WorldWideScience

Sample records for soil risk assessment

  1. Risk assessment of soil contamination criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Marter, W.L.; Montaque, D.F.; Holton, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    Criteria have been developed to select radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at waste sites detailed analysis and risk assessment. These criteria were based on soil and water quality guidelines developed by various government agencies to determine if the criteria were appropriate. We performed a risk assessment of a hypothetical site which contained radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants at levels equal to the criteria values. Risks to the public from atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater exposure pathways were examined. Health risks to the public from atmospheric releases of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from a waste at soil criteria contamination levels are low. Health risks to the maximally exposed individual to chemical carcinogens are considerably below traditional EPA action levels. And health risks to the maximally exposed individual to atmospherically released radioactive contaminants is 1.88 x 10 -7 , more than a factor of 5 less than 10 -6 . Based on our atmospheric exposure pathways analysis and risk assessment, the applied soil criteria are appropriate for screening out unimportant risk contributors to human health from atmospheric exposure pathways. 13 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Superfund risk assessment in soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoddinott, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 30-31, 1991. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on risk assessment associated with soil contamination. The conference included presentations in the following categories: site characterization; fate and transport; toxicity, exposures, and receptors; risk characterization/case studies; and establishing cleanup levels. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. Soil Erosion Risk Assessment in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land use without adequate soil erosion control measures is continuously increasing the risk of soil erosion by water mainly in developing tropical countries. These countries are prone to environmental disturbance due to high population growth and high rainfall intensity. The aim of this study is to assess the state of soil erosion by water in Uganda at national and district levels, for various land cover and land use (LCLU types, in protected areas as well to predict the impact of support practices on soil loss reduction. Predictions obtained using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model indicated that the mean rate of soil loss risk in Uganda’s erosion‐prone lands was 3.2 t∙ha−1∙y−1, resulting in a total annual soil loss of about 62 million tons in 2014. About 39% of the country’s erosion‐prone lands were comprised of unsustainable mean soil loss rates >1 t∙ha−1∙y−1. Out of 112 districts in Uganda, 66 districts were found to have unsustainable estimated soil loss rates >1 t∙ha−1∙y−1. Six districts in Uganda were found to have mean annual soil loss rates of >10 t∙ha−1∙y−1: Bududa (46.3 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Kasese (37.5 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Bundibugyo (28.9 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Bulambuli (20.9 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Sironko (14.6 t∙ha−1∙y−1 and Kotido (12.5 t∙ha−1∙y−1. Among the LCLU types, the highest soil loss rates of 11 t∙ha−1∙y−1 and 10.6 t∙ha−1∙y−1 were found in moderate natural forest and dense natural forest, respectively, mainly due to their locations in highland areas characterized by steep slopes ranging between 16% to 21% and their high rainfall intensity, ranging from 1255 mm∙y−1 to 1292 mm∙y−1. Only five protected areas in Uganda were found to have high mean estimated mean soil loss rates >10 t∙ha−1∙y−1: Rwenzori Mountains (142.94 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Mount Elgon (33.81 t∙ha−1∙y−1, Bokora corridor (12.13 t∙ha−1∙y−1

  4. Potential ecological risk assessment and predicting zinc accumulation in soils

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Agnieszka; Wieczorek, Jerzy; Mazurek, Ryszard; Urbański, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate zinc content in the studied soils; evaluate the efficiency of geostatistics in presenting spatial variability of zinc in the soils; assess bioavailable forms of zinc in the soils and to assess soil–zinc binding ability; and to estimate the potential ecological risk of zinc in soils. The study was conducted in southern Poland, in the Malopolska Province. This area is characterized by a great diversity of geological structures and types of land use and...

  5. Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils at residential lands previously used for auto-mechanic and auto-welding activities in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management.

  6. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  7. Potential ecological risk assessment and predicting zinc accumulation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Agnieszka; Wieczorek, Jerzy; Mazurek, Ryszard; Urbański, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate zinc content in the studied soils; evaluate the efficiency of geostatistics in presenting spatial variability of zinc in the soils; assess bioavailable forms of zinc in the soils and to assess soil-zinc binding ability; and to estimate the potential ecological risk of zinc in soils. The study was conducted in southern Poland, in the Malopolska Province. This area is characterized by a great diversity of geological structures and types of land use and intensity of industrial development. The zinc content was affected by soil factors, and the type of land use (arable lands, grasslands, forests, wastelands). A total of 320 soil samples were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties (texture, pH, organic C content, total and available Zn content). Based on the obtained data, assessment of the ecological risk of zinc was conducted using two methods: potential ecological risk index and hazard quotient. Total Zn content in the soils ranged from 8.27 to 7221 mg kg -1 d.m. Based on the surface semivariograms, the highest variability of zinc in the soils was observed from northwest to southeast. The point sources of Zn contamination were located in the northwestern part of the area, near the mining-metallurgical activity involving processing of zinc and lead ores. These findings were confirmed by the arrangement of semivariogram surfaces and bivariate Moran's correlation coefficients. The content of bioavailable forms of zinc was between 0.05 and 46.19 mg kg -1 d.m. (0.01 mol dm -3 CaCl 2 ), and between 0.03 and 71.54 mg kg -1 d.m. (1 mol dm -3 NH 4 NO 3 ). Forest soils had the highest zinc solubility, followed by arable land, grassland and wasteland. PCA showed that organic C was the key factor to control bioavailability of zinc in the soils. The extreme, very high and medium zinc accumulation was found in 69% of studied soils. There is no ecological risk of zinc to living organisms in the study area, and in 90

  8. Soil Phosphorus Storage Capacity for Environmental Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala D. Nair

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable techniques must be developed to predict phosphorus (P storage and release from soils of uplands, ditches, streams, and wetlands in order to better understand the natural, anthropogenic, and legacy sources of P and their impact on water quality at a field/plot as well as larger scales. A concept called the “safe” soil phosphorus storage capacity (SPSC that is based on a threshold phosphorus saturation ratio (PSR has been developed; the PSR is the molar ratio of P to Fe and Al, and SPSC is a PSR-based calculation of the remaining soil P storage capacity that captures risks arising from previous loading as well as inherently low P sorption capacity of a soil. Zero SPSC amounts to a threshold value below which P runoff or leaching risk increases precipitously. In addition to the use of the PSR/SPSC concept for P risk assessment and management, and its ability to predict isotherm parameters such as the Langmuir strength of bonding, KL, and the equilibrium P concentration, EPC0, this simple, cost-effective, and quantitative approach has the potential to be used as an agronomic tool for more precise application of P for plant uptake.

  9. Risk assessment of soil compaction in Walloon Region (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlotte, Rosiere; Marie-France, Destain; Jean-Claude, Verbrugge

    2010-05-01

    The proposed Soil Framework Directive COM(2006)232 requires Member States to identify areas at risk of erosion, decline in organic matter, salinisation, compaction, sealing and landslides, as well as to set up an inventory of contaminated sites. The present project aims to identify the susceptibility to compaction of soils of the Walloon Region (Belgium) and to recommend good farming practices avoiding soil compaction as far as possible. Within this scope, the concept of precompression stress (Pc) (Horn and Fleige, 2003) was used. Pc is defined as the maximum major principal stress that a soil horizon can withstand against any applied external vertical stress. If applied stress is higher than Pc, the soil enters in a plastic state, not easily reversible. For a given soil, the intensity of soil compaction is mainly due to the applied load which depends on vehicle characteristics (axle load, tyre dimensions, tyre inflation pressure, and vehicle velocity). To determine soil precompression stress, pedotransfert functions of Lebert and Horn (1991) defined at two water suctions (pF 1.8 and 2.5) were used. Parameters required by these functions were found within several databases (Aardewerk and Digital Map of Walloon Soils) and literature. The validation of Pc was performed by measuring stress-strain relationships using automatic oedometers. Stresses of 15.6, 31, 3, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 kPa were applied for 10 min each. In this study, the compaction due to beet harvesters was considered because the axle load can exceed 10 tons and these machines are often used during wet conditions. The compaction at two depth levels was considered: 30 and 50 cm. Compaction of topsoil was not taken into account because, under conventional tillage, the plough depth is lower than 25 cm. Before and after the passage of the machines, following measurements were performed: granulometry, density, soil moisture, pF curve, Atterberg limits, ... The software Soilflex (Keller et al., 2007

  10. Development and application of bioassays for a site-specific risk assessment of contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rila, J.-P.

    2008-01-01

    Soil risk assessment based on generic approaches is accompanied by a large number of uncertainties. In site-specific risk assessment aimed at identifying the actual effects on the ecosystem by using e.g. bioassays in soil elutriates and taking into account land-use these uncertainties can be largely

  11. An exploration of spatial risk assessment for soil protection: estimating risk and establishing priority areas for soil protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, M G; Bellamy, P H; Brewer, T R; Graves, A R; Dawson, C A; Rickson, R J; Truckell, I; Stuart, J

    2014-03-01

    Methods for the spatial estimation of risk of harm to soil by erosion by water and wind and by soil organic matter decline are explored. Rates of harm are estimated for combinations of soil type and land cover (as a proxy for hazard frequency) and used to estimate risk of soil erosion and loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) for 1 km(2)pixels. Scenarios are proposed for defining the acceptability of risk of harm to soil: the most precautionary one corresponds to no net harm after natural regeneration of soil (i.e. a 1 in 20 chance of exceeding an erosion rate of soils and a carbon stock decline of 0 tha(-1)y(-1) for organic soils). Areas at higher and lower than possible acceptable risk are mapped. The veracity of boundaries is compromised if areas of unacceptable risk are mapped to administrative boundaries. Errors in monitoring change in risk of harm to soil and inadequate information on risk reduction measures' efficacy, at landscape scales, make it impossible to use or monitor quantitative targets for risk reduction adequately. The consequences for priority area definition of expressing varying acceptable risk of harm to soil as a varying probability of exceeding a fixed level of harm, or, a varying level of harm being exceeded with a fixed probability, are discussed. Soil data and predictive models for rates of harm to soil would need considerable development and validation to implement a priority area approach robustly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Risk Assessment Example for Soil Invertebrates Using Spatially Explicit Agent-Based Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, Melissa; Alvarez, Tania; Chelinho, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Current risk assessment methods for measuring the toxicity of plant protection products (PPPs) on soil invertebrates use standardized laboratory conditions to determine acute effects on mortality and sublethal effects on reproduction. If an unacceptable risk is identified at the lower tier...... population models for ubiquitous soil invertebrates (collembolans and earthworms) as refinement options in current risk assessment. Both are spatially explicit agent-based models (ABMs), incorporating individual and landscape variability. The models were used to provide refined risk assessments for different...... application scenarios of a hypothetical pesticide applied to potato crops (full-field spray onto the soil surface [termed “overall”], in-furrow, and soil-incorporated pesticide applications). In the refined risk assessment, the population models suggest that soil invertebrate populations would likely recover...

  13. Ecological risk assessment and carcinogen health risk assessment of arsenic in soils from part area of the Daye City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Wang, T.; Xiao, M. S.; Cai, Y.; Zhuang, Z. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Soils in four sampling sites from part area of the Daye City were collected. Concentrations of arsenic (As) in soils in sampling sites were detected by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry, ecological risk was calculated by potential ecological risk index (RI) and human health risk was measured by human health risk assessment model established by USEPA. The results showed that, the total content of As in soils in Daye was decreased in the order of S4 (66.58 mg/kg)>S2 (44.73 mg/kg)>S3 (34.86 mg/kg) >S1 (21.84 mg/kg), concentrations in all sampling sites were higher than background values of Hubei Province. The potential risk and human health risk were decreased in the order of S4>S2>S3>S1 and S4>S3>S2>S1, respectively. Specially, S1, S2 and S3 were at low potential ecological risk while S4 was at moderate ecological risk. But there was no carcinogenic risk for human exposure to As in soil in Daye.

  14. Lead concentrations and risk exposure assessment in surface soils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated lead concentrations in < 250 μm and < 75 μm of deposited dust and< 2000 μm, < 250 μm, and < 75 μm of surface soils at undeveloped residential lands leased to auto-mechanic artisans for a minimum of ten years and estimated exposure risk for children that will reside on the polluted lands after the ...

  15. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of “loading capacity” (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale. PMID:26675587

  16. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-12-17

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of "loading capacity" (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale.

  17. Ecotoxicological and analytical assessment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and application to ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saterbak, A.; Toy, R.J.; Wong, D.C.L.; McMain, B.J.; Williams, M.P.; Dorn, P.B.; Brzuzy, L.P.; Chai, E.Y.; Salanitro, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Ecotoxicological assessments of contaminated soil aim to understand the effect of introduced chemicals on the soil flora and fauna. Ecotoxicity test methods were developed and conducted on hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and on adjacent uncontaminated control soils from eight field locations. Tests included 7-d, 14-d, and chronic survival tests and reproduction assays for the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and seed germination, root length, and plant growth assays for corn, lettuce, mustard, and wheat. Species-specific responses were observed with no-observed effect concentrations (NOECs) ranging from <1 to 100% contaminated soil. The 14-d earthworm survival NOEC was equal to or greater than the reproduction NOEC values for numbers of cocoons and juveniles, which were similar to one another. Cocoon and juvenile production varied among the control soils. Germination and root length NOECs for mustard and lettuce were less than NOECs for corn and wheat. Root length NOECs were similar to or less than seed germination NOECs. Statistically significant correlations for earthworm survival and seed germination as a function of hydrocarbon measurements were found. The 14-d earthworm survival and the seed germination tests are recommended for use in the context of a risk-based framework for the ecological assessment of contaminated sites.

  18. [Study on ecological risk assessment technology of fluoride pollution from arid oasis soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Su-Yin; Li, Ping; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    According to translocation regulation of fluoride in the typical oasis soil-plant system under field, an ecological risk assessment model of fluoride was established, and this model was used to assess ecological risk to fluoride pollution from suburban oasis soils in Baiyin City, which was specifically expressed with the potential ecological risk of bioavailability (ER(bc)) model to assess ecological risk of fluoride pollution in oasis regions. Results showed that the ecological risk indices of fluoride pollution from this region were 1.37-24.81, the level of risk at most sites was high to very high, the average ecological risk index was 11.28, belonged to very high risk. This indicated that in the suburb soil of Baiyin City needs to be concerned about the remediation of fluoride pollution.

  19. Radiological risk assessment of use of phosphate fertilizers in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Upadhyay, S. B.; Sonkawade, R. G.; Chakarvarti, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    The radiological impact of the use of phosphate fertilizers in soil is due to the internal irradiation of the lung by the alpha particles, short lived radon-thoron progeny and the external irradiation of the body by gamma rays emitted from radionuclides in situ. This paper describes the results of gamma spectrometric measurements of the concentration of the natural radionuclides namely 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the soil samples collected from the fields where a variety of phosphate fertilizers are being used by the farmers to enhance the crop yield. Materials and Methods: The experimental work utilizes actual measurements of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K using gamma spectrometry and radon concentration and exhalation rates measurements using solid state nuclear track (LR-115, Type-ll plastic) detectors to asses a first order exposure risk for the persons working in the fields where lot of fertilizers are being used to enhance crop yield in terms of occupational exposure. Results:The concentration of Radium, Thorium and Potassium in the mixed soil sample from crop fields is 16.2 ±0.22, 68.1±1.44 and 875.0±9.68 Bq/kg, where as in barren soil sample is 9.1±0.13, 59.4±1.45 and 668.4± 8.01 Bq/kg respectively. The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) in the mixed soil sample from crop fields is 225.9 Bq/kg, where as in barren soil sample is 193.1 Bq/kg. The values of absorbed dose and annual effective dose (indoors and outdoors) are found to vary from 90.87 nGyh -1 to 119.71 nGyh -1 , 0.45 mSv/y to 0.59 mSv/y and 0.11 mSv/y to 0.15 mSv/y respectively in soil sample from crop fields, whereas the value of absorbed dose and annual effective dose (indoors and outdoors) is 92.29 nGyh -1 , 0.45 mSv/y, 0.11 respectively in soil sample collected from barren land. The radon concentration and exhalation rates have also been reported. Conclusion:The activity concentration, exhalation rate and absorbed dose were found to increase substantially with the use of phosphate fertilizers

  20. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  1. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Chen, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Ching; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan. PMID:21139851

  2. Chemical and bioanalytical characterisation of PAHs in risk assessment of remediated PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maria; Hagberg, Jessika; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in soil at former industrial areas; and in Sweden, some of the most contaminated sites are being remediated. Generic guideline values for soil use after so-called successful remediation actions of PAH-contaminated soil are based on the 16 EPA priority pollutants, which only constitute a small part of the complex cocktail of toxicants in many contaminated soils. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the actual toxicological risks of soil samples from successful remediation projects could be reflected by chemical determination of these PAHs. We compared chemical analysis (GC-MS) and bioassay analysis (H4IIE-luc) of a number of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. The H4IIE-luc bioassay is an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-based assay that detects compounds that activate the Ah receptor, one important mechanism for PAH toxicity. Comparison of the results showed that the bioassay-determined toxicity in the remediated soil samples could only be explained to a minor extent by the concentrations of the 16 priority PAHs. The current risk assessment method for PAH-contaminated soil in use in Sweden along with other countries, based on chemical analysis of selected PAHs, is missing toxicologically relevant PAHs and other similar substances. It is therefore reasonable to include bioassays in risk assessment and in the classification of remediated PAH-contaminated soils. This could minimise environmental and human health risks and enable greater safety in subsequent reuse of remediated soils.

  3. Heavy metal contamination and risk assessment in water, paddy soil, and rice around an electroplating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Tran, Henry; Wang, Dun-Qiu; Zhu, Yi-Nian

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of long-term electroplating industrial activities on heavy metal contamination in agricultural soils and potential health risks for local residents. Water, soil, and rice samples were collected from sites upstream (control) and downstream of the electroplating wastewater outlet. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Fractionation and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to evaluate the environmental risks of heavy metals in soils. The health risk index (HRI) and hazard index (HI) were calculated to assess potential health risks to local populations through rice consumption. Hazardous levels of Cu, Cr, and Ni were observed in water and paddy soils at sites near the plant. According to the RAC analysis, the soils showed a high risk for Ni and a medium risk for Cu and Cr at certain sites. The rice samples were primarily contaminated with Ni, followed by Cr and Cu. HRI values >1 were not found for any heavy metal. However, HI values for adults and children were 2.075 and 1.808, respectively. Water, paddy soil, and rice from the studied area have been contaminated by Cu, Cr, and Ni. The contamination of these elements is related to the electroplating wastewater. Although no single metal poses health risks for local residents through rice consumption, the combination of several metals may threaten the health of local residents. Cu and Ni are the key components contributing to the potential health risks.

  4. Assessment of metals contamination and ecological risk in ait Ammar abandoned iron mine soil, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to assess the pollution intensity and corresponding ecological risk of phosphorus and metals including Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Fe using various indices like geo-accumulation index, enrichment factor, pollution and ecological risk index. In all, 20 surface soil samples were collected from the Ait Ammar iron mine of Oued Zem city, province of Khouribga, in central Morocco. The concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples were used to assess their potential ecological risks. According to the results of potential ecological risk index (RI, pollution index (PI, geo-accumulation index (Igeo, enrichment factor (EF, potential contamination index (Cp, contaminant factor (Cf and degree of contamination (Cd, based on the averages, considerable pollution of metals in soils of study area was observed. The consequence of the correlation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr and P mainly originated from natural sources and Cd and Pb are mostly derived from anthropogenic sources. The results showed that these metals in soil were ranked by severity of ecological risk as Pb > Cd > Cu > Cr > Zn, based on their single-element indexes. In view of the potential ecological risk (RI, soils from all soil samples showed a potential ecological risk. These results will provide basic information for the improvement of soil environment management and heavy metal pollution prevention in Ait Ammar.

  5. Risk assessment applications for determining cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.Q.; Layton, D.W.; Rutz, E.E.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium-contaminated soils are present at various locations across the US where uranium was processed for nuclear fuels or atomic weapons. Important issues relative to such contamination include the assessment of potential health risks associated with human exposures to the residual uranium and the determination of safe levels of uranium in soils that have been treated by a given technology. This paper discusses various risk assessment considerations that must be dealt with when developing cleanup limits for uranium in treated and untreated soils. Key issues addressed include alternative land use scenarios, potential exposure pathways, characterization of the bioavailability of uranium compounds in food and water, a brief overview of health risks associated with uranium and its daughter products as well as a summary of considerations for development of risk-based cleanup limits for uranium in soils

  6. A Modified Soil Quality Index to Assess the Influence of Soil Degradation Processes on Desertification Risk: The Apulia Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ancona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Apulia is one of the most prone Italian regions to soil alteration phenomena, due to geographical and climatic conditions and also to human activities’ impact. In this study, in order to investigate regional soil degradation processes, following the “European Directive for Soil Protection”, the ESA’s method has been adopted. It is based on the use of an indicator’s set to assess the desertification risk. This approach simplifies the diagnosis and monitoring of soil degradation processes, defining their status and trend. Special attention has been given to Soil Quality Index (SQI determined by six predisposing indicators (parent material, soil texture, rock fragment, soil depth, drainage and slope grade. The integration in the SQI calculation of two additional soil parameters (organic matter content and soil salinity has been considered particularly significant. In fact, through the evaluation of a so “modified SQI” and the Apulia land use too, it could be possible to assess the role of agriculture management on soil degradation processes, which predisposing regional area to desertification threat. Moreover this approach provides short, but accurate, information thanks to GIS integration, which defines phenomena in detail, offering helpful planning tools.

  7. Assessing soil erosion risk in the Tillabery landscape, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that soil erosion output scenarios predict greater soil erosion in the study area from 2070 onwards. They suggest that human disturbance and topographic factors are the main impact factors in the affected areas. Key words: Tillabéry landscape (Niger), sheet and rill erosion modelling, data mining.

  8. Threatened southern African soils: A need for appropriate ecotoxicological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eijsackers, Herman [Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Reinecke, Adriaan; Reinecke, Sophie [Department of Botany & Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Maboeta, Mark, E-mail: mark.maboeta@nwu.ac.za [Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2017-03-15

    In southern Africa arable soils are limited due to low rainfall and are threatened by anthropogenic activities like agriculture and mining making it susceptible to degradation. The aim of this study is to review the existing information available with regards to soil contamination and its possible threats towards biodiversity and quality of southern African soils. Some of the issues being addressed in this paper include the focus areas of ecotoxicological research in southern African countries, levels of contaminants in soils, the impacts of climate on soil animals and the representativity of standardised test species. In order to address this, we report on a literature search, which was done to determine the main focus areas of soil ecotoxicological research, highlighting strengths and research needs in comparison to approaches elsewhere in the world. Further, to address if the risk assessment approaches of Europe and the USA are valid for southern African environmental conditions; this in the light of differences in temperature, rainfall and fauna. It is concluded that risk assessment procedures for Europe and the USA were based on non-southern African conditions making it necessary to rethink risk assessment studies; although limited, in southern Africa. We recommend future research that has to be undertaken to address these issues. This research should include investigating species sensitivities in responses to contamination and including insects likes ants and termites in ecological risk assessment studies.

  9. Threatened southern African soils: A need for appropriate ecotoxicological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijsackers, Herman; Reinecke, Adriaan; Reinecke, Sophie; Maboeta, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In southern Africa arable soils are limited due to low rainfall and are threatened by anthropogenic activities like agriculture and mining making it susceptible to degradation. The aim of this study is to review the existing information available with regards to soil contamination and its possible threats towards biodiversity and quality of southern African soils. Some of the issues being addressed in this paper include the focus areas of ecotoxicological research in southern African countries, levels of contaminants in soils, the impacts of climate on soil animals and the representativity of standardised test species. In order to address this, we report on a literature search, which was done to determine the main focus areas of soil ecotoxicological research, highlighting strengths and research needs in comparison to approaches elsewhere in the world. Further, to address if the risk assessment approaches of Europe and the USA are valid for southern African environmental conditions; this in the light of differences in temperature, rainfall and fauna. It is concluded that risk assessment procedures for Europe and the USA were based on non-southern African conditions making it necessary to rethink risk assessment studies; although limited, in southern Africa. We recommend future research that has to be undertaken to address these issues. This research should include investigating species sensitivities in responses to contamination and including insects likes ants and termites in ecological risk assessment studies.

