decreased from 0.2 to 0.13 nonlinearly. RMSE in the chemical test was also decreased almost linearly from 0.17 to 0.11. At the same time, R2 and RPD were increased from 0.46 to 0.72 and from 1.3 to 2.0 respectively. Finally, in categories based on PCA, the RMSE fell down almost linearly (0.19-0.13. Potassium prediction model with the least amount of R2 (0.48 and phosphorus with highest number of errors (RMSE = 5.28 were the weakest models in whole data. Other properties of the soil had a higher coefficient of determination (R2> 0.5. Therefore, prediction models had acceptable accuracy. At least 77, 105 and 105 samples are required for precise calibration model of OC, nitrogen and pH respectively. Due to the different conditions of farms, comparing these results with previous findings is very complex. Furthermore, model accuracy did not improve by increasing data of calibration models to the total number of samples. While in previous studies, more precise model was calibrated by considering the entire data sets. Among all factors of soil, acidity has little dependence on the other soil properties. The pH modeling is also confirmed by Moros (2009 however, the more error was reported here. There is no certain pH range in the NIR spectra, and usually it is distinguishable from the other properties of the soil (Kuang and Mouazen, 2011. Conclusions Spectroscopic methods exhibited good potential for detecting soil properties. MSC and BC can effectively remove irrelevant information to improve prediction accuracy. Using different methods to select numbers of data for the calibration models presented similar results

  17. Measurement of radionuclide activities of uranium-238 series in soil samples by gamma spectrometry: case of Vinaninkarena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrianantenaina, F.R.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the activity level of radionuclides of uranium-238 series. Eight soil samples are collected at Rural Commune of Vinaninkarena. After obtaining secular equilibrium, these samples have been measured using gamma spectrometry system in the Nuclear Analyses and Techniques Department of INSTN-Madagascar, with HPGe detector (30 % relative efficiency) and a Genie 2000 software. Activities obtained vary from (78±2)Bq.kg -1 to (49 231 ± 415)Bq.kg -1 . Among these eight samples, three activity levels are shown. Low activity is an activity which has value lower or equal to (89±3)Bq.kg -1 . Average activity is an activity which has value between (186± 1)Bq.kg -1 and (1049 ±7)Bq.kg -1 . And high activity is an activity which has value higher or equal to (14501±209)Bq.kg -1 . According to UNSCEAR 2000, these value are all higher than the world average value which is 35 Bq.kg -1 .It is due to the localities of sampling points. The variation of the activity level depends on radionuclide concentration of uranium-238 series in the soil. [fr

  18. Optimization of a sample processing protocol for recovery of Bacillus anthracis spores from soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Feldhake, David; Griffin, Dale; Lisle, John T.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Shah, Sanjiv; Pemberton, A; Schaefer III, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Following a release of Bacillus anthracis spores into the environment, there is a potential for lasting environmental contamination in soils. There is a need for detection protocols for B. anthracis in environmental matrices. However, identification of B. anthracis within a soil is a difficult task. Processing soil samples helps to remove debris, chemical components, and biological impurities that can interfere with microbiological detection. This study aimed to optimize a previously used indirect processing protocol, which included a series of washing and centrifugation steps. Optimization of the protocol included: identifying an ideal extraction diluent, variation in the number of wash steps, variation in the initial centrifugation speed, sonication and shaking mechanisms. The optimized protocol was demonstrated at two laboratories in order to evaluate the recovery of spores from loamy and sandy soils. The new protocol demonstrated an improved limit of detection for loamy and sandy soils over the non-optimized protocol with an approximate matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/g of soil. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol will be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries.

  19. Field Scale Variation in Water Dispersible Colloids from Aggregates and Intact Soil Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    . It is, however, difficult to quantify the amount of colloids ready available to participate in colloid-facilitated transport. In literature, the part of the colloidal fraction that readily disperses into suspension is referred to as water-dispersible clay (WDC). In this study we used two methods......Colloid-facilitated transport can play an important role in the transport of chemicals through the soil profile. The negative surface charge and large surface area makes colloids perfect carriers for strongly sorbing chemicals, like phosphorus and certain pesticides, in highly structured soils...... for measuring the amount of WDC (soil sampled from an agricultural 1.69 ha field in a 15 x 15 m grid (65 points). In method no. 1 laser diffraction was applied to continuously measure the particle size distribution of 1-2 mm intact soil aggregates at two initial moisture...

  20. The influence of technological parameters on the dynamic behavior of "liquid wood" samples obtained by injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavanescu Mazurchevici, Simona; Carausu, Constantin; Comaneci, Radu; Nedelcu, Dumitru

    2017-10-01

    The plastic products contribute to environmental pollution. Replacing the plastic materials with biodegradable materials with superior properties is an absolute necessity and important research direction for the near future. The first steps in this regard were the creation of composite materials containing natural fibers with positive effects on the environment that have penetrated in different fields. The bioplastics and biocomposites made from natural fibers is a topical solution. The next step was made towards obtaining biodegradable and recyclable materials based on cellulose, lignin and no carcinogens. In this category fall the "liquid wood" with a use up to five times without affecting the mechanical properties. "Liquid wood" is a high quality thermoplastic biocomposite. "Liquid wood" is a biopolymer composite divided in three categories, ARBOFORM®, ARBOBLEND® and ARBOFILL®, which have differed composition in terms of lignin percentage, being delivered by Tecnaro, as granules, [1]. The paper's research was focus on Arboform L V3 Nature and Arboform L V3 Nature reinforced with aramid fiber. In the experimental plan were taken into account six parameters (Dinj - direction of injection [°]; Ttop - melting temperature [°C]; Pinj - injection pressure [MPa] Ss - speed [m/min]; tinj - injection time [s] and tc - cooling time [s]) each with two levels, research carried on by Taguchi methodology. Processing Taguchi method allowed both Taguchi setting work parameters influence on storage modulus and damping as the size and influence their ranking. Experimental research concerning the influence technological parameters on storage modulus of samples obtained by injection from Arboform L V3 Nature yielded an average of 6055MPa and descending order as follows: Trac, Ss, Pinj, Dinj and Ttop. The average of model for reinforced material was 6419MPa and descending order of parameters influence such as: Dinj, Trac, Ttop, tinj, Ss and Pinj.

  1. Norm in soil and sludge samples in Dukhan oil Field, Qatar state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kinani, A.T.; Hushari, M.; Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Alsadig, I.A., E-mail: mmhushari@moe.gov.qa [Radiation and Chemical Protection Department, Ministry of Environment, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to measure the activity concentrations of Naturally Occurring radioactive Materials (NORM) produced as a buy products in oil production. The analyses of NORM give available information for guidelines concerning radiation protection. Recently NORM subjected to restricted regulation issued by high legal authority at Qatar state. Twenty five samples of soil from Dukhan onshore oil field and 10 sludge samples collected from 2 offshore fields at Qatar state. High resolution low-level gamma-ray spectrometry used to measure gamma emitters of NORM. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclide in 22 samples from Dukhan oil field, were with average worldwide values . Only three soil samples have high activity concentration of Ra-226 which is more than 185 Bq/kg the exempted level for NORM in the Quatrain regulation. The natural radionuclide activity concentrations of 10 sludge samples from offshore oil fields was greater than 1100Bq/kg the exempted values of NORM set by Quatrain regulation so the sludge need special treatments. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for the 22 samples were below the word permissible values .This means that the human exposure to such material not impose any radiation risk. The average hazards indices (H{sub ex} , D , and Ra{sub eq}), for 3 soil samples and sludge samples are higher than the published maximal permissible. Thus human exposure to such material impose radiation risk. (author)

  2. Measurement of activity concentration of primordial radionuclides in the soil samples of Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Saiyad Musthafa, M.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Shahul Hameed, M.M.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uranium ( 238 U), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K) are considered to be Primordial radionuclides which are widely distributed in the earth's crust. Gamma-radiation from these radionuclides represents the main external source of irradiation for the human body. Human beings are exposed outdoors to the natural terrestrial radiation that originates predominantly from the upper 30 cm of the soil. A pilot project was therefore initiated aiming at systematically measuring the terrestrial gamma radiation in Tiruchirappalli city, Tamil Nadu, South India and to establish baseline data on the terrestrial background radiation level determining its contribution to the annual effective dose equivalent to the human population. The natural radioactivity concentrations were studied in soil samples collected from 50 locations in Tiruchirappalli city. The concentration varies significantly over different soil types and the highest radioactivity was measured over soil types of granite origin followed by red soil and alluvial loam. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K in soil samples are found to be 81.78 Bq.kg -1 , 32.62 Bq.kg -1 , and 551.35 Bq.kg -1 respectively. The calculated gamma dose from the soil is in the range between 38.86nGy.h -1 and 240.59 nGy.h -1 with a mean value of 89.76 nGy.h -1 . The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.11mSv.y -1 which is low as compared with the maximum permissible effective dose equivalent of 1mSv.y -1 (ICRP,1991). In the present study it is observed that the major sources of gamma radiation in soils are mainly derived from rocky area with granite basement. (author)

  3. Detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in complex soil and air samples using next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Be

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is the potentially lethal etiologic agent of anthrax disease, and is a significant concern in the realm of biodefense. One of the cornerstones of an effective biodefense strategy is the ability to detect infectious agents with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in the context of a complex sample background. The nature of the B. anthracis genome, however, renders specific detection difficult, due to close homology with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We therefore elected to determine the efficacy of next-generation sequencing analysis and microarrays for detection of B. anthracis in an environmental background. We applied next-generation sequencing to titrated genome copy numbers of B. anthracis in the presence of background nucleic acid extracted from aerosol and soil samples. We found next-generation sequencing to be capable of detecting as few as 10 genomic equivalents of B. anthracis DNA per nanogram of background nucleic acid. Detection was accomplished by mapping reads to either a defined subset of reference genomes or to the full GenBank database. Moreover, sequence data obtained from B. anthracis could be reliably distinguished from sequence data mapping to either B. cereus or B. thuringiensis. We also demonstrated the efficacy of a microbial census microarray in detecting B. anthracis in the same samples, representing a cost-effective and high-throughput approach, complementary to next-generation sequencing. Our results, in combination with the capacity of sequencing for providing insights into the genomic characteristics of complex and novel organisms, suggest that these platforms should be considered important components of a biosurveillance strategy.

  4. Dielectrophoretic sample preparation for environmental monitoring of microorganisms: Soil particle removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Henry O; McDonnell, Martin C; Hughes, Michael P

    2014-07-01

    Detection of pathogens from environmental samples is often hampered by sensors interacting with environmental particles such as soot, pollen, or environmental dust such as soil or clay. These particles may be of similar size to the target bacterium, preventing removal by filtration, but may non-specifically bind to sensor surfaces, fouling them and causing artefactual results. In this paper, we report the selective manipulation of soil particles using an AC electrokinetic microfluidic system. Four heterogeneous soil samples (smectic clay, kaolinitic clay, peaty loam, and sandy loam) were characterised using dielectrophoresis to identify the electrical difference to a target organism. A flow-cell device was then constructed to evaluate dielectrophoretic separation of bacteria and clay in a continous flow through mode. The average separation efficiency of the system across all soil types was found to be 68.7% with a maximal separation efficiency for kaolinitic clay at 87.6%. This represents the first attempt to separate soil particles from bacteria using dielectrophoresis and indicate that the technique shows significant promise; with appropriate system optimisation, we believe that this preliminary study represents an opportunity to develop a simple yet highly effective sample processing system.

  5. Analysis of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Purola area of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manjulata; Rawat, Mukesh; Dangwal, Anoop; Prasad, Mukesh; Gusain, G S; Ramola, R C

    2015-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are widely spread in the earth's environment, being distributed in soil, rocks, water, air, plants and even within the human body. All of these sources have contributed to an increase in the levels of environmental radioactivity and population radiation doses. This paper presents the activity level due to the presence of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil samples of Purola area in Garhwal Himalaya region. The measured activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in collected soil samples of Purola was found to vary from 13±10 to 55±10 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 31±2 Bq kg(-1), 13±10 to 101±13 Bq kg(-1) with an average 30±3 Bq kg(-1) and 150±81 to 1310±154 Bq kg(-1) with an average 583±30 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The radium equivalent activity in collected soil samples was found to vary from 47 to 221 Bq kg(-1) with an average of 115 Bq kg(-1). The total absorbed gamma dose rate in this area was found to vary from 22 to 93 nGy h(-1) with an average of 55 nGy h(-1). The distribution of these radionuclides in the soil of study area is discussed in details. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Toril

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia, from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas, in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one. Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones. These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone. The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp. was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  7. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  8. Ground states of 2D ± J Ising spin glasses obtained via stationary Fokker–Planck sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchert, O; Hartmann, A K

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the performance of the recently proposed stationary Fokker–Planck sampling method, considering a combinatorial optimization problem from statistical physics. The algorithmic procedure relies upon the numerical solution of a linear second-order differential equation that depends on a diffusion-like parameter D. We apply it to the problem of finding ground states of 2D Ising spin glasses for the ± J model. We consider square lattices with side length up to L = 24 with boundary conditions of two different types and compare the results to those obtained by exact methods. A particular value of D is found that yields an optimal performance of the algorithm. We compare the situation with this optimal value of D to the case of a percolation transition, which is found when studying the connected clusters of spins flipped by the algorithm. However, even for moderate lattice sizes, it becomes more and more difficult to find the exact ground states with the algorithm. This means that the approach, at least in its standard form, seems to be inferior to other approaches like parallel tempering

  9. Exploring effective sampling design for monitoring soil organic carbon in degraded Tibetan grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaofeng; Bao, Xiaoying; Wang, Shiping; Zhu, Xiaoxue; Luo, Caiyun; Zhang, Zhenhua; Wilkes, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    The effects of climate change and human activities on grassland degradation and soil carbon stocks have become a focus of both research and policy. However, lack of research on appropriate sampling design prevents accurate assessment of soil carbon stocks and stock changes at community and regional scales. Here, we conducted an intensive survey with 1196 sampling sites over an area of 190 km(2) of degraded alpine meadow. Compared to lightly degraded meadow, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in moderately, heavily and extremely degraded meadow were reduced by 11.0%, 13.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Our field survey sampling design was overly intensive to estimate SOC status with a tolerable uncertainty of 10%. Power analysis showed that the optimal sampling density to achieve the desired accuracy would be 2, 3, 5 and 7 sites per 10 km(2) for lightly, moderately, heavily and extremely degraded meadows, respectively. If a subsequent paired sampling design with the optimum sample size were performed, assuming stock change rates predicted by experimental and modeling results, we estimate that about 5-10 years would be necessary to detect expected trends in SOC in the top 20 cm soil layer. Our results highlight the utility of conducting preliminary surveys to estimate the appropriate sampling density and avoid wasting resources due to over-sampling, and to estimate the sampling interval required to detect an expected sequestration rate. Future studies will be needed to evaluate spatial and temporal patterns of SOC variability. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Rare Earth Elements Pattern in Weathered Japanese Soil Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hosoda, M.; Takahashi, H.; Sorimachi, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tokonami, S.; Uchida, S.

    2011-01-01

    From the viewpoint of radiation protection, determination of natural radionuclides e.g. thorium and uranium in soil samples are important. Accurate methods for determination of Th and U is gaining importance. The geochemical behavior of Th, U and rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively close to one another while compared to other elements in geological environment. Radioactive elements like 232 Th and 238 U along with their decay products (e.g. 226 Ra) are present in most of the environmental matrices and can be transferred to living bodies by different pathways that can lead to sources of exposure of man. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor these natural radionuclides in weathered soil samples to assess the possible hazards. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K in soils have been measured using a g γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The thorium, uranium and REEs were determined from the same sample using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Granitic rocks contain higher amounts of Th, U and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils, as soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water and gases. In this paper, we have discussed about distribution pattern of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite and ryolite) collected from two prefectures in Japan: 1. Gifu and 2. Okinawa. (author)

  11. Designing a sampling scheme to reveal correlations between weeds and soil properties at multiple spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, H; Milne, A E; Webster, R; Lark, R M; Murdoch, A J; Storkey, J

    2016-02-01

    Weeds tend to aggregate in patches within fields, and there is evidence that this is partly owing to variation in soil properties. Because the processes driving soil heterogeneity operate at various scales, the strength of the relations between soil properties and weed density would also be expected to be scale-dependent. Quantifying these effects of scale on weed patch dynamics is essential to guide the design of discrete sampling protocols for mapping weed distribution. We developed a general method that uses novel within-field nested sampling and residual maximum-likelihood (reml) estimation to explore scale-dependent relations between weeds and soil properties. We validated the method using a case study of Alopecurus myosuroides in winter wheat. Using reml, we partitioned the variance and covariance into scale-specific components and estimated the correlations between the weed counts and soil properties at each scale. We used variograms to quantify the spatial structure in the data and to map variables by kriging. Our methodology successfully captured the effect of scale on a number of edaphic drivers of weed patchiness. The overall Pearson correlations between A. myosuroides and soil organic matter and clay content were weak and masked the stronger correlations at >50 m. Knowing how the variance was partitioned across the spatial scales, we optimised the sampling design to focus sampling effort at those scales that contributed most to the total variance. The methods have the potential to guide patch spraying of weeds by identifying areas of the field that are vulnerable to weed establishment.

  12. A survey of gross alpha and gross beta activity in soil samples in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siak Kuan; Wagiran, Husin; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the gross alpha and gross beta activity concentrations from the different soil types found in the Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. A total of 128 soil samples were collected and their dose rates were measured 1 m above the ground. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were carried out using gas flow proportional counter, Tennelec Series 5 LB5500 Automatic Low Background Counting System. The alpha activity concentration ranged from 15 to 9634 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1558±121 Bq kg -1 . The beta activity concentration ranged from 142 to 6173 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 1112±32 Bq kg -1 . High alpha and beta activity concentrations are from the same soil type. The results of the analysis show a strong correlation between the gross alpha activity concentration and dose rate (R = 0.92). The data obtained can be used as a database for each soil type. (authors)

  13. Experimental data obtained by the characterization and leaching of industrially lead contaminated soil projected to the stored in a repository.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set contains the elemental composition, pH, and surface area, TOC, IC and bulk density of the soils to be deposited in a repository. Additionally, contains...

  14. Source Identification and Sequential Leaching of Heavy Metals in Soil Samples Collected from Selected Dump Sites in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    , E.E. Awokunmi; , S.S. Asaolu; , O.O Ajayi; , A.O. Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    Ten heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr and Sn) in fractioned and bulk soil samples collected from four dump sites located in AdoEkiti and Ikere -Ekiti, South western Nigeria were analysed using a modified Tessier’s procedure and acid digestion to obtain the distribution pattern of metal in this region. The metals were found to have been distributed in all phases with Fe, Cr, and Sn dominating the residual fraction (90.12 - 94.88%), Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn were found in all the extrac...

  15. EMERGING MODALITIES FOR SOIL CARBON ANALYSIS: SAMPLING STATISTICS AND ECONOMICS WORKSHOP.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WIELOPOLSKI, L.

    2006-04-01

    The workshop's main objectives are (1) to present the emerging modalities for analyzing carbon in soil, (2) to assess their error propagation, (3) to recommend new protocols and sampling strategies for the new instrumentation, and, (4) to compare the costs of the new methods with traditional chemical ones.

  16. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  17. Isolation and identification of phytase-producing strains from soil samples and optimization of production parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Penicillium sp. isolated from a soil sample near Qazvin, was able to produce highly active phytase in optimized environmental conditions, which could be a suitable candidate for commercial production of phytase to be used as complement in poultry feeding industries.

  18. Soil and Water – What is Detectable through Microbiological Sample Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concerns of a potential terrorist’s use of biological agents in soil and ground water are articulated by comparisons to major illnesses in this Country involving contaminated drinking water sources. Objectives are focused on the importance of sample preparation in the rapid, ...

  19. Portable automation of static chamber sample collection for quantifying soil gas flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    The collection of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled in a given time period is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. However, the static chamber method can limit spatial ...

  20. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates...

  1. Distribution coefficients for 85Sr and 137Cs in Japanese agricultural soils and their correlations with soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei-Ishikawa, N.; Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, soil-soil solution distribution coefficients (K d ) of Sr and Cs were obtained for 112 Japanese agricultural soil samples (50 paddy soil and 62 upland soil samples) using batch sorption test. The relationships between Sr- or Cs-K d values and soil properties were discussed. Furthermore, the amount of Cs fixed in soil was estimated for 22 selected soil samples using a sequential extraction method. Then, cross effects of some soil properties for Cs fixation were evaluated. (author)

  2. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.vanderperk@geo.uu.nl; De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Laboratori, Misure ed Attivita di Campo, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeran, Zvonka; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and plant samples from the vicinity of an oil refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, M.I.; Koerselman, J.W.; Kolloeffel, C. [Transport Physiology Research Group, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80084, NL 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Casado, B.; Tolls, J. [Research Institute of Toxicology (RITOX), Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80058, NL 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2000-12-18

    Soil samples, and samples of leaves of Plantago major (great plantain) and grass (mixed species) were collected from the vicinity of an oil refinery in Zelzate, Belgium, and analysed for seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples from the site adjacent to the refinery (site 1) contained very high total PAH-concentrations: namely 300, 8 and 2 {mu}g/g dry wt. for soil, P. major and grass, respectively. Concentrations in samples from more remote sites (up to 4 km from the refinery) were a factor of 10-30 lower than those from site 1, but between them the differences were small. The PAH-profiles of the plant samples, in contrast with those of the soil samples, appeared to shift to higher contributions of gaseous PAHs with increasing distance from the refinery. This can be explained by particle-bound PAHs being deposited closer to the source than gaseous PAHs. It is suggested that particle-bound deposition is relatively more important for deposition to soil than to plants, due to blow-off and wash-off of the compounds from the leaves. The total PAH-concentrations in the leaves of P. major were higher than those measured in the grass samples, probably due to differences in aerodynamic surface roughness, leaf orientation and/or leaf age. However, the concentration ratios of P. major/grass were not constant for the different sites, varying from 1.2 to 8.8. Therefore, it appears that a precise prediction of PAH-concentrations for one plant species from known concentrations of another species is not possible. When errors in predicted concentrations need to be smaller than a factor of approximately 10, the sampling strategy has to be focussed on all species of interest.

  4. Portable Automation of Static Chamber Sample Collection for Quantifying Soil Gas Flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Morgan P.; Groh, Tyler A.; Parkin, Timothy B.; Williams, Ryan J.; Isenhart, Thomas M.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.

    2018-01-01

    Quantification of soil gas flux using the static chamber method is labor intensive. The number of chambers that can be sampled is limited by the spacing between chambers and the availability of trained research technicians. An automated system for collecting gas samples from chambers in the field would eliminate the need for personnel to return to the chamber during a flux measurement period and would allow a single technician to sample multiple chambers simultaneously. This study describes Chamber Automated Sampling Equipment (FluxCASE) to collect and store chamber headspace gas samples at assigned time points for the measurement of soil gas flux. The FluxCASE design and operation is described, and the accuracy and precision of the FluxCASE system is evaluated. In laboratory measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) concentrations of a standardized gas mixture, coefficients of variation associated with automated and manual sample collection were comparable, indicating no loss of precision. In the field, soil gas fluxes measured from FluxCASEs were in agreement with manual sampling for both N2O and CO2. Slopes of regression equations were 1.01 for CO2 and 0.97 for N2O. The 95% confidence limits of the slopes of the regression lines included the value of one, indicating no bias. Additionally, an expense analysis found a cost recovery ranging from 0.6 to 2.2 yr. Implementing the FluxCASE system is an alternative to improve the efficiency of the static chamber method for measuring soil gas flux while maintaining the accuracy and precision of manual sampling.

  5. Additional Sediment/Soil Sampling Conducted at the Little Sioux Bend Shallow Water Habitat Project Site during October 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    sediment/soil samples. The parameters that were analyzed in the laboratory for the collected sediment/soil samples are listed in Table 1. Table 1... Parameters analyzed in the laboratory for the collected sediment/soil samples. Parameter Method Detection Limit PHYSICAL AND AGGREGATE PROPERTIES...0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 6 6 - 8 8 - 10 Percent Compostion of Sediment/Soil Samples Collected at Site LS-D1 D ep th In te rv

  6. Planning spatial sampling of the soil from an uncertain reconnaissance variogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. Murray; Hamilton, Elliott M.; Kaninga, Belinda; Maseka, Kakoma K.; Mutondo, Moola; Sakala, Godfrey M.; Watts, Michael J.

    2017-12-01

    An estimated variogram of a soil property can be used to support a rational choice of sampling intensity for geostatistical mapping. However, it is known that estimated variograms are subject to uncertainty. In this paper we address two practical questions. First, how can we make a robust decision on sampling intensity, given the uncertainty in the variogram? Second, what are the costs incurred in terms of oversampling because of uncertainty in the variogram model used to plan sampling? To achieve this we show how samples of the posterior distribution of variogram parameters, from a computational Bayesian analysis, can be used to characterize the effects of variogram parameter uncertainty on sampling decisions. We show how one can select a sample intensity so that a target value of the kriging variance is not exceeded with some specified probability. This will lead to oversampling, relative to the sampling intensity that would be specified if there were no uncertainty in the variogram parameters. One can estimate the magnitude of this oversampling by treating the tolerable grid spacing for the final sample as a random variable, given the target kriging variance and the posterior sample values. We illustrate these concepts with some data on total uranium content in a relatively sparse sample of soil from agricultural land near mine tailings in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia.

  7. Sampling and analysis plan for assessment of beryllium in soils surrounding TA-40 building 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-19

    Technical Area (TA) 40 Building 15 (40-15) is an active firing site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The weapons facility operations (WFO) group plans to build an enclosure over the site in 2017, so that test shots may be conducted year-round. The enclosure project is described in PRID 16P-0209. 40-15 is listed on LANL OSH-ISH’s beryllium inventory, which reflects the potential for beryllium in/on soils and building surfaces at 40-15. Some areas in and around 40-15 have previously been sampled for beryllium, but past sampling efforts did not achieve complete spatial coverage of the area. This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) investigates the area surrounding 40-15 via 9 deep (≥1-ft.) soil samples and 11 shallow (6-in.) soil samples. These samples will fill the spatial data gaps for beryllium at 40-15, and will be used to support OSH-ISH’s final determination of 40-15’s beryllium registry status. This SAP has been prepared by the Environmental Health Physics program in consultation with the Industrial Hygiene program. Industrial Hygiene is the owner of LANL’s beryllium program, and will make a final determination with regard to the regulatory status of beryllium at 40-15.

  8. Analysis of water and soil from the wetlands of Upper Three Runs Creek. Volume 2A, Analytical data packages September--October 1991 sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, L.A.; Rogers, V.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Riordan, C.J. [Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. (United States); Eidson, G.W.; Herring, M.K. [Normandeau Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Shallow water and soils along Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and associated wetlands between SRS Road F and Cato Road were sampled for nonradioactive and radioactive constituents. The sampling program is associated with risk evaluations being performed for various regulatory documents in these areas of the Savannah River Site (SRS). WSRC selected fifty sampling sites bordering the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF), F- and H-Area Seepage Basins (FHSB), and the Sanitary Landfill (SL). The analytical results from this study provided information on the water and soil quality in UTRC and its associated wetlands. The analytical results from this investigation indicated that the primary constituents and radiological indicators detected in the shallow water and soils were tritium, gross alpha, radium 226, total radium and strontium 90. This investigation involved the collection of shallow water samples during the Fall of 1991 and the Spring of 1992 at fifty (50) sampling locations. Sampling was performed during these periods to incorporate high and low water table periods. Samples were collected from three sections along UTRC denoted as Phase I (MWMF), Phase II (FHSB) and Phase III (SL). One vibracored soil sample was also collected in each phase during the Fall of 1991. This document is compiled solely of experimental data obtained from the sampling procedures.

  9. Mobility of arsenic, cadmium and zinc in a multi-element contaminated soil profile assessed by in-situ soil pore water sampling, column leaching and sequential extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; Clemente, Rafael; Lepp, Nicholas; Dickinson, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Three methods for predicting element mobility in soils have been applied to an iron-rich soil, contaminated with arsenic, cadmium and zinc. Soils were collected from 0 to 30 cm, 30 to 70 cm and 70 to 100 cm depths in the field and soil pore water was collected at different depths from an adjacent 100 cm deep trench. Sequential extraction and a column leaching test in the laboratory were compared to element concentrations in pore water sampled directly from the field. Arsenic showed low extractability, low leachability and occurred at low concentrations in pore water samples. Cadmium and zinc were more labile and present in higher concentrations in pore water, increasing with soil depth. Pore water sampling gave the best indication of short term element mobility when field conditions were taken into account, but further extraction and leaching procedures produced a fuller picture of element dynamics, revealing highly labile Cd deep in the soil profile.

  10. Application of high resolution x-ray spectrometry preceded by neutron activation for elemental analysis of soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Rivero, A.; Capote Rodriguez, G.; Herrera Peraza, E.

    1996-01-01

    Utilization of High Resolution X-Ray Spectrometry preceded by activation of the samples by irradiation with neutron fluxes (NAA R X) is a relatively modern trend in application of nuclear techniques. This method may complement advantageously the usual Neutron Activation Analysis by means of Gamma Spectrometry (NAA-G) In this work results obtained by the application of NAA-RX for non-destructive analysis of Cuban soil samples are discussed. The samples were irradiated with reactor neutron fluxes and the induced characteristic X-rays were measured by using Si(li)-detector. Concentrations of Fe, Zn and Eu as determined by NAA-RX are compared with both NAA-G and XRF data. For the elaboration of X-ray and Gamma Spectra the computer programs AXIL and ACTAN were used respectively

  11. 7 CFR 42.142 - Curve for obtaining Operating Characteristic (OC) curve information for skip lot sampling and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) curve information for skip lot sampling and inspection. 42.142 Section 42.142 Agriculture Regulations of... information for skip lot sampling and inspection. EC02SE91.019 Notes: 1. This curve applies only to the specific skip lot sampling and inspection plan described in § 42.121 and § 42.123. 2. Pa and Pas are...

  12. Optimized Extraction Method To Remove Humic Acid Interferences from Soil Samples Prior to Microbial Proteome Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chen; Hettich, Robert L

    2017-07-07

    The microbial composition and their activities in soil environments play a critical role in organic matter transformation and nutrient cycling. Liquid chromatography coupled to high-performance mass spectrometry provides a powerful approach to characterize soil microbiomes; however, the limited microbial biomass and the presence of abundant interferences in soil samples present major challenges to proteome extraction and subsequent MS measurement. To this end, we have designed an experimental method to improve microbial proteome measurement by removing the soil-borne humic substances coextraction from soils. Our approach employs an in situ detergent-based microbial lysis/TCA precipitation coupled to an additional cleanup step involving acidified precipitation and filtering at the peptide level to remove most of the humic acid interferences prior to proteolytic peptide measurement. The novelty of this approach is an integration to exploit two different characteristics of humic acids: (1) Humic acids are insoluble in acidic solution but should not be removed at the protein level, as undesirable protein removal may also occur. Rather it is better to leave the humics acids in the samples until the peptide level, at which point the significant differential solubility of humic acids versus peptides at low pH can be exploited very efficiently. (2) Most of the humic acids have larger molecule weights than the peptides. Therefore, filtering a pH 2 to 3 peptide solution with a 10 kDa filter will remove most of the humic acids. This method is easily interfaced with normal proteolytic processing approaches and provides a reliable and straightforward protein extraction method that efficiently removes soil-borne humic substances without inducing proteome sample loss or biasing protein identification in mass spectrometry. In general, this humic acid removal step is universal and can be adopted by any workflow to effectively remove humic acids to avoid them negatively competing

  13. Geometric factor and influence of sensors in the establishment of a resistivity-moisture relation in soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, M.; Mansilla-Plaza, L.; Sánchez-de-laOrden, M.

    2017-10-01

    Prior to field scale research, soil samples are analysed on a laboratory scale for electrical resistivity calibrations. Currently, there are a variety of field instruments to estimate the water content in soils using different physical phenomena. These instruments can be used to develop moisture-resistivity relationships on the same soil samples. This assures that measurements are performed on the same material and under the same conditions (e.g., humidity and temperature). A geometric factor is applied to the location of electrodes, in order to calculate the apparent electrical resistivity of the laboratory test cells. This geometric factor can be determined in three different ways: by means of the use of an analytical approximation, laboratory trials (experimental approximation), or by the analysis of a numerical model. The first case, the analytical approximation, is not appropriate for complex cells or arrays. And both, the experimental and numerical approximation can lead to inaccurate results. Therefore, we propose a novel approach to obtain a compromise solution between both techniques, providing a more precise determination of the geometrical factor.

  14. Sampling depth of soil moisture content by radiometric measurement at 21 cm wavelength: some experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pampaloni, P.; Paloscia, S.; Chiarantini, L.; Coppo, P.; Gagliani, S.; Luzi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of soil layer, through which moisture can be directly estimated by means of a microwave radiometer, has been investigated experimentally on a test area in Central Italy by means of airborne sensors. Aircraft remote sensing data, collected on agricultural bare and vegetated fields during the growth stage of vegetation (May-July 1988), have shown that L band microwave emission is correlated to the average moisture of the first 20 cm of soil under the surface. However, correlation between moisture at difference depths makes the identification of the actual sampling depth difficult

  15. Soil Moisture Mapping in an Arid Area Using a Land Unit Area (LUA Sampling Approach and Geostatistical Interpolation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Gharechelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture (SM plays a key role in many environmental processes and has a high spatial and temporal variability. Collecting sample SM data through field surveys (e.g., for validation of remote sensing-derived products can be very expensive and time consuming if a study area is large, and producing accurate SM maps from the sample point data is a difficult task as well. In this study, geospatial processing techniques are used to combine several geo-environmental layers relevant to SM (soil, geology, rainfall, land cover, etc. into a land unit area (LUA map, which delineates regions with relatively homogeneous geological/geomorphological, land use/land cover, and climate characteristics. This LUA map is used to guide the collection of sample SM data in the field, and the field data is finally spatially interpolated to create a wall-to-wall map of SM in the study area (Garmsar, Iran. The main goal of this research is to create a SM map in an arid area, using a land unit area (LUA approach to obtain the most appropriate sample locations for collecting SM field data. Several environmental GIS layers, which have an impact on SM, were combined to generate a LUA map, and then field surveying was done in each class of the LUA map. A SM map was produced based on LUA, remote sensing data indexes, and spatial interpolation of the field survey sample data. The several interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting, kriging, and co-kriging were evaluated for generating SM maps from the sample data. The produced maps were compared to each other and validated using ground truth data. The results show that the LUA approach is a reasonable method to create the homogenous field to introduce a representative sample for field soil surveying. The geostatistical SM map achieved adequate accuracy; however, trend analysis and distribution of the soil sample point locations within the LUA types should be further investigated to achieve even better results. Co

  16. Multiresidual determination of pesticides in agricultural soil sample using Quechers extraction methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Garcia, Consuelo del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a sustainable agricultural production there are used different organic and inorganic products, among them we found the fertilizers and pesticides. When they are applied most of the product falls to the ground, generating significant sources of pollution in the areas near the application and depending on the mobility of the pesticide, it can reach more remote areas. That is why it is important to determine the pesticide residues in soil after their application, being the selection of the extraction method crucial for the subsequent traces detection. In the present work there was evaluated the QUECHERS extraction technique, a method used in food but modified for a different and complex matrix like soil in order to achieve acceptable efficiencies multi-residue extraction of 20 pesticides and their subsequent determination by gas chromatography with electron capture and mass detection. The method was applied for the determination of pesticides in three soil samples from an agricultural site with different slopes between them. The Results indicated that 75% of the pesticides tested had acceptable efficiencies, thus meeting the objective of achieving multiresidue determination of pesticides in agricultural soil samples by extraction methodology QUECHERS. Besides, the presence of the fungicide penconazole was only detected in the three samples, being the highest concentration of pesticide found in the area with less slope (V ABAJO ) (author)

  17. Study of lead pollution in air, soil and water samples of Quetta city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Khan, G.M.; Akbar, S.; Panezai, M.A.; Haq, Z.U.

    2011-01-01

    This study briefly presents the collected data of lead pollution in the environment of Quetta City in Balochistan, Pakistan. The samples were collected from different sites. The analysis of lead was carried out in underground water samples, the exhaust of different vehicles, roadside and sewage soils from selected points of Quetta City. The average discharge resulted in deposition by motorcycles (29.12 g/h), cars (44.47 g/h), wagons (176.54 g/h) and buses (141.52 g/h). The maximum deposition was 222.96 g/h from auto-rickshaws. The value for lead in smoke of different vehicles seems quite high when extrapolated to the large number of such vehicles for a longer time. The concentration of lead in roadside soil varied from 73.3 mg/kg (T and T closed colony) to 731.9 mg/kg (Sirki road bus-stop). The average content of lead in sewage soil of City Nala is 1250.6 mg/kg. The level of lead was more than WHO standards for such soils. The lead quantity in all 24 tube- well water samples, was slightly above the WHO standards (10 macro g/L).The results of this study were comparable to similar study in twin cities of Rawalpindi and islamabad. (author)

  18. 1996 Phase 2 soil sampling at the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.D.

    1996-10-01

    This report consolidates 1996 soil sampling data collected from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basin Site. This report is intended to be a data reference and does not make comparisons or conclusions regarding specific regulatory criteria. Chemical and radiological data were collected to support cleanup activities at the Hanford Site; soil sampling occurred beneath and next to the former basin structures. The 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, which consisted of four adjoining concrete basins, were located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, north of the retired 105-H Reactor. Originally, the basins were built as part of the 100-H water treatment structures. The four basins were inactive from the mid-1960's until 1973 when radioactive and dangerous (mixed) waste from the 300 Area Fuel Fabrication Facility was shipped to the basins for storage and treatment. The basins were used for solar evaporation of the waste. The last shipment of waste to the 183-H Basins took place in November 1985. Decontamination of the cement structure took place in 1995. The structure has subsequently been dismantled and disposed. Chapters 2.0 through 4.0 present summary information about sampling (1) beneath the loading ramp and berm piles, (2) in shallow soils beneath the former basin floor, and (3) deep vadose soils. Detailed data are provided in the appendices

  19. Environmental monitoring of fluoride emissions using precipitation, dust, plant and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzaring, J.; Hrenn, H.; Schumm, C.; Klumpp, A.; Fangmeier, A.

    2006-01-01

    A pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride producing chemical plant in Germany. In all samples the influence of emissions was discernible up to a distance of 500 m from the plant. However, fluoride concentrations in plant bioindicators (leaves of birch and black berry) and in bulk precipitation showed a more pronounced relationship with the distance from the source than fluoride concentrations in soil. Vegetables sampled in the vicinity of the plant also had elevated concentrations of fluoride, but only the consumption of larger quantities of this material would lead to exceedances of recommended daily F-intake. The present study did not indicate the existence of low phytotoxicity thresholds for fluoride in the plant species used in the study. Even at very high fluoride concentrations in leaf tissue (963 ppm) plants did not show injury due to HF. Dust sampling downwind of the chemical plant confirmed that particulate fluoride was of minor importance in the study area. - A pronounced pollution gradient was observed in precipitation, plants and soils sampled at different locations around a fluoride emitting chemical plant in Germany

  20. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  1. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  2. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol......, in general, was the most efficient method yielding 30 to 50 % higher concentrations than the other methods....

  3. Comparison of Soxhlet and Shake Extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar Polluted Soils Sampled in the Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Holst, Helle; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    This study compares three extraction methods for PAHs in coal tar polluted soil: 3-times repeated shaking of the soil with dichloromethane-methanol (1:1), Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol....... The extraction efficiencies were determined for ten selected PAHs in triplicate samples of six soils sampled at former gasworks sites. The samples covered a wide range of PAH concentrations, from 0.6 to 397 mg/kg soil. Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane followed by Soxhlet extraction with methanol...

  4. Tank farms backlog soil sample and analysis results supporting a contained-in determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, C.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    Soil waste is generated from Tank Farms and associated Tank Farms facilities operations. The soil is a mixed waste because it is an environmental media which contains tank waste, a listed mixed waste. The soil is designated with the listed waste codes (FOO1 through F005) which have been applied to all tank wastes. The scope of this report includes Tank Farms soil managed under the Backlog program. The Backlog Tank Farm soil in storage consists of drums and 5 boxes (originally 828 drums). The Backlog Waste Program dealt with 2276 containers of solid waste generated by Tank Farms operations during the time period from 1989 through early 1993. The containers were mismanaged by being left in the field for an extended period of time without being placed into permitted storage. As a corrective action for this situation, these containers were placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC) pending additional characterization. The Backlog Waste Analysis Plan (BWAP) (RL 1993) was written to define how Backlog wastes would be evaluated for proper designation and storage. The BWAP was approved in August 1993 and all work required by the BWAP was completed by July 1994. This document presents results of testing performed in 1992 & 1996 that supports the attainment of a Contained-In Determination for Tank Farm Backlog soils. The analytical data contained in this report is evaluated against a prescribed decision rule. If the decision rule is satisfied then the Washington State Department of ecology (Ecology) may grant a Contained-In Determination. A Contained-In Determination for disposal to an unlined burial trench will be requested from Ecology . The decision rule and testing requirements provided by Ecology are described in the Tank Farms Backlog Soil Sample Analysis Plan (SAP) (WHC 1996).

  5. Field sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods for explosives in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-12-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling because of the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult because of the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of the samples, and extracting larger samples. This publication is intended to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers regarding field sampling and on-site analytical methods for detecting and quantifying secondary explosive compounds in soils, and is not intended to include discussions of the safety issues associated with sites contaminated with explosive residues.

  6. Geostatistical and multivariate statistical analysis of heavily and manifoldly contaminated soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristin; Einax, Jürgen W; Simeonov, Vasil; Tsakovski, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    The surroundings of the former Kremikovtzi steel mill near Sofia (Bulgaria) are influenced by various emissions from the factory. In addition to steel and alloys, they produce different products based on inorganic compounds in different smelters. Soil in this region is multiply contaminated. We collected 65 soil samples and analyzed 15 elements by different methods of atomic spectroscopy for a survey of this field site. Here we present a novel hybrid approach for environmental risk assessment of polluted soil combining geostatistical methods and source apportionment modeling. We could distinguish areas with heavily and slightly polluted soils in the vicinity of the iron smelter by applying unsupervised pattern recognition methods. This result was supported by geostatistical methods such as semivariogram analysis and kriging. The modes of action of the metals examined differ significantly in such a way that iron and lead account for the main pollutants of the iron smelter, whereas, e.g., arsenic shows a haphazard distribution. The application of factor analysis and source-apportionment modeling on absolute principal component scores revealed novel information about the composition of the emissions from the different stacks. It is possible to estimate the impact of every element examined on the pollution due to their emission source. This investigation allows an objective assessment of the different spatial distributions of the elements examined in the soil of the Kremikovtzi region. The geostatistical analysis illustrates this distribution and is supported by multivariate statistical analysis revealing relations between the elements.