  10. A risk assessment for crude oil in residential surface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Miller, C.J.; Custance, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the discovery of crude oil residues in residential soils is occurring with increasing frequency as property previously owned by the petroleum industry is sold and developed for housing. Many states have adopted action levels for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil for the purpose of discerning those sites requiring remediation and/or monitoring. Many states are known to have action levels consisting of a single concentration value which may carry from 10 to 100 ppm TPH. Other states incorporate a range of action levels for addressing site-specific needs; values range from 10 to 1000 ppm TPH for gasoline in soils

  11. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area. PMID:26580644

  12. Method for Assessing the Integrated Risk of Soil Pollution in Industrial and Mining Gathering Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yang; Shao, Chaofeng; Gu, Qingbao; Ju, Meiting; Zhang, Qian

    2015-11-13

    Industrial and mining activities are recognized as major sources of soil pollution. This study proposes an index system for evaluating the inherent risk level of polluting factories and introduces an integrated risk assessment method based on human health risk. As a case study, the health risk, polluting factories and integrated risks were analyzed in a typical industrial and mining gathering area in China, namely, Binhai New Area. The spatial distribution of the risk level was determined using a Geographic Information System. The results confirmed the following: (1) Human health risk in the study area is moderate to extreme, with heavy metals posing the greatest threat; (2) Polluting factories pose a moderate to extreme inherent risk in the study area. Such factories are concentrated in industrial and urban areas, but are irregularly distributed and also occupy agricultural land, showing a lack of proper planning and management; (3) The integrated risks of soil are moderate to high in the study area.

  13. Assessing soil erosion risk using RUSLE through a GIS open source desktop and web application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, L; Teodoro, A C; Gonçalves, J A; Soares, D; Cunha, M

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem. An estimation of the expected soil loss by water-caused erosion can be calculated considering the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provide different tools to create categorical maps of soil erosion risk which help to study the risk assessment of soil loss. The objective of this study was to develop a GIS open source application (in QGIS), using the RUSLE methodology for estimating erosion rate at the watershed scale (desktop application) and provide the same application via web access (web application). The applications developed allow one to generate all the maps necessary to evaluate the soil erosion risk. Several libraries and algorithms from SEXTANTE were used to develop these applications. These applications were tested in Montalegre municipality (Portugal). The maps involved in RUSLE method-soil erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, topographic factor, cover management factor, and support practices-were created. The estimated mean value of the soil loss obtained was 220 ton km(-2) year(-1) ranged from 0.27 to 1283 ton km(-2) year(-1). The results indicated that most of the study area (80 %) is characterized by very low soil erosion level (soil erosion was higher than 962 ton km(-2) year(-1). It was also concluded that areas with high slope values and bare soil are related with high level of erosion and the higher the P and C values, the higher the soil erosion percentage. The RUSLE web and the desktop application are freely available.

  14. Occurrence and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements and typical organic pollutants in contaminated rural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfeng; Dai, Shixiang; Meng, Ke; Wang, Yuting; Ren, Wenjie; Zhao, Ling; Christie, Peter; Teng, Ying

    2018-07-15

    The residual levels and risk assessment of several potentially toxic elements (PTEs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural soils near different types of pollution sources in Tianjin, China, were studied. The soils were found to be polluted to different extents with PTEs, PAEs and PAHs from different pollution sources. The soil concentrations of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), acenaphthylene (Any) and acenaphthene (Ane) were higher than their corresponding regulatory reference limits. The health risk assessment model used to calculate human exposure indicates that both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from selected pollutants were generally acceptable or close to acceptable. Different types of pollution sources and soil physicochemical properties substantially affected the soil residual concentrations of and risks from these pollutants. PTEs in soils collected from agricultural lands around industrial and residential areas and organic pollutants (PAEs and PAHs) in soils collected from agricultural areas around livestock breeding were higher than those from other types of pollution sources and merit long-term monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban soil of Novi Sad, Serbia: occurrence and cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbić, Biljana D; Đurišić-Mladenović, Nataša; Tadić, Đorđe J; Cvejanov, Jelena Đ

    2017-07-01

    Contents of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in 30 soil samples from 15 locations in Novi Sad, Serbia, assessing for the first time the corresponding health risks in the Serbian urban zone. Total concentrations were in the range of 22-2247 μg kg -1 , with a mean and median value of 363 and 200 μg kg -1 , respectively. Comparison with the relevant maximum allowed contents proposed by the Serbian government and with the Dutch target values implied that soils from the urban area of Novi Sad were "suitable as residential soils" and that no intervention would be needed if the current levels were retained. Seven diagnostic ratios were calculated, indicating the pyrogenic sources of PAHs as the dominant. Cancer risks in humans via accidental ingestion, inhalation of soil particles, and dermal contact with soil were estimated. Cancer risk for soil ingestion by children was the highest. The total lifetime carcinogenic risk as sum of individual cancer risks for seven carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was within the range 10 -4 to 10 -6 , indicating acceptable risks at 30 and 47% of sites for children and adults, respectively. However, for the rest of the samples, total lifetime cancer risk was >10 -4 indicating over the acceptable risk, even though the contents in soil were not of concern as the comparison with the environmental guidance previously showed. This could be explained by (a) the dominant concentrations of higher molecular weight compounds with 4 to 6 rings, among which there are compounds with higher toxicity equivalents, but also with (b) the extreme conditions used for the conservative risk assessment under maximal exposure frequency, exposure time, and ingestion rates.

  16. Soil risk assessment of As and Zn contamination in a coal mining region using geostatisretics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komnitsas, Kostas; Modis, Kostas

    2006-01-01

    The present paper aims to map As and Zn contamination and assess the risk for agricultural soils in a wider disposal site containing wastes derived from coal beneficiation. Geochemical data related to environmental studies show that the waste characteristics favor solubilisation and mobilization of inorganic contaminants and in some cases the generation of acidic leachates. 135 soil samples were collected from a 34 km 2 area and analysed by using geostatistics under the maximum entropy principle in order to produce risk assessment maps and estimate the probability of soil contamination. In addition, the present paper discusses the main issues related to risk assessment in wider mining and waste disposal sites in order to assist decision makers in selecting feasible rehabilitation schemes

  17. A framework for assessing ecological risks of petroleum-derived materials in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, G.W. II

    1997-05-01

    Ecological risk assessment estimates the nature and likelihood of effects of human actions on nonhuman organisms, populations, and ecosystems. It is intended to be clearer and more rigorous in its approach to estimation of effects and uncertainties than previously employed methods of ecological assessment. Ecological risk assessment is characterized by a standard paradigm that includes problem formulation, analysis of exposure and effects, risk characterization, and communication with a risk manager. This report provides a framework that applies the paradigm to the specific problem of assessing the ecological risks of petroleum in soil. This type of approach requires that assessments be performed in phases: (1) a scoping assessment to determine whether there is a potential route of exposure for potentially significant ecological receptors; (2) a screening assessment to determine whether exposures could potentially reach toxic levels; and (3) a definitive assessment to estimate the nature, magnitude, and extent of risks. The principal technical issue addressed is the chemically complex nature of petroleum--a complexity that may be dealt with by assessing risks on the basis of properties of the whole material, properties of individual chemicals that are representative of chemical classes, distributions of properties of the constituents of chemical classes, properties of chemicals detected in the soil, and properties of indicator chemicals. The advantages and feasibility of these alternatives are discussed. The report concludes with research recommendations for improving each stage in the assessment process

  18. Assessing Bioenergy Harvest Risks: Geospatially Explicit Tools for Maintaining Soil Productivity in Western US Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Page-Dumroese

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomass harvesting for energy production and forest health can impact the soil resource by altering inherent chemical, physical and biological properties. These impacts raise concern about damaging sensitive forest soils, even with the prospect of maintaining vigorous forest growth through biomass harvesting operations. Current forest biomass harvesting research concurs that harvest impacts to the soil resource are region- and site-specific, although generalized knowledge from decades of research can be incorporated into management activities. Based upon the most current forest harvesting research, we compiled information on harvest activities that decrease, maintain or increase soil-site productivity. We then developed a soil chemical and physical property risk assessment within a geographic information system for a timber producing region within the Northern Rocky Mountain ecoregion. Digital soil and geology databases were used to construct geospatially explicit best management practices to maintain or enhance soil-site productivity. The proposed risk assessments could aid in identifying resilient soils for forest land managers considering biomass operations, policy makers contemplating expansion of biomass harvesting and investors deliberating where to locate bioenergy conversion facilities.

  19. Assessment of human health risk of reported soil levels of metals and radionuclides in Port Hope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    Risk assessment methods are applied to the question of health implications of contaminated soil in the Port Hope area. Soil-related as well as other pathways of exposure are considered. Exposures to the reported levels of uranium, antimony, chromium, copper, nickel, cadmium, cobalt, selenium, and zinc in Port Hope soils are not expected to result in adverse health consequences. Oral exposure to arsenic in soil at the reported levels is estimated to result in incremental cancer risk levels in the negligible range (10 -5 ). Estimated exposures also fall well below suggested toxic thresholds for arsenic. For the two small areas within the >50 μg/g isopleth, assessment of exposure is difficult without more definitive data on soil concentrations in these zones. Contamination of soils with lead is overall quite limited. In general, the reported soil levels of lead are not anticipated to pose a hazard. The site with the highest concentrations of lead is located on the west bank of the Ganaraska River, a popular fishing area. Depending on the level and extent of contamination, as well as degree of contact with the site, potential exposures could exceed tolerable intakes for children. Exposures to the radionuclides Ra(226), Pb(210), and U(238) in soil at the reported levels are estimated to fall well within recommended population limits

  20. Study of Selected Metals Distribution, Source Apportionment, and Risk Assessment in Suburban Soil, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Javed; Shah, Munir H.

    2015-01-01

    Composite soil samples collected from suburban areas were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr, and Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on pseudototal metal analysis, Fe, Mn, Sr, and Zn were the prevailing metals while Cd, Co, Cr, and Pb were the least participants. However, based on bioavailability, Cd, Co, Pb, and Sr were easily leachable and might pose adverse effects to soil biota. In ecological risk assessment, contamination factor demonstrated moderate contamination ...

  1. Risk assessment framework on time impact: Infrastructure projects in soft soil during construction stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, W. W.; Wong, K. S.; Lee, J. L.

    2018-04-01

    With the growth of economy and population, there is an increase in infrastructure construction projects. As such, it is unavoidable to have construction projects on soft soil. Without proper risk management plan, construction projects are vulnerable to different types of risks which will have negative impact on project’s time, cost and quality. Literature review showed that little or none of the research is focused on the risk assessment on the infrastructure project in soft soil. Hence, the aim of this research is to propose a risk assessment framework in infrastructure projects in soft soil during the construction stage. This research was focused on the impact of risks on project time and internal risk factors. The research method was Analytical Hierarchy Process and the sample population was experienced industry experts who have experience in infrastructure projects. Analysis was completed and result showed that for internal factors, the five most significant risks on time element are lack of special equipment, potential contractual disputes and claims, shortage of skilled workers, delay/lack of materials supply, and insolvency of contractor/sub-contractor. Results indicated that resources risk factor play a critical role on project time frame in infrastructure projects in soft soil during the construction stage.

  2. Ecological risk assessment: influence of texture on background concentration of microelements in soils of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beketskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    In Russia quality standards of contaminated substances values in environment consist of ecological and sanitary rate-setting. The sanitary risk assessment base on potential risk that contaminants pose to protect human beings. The main purpose of the ecological risk assessment is to protect ecosystem. To determine negative influence on living organisms in the sanitary risk assessment in Russia we use MPC. This value of contaminants show how substances affected on different part of environment, biological activity and soil processes. The ecological risk assessment based on comparison compounds concentration with background concentration for definite territories. Taking into account high interval of microelements value in soils, we suggest using statistic method for determination of concentration levels of chemical elements concentration in soils of Russia. This method is based on determination middle levels of elements content in natural condition. The top limit of middle chemical elements concentration in soils is value, which exceed middle regional background level in three times standard deviation. The top limit of natural concentration excess we can explain as anthropogenic impact. At first we study changing in the middle content value of microelements in soils of geographic regions in European part of Russia on the basis of cartographical analysis. Cartographical analysis showed that the soil of mountainous and mountain surrounding regions is enriched with microelements. On the plain territory of European part of Russia for most of microelements was noticed general direction of increasing their concentration in soils from north to south, also in the same direction soil clay content rise for majority of soils. For all other territories a clear connection has been noticed between the distribution of sand sediment. By our own investigation and data from scientific literature data base was created. This data base consist of following soil properties: texture

  3. Risk assessment of soil compaction in Europe – Rubber tracks or wheels on machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamandé, Mathieu; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Schjønning, Per

    2018-01-01

    Subsoil compaction is persistent and affects the wide diversity of ecological services provided by agricultural soils. Efficient risk assessment tools are required to identify sustainable agricultural practices. Vehicles should not transmit stresses that exceed soil strength. Wheel load is the pr......Subsoil compaction is persistent and affects the wide diversity of ecological services provided by agricultural soils. Efficient risk assessment tools are required to identify sustainable agricultural practices. Vehicles should not transmit stresses that exceed soil strength. Wheel load...... the magnitude of contact stresses, (ii) compare effects of traffic on soil physical properties using tires or tracks, and (iii) evaluate a state-of-the-art method for risk assessment of soil compaction beneath tracks or tires at the European level. We measured contact stress below a fully-loaded sugar beet....... The contact area was larger and the maximum and vertical stress smaller beneath the rubber track than beneath the tire. Nevertheless, stress distribution beneath the rubber track was far from uniform, presenting high peak stresses beneath the wheels and rollers. Dry bulk density was similar after traffic...

  4. Assessment of the pollution and ecological risk of lead and cadmium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Jerzy; Baran, Agnieszka; Urbański, Krzysztof; Mazurek, Ryszard; Klimowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2018-03-27

    The aim of the study was to assess the content, distribution, soil binding capacity, and ecological risk of cadmium and lead in the soils of Malopolska (South Poland). The investigation of 320 soil samples from differently used land (grassland, arable land, forest, wasteland) revealed a very high variation in the metal content in the soils. The pollution of soils with cadmium and lead is moderate. Generally, a point source of lead and cadmium pollution was noted in the study area. The highest content of cadmium and lead was found in the northwestern part of the area-the industrial zones (mining and metallurgical activity). These findings are confirmed by the arrangement of semivariogram surfaces and bivariate Moran's correlation coefficients. Among the different types of land use, forest soils had by far the highest mean content of bioavailable forms of both metals. The results showed a higher soil binding capacity for lead than for cadmium. However, for both metals, extremely high (class 5) accumulation capacities were dominant. Based on the results, the investigated soils had a low (Pb) and moderate (Cd) ecological risk on living components. Soil properties, such as organic C, pH, sand, silt, and clay content, correlated with the content of total and bioavailable forms of metals in the soils. The correlations, despite being statistically significant, were characterized by very low values of correlation coefficient (r = 0.12-0.20, at p ≤ 0.05). Therefore, the obtained data do not allow to define any conclusions as to the relationships between these soil properties. However, it must be highlighted that there was a very strong positive correlation between the total content of cadmium and lead and their bioavailable forms in the soils.

  5. Mapping Soil Physical Structure of Loamy Agricultural Fields for Assessing Localised Potential Leaching Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Olsen, Preben

    in Silstrup was evaluated based on soil texture, structural parameters, tritium breakthrough curves, and colloid- and phosphorus leaching to investigate the link between the leaching of pesticides such as TFMP and soil structure. Bulk soil was sampled from the A-horizon in a 15 x 15 m grid across the field......, and according to soil texture analyses the clay content was ranging from 14.2 to 18.9%, whereas the organic carbon (OC) content was ranging between 1.7 and 2.2%. Clay content increased to the North and OC content to the South. It was found that there is a risk for pronounced leaching to take place from......During the last decades detection of pesticides and their metabolites in groundwater has increased, forcing several drinking water wells to shut down. The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP), initiated in 1998, evaluates the leaching risk of pesticides and their metabolites...

  6. Incorporating biomarkers in ecological risk assessment of chemical contaminants of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Reinecke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important but complex natural resource which is increasingly used as sink for chemicals. The monitoring of soil quality and the assessment of risks posed by contaminants have become crucial. This study deals with the potential use of biomarkers in the monitoring of soils and the assessment of risk resulting from contamination. Apart from an overview of the existing literature on biomarkers, the results of various of our field experiments in South African soils are discussed. Biomarkers may have potential in the assessment of risk because they can indicate at an early stage that exposure has taken place and that a toxic response has been initiated. It is therefore expected that early biomarkers will play an increasing role as diagnostic tools for determining exposure to chemicals and the resulting effects. They may have predictive value that can assist in the prevention or minimising of risks. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of using our results on biomarker responses of soil dwelling organisms to predict changes at higher organisational levels (which may have ecological implications. Our recent experimental results on the evaluation of various biomarkers in both the laboratory and the field are interpreted and placed in perspective within the broader framework of response biology. The aim was further to contribute to the development and application of biomarkers in regulatory risk assessment schemes of soils. This critical review of our own and recent literature on biomarkers in ecotoxicology leads to the conclusion that biomarkers can, under certain conditions, be useful tools in risk assessment. Clear relationships between contamination loads in soil organisms and certain biomarker responses were determined in woodlice, earthworms and terrestrial snails. Clear correlations were also established in field experiments between biomarker responses and changes at the population level. This indicated that, in

  7. A New Approach To Soil Sampling For Risk Assessment Of Nutrient Mobilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Barber, N.; Benskin, C.; Reaney, S. M.; Haygarth, P.; Quinn, P. F.; Barker, P. A.; Aftab, A.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Surridge, B.; Perks, M. T.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, risks of nutrient and sediment losses from soils are assessed through a combination of field soil nutrient values on soil samples taken over the whole field and the proximity of the field to water courses. The field average nutrient concentration of the soil is used by farmers to determine fertiliser needs. These data are often used by scientists to assess the risk of nutrient losses to water course, though are not really `fit' for this purpose. The Eden Demonstration Test Catchment (http://www.edendtc.org.uk/) is a research project based in the River Eden catchment, NW UK, with the aim of cost effectively mitigating diffuse pollution from agriculture whilst maintaining agricultural productivity. Three instrumented focus catchments have been monitored since 2011, providing high resolution in-stream chemistry and ecological data, alongside some spatial data on soils, land use and nutrient inputs. An approach to mitigation was demonstrated in a small sub-catchment, where surface runoff was identified as the key drivers of nutrient losses, using a suite of runoff attenuation features. Other issues identified were management of hard- standings and soil compaction. A new approach for evaluating nutrient losses from soils is assessed in the Eden DTC project. The Sensitive Catchment Integrated Modelling and Prediction (SCIMAP) model is a risk-mapping framework designed to identify where in the landscape diffuse pollution is most likely to be originating (http://www.scimap.org.uk) and was used to look at the spatial pattern of erosion potential. The aim of this work was to assess if erosion potential identified through the model could be used to inform a new soil sampling strategy, to better assess risk of erosion and risk of transport of sediment-bound phosphorus. Soil samples were taken from areas with different erosion potential. The chemical analysis of these targeted samples are compared to those obtained using more traditional sampling approaches

  8. Dependence of samarium-soil interaction on samarium concentration: Implications for environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Guinart, Oriol; Salaberria, Aitor; Vidal, Miquel; Rigol, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The sorption and desorption behaviour of samarium (Sm), an emerging contaminant, was examined in soil samples at varying Sm concentrations. The obtained sorption and desorption parameters revealed that soil possessed a high Sm retention capacity (sorption was higher than 99% and desorption lower than 2%) at low Sm concentrations, whereas at high Sm concentrations, the sorption-desorption behaviour varied among the soil samples tested. The fractionation of the Sm sorbed in soils, obtained by sequential extractions, allowed to suggest the soil properties (pH and organic matter solubility) and phases (organic matter, carbonates and clay minerals) governing the Sm-soil interaction. The sorption models constructed in the present work along with the sorption behaviour of Sm explained in terms of soil main characteristics will allow properly assessing the Sm-soil interaction depending on the contamination scenario under study. Moreover, the sorption and desorption K d values of radiosamarium in soils were strongly correlated with those of stable Sm at low concentrations (r = 0.98); indicating that the mobility of Sm radioisotopes and, thus, the risk of radioactive Sm contamination can be predicted using data from low concentrations of stable Sm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil or Dust for Health Risk Assessment Studies in Urban Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarrón, M; Faz, A; Acosta, J A

    2017-10-01

    To identify the best material (soil or dust) to be selected for health-risk assessment studies, road dust and urban soil from three cities with different population densities were collected, and size fractions were analysed for metal content (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co, and Ni). Results showed similar distribution of the size particles among cities, predominating fractions between 75 and 2000 μm in road dust and particles below 75 μm in soil. Metals were mainly bound to PM10 in both soil and road dust increasing the risk of adverse health effects, overall through inhalation exposure. The risk assessment showed that the most hazardous exposure pathway was the ingestion via, followed by dermal absorption and inhalation route. Values of hazard quotient showed that the risk for children due to the ingestion and dermal absorption was higher than adults, and slightly larger at PM10 comparing to <75-μm fraction for the inhalation route. Higher risk values were found for road dust, although any hazard index or cancer risk index value did not overreach the safe value of 10 -6 .

  10. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines. © 2013.

  11. Harmful Chemicals in Soil and Risk Assessment of an Abandoned Open Dumpsite in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of pollutants in soil samples collected in and around a dumpsite in Heze, Shandong, China, were investigated, and the potential ecological and health risks of these pollutants were assessed. Seventeen soil samples from five different locations were analysed for pollution characteristics, and the target pollutants included inorganic pollutants and heavy metals as well as volatile organic compounds/semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs. Results showed that the mean concentration level of each pollutant from the interior area was relatively higher than that from the boundary area of the dumpsite. Inorganic pollutants and heavy metals were detected in all of the soil samples. According to potential ecological risk assessment with environmental background values of Shandong as screening values, heavy metals in majority of the samples pose low ecological risk to the ecosystem except Hg. Hg poses a considerable or very high risk because of its high levels of accumulation. In consideration of future land use pattern, human health risks derived from environmental exposure to heavy metals were assessed. Carcinogenic risk and noncarcinogenic hazards for adults are acceptable, while noncarcinogenic hazards for children exceed the safety threshold. The health risks are primarily attributed to oral exposure to As and Cr.

  12. Effects of soil phosphorus status on environmental risk assessment of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Pirkko; Siimes, Katri; Rämö, Sari; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Eronen, Liisa; Oinonen, Seija; Hartikainen, Helinä

    2008-01-01

    The increased use of herbicides poses a risk to the aquatic environment. Easy and economical methods are needed to identify the fields where specific environment protection measures are needed. Phosphorus (P) and organophosphorus herbicides compete for the same adsorption sites in soil. In this study the relationship between P obtained in routine Finnish agronomic tests (acid ammonium acetate [P(AC)]) and adsorption of glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium was investigated to determine whether P(AC) values could be used in the risk assessment. The adsorption of glyphosate ((N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and glufosinate-ammonium (2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid) was studied in a clay and a sandy loam soil enriched with increasing amounts of P added as potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Desorption was also determined for some P-enriched soil samples. The adsorption of both herbicides diminished with increasing P(AC) value. The correlations between Freundlich adsorption coefficients obtained in the adsorption tests and P(AC) were nonlinear but significant (r > 0.98) in both soils. The exponential models of the relationship between soil P(AC) values and glyphosate adsorption were found to fit well to an independent Finnish soil data set (P glufosinate-ammonium). The desorption results showed that glufosinate-ammonium sorption is not inversely related to soil P status, and the high correlation coefficients obtained in the test of the model were thus artifacts caused by an abnormal concentration of exchangeable potassium in soil. The solved equations are a useful tool in assessing the leaching risks of glyphosate, but their use for glufosinate-ammonium is questionable.