  7. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  8. Pyrosequencing of environmental soil samples reveals biodiversity of the Phytophthora resident community in chestnut forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Andrea; Bruni, Natalia; Tomassini, Alessia; Franceschini, Selma; Vettraino, Anna Maria

    2013-09-01

    Pyrosequencing analysis was performed on soils from Italian chestnut groves to evaluate the diversity of the resident Phytophthora community. Sequences analysed with a custom database discriminated 15 pathogenic Phytophthoras including species common to chestnut soils, while a total of nine species were detected with baiting. The two sites studied differed in Phytophthora diversity and the presence of specific taxa responded to specific ecological traits of the sites. Furthermore, some species not previously recorded were represented by a discrete number of reads; among these species, Phytophthora ramorum was detected at both sites. Pyrosequencing was demonstrated to be a very sensitive technique to describe the Phytophthora community in soil and was able to detect species not easy to be isolated from soil with standard baiting techniques. In particular, pyrosequencing is an highly efficient tool for investigating the colonization of new environments by alien species, and for ecological and adaptive studies coupled with biological detection methods. This study represents the first application of pyrosequencing for describing Phytophthoras in environmental soil samples. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of the variation of the specific heat capacity of local soil samples from the Niger delta, Nigeria with moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, C.O.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1987-11-01

    Results of an investigation of the variation, with moisture content, of the specific heat capacity of samples of three texturally different types of soil (clayey, sandy and sandy loam) obtained from the Niger delta area of Nigeria, are presented. The results show that the specific heat capacities of the soils studied, increase with moisture content. This increase is found to be linear for the entire range of moisture contents considered (0-25%), in the case of the sandy loam soil while for the clayey and sandy soils the specific heat capacity is found to increase linearly with moisture content up to about 15% after which the increase becomes parabolic. The rate of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content appears to be highest in the clayey soil and lowest in the sandy soil. It is thought that the differences in the rates of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content, observed for the soils, reflect the soils' water-retention capacities. (author) 3 refs, 5 figs

  10. Review of sample preparation techniques for the analysis of pesticide residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, José L; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Albero, Beatriz; García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the sample preparation techniques used for the analysis of pesticides in soil. The present status and recent advances made during the last 5 years in these methods are discussed. The analysis of pesticide residues in soil requires the extraction of analytes from this matrix, followed by a cleanup procedure, when necessary, prior to their instrumental determination. The optimization of sample preparation is a very important part of the method development that can reduce the analysis time, the amount of solvent, and the size of samples. This review considers all aspects of sample preparation, including extraction and cleanup. Classical extraction techniques, such as shaking, Soxhlet, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and modern techniques like pressurized liquid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) are reviewed. The different cleanup strategies applied for the purification of soil extracts are also discussed. In addition, the application of these techniques to environmental studies is considered.

  11. Analysis of anionic post-blast residues of low explosives from soil samples of forensic interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Kalthom ahmad; Tze, O.S.

    2011-01-01

    The growing threats and terrorist activities in recent years have urged the need for rapid and accurate forensic investigation on post-blast samples. The analysis of explosives and their degradation products in soils are important to enable forensic scientist to identify the explosives used in the bombing and establish possible links to their likely origin. Anions of interest for post-blast identification of low explosives were detected and identified using ion chromatography (IC). IC separations of five anions (Cl - , NO 2 - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , SCN - ) employed a Metrosep Anion Dual 2 column with carbonate eluent. The anions were separated within 17 minutes. Sampling of post blast residues was carried out in Rompin, Pahang. The post-blast explosive residues were extracted from soil samples collected at the seat of three simulated explosion points. The homemade explosives comprised of black powder of various amounts (100 g, 150 g and 200 g) packed in small plastic sauce bottles. In black powder standard, three anions (Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- ) were identified. However, low amounts of nitrite (NO 2 - ) were found present in post-blast soil samples. The amounts of anions were generally found to be decreased with decreasing amount of black powder explosive used. The anions analysis was indicative that nitrates were being used as one of the black powder explosive ingredients. (author)

  12. Determination of uranium and thorium isotopes in soil samples by coprecipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Quang Huy; Trinh Thi Bich; Nguyen Van Suc

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a procedure to prepare soil samples for U and Th isotope measurement by alpha-spectrometry after coprecipitation with LaF 3 . In this procedure the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was performed by Zn metal in 4M HCl solution. The recoveries of chemical separation equal to ε U-chemistry = 78±4% for uranium and ε Th-chemistry = 82±4% for thorium. Canberra alpha-spectrometer was used with PIPS detectors of A-1200-37-AM Model of 1200 mm 2 active area. The counting efficiency of the measuring system equals to ε counting = 18% and the total efficiencies were ε U = ε counting - ε U-chemistry = 14.0 ± 0.7% for uranium and ε Th = ε counting - ε Th-chemistry = 14.7 ± 0.7% for thorium. The recoveries of chemical separation were rather high (about 80%), that leads to the use of a small weight of soil sample (about 0.5 g). The efficiencies were also stable, that allows analyzing the soil sample without using radiotracers. They are advantages of the sample preparation procedure of this work. (author)

  13. Percolating macropore networks in tilled topsoil: effects of sample size, minimum pore thickness and soil type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nicholas; Larsbo, Mats; Koestel, John; Keck, Hannes

    2017-04-01

    The long-range connectivity of macropore networks may exert a strong control on near-saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity and the occurrence of preferential flow through soil. It has been suggested that percolation concepts may provide a suitable theoretical framework to characterize and quantify macropore connectivity, although this idea has not yet been thoroughly investigated. We tested the applicability of percolation concepts to describe macropore networks quantified by X-ray scanning at a resolution of 0.24 mm in eighteen cylinders (20 cm diameter and height) sampled from the ploughed layer of four soils of contrasting texture in east-central Sweden. The analyses were performed for sample sizes ("regions of interest", ROI) varying between 3 and 12 cm in cube side-length and for minimum pore thicknesses ranging between image resolution and 1 mm. Finite sample size effects were clearly found for ROI's of cube side-length smaller than ca. 6 cm. For larger sample sizes, the results showed the relevance of percolation concepts to soil macropore networks, with a close relationship found between imaged porosity and the fraction of the pore space which percolated (i.e. was connected from top to bottom of the ROI). The percolating fraction increased rapidly as a function of porosity above a small percolation threshold (1-4%). This reflects the ordered nature of the pore networks. The percolation relationships were similar for all four soils. Although pores larger than 1 mm appeared to be somewhat better connected, only small effects of minimum pore thickness were noted across the range of tested pore sizes. The utility of percolation concepts to describe the connectivity of more anisotropic macropore networks (e.g. in subsoil horizons) should also be tested, although with current X-ray scanning equipment it may prove difficult in many cases to analyze sufficiently large samples that would avoid finite size effects.

  14. Monitoring Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae in soil and rainwater samples collected at two sites on a cornish estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lockley; Judith Turner; Gillian Humphries; Phil Jennings

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from quadrats marked out below the canopies of two rhododendrons, one infected by Phytophthora ramorum (Site 1) and the other (Site 2) infected by Phytophthora kernoviae and P. ramorum. Rainwater was collected in high-level and low level traps. Soil and rainwater were sampled at...

  15. Analysis of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in samples of soil from some areas of Republic of Macedonia by using gamma spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorovik Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the importance of the distribution and transfer of radio nuclides in soil, an attempt was made in this work to determine the concentration of 226Ra, 232Th 40К and 137Cs in the same. The concentrations of activity in the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radio nuclides, as follows, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were determined in samples of soil collected from some parts of Republic of Macedonia, i.e. from three major cities in the Republic of Macedonia. The samples are taken by means of a special dosage dispenser which enables sampling of samples at a depth of 0-5 cm, 5-10cm and 10-15cm, thus disabling the sampling above these layers of soil. An identification of radio nuclides and assessment of their activity has been performed by applying gamma spectrometry. The time of counting for each sample was 65000 s. in order to obtain statistically small mistake. The spectrums were analyzed by a commercially available software GENIE-2000 received from Canberra, Austria. The activity of soil had wide range of values: 20.3 to 82.9 Bq kg-1for 226Ra, 16.1 to 82.5 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 325 to 799.0 Bq kg-1for 40К and 9.1 to 24.3 Bq kg-1for 137Cs, respectively. The concentrations of these radio nuclides have been compared with the available data from the other countries. Natural environmental radioactivity and the associated external exposure due to gamma radiation depend primarily on the geological and geographical conditions. Namely, the specific levels of terrestrial environmental radiation are related to the type of rocks from which the soils originate. The obtained data indicate that the average value of activity of 232Th is about higher than the one of 226Ra The concentration of activity of 40К in the soil has greater value than 32Th and 226Ra in all soils. The causes for the existence of 137Cs in these soils are the nuclear explosions, waste radioactive materials and other incidents. It reaches the

  16. Measurement of Clozapine, Norclozapine, and Amisulpride in Plasma and in Oral Fluid Obtained Using 2 Different Sampling Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Danielle S; Beyer, Chad; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit; Seedat, Soraya; Flanagan, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    There is a poor correlation between total concentrations of proton-accepting compounds (most basic drugs) in unstimulated oral fluid and in plasma. The aim of this study was to compare clozapine, norclozapine, and amisulpride concentrations in plasma and in oral fluid collected using commercially available collection devices [Thermo Fisher Scientific Oral-Eze and Greiner Bio-One (GBO)]. Oral-Eze and GBO samples and plasma were collected in that order from patients prescribed clozapine. Analyte concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. There were 112 participants [96 men, aged (median, range) 47 (21-65) years and 16 women, aged 44 (21-65) years]: 74 participants provided 2 sets of samples and 7 provided 3 sets (overall 2 GBO samples not collected). Twenty-three patients were co-prescribed amisulpride, of whom 17 provided 2 sets of samples and 1 provided 3 sets. The median (range) oral fluid within the GBO samples was 52 (13%-86%). Nonadherence to clozapine was identified in all 3 samples in one instance. After correction for oral fluid content, analyte concentrations in the GBO and Oral-Eze samples were poorly correlated with plasma clozapine and norclozapine (R = 0.57-0.63) and plasma amisulpride (R = 0.65-0.72). Analyte concentrations in the 2 sets of oral fluid samples were likewise poorly correlated (R = 0.68-0.84). Mean (SD) plasma clozapine and norclozapine were 0.60 (0.46) and 0.25 (0.21) mg/L, respectively. Mean clozapine and norclozapine concentrations in the 2 sets of oral fluid samples were similar to those in plasma (0.9-1.8 times higher), that is, approximately 2- to 3-fold higher than those in unstimulated oral fluid. The mean (±SD) amisulpride concentrations (microgram per liter) in plasma (446 ± 297) and in the Oral-Eze samples (501 ± 461) were comparable and much higher than those in the GBO samples (233 ± 318). Oral fluid collected using either the GBO system or the Oral-Eze system cannot be used for

  17. Colloid and Phosphorus Leaching From Undisturbed Soil Cores Sampled Along a Natural Clay Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus......The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... followed by lower and stable colloid and phosphorus concentrations. The mass of particles leached at first flush was independent of clay content and was attributed to the instant release of particles associated with the macropore walls and released upon contact with flowing water. Below a clay content of È...

  18. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte

    when (with respect to compounds, soil properties, and locations) one method is preferred over the other. Fields sampling was performed at European sites contaminated with fuel components or chlorinated solvents from former site activities (industrial production, gas stations, air base or gas plant......Site characterization is often time consuming and a financial burden for the site owners, which raises a demand for rapid and inexpensive (pre)screening methods. Phytoscreening by tree coring has shown to be a useful tool to detect subsurface contamination, especially of chlorinated solvents....... However the application and dissemination of the method is still limited. On the other hand, soil gas sampling for mapping of volatile organic compounds in the subsurface is a common and commercially applied method. Both methods are semi-quantitative, low-invasive and inexpensive, which makes them...

  19. Poly-use multi-level sampling system for soil-gas transport analysis in the vadose zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Philipp A; Chiri, Eleonora; Schroth, Martin H

    2013-10-01

    Soil-gas turnover is important in the global cycling of greenhouse gases. The analysis of soil-gas profiles provides quantitative information on below-ground turnover and fluxes. We developed a poly-use multi-level sampling system (PMLS) for soil-gas sampling, water-content and temperature measurement with high depth resolution and minimal soil disturbance. It is based on perforated access tubes (ATs) permanently installed in the soil. A multi-level sampler allows extraction of soil-gas samples from 20 locations within 1 m depth, while a capacitance probe is used to measure volumetric water contents. During idle times, the ATs are sealed and can be equipped with temperature sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments in a field lysimeter showed good agreement of soil-gas samples and water-content measurements compared with conventional techniques, while a successfully performed gas-tracer test demonstrated the feasibility of the PMLS to determine soil-gas diffusion coefficients in situ. A field application of the PMLS to quantify oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in a field lysimeter and in the forefield of a receding glacier yielded activity coefficients and soil-atmosphere fluxes well in agreement with previous studies. With numerous options for customization, the presented tool extends the methodological choices to investigate soil-gas transport in the vadose zone.

  20. Radioactivity measurements and risk assessments in soil samples at south and middle of Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.; Al Dosari, M.; Amr, M.A.; Al-Saad, K.A.; Helal, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Health risks associated with the exposure to the natural radioactivity present in soil materials has great concern all over the world. Thus soil samples collected from an urban area at south and middle of Qatar in order to measure natural radioactivity, 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th and the artificial 137 Cs using gamma-ray spectrometry method.The soil activity concentrations ranges from 25.01- 40.31 for 226 Ra, 12.37- 4.99 for 232 Th and 133.8 - 250.1 for 40 K with mean values of 57, 87 and 207 Bq/ kg, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides are compared with the available data from other countries. The average and ranges of activity concentration of 226 Ra in Qatar soil areas are very much comparable to the world Figures. However, the concentration for 232 Th is comparable to other Gulf area and lower than that for Egypt and the world figures.The concentration for 40 K is lower as compared with Egypt, world, and Kuwait figures but comparable to Oman figures.The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq) in these soil samples ranges from 74.45 Bq/ kg to 41.21 Bq/ kg) with mean value of 57.4 Bq/ kg which is far below the safe limit (permissible) limit (370 Bq/ kg). The calculated values for external hazard index Hex for the soil samples range from 0.102 - 0.21 and average concentration of 0.164 which is lower than other values reported .However these values are lower than unity; therefore, the soil from these regions is safe and can be used as a construction material without posing any significant radiological threat to population.The absorbed dose rate calculated from activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ranges between 11.529 - 21.446, 2.383 - 11.744, and 5.304 -10.357 n Gy/ h, respectively and the total average absorbed dose rate 28.915 n Gy/ h which are lower than the world wide average absorbed dose rate 51 n Gy/ h. The total absorbed dose in the study area ranges from 20.146 - 40.389 n Gy/ h with an average value of 28.915 n Gy/ h .The

  1. Depth profile of 236U/238U in soil samples in La Palma, Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Srncik, M.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio was investigated in soil samples from three different locations on La Palma (one of the seven Canary Islands, Spain). Additionally the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, as it is a well establish tool for the source identification, was determined. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a U separation step by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.). Afterwards Pu was separated from Th and Np by anion exchange ...

  2. Soil Sample Dissolution Development by Ultrawave Digester, Followed by Isotopic Separation and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    relatively easy to perform. The major drawbacks of this method were the time required and the possible contamination from the atmosphere or...2017. 14. ABSTRACT The need for rapid nuclear assessment of radioactive contamination is being upgraded in readiness for reactor failure such as the...and/or alpha spectrometry, following digestion. For validation of the microwave protocol, radioactive contaminated samples of a Rocky Flats soil were

  3. the standardization of an apparatus for the mixing of soil samples for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unlabelled sample. The revolution speed and mixing time of the mixer for optimum mixing, as well as its ability to mix soils of differing moisture content and volume were determined. Zoo}ogictl A/rictl1lll 13(2): 165-173 (1978). R ep rod u ced b y Sa b in et G a tew a. y u n d er licen ce gra n ted b y th e P u b lish er (d a ted.

  4. Fungal diversity in soil samples from a Mexican region with endemic dermatomycoses

    OpenAIRE

    R. Munguía-Pérez; E. Díaz-Cabrera; N. Martínez-Montiel; J. Muñoz-Rojas; R. Martínez-Contreras

    2011-01-01

    Forty soil samples were collected from four rural communities in the Municipality of Huauchinango (Puebla, Mexico), a region with endemic dermatomycoses. Classical and molecular approaches allowed the identification of 30 different species, including several agents of superficial, subcutaneous and opportunistic mycoses. The most prevalent pathogenic agents identified by micro-morphological characteristics were: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (12.5%), T. rubrum (7.5%), and Aspergillus flavus (7.5...

  5. Elemental analysis of soil and plant samples at El-Manzala lake neutron activation analysis technique. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.; Abd El-Haleem, A.S.; El-Abbady, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Soil and plant samples were collected from from two locations, Bahr El-Baker, and Bahr kados at the manzala lake, where, where high pollution is expected. The samples were especially treated and prepared for investigation by thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The irradiation facilities of the first egyptian research reactor (ET-R R-1), and the hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detection system were used for analysis. Among the 34 identified Fe, Co, As, Cd, Te, La, Sm, Rb, Hg, Th, and U are of a special significance because of the their toxic deleterious impact on living organisms. This work is part of a research project concerning pollution studies on the river Nile and some lakes of egypt. The data obtained in the present work stands as a reference basic record for any future follow up of contamination level. 1 tab

  6. Phosphorus Concentrations in Sequentially Fractionated Soil Samples as Affected by Digestion Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Carlos A. C.; Pagliari, Paulo H.; Schmitt, Djalma; He, Zhongqi; Waldrip, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Sequential fractionation has helped improving our understanding of the lability and bioavailability of P in soil. Nevertheless, there have been no reports on how manipulation of the different fractions prior to analyses affects the total P (TP) concentrations measured. This study investigated the effects of sample digestion, filtration, and acidification on the TP concentrations determined by ICP-OES in 20 soil samples. Total P in extracts were either determined without digestion by ICP-OES, or ICP-OES following block digestion, or autoclave digestion. The effects of sample filtration, and acidification on undigested alkaline extracts prior to ICP-OES were also evaluated. Results showed that, TP concentrations were greatest in the block-digested extracts, though the variability introduced by the block-digestion was the highest. Acidification of NaHCO3 extracts resulted in lower TP concentrations, while acidification of NaOH randomly increased or decreased TP concentrations. The precision observed with ICP-OES of undigested extracts suggests this should be the preferred method for TP determination in sequentially extracted samples. Thus, observations reported in this work would be helpful in appropriate sample handling for P determination, thereby improving the precision of P determination. The results are also useful for literature data comparison and discussion when there are differences in sample treatments. PMID:26647644

  7. Multielemental analysis of soil samples from the Assin District of Central Region in Ghana using nuclear and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyemang, O.

    2008-06-01

    Macronutrients, micronutrients, pH, salinity and moisture content were determined in soil samples from six farms in two farming towns in Assin North District in the Central Region of Ghana namely Assin Akonfudi and Assin Bereku. Soil samples were taken from cocoa farms, orange farms and palm oil plantations at three different depths. The nutrients determined were Primary macronutrients that was K, Secondary macronutrients that were Ca, Mg and Micronutrients that were, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Na and Se and Neutron Activation method and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry were used for the elemental analysis. The pHs were within the acidic range, ranging from 4.50-6.44. The top soil (0-5cm) had the higher pH followed by soil at the depth of 5-30cm and then soil at the depth of 30-40cm that is the pH decreased with depth. The salinity rather increased with depth ranging from 0.3l-2.98dS/m and the moisture content also ranged from 0.5-2.04%. For the soil samples taken from the cocoa farms, K recorded the highest concentration and Mo recorded the lowest concentration in the soil. For soil samples taken from orange farms, Ca recorded the highest concentration and Se recorded the lowest concentration in the soil and for soil samples taken from the palm oil plantations, Fe recorded the highest concentration and Mo recorded the lowest concentration in soil. The macronutrients ranged from 28591.19-6.49 mg/kg and the micronutrients ranged from <0.0004-20344.50 mg/kg. Soils in the cocoa farms were found to be more rich in nutrients and the soils in the palm oil plantations were found to be least rich in nutrients

  8. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  9. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  10. Pitfall Traps and Mini-Winkler Extractor as Complementary Methods to Sample Soil Coleoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, A C; Batistella, D A; Battirola, L D; Marques, M I

    2016-02-01

    We compared abundance, species richness, and capture efficiency with pitfall traps and mini-Winkler extractors to examine their use as complementary methods for sampling soil Coleoptera during dry (2010) and high water seasons (2011) in three areas, including inundated and non-inundated regions, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We paired treatments with two 10 × 10 m plots in inundated and non-inundated locations that were repeated three times in each location for a total of 18 plots. In each plot, we used nine pitfall traps and collected 2 m(2) of leaf litter and surface soil samples with mini-Winkler extractors. We collected a total of 4260 adult beetles comprising 36 families, 113 genera, and 505 species. Most were caught in pitfalls (69%) and the remainder in the mini-Winkler extractors (31%). Each method provided distinct information about the beetle community: 252 species were captured only in pitfall traps, 147 using only the mini-Winkler extractors, and these methods shared another 106 species. Pitfall and mini-Winkler contribute in different ways for the sampling of the soil beetle community, and so they should be considered complementary for a more thorough assessment of community diversity.

  11. A quantitative method to detect explosives and selected semivolatiles in soil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapper-Gowdy, M.; Dermirgian, J.; Robitaille, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a novel Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method that can be used to rapidly screen soil samples from potentially hazardous waste sites. Samples are heated in a thermal desorption unit and the resultant vapors are collected and analyzed in a long-path gas cell mounted in a FTIR. Laboratory analysis of a soil sample by FTIR takes approximately 10 minutes. This method has been developed to identify and quantify microgram concentrations of explosives in soil samples and is directly applicable to the detection of selected volatile organics, semivolatile organics, and pesticides

  12. Detection of bacterial DNA in serial synovial samples obtained during antibiotic treatment from patients with septic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, I. M.; Wilbrink, B.; Vije, A. E.; Schouls, L. M.; Breedveld, F. C.; Tak, P. P.

    1999-01-01

    The management of septic arthritis could benefit from sensitive tests that detect the persistence of microorganisms in the joint. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of monitoring the presence of bacterial DNA in synovial samples from septic arthritis patients during antibiotic

  13. Histopathological examination of nerve samples from pure neural leprosy patients: obtaining maximum information to improve diagnostic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Sérgio Luiz Gomes; Chimelli, Leila; Jardim, Márcia Rodrigues; Vital, Robson Teixeira; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Corte-Real, Suzana; Hacker, Mariana Andréa Vilas Boas; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Nerve biopsy examination is an important auxiliary procedure for diagnosing pure neural leprosy (PNL). When acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are not detected in the nerve sample, the value of other nonspecific histological alterations should be considered along with pertinent clinical, electroneuromyographical and laboratory data (the detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA with polymerase chain reaction and the detection of serum anti-phenolic glycolipid 1 antibodies) to support a possible or probable PNL diagnosis. Three hundred forty nerve samples [144 from PNL patients and 196 from patients with non-leprosy peripheral neuropathies (NLN)] were examined. Both AFB-negative and AFB-positive PNL samples had more frequent histopathological alterations (epithelioid granulomas, mononuclear infiltrates, fibrosis, perineurial and subperineurial oedema and decreased numbers of myelinated fibres) than the NLN group. Multivariate analysis revealed that independently, mononuclear infiltrate and perineurial fibrosis were more common in the PNL group and were able to correctly classify AFB-negative PNL samples. These results indicate that even in the absence of AFB, these histopathological nerve alterations may justify a PNL diagnosis when observed in conjunction with pertinent clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data.

  14. Biological investigations of Indian phaeophyceae: 17. Seasonal variation of antibacterial activity of total sterols obtained from frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii Setchell et Gardner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.P.S.

    From lipid fraction of frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii unsaponifiable part was extracted with diethyl ether to isolate total sterols. The extracted sterols were obtained for a period of nine months and tested against test bacteria...

  15. Calculation of coincidence summing corrections for a specific small soil sample geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmer, R.G.; Gehrke, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Previously, a system was developed at the INEL for measuring the {gamma}-ray emitting nuclides in small soil samples for the purpose of environmental monitoring. These samples were counted close to a {approx}20% Ge detector and, therefore, it was necessary to take into account the coincidence summing that occurs for some nuclides. In order to improve the technical basis for the coincidence summing corrections, the authors have carried out a study of the variation in the coincidence summing probability with position within the sample volume. A Monte Carlo electron and photon transport code (CYLTRAN) was used to compute peak and total efficiencies for various photon energies from 30 to 2,000 keV at 30 points throughout the sample volume. The geometry for these calculations included the various components of the detector and source along with the shielding. The associated coincidence summing corrections were computed at these 30 positions in the sample volume and then averaged for the whole source. The influence of the soil and the detector shielding on the efficiencies was investigated.

  16. Levels and effects of natural radionuclides in soil samples of Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjulata Yadav; Mukesh Rawat; Anoop Dangwal; Mukesh Prasad; Gusain, G.S.; Ramola, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of natural radionuclide gives significant parameter to assess the presence of gamma radioactivity and its radiological effect in our environment. Natural radionuclides are present in the form of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soil, rocks, water, air, and building materials. Distribution of natural radionuclides depends on the type of minerals present in the soil and rocks. For this purpose gamma spectrometer is used as tool for finding the concentration of these radionuclides. The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in these soil samples were found to vary from of 8 ± 1 Bq/kg to 50 ± 10 Bq/kg with an average 20 Bq/kg, 7 ± 1-88 ± 16 Bq/kg with an Average 26 Bq/kg and 115 ± 18-885 ± 132 Bq/kg with an average 329 Bq/kg, respectively. In this paper, we are presenting the radiological effect due to distribution of natural radionuclide present in soil of Garhwal Himalaya. (author)

  17. [Physical and chemical methods for eliminating propagules of indigenous mycorrhizal fungi from soil samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covacevich, Fernanda; Castellari, Claudia C; Echeverría, Hernán E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate methods to eliminate or reduce the number of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) from soil samples without affecting their edaphic or microbiological properties. At an early trial we evaluated moist heat (autoclaving), dry heat (oven), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and formaldehyde at a range of 100.0-3.3μl/g and 16.7-3.3μl/g respectively. There was no germination in plants of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) sown on substrates receiving NaClO (100.0-33.3μl/g), whereas autoclaving significantly increased the available soil phosphorous content. Both treatments failed to eradicate AMF colonization at 9 weeks; therefore, they were discarded. In a second trial, oven and formaldehyde (10.0μl/g) treatments were analyzed to assess the effects of seed decontamination and AMF reinoculation. Both procedures were effective in reducing or eliminating indigenous AMF at a range of soil P availability of 12-29mg/kg. However, the time between soil treatment and AMF multiplication and safety requirements were greater in the case of formaldehyde application. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Solving mercury (Hg) speciation in soil samples by synchrotron X-ray microspectroscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzano, Roberto; Santoro, Anna; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Vekemans, Bart; Medici, Luca; Janssens, Koen; Goettlicher, Joerg; Denecke, Melissa A.; Mangold, Stefan; Ruggiero, Pacifico

    2010-01-01

    Direct mercury (Hg) speciation was assessed for soil samples with a Hg concentration ranging from 7 up to 240 mg kg -1 . Hg chemical forms were identified and quantified by sequential extractions and bulk- and micro-analytical techniques exploiting synchrotron generated X-rays. In particular, microspectroscopic techniques such as μ-XRF, μ-XRD and μ-XANES were necessary to solve bulk Hg speciation, in both soil fractions 3 S 2 Cl 2 ), and an amorphous phase containing Hg bound to chlorine and sulfur. The amount of metacinnabar and amorphous phases increased in the fraction <2 μm. No interaction among Hg-species and soil components was observed. All the observed Hg-species originated from the slow weathering of an inert Hg-containing waste material (K106, U.S. EPA) dumped in the area several years ago, which is changing into a relatively more dangerous source of pollution. - Direct mercury (Hg) speciation in chlor-alkali plant contaminated soils enabled the identification of potentially dangerous Hg-S/Cl amorphous species.

  19. Comparison of glucose concentrations in blood samples obtained with a marginal ear vein nick technique versus from a peripheral vein in healthy cats and cats with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Melanie D; Taylor, Susan M; Adams, Vicki J; Waldner, Cheryl L; Feldman, Edward C

    2002-08-01

    To compare blood glucose (BG) concentrations measured with a portable blood glucose meter in blood samples obtained with a marginal ear vein (MEV) nick technique, from a peripheral venous catheter, and by direct venipuncture in healthy cats and cats with diabetes mellitus. Prospective study. 1 0 healthy cats and 11 cats with diabetes mellitus. Procedure-On day 1, blood samples were collected every hour for 10 hours by the MEV nick technique and from a peripheral venous catheter. On day 2, blood samples were collected every hour for 10 hours by the MEV nick technique and by direct venipuncture of the medial saphenous vein. For all cats, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was not significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained from the peripheral venous catheter. For healthy cats, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was not significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained by direct venipuncture. For cats with diabetes mellitus, mean BG concentration for samples collected by the MEV nick technique was significantly different from mean concentration for samples obtained by direct venipuncture; however, for the range of concentrations examined, this difference was not clinically important. Results suggest that for the range of concentrations examined, the MEV nick technique is a reasonable alternative to venous blood collection for serial measurement of BG concentrations in cats.

  20. On-Site Processing and Subsampling of Surface Soil Samples for the Analysis of Explosives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hewitt, Alan D

    2003-01-01

    The on-site implementation of a sampling and analysis plan for the determination of explosives residues exposed a large uncertainty in our ability to quickly obtain representative subsamples from either large (>500 g...

  1. Area G perimeter surface-soil and single-stage water sampling: Environmental surveillance for fiscal year 95. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, M.; Conrad, R.

    1997-09-01

    ESH-19 personnel collected soil and single-stage water samples around the perimeter of Area G at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during FY 95 to characterize possible radionuclide movement out of Area G through surface water and entrained sediment runoff. Soil samples were analyzed for tritium, total uranium, isotopic plutonium, americium-241, and cesium-137. The single-stage water samples were analyzed for tritium and plutonium isotopes. All radiochemical data was compared with analogous samples collected during FY 93 and 94 and reported in LA-12986 and LA-13165-PR. Six surface soils were also submitted for metal analyses. These data were included with similar data generated for soil samples collected during FY 94 and compared with metals in background samples collected at the Area G expansion area.

  2. Radon emanation of rock and soil samples: A tool for stratigraphy, geology, geophysical modelling and radon health hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Frédéric; Koirala, Bharat P.; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Rajaure, Sudhir; Richon, Patrick; Perrier, Frédéric

    2010-05-01

    Radium-226, the mother of radon-222, with a half-life of 1600 years, is intrinsically present in all the rocks and soils in variable amount. However, a small part only of the radium atoms is able to produce radon atoms in the porous media of the rock allowing this radon to escape the rock media through the pore space. This fraction of radium is referred to as the radon source term in rocks or soils, and is usually called the effective radium concentration (ECRa). This parameter is expressed in Bq kg-1, where CRa is the radium-226 concentration and E the emanation coefficient. Considering a sample, it is not possible to estimate its ECRa value a priori. Therefore, this parameter has to be measured in the laboratory. The method in the laboratory to obtain ECRa values is based on the measurement of the concentration of radon in the inner air of a hermetically sealed container in which one rock or one soil sample was previously placed. In order to measure this radon concentration, Lucas scintillation flasks were used, and their radon content counted by a photomultiplier (Stoulos et al., Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 2003). This method was compared in detail with another method using SSNTD (Solid-State Nuclear Track Detector). Detailed investigations have been carried out, including systematic effects such as the shape or volume of container, mass and preparation method of the sample, using a large number of rock, soil and building material samples (more than 800) collected in France and Nepal. Preliminary results will be given based on this data set. With such a large sample, some effects of intrinsic and external factors on the measurement technique and on the obtained results could also be accurately studied: the effect of atmospheric pressure, of the ambient temperature, or of the water content of the sample. ECRa measurements appear to be particularly useful for human health hazards study on a considered natural site, as well as for other applications

  3. Simultaneous speciation of arsenic, selenium, and chromium: species, stability, sample preservation, and analysis of ash and soil leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Morman, Suzette A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method using high-performance liquid chromatography separation with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection previously developed for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been adapted to allow the determination of As(III), As(V), Se(IV), Se(VI), Cr(III), and Cr(VI) under the same chromatographic conditions. Using this method, all six inorganic species can be determined in less than 3 min. A dynamic reaction cell (DRC)-ICP-MS system was used to detect the species eluted from the chromatographic column in order to reduce interferences. A variety of reaction cell gases and conditions may be utilized with the DRC-ICP-MS, and final selection of conditions is determined by data quality objectives. Results indicated all starting standards, reagents, and sample vials should be thoroughly tested for contamination. Tests on species stability indicated that refrigeration at 10° C was preferential to freezing for most species, particularly when all species were present, and that sample solutions and extracts should be analyzed as soon as possible to eliminate species instability and interconversion effects. A variety of environmental and geological samples, including waters and deionized water [leachates] and simulated biological leachates from soils and wildfire ashes have been analyzed using this method. Analytical spikes performed on each sample were used to evaluate data quality. Speciation analyses were conducted on deionized water leachates and simulated lung fluid leachates of ash and soils impacted by wildfires. These results show that, for leachates containing high levels of total Cr, the majority of the chromium was present in the hexavalent Cr(VI) form. In general, total and hexavalent chromium levels for samples taken from burned residential areas were higher than those obtained from non-residential forested areas. Arsenic, when found, was generally in the more oxidized As(V) form. Selenium (IV) and (VI) were present

  4. Distribution of uranium, thorium, and isotopic composition of uranium in soil samples of south Serbia: Evidence of depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo Sarata Kumar; Fujimoto Kenzo; Čeliković Igor; Ujić Predrag; Žunić Zora S.

    2004-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrom - etry were used to measure concentration of uranium and thorium as well as isotopic composition of uranium respectively in soil samples collected around south Serbia. An analytical method was established for a routine sample preparation procedure for uranium and thorium. Uranium was chemically separated and purified from soil samples by anion exchange resin and UTEVA extraction chromatography and its isotopic c...

  5. Studies on the competitive sorption of divalent metal ions to natural soil samples using a multitracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, R.; Hirashima, H.; Sawamura, S.

    1997-01-01

    Speciation of minor or trace amount of pollutants, such as heavy metals and radionuclides released from atmospheric precipitation and water streams have been studied in order to elucidate their fates in the environment through 'in situ' observations or laboratory experiments. The authors have investigated sorption of heavy metals on various natural samples radiometrically ( 65 Zn as a tracer). A sequential extraction technique was found to be very effective to elucidate possible scavengers (minerals) of heavy metals in some cases. A sediment with low CEC does not sorb Zn (ii) ions to a great extent. It is thus considered that the zinc sorption occurs competitively with protons present in the aqueous media. Divalent copper and cadmium ions also behaved similarly to Zn(II), which was obtained electrochemically with the ion selective electrodes of Cu(II) and Cd(II). This time the authors investigated the competitive sorption of Mn(ii) and Zn(II) to natural soils using a radiotracer technique, which was considered to be useful to evaluate relative importance of the sorption of each metal ion without serious matrix effects. Quite different properties appeared among those metal ions used independently or simultaneously as a tracer. Proton exchange process may be important for the Zn(II) sorption, whereas a solid-solution partition is supposed to control the Mn(ii) uptake, when each of them was examined independently as a sorbate. In contrast, simultaneous use of those tracers to a soil suspension had great effects on the result; the maximum sorption (A m ) of Zn(II) increased, and Mn(II) behaved like a sorbate which tends to occupy specific sites of the soil surfaces. Those results indicate that the sorption of minor and/or trace elements to natural soils would not be evaluated through a series of experiments with a single sorbate

  6. Measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rate from soil samples of Kumaun Hills, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Poonam; Singh, Kuldeep; Agarwal, T. K.; Joshi, Manish; Pant, Preeti; Kandari, Tushar; Ramola, R. C.

    2018-03-01

    The source terms, i.e., exhalation and emanation from soil and building materials are the primary contributors to the radon (222Rn)/thoron (220Rn) concentration levels in the dwellings, while the ecological constraints like ventilation rate, temperature, pressure, humidity, etc., are the influencing factors. The present study is focused on Almora District of Kumaun, located in Himalayan belt of Uttarakhand, India. For the measurement of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates, 24 soil samples were collected from different locations. Gamma radiation level was measured at each of these locations. Chamber technique associated with Smart Rn Duo portable monitor was employed for the estimation of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates. Radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) concentrations were also measured in soil samples using NaI(Tl) scintillation based gamma ray spectrometry. The mass exhalation rate for 222Rn was varying between 16 and 54 mBq/kg/h, while the 220Rn surface exhalation rate was in the range of 0.65-6.43 Bq/m2/s. Measured gamma dose rate for the same region varied from 0.10 to 0.31 µSv/h. Inter-correlation of exhalation rates and intra-correlation with background gamma levels were studied.

  7. Study of Radon and Thoron exhalation from soil samples of different grain sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, N; Danalakshmi, B; Supriya, D; Vijayalakshmi, I; Sundar, S Bala; Sivasubramanian, K; Baskaran, R; Jose, M T

    2018-03-01

    The exhalation of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) from a porous matrix depends on the emanation of them from the grains by the recoil effect. The emanation factor is a quantitative estimate of the emanation phenomenon. The present study is to investigate the effect of grain size of the soil matrix on the emanation factor. Soil samples from three different locations were fractionated into different grain size categories ranging from <0.1 to 2mm. The emanation factors of each of the grain size range were estimated by measuring the mass exhalation rates of radon and thoron and the activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 232 Th. The emanation factor was found to increase with decrease in grain size. This effect was made evident by keeping the parent radium concentration constant for all grain size fractions. The governing factor is the specific surface area of the soil samples which increases with decrease in grain size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of {sup 7}BE in soil sample by gamma spectrometry for erosion researchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel, Alexander D., E-mail: alexander.esquivel@utp.ac.pa [Centro de Investigaciones Hidraulicas e Hidrotecnicas (CIHH/UTP-PA), Universidad Tecnologica de Panama (Panama); Kastner, Geraldo F.; Amaral, Angela M.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: ama@cdtn.br, E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Cosmogenic {sup 7}Be is a natural radiotracer produced in the stratosphere and troposphere and reached to the Earth surface via wet and dry fallout and hence its measurement for research of erosion in soils is very significant. The {sup 7}Be radio analyse based on gamma spectrometry technique has been a routine methodology for decades and although is the reference procedure is not free of analytical interference. {sup 7}Be is a β-γ emitting radionuclide (Eγ = 477.59 keV, T½ = 53.12d) and depending on the chemical profile of the soil its determination is susceptible to {sup 228}Ac (E{sub γ} = 478.40 keV, T½ = 6.15h) interference. The aim of this work was to establish an analytical protocol for the {sup 7}Be determination in soil samples from Juatuba-Mg region in different sampling periods of dry and rainy seasons for erosion studies and to establish some methodologies for evaluating and correcting the interference level of {sup 228}Ac in the {sup 7}Be activity measurements by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  9. Prevalence, Virulence Potential, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Bovine Raw Milk Samples Obtained From Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjita; Sharma, Vishnu; Dahiya, Dinesh Kumar; Khan, Aarif; Mathur, Manisha; Sharma, Amit

    2017-03-01

    Listeriosis is a serious foodborne disease of a global concern, and can effectively be controlled by a continuous surveillance of the virulent and multidrug-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes. This study was planned to investigate prevalence of L. monocytogenes in bovine raw milk samples. A total of 457 raw milk samples collected from 15 major cities in Rajasthan, India, were analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes by using standard microbiological and molecular methods. Five of the 457 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Multiplex serotyping showed that 3/5 strains belonged to serotype 4b followed by one strain each to 1/2a and to 1/2c. Further virulence potential assessment indicated that all strains possessed inlA and inlC internalins, and, in addition, two strains also possessed the gene for inlB. All strains were positive for Listeriolysin O (LLO) and showed phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity on an in vitro agar medium with variations in production levels among the strains. A good correlation between the in vitro pathogenicity test and the chick embryo test was observed, as the strains showing higher LLO and PI-PLC activity were found to be lethal to fertilized chick embryos. All strains were resistant to the majority of antibiotics and were designated as multidrug-resistant strains. However, these strains were susceptible to 9 of the 22 tested antibiotics. The maximum zone of inhibition (mm) and acceptable minimum inhibitory concentration were observed with azithromycin, and thus it could be the first choice of a treatment. Overall, the presence of multidrug-resistant L. monocytogenes strains in the raw milk of Rajasthan region is an indicator of public health hazard and highlighting the need of consumer awareness in place and implementation of stricter food safety regulations at all levels of milk production.

  10. Modulation of Cytokine mRNA Expression in Pharyngeal Epithelial Samples obtained from Cattle Infected with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenfeldt, Anna Carolina; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique of endoscopical collection of small tissue samples was used to obtain sequential tissue samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of individual cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) at different phases of the infection. Levels of mRNA encoding interferon (IFN...

  11. 90Sr and 239+240Pu 238Pu 241Am in some samples of mushrooms and forest soil from Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J.W.; LaRosa, J.; Ghods, A.

    1993-01-01

    Strontium-90, plutonium and americium activity concentrations in a few samples of forest soils, some species of mushrooms and fern leaves have been determined. These results are compared with cesium activity concentrations in the same materials obtained in a previous work. Radiochemical procedures are described. The origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident or nuclear test explosion release) is discussed. The 90 Sr activity concentration ranges from 0.6 Bq/kg (mushroom samples) to 48.4 Bq/kg (fern leaves). For 239+240 Pu, it ranges from not detected above background (mushrooms, fern) to 10.8 Bq/kg (humus layer of forest soil). The maximum concentration of 241 Am is found to be 2.4 Bq/kg (humus sample) and for 238 Pu it is 0.85 Bq/kg (also in the humus sample). (author) 16 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. Maternal red blood cell alloantibodies identified in blood samples obtained from Iranian pregnant women: the first population study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Ehsan; Moghaddam, Mostafa; Gorzin, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of alloantibodies among pregnant women in Iran. This was a prospective cross-sectional study, which was carried out in the immunohematology reference laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization in Tehran, Iran, in 2008 to 2015. Screening and identification of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies was done on the sera of 7340 pregnant females using the standard tube method and gel column agglutination technique. Alloantibodies were identified in the serum of 332 of the 7340 (4.5%) pregnant women. A total of 410 antibodies were detected in 332 positive maternal serum samples with no previous history of blood transfusion. Anti-D was the most common antibody accounting for 70.5% of all the antibodies formed in D- women. The incidence of specific alloimmunization other than Rh group was 14.4%. We concluded that the alloimmunization rate was high in comparison with wide pattern in previous studies. In Iran, like other developing countries, alloimmunization screening tests are performed only to detect anti-D in pregnant D- women. This high rate of alloimmunization, quite possibly, is due to the fact that the majority of blood samples came from pregnant women known to have previous obstetric problems. However, we suggest that RBC antibody screening tests should be extended to all D+ women. © 2016 AABB.