  13. Dissipation behavior and risk assessment of butralin in soybean and soil under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congdi; Liu, Rong; Li, Li; Li, Wei; He, Yujian; Yuan, Longfei

    2017-08-29

    Dissipation behavior, final residue, and risk assessment of butralin in soybean, green soybean, plant, and soil were investigated. Butralin residues were extracted with acetonitrile and then soybean samples were detected with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and soil samples were determined with GC with nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD). The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 mg/kg for soybean, green soybean, plant, and soil. Average recoveries ranged from 90.4 ~ 98.2% for green soybean, 86.2 ~ 86.6% for soybean, 86.0 ~ 98.8% for plant, and 85.0 ~ 106.8% for soil. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.0 ~ 7.2% for green soybean, 2.0 ~ 3.0% for soybean, 3.1 ~ 8.1% for plant, and 1.8 ~ 6.6% for soil. Half-lives of butralin in soil samples varied in the range of 11-22 days. At harvest time, final residues of butralin in soybean and green soybean were lower than LOQ. Risk assessment demonstrated that, at recommended dosage and frequency, butralin would not induce significant harm on humans. The study could be used as a quantitative basis for application of butralin on soybean.

  14. Bioaccessibility and human health risk assessment of lead in soil from Daye City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, F.; Xiao, M. S.; Cai, Y.; Xiong, L.; Huang, J. B.; Fu, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    Lead (Pb) in soil from 4 sampling sites of Daye City was studied. Bioaccessibilities of Pb in soil were determined by the method of simplified bioaccessible extraction test (SBET). Since traditional health risk assessment was built on the basis of metal total content, the risk may be overestimated. Modified human health risk assessment model considering bioaccessibility was built in this study. Health risk of adults and children exposure to Pb based on total contents and bioaccessible contents were evaluated. The results showed that bioaccessible content of Pb in soil was much lower than its total content, and the average bioaccessible factor (BF) was only 25.37%. The hazard indexes (HIs) for adults and children calculated by two methods were all lower than 1. It indicated that there were no no-carcinogenic risks of Pb for human in Daye. By comparing with the results, the average bioaccessible HIs for adults and children were lower than the total one, which was due to the lower hazard quotient (HQ). Proportions of non-carcinogenic risk exposure to Pb via different pathways have also changed. Particularly, the most main risk exposure pathway for adults turned from the oral ingestion to the inhalation.

  15. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to earthworms in urban soils and its implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, A; Coelho, C; Gavina, A; Dias, A C; Patinha, C; Reis, A P; da Silva, E Ferreira; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2018-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a global problem, and in urban soils they can be found at potentially hazard levels. Nevertheless, the real risks that these contaminants pose to the environment are not well known, since the bioavailability of PAHs in urban soils has been poorly studied. Therefore, the bioavailability of PAHs in some selected urban soils from Lisbon (Portugal) was evaluated. Moreover, the applicability of a first screening phase based on total contents of PAHs was assessed. Results show that bioavailability of PAHs is reduced (low levels in earthworms, low accumulation percentages, and low biota-to-soil accumulation factors values), especially in more contaminated soils. The aging of these compounds explains this low availability, and confirms the generally accepted assumption that accumulation of PAHs in urban areas is mostly related with a long-term deposition of contaminated particles. The comparison of measured PAHs concentrations in earthworm tissues with the ones predicted based on theoretical models, reinforce that risks based on total levels are overestimated, but it can be a good initial approach for urban soils. This study also highlights the need of more reliable ecotoxicological data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  17. Approach to study of Cu, Ni and Zn content in soil for ecotoxicological risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, R.; Marimon, L.; Gil, C.; Roca-Pérez, L.

    2009-04-01

    Current Spanish legislation on contaminated soils defines contaminated soil as "that whose characteristics have been negatively altered by the presence of dangerous human-derived chemical components whose concentration is such that it is an unacceptable risk for human health or the environment and has been expressly declared as such by legal ruling". Regarding heavy metals, the Spanish Autonomous Communities will promote measures to obtain generic reference values to declare a soil to be contaminated. In the Valencian Community, these reference values still do not exist. So if the protection of ecosystems is considered a priority to declare a soil to be contaminated and to assess the level of risk, emergency toxicity tests and seed growth in land plants are resorted to, or tests with aquatic organisms or other experiments with leached soils obtained by standard procedures are carried out. We studied the toxic effects of calcareous contaminated soils by Cu, Ni and Zn on marine bacterium Vibrio fisheri (MicrotoxR test assay) (1) and on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in plate (germination index) (2) and pot (UNE 77301) (3) experiments for the purpose of establishing the Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations in soil which may lead to toxicity in order to observe, therefore, whether there is any likelihood of these pollutants coming into contact with any receptor and if adverse effects exist for living beings and the environment. The results showed significant differences among the three types of tests done but, in all cases, the concentrations needed to reflect toxicity effect on organisms were around 20 -70 (Cu and Ni) to 1000 (Zn) times higher than the levels of the control soils. The sensitivity order of the bio-assay was: (1) < (3) < (2). We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for partial funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  18. Improving risk assessments for manufactured gas plant soils by measuring PAH availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroo, Hans F; Nakles, David V; Kreitinger, Joseph P; Loehr, Raymond C; Hawthorne, Steven B; Luthy, Richard G; Holman, Hoi-Ying; LaPierre, Adrienne

    2005-07-01

    Remediation of soils at oil-gas manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites is driven primarily by the human health risks posed by the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), that are associated with lampblack residues. Although PAHs on lampblack are tightly sorbed, risk assessments do not account for this reduced availability. A multi-investigator study of 7 oil-gas MGP site soil samples demonstrated that the dermal and ingestion absorption factors are far lower than current default assumptions used in risk assessments. Using these sample-specific absorption factors in standard risk assessment equations increased risk-based cleanup levels by a factor of 72 on average (with a range from 23 to 142 times the default level). The rapidly released fraction of the BaP in each sample, as measured by supercritical fluid extraction, was closely correlated (r2 = 0.96) to these calculated cleanup levels. The weight of evidence developed during this research indicates that the risks posed by PAHs on lampblack are far less than assumed when using default absorption factors and that a tiered evaluation protocol employing chemical analyses, chemical release data, and in vitro bioassays can be used to establish more realistic site-specific criteria.

  19. Concentrations, distribution, sources and risk assessment of organohalogenated contaminants in soils from Kenya, Eastern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hongwei; Qi, Yueling; Zhang, Di; Li, Qing X.; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The organohalogenated contaminants (OCs) including 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 7 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in soils collected from Kenya, Eastern Africa. The total OCPs fell in the range of n.d–49.74 μg kg"−"1 dry weight (dw), which was dominated by DDTs and endosulfan. Identification of pollution sources indicated new input of DDTs for malaria control in Kenya. The total PCBs ranged from n.d. to 55.49 μg kg"−"1 dw, dominated by penta- and hexa-PCBs, probably associated with the leakage of obsolete transformer oil. The soils were less contaminated by PBDEs, ranging from 0.19 to 35.64 μg kg"−"1 dw. The predominant PBDE congeners were penta-, tri- or tetra-BDEs, varying among different sampling sites. Risk assessment indicated potential human health risks posed by OCs in soils from Kenya, with PCBs as the most contributing pollutants. The local authorities are recommended to make best efforts on management of OC pollution, particularly from DDTs and PCBs to meet the requirement of Stockholm Convention. - Highlights: • The first report on organohalogen contaminants (OCs) in soils from Kenya. • OCs including OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs were determined simultaneously. • Sources of OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs emission were identified. • Human health risk posed by OCs in soil from Kenya were assessed. • Measures for OCs management were suggested for local authority. - The soils from Kenya were heavily polluted by organohalogenated contaminants (OCs). New input of DDTs probably occurred. Among all OCs, PCBs were predominant.

  20. Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepanosyan, Gevorg; Maghakyan, Nairuhi; Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2017-08-01

    Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk. Multivariate geostatistical analyses suggested that the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Zn observed in the kindergarten's topsoil may have originated from anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and V mostly come from natural sources. According to the Summary pollution index (Zc), 102 kindergartens belong to the low pollution level, 7 to the moderate and only 2 to the high level of pollution. Summary concentration index (SCI) showed that 109 kindergartens were in the allowable level, while 2 featured in the low level of pollution. The health risk assessment showed that in all kindergartens except for seven, non-carcinogenic risk for children was detected (HI>1), while carcinogenic risk from arsenic belongs to the very low (allowable) level. Cr and multi-element carcinogenic risk (RI) exceeded the safety level (1.0E- 06) in all kindergartens and showed that the potential of developing cancer, albeit small, does exist. Therefore, city's kindergartens require necessary remedial actions to eliminate or reduce soil pollution and heavy metal-induced health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass separation and risk assessment of commingled contamination in soil and ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Q.L.; Chau, T.S. [Alberta Environment, Red Deer, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Gasoline service stations in urban areas may be sources of groundwater pollution if petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) were to leak from underground storage tanks. Depending on the site-specific hydrogeologic conditions, the PHC could be retained in the soil, float on top of the groundwater table, dissolve in the groundwater or partition into soil vapour. This study focused on risk assessment and and management of soil and groundwater pollution caused by PHC releases from multiple sources which lead to commingling of subsurface plumes that require identification, assessment and control. Risk management decisions are made according to the different protection zones corresponding to different exposure pathways into which the commingled groundwater plume is divided, such as inhalation, ingestion and freshwater aquatic life. In order to effectively evaluate and manage commingled plumes, responsible parties must cooperate in sharing information on contaminated sites and developing joint programs for investigation, monitoring, remediation and risk management. This study proposed methodologies for determining mass contribution to a commingled plume from multiple contaminant sources. It was concluded that the levels of risk to human and environmental health can be determined by considering contaminant sources, migration pathways and potential receptors. Migration of PHCs in the subsurface is influenced by several uncertainties such as pollutant release and remediation histories, preferential pathways and hydrogeologic boundary conditions. Proper site characterization is necessary for reliable mass separation and to delineate contaminant plumes. Mathematical models can be used to simulate subsurface flow and transport processes. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Distribution, relationship, and risk assessment of toxic heavy metals in walnuts and growth soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongxiang; Ni, Zhanglin; Li, Shiliang; Qu, Minghua; Tang, Fubin; Mo, Runhong; Ye, Caifen; Liu, Yihua

    2018-04-14

    Walnut is one of the most popular nuts worldwide and contains various mineral nutrients. Little is known, however, about the relationship between toxic heavy metals in walnuts and growth soil. In this study, we investigated the distribution, relationship, and risk assessment of five toxic heavy metals-lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)-in walnuts and growth soil in the main production areas of China. The results showed that the main heavy metal pollution in walnut and soil was Pb and Cd. Regionally, positive relationships existed between heavy metals and the pH and organic matter of soil. In addition, we observed a notable uptake effect between walnut and growth soil. In this study, we found a significant correlation (r = 0.786, P toxic heavy metal pollution in walnuts and growth soil could be helpful to screen suitable planting sites to prevent and control heavy metal pollution and improve the quality and safety of walnut.

  3. IMPROVED RISK ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIATION OF SOIL METALS BASED ON BIOAVAILABILITY MEASUREMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy metals in soils can comprise risk through plant uptake or soil ingestion. Recent research results and progress in understandings of risks and methods for soil metal remediation will be presented. Beneficial use of composts/bosolids plus limestone to remediate metal killed e...

  4. Use of aqueous and solvent extraction to assess risk and bioavailability of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordelon, N.; Huebner, H.; Washburn, K.; Donnelly, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals. These mixtures are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically, especially the complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The current approach to risk assessment assumes that all contaminants in the soil are available for human exposure. EPA protocol uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent chemicals that are available for exposure. A system using aqueous extraction provides a more realistic picture of what chemicals are bioavailable through leaching and ingestion. A study was conducted with coal tar contaminated soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene, and trinitrotoluene. Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH 2 and pH 7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants from aqueous extracts with an estimated cancer risk one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay showed that solvent extracts were genotoxic with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts showed no genotoxicity. These results suggest that aqueous extraction may be useful in determining what contaminants are available for human exposure, as well as what compounds may pose a risk to human health

  5. The need for attuned soil quality risk assessment for non-Western humans and ecosystems, exemplified by mining areas in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Swartjes, F.A.; Rensburg, van L.; Maboeta, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, soils are under threat of deterioration and contamination due to anthropogenic activities. Whilst risk assessment of soils in Europe has been well studied, the same cannot be said of soils in Southern Africa. Soil screening values exist in SA, which enables soil quality assessment, but

  6. Assessment of soil erosion risk in Komering watershed, South Sumatera, using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsabilla, A.; Kusratmoko, E.

    2017-07-01

    Changes in land use watershed led to environmental degradation. Estimated loss of soil erosion is often difficult due to some factors such as topography, land use, climate and human activities. This study aims to predict soil erosion hazard and sediment yield using the Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) hydrological model. The SWAT was chosen because it can simulate the model with limited data. The study area is Komering watershed (806,001 Ha) in South Sumatera Province. There are two factors land management intervention: 1) land with agriculture, and 2) land with cultivation. These factors selected in accordance with the regulations of spatial plan area. Application of the SWAT demonstrated that the model can predict surface runoff, soil erosion loss and sediment yield. The erosion risk for each watershed can be classified and predicted its changes based on the scenarios which arranged. In this paper, we also discussed the relationship between the distribution of erosion risk and watershed's characteristics in a spatial perspective.

  7. [Assessment of heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks of urban soils in Kaifeng City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Meng; Ma, Jian-Hua; Liu, De-Xin; Sun, Yan-Li; Chen, Yan-Fang

    2015-03-01

    Ninety-nine topsoil (0-15 cm) samples were collected from Kaifeng City, China using the grid method, and then the concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were measured by standard methods. Soil pollution levels and potential ecological risks of the heavy metals were assessed using the pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. Ordinary Kriging interpolation technique was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of PLI and RI of the city. The results showed that high pollution of Cd occurred in Kaifeng urban soils, and there was moderate pollution of Zn, slight pollution of Pb and Cu, and no pollution of Ni, Cr and As. Very high ecological risk was posed by Cd and low risk by other metals. The mean PLI of the 7 metals from all sample points was 2.53, which was categorized as moderate pollution. The average RI was 344.58 which represented a considerable ecological risk. PLI and RI shared a similar spatial distribution with high values centralized in the old industrial area in the southeast and railway stations for passengers and goods in the south of the city, followed by the old town within the ancient city wall, and low values located in the north and west areas. Cadmium was the main factor for both soil pollution and potential ecological risk primarily due to farmland topsoil in the eastern suburb of Kaifeng City with high Cd concentrations resulted from sewage irrigation deposited in the urban area by wind, human activities such as soot discharged from the chemical fertilizer plant of Kaifeng, transportation and coal combustion.

  8. Soil erosion risk assessment using interviews, empirical soil erosion modeling (RUSLE) and fallout radionuclides in a volcanic crater lake watershed subjected to land use change, western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crop, Wannes; Ryken, Nick; Tomma Okuonzia, Judith; Van Ranst, Eric; Baert, Geert; Boeckx, Pascal; Verschuren, Dirk; Verdoodt, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Population pressure results in conversion of natural vegetation to cropland within the western Ugandan crater lake watersheds. These watersheds however are particularly prone to soil degradation and erosion because of the high rainfall intensity and steep topography. Increased soil erosion losses expose the aquatic ecosystems to excessive nutrient loading. In this study, the Katinda crater lake watershed, which is already heavily impacted by agricultural land use, was selected for an explorative study on its (top)soil characteristics - given the general lack of data on soils within these watersheds - as well as an assessment of soil erosion risks. Using group discussions and structured interviews, the local land users' perceptions on land use, soil quality, soil erosion and lake ecology were compiled. Datasets on rainfall, topsoil characteristics, slope gradient and length, and land use were collected. Subsequently a RUSLE erosion model was run. Results from this empirical erosion modeling approach were validated against soil erosion estimates based on 137Cs measurements.

  9. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulo, G.; Young, S.D.; Black, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ M ), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  10. Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Yu Bon [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Kang, Yuan [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, Higher Education Mega Center, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Hong Sheng [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lau, Winifred; Li, Hui; Sun, Xiao Lin [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Chow, Ka Lai [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Wong, Ming Hung, E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution - Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PAHs more resistant to degradation. ► Open burning site contain high concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong. ► Car dismantling workshop can increase potential cancer risk on human. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soils from 12 different land use types on human cancer risks, with the main focus being on human cancer risks related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifty-five locations were selected to represent 12 different types of land use (electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)); open burning site (OBS); car dismantling workshop (CDW) etc.). The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in terms of total burden and their bioaccessibility were analysed using GC/MS. The PAHs concentrations were subsequently used to establish cancer risks in humans via three exposure pathways, namely, accident ingestion of soil, dermal contact soil and inhalation of soil particles. When the 95th centile values of total PAH concentrations were used to derive ingestion and dermal cancer risk probabilities on humans, the CDW land use type indicated a moderate potential for cancerous development (244 × 10{sup −6} and 209 × 10{sup −6}, respectively). Bioaccessible PAHs content in soil samples from CDW (3.60 × 10{sup −6}) were also classified as low cancer risk. CDW soil possessed a higher carcinogenic risk based on PAH concentrations. Bioremediation is recommended to treat the contaminated soil.

  11. Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Yu Bon; Kang, Yuan; Wang, Hong Sheng; Lau, Winifred; Li, Hui; Sun, Xiao Lin; Giesy, John P.; Chow, Ka Lai; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PAHs more resistant to degradation. ► Open burning site contain high concentrations of PAHs in Hong Kong. ► Car dismantling workshop can increase potential cancer risk on human. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate soils from 12 different land use types on human cancer risks, with the main focus being on human cancer risks related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Fifty-five locations were selected to represent 12 different types of land use (electronic waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)); open burning site (OBS); car dismantling workshop (CDW) etc.). The total concentrations of 16 PAHs in terms of total burden and their bioaccessibility were analysed using GC/MS. The PAHs concentrations were subsequently used to establish cancer risks in humans via three exposure pathways, namely, accident ingestion of soil, dermal contact soil and inhalation of soil particles. When the 95th centile values of total PAH concentrations were used to derive ingestion and dermal cancer risk probabilities on humans, the CDW land use type indicated a moderate potential for cancerous development (244 × 10 −6 and 209 × 10 −6 , respectively). Bioaccessible PAHs content in soil samples from CDW (3.60 × 10 −6 ) were also classified as low cancer risk. CDW soil possessed a higher carcinogenic risk based on PAH concentrations. Bioremediation is recommended to treat the contaminated soil

  12. Risk assessment of cadmium-contaminated soil on plant DNA damage using RAPD and physiological indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wan; Yang, Y.S.; Li, P.J.; Zhou, Q.X.; Xie, L.J.; Han, Y.P.

    2009-01-01

    Impact assessment of contaminants in soil is an important issue in environmental quality study and remediation of contaminated land. A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) 'fingerprinting' technique was exhibited to detect genotoxin-induced DNA damage of plants from heavy metal contaminated soil. This study compared the effects occurring at molecular and population levels in barley seedlings exposed to cadmium (Cd) contamination in soil. Results indicate that reduction of root growth and increase of total soluble protein level in the root tips of barley seedlings occurred with the ascending Cd concentrations. For the RAPD analyses, nine 10-base pair (bp) random RAPD primers (decamers) with 60-70% GC content were found to produce unique polymorphic band patterns and subsequently were used to produce a total of 129 RAPD fragments of 144-2639 base pair in molecular size in the root tips of control seedlings. Results produced from nine primers indicate that the changes occurring in RAPD profiles of the root tips following Cd treatment included alterations in band intensity as well as gain or loss of bands compared with the control seedlings. New amplified fragments at molecular size from approximately 154 to 2245 bp appeared almost for 10, 20 and 40 mg L -1 Cd with 9 primers (one-four new polymerase chain reaction, (PCR) products), and the number of missing bands enhanced with the increasing Cd concentration for nine primers. These results suggest that genomic template stability reflecting changes in RAPD profiles were significantly affected and it compared favourably with the traditional indices such as growth and soluble protein level at the above Cd concentrations. The DNA polymorphisms detected by RAPD can be applied as a suitable biomarker assay for detection of the genotoxic effects of Cd stress in soil on plants. As a tool in risk assessment the RAPD assay can be used in characterisation of Cd hazard in soil

  13. Potential exposure to clothianidin and risk assessment of manual users of treated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, JingXia; Tao, ChuanJiang; Zhang, LiYing; Ning, Jun; Mei, XiangDong; She, DongMei

    2017-09-01

    Treated soil is the second most prevalent application technique for all registered pesticides in China. Some developing countries also adopt this method. However, the safety of this scenario has not been reported in the literature. Experiments were therefore conducted to assess exposure using standard whole-body dosimetry and air sampling methodologies. Dermal deposition was the main route of exposure in this scenario. The total dermal unit exposure (UE) of operators to clothianidin-treated soil was 51.7 mg kg -1 AI handled (SD = 20.59, n = 16), and hands accounted for 36%. Inhalation UE was 0.04 mg kg -1 AI handled (SD = 0.02, n = 4), negligible compared with dermal exposure. Using an NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level) of 10 mg kg -1 day -1 , the margin of exposure was 773, i.e. greater than 100. For the first time, the scenario of treated soil exposure was assessed and was found to pose less risk than conventional pesticide application. These results can be used as a reference in pesticide management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas

    Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level...... effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.......e. the food-web structure, instead of relying only on the indirect evidence from population abundances. The approach was applied for effect assessment in the agro-ecosystem where we combined factors of elevated CO2, viz. global climate change, and GMO plant effects. A multi-species (Collembola, Acari...

  15. Determination and validation of soil thresholds for cadmium based on food quality standard and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changfeng; Ma, Yibing; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2018-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant with high rates of soil-plant transfer. It is essential to establish an accurate soil threshold for the implementation of soil management practices. This study takes root vegetable as an example to derive soil thresholds for Cd based on the food quality standard as well as health risk assessment using species sensitivity distribution (SSD). A soil type-specific bioconcentration factor (BCF, ratio of Cd concentration in plant to that in soil) generated from soil with a proper Cd concentration gradient was calculated and applied in the derivation of soil thresholds instead of a generic BCF value to minimize the uncertainty. The sensitivity variations of twelve root vegetable cultivars for accumulating soil Cd and the empirical soil-plant transfer model were investigated and developed in greenhouse experiments. After normalization, the hazardous concentrations from the fifth percentile of the distribution based on added Cd (HC5 add ) were calculated from the SSD curves fitted by Burr Type III distribution. The derived soil thresholds were presented as continuous or scenario criteria depending on the combination of soil pH and organic carbon content. The soil thresholds based on food quality standard were on average 0.7-fold of those based on health risk assessment, and were further validated to be reliable using independent data from field survey and published articles. The results suggested that deriving soil thresholds for Cd using SSD method is robust and also applicable to other crops as well as other trace elements that have the potential to cause health risk issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening-level risk assessment for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) trimer detected in soil and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Gargas, M L; Collins, J J; Rowlands, J C

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment.

  17. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yu; Zhu, Tingping; Li, Mengtong; He, Jieyi; Huang, Ruixue

    2017-01-01

    Background. Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. Methods. This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb) concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Results. Local soil contaminati...

  18. Heavy Metal Concentration and Risk Assessment of Soil and Rice in and around an Open Dumpsite in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjira Klinsawathom

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the heavy metal concentration in the soil and rice in and around Nakhonluang district open dumpsite in Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya province of Thailand and to assess the human health risk of these metals. The soil samples demonstrated heavy metal concentrations in the following order: Fe > Mn >Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb (Cd was not detected, and the average concentrations of each metal in soil from the dumpsite area were higher than those in the surrounding area. The average concentrations of Mn in the soils exceeded the screening level for higher plant protection of the USEPA’s Eco-SSL while the average Zn and Cu concentrations in the soil samples from the dumpsite exceeded the level for good soil and safety to life recommended by LDD. The rice exhibited metal concentrations in the following order: root > straw > grain. A carcinogenic human health risk assessment (RTotal indicated that the values from the soil samples and the rice were at safe levels. The sum of noncarcinogenic hazard values (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn indicated that exposure to the soils around the dumpsite area may pose adverse health effects (HI < 1 while exposure to the soils in the dumpsite area carries a high risk of causing adverse health effects both in children (HI = 10.5 and adults (HI = 2.18. It is suggested that suitable management measures should be applied to prevent or reduce heavy metal contamination in and around the dumpsite area.