  13. Microscale soil structure development after glacial retreat - using machine-learning based segmentation of elemental distributions obtained by NanoSIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Steffen; Schlueter, Steffen; Hoeschen, Carmen; Koegel-Knabner, Ingrid; Mueller, Carsten W.

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is distributed on mineral surfaces depending on physicochemical soil properties that vary at the submicron scale. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) can be used to visualize the spatial distribution of up to seven elements simultaneously at a lateral resolution of approximately 100 nm from which patterns of SOM coatings can be derived. Existing computational methods are mostly confined to visualization and lack spatial quantification measures of coverage and connectivity of organic matter coatings. This study proposes a methodology for the spatial analysis of SOM coatings based on supervised pixel classification and automatic image analysis of the 12C, 12C14N (indicative for SOM) and 16O (indicative for mineral surfaces) secondary ion distributions. The image segmentation of the secondary ion distributions into mineral particle surface and organic coating was done with a machine learning algorithm, which accounts for multiple features like size, color, intensity, edge and texture in all three ion distributions simultaneously. Our workflow allowed the spatial analysis of differences in the SOM coverage during soil development in the Damma glacier forefield (Switzerland) based on NanoSIMS measurements (n=121; containing ca. 4000 particles). The Damma chronosequence comprises several stages of soil development with increasing ice-free period (from ca. 15 to >700 years). To investigate mineral-associated SOM in the developing soil we obtained clay fractions (2.2 g cm3). We found increased coverage and a simultaneous development from patchy-distributed organic coatings to more connected coatings with increasing time after glacial retreat. The normalized N:C ratio (12C14N: (12C14N + 12C)) on the organic matter coatings was higher in the medium-aged soils than in the young and mature ones in both heavy and light mineral fraction. This reflects the sequential accumulation of proteinaceous SOM in the medium-aged soils and C

  14. Transgenic nematodes as biosensors for metal stress in soil pore water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbalagan, Charumathi; Lafayette, Ivan; Antoniou-Kourounioti, Melissa; Haque, Mainul; King, John; Johnsen, Bob; Baillie, David; Gutierrez, Carmen; Martin, Jose A Rodriguez; de Pomerai, David

    2012-03-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans strains carrying stress-reporter green fluorescent protein transgenes were used to explore patterns of response to metals. Multiple stress pathways were induced at high doses by most metals tested, including members of the heat shock, oxidative stress, metallothionein (mtl) and xenobiotic response gene families. A mathematical model (to be published separately) of the gene regulatory circuit controlling mtl production predicted that chemically similar divalent metals (classic inducers) should show additive effects on mtl gene induction, whereas chemically dissimilar metals should show interference. These predictions were verified experimentally; thus cadmium and mercury showed additive effects, whereas ferric iron (a weak inducer) significantly reduced the effect of mercury. We applied a similar battery of tests to diluted samples of soil pore water extracted centrifugally after mixing 20% w/w ultrapure water with air-dried soil from an abandoned lead/zinc mine in the Murcia region of Spain. In addition, metal contents of both soil and soil pore water were determined by ICP-MS, and simplified mixtures of soluble metal salts were tested at equivalent final concentrations. The effects of extracted soil pore water (after tenfold dilution) were closely mimicked by mixtures of its principal component ions, and even by the single most prevalent contaminant (zinc) alone, though other metals modulated its effects both positively and negatively. In general, mixtures containing similar (divalent) metal ions exhibited mainly additive effects, whereas admixture of dissimilar (e.g. trivalent) ions often resulted in interference, reducing overall levels of stress-gene induction. These findings were also consistent with model predictions.

  15. DETECTION OF BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI FROM POST-FLOOD SOIL SAMPLES IN KELANTAN, MALAYSIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharudin, Rafiza; Ahmad, Norazah; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir; Veloo, Yuvaneswary

    2016-09-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an important causative organism of fatal community bacteremia especially in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Outbreaks of melioidosis have been reported post-floods and -typhoons. A cross sectional study was conducted in January 2015, following a major flood in Kelantan, Malaysia to detect presence of B. pseudomallei from soil. A total of 89 soil samples were cultured for B. pseudomallei on Ashdown agar. Putative colonies underwent further staining and biochemical testing prior to confirmation by PCR. Rate of detection was 1%, although low, it nevertheless indicated a risk for melioidosis among flood victims in Kelantan. Flood affected individuals should be made aware of symptoms of melioidosis and healthcare providers must have a high index of suspicion of patients presenting with fever. Such subjects should be screened for the possibility of melioidosis and given prompt treatment to avoid preventable death.

  16. Sampling and analytical strategies for delineating petroleum contaminated soils and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Headley, J.V. (Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)); Rae, W.E. (Chemex Labs Alberta Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada))

    1992-12-01

    A critical evaluation of sampling and analytical strategies is demonstrated to be an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach to delineating petroleum contaminated soil and groundwater. To ensure that appropriate data quality objectives are established, this evaluation is best initiated at the project design stage. Studies for characterization of petroleum contaminated sites are described from the perspective of environmental analytical chemistry. The examples illustrate some commonly occurring problems and practical solutions pertaining to: contamination of ground water and soils by leaking underground storage tanks; discrepancies between analytical results for total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, and C[sub 5-30] hydrocarbon scans; and chemical characterization of petroleum waste containing industrial solvents. 26 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Removal of macro-pollutants in oily wastewater obtained from soil remediation plant using electro-oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mehdi; Drogui, Patrick; Blais, Jean François

    2018-03-01

    Electro-oxidation process by niobium boron-doped diamond (Nb/BDD) electrode was used to treat non-biodegradable oily wastewater provided from soil leachate contaminated by hydrocarbons. Firstly, the diffusion current limit and mass transfer coefficient was experimentally measured (7.1 mA cm -2 and 14.7 μm s -1 , respectively), in order to understand minimum applied current density. Later on, the oxidation kinetic model of each pollutant was investigated in different current densities ranged between 3.8 and 61.5 mA cm -2 . It was observed that direct oxidation was the main removal mechanism of organic and inorganic carbon, while the indirect oxidation in higher current density was responsible for nitrogen oxidation. Hydrocarbon in the form of colloidal particles could be removed by electro-flotation. On the other hand, electro-decomposition on the surface of cathode and precipitation by hydroxyl ions were the utmost removal pathway of metals. According to the initial experiments, operating condition was further optimized by central composite design model in different current density, treatment time, and electrolyte addition, based on the best responses on the specific energy consumption (SEC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency. Unde r optimum operating condition (current density = 23.1 mA cm -2 , time = 120 min, Ti/Pt as a cathode, and Nb/BDD as the anode), electro-oxidation showed the following removal efficiencies: COD (84.6%), TOC (68.2%), oil and grease (99%), color (87.9%), total alkalinity (92%), N tot (18%), NH 4 + (31%), Ca (66.4%), Fe (71.1%), Mg (41.4%), Mn (78.1%), P tot (75%), S (67.1%), and Si (19.1%). Graphical abstract Environmental significance statement Soil treatment facilities are rapidly grown throughout the world, especially in North America due to its intense industrialization. High water content soil in humid area like Canada produces significant amount of leachate which is

  18. Estimation of Natural Radioactivity and Radiation Exposure in Environmental Soil Samples of Golestan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman lotfalinezhad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the risk of radiation, the measurement of the natural radiation sources seems to be necessary. In this study, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides, namely 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, were measured in the soil samples taken from different locations of Golestan, Iran. The measurement results can also be used as a baseline to evaluate the impact of non-nuclear activities and the routine releases of nuclear installations. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 soil samples were collected. The samples were sealed for at least three weeks to ensure the secular equilibrium between 226Ra and 232Th and their respective radioactive progenies. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil samples were measured using a shielded HPGe detector. Results: The average activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were 23, 31, and 453 Bq.kg-1, respectively. To assess the radiological hazards, the Ra equivalent activity as well as the external and internal hazard indices were estimated. Radium equivalent varied within the range of 58.4-142.6 Bq.kg-1 with a mean value of 102.4 Bq.kg-1. The estimated mean values of Hex and Hin (0.28 and 0.34, respectively in the area under investigation were lower than unity as desirable. Therefore, it did not pose any health risks to the population of the area. Conclusion: The results of this study were compared with those of other studies carried out in other countries. As the findings of the present study indicated, the health-related risks causing by the naturally accruing radionuclides was very low in the investigated area.

  19. Polyester production by halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains obtained from mangrove soil samples located in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Thuoc, Doan; Huu-Phong, Tran; Thi-Binh, Nguyen; Thi-Tho, Nguyen; Minh-Lam, Duong; Quillaguamán, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    This research article reports halophilic and halotolerant bacteria isolated from mangrove forests located in Northern Vietnam. Several of these bacteria were able to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). PHAs are polyesters stored by microorganisms under the presence of considerable amounts of a carbon source and deficiency of other essential nutrient such as nitrogen or phosphorous. Mangrove forests in Northern Vietnam are saline coastal habitats that have not been microbiologically studied. Mangrove ecosystems are, in general, rich in organic matter, but deficient in nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. We have found about 100 microorganisms that have adapted to mangrove forests by accumulating PHAs. The production of polyesters might therefore be an integral part of the carbon cycle in mangrove forests. Three of the strains (ND153, ND97, and QN194) isolated from the Vietnamese forests were identified as Bacillus species, while other five strains (QN187, ND199, ND218, ND240, and QN271) were phylogenetically close related to the α-proteobacterium Yangia pacifica. These strains were found to accumulate PHAs in noticeable amounts. Polymer inclusions and chemical structure were studied by transmission electron microscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses, respectively. Strains ND153, ND97, QN194, QN187, ND240, and QN271 synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) from glucose, whereas strains ND199 and ND218 synthesized poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) from this carbohydrate. With the exception of strain QN194, the strains accumulated PHBV when a combination of glucose and propionate was included in the culture medium. The polymer yields and cell growth reached by one Bacillus isolate, strain ND153, and one Gram-negative bacterium, strain QN271, were high and worth to be researched further. For experiments performed in shake flasks, strain ND153 reached a maximum PHBV yield of 71 wt% and a cell dry weight (CDW) of 3.6 g/L while strain QN271 attained a maximum PHB yield of 48 wt% and a CDW of 5.1 g/L. Both strain ND153 and strain QN271 may only represent a case in point that exemplifies of the potential that mangrove forests possess for the discovery of novel halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms able to synthesize different types of biopolyesters. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Analysis and Sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil and Plant Samples of a Coal Mining Area in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, K E; Ukoha, P O

    2016-03-01

    This study analysed coal, plant and soil samples collected from the vicinity of Okobo coal mine in Nigeria for Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and evaluated the sources of the PAH contamination in the environmental samples. The environmental samples were extracted by sonication using a ternary solvent system and analysed for 16 PAHs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of the analysis of the samples identified some of the target PAHs. The ranges of total concentrations (in mg/kg) of PAHs in the coal, plant and soil samples were, 0.00-0.04, 0.00-0.16 and 0.00-0.01 respectively. The evaluation of the results of the PAH analysis of the environmental samples using diagnostic ratios revealed that the PAHs in the soil samples were mainly of petrogenic origin, while those in plant samples indicated mixture of petrogenic and pyrolytic origins.

  1. Size Matters: Assessing Optimum Soil Sample Size for Fungal and Bacterial Community Structure Analyses Using High Throughput Sequencing of rRNA Gene Amplicons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ryan Penton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of different soil sample sizes obtained from an agricultural field, under a single cropping system uniform in soil properties and aboveground crop responses, on bacterial and fungal community structure and microbial diversity indices. DNA extracted from soil sample sizes of 0.25, 1, 5 and 10 g using MoBIO kits and from 10 and 100 g sizes using a bead-beating method (SARDI were used as templates for high-throughput sequencing of 16S and 28S rRNA gene amplicons for bacteria and fungi, respectively, on the Illumina MiSeq and Roche 454 platforms. Sample size significantly affected overall bacterial and fungal community structure, replicate dispersion and the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs retrieved. Richness, evenness and diversity were also significantly affected. The largest diversity estimates were always associated with the 10 g MoBIO extractions with a corresponding reduction in replicate dispersion. For the fungal data, smaller MoBIO extractions identified more unclassified Eukaryota incertae sedis and unclassified glomeromycota while the SARDI method retrieved more abundant OTUs containing unclassified Pleosporales and the fungal genera Alternaria and Cercophora. Overall, these findings indicate that a 10 g soil DNA extraction is most suitable for both soil bacterial and fungal communities for retrieving optimal diversity while still capturing rarer taxa in concert with decreasing replicate variation.

  2. An approach to determine multiple enzyme activities in the same soil sample for soil health-biogeochemical indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme activities (EAs) are soil health indicators of changes in decomposition processes due to management and the crop(s) affecting the quantity and quality of plant residues and nutrients entering the soil. More commonly assessed soil EAs can provide information of reactions where plant available ...

  3. Vertical distribution of Pu radionuclides, 241Am and 99Sr in soil Samples from Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breban, D.; Mocanu, N.; Moreno-Bermudez, J.

    2002-01-01

    The investigated area is a natural alpine pasture located in the South chain of the Carpathian Mountains, which was found as one of the most contaminated areas in Romania after the Chernobyl accident.Radioactive concentrations of Pu radioisotopes, 2 41Am and 9 0Sr were determined in successive layers from 4 soil sections downward a depth of 6-8 cm, providing for the first time information on the effect of fallout acumulation of these radionuclides in soil samples from Romania. Pu and Am were separated by using a combined sequential procedure based on anion exchange and extraction chromatography. The measurements of 241Pu were performed by Liquid Scintillation Counting. 9 0Sr was determined by chemical separation of Sr using the classical precipitation method and Cerenkov counting of 9 0Y. For Quality Control IAEA reference materials were analyzed along with the samples. In a soil section of 8 cm depth radioactive inventories were approximately 500 Bq/m 2 for 2 41Pu, 115 Bq/m 2 for 2 39 +2 40Pu, 8 Bq/m 2 for 2 38Pu, 50 Bq/m2 for 2 41Am and 2500 Bq/m 2 for 9 0Sr. The data on each of the radioisotopes vertical distribution profile are compared between themselves and give an idea for their migration. On the basis of activity isotopic ratios in the soil depth profile, the origin of the contamination (Chernobyl accident and nuclear weapon test fallout) is discussed. The results are also compared to previous data on Cs-137

  4. A review of historical data on the radionuclide content of soil samples collected from the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.

    1988-11-01

    The measurement of radioactive materials in soil samples collected from the environs of the Hanford Site has been a routine part of environmental monitoring since 1971. Soil samples have also been collected and analyzed for special-purpose studies. The main objective of this report is to review and summarize the historical record of soil sampling results related to environmental monitoring from the late 1950s through 1987. Other objectives are to publish previously unpublished data and to consolidate results from routine environmental monitoring and special studies into a single document. 51 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  5. Microbial diversity in firework chemical exposed soil and water samples collected in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhasarathan, P.; Theriappan, P.; Ashokraja, C.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial diversity of soil and water samples collected from pyrochemicals exposed areas of Virdhunagar district (Tamil Nadu, India) was studied. Soil and water samples from cultivable area, waste land and city area of the same region were also studied for a comparative acount. There is a remarkable reduction in total heterotrophic bacterial population (THB) in pyrochemicals exposed soil and water samples (42 × 104 CFU/g and 5.6 × 104 CFU/ml respectively), compared to the THB of cultivable ar...

  6. Distribution of uranium, thorium, and isotopic composition of uranium in soil samples of south Serbia: Evidence of depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Sarata Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrom - etry were used to measure concentration of uranium and thorium as well as isotopic composition of uranium respectively in soil samples collected around south Serbia. An analytical method was established for a routine sample preparation procedure for uranium and thorium. Uranium was chemically separated and purified from soil samples by anion exchange resin and UTEVA extraction chromatography and its isotopic composition was measured using a thermal ionization mass spectrometry. There was a little deviation of U/Th ratio from the average values in some soil samples. Presence of 236U as well as depleted uranium was observed in 235U/238U ratio measurement in the same soil sample.

  7. A comparison of the results obtained from grinding in a stirred media mill lignite coal samples treated with microwave and untreated samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Samanli [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2011-02-15

    Various studies have been carried out on the effect of microwave-treatment on grinding different types of coal. However, the effect of microwave treatment on grinding coal samples -3.35 mm in size which can be considered to be fine is still under investigation. The purpose of this paper is to make contributions to these studies conducted. In the study, lignite coal samples with pyritic sulphur and 25% structural moisture were crushed below -3.35 mm particle size using jaw and cone crushers and then classified into three different mono size groups by Russel sieve. For a complete removal of the structural moisture from the lignite coal, a microwave application with 600 W needs approximately 35% more energy consumption than that with 850 W. The untreated coal samples and the ones treated with microwave at 850 W were ground for 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 s in a stirred media mill. The breakage rates of microwave-treated coal increased and accordingly the ground products of microwave-treated coal yielded finer particles than -106 {mu}m as compared to untreated coals. The untreated and microwave-treated feed coals of -3350 {mu}m and -1180 {mu}m particle sizes were ground for 2 min in the stirred media mill. It was found that the increases in the rate of weight percentages for -106 {mu}m particle size fraction after 2 min of grinding of untreated and microwave-treated feed coals of -3350 {mu}m and -1180 {mu}m were found to be 15.81% and 2.69%, respectively. Moreover, Hardgrove Index (HGI) test results of lignite coal showed that the HGI index value increased by approximately 23% after microwave treatment with 850 W. 37 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Review of samples of tailings, soils and stream sediment adjacent to and downstream from the Ruth Mine, Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Ruth Mine and mill are located in the western Mojave Desert in Inyo County, California (fig. 1). The mill processed gold-silver (Au-Ag) ores mined from the Ruth Au-Ag deposit, which is adjacent to the mill site. The Ruth Au-Ag deposit is hosted in Mesozoic intrusive rocks and is similar to other Au-Ag deposits in the western Mojave Desert that are associated with Miocene volcanic centers that formed on a basement of Mesozoic granitic rocks (Bateman, 1907; Gardner, 1954; Rytuba, 1996). The volcanic rocks consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions (fig. 2) that were emplaced into Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks (Troxel and Morton, 1962). The Ruth Mine is on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Tailings from the mine have been eroded and transported downstream into Homewood Canyon and then into Searles Valley (figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6). The BLM provided recreational facilities at the mine site for day-use hikers and restored and maintained the original mine buildings in collaboration with local citizen groups for use by visitors (fig. 7). The BLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure arsenic (As) and other geochemical constituents in soils and tailings at the mine site and in stream sediments downstream from the mine in Homewood Canyon and in Searles Valley (fig. 3). The request was made because initial sampling of the site by BLM staff indicated high concentrations of As in tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings and soils adjacent to the Ruth Mine and stream sediments downstream from the mine on June 7, 2009. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  9. Comparison of alkaline fusion and acid digestion methods for the determination of rhenium in rock and soil samples by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko; Tabei, Ken

    2005-01-01

    A simple acid digestion method was studied in order to analyze many samples at once to understand Re behavior in the terrestrial environment, because, under normal laboratory conditions, digestion methods generally used, such as Carius tube digestions, Teflon vessel digestions and alkaline fusions, can handle only a small number of samples at one time to ensure complete sample digestion. In this study, the Re results for reference materials (RMs) obtained by the acid digestion method were compared with those by the alkaline fusion digestion method to get applicability of the acid digestion method for Re determination in soil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Alkaline fusion was chosen for the comparison because it is known to have the highest capability to dissolve Re in geological materials among digestion methods. The average total Re recoveries measured using the 185 Re spike for RMs, such as rock, soil and sediment, were 90.6 ± 4.0% for alkaline fusion and 92.2 ± 7.3% for acid digestion, showing no differences between them. However, Re results obtained by the acid digestion method were usually slightly lower than those by the alkaline fusion (Student's t-test, P -1 , the acid digestion method could dissolve about 80% of the sample Re. Although the acid digestion method is unable to dissolve all Re in the sample, however, the Re discharged to soils could be more extractable than the Re in the dissolution-resistant part; thus, the acid digestion method could be useful for obtaining Re levels in soil samples

  10. Area G Perimeter Surface-Soil Sampling Environmental Surveillance for Fiscal Year 1998 Hazardous and Solid Waste Group (ESH-19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis Childs

    1999-09-01

    Material Disposal Area G (Area G) is at Technical Area 54 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Area G has been the principal facility for the disposal of low-level, solid-mixed, and transuranic waste since 1957. It is currently LANL's primary facility for radioactive solid waste burial and storage. As part of the annual environmental surveillance effort at Area G, surface soil samples are collected around the facility's perimeter to characterize possible radionuclide movement off the site through surface water runoff During 1998, 39 soil samples were collected and analyzed for percent moisture, tritium, plutonium-238 and 239, cesium-137 and americium-241. To assess radionuclide concentrations, the results from these samples are compared with baseline or background soil samples collected in an undisturbed area west of the active portion Area G. The 1998 results are also compared to the results from analogous samples collected during 1996 and 1997 to assess changes over this time in radionuclide activity concentrations in surface soils around the perimeter of Area G. The results indicate elevated levels of all the radionuclides assessed (except cesium-137) exist in Area G perimeter surface soils vs the baseline soils. The comparison of 1998 soil data to previous years (1996 and 1997) indicates no significant increase or decrease in radionuclide concentrations; an upward or downward trend in concentrations is not detectable at this time. These results are consistent with data comparisons done in previous years. Continued annual soil sampling will be necessary to realize a trend if one exists. The radionuclide levels found in the perimeter surface soils are above background but still considered relatively low. This perimeter surface soil data will be used for planning purposes at Area G, techniques to prevent sediment tm.nsport off-site are implemented in the areas where the highest radionuclide concentrations are indicated.

  11. Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to the extracted fulvic acid fraction in soil in comparison with other organic matter fractions and to the whole soil sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenxin, E-mail: wxliu@urban.pku.edu.c [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Shanshan [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xing, Baoshan [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Pan, Bo [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Tao, Shu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Fractions of soil organic matter in a natural soil were extracted and sorption (or binding) characteristics of phenanthrene on each fraction and to the whole sample were investigated. The organic carbon normalized single point sorption (or binding) coefficient followed lipid > humin (HM) > humic acid (HA) > fulvic acid (FA) > whole soil sample, while the nonlinear exponent exhibited lipid > FA > HA > whole soil sample > HM. FA showed nonlinear binding of phenanthrene as it often does with other fractions. HM and HA contributed the majority of organic carbon in the soil. The calculated sorption coefficients of the whole soil were about two times greater than the measured values at different equilibrium phenanthrene concentrations. As for phenanthrene, the sorption capacity and nonlinearity of the physically mixed HA-HM mixtures were stronger as compared to the chemically reconstituted HA-HM composite. This was attributed to (besides the conditioning effect of the organic solvents) interactions between HA and HM and acid-base additions during fractionation. - Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to fulvic acid extracted from soil organic matter was found.

  12. The possibilities of atmospheric plasma-spraying application to obtain hydroxyapatite coatings on the stainless steel samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Marija D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the standard metallic materials for hip implants, besides the 316LVM stainless steel, were titanium- and cobalt/chromium-based alloys. Although bioinert, due to their corrosion resistance, they are not biocompatible. Contemporary surgical implants are not made just of bioinert metal anymore, but with deposited bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp coating. Hydroxyapatite is chemically identical with the mineral constituent of bones and teeth, what besides its biocompatibility provides bioactivity as well. The HAp limitations are, however, weak tensile strength and low fatigue resistance for long term loadings, if used alone. This is the reason for HAp to be deposited onto the surgical implant, and to enable its bioactivity, what means intergrowth with bones, and therefore the long-lasting and mechanical stable non-cemented prosthesis. This is important predominantly because the need for such prostheses for younger population, and a better life quality. There are several contemporary techniques that have been used for deposition of these coatings onto the metal implant. The possibilities of atmospheric plasma-spraying for obtaining the stable HAp coatings on the 316LVM stainless steel, ordinary used as a standard material for hip implants production are presented in this paper. The coatings of a commercially available hydroxyapatite powder were plasma-sprayed onto the specimens of medical grade 316LVM stainless steel under various operating conditions. The optical microscopy was used for microstructure and porosity characterization, while coating morphology and Ca/P ratio were analyzed using SEM equipped with EDX. Coating microstructure varied from a porous to a glassy structure, depending on operating conditions applied and coating thickness. Coating porosity was determined to be at the lower required limit requested for the bone-coating intergrowth possibility, but nevertheless adhesion measurements showed good results. The Ca/P ratio was

  13. Optimisation and comparison of microwave-assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil samples using an experimental design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N; Fernández, L A; Madariaga, J M

    1999-09-13

    Optimisation of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) for the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil samples has been accomplished using an experimental design approach. Variables studied have been: percentage of acetone (v/v) in an acetone:n-hexane mixture, solvent volume, extraction time, microwave power and pressure inside the extraction vessel. Five samples of a certified soil (CRM 481) have been extracted under the optimum conditions of the developed method and the results have been compared to those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Good recoveries (>95%) have been obtained for all the PCBs studied. All extracts have been analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and an optimum determination method for the electron impact mass spectrometric (EIMS) has also been developed.

  14. Standard guide for high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry of soil samples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the identification and quantitative determination of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in soil samples by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. It is applicable to nuclides emitting gamma rays with an approximate energy range of 20 to 2000 keV. For typical gamma-ray spectrometry systems and sample types, activity levels of about 5 Bq (135 pCi) are measured easily for most nuclides, and activity levels as low as 0.1 Bq (2.7 pCi) can be measured for many nuclides. It is not applicable to radionuclides that emit no gamma rays such as the pure beta-emitting radionuclides hydrogen-3, carbon-14, strontium-90, and becquerel quantities of most transuranics. This guide does not address the in situ measurement techniques, where soil is analyzed in place without sampling. Guidance for in situ techniques can be found in Ref (1) and (2). This guide also does not discuss methods for determining lower limits of detection. Such discussions can be found in Refs (3), (4), (5), and (6). 1.2 This guide can be us...

  15. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.

    and urine samples were also prepared by adding acetonitrile, shaking, centrifugation, and evaporation. Extracts were then analyzed by UHPLC-MSn (TF LXQ), UHPLC-HRMS/MS (TF Q-Exactive), and GC-MS (TF ISQ). Urine samples were additionally tested for 9-carboxy-THC by immunoassay and ethanol by headspace GC......Aim: Pooled human urine and soil from urinating spots were collected anonymously at a Scandinavian music festival. Samples should be screened for drugs of abuse, particularly novel psychoactive substances (NPS), but also therapeutic drugs and ethanol. Methods: Twenty-one urine samples were...... collected anonymously from urinal and HMMA-d3 and trimipramin-d3 were added as internal standards. Additionally, 12 soil samples were collected near fences where people urinated. Urine samples were processed by enzymatic conjugate cleavage, SPE (HCX and C18), and acetylation prior to GC-MS. Soil samples...

  16. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of bacterial culture of nasopharyngeal swab and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capik, Sarah F; White, Brad J; Lubbers, Brian V; Apley, Michael D; DeDonder, Keith D; Larson, Robert L; Harhay, Greg P; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Harhay, Dayna M; Kalbfleisch, Ted S; Schuller, Gennie; Clawson, Michael L

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare predictive values, extent of agreement, and gamithromycin susceptibility between bacterial culture results of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples obtained from calves with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). ANIMALS 28 beef calves with clinical BRD. PROCEDURES Pooled bilateral NPS samples and BALF samples were obtained for bacterial culture from calves immediately before and at various times during the 5 days after gamithromycin (6 mg/kg, SC, once) administration. For each culture-positive sample, up to 12 Mannheimia haemolytica, 6 Pasteurella multocida, and 6 Histophilus somni colonies underwent gamithromycin susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was performed on all M haemolytica isolates. For paired NPS and BALF samples collected 5 days after gamithromycin administration, the positive and negative predictive values for culture results of NPS samples relative to those of BALF samples and the extent of agreement between the sampling methods were determined. RESULTS Positive and negative predictive values of NPS samples were 67% and 100% for M haemolytica, 75% and 100% for P multocida, and 100% and 96% for H somni. Extent of agreement between results for NPS and BALF samples was substantial for M haemolytica (κ, 0.71) and H somni (κ, 0.78) and almost perfect for P multocida (κ, 0.81). Gamithromycin susceptibility varied within the same sample and between paired NPS and BALF samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated culture results of NPS and BALF samples from calves with BRD should be interpreted cautiously considering disease prevalence within the population, sample collection relative to antimicrobial administration, and limitations of diagnostic testing methods.

  17. Transfer of K-40 from soil to grass and grass to milk: Samples of Brazilian rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabra, Karina B.M.; Peres, Sueli S.

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of natural radionuclides concentration levels and their distribution in the environment allow to assessing the human exposure. Among of primordial radionuclides found in the earth's crust, 40 K is the largest contributor to the dose received by humans. In this paper, is presented a study carried out to estimate the activity concentration and to evaluate the transfer of 40 K along environmental compartments and exposure pathways. This study was performed in two rural sites of São Paulo, Brazil. In both locations, soil, grass, animal feed and cow milk samples were collected, conditioned, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations obtained were similar for both sites, showing, in this case, that the difference in the animal diet probably does not have a significant influence on the transfer of 40 K to cow's milk. (author)

  18. Transfer of K-40 from soil to grass and grass to milk: Samples of Brazilian rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabra, Karina B.M.; Peres, Sueli S., E-mail: karina.uerj@ymail.com, E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN--RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of natural radionuclides concentration levels and their distribution in the environment allow to assessing the human exposure. Among of primordial radionuclides found in the earth's crust, {sup 40}K is the largest contributor to the dose received by humans. In this paper, is presented a study carried out to estimate the activity concentration and to evaluate the transfer of {sup 40}K along environmental compartments and exposure pathways. This study was performed in two rural sites of São Paulo, Brazil. In both locations, soil, grass, animal feed and cow milk samples were collected, conditioned, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations obtained were similar for both sites, showing, in this case, that the difference in the animal diet probably does not have a significant influence on the transfer of {sup 40}K to cow's milk. (author)

  19. Characterization of novel antibiotic resistance genes identified by functional metagenomics on soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Cortés, Gloria; Millán, Vicenta; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco

    2011-04-01

    The soil microbial community is highly complex and contains a high density of antibiotic-producing bacteria, making it a likely source of diverse antibiotic resistance determinants. We used functional metagenomics to search for antibiotic resistance genes in libraries generated from three different soil samples, containing 3.6 Gb of DNA in total. We identified 11 new antibiotic resistance genes: 3 conferring resistance to ampicillin, 2 to gentamicin, 2 to chloramphenicol and 4 to trimethoprim. One of the clones identified was a new trimethoprim resistance gene encoding a 26.8 kDa protein closely resembling unassigned reductases of the dihydrofolate reductase group. This protein, Tm8-3, conferred trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli and Sinorhizobium meliloti (γ- and α-proteobacteria respectively). We demonstrated that this gene encoded an enzyme with dihydrofolate reductase activity, with kinetic constants similar to other type I and II dihydrofolate reductases (K(m) of 8.9 µM for NADPH and 3.7 µM for dihydrofolate and IC(50) of 20 µM for trimethoprim). This is the first description of a new type of reductase conferring resistance to trimethoprim. Our results indicate that soil bacteria display a high level of genetic diversity and are a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes, supporting the use of this approach for the discovery of novel enzymes with unexpected activities unpredictable from their amino acid sequences. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Determination of uranium in soil samples by different analytical extraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopke, J.; Sachse, R.

    1986-01-01

    As an approach for the development of a suitable analytic method for determining the uranium in soil that can be taken up by plants, the following analytical extraction methods are compared: 5M HNO 3 , HF for determination of uranium content, 0.05M MgCl 2 , and malate. The tests are made with various concentrations and extraction temperatures. MgCl 2 and malate leave the grain size spectrum of the soil samples untouched, other than the HNO 3 or HF method, and thus avoid the artificial weathering of the minerals and the resulting uranium release. The correlation of uranium content in soil and plant serves as a measure of evaluating the reliability of a method with regard to the uranium available for uptake. The method using malate is far better in terms of reliability under certain reaction conditions. This is why organic acids are classified to be suitable for determination of the uranium available for uptake by plants. (orig./PW) [de

  1. The Importance of Sample Processing in Analysis of Asbestos Content in Rocks and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, R. D.; Wright, J.

    2012-12-01

    Analysis of asbestos content in rocks and soils using Air Resources Board (ARB) Test Method 435 (M435) involves the processing of samples for subsequent analysis by polarized light microscopy (PLM). The use of different equipment and procedures by commercial laboratories to pulverize rock and soil samples could result in different particle size distributions. It has long been theorized that asbestos-containing samples can be over-pulverized to the point where the particle dimensions of the asbestos no longer meet the required 3:1 length-to-width aspect ratio or the particles become so small that they no longer can be tested for optical characteristics using PLM where maximum PLM magnification is typically 400X. Recent work has shed some light on this issue. ARB staff conducted an interlaboratory study to investigate variability in preparation and analytical procedures used by laboratories performing M435 analysis. With regard to sample processing, ARB staff found that different pulverization equipment and processing procedures produced powders that have varying particle size distributions. PLM analysis of the finest powders produced by one laboratory showed all but one of the 12 samples were non-detect or below the PLM reporting limit; in contrast to the other 36 coarser samples from the same field sample and processed by three other laboratories where 21 samples were above the reporting limit. The set of 12, exceptionally fine powder samples produced by the same laboratory was re-analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and results showed that these samples contained asbestos above the TEM reporting limit. However, the use of TEM as a stand-alone analytical procedure, usually performed at magnifications between 3,000 to 20,000X, also has its drawbacks because of the miniscule mass of sample that this method examines. The small amount of powder analyzed by TEM may not be representative of the field sample. The actual mass of the sample powder analyzed by

  2. Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; DeWitt, Ed H.; Klein, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    This database was initiated, designed, and populated to collect and integrate geochemical data from central Colorado in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessment, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessment, and medical geology. The Microsoft Access database serves as a geochemical data warehouse in support of the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses determined by 70 analytical laboratory and field methods for 47,478 rock, sediment, soil, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed either in the analytical laboratories of the USGS or by contract with commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects. In addition, geochemical data from 7,470 sediment and soil samples collected and analyzed under the Atomic Energy Commission National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program (henceforth called NURE) have been included in this database. In addition to data from 2,377 samples collected and analyzed under CCAP, this dataset includes archived geochemical data originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database (used by the USGS from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s) and the in-house PLUTO database (used by the USGS from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s). All of these data are maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB and from the NURE database were used to generate most of this dataset. In addition, USGS data that have been excluded previously from the NGDB because the data predate earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  3. Development of an automated method for determination of thorium in soil samples and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, J.E.; Robertson, R.

    1986-09-01

    Methodology for determining trace thorium levels in a variety of sample types was further developed. Thorium in filtered water samples is concentrated by ferric hydroxide precipitation followed by dissolution and co-precipitation with lanthanum fluoride. Aerosols on glass fibre, cellulose ester, or teflon filters and solid soil and sediment samples are acid digested. Subsequently thorium is concentrated by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Chemical separation and measurement is then done on a Technicon AA11-C autoanalyzer, using solvent extraction into thenoyltrifuoroacetone in kerosene followed by back extraction into 2 N H NO 3 , and colourometric measurement of the thorium arsenazo III complex. Chemical yields are determined by the addition of thorium-234 tracer using gamma-ray spectrometry. The sensitivities of the methods for water, aerosol and solid samples are approximately 1.0 μg/L, 0.5 μg/g and 1.0 μg/g respectively. At thorium levels about ten times the detection limit, accuracy is estimated to be ± 10% for liquids and aerosols and ± 15% for solid samples, and precision ± 5% for all samples

  4. Depth profile of 236U/238U in soil samples in La Palma, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srncik, M.; Steier, P.; Wallner, G.

    2011-01-01

    The vertical distribution of the 236U/238U isotopic ratio was investigated in soil samples from three different locations on La Palma (one of the seven Canary Islands, Spain). Additionally the 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratio, as it is a well establish tool for the source identification, was determined. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a U separation step by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® Resin (Eichrom Technologies, Inc.). Afterwards Pu was separated from Th and Np by anion exchange using Dowex 1x2 (Dow Chemical Co.). Furthermore a new chemical procedure with tandem columns to separate Pu and U from the matrix was tested. For the determination of the uranium and plutonium isotopes by alpha spectrometry thin sources were prepared by microprecipitation techniques. Additionally these fractions separated from the soil samples were measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to get information on the isotopic ratios 236U/238U, 240Pu/239Pu and 236U/239Pu, respectively. The 236U concentrations [atoms/g] in each surface layer (∼2 cm) were surprisingly high compared to deeper layers where values around two orders of magnitude smaller were found. Since the isotopic ratio 240Pu/239Pu indicated a global fallout signature we assume the same origin as the probable source for 236U. Our measured 236U/239Pu value of around 0.2 is within the expected range for this contamination source. PMID:21481502

  5. Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to the extracted fulvic acid fraction in soil in comparison with other organic matter fractions and to the whole soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxin; Xu, Shanshan; Xing, Baoshan; Pan, Bo; Tao, Shu

    2010-02-01

    Fractions of soil organic matter in a natural soil were extracted and sorption (or binding) characteristics of phenanthrene on each fraction and to the whole sample were investigated. The organic carbon normalized single point sorption (or binding) coefficient followed lipid > humin (HM) > humic acid (HA) > fulvic acid (FA) > whole soil sample, while the nonlinear exponent exhibited lipid > FA > HA > whole soil sample > HM. FA showed nonlinear binding of phenanthrene as it often does with other fractions. HM and HA contributed the majority of organic carbon in the soil. The calculated sorption coefficients of the whole soil were about two times greater than the measured values at different equilibrium phenanthrene concentrations. As for phenanthrene, the sorption capacity and nonlinearity of the physically mixed HA-HM mixtures were stronger as compared to the chemically reconstituted HA-HM composite. This was attributed to (besides the conditioning effect of the organic solvents) interactions between HA and HM and acid-base additions during fractionation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficiency corrections in determining the (137)Cs inventory of environmental soil samples by using relative measurement method and GEANT4 simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Liang, Yongfei; Xu, Jiayun; Bai, Lixin

    2015-08-01

    The determination of (137)Cs inventory is widely used to estimate the soil erosion or deposition rate. The generally used method to determine the activity of volumetric samples is the relative measurement method, which employs a calibration standard sample with accurately known activity. This method has great advantages in accuracy and operation only when there is a small difference in elemental composition, sample density and geometry between measuring samples and the calibration standard. Otherwise it needs additional efficiency corrections in the calculating process. The Monte Carlo simulations can handle these correction problems easily with lower financial cost and higher accuracy. This work presents a detailed description to the simulation and calibration procedure for a conventionally used commercial P-type coaxial HPGe detector with cylindrical sample geometry. The effects of sample elemental composition, density and geometry were discussed in detail and calculated in terms of efficiency correction factors. The effect of sample placement was also analyzed, the results indicate that the radioactive nuclides and sample density are not absolutely uniform distributed along the axial direction. At last, a unified binary quadratic functional relationship of efficiency correction factors as a function of sample density and height was obtained by the least square fitting method. This function covers the sample density and height range of 0.8-1.8 g/cm(3) and 3.0-7.25 cm, respectively. The efficiency correction factors calculated by the fitted function are in good agreement with those obtained by the GEANT4 simulations with the determination coefficient value greater than 0.9999. The results obtained in this paper make the above-mentioned relative measurements more accurate and efficient in the routine radioactive analysis of environmental cylindrical soil samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Less invasive blood sampling in the animal laboratory: clinical chemistry and haematology of blood obtained by the Triatominae bug Dipetalogaster maximus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, S N; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M; Ritz, C; Sørensen, D B

    2012-04-01

    Dipetalogaster maximus (Dipmax), a blood-sucking bug belonging to the family Reduviidae, has been used to obtain blood samples, for example for clinical chemistry and haematology, in a variety of zoo animals and wildlife. Using this bug allows stress-free blood sampling as the bug is able to draw blood without the mammal noticing the bug. In laboratory animal science, the need for blood samples from unstressed animals may arise, especially in animal behaviour research. The use of Dipmax bugs may prove a valuable tool for this purpose. To validate the method, we compared an array of standard blood parameters sampled from New Zealand White rabbits, sampled either by the use of bugs or by the conventional method; puncture of vena auricularis caudalis. The overall hypothesis was that there was no significant difference in clinical chemistry and haematological parameters between the bug method and the conventional method. A total of 17 clinical parameters as well as 12 haematological parameters were measured and compared in New Zealand White rabbits. The results showed that for 13 of these 29 analysed parameters, the bug method and the conventional method did not give significantly different results, and the obtained results were thus directly comparable. For the remaining parameters the obtained results were significantly different. However, all parameters were measurable in the bug samples. The influences of the bug metabolism on these parameters are discussed.