  19. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 17 Appendix P - Forecast Soil Moisture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-04-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  20. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 16 Appendix O - Historical Soil Moisture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  1. Study of Selected Metals Distribution, Source Apportionment, and Risk Assessment in Suburban Soil, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite soil samples collected from suburban areas were analyzed for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr, and Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on pseudototal metal analysis, Fe, Mn, Sr, and Zn were the prevailing metals while Cd, Co, Cr, and Pb were the least participants. However, based on bioavailability, Cd, Co, Pb, and Sr were easily leachable and might pose adverse effects to soil biota. In ecological risk assessment, contamination factor demonstrated moderate contamination by Co, Sr, and Zn and high contamination by Cd, Cu, and Pb; geoaccumulation index indicated heavy to extreme contamination by Cd and heavy contamination by Pb; enrichment factor revealed significant enrichment by Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Sr, and Zn and extreme enrichment by Cd and Pb. Substantial human inputs for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sr, and Zn were also revealed by principal component analysis in the examined soil. Overall the study area was found to be contaminated at considerable/high degree.

  2. Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy-metal pollution around coal gangue dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Lu, W. X.; Zhao, H. Q.; Yang, Q. C.; Yang, Z. P.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential ecological risk and trend of soil heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in Jilin Province (Northeast China). The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn were monitored by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The potential ecological risk index method developed by Hakanson (1980) was employed to assess the potential risk of heavy-metal pollution. The potential ecological risk in the order of ER(Cd) > ER(Pb) > ER(Cu) > ER(Cr) > ER(Zn) have been obtained, which showed that Cd was the most important factor leading to risk. Based on the Cd pollution history, the cumulative acceleration and cumulative rate of Cd were estimated, then the fixed number of years exceeding the standard prediction model was established, which was used to predict the pollution trend of Cd under the accelerated accumulation mode and the uniform mode. Pearson correlation analysis and correspondence analysis are employed to identify the sources of heavy metals and the relationship between sampling points and variables. These findings provided some useful insights for making appropriate management strategies to prevent or decrease heavy-metal pollution around a coal gangue dump in the Yangcaogou coal mine and other similar areas elsewhere.

  3. Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils: Chemical availability as the central concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Cruz, N.; Coelho, C.; Henriques, B.; Carvalho, L.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, Paul F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO 3 (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl 2 (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral bioaccessible pool). Oral bioaccessibility in urban soils was higher than in samples from rural, industrial and mining areas which is most likely related to sources of metals and parent materials of corresponding soils. The availability and reactivity were described well by non-linear Freundlich-type equations when considering differences in soil properties. The resulting empirical models are able to predict availability and reactivity and can be used to improve the accuracy of risk assessment. Furthermore, a close 1:1 relationship exists between results from the 0.43 M HNO 3 method and the SBET method which substantially facilitates risk assessment procedures and reduces analytical costs. -- Highlights: ► Availability of PTEs in urban soils is described well by non-linear Freundlich-type equations. ► A 1:1 relationship was obtained between the 0.43 M HNO 3 method and the SBET method. ► A single soil extraction indicates reactivity and bioaccessibility of metals in soils. ► The reactive pool is suitable to assess risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils. -- A single analysis of the reactive pool by dilute nitric acid is suitable to assess risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils related to leaching to (ground)water and exposure to human beings (bioaccessibility)

  4. Can Physiological Endpoints Improve the Sensitivity of Assays with Plants in the Risk Assessment of Contaminated Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavina, Ana; Antunes, Sara C.; Pinto, Glória; Claro, Maria Teresa; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Site-specific risk assessment of contaminated areas indicates prior areas for intervention, and provides helpful information for risk managers. This study was conducted in the Ervedosa mine area (Bragança, Portugal), where both underground and open pit exploration of tin and arsenic minerals were performed for about one century (1857 – 1969). We aimed at obtaining ecotoxicological information with terrestrial and aquatic plant species to integrate in the risk assessment of this mine area. Further we also intended to evaluate if the assessment of other parameters, in standard assays with terrestrial plants, can improve the identification of phytotoxic soils. For this purpose, soil samples were collected on 16 sampling sites distributed along four transects, defined within the mine area, and in one reference site. General soil physical and chemical parameters, total and extractable metal contents were analyzed. Assays were performed for soil elutriates and for the whole soil matrix following standard guidelines for growth inhibition assay with Lemna minor and emergence and seedling growth assay with Zea mays. At the end of the Z. mays assay, relative water content, membrane permeability, leaf area, content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids), malondialdehyde levels, proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm and ΦPSII) parameters were evaluated. In general, the soils near the exploration area revealed high levels of Al, Mn, Fe and Cu. Almost all the soils from transepts C, D and F presented total concentrations of arsenic well above soils screening benchmark values available. Elutriates of several soils from sampling sites near the exploration and ore treatment areas were toxic to L. minor, suggesting that the retention function of these soils was seriously compromised. In Z. mays assay, plant performance parameters (other than those recommended by standard protocols), allowed the identification of more phytotoxic soils. The

  5. Can physiological endpoints improve the sensitivity of assays with plants in the risk assessment of contaminated soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gavina

    Full Text Available Site-specific risk assessment of contaminated areas indicates prior areas for intervention, and provides helpful information for risk managers. This study was conducted in the Ervedosa mine area (Bragança, Portugal, where both underground and open pit exploration of tin and arsenic minerals were performed for about one century (1857-1969. We aimed at obtaining ecotoxicological information with terrestrial and aquatic plant species to integrate in the risk assessment of this mine area. Further we also intended to evaluate if the assessment of other parameters, in standard assays with terrestrial plants, can improve the identification of phytotoxic soils. For this purpose, soil samples were collected on 16 sampling sites distributed along four transects, defined within the mine area, and in one reference site. General soil physical and chemical parameters, total and extractable metal contents were analyzed. Assays were performed for soil elutriates and for the whole soil matrix following standard guidelines for growth inhibition assay with Lemna minor and emergence and seedling growth assay with Zea mays. At the end of the Z. mays assay, relative water content, membrane permeability, leaf area, content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids, malondialdehyde levels, proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm and ΦPSII parameters were evaluated. In general, the soils near the exploration area revealed high levels of Al, Mn, Fe and Cu. Almost all the soils from transepts C, D and F presented total concentrations of arsenic well above soils screening benchmark values available. Elutriates of several soils from sampling sites near the exploration and ore treatment areas were toxic to L. minor, suggesting that the retention function of these soils was seriously compromised. In Z. mays assay, plant performance parameters (other than those recommended by standard protocols, allowed the identification of more phytotoxic soils

  6. Accumulation, allocation, and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil-Brassica chinensis system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Farmland soil and leafy vegetables accumulate more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in suburban sites. In this study, 13 sampling areas were selected from vegetable fields in the outskirts of Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. The similarity of PAH composition in soil and vegetation was investigated through principal components analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA, rather than discrimination of PAH congeners from various sources. The toxic equivalent quantity of PAHs in soil ranged from 7 to 202 μg/kg d.w., with an average of 41 μg/kg d.w., which exceeded the agricultural/horticultural soil acceptance criteria for New Zealand. However, the cancer risk level posed by combined direct ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation of soil particles, and inhalation of surface soil vapor met the rigorous international criteria (1 × 10(-6. The concentration of total PAHs was (1052 ± 73 μg/kg d.w. in vegetation (mean ± standard error. The cancer risks posed by ingestion of vegetation ranged from 2×10-5 to 2 × 10(-4 with an average of 1.66 × 10(-4, which was higher than international excess lifetime risk limits for carcinogens (1 × 10(-4. The geochemical indices indicated that the PAHs in soil and vegetables were mainly from vehicle and crude oil combustion. Both the total PAHs in vegetation and bioconcentration factor for total PAHs (the ratio of total PAHs in vegetation to total PAHs in soil increased with increasing pH as well as decreasing sand in soil. The total variation in distribution of PAHs in vegetation explained by those in soil reached 98% in RDA, which was statistically significant based on Monte Carlo permutation. Common pollution source and notable effects of soil contamination on vegetation would result in highly similar distribution of PAHs in soil and vegetation.

  7. Contribution for tier 1 of the ecological risk assessment of Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal): I Soil chemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Antunes, S.C.; Marques, S.M.; Goncalves, F.

    2008-01-01

    Within the tier 1 of a site specific risk assessment, the pseudo-total concentrations (extracted with aqua regia) and the potential mobile fractions of metals were determined to perform a preliminary evaluation of risks posed by contaminated soils from an abandoned uranium mine (Mangualde, Central Portugal). Considering the mobile fractions of metals, extracted with artificial rain water, aluminium and uranium were the most concerning elements, since their concentrations were above soil quality criteria values (SQGVs) established for both elements. However, according to the evaluation based on potential mobile fractions of elements, rather than on pseudo-total metal concentrations the risks were limited to sites within the exploitation area, where contamination derives mainly from past in-situ leaching activities of pore ore as well as from the deposition of sludge from the effluent pond. The exclusion of other sites under evaluation, from the risk assessment process, requires additional data provided by soil screening ecotoxicological assays

  8. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  9. Cancer Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Soils and Sediments of India: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2017-10-01

    A carcinogenic risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils and sediments was conducted using the probabilistic approach from a national perspective. Published monitoring data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in soils and sediments at different study points across India were collected and converted to their corresponding BaP equivalent concentrations. These BaP equivalent concentrations were used to evaluate comprehensive cancer risk for two different age groups. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis were applied to quantify uncertainties of risk estimation. The analysis denotes 90% cancer risk value of 1.770E-5 for children and 3.156E-5 for adults at heavily polluted site soils. Overall carcinogenic risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of India were mostly in acceptance limits. However, the food ingestion exposure route for sediments leads them to a highly risked zone. The 90% risk values from sediments are 7.863E-05 for children and 3.999E-04 for adults. Sensitivity analysis reveals exposure duration and relative skin adherence factor for soil as the most influential parameter of the assessment, followed by BaP equivalent concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For sediments, biota to sediment accumulation factor of fish in terms of BaP is most sensitive on the total outcome, followed by BaP equivalent and exposure duration. Individual exposure route analysis showed dermal contact for soils and food ingestion for sediments as the main exposure pathway. Some specific locations such as surrounding areas of Bhavnagar, Raniganj, Sunderban, Raipur, and Delhi demand potential strategies of carcinogenic risk management and reduction. The current study is probably the first attempt to provide information on the carcinogenic risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and sediments across India.

  10. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Ockleford, Colin; Adriaanse, Paulien

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from EFSA, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science behind the risk assessment of plant protection products for in-soil organisms. The current risk assessment scheme is reviewed, taking into account new regulatory frameworks...... exposure routes for in-soil organisms and the potential direct and indirect effects is proposed. In order to address species recovery and long-term impacts of PPPs, the use of population models is also proposed....... and scientific developments. Proposals are made for specific protection goals for in-soil organisms being key drivers for relevant ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes such as nutrient cycling, soil structure, pest control and biodiversity. Considering the time-scales and biological processes related...

  11. Screening-Level Risk Assessment for Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer Detected in Soil and Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C. R.; Gargas, M. L.; Collins, J. J.; Rowlands, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    A screening-level risk assessment was conducted for styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) Trimer detected at the Reich Farm Superfund site in Toms River, NJ. Consistent with a screening-level approach, on-site and off-site exposure scenarios were evaluated using assumptions that are expected to overestimate actual exposures and hazards at the site. Environmental sampling data collected for soil and groundwater were used to estimate exposure point concentrations. Several exposure scenarios were evaluated to assess potential on-site and off-site exposures, using parameter values for exposures to soil (oral, inhalation of particulates, and dermal contact) and groundwater (oral, dermal contact) to reflect central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. Three reference dose (RfD) values were derived for SAN Trimer for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, based upon its effects on the liver in exposed rats. Benchmark (BMD) methods were used to assess the relationship between exposure and response, and to characterize appropriate points of departure (POD) for each RfD. An uncertainty factor of 300 was applied to each POD to yield RfD values of 0.1, 0.04, and 0.03 mg/kg-d for short-term, subchronic, and chronic exposures, respectively. Because a chronic cancer bioassay for SAN Trimer in rats (NTP 2011a) does not provide evidence of carcinogenicity, a cancer risk assessment is not appropriate for this chemical. Potential health hazards to human health were assessed using a hazard index (HI) approach, which considers the ratio of exposure dose (i.e., average daily dose, mg/kg-d) to toxicity dose (RfD, mg/kg-d) for each scenario. All CTE and RME HI values are well below 1 (where the average daily dose is equivalent to the RfD), indicating that there is no concern for potential noncancer effects in exposed populations even under the conservative assumptions of this screening-level assessment. PMID:23030654

  12. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from industrial and agricultural regions in China: Pollution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qianqi; Li, Zhiyuan; Lu, Xiaoning; Duan, Qiannan; Huang, Lei; Bi, Jun

    2018-06-14

    Soil heavy metal pollution has been becoming serious and widespread in China. To date, there are few studies assessing the nationwide soil heavy metal pollution induced by industrial and agricultural activities in China. This review obtained heavy metal concentrations in soils of 402 industrial sites and 1041 agricultural sites in China throughout the document retrieval. Based on the database, this review assessed soil heavy metal concentration and estimated the ecological and health risks on a national scale. The results revealed that heavy metal pollution and associated risks posed by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) are more serious. Besides, heavy metal pollution and associated risks in industrial regions are severer than those in agricultural regions, meanwhile, those in southeast China are severer than those in northwest China. It is worth noting that children are more likely to be affected by heavy metal pollution than adults. Based on the assessment results, Cd, Pb and As are determined as the priority control heavy metals; mining areas are the priority control areas compared to other areas in industrial regions; food crop plantations are the priority control areas in agricultural regions; and children are determined as the priority protection population group. This paper provides a comprehensive ecological and health risk assessment on the heavy metals in soils in Chinese industrial and agricultural regions and thus provides insights for the policymakers regarding exposure reduction and management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  14. Oil characterisation: assessment of composition, risks, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lookman, R.; Vanermen, G.; Van De Weghe, H.; Gemoets, J.; Van der Sterren, G.; Alphenaar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Several methods are available for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons. The TPHCWG (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group) developed a method based on a silica column separation of aromatics and aliphatics and a GC-FID subdivision into equivalent-carbon fractions (EC) ('TPH-method'). This method was mainly developed for assessing human risks of oil compounds. Within NOBIS (Dutch Research program Biological In-situ Remediation), another method was developed based upon an equilibrium-experiment of the oil-polluted soil with water (column recirculation), which was further developed by TTE ('TTE-method'). This method uses measured water solubilities of individual oil components and GC-retention times yielding a subdivision of the hydrocarbons into compound classes that are relevant for assessing the remediation potential of the specific oil pollution. In this paper we present results of a research project in which we developed a new method, the 'OK-method' that combines these two procedures and allows a complete characterisation of the oil in terms of composition, (human) risks, volatility, solubility, plume behaviour (migration velocities of the soluble components) and aerobic degradation potential. (authors)

  15. Oil characterisation: assessment of composition, risks, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lookman, R.; Vanermen, G.; Van De Weghe, H.; Gemoets, J. [Vito, Mol (Belgium); Van der Sterren, G.; Alphenaar, A. [TTE, Deventer (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Several methods are available for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbons. The TPHCWG (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon Criteria Working Group) developed a method based on a silica column separation of aromatics and aliphatics and a GC-FID subdivision into equivalent-carbon fractions (EC) ('TPH-method'). This method was mainly developed for assessing human risks of oil compounds. Within NOBIS (Dutch Research program Biological In-situ Remediation), another method was developed based upon an equilibrium-experiment of the oil-polluted soil with water (column recirculation), which was further developed by TTE ('TTE-method'). This method uses measured water solubilities of individual oil components and GC-retention times yielding a subdivision of the hydrocarbons into compound classes that are relevant for assessing the remediation potential of the specific oil pollution. In this paper we present results of a research project in which we developed a new method, the 'OK-method' that combines these two procedures and allows a complete characterisation of the oil in terms of composition, (human) risks, volatility, solubility, plume behaviour (migration velocities of the soluble components) and aerobic degradation potential. (authors)

  16. Assessing the combined risks of PAHs and metals in urban soils by urbanization indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Li, Xiaoma; Crittenden, John C.

    2013-01-01

    We quantitatively describe the impacts of urbanization on the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) in urban soils as well as their health risks to residents. Residential building age, population density, road density, and distance from urban center were used as urbanization level indicators. Significant correlations were found between those urbanization indicators and the amounts of PAHs, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and As in residential soils. The exposure time of soils to urban air was the primary factor affecting soil pollution, followed by local road density and population density. Factor analysis suggested that 59.0% of the elevated pollutant concentrations were caused by citywide uniform deposition, and 15.3% were resulted from short-range deposition and/or non-combustion processes. The combined health risks posed by soil PAHs and HMs were aggravated with time and can be expressed as functions of residence age, road density, and other urbanization indicators. Highlights: •The soil PAH and HM contents were closely related to urbanization progression. •The PAH and HM contents were primarily affected by soil exposure time. •Local input loads of pollutants correlated with road density and population density. •The combined risks of PAHs and HMs increased with the urban development level. •The carcinogenic risks of PAHs and As were above 10 −5 and increased over time. -- The health risks of PAHs and HMs in residential soils were connected to building age, population density and road density of the community as well as its distance from urban center

  17. Earthworm Comet Assay for Assessing the Risk of Weathered Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils: Need to Look Further than Target Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Palanisami, Thavamani; Smith, Euan; Mayilswami, Srinithi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Earthworm toxicity assays contribute to ecological risk assessment and consequently standard toxicological endpoints, such as mortality and reproduction, are regularly estimated. These endpoints are not enough to better understand the mechanism of toxic pollutants. We employed an additional endpoint in the earthworm Eisenia andrei to estimate the pollutant-induced stress. In this study, comet assay was used as an additional endpoint to evaluate the genotoxicity of weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soils containing 520 to 1450 mg hydrocarbons kg -1 soil. Results showed that significantly higher DNA damage levels (two to sixfold higher) in earthworms exposed to hydrocarbon impacted soils. Interestingly, hydrocarbons levels in the tested soils were well below site-specific screening guideline values. In order to explore the reasons for observed toxicity, the contaminated soils were leached with rainwater and subjected to earthworm tests, including the comet assay, which showed no DNA damage. Soluble hydrocarbon fractions were not found originally in the soils and hence no hydrocarbons leached out during soil leaching. The soil leachate's Electrical Conductivity (EC) decreased from an average of 1665 ± 147 to 204 ± 20 µS cm -1 . Decreased EC is due to the loss of sodium, magnesium, calcium, and sulphate. The leachate experiment demonstrated that elevated salinity might cause the toxicity and not the weathered hydrocarbons. Soil leaching removed the toxicity, which is substantiated by the comet assay and soil leachate analysis data. The implication is that earthworm comet assay can be included in future eco (geno) toxicology studies to assess accurately the risk of contaminated soils.

  18. Pesticides in persimmons, jujubes and soil from China: Residue levels, risk assessment and relationship between fruits and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Qu, Minghua; Zhong, Donglian; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-01-15

    Extreme and uncontrolled usage of pesticides produces a number of problems for vegetation and human health. In this study, the existence of organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and fungicides (FUs) were investigated in persimmons/jujubes and their planted soils, which were collected from China. One OP (dimethoate), three OCs (DDT, quintozene and aldrin), six PYs (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) and two FUs (triadimefon and buprofezin) were found in 36.4% of persimmons and 70.8% of jujubes, with concentrations from 1.0 μg/kg to 2945.0 μg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides in the two fruits were fenpropathrin in persimmons and cypermethrin in jujubes, with the detection frequencies of 30.0% and 22.7%, respectively. The residues of 4.5% (persimmon) and 25.0% (jujube) of samples were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. Compared with the fruits, more types of pesticides and higher residues were observed in their planted soils. The most frequently detected pesticides were HCH in persimmon soil and DDT in jujube soil, with the detection frequencies of 10.9% and 12.7%, respectively. For the tested samples, 39.1% of fruit samples and 63.0% of soil samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 8 residues in fruits and 14 residues in soils. Except for cyhalothrin, the other short-term risks for the tested pesticides in the fruits were below 10%, and the highest long-term risk was 14.13% for aldrin and dieldrin. There was no significant health risk for consumers via consumption of the two fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Earthworm biomass as additional information for risk assessment of heavy metal biomagnification: a case study for dredged sediment-derived soils and polluted floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Samyn, Jurgen; Quataert, Paul; Muys, Bart; Tack, Filip M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The important role of earthworms in the biomagnification of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems is widely recognised. Differences in earthworm biomass between sites is mostly not accounted for in ecological risk assessment. These differences may be large depending on soil properties and pollution status. A survey of earthworm biomass and colonisation rate was carried out on dredged sediment-derived soils (DSDS). Results were compared with observations for the surrounding alluvial plains. Mainly grain size distribution and time since disposal determined earthworm biomass on DSDS, while soil pollution status of the DSDS was of lesser importance. Highest earthworm biomass was observed on sandy loam DSDS disposed at least 40 years ago. - Polluted clayey dredged sediment-derived soils have a relatively low risk for heavy metal biomagnification due to slow earthworm colonisation

  20. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil-plant system amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Lv, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Biogas slurry is a product of anaerobic digestion of manure that has been widely used as a soil fertilizer. Although the use for soil fertilizer is a cost-effective solution, it has been found that repeated use of biogas slurry that contains high heavy metal contents can cause pollution to the soil-plant system and risk to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of biogas slurry on the soil-plant system and the human health. We analyzed the heavy metal concentrations (including As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Cd) in 106 soil samples and 58 plant samples in a farmland amended with biogas slurry in Taihu basin, China. Based on the test results, we assessed the potential human health risk when biogas slurry containing heavy metals was used as a soil fertilizer. The test results indicated that the Cd and Pb concentrations in soils exceeded the contamination limits and Cd exhibited the highest soil-to-root migration potential. Among the 11 plants analyzed, Kalimeris indica had the highest heavy metal absorption capacity. The leafy vegetables showed higher uptake of heavy metals than non-leafy vegetables. The non-carcinogenic risks mainly resulted from As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn through plant ingestion exposure. The integrated carcinogenic risks were associated with Cr, As and Cd in which Cr showed the highest risk while Cd showed the lowest risk. Among all the heavy metals analyzed, As and Cd appeared to have a lifetime health threat, which thus should be attenuated during production of biogas slurry to mitigate the heavy metal contamination.

  1. Contribution for tier 1 of the ecological risk assessment of Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Central Portugal): II. Soil ecotoxicological screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, S.C.; Castro, B.B.; Pereira, R.; Goncalves, F.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the first ecotoxicological data concerning the soils of the area surrounding the Cunha Baixa uranium mine. Our main goal was to categorise soils from the area based on their toxicity profiles using a battery of cost- and time-effective bioassays (elutriate approach - Microtox (registered) and Daphnia acute tests; whole-soil approach - Microtox (registered) and avoidance assays with Eisenia andrei), as a part of tier 1 of an ongoing Environmental Risk Assessment. No acute toxicity was found for any of the 10 sites/soils using Microtox (registered) or Daphnia. On the contrary, the behavioural response of E. andrei was found to be an extremely sensitive endpoint, allowing the discrimination of highly to moderately toxic soils based on their toxicity profiles (as a function of soil concentration). Soils exhibiting highest toxicity corresponded to areas subjected to runoffs or sludge deposition from the aquatic effluent, while non-toxic soils were farthest to the mine. Data obtained in avoidance assays strengthen the previous evaluation of risks based on chemical data and supported decisions about proceeding for tier 2

  2. Ozone risk assessment in three oak species as affected by soil water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshika, Yasutomo; Moura, Barbara; Paoletti, Elena

    2018-03-01

    To derive ozone (O 3 ) dose-response relationships for three European oak species (Quercus ilex, Quercus pubescens, and Quercus robur) under a range of soil water availability, an experiment was carried out with 2-year-old potted seedlings exposed to three levels of water availability in the soil and three levels of O 3 pollution for one growing season in an ozone free-air controlled exposure (FACE) facility. Total biomass losses were estimated relative to a hypothetical clean air at the pre-industrial age, i.e., at 10 ppb as daily average (M24). A stomatal conductance model was parameterized with inputs from the three species for calculating the stomatal O 3 flux. Exposure-based (M24, W126, and AOT40) and flux-based (phytotoxic O 3 dose (POD) 0-3 ) dose-response relationships were estimated and critical levels (CL) were calculated for a 5% decline of total biomass. Results show that water availability can significantly affect O 3 risk assessment. In fact, dose-response relationships calculated per individual species at each water availability level resulted in very different CLs and best metrics. In a simplified approach where species were aggregated on the basis of their O 3 sensitivity, the best metric was POD 0.5 , with a CL of 6.8 mmol m -2 for the less O 3 -sensitive species Q. ilex and Q. pubescens and of 3.5 mmol m -2 for the more O 3 -sensitive species Q. robur. The performance of POD 0 , however, was very similar to that of POD 0.5 , and thus a CL of 6.9 mmol m -2 POD 0 and 3.6 mmol m -2 POD 0 for the less and more O 3 -sensitive oak species may be also recommended. These CLs can be applied to oak ecosystems at variable water availability in the soil. We conclude that POD y is able to reconcile the effects of O 3 and soil water availability on species-specific oak productivity.