  8. Determination of 210Pb and 210Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Torri, Giancarlo

    2007-01-01

    A new method has been developed for determination of 21 Pb and 21 Po in soil or rock samples containing refractory matrices. The samples were first fused with Na 2 CO 3 and Na 2 O 2 at 600 o C for pre-treatment and then 210 Pb and 210 Po were sequentially leached out at 200-250 o C with HNO 3 +HF, HClO 4 and HCl. About 10% of the leaching solution was used for 21 Po determination, carried out by spontaneous deposition of polonium on a silver disc from a weakly acidic solution that contained hydroxylamine hydrochloride, sodium citrate and 209 Po tracer, measurement being made by α-spectrometry. The remains of the leaching solution were used for determination of 21 Pb, conducted by precipitation as sulphate, purification with Na 2 S as PbS in 6 M ammonium acetate, separation from α-emitters by an anion-exchange resin column, source preparation as PbSO 4 , and measurement with a β-counter. The procedure has been checked with two certified IAEA reference materials, showing good agreement with the recommended values. The lower limits of detection for 1 g of analysed soil or rock samples were found to be 0.75 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po and 2.2 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb. A variety of solid sample species analysed through use of the procedure gave average yields of 90.0±9.8% for 210 Po and 88.4±7.1% for 210 Pb

  9. Enantioseparation and determination of the chiral phenylpyrazole insecticide ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples and its enantioselective degradation in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qing; Shi, Haiyan; Gao, Beibei; Tian, Mingming; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua, E-mail: wangmha@njau.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    An effective method for the enantioselective determination of ethiprole enantiomers in agricultural and environmental samples was developed. The effects of solvent extraction, mobile phase and thermodynamic parameters for chiral recognition were fully investigated. Complete enantioseparation of the ethiprole enantiomers was achieved on a Lux Cellulose-2 column. The stereochemical structures of ethiprole enantiomers were also determined, and (R)-(+)-ethiprole was first eluted. The average recoveries were 82.7–104.9% with intra-day RSD of 1.7–8.2% in soil, cucumber, spinach, tomato, apple and peach under optimal conditions. Good linearity (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.9991) was obtained for all the matrix calibration curves within a range of 0.1 to 10 mg L{sup −1}. The limits of detection for both enantiomers were estimated to be 0.008 mg kg{sup −1} in soil, cucumber, spinach and tomato and 0.012 mg kg{sup −1} in apple and peach, which were lower than the maximum residue levels established in Japan. The results indicate that the proposed method is convenient and reliable for the enantioselective detection of ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples. The behavior of ethiprole in soil was studied under field conditions and the enantioselective degradation was observed with enantiomer fraction values varying from 0.494 to 0.884 during the experiment. The (R)-(+)-ethiprole (t{sub 1/2} = 11.6 d) degraded faster than (S)-(−)-ethiprole (t{sub 1/2} = 34.7 d). This report is the first describe a chiral analytical method and enantioselective behavior of ethiprole, and these results should be extremely useful for the risk evaluation of ethiprole in food and environmental safety. - Highlights: • The ethiprole enantiomers were completely separated. • A novel method for enantioselective determination of ethiprole was developed. • The absolute configurations of ethiprole enantiomers were firstly determined. • The (R)-(+)-ethiprole was preferentially degraded in

  10. Correlation of PCDD/F and PCB concentrations in soil samples from the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network (NABO) to specific parameters of the observation sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, P.; Gujer, E.; Zennegg, M. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bucheli, T. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    Soils are natural sinks for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Being lipophilic compounds, these contaminants adsorb to the organic carbon of the soil, and due to the low mobility and high persistence, they accumulate in the soil. Soil therefore represents rather a long-term archive for the atmospheric deposition than an indicator for the actual input of these compounds. In 1986, on demand of the Swiss ordinance of 9 June 1986 relating to hazardous substances in the soil, a national soil monitoring network (NABO) was set up in Switzerland aiming at monitoring the soil pollution. Sites were selected to reflect typical land use, vegetation, land management, air quality, and soil conditions in Switzerland. 50% of the sites are located on agricultural land, 30% in forests, and 20% on open land with extensive farming (alpine pastures, etc.); two sites are situated in urban parks. The sites are distributed throughout Switzerland including rural/remote areas as well as urban, urban fringe and industrial regions. Soil samples are taken every 5 years and are analysed for eight heavy metals (lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, chromium, cobalt, and mercury) as well as fluorine. So far, organic pollutants (PAH and PCB) have been determined in isolated samples only, and there is no data on PCDD/F concentrations so far. The present program was set up to fill this knowledge gap. A subset of 23 sites representing locations where contaminant immissions above average were expected was selected for PCDD/F and PCB analysis.

  11. Assessment of organic matter resistance to biodegradation in volcanic ash soils assisted by automated interpretation of infrared spectra from humic acid and whole soil samples by using partial least squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Zulimar; Pérez Trujillo, Juan Pedro; Hernández-Hernández, Sergio Alexander; Almendros, Gonzalo; Sanz, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    From a practical viewpoint, the most interesting possibilities of applying infrared (IR) spectroscopy to soil studies lie on processing IR spectra of whole soil (WS) samples [1] in order to forecast functional descriptors at high organizational levels of the soil system, such as soil C resilience. Currently, there is a discussion on whether the resistance to biodegradation of soil organic matter (SOM) depends on its molecular composition or on environmental interactions between SOM and mineral components, such could be the case with physical encapsulation of particulate SOM or organo-mineral derivatives, e.g., those formed with amorphous oxides [2]. A set of about 200 dependent variables from WS and isolated, ash free, humic acids (HA) [3] was obtained in 30 volcanic ash soils from Tenerife Island (Spain). Soil biogeochemical properties such as SOM, allophane (Alo + 1 /2 Feo), total mineralization coefficient (TMC) or aggregate stability were determined in WS. In addition, structural information on SOM was obtained from the isolated HA fractions by visible spectroscopy and analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS). Aiming to explore the potential of partial least squares regression (PLS) in forecasting soil dependent variables, exclusively using the information extracted from WS and HA IR spectral profiles, data were processed by using ParLeS [4] and Unscrambler programs. Data pre-treatments should be carefully chosen: the most significant PLS models from IR spectra of HA were obtained after second derivative pre-treatment, which prevented effects of intrinsically broadband spectral profiles typical in macromolecular heterogeneous material such as HA. Conversely, when using IR spectra of WS, the best forecasting models were obtained using linear baseline correction and maximum normalization pre-treatment. With WS spectra, the most successful prediction models were obtained for SOM, magnetite, allophane, aggregate stability, clay and total aromatic compounds, whereas the PLS

  12. Comparison between two sampling methods by results obtained using petrographic techniques, specially developed for minerals of the Itataia uranium phosphate deposit, Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, H.T.; Murta, R.L.L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of comparison of two sampling methods applied to a gallery of the uranium-phosphate ore body of Itataia-Ceara State, Brazil, along 235 metres of mineralized zone, are presented. The results were obtained through petrographic techniques especially developed and applied to both samplings. In the first one it was studied hand samples from a systematically sampling made at intervals of 2 metres. After that, the estimated mineralogical composition studies were carried out. Some petrogenetic observations were for the first time verified. The second sampling was made at intervals of 20 metres and 570 tons of ore extracted and distributed in sections and a sample representing each section was studied after crushing at -65. Their mineralogy were quantified and the degree of liberation of apatite calculated. Based on the mineralogical data obtained it was possible to represent both samplings and to make the comparison of the main mineralogical groups (phosphates, carbonates and silicates). In spite of utilizing different methods and methodology and the kind of mineralization, stockwork, being quite irregular, the results were satisfactory. (Author) [pt

  13. Assessment of Sampling Error Associated with Collection and Analysis of Soil Samples at a Firing Range Contaminated with HMX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jenkins, Thomas F

    1997-01-01

    Short-range and mid-range (grid size) spatial heterogeneity in explosives concentrations within surface soils was studied at an active antitank firing range at the Canadian Force Base-Valcartier, Val-Belair, Quebec...

  14. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotam S Chaudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm. MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  15. Antibacterial activity of actinomycetes isolated from different soil samples of Sheopur (A city of central India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Hotam S; Yadav, Jayprakash; Shrivastava, Anju R; Singh, Smriti; Singh, Anil K; Gopalan, Natrajan

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of the present study was isolation, purification, and characterization of actinomycetes from soil samples, having antimicrobial activity against 12 selected pathogenic strains. Soils samples were taken from different niche habitats of Sheopur district, Madhya Pradesh, India. These samples were serially diluted and plated on actinomycete isolation agar media. Potential colonies were screened, purified, and stored in glycerol stock. Isolates were morphologically and biochemically characterized. These isolates were subjected to extraction for production of the antibacterial compound. Antibacterial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the purified extract of isolates were evaluated. Totally 31 actinomycete isolates were tested for antagonistic activity against 12 pathogenic microorganisms. Isolates AS14, AS27, and AS28 were highly active, while AS1 showed less activity against the pathogenic microorganisms. Isolate AS7 exhibited the highest antagonistic activity against Bacillus cereus (24 mm) and AS16 showed the highest activity against Enterococcus faecalis (21 mm). MIC was also determined for actinomycete isolates against all the tested microorganisms. MIC of actinomycete isolates was found to be 2.5 mg/ml against Shigella dysenteriae, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and was 1.25 mg/ml for Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. All actinomycetes isolates showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus, while they showed less activity against S. dysenteriae. These isolates had antibacterial activity and could be used in the development of new antibiotics for pharmaceutical or agricultural purposes.

  16. Soil sampling intercomparison exercise by selected laboratories of the ALMERA Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories in Austria have the programmatic responsibility to provide assistance to Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving the reliability of analytical measurement results, both in radionuclide and trace element determinations. This is accomplished through the provision of reference materials of terrestrial origin, validated analytical procedures, training in the implementation of internal quality control, and through the evaluation of measurement performance by the organization of worldwide and regional interlaboratory comparison exercises. The IAEA is mandated to support global radionuclide measurement systems related to accidental or intentional releases of radioactivity in the environment. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA coordinates an international network of analytical laboratories for the measurement of environmental radioactivity (ALMERA). The network was established by the IAEA in 1995 and makes available to Member States a world-wide network of analytical laboratories capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. A primary requirement for the ALMERA members is participation in the IAEA interlaboratory comparison exercises, which are specifically organized for ALMERA on a regular basis. These exercises are designed to monitor and demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the network members, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. In this framework, the IAEA organized a soil sampling intercomparison exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) for selected laboratories of the ALMERA network. The main objective of this exercise was to compare soil sampling procedures used by different participating laboratories. The performance evaluation results of the interlaboratory comparison exercises performed in the framework of

  17. Assessment of DDT and DDE levels in soil, dust, and blood samples from Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Betanzos, Angel F; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Alegría-Torres, Jorge Alejandro; Maldonado, Iván Nelinho Pérez

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of DDT and DDE in two environmental matrices (soil and dust) and to investigate the blood levels of these insecticides in exposed children living in a north Mexican state (Chihuahua) where DDT was sprayed several years ago during (1) health campaigns for the control of malaria and (2) agricultural activities. DDT and DDE were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In general, lower levels were found in household outdoor samples. The levels in outdoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 0.788 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.642 mg/kg for DDE. The levels in indoor samples ranged from 0.001 to 15.47 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 1.063 mg/kg for DDE. Similar results to those found in indoor soil were found in dust, in which the levels ranged from 0.001 to 95.87 mg/kg for DDT and from 0.001 to 0.797 mg/kg for DDE. Moreover, blood levels showed that all of the communities studied had been exposed to DDT and/or DDE, indicating a general past or present exposure to DDT. It is important to note that the quotient DDT/DDE in all matrices was always >1. Whether the people living in our study area are at risk is an issue that deserves further analysis. However, applying precautionary principles, it is important to initiate a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to DDT and its metabolites in people living in this area.

  18. Accelerated solvent extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the sensitive determination of phenols in soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Han-Zhu; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-05-01

    A method combining accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the first time as a sample pretreatment for the rapid analysis of phenols (including phenol, m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) in soil samples. In the accelerated solvent extraction procedure, water was used as an extraction solvent, and phenols were extracted from soil samples into water. The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique was then performed on the obtained aqueous solution. Important accelerated solvent extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction parameters were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the new method provided wide linearity (6.1-3080 ng/g), low limits of detection (0.06-1.83 ng/g), and excellent reproducibility (extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a sample pretreatment procedure coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is an excellent method for the rapid analysis of trace levels of phenols in environmental soil samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Considerations on readings of portable X-ray fluorescence in dry and moist soil samples; Consideracoes sobre leituras de aparelhos de fluorescencia de raios X portateis em amostras de solo secas e umidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros Filho, Carlos Augusto de; Caron, Rogerio, E-mail: carlos.augusto.medeiros@vale.com, E-mail: rogerio.caron@vale.com [VALE/DIPM, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In the mineral exploration department of VALE, portable X-ray fluorescence devices (PXRF) are being adopted in various samples means. PXRF analysis for soil and stream sediment samples can be made directly in the sample obtained in the field, but incorporates varied humidity degrees. Studies have been developed to investigate PXRF analysis in humid samples compared to the corresponding dry samples in 40 soil samples of Pirangi exploration target (Carajas). The treatments indicated that dried samples presented considerably higher values compared to the humid samples, especially in cases with high grades. The data showed the influence of humidity in the downgrade of the Cu and Fe values in the analysis with PXRF. It adds up that humidity intensity is variable and, therefore, the original sample, not dried, has a heterogeneity that should affect the representativity of the geochemical data. Thus, drying an aliquot of the original sample is recommended as prior previous procedure to the analysis with PXRF. (author)

  20. An instrument design and sample strategy for measuring soil respiration in the coastal temperate rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, S. M.; D'Amore, D. V.

    2009-12-01

    The coastal temperate rainforest (CTR) along the northwest coast of North America is a large and complex mosaic of forests and wetlands located on an undulating terrain ranging from sea level to thousands of meters in elevation. This biome stores a dynamic portion of the total carbon stock of North America. The fate of the terrestrial carbon stock is of concern due to the potential for mobilization and export of this store to both the atmosphere as carbon respiration flux and ocean as dissolved organic and inorganic carbon flux. Soil respiration is the largest export vector in the system and must be accurately measured to gain any comprehensive understanding of how carbon moves though this system. Suitable monitoring tools capable of measuring carbon fluxes at small spatial scales are essential for our understanding of carbon dynamics at larger spatial scales within this complex assemblage of ecosystems. We have adapted instrumentation and developed a sampling strategy for optimizing replication of soil respiration measurements to quantify differences among spatially complex landscape units of the CTR. We start with the design of the instrument to ease the technological, ergonomic and financial barriers that technicians encounter in monitoring the efflux of CO2 from the soil. Our sampling strategy optimizes the physical efforts of the field work and manages for the high variation of flux measurements encountered in this difficult environment of rough terrain, dense vegetation and wet climate. Our soil respirometer incorporates an infra-red gas analyzer (LiCor Inc. LI-820) and an 8300 cm3 soil respiration chamber; the device is durable, lightweight, easy to operate and can be built for under $5000 per unit. The modest unit price allows for a multiple unit fleet to be deployed and operated in an intensive field monitoring campaign. We use a large 346 cm2 collar to accommodate as much micro spatial variation as feasible and to facilitate repeated measures for tracking

  1. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, C. H.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect, and provide guidance on determing the best available geochemical monitoring approaches.

  2. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher; Thordsen, James J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Trautz, Robert C.; Thomas, Burt; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na–Ca–Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  3. Methods for preparing comparative standards and field samples for neutron activation analysis of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, D.C.; Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.

    1994-01-01

    One of the more difficult problems associated with comparative neutron activation analysis (CNAA) is the preparation of standards which are tailor-made to the desired irradiation and counting conditions. Frequently, there simply is not a suitable standard available commercially, or the resulting gamma spectrum is convoluted with interferences. In a recent soil analysis project, the need arose for standards which contained about 35 elements. In response, a computer spreadsheet was developed to calculate the appropriate amount of each element so that the resulting gamma spectrum is relatively free of interferences. Incorporated in the program are options for calculating all of the irradiation and counting parameters including activity produced, necessary flux/bombardment time, counting time, and appropriate source-to-detector distance. The result is multi-element standards for CNAA which have optimal concentrations. The program retains ease of use without sacrificing capability. In addition to optimized standard production, a novel soil homogenization technique was developed which is a low cost, highly efficient alternative to commercially available homogenization systems. Comparative neutron activation analysis for large scale projects has been made easier through these advancements. This paper contains details of the design and function of the NAA spreadsheet and innovative sample handling techniques

  4. Comparison of Hematologic and Biochemical Test Results in Blood Samples Obtained by Jugular Venipuncture Versus Nail Clip in Moluccan Cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tracy D; Lejnieks, Daniel V; Koepke, Hoyt; Grimson, Fiona; Szucs, Jennifer; Omaits, Kerri; Lane, Rosalie

    2015-12-01

    In birds, blood samples are often collected from the jugular, medial metatarsal, and basilic vein. Samples are sometimes collected by toe nail clip, but concerns to avoid drawing blood from the nail include pain after nail clips for blood collection, potential differences in complete blood count (CBC) results, and potential contamination with uric acid values. To compare differences in biochemical and hematologic values in blood samples obtained by jugular venipuncture versus toenail clip, blood samples were collected from Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) (N = 23) and sent to a commercial laboratory for routine CBCs and serum biochemical analysis. Results showed good agreement between venipuncture and nail clip blood samples in red blood cell count, packed cell volume, heterophil count and percentage, lymphocyte count and percentage, aspartate aminotransferase, chloride, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and uric acid values. Constant bias was found in values of bile acids, cholesterol, and hemoglobin. Proportional bias toward higher values in the jugular sample were found in total white blood cell (WBC) count and inorganic phosphorus. Serum calcium plots revealed a proportional bias toward higher values in the toe nail blood when values were increased. Results suggest some differences in WBC count, bile acids, calcium, cholesterol, hemoglobin, and phosphorus values between blood samples collected by jugular venipuncture and samples collected by toe nail clip, but the differences are mostly minor and, with the possible exception of inorganic phosphorus and marginally elevated or very low WBC counts, are unlikely to affect the use or interpretation of the avian blood panel.

  5. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  6. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  7. Extraction methods for determination of Pu and Am contents in soil samples from the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvetsov, I.K.; Yakovlev, N.G.; Kalinichenko, B.S.; Kulakov, V.M.; Kulazhko, V.G.; Vlasov, M.M.; Shubko, V.M.; Pchelkin, V.A.; Rodionov, Yu.F.; Lisin, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    The possibilities for decreasing the time of soil sample analysis for Pu, Am, Cm isotope concentrations with simultaneous increasing the sensitivity and analysis representativity are demonstrated. It is achieved due to changing the total sample break-down by oxidizing leaching, and the procedure of ion-exchange separation by single extraction using trioctylamine. Experience in the method applications for analysis of soil samples in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone aimed at determination of correlation coefficients for Pu/Ce-144 and Pu/Am-241 is generalized. 4 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Determination of As, Bi and Se in acidified slurries of marine sediment, soil and coal samples by hydride generation electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreda-Pineiro, J.; Lopez-Mahia, P.; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S.; Fernandez-Fernandez, E.; Prada-Rodriguez, D. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2002-07-01

    Ir-treated graphite tubes were used for preconcentration and atomisation of the As, Bi and Se hydrides generated from acidified slurries of marine sediment, soil and coal samples. A batch mode generation system was used for the hydride generation. The variables affecting the acidified slurry preparation procedure (assisted by ultrasonic energy) and the hydride generation/trapping/atomisation processes were studied by using a Plackett-Burman design. The sensitivity (characteristic masses of 65, 75 and 100 pg, for As, Bi and Se, respectively) and precision (RSD% lower than 10%) obtained were adequate for As, Bi and Se determination in slurry samples. The accuracy of the method was verified by analysing PACS-1 (Marine Sediment), GBW-07401 (Soil) and NIST SRM 1632c (Coal) certified reference materials.

  9. Radioactivity And Dose Assessment Of Rock And Soil Samples From Homa Mountain, Homa Bay County, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otwoma, D.; Patel, J.P.; Bartilol, S.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2013-01-01

    The in situ measured average outdoor absorbed dose rate in air was found to vary from 108.4 to 1596.4 n Gy h -1 at Homa Mountain area in southwestern Kenya. Rock and soil samples collected gave average values of the radioactivity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th of 915.6, 195.3 and 409.5 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The range of the annual effective dose for a person living in Homa Mountain area calculated varied from 28.6 to 1681.2, with a mean of 470.4 μSv. These results imply Homa Mountain have elevated levels of natural radioactivity thus the region is a high background radiation area

  10. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori levels in soil samples from public playgrounds in Spain*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Leonardo Martín; Codony, Francesc; López Leyton, Daniela; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Adrados, Bárbara; Morató, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacteria with a high estimated level of infection in the world populations, but a majority of the infected persons are asymptomatic. This pathogen has been classified by the World Health Organization as a class I carcinogen and recognized as the causal agent of most peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis that might lead to stomach cancer. Although not all the transmission pathways of these bacteria into humans have been properly identified, enough data have suggested that the oral-oral or fecal-oral ones are the main infection routes. Helicobacter pylori have been detected in non-treated water and in drinking water, which suggested that water might be an important infection source. As childhood is the critical period of infection, the aim of the present work was to examine the presence of Helicobacter pylori in soil samples from public playing areas of Spanish parks. PMID:20043349

  11. Mapping natural radioactivity of soil samples in different regions of Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Komal; Bajwa, B S

    2017-09-01

    Thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector and multi channel analyzer has been utilized to measure gamma rays emitted by radio nuclides found in soil samples of south-west (SW) region of Punjab state, India where elevated level of uranium of around value of 700µg/l in groundwater has been reported. For comparative study, soil samples were also collected and analyzed from west (W) and north east (NE) regions of the state. Uranium and potassium has been found to be comparatively higher in SW region whereas thorium level is higher in W and NE part of Punjab state. Overall concentration level of naturally occurring radio nuclides 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th has been found to be varied from 260.1±17.3 to 728.2±27.7, BDL to 41.9±10.3 and 29.5±7.1 to 88.1±6.2Bq/Kg respectively. Overall average level of 40 K and 232 Th has been found to be higher as compared to world's average concentration level. Average radium equivalent activity (134.8±23.03 (σ) Bq/Kg), dose rate (61.9±10.3nGy/h), outdoor and indoor dose (0.30±0.05 and 0.08±0.01 mSv/year), external and internal hazard index (0.36±0.06 and 0.42±0.08) has been calculated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An integrated rock magnetic and EPR study in soil samples from a hydrocarbon prospective area

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, F.; Aldana, M.; Costanzo-Álvarez, V.; Díaz, M.; Romero, I.

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and organic matter free radical concentration (OMFRC) determined by electron paramagnetic resonance, have been measured in soil samples (≈1.5 m depth) from an oil prospective area located at the southern flank of the Venezuelan Andean Range. S-ratios close to 1, as well as high temperature susceptibility analyses, reveal magnetite as the chief magnetic phase in most of these samples. Ethane concentrations, MS and OMFRC normalized data have been plotted against the relative position of 22 sampling sites sequentially arranged from north to south. Although there is not a linear correlation between MS and OMFRC data, these two profiles seem to vary in like fashion. A MS and OMFRC southern anomaly coincides with the zone of highest ethane concentration that overlies a “Cretaceous kitchen”. OMFRC highs could be linked to the degradation or alteration of organic matter, the possible result of hydrocarbon gas leakage, whose surface expression is the stressed fern observed by remote sensing studies previously performed in the area. Ethane anomalies are associated to this seepage that also produces changes in the magnetic mineralogies detected as MS positive anomalies.

  13. Techniques of sample attack used in soil and mineral analysis. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, N.W.; Dean, J.R.; Sill, C.W.

    1984-07-01

    Several techniques of sample attack for the determination of radioisotopes are reviewed. These techniques include: 1) digestion with nitric or hydrochloric acid in Parr digestion bomb, 2) digestion with a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, 3) digestion with a mixture of hydrofluoric, nitric and perchloric acids, and 4) fusion with sodium carbonate, potassium fluoride or alkali pyrosulfates. The effectiveness of these techniques to decompose various soils and minerals containing radioisotopes such as lead-210 uranium, thorium and radium-226 are discussed. The combined procedure of potassium fluoride fusion followed by alkali pyrosulfate fusion is recommended for radium-226, uranium and thorium analysis. This technique guarantees the complete dissolution of samples containing refractory materials such as silica, silicates, carbides, oxides and sulfates. For the lead-210 analysis, the procedure of digestion with a mixture of hydrofluoric, nitric and perchloric acids followed by fusion with alkali pyrosulfate is recommended. These two procedures are detailed. Schemes for the sequential separation of the radioisotopes from a dissolved sample solution are outlined. Procedures for radiochemical analysis are suggested

  14. Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, B.; Taft, A.; Ratliff, W.; Kelley, J.; Sullivan, J.; Pancorbo, O.

    1995-01-01

    Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sites can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide

  15. Sampling errors associated with soil composites used to estimate mean Ra-226 concentrations at an UMTRA remedial-action site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Baker, K.R.; Nelson, R.A.; Miller, R.H.; Miller, M.L.

    1987-07-01

    The decision whether to take additional remedial action (removal of soil) from regions contaminated by uranium mill tailings involves collecting 20 plugs of soil from each 10-m by 10-m plot in the region and analyzing a 500-g portion of the mixed soil for 226 Ra. A soil sampling study was conducted in the windblown mill-tailings flood plain area at Shiprock, New Mexico, to evaluate whether reducing the number of soil plugs to 9 would have any appreciable impact on remedial-action decisions. The results of the Shiprock study are described and used in this paper to develop a simple model of the standard deviation of 226 Ra measurements on composite samples formed from 21 or fewer plugs. This model is used to predict as a function of the number of soil plugs per composite, the percent accuracy with which the mean 226 Ra concentration in surface soil can be estimated, and the probability of making incorrect remedial action decisions on the basis of statistical tests. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Use of gamma ray spectroscopy measurements for assessment of the average effective dose from the analysis of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, Rohit; Singh, Surinder

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentrations of soil samples collected from different locations of Ludhiana and Patiala districts of Punjab were determined by using HPGe detector based on high-resolution gamma spectrometry system. The range of activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the soil from the studied areas varies from 23.32 Bq kg -1 to 43.64 Bq kg -1 , 104.23 Bq kg -1 to 148.21 Bq kg -1 and 289.83 Bq kg -1 to 394.41 Bq kg -1 with overall mean values of 32 Bq kg -1 , 126 Bq kg -1 and 348 Bq kg -1 respectively. The absorbed dose rate calculated from activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ranges between 10.75 and 20.12, 64.93 and 92.33, and 11.99 and 16.32 n Gy h -1 , respectively. The total absorbed dose in the study area ranges from 91.35 n Gy h -1 to 119.76 n Gy h -1 with an average value of 107.97 n Gy h -1 . The calculated values of external hazard index (H ex ) for the soil samples of the study area range from 0.55 to 0.72. Since these values are lower than unity, therefore, according to the Radiation Protection 112 (European Commission, 1999) report, soil from these regions is safe and can be used as a construction material without posing any significant radiological threat to population. The concentration of 232 Th in soil samples of Malwa region of Punjab are higher than the world figures reported in UNSCEAR (2000). However, the concentrations for 226 Ra is very much comparable and concentration of 40 K are lower than world figures. The results obtained have shown that the indoor and outdoor effective dose due to natural radioactivity of soil samples is lower than the average national and world recommended value of 1.0 mSv.Y -1 . These values reported for radium content in soils of study area are generally low as compared to the values reported for radium concentration in soils of Himachal Pradesh. (author)

  17. Effect of repeated application of 14C-carbaryl and of addition of glucose and cellulose to soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, R.; Luchini, L.C.; Mesquita, T.B.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of the insecticide carbaryl is studied in samples of Gley Humic and Red-Yellow Latosol soil by means of radiometric techniques. In the Red-Yellow Latosol two carbon sources - glucose and cellulose - and a mixture of glucose plus cellulose were added. Repeated applications of carbaryl in both soils highly increased the rate of degradation, probably due to a rapid increase in the number of microorganisms by using the pesticide as substrate. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Influences of sampling size and pattern on the uncertainty of correlation estimation between soil water content and its influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Zhiwen; Liao, Kaihua

    2017-12-01

    In this study, seven random combination sampling strategies were applied to investigate the uncertainties in estimating the hillslope mean soil water content (SWC) and correlation coefficients between the SWC and soil/terrain properties on a tea + bamboo hillslope. One of the sampling strategies is the global random sampling and the other six are the stratified random sampling on the top, middle, toe, top + mid, top + toe and mid + toe slope positions. When each sampling strategy was applied, sample sizes were gradually reduced and each sampling size contained 3000 replicates. Under each sampling size of each sampling strategy, the relative errors (REs) and coefficients of variation (CVs) of the estimated hillslope mean SWC and correlation coefficients between the SWC and soil/terrain properties were calculated to quantify the accuracy and uncertainty. The results showed that the uncertainty of the estimations decreased as the sampling size increasing. However, larger sample sizes were required to reduce the uncertainty in correlation coefficient estimation than in hillslope mean SWC estimation. Under global random sampling, 12 randomly sampled sites on this hillslope were adequate to estimate the hillslope mean SWC with RE and CV ≤10%. However, at least 72 randomly sampled sites were needed to ensure the estimated correlation coefficients with REs and CVs ≤10%. Comparing with all sampling strategies, reducing sampling sites on the middle slope had the least influence on the estimation of hillslope mean SWC and correlation coefficients. Under this strategy, 60 sites (10 on the middle slope and 50 on the top and toe slopes) were enough to ensure the estimated correlation coefficients with REs and CVs ≤10%. This suggested that when designing the SWC sampling, the proportion of sites on the middle slope can be reduced to 16.7% of the total number of sites. Findings of this study will be useful for the optimal SWC sampling design.

  19. New technique of insitu soil moisture sampling for environmental isotope analysis applied at 'Pilat-dune' near Bordeaux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, G.; Esser, N.; Sonntag, C.; Weiss, W.; Rudolph, J.; Leveque, P.

    1978-01-01

    A new soil-air suction method with soil water vapor adsorption by 4 A-molecular sieve provides soil moisture samples from various depths for environmental isotope analysis and yields soil temperature profiles. A field tritium tracer experiment shows that this insitu sampling method has an isotope profile resolution of about 5-10 cm only. Application of this method in the Pilat sand dune (Bordeaux/France) yielded deuterium and tritium profiles down to 25 meters depth. Bomb tritium measurements of monthly lysimeter percolate samples available since 1961 show that the tritium response has a mean delay of 5 months in case of a sand lysimeter and of 2.5 years for a loess loam lysimeter. A simple HETP model simulates the layered downward movement of soil water and the longitudinal dispersion in the lysimeters. Field capacity and evapotranspiration taken as open parameters yield tritium concentration values of the lysimeters' percolate which are in close agreement with the experimental results. Based on local meteorological data the HETP model applied to tritium tracer experiments in the unsaturated zone further yiels an individual prediction of the momentary tracer position and of the soil moisture distribution. This prediction can be checked experimentally at selected intervals by coring. (orig.) [de

  20. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C

  1. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  2. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect Of Bird Manure On Cotton Plants Grown On Soils Sampled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton plant had a better development and growth when bird manure was only applied to soil or combined with mineral fertilizer and when cotton was grown on a soil where the previous crops were cereals (maize or sorghum). Planting cotton on a soil where the previous crop grown was maize or sorghum had no significant ...

  4. Limitations and potential of spectral subtractions in fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil science research is increasingly applying Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the compositional complexity of soils and the dominance of the mineral component can limit spectroscopic resolution of SOM and other minor components. The...

  5. Comparison of biochemical variables in plasma samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Flatland, Bente

    2010-08-01

    To compare results of biochemical analyses performed on plasma samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes. Evaluation study. 29 healthy client-owned animals (14 dogs and 15 cats). A blood sample (3 mL) was collected from each animal; 2.5 mL was transferred into a vacuum tube that contained lithium heparin, and 0.5 mL was transferred into a microsample tube that contained lithium heparin. Variables evaluated were albumin, bicarbonate, BUN, calcium, chloride, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, total bilirubin, and total protein concentrations and alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities. Results for the 2 types of tubes in each species were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis. Data were normally distributed, except for creatine kinase activity of cats. The Pearson correlation coefficient was minimal for total bilirubin concentration in cats and moderate, high, or very high for all other variables. Constant bias for cholesterol and glucose concentration in dogs was identified during Bland-Altman analysis, although the mean difference between types of blood collection tubes was small. No constant or proportional bias for any other variable was revealed by regression analysis or Bland-Altman analysis. Samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of microsample blood collection tubes that contained lithium heparin provided clinically equivalent biochemical results, compared with results for samples obtained by use of standard blood collection tubes, and minimized the total sample volume collected for diagnostic testing.

  6. Comparison of complete blood counts in samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample blood collection tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Flatland, Bente

    2010-08-01

    To compare results of a CBC performed on blood samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of standard and microsample collection tubes. Evaluation study. 29 healthy client-owned animals (14 dogs and 15 cats). A blood sample (3 mL) was collected from each animal; 2.5 mL was transferred into a vacuum tube that contained sodium EDTA, and 0.5 mL was transferred into a microsample tube that contained sodium EDTA. Variables evaluated were total numbers of RBCs and WBCs, hemoglobin concentration, Hct, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean platelet volume, and plasma total protein concentration as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, and platelet counts. Results for the 2 types of tube in each species were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, Passing-Bablok regression analysis, and Bland-Altman analysis. The Pearson correlation coefficient was low for basophil count in cats and moderate, high, or very high for all other variables. Constant and proportional biases were identified for MCHC in dogs by use of Passing-Bablok regression analysis, although the mean difference between types of blood collection tubes was small. No evidence of constant or proportional bias for any other variable was revealed by regression analysis or Bland-Altman analysis. Samples obtained from healthy dogs and cats by use of microsample blood collection tubes provided clinically equivalent CBC results, compared with results for samples obtained by use of standard blood collection tubes, and minimized the total sample volume collected for diagnostic testing.

  7. No upregulation of digitalis glycoside receptor (Na,K-ATPase) concentration in human heart left ventricle samples obtained at necropsy after long term digitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T A; Holm-Nielsen, P; Kjeldsen, K

    1991-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the hypothesis that digitalis glycosides increase the concentration of their specific receptor (Na,K-ATPase) in human myocardial tissue, thereby possibly reducing the inotropic effect of long term digitalis treatment. Intact samples of left ventricle were obtained at necropsy from patients who had been on long term treatment with digoxin and from patients not previously given digoxin. Digitalis glycoside receptors were quantified using vanadate facilitated 3H-ouabain binding before and after washing samples in buffer containing excess digoxin antibody fragments for 16 h at 30 degrees C. This washing procedure has previously been shown to reduce prior specific digoxin binding in human left ventricle by 95% and to allow subsequent vanadate facilitated complete quantification of 3H-ouabain binding sites. In this context it was performed to reduce occupancy of digitalis glycoside receptors by digoxin, caused by digitalisation before 3H-ouabain binding. 11 patients who had been on long term treatment with digoxin and eight who had not previously been given digoxin were studied. Left ventricle samples were obtained at necropsy at around 15 h after death. Standard 3H-ouabain binding was 39% less in samples from digitalised than from undigitalised subjects (p less than 0.001). Washing samples in buffer containing excess digoxin antibody fragments induced an increase in 3H-ouabain binding from 174(SEM 10) to 265(20) pmol.g-1 wet weight (n = 11, p less than 0.001) in samples from digitalised patients. After washing, the digitalis glycoside receptor concentration in left ventricle samples showed a tendency to a lower value (14%, p greater than 0.10) in patients exposed to digoxin compared to left ventricle samples from individuals unexposed to digitalis glycoside treatment. Calculating 3H-ouabain binding relative to dry ventricular muscle weight confirmed the results obtained using wet weight as reference. The results suggest that digoxin treatment in

  8. Integration of Metagenomic and Biogeochemical Data from Soils Sampled from a Long-Term Reciprocal Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, V. L.; Hess, N. J.; McCue, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term impacts of climate conditions on soil ecosystems are difficult to discern with sufficient resolution to underpin a predictive understanding of ecosystem response to global climate change. The structure and function of the microbial community is intimately linked to soil organic carbon (SOC) by both the deposition of new carbon, and metabolism and respiration of existing SOC. We are studying the resilience of the microbial community, and the vulnerability of the soil carbon reservoirs, to changing climate conditions using a reciprocal soil transplant experiment initiated in 1994 in eastern Washington. Soil cores were reciprocally transplanted between two elevations (310 m and 844 m); the lower site is warmer and drier with 0.8% soil carbon, and the upper site is cooler and wetter with 1.8% soil carbon. We resampled these cores in 2012-13 to analyze the structure of the microbial community, biochemical activities of carbohydrate-active enzymes, and the soil carbon and nitrogen content. We hypothesized that microbial and biochemical dynamics developed under cool, moist conditions would destabilize under hot, dry conditions, such that carbon and nitrogen losses would be faster in warmer climate soils than the accruals in cooler climate soils. Metagenomics data analyses show that the microbial communities below 5 cm depth in the transplanted soils are most similar to those in the native and control soils from their original (pre-1994) location, whereas the surface microbial community has been influenced by their new (post-1994) location. Enzyme activities are highest in soils from the cooler, moister location, and the activities of the reciprocally transplanted soils are shifting toward the activities typical of their new location. Integration of these results with high-resolution mass spectrometry data of the soil carbon moieties will contribute to our fundamental understanding of climate change effects on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle.

  9. Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

    2014-09-19

    In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 μg kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 μg kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 μg kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos.

  10. Soil sampling protocol reliably estimates preplant NO3− in SDI tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lazcano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI, because it can precisely deliver nutrients close to plant roots, could lead to carefully determined applications of fertilizer to meet crop needs and less risk of nitrate (NO3− leaching to groundwater. Appropriate fertilizer applications, however, depend on an accurate assessment of the spatial distribution of the main plant macronutrients (N, P and K in the soil profile before planting. To develop nutrient sampling guidelines, we determined the spatial distributions of preplant nitrate (NO3−, bicarbonate extractable phosphorus (Olsen-P and exchangeable potassium (K in the top 20 inches (50 centimeters of subsurface drip irrigated processing tomato fields in three of the main growing regions in the Central Valley of California. Nutrient distribution varied with depth (P and K, distance from the center of the bed (NO3− and growing region (NO3− and K. No depletion of NO3−, Olsen-P or K in the root feeding areas close to the drip tape was detected. Preplant NO3− ranged considerably, from 45 to 438 pounds N per acre (50 to 491 kilograms/hectare, the higher levels in fields with consecutive crops of tomatoes. A sampling protocol that growers could use, developed from analysis of the distribution results, provided reliable estimates of preplant NO3− as well as P and K in all surveyed fields.

  11. Diversity of Microbial Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZYmes) Associated with Freshwater and Soil Samples from Caatinga Biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana Camila; Fróes, Adriana; Lopes, Fabyano Álvares Cardoso; Thompson, Fabiano L; Krüger, Ricardo Henrique; Dinsdale, Elizabeth; Bruce, Thiago

    2017-07-01

    Semi-arid and arid areas occupy about 33% of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little information is available about microbial diversity in the semi-arid Caatinga, which represents a unique biome that extends to about 11% of the Brazilian territory and is home to extraordinary diversity and high endemism level of species. In this study, we characterized the diversity of microbial genes associated with biomass conversion (carbohydrate-active enzymes, or so-called CAZYmes) in soil and freshwater of the Caatinga. Our results showed distinct CAZYme profiles in the soil and freshwater samples. Glycoside hydrolases and glycosyltransferases were the most abundant CAZYme families, with glycoside hydrolases more dominant in soil (∼44%) and glycosyltransferases more abundant in freshwater (∼50%). The abundances of individual glycoside hydrolase, glycosyltransferase, and carbohydrate-binding module subfamilies varied widely between soil and water samples. A predominance of glycoside hydrolases was observed in soil, and a higher contribution of enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis was observed in freshwater. The main taxa associated with the CAZYme sequences were Planctomycetia (relative abundance in soil, 29%) and Alphaproteobacteria (relative abundance in freshwater, 27%). Approximately 5-7% of CAZYme sequences showed low similarity with sequences deposited in non-redundant databases, suggesting putative homologues. Our findings represent a first attempt to describe specific microbial CAZYme profiles for environmental samples. Characterizing these enzyme groups associated with the conversion of carbohydrates in nature will improve our understanding of the significant roles of enzymes in the carbon cycle. We identified a CAZYme signature that can be used to discriminate between soil and freshwater samples, and this signature may be related to the microbial species adapted to the habitat. The data show the potential ecological roles of the CAZYme repertoire and

  12. Rubrumazines A-C, Indolediketopiperazines of the Isoechinulin Class from Eurotium rubrum MA-150, a Fungus Obtained from Marine Mangrove-Derived Rhizospheric Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ling-Hong; Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Pedpradab, Patchara; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2015-04-24

    Three new indolediketopiperazine alkaloids of the isoechinulin type, rubrumazines A-C (1-3), each possessing an oxygenated prenyl group either at C-7 (1 and 2) or at C-5 (3), along with 13 related analogues (4-16), were isolated and identified from a culture extract of Eurotium rubrum MA-150, a fungus obtained from mangrove-derived rhizospheric soil collected from the Andaman Sea coastline, Thailand. Their structures were established by detailed interpretation of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometry data analysis. The structure and absolute configuration of compound 1 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis, thus providing the first characterized crystal structure of an isoechinulin-type alkaloid. All isolated compounds were evaluated for brine shrimp lethality and antibacterial activity.

  13. Sampling and Analysis Plan for Release of the 105-C Below-Grade Structures and Underlying Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.G.

    1998-02-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategies for the sampling, field measurements, and analyses of the below-grade concrete structures from the Hanford 105-C Reactor Building and the underlying soils consistent with the land-use assumptions in the Record of Decision for the U.S. Department of Energy 100-BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-HR-1 Operable Units (ROD) (EPA 1995). This structure is one of nine surplus production reactors in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site. This SAP is based on the data quality objectives developed for the 105-C below-grade structures and underlying soils (BHI 1997)

  14. Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB)-Geochemical data for rock, sediment, soil, mineral, and concentrate sample media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granitto, Matthew; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; Shew, Nora B.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Labay, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Geochemical Database (AGDB) was created and designed to compile and integrate geochemical data from Alaska in order to facilitate geologic mapping, petrologic studies, mineral resource assessments, definition of geochemical baseline values and statistics, environmental impact assessments, and studies in medical geology. This Microsoft Access database serves as a data archive in support of present and future Alaskan geologic and geochemical projects, and contains data tables describing historical and new quantitative and qualitative geochemical analyses. The analytical results were determined by 85 laboratory and field analytical methods on 264,095 rock, sediment, soil, mineral and heavy-mineral concentrate samples. Most samples were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel and analyzed in USGS laboratories or, under contracts, in commercial analytical laboratories. These data represent analyses of samples collected as part of various USGS programs and projects from 1962 to 2009. In addition, mineralogical data from 18,138 nonmagnetic heavy mineral concentrate samples are included in this database. The AGDB includes historical geochemical data originally archived in the USGS Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database, used from the mid-1960s through the late 1980s and the USGS PLUTO database used from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. All of these data are currently maintained in the Oracle-based National Geochemical Database (NGDB). Retrievals from the NGDB were used to generate most of the AGDB data set. These data were checked for accuracy regarding sample location, sample media type, and analytical methods used. This arduous process of reviewing, verifying and, where necessary, editing all USGS geochemical data resulted in a significantly improved Alaska geochemical dataset. USGS data that were not previously in the NGDB because the data predate the earliest USGS geochemical databases, or were once excluded for programmatic reasons

  15. Impacts of human activities and sampling strategies on soil heavy metal distribution in a rapidly developing region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xuexin; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun; Sun, Weixia; Gu, Zhiquan; Qian, Weifei

    2014-06-01

    The impacts of industrial and agricultural activities on soil Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cu in Zhangjiagang City, a rapidly developing region in China, were evaluated using two sampling strategies. The soil Cu, Cd, and Pb concentrations near industrial locations were greater than those measured away from industrial locations. The converse was true for Hg. The top enrichment factor (TEF) values, calculated as the ratio of metal concentrations between the topsoil and subsoil, were greater near industrial location than away from industrial locations and were further related to the industry type. Thus, the TEF is an effective index to distinguish sources of toxic elements not only between anthropogenic and geogenic but also among different industry types. Target soil sampling near industrial locations resulted in a greater estimation in high levels of soil heavy metals. This study revealed that the soil heavy metal contamination was primarily limited to local areas near industrial locations, despite rapid development over the last 20 years. The prevention and remediation of the soil heavy metal pollution should focus on these high-risk areas in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.