  3. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil for a township in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanxue; Chao, Sihong; Liu, Jianwei; Yang, Yue; Chen, Yanjiao; Zhang, Aichen; Cao, Hongbin

    2017-02-01

    Human activities contribute greatly to heavy metal pollution in soils. Concentrations of 15 metal elements were detected in 105 soil samples collected from a typical rural-industrial town in southern Jiangsu, China. Among them, 7 heavy metals-lead, copper, zinc, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, and nickel-were considered in the health risk assessment for residents via soil inhalation, dermal contact, and/or direct/indirect ingestion. Their potential sources were quantitatively apportioned by positive matrix factorization using the data set of all metal elements, in combination with geostatistical analysis, land use investigation, and industrial composition analysis. Furthermore, the health risks imposed by sources of heavy metal in soil were estimated for the first time. The results indicated that Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Co accumulated in the soil, attaining a mild pollution level. The total hazard index values were 3.62 and 6.11, and the total cancer risks were 9.78 × 10 -4 and 4.03 × 10 -4 for adults and children, respectively. That is, both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks posed by soil metals were above acceptable levels. Cr and As require special attention because the health risks of Cr and As individually exceeded the acceptable levels. The ingestion of homegrown produce was predominantly responsible for the high risks. The potential sources were apportioned as: a) waste incineration and textile/dyeing industries (28.3%), b) natural sources (45.4%), c) traffic emissions (5.3%), and d) electroplating industries and livestock/poultry breeding (21.0%). Health risks of four sources accounted for 23.5%, 32.7%, 7.4%, and 36.4% of the total risk, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and assessment of human health risk from vegetable consumption in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Atikul; Romić, Davor; Akber, Md Ali; Romić, Marija

    2018-02-01

    Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed. The USEPA-recommended method for health risk assessment was used to estimate human risk from vegetable consumption. Concentrations of metals in water were highly variable, and the mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and As in water were found to be higher than the FAO irrigation water quality standard. In most cases, mean concentrations of metals in soil were higher than the Bangladesh background value. Based on geoaccumulation index (I geo ) values, soils of Dhaka city are considered as highly contaminated. The I geo shows Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr contamination of agricultural soils and sediments of the cities all over the Bangladesh. Polluted water irrigation and agrochemicals are identified as dominant sources of metals in agricultural soils. Vegetable contamination by metals poses both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the public. Based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni are identified as the priority control metals and the Dhaka city is recommended as the priority control city. This study provides quantitative evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened wastewater discharge regulations in order to protect residents from heavy metal discharges into the environment.

  5. Heavy metals distribution and risk assessment in soil from an informal E-waste recycling site in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isimekhai, Khadijah A; Garelick, Hemda; Watt, John; Purchase, Diane

    2017-07-01

    Informal E-waste recycling can pose a risk to human health and the environment which this study endeavours to evaluate. The distribution of a number of heavy metals in soil from an informal recycling site in the largest market for used and new electronics and electrical equipment in West Africa was investigated. The potential bioavailability of heavy metals, extent of contamination, potential risk due to the recycling activities and impact of external factors such as rainfall were also assessed. The concentrations of all the heavy metals tested were higher in the area where burning of the waste occurred than at the control site, suggesting an impact of the recycling activities on the soil. The order of total metal concentrations was Cu > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ni > Sb > Cr > Cd for both the dry and wet seasons. The total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were all significantly higher (p  Sb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. When the risk was assessed using the Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI), Cu was found to contribute the most to the potential ecological risk and Cd gave rise to the greatest concern due to its high toxic-response factor within the study site. Similarly, utilising the Risk Assessment Code (RAC) suggested that Cd posed the most risk in this site. This research establishes a high level of contamination in the study site and underscores the importance of applying the appropriate chemical speciation in risk assessment.

  6. Exposure to toxicants in soil and bottom ash deposits in Agbogbloshie, Ghana: human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, S; Ansa-Asare, O D; Mohammed, S; Darko, H F; Dartey, A G

    2016-10-01

    Recycling of e-waste using informal or crude techniques poses serious health risk not only to the workers but also to the environment as whole. It is against this background that this paper sought to measure health risk faced by informal e-waste workers from exposure to toxicants such as lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, arsenic, tin, zinc and cobalt via oral and dermal contact with bottom ash and soil. Using random sampling techniques, 3 separate sites each (where burning and manual dismantling of e-wastes are usually carried) were identified, and a total of 402 samples were collected. The samples were analysed using standard methods for chemical analysis prescribed by the American Water Works Association (AWWA). Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Sn, Zn and Co in bottom ash samples from location ASH1 are 5388 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Pb), 2.39 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cd), 42 ± 0.05 mg/kg (Cr), 7940 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Cu), 20 ± 0.07 mg/kg (As), 225 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Sn), 276 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Zn) and 123 ± 0.04 mg/kg (Co), while concentrations of the aforementioned toxicants in soil samples at location ASG1 are as follows: 1685 ± 0.14 mg/kg (Pb), 26.89 ± 0.30 mg/kg (Cd), 36.86 ± 0.02 mg/kg (Cr), 1427 ± 0.08 mg/kg (Cu), 1622 ± 0.12 mg/kg (As), 234 ± 0.25 mg/kg (Sn), 783 ± 0.31 mg/kg (Zn) and 135 ± 0.01 mg/kg (Co); used as input parameters in assessing health risk faced by workers. The results of cancer health risk faced by e-waste workers due to accidental ingestion of As in bottom ash at ASH1 is 4.3 × 10 -3 (CTE) and 6.5 × 10 -2 (RME), i.e. approximately 4 out of 1000 e-waste workers are likely to suffer from cancer-related diseases via central tendency exposure (CTE parameters), and 7 out of every 100 e-waste worker is also likely to suffer from cancer cases by reasonable maximum exposure (RME) parameters, respectively. The cancer health risk results for the other sampling sites were found to have exceeded the acceptable

  7. Composition, distribution and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in soils from the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Jing [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Woodward, Lee Ann [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Reefs NWRC, Honolulu, HI 96850 (United States); Li, Qing X., E-mail: qingl@hawaii.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wang, Jun, E-mail: wangjun@wbgcas.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (e.g., DDE and DDD), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in 111 soil samples from the Midway Atoll. OCPs were found in all samples analyzed, with predominance of α-HCH, p,p′-DDD and p,p′-DDT. The total concentrations ranged from 0 to 127 ng g{sup −1} with a median concentration of 17 ng g{sup −1} for HCHs and 1.4 to 643 ng g{sup −1} with a median concentration of 168 ng g{sup −1} for DDTs. The possible degradation pathways and potential sources of DDTs and HCHs were investigated. The total concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were used to evaluate the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. Very low cancer risk was found in all soil samples caused by ΣDDTs and ΣHCHs. - Highlights: • Contamination levels of DDTs and HCHs were studied in the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean. • Potential sources of DDTs and HCHs in soils of the Midway Atoll were investigated. • Possible degradation modes of o,p′-DDT in soils of the Midway Atoll were analyzed. • Cancer risks of DDTs and HCHs in soils of the Midway Atoll were assessed.

  8. [Transportation and risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in water-soil from the Riparian Zone of Daye Lake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-quan; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Quan-fa; Li, Qiong; Xiao, Wen-sheng; Wang, Yong-kui; Zhang, Jian-chun; Gai, Xi-guang

    2015-01-01

    Each 20 water samples and soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm) were collected from the riparian zone of Daye Lake in dry season during March 2013. Heavy metals (Cu, Ph, Cd, Zn) have been detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in the water were 7.14, 25.94, 15.72 and 37.58 microg x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of Cu was higher than the five degree of the surface water environment quality standard. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in soil(0-10 cm) were 108.38, 53.92, 3.55, 139.26 mg x kg(-1) in soil (10-20 cm) were 93.00, 51.72, 2.08, 171.00 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The Cd concentrations were higher than the three grade value of the national soil environment quality standard. The transportation of Pb from soil to water was relatively stable, and Zn was greatly influenced by soil property and the surrounding environment from soil to water. The transformation of heavy metal in west riparian zone was higher than that of east riparian zone. The potential environmental risk was relatively high. Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn were dominated by residue fraction of the modified BCR sequential extraction method. The overall migration order of heavy metal element was: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. There were stronger transformation and higher environmental pollution risk of Cu, Pb. The index of assessment and potential ecological risk coefficient indicated that heavy metal pollution in soil (0-10 cm) was higher than the soil (10-20 cm), Cd was particularly serious.

  9. Sudbury soils study : human health and ecological risk assessment : a case study in science, process and perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, C.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the public relations and public opinion strategies used as part of a soils study conducted to assess the risk of mining activities in the Sudbury region to human health and the environment. The human health risk assessment (HHRA) study was conducted and administered by a multi-stakeholder technical committee attended by the public. The study was comprised of extensive soil collection and analysis; a review of historical soils data; and extensive human health and ecological risk assessments. Extensive sampling was also conducted on air, dust, and locally-produced foods. A public advisory committee was formed to disseminate scientific information to the community. Scientific data obtained in the study were reviewed by experts in various fields. Results of the study were also peer-reviewed by an independent expert review panel comprised of leading specialists in human health, toxicology, speciation, and risk assessment. The study showed that the identified risks were over-estimated in the interest of protecting human health. It was concluded that the HHRA's findings were generally accepted by the public. tabs., figs

  10. A spatially-based modeling framework for assessing the risks of soil-associated metals to bats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernout, Béatrice V.; Somerwill, Kate E.; Arnold, Kathryn E.; McClean, Colin J.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Populations of some species of bats are declining in some regions of Europe. These declines are probably due to a range of pressures, including climate change, urbanization and exposure to toxins such as metals. This paper describes the development, paramaterisation and application of a spatially explicit modeling framework to predict the risks of soil-associated metals (lead, copper, zinc and cadmium) to bat health. Around 5.9% of areas where bats reside were predicted to have lead levels that pose a risk to bat health. For copper, this value was 2.8%, for cadmium it was 0.6% and for zinc 0.5%. Further work is therefore warranted to explore the impacts of soil-associated metals on bat populations in the UK. - Highlights: ► A modeling framework is presented to estimate risks of contaminants to wildlife. ► The model has been applied to soil metal contamination and bat species. ► Results indicate that lead and copper pose the greatest risk to bat health. ► A risk is predicted for up to 6% of areas where bats reside in England and Wales. - Application of a novel, spatially explicit risk assessment framework indicates that the health of insectivorous bat species in some regions of the UK may be at threat from exposure to soil associated metals.

  11. Assessing the combined risks of PAHs and metals in urban soils by urbanization indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Li, Xiaoma; Crittenden, John C

    2013-07-01

    We quantitatively describe the impacts of urbanization on the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals (HMs) in urban soils as well as their health risks to residents. Residential building age, population density, road density, and distance from urban center were used as urbanization level indicators. Significant correlations were found between those urbanization indicators and the amounts of PAHs, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn and As in residential soils. The exposure time of soils to urban air was the primary factor affecting soil pollution, followed by local road density and population density. Factor analysis suggested that 59.0% of the elevated pollutant concentrations were caused by citywide uniform deposition, and 15.3% were resulted from short-range deposition and/or non-combustion processes. The combined health risks posed by soil PAHs and HMs were aggravated with time and can be expressed as functions of residence age, road density, and other urbanization indicators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  13. Soil Heavy Metal Pollution and Risk Assessment in Shenyang Industrial District, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xudong; Teng, Yanguo; Zhan, Yanhong; Wu, Jin; Lin, Xueyu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As). Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg) but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995). There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources. PMID:25997173

  14. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment in Shenyang industrial district, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Jiao

    Full Text Available To investigate the soil heavy metal pollution characteristics and ecological risk factors, 42 samples and six typical soil profiles were collected from the Shenyang industrial district in northeast China and were analyzed for contents of titanium (Ti, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cobalt (Co, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. Through statistical analysis, it was found that the mean concentrations were higher than their background values (Ti = 4.77>3.8g/kg, Cu = 33.75>22.6 mg/kg, Pb = 45.95>26 mg/kg, Zn = 81.54>74.2 mg/kg, Co = 12.91>12.7 mg/kg, Ni = 32.26>26.9 mg/kg, Cr = 83.36>61 mg/kg and As = 13.69>11.2 mg/kg but did not exceed their corresponding pollution limits for the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (State Environmental Protection Administration of China, 1995. There were contamination hotspots that may be caused by human activities such as smelting plants and sewage irrigation. The Enrichment Factor and Ecological Risk Index were used to identify the anthropogenic contamination and ecological risks of heavy metals. Soil in the study area could be considered lightly or partially polluted by heavy metals. According to clustering analysis, distinct groups of heavy metals were discriminated between natural or anthropogenic sources.

  15. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Ramirez, Wilson; Mattana, Stefania; Alcaniz, Josep Maria; Andres, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

  16. Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    How the EPA conducts risk assessment to protect human health and the environment. Several assessments are included with the guidelines, models, databases, state-based RSL Tables, local contacts and framework documents used to perform these assessments.

  17. Congener specific distribution and health risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were primarily used in transformers and capacitors, lubricants, flame retardants, plasticizers, paint, carbonless papers, etc. These are capable of long-range atmospheric transport and have been designated as persistent organic pollutants by the Stockholm Convention. Due to their characteristic properties, PCBs are found worldwide in all environmental matrices (including human and biota. Soils are usually considered to be the source as well as sink for environmental pollutants, with cumulative effects of long-range atmospheric transport and local sources. Around the world, comparatively higher concentrations of PCBs have been reported in urban soils than suburban or rural soils. Higher amount of PCBs in urban soils may cause toxicological health risks to urban residents through ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. This paper presents the PCB distribution in soils from Delhi, India, and exposure risk estimates for human health through soil ingestion. The concentration of ΣPCBs ranged between 1.08-100.67 ng g–1 (mean 21.16 ng g–1±5.24 ng g–1, which was much lower than the Canadian soil quality guideline value of 1.3 mg/kg or 1300 ng g–1. Human health risk estimates through the soil ingestion pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD, incremental lifetime cancer risks and non-carcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ. The LADD for Delhi adults and children was 3.02x10–8 mg kg–1 d–1 and 1.57x10–7 mg kg–1 d–1, respectively, which corresponds to toxic equivalent quotients (TEQ intake of 0.105 pg TEQ kg–1 d–1 (0.735 pg TEQ kg–1 week–1 and 0.543 pg TEQ kg–1 d–1 (3.801 pg TEQ kg–1 week–1, respectively. The estimated LADD for Delhi residents was lower than the acceptable

  18. Heavy metal pollution and ecological risk assessment of the paddy soils near a zinc-lead mining area in Hunan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Teng, Yanguo; Yu, Xuan

    2015-10-01

    Soil pollution by Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn was characterized in the area of the mining and smelting of metal ores at Guiyang, northeast of Hunan Province. A total of 150 topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected in May 2012 with a nominal density of one sample per 4 km(2). High concentrations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Zn, and Pb were found in many of the samples taken from surrounding paddy soil, indicating a certain extent of spreading of heavy metal pollution. Sequential extraction technique and risk assessment code (RAC) were used to study the mobility of chemical forms of heavy metals in the soils and their ecological risk. The results reveal that Cd represents a high ecological risk due to its highest percentage of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The metals of Zn and Cu pose a medium risk, and the rest of the metals represent a low environmental risk. The range of the potential ecological risk of soil calculated by risk index (RI) was 123.5~2791.2 and revealed a considerable-high ecological risk in study area especially in the neighboring and surrounding the mining activities area. Additionally, cluster analyses suggested that metals such as Pb, As, Hg, Zn, and Cd could be from the same sources probably related to the acidic drainage and wind transport of dust. Cluster analysis also clearly distinguishes the samples with similar characteristics according to their spatial distribution. The results could be used during the ecological risk screening stage, in conjunction with total concentrations and metal fractionation values to better estimate ecological risk.

  19. Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Arable Soils in Bijiang Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Wei-heng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been paid much attention to soil heavy metal pollution in the Bijiang watershed caused by the Lanping lead-zinc mine. We collected 35 arable soil samples along Bijiang, then sampled and tested the contents of As, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg. And then with Nemerow Multi-Factor Index and the Potential Ecological Risk Index method, we evaluated the heavy metal pollution risk. The results showed:(1The accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cd was in a relatively high level, the average was 1 146.97, 579.15, 4.85 mg·kg-1 respectively, which was seriously polluted; the average accumulation of As was 26.85 mg·kg-1; but Cu, Hg was slightly polluted. (2Statistical analysis showed that Lanping area was a main point source pollution of As, Zn, Pb, Cd, while Cu, Hg was pollution caused by different non-point source pollution.(3Within this basin, the Nemerow index was 17.69, which was serious heavy metal pollution, while the comprehensive potential ecological risk index was 773.38, which was a strong potential ecological risk. The contribution of pollutants was Cd > Pb > Zn> As> Hg > Cu. (4As a whole, the soil heavy metal pollution of paddy field was higher than of the dry land.

  20. Risk assessment and source analysis of soil heavy metal pollution from lower reaches of Yellow River irrigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengyan; Qin, Chengzhe; Hong, Xin; Kang, Guohua; Qin, Mingzhou; Yang, Dan; Pang, Bo; Li, Yanyan; He, Jianjian; Dick, Richard P

    2018-08-15

    The level of concentration of heavy metal in soil is detrimental to soil quality. The Heigangkou-Liuyuankou irrigation area in the lower-reach of Yellow River irrigation, as home to a large population and a major site to agricultural production, is vulnerable to heavy metal pollution. This study examined soil quality in Heigangkou-Liuyuankou irrigation areas of Kaifeng, China. Pollution in soil and potential risks introduced by heavy metal accumulation were assessed using Nemerow, Geoaccumulation, and Hakanson's ecological risk indices. Statistics and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to model and present the spatiotemporal changes of the pollution sources and factors affecting the levels of pollution. The heavy metals found in the sampled soil are Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Hg. Among them, Cd is more concentrated than the others. The southwestern region of the studied area confronts the most serious heavy metal pollution. There exist spatial disparities of low concentrations of different heavy metals in the study area. Hg and Cd are found to pose the highest potential ecological risks. However, their risk levels are not the same across the study area. Levels concentration of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, and Hg in soil are highly correlated. In combination, they post an additional threat to the ecological environment. Transportation, rural settlements, and water bodies are found to be the major sources of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Hg pollution in the soil; among the major sources, transportation is the most significant factor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p3.00mgkg(-1) but were plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi-Target Risk Assessment of Potentially Toxic Elements in Farmland Soil Based on the Environment-Ecological-Health Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyang; Meng, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Jinheng; Ma, Yingxin; Liu, Mingda

    2018-05-28

    There are potential impacts of Potentially Toxic Elements (PTEs) (e.g., Cd, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Zn, Hg, and Pb) in soil from the perspective of the ecological environment and human health, and assessing the pollution and risk level of soil will play an important role in formulating policies for soil pollution control. Lingyuan, in the west of Liaoning Province, China, is a typical low-relief terrain of a hilly area. The object of study in this research is the topsoil of farmland in this area, of which 71 soil samples are collected. In this study, research methods, such as the Nemerow Index, Potential Ecological Hazard Index, Ecological Risk Quotient, Environmental Exposure Hazard Analysis, Positive Matrix Factorization Model, and Land Statistical Analysis, are used for systematical assessment of the pollution scale, pollution level, and source of PTEs, as well as the ecological environmental risks and health risks in the study area. The main conclusions are: The average contents of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Zn, Ni, and Pb of the soil are 5.32 mg/kg, 0.31 mg/kg, 50.44 mg/kg, 47.05 mg/kg, 0.03 mg/kg, 79.36 mg/kg, 26.01 mg/kg, and 35.65 mg/kg, respectively. The contents of Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb exceed the background value of local soil; Cd content of some study plots exceeds the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard Value (0.6 mg/kg), and the exceeding standard rate of study plots is 5.63%; the comprehensive potential ecological hazard assessment in the study area indicates that the PTEs are at a slight ecological risk; probabilistic hazard quotient assessment indicates that the influence of PTEs on species caused by Cu is at a slight level ( p = 10.93%), and Zn, Pb, and Cd are at an acceptable level. For the ecological process, Zn is at a medium level ( p = 25.78%), Cu is at a slight level (19.77%), and the influence of Cd and Pb are acceptable; human health hazard assessment states that the Non-carcinogenic comprehensive health hazard index HI = 0.16 natural source are 13

  3. Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, The Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; Gestel, C.A.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Floodplains of the European rivers Rhine and Meuse are heavily polluted. We investigated the risk of heavy metal pollution (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) for detritivores living in a floodplain area, the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, affected by these rivers. Total soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractable concentrations and concentrations in plant leaves, earthworms, isopods and millipedes were measured in two sites and compared with literature data to assess possible risks. Based on total metal concentrations in soil, serious effects on detritivores were expected. However, 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractable, pore water and plant leaf concentrations were similar to metal concentrations found in unpolluted areas. Concentrations of Cu and Cd in earthworms and Cu in millipedes were higher in the Biesbosch than in animals from reference areas. All other measured concentrations of heavy metals in earthworms, isopods and millipedes were similar to the ones found in reference areas. Despite high total soil concentrations, effects of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd pollution on isopods are therefore not expected, while millipedes may only be affected by Cu. Since Cu and Cd levels in earthworms were increased compared to animals in unpolluted soils, this faunal group seems to be most at risk. Given the engineering role of earthworms in ecosystems, effects on the ecological functioning of floodplain soils therefore cannot be excluded. - Low bioavailability reduced the impact on detritivores

  4. Distribution, sources and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils from the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ge

    Full Text Available Concentrations of 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were assessed in soils from the Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. The analytical procedure involved the application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE and gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometric detection (GC/ITMS for identification and quantification. Among the 28 PCB congeners studied, 26 of them, except CB195 and CB209, were detected in the analyzed samples at different frequencies. The total concentrations of 28 indicator PCBs (ΣPCBs ranged from 2.6 to 148.8 ng g⁻¹ with an average value of 50.7 ng g⁻¹ and median of 39.5 ng g⁻¹. Sources and congeners' pattern of PCB were investigated in the soil of Midway Atoll. The principal component analysis indicated that the compositions of PCBs in most of the soil samples were similar. The total concentrations of PCBs were used to assess the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. Very low cancer risk was found in all soil samples caused by ΣPCBs.

  5. The Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Soils in the Vicinity of Industrial Sites in Dongguan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exponential industrialization and rapid urbanization have resulted in contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Dongguan, China. The aims of this research were to determine the concentration and distribution of various metals (arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in soils and identify their potential health risks for local residents. A total of 106 soil samples were collected from the vicinity of industrial sites in Dongguan. Two types of samples were collected from each site: topsoil (0–20 cm, TS and shallow soil (20–50 cm, SS. Results showed that the soils were contaminated by metals and pollution was mainly focused on TS. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo and pollution indexes (PI implied that there was a slight increase in the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Pb, but the metal pollution caused by industrial activities was less severe, and elements of As and Cr exhibited non-pollution level. The risk assessment results suggested that there was a potential health risk associated with As and Cr exposure for residents because the carcinogenic risks of As and Cr via corresponding exposure pathways exceeded the safety limit of 10−6 (the acceptable level of carcinogenic risk for humans. Furthermore, oral ingestion and inhalation of soil particles are the main exposure pathways for As and Cr to enter the human body. This study may provide basic information of metal pollution control and human health protection in the vicinity of industrial regions.

  6. [Risk assessment and countermeasures of BTEX contamination in soils of typical pesticide factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Li, Qi-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long

    2014-06-01

    Soil samples around three representative pesticide factories were collected in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, and analyzed to identify their pollution characteristics and health risk of BTEX by purge-and trap and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy method. Total concentrations of BTEX in soils in Plant A, B and C ranged from 673.50 to 32 363.50 ng x g(-1), nd to 6 461.80 ng x g(-1) and 461.70 to 8 740.80 ng x g(-1), respectively. Concentrations of detected toluene (4 619.50-7 234.30 ng x g(-1)) and ethylbenzene (364.60-7 944.60 ng x g(-1)) had exceeded the Canadian guidelines for industrial land (370 ng x g(-1) and 82 ng x g(-1)), and concentration of xylene (19 799.40 ng x g(-1)) in dust in production area of Plant A was larger than the Dutch soil intervention value (17 000 ng x g(-1)). While concentrationsn of BTEX around Plant A (Region I ) and Plant B and C (Region II) ranged from nd to 645.81 ng x g(-1), and nd to 309.13 ng x g(-1), respectively, which were below the Canadian guidelines for agricultural land. The non-carcinogenic risk of BTEX in Plant A (2.90E-06 -1.32E-04), B (nd -4.30E-05) and C (1.29E-06 -5.64E-05) were all below 1, which suggested that no obvious health risk existed in each plant. The non-carcinogenic risks in Region I (nd -2.02E-06) and Region II (nd -1.10E-06) were below than 1, and also lower than those in factories. High risk areas were mainly concentrated in the downwind, moreover, soils around villages and towns were also with higher risk. In conclusion, soils and dusts in each factory had been polluted and the quality of agricultural land had been partly deteriorated. Finally, environmental management and occupational protection countermeasures were proposed based on the research results.

  7. Occurrence of antibiotics in soils and manures from greenhouse vegetable production bases of Beijing, China and an associated risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Han, Ping; Luan, Yunxia; Lu, Anxiang

    2015-07-15

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics in soil and manure samples from 11 large-scale greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) bases in Beijing, China was investigated. Results showed that the greenhouse soils were ubiquitously contaminated with antibiotics, and that antibiotic concentrations were significantly higher in greenhouses than in open field soils. The mean concentrations of four antibiotic classes decreased in the following order: tetracyclines (102μg/kg)>quinolones (86μg/kg)>sulfonamides (1.1μg/kg)>macrolides (0.62μg/kg). This investigation also indicated that fertilization with manure and especially animal feces might be the primary source of antibiotics. A risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) demonstrated that oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin could pose a high risk to soil organisms. These results suggested that the ecological effects of antibiotic contamination in GVP bases and their potential adverse risks on human health need to be given special attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk assessment and vertical distribution of thallium in paddy soils and uptake in rice plants irrigated with acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuexia; Li, Ning; Wu, Qihang; Long, Jianyou; Luo, Dinggui; Zhang, Ping; Yao, Yan; Huang, Xiaowu; Li, Dongmei; Lu, Yayin; Liang, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the influence of irritating paddy fields with acid mine drainage containing thallium (Tl) to rice plant-soil system and potential health risks for local residents. Vertical distribution of Tl, pH, organic matter (OM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in 24 paddy soil profiles around Yunfu pyrite mine area was investigated. Rice plant samples were collected from the corresponding soil sampling site. The results showed that Tl concentrations in paddy soils at 0-60 cm depth range from 3.07 to 9.42 mg kg -1 , with a mean of 5.74 mg kg -1 , which were significantly higher than the background value of soil in China (0.58 mg kg -1 ). On the whole, Tl contents in paddy soil profiles increased quickly with soil depth from 0 to 30 cm and decreased slowly with soil depth from 30 to 60 cm. The soil Tl content was significant negatively correlated with soil pH. The mean content of Tl in the root, stem, leaf, and rice was 4.36, 1.83, 2.74, and 1.42 mg kg -1 , respectively, which exceeded the proposed permissible limits for foods and feedstuffs in Germany. The Tl content in various tissues of the rice plants followed the order root > leaf > stem (rice), which suggested that most Tl taken up by rice plants retained in the root, and a little migrated to the leaf, stem, and rice. Correlation analysis showed that Tl content in root was significant positively correlated with Tl content in leaf and rice. The ranges of hazard quotient (HQ) values were 4.08∼24.50 and 3.84∼22.38 for males and females, respectively. Males have higher health risk than females in the same age group. In childhood age groups (2 to <21 years) and adult age groups (21 to <70 years), the highest health risk level was observed in the 11 to 16 age group and 21 to 50 age group, respectively. The findings indicated that regular irrigation with Tl-bearing acid mine drainage led to considerable contamination of Tl in paddy soil and rice plant. Local government

  9. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  10. Human Health Risks Assessment Associated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Soil from Different Contaminated Areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Ochoa Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Orta-García, Sandra T; Varela-Silva, José A

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have documented environmental contamination by PCBs in soil from different areas in Mexico (industrial, mining, and urban sites). However, the real significance of that soil contamination has not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a human health risk assessment (Monte Carlos simulation) to evaluate the probable toxic effects of soils contaminated with PCBs on children in four sites in Mexico. A high non-carcinogenic risk (total nHQ = 1.1E+01; if nHQ ≥1, hazardous health effects cannot be ruled out) was found in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. Moreover, the total CR (cancer risk) found in Alpuyeca, Morelos is of concern (total CR = 5.1E-03), being that a cut-point of 1.0E-06 has been suggested as a safe level for cancer risk. Taking into consideration the data shown in this research, we conclude that a strategy to protect human health is necessary for the assessed sites.

  11. Distribution, source identification, and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in wetland soils of a river-reservoir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoliang; Xiong, Ziqian; Liu, Hui; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2017-01-01

    The majority of rivers in the world have been dammed, and over 45,000 large reservoirs have been constructed for multiple purposes. Riparian and reservoir shorelines are the two most important wetland types in a dammed river. To date, few studies have concerned the heavy metal pollution in wetland soils of these river-reservoir systems. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ten heavy metals (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) in surface soils collected from riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in different seasons. Our results found that the Co, Cu, and Ni concentrations in riparian wetlands were significantly lower than those in reservoir shorelines. In riparian wetlands, only soil Sr concentration significantly increased after summer and autumn submergence. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that Ba and Cd might originate from industrial and mining sources, whereas Sr and Mn predominantly originated from natural rock weathering. The ecological risk assessment analysis indicated that both riparian and reservoir shorelines along the Han River in China exhibited a moderate ecological risk in soil heavy metals. The upper Han River basin is the water resource area of China's Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Therefore, to control the contamination of heavy metals in wetland soils, more efforts should be focused on reducing the discharge of mining and industrial pollutants into the riparian and reservoir shorelines.

  12. Soil Security Assessment of Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Damien; Kidd, Darren; McBratney, Alex

    2017-04-01

    The concept of soil security aligns well with the aspirational and marketing policies of the Tasmanian Government, where increased agricultural expansion through new irrigation schemes and multiple-use State managed production forests co-exists beside pristine World Heritage conservation land, a major drawcard of the economically important tourism industry . Regarding the Sustainable Development Gaols (SDG's) this could be seen as a exemplar of the emerging tool for quantification of spatial soil security to effectively protect our soil resource in terms of food (SDG 2.4, 3.9) and water security (SDG 6.4, 6.6), biodiversity maintenance and safeguarding fragile ecosystems (SDG 15.3, 15.9). The recent development and application of Digital Soil Mapping and Assessment capacities in Tasmania to stimulate agricultural production and better target appropriate soil resources has formed the foundational systems that can enable the first efforts in quantifying and mapping Tasmanian Soil Security, in particular the five Soil Security dimensions (Capability, Condition, Capital, Codification and Connectivity). However, to provide a measure of overall soil security, it was necessary to separately assess the State's three major soil uses; Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry. These products will provide an indication of where different activities are sustainable or at risk, where more soil data is needed, and provide a tool to better plan for a State requiring optimal food and fibre production, without depleting its natural soil resources and impacting on the fragile ecosystems supporting environmental benefits and the tourism industry.

  13. Using a risk assessment protocol to develop soil cleanup criteria for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante-Duah, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum contaminated site may prose significant risks to the public because of potential health and environmental effects, and to Potentially Responsible Parties (PRPs) because of financial liabilities that could result from such effects. The effective management of petroleum contaminated sites has therefore become an important environmental priority and will be a growing challenge for years to come. It has also become evident that the proper management of such sites poses great challenges. Risk assessment seems to be one of the fastest evolving tools for developing appropriate management decisions, including those relating to the levels of cleanup warranty under specific scenarios. This paper reports that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) recognizes the use of risk assessment to facilitate decisions on whether or not remedial actions are needed to abate site-related risks, and also in the enforcement of regulatory standards. Risk assessment techniques have been used in various regulatory programs employed by federal, state, and local agencies

  14. Ecological risk assessment of agricultural soils for the definition of soil screening values: A comparison between substance-based and matrix-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, Alberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Manachini, Barbara; Vanin, Stefano; Raga, Roberto; Beggio, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    The Italian legislation on contaminated soils does not include the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and this deficiency has important consequences for the sustainable management of agricultural soils. The present research compares the results of two ERA procedures applied to agriculture (i) one based on the "substance-based" approach and (ii) a second based on the "matrix-based" approach. In the former the soil screening values (SVs) for individual substances were derived according to institutional foreign guidelines. In the latter, the SVs characterizing the whole-matrix were derived originally by the authors by means of experimental activity. The results indicate that the "matrix-based" approach can be efficiently implemented in the Italian legislation for the ERA of agricultural soils. This method, if compared to the institutionalized "substance based" approach is (i) comparable in economic terms and in testing time, (ii) is site specific and assesses the real effect of the investigated soil on a battery of bioassays, (iii) accounts for phenomena that may radically modify the exposure of the organisms to the totality of contaminants and (iv) can be considered sufficiently conservative.

  15. Ecological risk assessment of agricultural soils for the definition of soil screening values: A comparison between substance-based and matrix-based approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pivato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Italian legislation on contaminated soils does not include the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA and this deficiency has important consequences for the sustainable management of agricultural soils. The present research compares the results of two ERA procedures applied to agriculture (i one based on the “substance-based” approach and (ii a second based on the “matrix-based” approach. In the former the soil screening values (SVs for individual substances were derived according to institutional foreign guidelines. In the latter, the SVs characterizing the whole-matrix were derived originally by the authors by means of experimental activity.The results indicate that the “matrix-based” approach can be efficiently implemented in the Italian legislation for the ERA of agricultural soils. This method, if compared to the institutionalized “substance based” approach is (i comparable in economic terms and in testing time, (ii is site specific and assesses the real effect of the investigated soil on a battery of bioassays, (iii accounts for phenomena that may radically modify the exposure of the organisms to the totality of contaminants and (iv can be considered sufficiently conservative. Keyword: Environmental science

  16. Risk assessment of intake of foods and soil, and air radiation dose after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinaga, Aiichiro; Yoneda, Minoru; Ikegami, Maiko

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment of soil contaminated with radionuclides, due to the accident of Fukushima nuclear power plant after the earthquake on March 11, 2011, was carried out by considering consumption of the contaminated food. The exposure routes were set as food intake, ingestion and inhalation of soil particles, and external radiation from the ground. As a result, exposures by ingestion, and inhalation of soil particles were negligible, and exposure by food intake and external exposure from the ground were comparatively large. This study shows air dose by the accident should be under 0.2 μSv/hour in order to control the radiation dose with consumption of food under 1 μSv/year. (author)

  17. Heavy metal levels in kiwifruit orchard soils and trees and its potential health risk assessment in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Yue, Tianli; Li, Xiaotong; Yuan, Yahong

    2016-07-01

    Concentrations of five heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb) in orchard soils and kiwifruit tissues (root, twig, leave, fruit) collected from Shaanxi province in China were measured, and the potential health risk for human through the fruit consumption was assessed. The orchard soils were in no pollution for Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb, with their pollution index (PI) ≤1, while 10.0 % of the soil samples were under Cd contamination. Furthermore, kiwifruit tended to have a higher Cd and Hg accumulation (as indicated by Biological Accumulation Coefficient) from soil and have a higher Cu and Hg translocation (as reflected by Biological Transfer Coefficient) to aboveground parts. From the human health point of view, the DIM and HRI values for all the fruit samples were within the safe limits, while for Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb, about 22.5, 12.5, 52.5, 15.0, and 47.5 % of the fruit samples exceeded the national maximum permissible levels, respectively. These results showed that, although there was no possible health risk to consumers due to intake of studied kiwifruit fruits under the current consumption rate, the regular survey of heavy metal pollution levels should be performed for the kiwifruit in Shaanxi province and a strict management program should be established to reduce the amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in fruit production in order to prevent the potential health risk.

  18. Life-cycle phases of a zinc- and cadmium-resistant ecotype of Silene vulgaris in risk assessment of polymetallic mine soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernst, W.H.O.; Nelissen, H.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Short-term exposure of plants to heavy metals is often used for risk assessment of metal-enriched soils (OECD guideline 208) without considering the reliability of the assessment for long-term exposure, i.e. for the completion of a plant's life-cycle. In the present study with 15 orogenic soils

  19. Radioactivity measurements and risk assessments in soil samples at south and middle of Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.; Al Dosari, M.; Amr, M.A.; Al-Saad, K.A.; Helal, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Health risks associated with the exposure to the natural radioactivity present in soil materials has great concern all over the world. Thus soil samples collected from an urban area at south and middle of Qatar in order to measure natural radioactivity, 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th and the artificial 137 Cs using gamma-ray spectrometry method.The soil activity concentrations ranges from 25.01- 40.31 for 226 Ra, 12.37- 4.99 for 232 Th and 133.8 - 250.1 for 40 K with mean values of 57, 87 and 207 Bq/ kg, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides are compared with the available data from other countries. The average and ranges of activity concentration of 226 Ra in Qatar soil areas are very much comparable to the world Figures. However, the concentration for 232 Th is comparable to other Gulf area and lower than that for Egypt and the world figures.The concentration for 40 K is lower as compared with Egypt, world, and Kuwait figures but comparable to Oman figures.The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq) in these soil samples ranges from 74.45 Bq/ kg to 41.21 Bq/ kg) with mean value of 57.4 Bq/ kg which is far below the safe limit (permissible) limit (370 Bq/ kg). The calculated values for external hazard index Hex for the soil samples range from 0.102 - 0.21 and average concentration of 0.164 which is lower than other values reported .However these values are lower than unity; therefore, the soil from these regions is safe and can be used as a construction material without posing any significant radiological threat to population.The absorbed dose rate calculated from activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ranges between 11.529 - 21.446, 2.383 - 11.744, and 5.304 -10.357 n Gy/ h, respectively and the total average absorbed dose rate 28.915 n Gy/ h which are lower than the world wide average absorbed dose rate 51 n Gy/ h. The total absorbed dose in the study area ranges from 20.146 - 40.389 n Gy/ h with an average value of 28.915 n Gy/ h .The

  20. Soil-Plant Metal Relations in Panax notoginseng: An Ecosystem Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xiaohong; Wang, Li; Guo, Lanping; Cui, Xiuming; Liu, Dahui; Yang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study features a survey of the content of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg and Cu) in root and cultivation soils of Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng), carried out in China’s Yunnan Province. The average contents of Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, and Cu in the soil were 61.6, 0.4, 102.4, 57.1, 0.3, and 35.1 mg·kg−1, respectively. The heavy metals’ pollution indexes can be ranked as follows: As > Cd > Hg > Cu > Cr > Pb. The proportion of soil samples at slight, middle, strong, very strong, and extremely strong levels of potential environmental risk had values of 5.41%, 21.62%, 35.14%, 10.81%, and 27.03%, respectively. The potential environment risk index (RI) showed that 29.73% out of the total sample sites were above the level of strong and extremely strong. The ranges of Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, and Cu content in tuber were 0.04–3.26, 0.04–0.33, 0.22–5.4, 0.10–1.8, 0.00–0.02, and 5.0–20.9 mg·kg−1, respectively. In combination with P. notoginseng consumption data, the estimated heavy metal daily intakes (EDIs) were 0.08–0.23, 0.006–0.019, 0.17–0.52, 0.04–0.12, 0.001–0.002, and 0.59–1.77 μg·kg−1·bw/day. All target hazard quotients (THQs) of individual elements and hazard indexes (HI) were less than one. The present study indicates that most of the P. notoginseng cultivation soil in the province of Yunnan presented slight and moderate ecological risk. Thus, more attention should be given to the heavy metals As, Cd, and Hg when selecting planting areas for the cultivation of P. notoginseng. Health risks associated with the intake of a single element or consumption of the combined metals through P. notoginseng are absent. PMID:27827951

  1. Groundwater contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons in the soil vapour phase - risk assessment at a former dry cleaner site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danzer, J. [Boden-und-Grundwasser GbR, Sonthofen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g. Perchloroethene (PCE) were commonly used for dry cleaning purposes among other ones. Since they have a significant toxic potential they impose a serious risk to groundwater quality. Due to their physico-chemical properties - particularly high volatility and medium to high water solubility - and their low biodegradation potential they are highly mobile within the unsaturated soil (vapour phase) as well as within the groundwater. This poster (paper) presents data and calculations of a consultant's ''virtual every day'' work in order to assess the risk of groundwater contamination at a former dry cleaner site. (orig.)

  2. Spatial assessment of potential ecological risk of heavy metals in soils from informal e-waste recycling in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Nartey Kyere

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing annual global volume of e-waste, and of its inherently valuable fraction, has created an opportunity for individuals in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana to make a living by using unconventional, uncontrolled, primitive and crude procedures to recycle and recover valuable metals from this waste. The current form of recycling procedures releases hazardous fractions, such as heavy metals, into the soil, posing a significant risk to the environment and human health. Using a handheld global positioning system, 132 soil samples based on 100 m grid intervals were collected and analysed for cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, mercury (Hg, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn. Using geostatistical techniques and sediment quality guidelines, this research seeks to assess the potential risk these heavy metals posed to the proposed Korle Ecological Restoration Zone by informal e-waste processing site in Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana. Analysis of heavy metals revealed concentrations exceeded the regulatory limits of both Dutch and Canadian soil quality and guidance values, and that the ecological risk posed by the heavy metals extended beyond the main burning and dismantling sites of the informal recyclers to the school, residential, recreational, clinic, farm and worship areas. The heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn had normal distribution, spatial variability, and spatial autocorrelation. Further analysis revealed the decreasing order of toxicity, Hg>Cd>Pb> Cu>Zn>Cr, of contributing significantly to the potential ecological risk in the study area.

  3. Health Risk Assessment of Vegetables Grown on the Contaminated Soils in Daye City of Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available China is an agriculturally-producing country and the safety of its vegetables will have an extensive attention at home and abroad. Recently, contamination of soils and vegetables caused by mining activities is of great social concern because of the potential risk to human health, especially to the residents whom live near metal or metalloid mines. In this study, 18 topsoil and 141 vegetable samples were collected from the contaminated areas in Daye City Hubei Province, China and the concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb were analyzed. A self-designed questionnaire was assigned to obtain the exposure scenario and the USEPA health risk assessment model was adopted to assess two type of risks (non-carcinogenic risks and carcinogenic risks of vegetables to humans. The results showed that the average contents of metal(loids in soils exceeded the background value of Daye City. The average contents of metal(loids, especially As, Cd, Pb, in three kinds of vegetables were significantly higher than the permissible values based on Chinese national standard. Leafy vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and the transfer factors of As (0.015, Cd (0.080 and Pb (0.003 were comparable to leguminous and fruit vegetables. Leguminous vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and transfer factors of Cu (0.032 and Zn (0.094 than leafy and fruit vegetables. The transfer factors from soil to plants follows a decreasing order as Cd (0.068, Zn (0.047 > Cu (0.023 > As (0.006, Pb (0.002. Furthermore, health risk assessment revealed the following results: the non-carcinogenic risk decreased in the order of children, adult, adolescent, while the carcinogenic risk followed a decreasing order of adult, adolescent, children; the calculated carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk of the metal(loids by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy vegetables > fruit vegetables > leguminous vegetables. The relatively

  4. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    After defining risk and introducing the concept of individual and societal risk, the author considers each of these, restricting considerations to risk of death. Some probabilities of death arising from various causes are quoted, and attention drawn to the care necessary in making comparisons between sets of data and to the distinction between voluntary and involuntary categories and between early and delayed deaths. The presentation of information on societal risk is discussed and examples given. The history of quantified risk assessment is outlined, particularly related to the nuclear industry, the process of assessing risk discussed: identification of hazard causes, the development of accident chains and the use of event trees, the evaluation of probability through the collection of data and their use with fault trees, and the assessment of consequences of hazards in terms of fatalities. Reference is made to the human element and common-made failures, and to studies supporting the development of reliability assessment techniques. Acceptance criteria are discussed for individual and societal risk in the nuclear field, and it is shown that proposed criteria lead to risks conservative by comparison with risks from day-to-day accidents and other potentially hazardous industries. (U.K.)

  5. A contribution towards the risk assessment of soils from the São Domingos Mine (Portugal): Chemical, microbial and ecotoxicological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Varennes, Amarilis de; Cunha-Queda, Ana C.

    2012-01-01

    This study is a contribution towards a risk assessment of the São Domingos Mine area (Portugal), integrating information from: soil physicochemical characteristics, pseudo-total and bioavailable trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), ecotoxicological evaluation, and microbial indicators. The bioassays using soil eluates (seed germination, luminescent inhibition of Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna immobilization) confirmed the soil toxicity categorization obtained with the bioassays using soil (plant growth tests, Eisenia fetida mortality and avoidance behaviour). However, the soil identified as the most toxic using bioassays, was different from the expected when considering the results from pseudo-total and effective bioavailable trace elements. Taking in consideration the observations, it is highly recommended to complement the results from environmental chemistry with results from bioassays, in order to provide a more complete and relevant information on the bioavailability of contaminants and to characterize the risk of contaminated soils. - Highlights: ► Impaired soil retention and habitat functions for all tested soils. ► Aquatic and terrestrial bioassays agreed in the soil toxicity categorization. ► Do results obtained by chemical methods really translate into “biological availability”? ► In multi-contaminated sites, risk estimation based only on chemical methods is inadequate. ► Bioassays provide a more realistic risk assessment of contaminated sites. - Bioassays provide a more complete and relevant information to characterize the risk of contaminated soils, and should be used to complement chemical results.

  6. Health risk assessment of urban population exposure to contaminants in the soils of the Southern Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, N. A.; Tarasova, N. P.; Osipov, K. Yu.; Maximova, D. I.

    2015-11-01

    This study concerns the human health risk due to exposure of Co, Cu, As, Mn contained in soils of the Southern Kuzbass, where the coal industry is developed. Soil samples of 200 were taken in Mezhdurechensk - city with intensive coal mining and processing industries. The content of heavy metals in samples were determined using the electron spectroscopy. Several samples were also investigated by methods of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). With regard to the effects of heavy metals on the adult population health the total Hazard Index (HI) for ingestion and inhalation routes was 0.87×10-1 and 7.8×10-1 respectively. According to the contribution of Co, Cu, As, Mn to the total HI the elements form the decreasing series Mn (0,42-0,50)> Co (0.18-0.20)> Cu (0,13-0,19 )> As (0,05-0,09). These chemical elements are present in the organic and inorganic forms in coals and coal wastes. Ranking the city territory has shown that administrative districts have different HI values (8.4 10-1 - 8.8 10-1). When analyzing the human health risks of coal mining and coal-processing enterprises the impact of heavy metals as components of coals and combustion products should be taken into account.

  7. Scenario-targeted toxicity assessment through multiple endpoint bioassays in a soil posing unacceptable environmental risk according to regulatory screening values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ruiz, A; Etxebarria, J; Boatti, L; Marigómez, I

    2015-09-01

    Lanestosa is a chronically polluted site (derelict mine) where the soil (Lanestosa (LA) soil) exceeds screening values (SVs) of regulatory policies in force (Basque Country; Europe) for Zn, Pb and Cd. A scenario-targeted toxicity assessment was carried out on the basis of a multi-endpoint bioassay approach. Acute and chronic toxicity bioassays were conducted with selected test species (Vibrio fischeri, Dictyostelium discoideum, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus and Eisenia fetida) in combination with chemical analysis of soils and elutriates and with bioaccumulation studies in earthworms. Besides, the toxicity profile was compared with that of the mine runoff (RO) soil and of a fresh artificially polluted soil (LAAPS) resembling LA soil pollutant profile. Extractability studies in LA soil revealed that Pb, Zn and Cd were highly available for exchange and/or release into the environment. Indeed, Pb and Zn were accumulated in earthworms and LA soil resulted to be toxic. Soil respiration, V. fischeri, vegetative and developmental cycles of D. discoideum and survival and juvenile production of E. fetida were severely affected. These results confirmed that LA soil had unacceptable environmental risk and demanded intervention. In contrast, although Pb and Zn concentrations in RO soil revealed also unacceptable risk, both metal extractability and toxicity were much lower than in LA soil. Thus, within the polluted site, the need for intervention varied between areas that posed dissimilar risk. Besides, since LAAPS, with a high exchangeable metal fraction, was the most toxic, ageing under in situ natural conditions seemingly contributed to attenuate LA soil risk. As a whole, combining multi-endpoint bioassays with scenario-targeted analysis (including leaching and ageing) provides reliable risk assessment in soils posing unacceptable environmental risk according to SVs, which is useful to optimise the required intervention measures.

  8. Do recommended doses of glyphosate-based herbicides affect soil invertebrates? Field and laboratory screening tests to risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Júlia Carina; de Santo, Fernanda Benedet; Guerra, Naiara; Ricardo Filho, Altair Maçaneiro; Pech, Tatiani Maria

    2018-05-01

    Despite glyphosate-based herbicides are widely used in agriculture, forestry and gardens, little is known about its effects on non-target organisms. The present work evaluated the ecotoxicity of four formulated products (Roundup ® Original, Trop ® , Zapp ® Qi 620 and Crucial ® ) on soil invertebrates. Screening ecotoxicity tests were carried out with soil and oat straw collected in a field experiment, besides laboratory-spiked soils. Screening tests included avoidance behaviour of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), collembolans (Folsomia candida) and isopods (Porcellio dilatatus) in single and multispecies tests; reproduction of collembolans (F. candida), and bait lamina in field. Non-avoidance behaviour was observed in standard tests (earthworms) in soil, neither in multispecies tests (earthworm + isopods) using oat straw, while for collembolans it occurred for the product Zapp ® Qi 620 even at the recommended dose. Reproduction of F. candida was not impaired even at high doses in laboratory-spiked soils. Feeding activity on bait lamina test was impaired in treatment corresponding to the red label product, Crucial ® . Results showed the relevance of bait lamina test on screening the impact of herbicides in the field. The findings highlight the importance of considering different formulations for the same active ingredient in risk assessment of pesticides. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: An example for plants exposed to nickel in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenzin, Elena; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Marcomini, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl 2 ) extractable concentration were compared to SSDs for terrestrial plants derived from literature toxicity data. Also the 'free' nickel (Ni 2+ ) concentration was calculated and compared. The results demonstrated that SSDs based on total nickel content highly depend on the experimental conditions set up for toxicity testing (i.e. selected soil and pH value) and thus on metal bioavailability in soil, resulting in an unacceptable uncertainty for ecological risk estimation. The use in SSDs of plant toxicity data expressed as 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractable metal strongly reduced the uncertainty in the SSD curve and thus can improve the ERA procedure remarkably by taking bioavailability into account. - The use of bioavailability toxicity data can improve species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves and thus ecological risk assessment (ERA)

  10. Assessment of ecological and human health risks of heavy metal contamination in agriculture soils disturbed by pipeline construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Liding

    2014-02-28

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW), which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  11. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW, which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  12. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. Methods. This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb, cadmium (Cd, arsenic (As, manganese (Mn, and antimony (Sb concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Results. Local soil contamination was observed, with mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, and As of 0.472, 193.133, 36.793, and 89.029 mg/kg, respectively. Mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, Mn, and As in brown rice were 0.103, 0.131, 5.175, 6.007, and 0.524 mg/kg, respectively. Daily intakes of Cd, As, Sb, Pb, and Mn through brown rice consumption were estimated to be 0.011, 0.0002, 0.004, 0.0001, and 0.0003 mg/(kg/day, respectively. The combined hazard index for the five heavy metals was 22.5917, and the total cancer risk was 0.1773. Cd contributed most significantly to cancer risk, accounting for approximately 99.77% of this risk. Conclusions. The results show that potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks exist for local inhabitants and that regular monitoring of pollution to protect human health is urgently required.

  13. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Zhu, Tingping; Li, Mengtong; He, Jieyi; Huang, Ruixue

    2017-01-01

    Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb) concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Local soil contamination was observed, with mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, and As of 0.472, 193.133, 36.793, and 89.029 mg/kg, respectively. Mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, Mn, and As in brown rice were 0.103, 0.131, 5.175, 6.007, and 0.524 mg/kg, respectively. Daily intakes of Cd, As, Sb, Pb, and Mn through brown rice consumption were estimated to be 0.011, 0.0002, 0.004, 0.0001, and 0.0003 mg/(kg/day), respectively. The combined hazard index for the five heavy metals was 22.5917, and the total cancer risk was 0.1773. Cd contributed most significantly to cancer risk, accounting for approximately 99.77% of this risk. The results show that potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks exist for local inhabitants and that regular monitoring of pollution to protect human health is urgently required.

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Witwatersrand Gold Mining Basin, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caspah Kamunda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As, Lead (Pb, Mercury (Hg, Cadmium (Cd, Chromium (Cr, Cobalt (Co, Nickel (Ni, Copper (Cu and Zinc (Zn using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >>1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10−4 implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10−4. These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values.

  15. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Mixture Toxicity and a Trait Based Approach to Soil Invertebrate Species for Site Specific Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainer, Amy; Cousins, Mark; Hogan, Natacha; Siciliano, Steven D

    2018-05-05

    Although petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) released to the environment typically occur as mixtures, PHC remediation guidelines often reflect individual substance toxicity. It is well documented that groups of aliphatic PHCs act via the same mechanism of action, nonpolar narcosis and, theoretically, concentration addition mixture toxicity principles apply. To assess this theory, ten standardized acute and chronic soil invertebrate toxicity tests on a range of organisms (Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, Oppia nitens and Hypoaspis aculeifer) were conducted with a refined PHC binary mixture. Reference models for concentration addition and independent action were applied to the mixture toxicity data with consideration of synergism, antagonism and dose level toxicity. Both concentration addition and independent action, without further interactions, provided the best fit with observed response to the mixture. Individual fraction effective concentration values were predicted from optimized, fitted reference models. Concentration addition provided a better estimate than independent action of individual fraction effective concentrations based on comparison with available literature and species trends observed in toxic responses to the mixture. Interspecies differences in standardized laboratory soil invertebrate species responses to PHC contaminated soil was reflected in unique traits. Diets that included soil, large body size, permeable cuticle, low lipid content, lack of ability to molt and no maternal transfer were traits linked to a sensitive survival response to PHC contaminated soil in laboratory tests. Traits linked to sensitive reproduction response in organisms tested were long life spans with small clutch sizes. By deriving single fraction toxicity endpoints considerate of mixtures, we reduce resources and time required in conducting site specific risk assessments for the protection of soil organism's exposure pathway. This

  16. Health risk assessment and source study of PAHs from roadside soil dust of a heavy mining area in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafdar, Abhrajyoti; Sinha, Alok

    2018-02-26

    The total concentrations of 13 detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different traffic soil samples of Dhanbad heavy mining area, India, were between 8.256 and 12.562 µg/g and were dominated by four ring PAHs (44%). Diagnostic ratio study revealed that fossil fuel burning and vehicular pollution are the most prominent sources of the PAHs in roadside soil even at a heavy coal mining area. The 90th percentiles cancer risks determined by probabilistic health risk assessment (Monte Carlo simulations) for both the age groups (children and adults) were above tolerable limit (>1.00E-06) according to USEPA. The simulated mean cancer risk was 1.854E-05 for children and 1.823E-05 for adults. For different exposure pathways, dermal contact was observed to be the major pathway with an exposure load of 74% for children and 85% for adults. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated relative skin adherence factor for soil (AF) is the most influential parameter of the simulation, followed by exposure duration (ED).

  17. Residues, spatial distribution and risk assessment of DDTs and HCHs in agricultural soil and crops from the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanfei; Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Yao, Tandong

    2016-04-01

    Due to its high elevation and cold temperature, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is regarded as the "Third Pole". Different from other polar regions, which are truly remote, the TP has a small population and a few agricultural activities. In this study, agricultural soil and crop samples (including highland barley and rape) were collected in the main farmland of the TP to obtain the contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in the Tibetan agricultural system as well as the relevant human exposure risks. The average concentrations of DDTs and HCHs in the agricultural soil, highland barley and rape were 1.36, 0.661, 1.03 ng/g dw and 0.349, 0.0364, 0.0225 ng/g dw, respectively. In the agricultural soil, DDTs and HCHs metabolism (DDE, DDD and β-HCH) were abundant, which indicated a "historical" source, whereas crops contained a similar composition ((DDE + DDD)/DDT, α/β-HCH and α/γ-HCH) to that of wild plants, suggesting that the DDTs and HCHs in crops are likely from long range atmospheric transport. The human health risks via non-dietary and dietary to DDTs and HCHs in the farmland were assessed. All of the hazard index (HI) values of DDTs and HCHs for non-carcinogenic risks were Tibetan residents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk assessment, spatial distribution, and source apportionment of heavy metals in Chinese surface soils from a typically tobacco cultivated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiwei; Wang, Haiyun; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Jumin; Peng, Yaodong; Li, Xiuchun; Shi, Yi; He, Kuanxin; Zhang, Qiming

    2018-06-01

    The heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface soils of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields in Jiangxi Province were analyzed, and the mean heavy metal concentrations were 3.55, 0.19, 25.89, 14.96, 0.25, 10.89, 27.80, and 44.00 mg/kg, respectively. Spatial distribution analysis showed that the highest concentrations were recorded in the north-western, south-western, and mid-eastern parts of the study area. The index of geo-accumulation and pollution index indicated modest enrichment with Cd and Hg, which were the only two metals posing a potentially high ecological risk to the local agricultural environment. The health risk assessment showed no considerable non-carcinogenic or carcinogenic risks for children and adults from these elements. The principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) found that the variations in the Cr and Ni concentrations were largely on account of the soil parent rocks, but the As, Cd, Cu, and Hg variations in the soil were largely owing to agricultural practices of years. However, the main factor influencing Pb and Zn was atmospheric deposition.

  19. Soil heavy metal pollution and risk assessment associated with the Zn-Pb mining region in Yunnan, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Danek, Tomas; Drozdova, Jarmila; Huang, Qianrui; Qi, Wufu; Zou, Liling; Yang, Shuran; Zhao, Xinliang; Xiang, Yungang

    2018-03-07

    The environmental assessment and identification of sources of heavy metals in Zn-Pb ore deposits are important steps for the effective prevention of subsequent contamination and for the development of corrective measures. The concentrations of eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soils from 40 sampling points around the Jinding Zn-Pb mine in Yunnan, China, were analyzed. An environmental quality assessment of the obtained data was performed using five different contamination and pollution indexes. Statistical analyses were performed to identify the relations among the heavy metals and the pH in soils and possible sources of pollution. The concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were extremely high, and 23, 95, 25, and 35% of the samples, respectively, exceeded the heavy metal limits set in the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB15618-1995, grade III). According to the contamination and pollution indexes, environmental risks in the area are high or extremely high. The highest risk is represented by Cd contamination, the median concentration of which exceeds the GB15618-1995 limit. Based on the combination of statistical analyses and geostatistical mapping, we identified three groups of heavy metals that originate from different sources. The main sources of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are mining activities, airborne particulates from smelters, and the weathering of tailings. The main sources of Hg are dust fallout and gaseous emissions from smelters and tailing dams. Cr and Ni originate from lithogenic sources.

  20. Soil radioactivity levels, radiological maps and risk assessment for the state of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazemi, N; Bajoga, A D; Bradley, D A; Regan, P H; Shams, H

    2016-07-01

    An evaluation of the radioactivity levels associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a surface radiological map of the State of Kuwait. Soil samples from across Kuwait were collected, measured and analysed in the current work. These evaluations provided soil activity concentration levels for primordial radionuclides, specifically members of the (238)U and (232)Th decay chains and (40)K which. The (238)U and (232)Th chain radionuclides and (40)K activity concentration values ranged between 5.9 ↔ 32.3, 3.5 ↔ 27.3, and 74 ↔ 698 Bq/kg respectively. The evaluated average specific activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K across all of the soil samples have mean values of 18, 15 and 385 Bq/kg respectively, all falling below the worldwide mean values of 35, 40 and 400 Bq/kg respectively. The radiological risk factors are associated with a mean of 33.16 ± 2.46 nG/h and 68.5 ± 5.09 Bq/kg for the external dose rate and Radium equivalent respectively. The measured annual dose rates for all samples gives rise to a mean value of 40.8 ± 3.0 μSv/y while the internal and internal hazard indices have been found to be 0.23 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.01 respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Health Risk Assessment and Urinary Excretion of Children Exposed to Arsenic through Drinking Water and Soils in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rico, Leticia; Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Jay Gandolfi, A; Del Rivero, Carlos Ibañez; Martínez-Cinco, Marco A; Meza-Montenegro, Maria M

    2018-05-02

    Environmental arsenic exposure is associated with increased risk of non-cancerous chronic diseases and a variety of cancers in humans. The aims of this study were to carry out for the first time a health risk assessment for two common arsenic exposure routes (drinking water and soil ingestion) in children living in the most important agricultural areas in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys in Sonora, Mexico. Drinking water sampling was conducted in the wells of 57 towns. A cross-sectional study was done in 306 children from 13 villages in the valleys. First morning void urine samples were analyzed for inorganic arsenic (InAs) and monomethyl and dimethyl arsenic (MMA and DMA) by HPLC/ICP-MS. The results showed a wide range of arsenic levels in drinking water between 2.7 and 98.7 μg As/L. Arsenic levels in agricultural and backyard soils were in the range of water, agricultural soil, and backyard soil showed values > 1 in 100% of the study towns, and the carcinogenic risk (CR) was greater than 1E-04 in 85%. The average of arsenic excreted in urine was 31.7 μg As/L, and DMA had the highest proportion in urine, with averages of 77.8%, followed by InAs and MMA with 11.4 and 10.9%, respectively, percentages similar to those reported in the literature. Additionally, positive correlations between urinary arsenic levels and HI values were found (r = 0.59, P = 0.000). These results indicated that this population is at high risk of developing chronic diseases including cancer.

  2. Subcritical water treatment of explosive and heavy metals co-contaminated soil: Removal of the explosive, and immobilization and risk assessment of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Jung, Ho-Young; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Co-contamination of explosives and heavy metals (HMs) in soil, particularly army shooting range soil, has received increasing environmental concern due to toxicity and risks to ecological systems. In this study, a subcritical water (SCW) extraction process was used to remediate the explosives-plus-HMs-co-contaminated soil. A quantitative evaluation of explosives in the treated soil, compared with untreated soil, was applied to assess explosive removal. The immobilization of HMs was assessed by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, and by investigating the migration of HMs fractions. The environmental risk of HMs in the soil residue was assessed according to the risk assessment code (RAC) and ecological risk indices (Er and RI). The results indicated that SCW treatment could eliminate the explosives, >99%, during the remediation, while the HM was effectively immobilized. The effect of water temperature on reducing the explosives and the risk of HMs in soil was observed. A marked increase in the non-bioavailable concentration of each HM was observed, and the leaching rate of HMs was decreased by 70-97% after SCW treatment at 250 °C, showing the effective immobilization of HMs. According to the RAC or RI, each tested HM showed no or low risk to the environment after treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Health Risk Assessment and Safety Threshold of Harmful Trace Elements in the Soil Environment of the Wulantuga Open-Cast Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soil samples were collected from a large-scale open-cast coal mine area in Inner Mongolia, China. Arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, beryllium (Be and nickel (Ni in soil samples were detected using novel collision/reaction cell technology (CCT with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; collectively ICP-CCT-MS after closed-vessel microwave digestion. Human health risk from As, Cd, Be and Ni was assessed via three exposure pathways—inhalation, skin contact and soil particle ingestion. The comprehensive carcinogenic risk from As in Wulantuga open-cast coal mine soil is 6.29–87.70-times the acceptable risk, and the highest total hazard quotient of As in soils in this area can reach 4.53-times acceptable risk levels. The carcinogenic risk and hazard quotient of Cd, Be and Ni are acceptable. The main exposure route of As from open-cast coal mine soils is soil particle ingestion, accounting for 76.64% of the total carcinogenic risk. Considering different control values for each exposure pathway, the minimum control value (1.59 mg/kg could be selected as the strict reference safety threshold for As in the soil environment of coal-chemical industry areas. However, acceptable levels of carcinogenic risk are not unanimous; thus, the safety threshold identified here, calculated under a 1.00 × 10−6 acceptable carcinogenic risk level, needs further consideration.

  4. Human and animal health risk assessment of metal contamination in soil and plants from Ait Ammar abandoned iron mine, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Mohamed; Haddioui, Abdelmajid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to investigate metal pollution in food chain and assess the resulting health risks to native citizens in Ait Ammar village. The results showed that cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrations in animal organs were above the metal concentration safety limit. Nevertheless, soils and plants from mining area were contaminated with iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), and Cr, Cu, Zn respectively. Cd concentrations in almost animal organs were higher than the acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of this livestock meat and offal may pose a health risk. The estimated intake of Pb and Cd for Ait Ammar population could be a cause of concern because it exceeded the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) proposed by Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in this area. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended.

  5. Spatial Distribution of Mercury (Hg Concentration in Agricultural Soil and Its Risk Assessment on Food Safety in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqian Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil mercury (Hg pollution in some areas of China is a serious problem and has aroused a lot of attention on a local scale. However, there are few studies on Hg pollution on a national scale. This study collected 444 published papers during 2005–2015 on Hg concentrations in agricultural soil throughout China, under seven land uses, namely: dry land, paddy field, vegetable field, tea garden, orchard, traditional Chinese medicine field and tobacco field, to assess the spatial distribution of Hg concentration and evaluate its influence on food safety. The averaged Hg concentration (0.108 mg/kg was higher than its background (0.065 mg/kg, but much lower than the guidelines (GB15618-1995 II for crop production. The spatial distribution of Hg throughout China showed great variability, with some hotspots due to Hg related mining and smelting activities. According to the Environment Quality Standard for soil in China (GB15618-1995 II, 4.2% of agricultural soil should be abandoned due to Hg pollution, and 2.0% faced a high risk of Hg pollution.

  6. Spatial Characteristics, Health Risk Assessment and Sustainable Management of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Soils from Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contents of seven toxic metals (Cu, Cr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Hg and As in soils from Central China, including Henan Province, Hubei Province and Hunan Province, were collected from published papers from 2007 to 2017. The geoaccumulation index, health risk assessment model and statistics were adopted to study the spatial contamination pattern, to assess the human health risks and to identify the priority control pollutants. The concentrations of soil metals in Central China, especially Cd (1.31 mg/kg, Pb (44.43 mg/kg and Hg (0.19 mg/kg, surpassed their corresponding background values, and the Igeo values of Cd and Hg varied the most, ranging from the unpolluted level to the extremely polluted level. The concentrations of toxic metals were higher in the southern and northern parts of Central China, contrasting to the lowest contents in the middle parts. For non-carcinogenic risk, the hazard index (HI values for the children in Hubei Province (1.10 and Hunan Province (1.41 exceeded the safe level of one, with higher health risks to children than adults, and the hazard quotient (HQ values of the three exposure pathways for both children and adults in Central China decreased in the following order: ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. For carcinogenic risk (CR, the CR values for children in Hubei Province (2.55 × 10−4, Hunan Province (3.44 × 10−4 and Henan Province (1.69 × 10−4, and the CR for adults in Hubei Province (3.67 × 10−5, Hunan Province (4.92 × 10−5 and Henan Province (2.45 × 10−5 exceeded the unacceptable level (10−4 and acceptable level (10−6, respectively. Arsenic (As appeared to be the main metalloid for both children and adults causing the high carcinogenic risk. For sustainable development in Central China, special attention should be paid to Cd, Hg, Cr, Pb and As, identified as the priority control soil metals. Importance should also be attached to public education, source control, and the remediation of the

  7. Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Hrdová, Edita

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis is focused on companies risk evaluation before endorsement of Loan deriving from business relationships. The aim of this thesis is not only to describe individual steps of risk assessment, but also perfom analysis of particular companies based on available data, i.e. Balance sheet, Profit and Loss statement and external rating and after that propose solution for each company. My analysis will be based on theoretical knowledge, further on experience related to my job role a...

  8. Risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Elsass, Peter

    2010-01-01

    International research suggests that using formalized risk assessment methods may improve the predictive validity of professionals' predictions of risk of future violence. This study presents data on forensic psychiatric patients discharged from a forensic unit in Denmark in year 2001-2002 (n=107...... and the individual dynamic items strengthen the use of this scheme in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)...

  9. RISK ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY MINING AND SMELTING OF LEAD, ZINC AND CADMIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mining nd smelting of Pb, Zn and Cd ores have caused widespread soil contamination in many countries. In locations with severe soil contamination, and strongly acidic soil or mine waste, ecosystems are devastated. Research has shown that An phytotoxicity, Pb-induced phosphate def...

  10. Derivation of ecological standards for risk assessment of molybdate in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oorts, K.; Smolders, E.; McGrath, S.P.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Carey, S.

    2016-01-01

    An extensive testing programme on the toxicity of sodium molybdate dihydrate in soil was initiated to comply with the European REACH Regulation. The molybdate toxicity was assayed with 11 different bioassays, 10 different soils, soil chemical studies on aging reactions, and toxicity tests before and

  11. Chemical-based risk assessment and in vitro models of human health effects induced by organic pollutants in soils from the Olona valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baderna, Diego, E-mail: diego.baderna@marionegri.it; Colombo, Andrea; Amodei, Giorgia; Cantù, Stefano; Teoldi, Federico; Cambria, Felice; Rotella, Giuseppe; Natolino, Fabrizio; Lodi, Marco; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-10-01

    Risk assessment of soils is usually based on chemical measurements and assuming accidental soil ingestion and evaluating induced toxic and carcinogenic effects. Recently biological tools have been coupled to chemical-based risk assessment since they integrate the biological effects of all xenobiotics in soils. We employed integrated monitoring of soils based on chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro models in the highly urbanized semirural area of the Olona Valley in northern Italy. Chemical characterization of the soils indicated low levels of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants such as PAHs, PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB and human risk assessment did not give any significant alerts. HepG2 and BALB/c 3T3 cells were used as a model for the human liver and as a tool for the evaluation of carcinogenic potential. Cells were treated with soil extractable organic matters (EOMs) and the MTS assay, LDH release and morphological transformation were selected as endpoints for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Soil EOMs induced dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth at low doses and cytotoxicity after exposure to higher doses. This might be the result of block of cell cycle progression to repair DNA damage caused by oxidative stress; if this DNA damage cannot be repaired, cells die. No significant inductions of foci were recorded after exposure to EOMs. These results indicate that, although the extracts contain compounds with proven carcinogenic potential, the levels of these pollutants in the analyzed soils were too low to induce carcinogenesis in our experimental conditions. In this proposed case study, HepG2 cells were found an appropriate tool to assess the potential harm caused by the ingestion of contaminated soil as they were able to detect differences in the toxicity of soil EOMs. Moreover, the cell transformation assay strengthened the combined approach giving useful information on carcinogenic potential of mixtures. Highlights: • A combined approach for risk

  12. Physicochemical Characteristics and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soils in Copper Mining of Nulasai, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina·Tursenjan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking the mining areas, tailings and surrounding farmland soil of the Nulasai copper mine in Xinjiang as the research object, the characteristics of soil physical and characteristics of heavy metal contents in this area were studied, and their ecological and environmental risks were preliminarily evaluated. The results showed that due to the long-term impact of mining wastewater, soil pH in the Nulasai mining area was relatively low. Soil conductivity and salt content were higher than those in the surrounding farmland, while soil organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium and available phosphorus were lower than those in the surrounding farmland. The contents of heavy metals Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn in the mining area, tailing area and farmland soil were all lower than those in Xinjiang except for Cu. Overall, the heavy metal content of the soil manifested the area > tailing area > farmland. Single factor(Pi, Nemerow comprehensive pollution index(I and potential ecological risk index(RI indicated that the ecological risk of heavy metals in the soil around the mining area was manifested tailings > mining area > farmland. The potential ecological risk index of heavy metals in 0~30 cm topsoil was higher than that in 30~70 cm deep soil, but the overall ecological risk was lower in different land use types.

  13. In situ remediation-released zero-valent iron nanoparticles impair soil ecosystems health: A C. elegans biomarker-based risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ying-Fei; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Chung-Min, E-mail: cmliao@ntu.edu.tw

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Fe{sup 0} NPs induced infertility risk in C. elegans. • A C.elegans-based probabilistic risk assessment model is developed. • In situ remediation-released Fe{sup 0} NPs impair soil ecosystems health. - Abstract: There is considerable concern over the potential ecotoxicity to soil ecosystems posed by zero-valent iron nanoparticles (Fe{sup 0} NPs) released from in situ environmental remediation. However, a lack of quantitative risk assessment has hampered the development of appropriate testing methods used in environmental applications. Here we present a novel, empirical approach to assess Fe{sup 0} NPs-associated soil ecosystems health risk using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. A Hill-based dose-response model describing the concentration–fertility inhibition relationships was constructed. A Weibull model was used to estimate thresholds as a guideline to protect C. elegans from infertility when exposed to waterborne or foodborne Fe{sup 0} NPs. Finally, the risk metrics, exceedance risk (ER) and risk quotient (RQ) of Fe{sup 0} NPs in various depths and distances from remediation sites can then be predicted. We showed that under 50% risk probability (ER = 0.5), upper soil layer had the highest infertility risk (95% confidence interval: 13.18–57.40%). The margins of safety and acceptable criteria for soil ecosystems health for using Fe{sup 0} NPs in field scale applications were also recommended. Results showed that RQs are larger than 1 in all soil layers when setting a stricter threshold of ∼1.02 mg L{sup −1} of Fe{sup 0} NPs. This C. elegans biomarker-based risk model affords new insights into the links between widespread use of Fe{sup 0} NPs and environmental risk assessment and offers potential environmental implications of metal-based NPs for in situ remediation.

  14. A hierachical method for soil erosion assessment and spatial risk modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okoth, P.F.

    2003-01-01

      Though a lot has been done and achieved in erosion research and control in Kenya, most of the erosion research methods have in the past put emphasis more on quantifying soil loss or measuring soil erosion, rather than pinpointing to

  15. CSOIL 2000 an exposure model for human risk assessment of soil contamination. A model description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand E; Otte PF; Lijzen JPA; LER

    2007-01-01

    This RIVM description of the CSOIL 2000 model deals, for the first time, with all aspects of the model. CSOIL 2000 can be used to derive intervention values. Intervention values are calculated for contaminated soil and represent a measure for determining when contaminated soil needs to be

  16. Occurrence and quantitative microbial risk assessment of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in soil and air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Balderrama-Carmona

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Soil and air inhalation and/or ingestion are important vehicles for these parasites. To our knowledge, the results obtained in the present study represent the first QMRAs for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis due to soil and air inhalation/ingestion in Mexico. In addition, this is the first evidence of the microbial air quality around these parasites in rural zones.

  17. A GIS technology based potential eco-risk assessment of metals in urban soils in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meie; Bai Yanying; Chen Weiping; Markert, Bernd; Peng Chi; Ouyang Zhiyun

    2012-01-01

    Ecological risks of heavy metals in urban soils were evaluated using Beijing, China as an example. Cadmium, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni contents of 233 surface soils sampled by 1 min latitude × 1 min longitude grid were used to identify their spatial distribution patterns and potential emission sources. Throughout the city, longer the duration of urbanization greater was the accumulations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The soil Zn mainly came from the wears of vehicular tires. Point source emissions of heavy metals were few and far in the downwind south–east quadrant of Beijing. The calculated risk indices showed potential median eco-risks in the ancient central city. No potential high eco-risk due to soil-borne heavy metals was found. The potential medium eco-risk areas in Beijing would expand from the initial 24 to 110 km 2 if soil pH were to reduce by 0.5 units in anticipation. - Highlights: ► Longer the time of urbanization, greater heavy metal accumulations were in the soils. ► Point source emissions of heavy metals are few in Beijing urban areas. ► The Zn enrichments in urban soils were caused by vehicle tires wearing. ► No high eco-risk areas were observed in Beijing. ► The decrease of soil pH will cause the expansion of medium eco-risk areas in Beijing. - Spatial distributions and potential eco-risks of soil-borne heavy metals in Beijing.

  18. Weight-of-evidence approach in assessment of ecotoxicological risks of acid sulphate soils in the Baltic Sea river estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, Jaana, E-mail: jaana.wallin@jyu.fi [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Karjalainen, Anna K. [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Schultz, Eija [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Hakuninmaantie 6, FI-00430 Helsinki (Finland); Järvistö, Johanna; Leppänen, Matti; Vuori, Kari-Matti [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Survontie 9 A, FI-40500 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Acidity and leaching of metals from acid sulphate soils (ASSs) impair the water quality of receiving surface waters. The largest ASS areas in Europe are found in the coasts of the northern Baltic Sea. We used weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach to assess potential risks in 14 estuary sites affected by ASS in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea. The assessment was based on exposure and effect profiles utilizing sediment and water metal concentrations and concurrent pH variation, sediment toxicity tests using the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the midge Chironomus riparius, and the ecological status of benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Sediment metal concentrations were compared to national sediment quality criteria/guidelines, and water metal concentrations to environmental quality standards (EQSs). Hazard quotients (HQs) were established for maximum aluminium, cadmium and zinc concentrations at low pH based on applicable US EPA toxicity database. Sediment metal concentrations were clearly elevated in most of the studied estuaries. The EQS of cadmium (0.1 μg/l) was exceeded in 3 estuaries out of 14. The pH-minima were below the national threshold value (5.5) between good and satisfactory water quality in 10 estuaries. V. fischeri bioluminescence indicated toxicity of the sediments but toxic response was not observed in the C. riparius emergence test. Benthic invertebrate communities were deteriorated in 6 out of 14 sites based on the benthic invertebrate quality index. The overall ecotoxicological risk was assessed as low in five, moderate in three and high in five of the estuary sites. The risk assessment utilizing the WoE approach indicated that harmful effects of ASSs are likely to occur in the Baltic Sea river estuaries located at the ASS hotspot area. - Highlights: • Acid sulphate soils release high amounts of metals and acidity. • Metals and acidity are transported to estuary sites. • Acid sulphate soils impair the ecological status

  19. Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; van den Akker, Jan J.H.; Keller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic...... are not able to carry the loads frequently inflicted on wet soil without exerting critical stresses on deep subsoil layers. We suggest the use of online modeling tools that combine existing knowledge. Such tools may also create maps of vulnerable areas from the field to the continent scale. Groups...

  20. Soil-ecological risks for soil degradation estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonova, Tatiana; Shirkin, Leonid; Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2016-04-01

    possible in qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative forms. It has been shown that two principle indicators: (i) total technogenic load on soil-vegetation cover, (ii) critical load on the researched ecosystem are required for the qualitative assessment of soil-ecological risk for the systems with sod-podzol soils.

  1. Dynamic Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk Using Landsat TM and HJ Satellite Data in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Han

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Danjiangkou reservoir area is the main water source and the submerged area of the Middle Route South-to-North Water Transfer Project of China. Soil erosion is a factor that significantly influences the quality and transfer of water from the Danjiangkou reservoir. The objective of this study is to assess the water erosion (rill and sheet erosion risk and dynamic change trend of spatial distribution in erosion status and intensity between 2004 and 2010 in the Danjiangkou reservoir area using a multicriteria evaluation method.The multicriteria evaluation method synthesizes the vegetation fraction cover, slope gradient, and land use. Based on the rules and erosion risk assessment results of the study area in 2004 and 2010, the research obtained the conservation priority map. This study result shows an improvement in erosion status of the study area, the eroded area decreased from 32.1% in 2004 to 25.43% in 2010. The unchanged regions dominated the study area and that the total area of improvement grade erosion was larger than that of deterioration grade erosion. The severe, more severe, and extremely severe areas decreased by 4.71%, 2.28%, and 0.61% of the total study area, respectively. The percentages of regions where erosion grade transformed from extremely severe to slight, light and moderate were 0.18%, 0.02%, and 0.30%, respectively. However, a deteriorated region with a 2,897.60 km2 area was still observed. This area cannot be ignored in the determination of a general governance scheme. The top two conservation priority levels cover almost all regions with severe erosion and prominent increase in erosion risk, accounting for 7.31% of the study area. The study results can assist government agencies in decision making for determining erosion control areas, starting regulation projects, and making soil conservation measures.

  2. Assessment of potential risks of dietary RNAi to a soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta Brook (Collembola: Entomobryidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huipeng Pan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available RNAi-based genetically engineered (GE crops for the management of insect pests are likely to be commercialized by the end of this decade. Without a workable framework for conducting the ecological risk assessment (ERA and a standardized ERA protocol, however, the utility of RNAi transgenic crops in pest management remains uncertain. The overall goal of this study is to assess the risks of RNAi-based GE crops on a non-target soil micro-arthropod, Sinella curviseta, which could be exposed to plant-protected dsRNAs deposited in crop residues. Based on the preliminary research, we hypothesized that insecticidal dsRNAs targeting at the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, a billion-dollar insect pest, has no adverse impacts on S. curviseta, a soil decomposer. Following a tiered approach, we tested this risk hypothesis using a well-designed dietary RNAi toxicity assay. To create the worst-case scenario, the full-length cDNA of v-ATPase subunit A from S. curviseta were cloned and a 400 bp fragment representing the highest sequence similarity between target pest and non-target arthropods was selected as the template to synthesize insecticidal dsRNAs. Specifically, 10-day old S. curviseta larvae were subjected to artificial diets containing v-ATPase A dsRNAs from both D. v. virgifera (dsDVV and S. curviseta (dsSC, respectively, a dsRNA control, β-glucuronidase, from plant (dsGUS, and a vehicle control, H2O. The endpoint measurements included gene expression profiles, survival, and life history traits, such as developmental time, fecundity, hatching rate, and body length. Although S. curviseta larvae developed significantly faster under the treatments of dsDVV and dsSC than the vehicle control, the combined results from both temporal RNAi effect study and dietary RNAi toxicity assay support the risk hypothesis, suggesting that the impacts of ingested arthropod-active dsRNAs on this representative soil decomposer are negligible.

  3. Selection of focal earthworm species as non-target soil organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelle, Christine; Schrader, Stefan; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    By means of a literature survey, earthworm species of significant relevance for soil functions in different biogeographical regions of Europe (Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean) were identified. These focal earthworm species, defined here according to the EFSA Guidance Document on the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified plants, are typical for arable soils under crop rotations with maize and/or potatoes within the three regions represented by Ireland, Sweden and Spain, respectively. Focal earthworm species were selected following a matrix of four steps: Identification of functional groups, categorization of non-target species, ranking species on ecological criteria, and final selection of focal species. They are recommended as appropriate non-target organisms to assess environmental risks of genetically modified (GM) crops; in this case maize and potatoes. In total, 44 literature sources on earthworms in arable cropping systems including maize or potato from Ireland, Sweden and Spain were collected, which present information on species diversity, individual density and specific relevance for soil functions. By means of condensed literature data, those species were identified which (i) play an important functional role in respective soil systems, (ii) are well adapted to the biogeographical regions, (iii) are expected to occur in high abundances under cultivation of maize or potato and (iv) fulfill the requirements for an ERA test system based on life-history traits. First, primary and secondary decomposers were identified as functional groups being exposed to the GM crops. In a second step, anecic and endogeic species were categorized as potential species. In step three, eight anecic and endogeic earthworm species belonging to the family Lumbricidae were ranked as relevant species: Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea longa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus friendi, Octodrilus complanatus and

  4. Contamination source apportionment and health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil around municipal solid waste incinerator: A case study in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Tai, Lingyu; Qiao, Zhi; Zhong, Lei; Wang, Zhen; Fu, Kaixuan; Chen, Guanyi

    2018-08-01

    Few studies have comprehensively taken into account the source apportionment and human health risk of soil heavy metals in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in high population density area. In this study, 8 elements (Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg, and As) in fly ash, soil samples from different functional areas and vegetables collected surrounding the MSWI in North China were determined. The single pollution index, integrated Nemerow pollution index, principal component analysis (PCA), absolute principle component score-multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) model and dose-response model were used in this study. The results showed that the soils around the MSWI were moderately polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn, and Hg, and heavily polluted by As and Cd. MSWI had a significant influence on the distribution of soil heavy metals in different distances from MSWI. The source apportionment results showed that MSWI, natural source, industrial discharges and coal combustion were the four major potential sources for heavy metals in the soils, with the contributions of 36.08%, 29.57%, 10.07%, and 4.55%, respectively. MSWI had a major impact on Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg contamination in soil. The non-carcinogenic risk and carcinogenic risk posed by soil heavy metals surrounding the MSWI were unacceptable. The soil heavy metals concentrations and health risks in different functional areas were distinct. MSWI was the predominate source of non-carcinogenic risk with the average contribution rate of 36.99% and carcinogenic risk to adult male, adult female and children with 4.23×10 -4 , 4.57×10 -4 , and 1.41×10 -4 respectively, implying that the impact of MSWI on human health was apparent. This study provided a new insight for the source apportionment and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in the vicinity of MSWI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Human Health Risk Assessment of 16 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils of Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Erika; Richards, Sean; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Dixon, Robert P; Johnson, Kevin A

    2012-11-01

    South Chattanooga has been home to foundries, coke furnaces, chemical, wood preserving, tanning and textile plants for over 100 years. Most of the industries were in place before any significant development of residential property in the area. During the 1950s and 1960s, however, the government purchased inexpensive property and constructed public housing projects in South Chattanooga. Many neighborhoods that surround the Chattanooga Creek were previous dumping grounds for industry. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprised the largest component of the dumping and airborne industrial emissions. To address the human exposure to these PAHs, a broad study of South Chattanooga soil contaminant concentrations was conducted on 20 sites across the city. Sixteen priority pollutant PAHs were quantified at two depths (0-10cm and 10-20cm) and compared against reference site soils, as well as to soils from industrially-impacted areas in Germany, China, and the US. From these data, the probability that people would encounter levels exceeding EPA Residential Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRG) was calculated. Results indicate that South Chattanooga soils have relatively high concentrations of total PAHs, specifically Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). These high concentrations of B[a]P were somewhat ubiquitous in South Chattanooga. Indeed, there is a high probability (88%) of encountering soil in South Chattanooga that exceeds the EPA PRG for B[a]P. However, there is a low probability (15%) of encountering a site with ∑PAHs exceeding EPA PRG guidelines.

  6. Distribution, correlation and risk assessment of selected metals in urban soils from Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Javed; Shah, Munir H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Water-extract and acid-extract of the soils were analysed for selected metals. → The soils were anthropogenically polluted by Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Zn and Mn. → Moderate to heavy contamination for Pb and Cd was indicated by I geo and C f . → Most of the metals showed random distribution and diverse correlations. → Overall, considerable degree of contamination was observed in both seasons. - Abstract: Urban soil samples were analyzed for Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Sr and Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Multivariate statistical approach was used to study the apportionment of selected metals in the soil samples during summer and winter. The degree of contamination along with the geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor and contamination factor was also evaluated. In water-extract of the soil samples, relatively higher levels were noted for Na, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, and Pb with average concentrations of 56.38, 33.82, 12.53, 7.127, 5.994, and 1.045 mg/kg during summer, while the mean metal levels during winter were 76.45, 38.05, 3.928, 0.627, 8.726, and 0.878 mg/kg, respectively. In case of acid-extract of the soils, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, K, Mn and Sr were found at 27,531, 12,784, 2769, 999.9, 737.9, 393.5, and 115.1 mg/kg, during summer and 23,386, 3958, 3206, 254.6, 1511, 453.6, and 53.30 mg/kg, during winter, respectively. Most of the metals showed random distribution with diverse correlations in both seasons. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis revealed significant anthropogenic intrusions of Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Zn and Na in the soils. Geoaccumulation indices and contamination factors indicated moderate to heavy contamination for Pb and Cd in the soils, while enrichment factor exhibited significant enrichment (EF > 5) of Cd, Pb, Ca, Co, Li, Mn and Zn by anthropogenic activities. Overall, on the average basis, considerable degree of contamination (C deg > 16) was observed in both seasons, although

  7. Risk assessment for mineral oil : development of standardized analitical methods in soil and soil-like materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, J.; Hutter, J.W.; Win, T.; Barnabas, I.; Whittle, P.; Hansen, N.; Sakai, H.

    2005-01-01

    The present standard methods for the determination of mineral oil in environmental matrices give a total concentration. This concentration is not found to be a good estimate for ecotoxicological, human and agricultural risks. It is shown that the existing ISO standards for mineral oil and volatile

  8. Spatio-temporal assessment of soil erosion risk in different agricultural zones of the Inle Lake region, southern Shan State, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htwe, Thin Nwe; Brinkmann, Katja; Buerkert, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Myanmar is one of Southeast Asia's climatically most diverse countries, where sheet, rill, and gully erosion affect crop yields and subsequently livelihood strategies of many people. In the unique wetland ecosystem of Inle Lake, soil erosion in surrounding uplands lead to sedimentation and pollution of the water body. The current study uses the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) to identify soil erosion risks of the Inle Lake region in space and time and to assess the relationship between soil erosion and degradation for different agricultural zones and cropping systems. Altogether, 85% of soil losses occurred on barren land along the steep slopes. The hotspot of soil erosion risk is situated in the western uplands characterized by unsustainable land use practices combined with a steep topography. The estimated average soil losses amounted to 19.9, 10.1, and 26.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in 1989, 2000, and 2009, respectively. These fluctuations were mainly the results of changes in precipitation and land cover (deforestation (-19%) and expansion of annual cropland (+35%) from 1989 to 2009). Most farmers in the study area have not yet adopted effective soil protection measures to mitigate the effects of soil erosion such as land degradation and water pollution of the lake reservoir. This urgently needs to be addressed by policy makers and extension services.

  9. Cadmium mobility in sediments and soils from a coal mining area on Tibagi River watershed: Environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galunin, Evgeny; Ferreti, Jeferson; Zapelini, Iago; Vieira, Isadora; Ricardo Teixeira Tarley, César [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Abrão, Taufik [Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Santos, Maria Josefa, E-mail: mjyabe@uel.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • The cadmium sorption–desorption behavior on environmental samples was investigated. • The sorption decreased due to competition between Cd and protons in aqueous medium. • The experimental data were successfully adjusted to the Langmuir–Freundlich model. • The role of low-energy non-specific sites on the sample surfaces was elucidated. • The desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium pollution. -- Abstract: The risk of cadmium contamination in the Tibagi River watershed (Parana State, Brazil) affected by past coal mining activities was assessed through sorption–desorption modeling for sediment and soil samples. The acidic character of the samples resulted in more competition between the cadmium ions and protons, thereby influencing the cadmium sorption–desorption. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich single models and to the dual-site Langmuir–Freundlich (or Sips) model. The single-site models indicated a low-energy character of sorption sites on the sample sorption sites, whereas the dual-site model explained the availability of higher-affinity and lower-affinity non-specific sites. The correlation of the sorption and desorption constants with the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the samples showed that the cadmium sorption behavior was significantly affected by the pH, point of zero charge, and also by the magnesium, aluminum, calcium and manganese amounts. Besides, the desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium mobilization along the Tibagi River basin.

  10. Pollution potential leaching index as a tool to assess water leaching risk of arsenic in excavated urban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jining; Kosugi, Tomoya; Riya, Shohei; Hashimoto, Yohey; Hou, Hong; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2018-01-01

    Leaching of hazardous trace elements from excavated urban soils during construction of cities has received considerable attention in recent years in Japan. A new concept, the pollution potential leaching index (PPLI), was applied to assess the risk of arsenic (As) leaching from excavated soils. Sequential leaching tests (SLT) with two liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios (10 and 20Lkg -1 ) were conducted to determine the PPLI values, which represent the critical cumulative L/S ratios at which the average As concentrations in the cumulative leachates are reduced to critical values (10 or 5µgL -1 ). Two models (a logarithmic function model and an empirical two-site first-order leaching model) were compared to estimate the PPLI values. The fractionations of As before and after SLT were extracted according to a five-step sequential extraction procedure. Ten alkaline excavated soils were obtained from different construction projects in Japan. Although their total As contents were low (from 6.75 to 79.4mgkg -1 ), the As leaching was not negligible. Different L/S ratios at each step of the SLT had little influence on the cumulative As release or PPLI values. Experimentally determined PPLI values were in agreement with those from model estimations. A five-step SLT with an L/S of 10Lkg -1 at each step, combined with a logarithmic function fitting was suggested for the easy estimation of PPLI. Results of the sequential extraction procedure showed that large portions of more labile As fractions (non-specifically and specifically sorbed fractions) were removed during long-term leaching and so were small, but non-negligible, portions of strongly bound As fractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in soil near a Pb/Zn smelter in Feng County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng; Liao, Renmei; Ali, Amjad; Mahar, Amanullah; Guo, Di; Li, Ronghua; Xining, Sun; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-05-01

    A large scale survey and a small scale continuous monitoring was conducted to evaluate the impact of Pb/Zn smelting on soil heavy metals (HMs) accumulation and potential ecological risk in Feng County, Shaanxi province of China. Soil parameters including pH, texture, CEC, spatial and temporal distribution of HMs (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), and BCR fractionation were monitored accordingly. The results showed the topsoil in the proximity of smelter, especially the smelter area and county seat, were highly polluted by HMs in contrast to the river basins. Fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil samples revealed higher proportion of mobile fractions than other HMs. The soil Cd and Zn contents decreased vertically, but still exceeded the second level limits of Environmental Quality Standard for Soils of China (EQSS) within 80cm. The dominated soil pollutant (Cd) had higher ecological risk than Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb. The potential ecological risk (PER) factor of Cd were 65.7% and 100% in surrounding county and smelter area, respectively. The long-term smelter dust emission mainly contributed to the HMs pollution and posed serious environment risk to living beings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines). (U.K.)

  13. Speciation, sources, and risk assessment of heavy metals in suburban vegetable garden soil in Xianyang City, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Tao, Wendong; Smardon, Richard C.; Xu, Xue; Lu, Xinwei

    2018-06-01

    Intensive anthropogenic activities can lead to soil heavy metal contamination resulting in potential risks to the environment and to human health. To reveal the concentrations, speciation, sources, pollution level, and ecological risk of heavy metals in vegetable garden soil, a total of 136 soil samples were collected from three vegetable production fields in the suburbs of Xianyang City, Northwest China. These samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Hg in vegetable garden soil were higher than the corresponding soil element background values of Shaanxi Province. The heavy metals studied in vegetable garden soil were primarily found in the residual fraction, averaging from 31.26% (Pb) to 90.23% (Cr). Considering the non-residual fractions, the mobility or potential risk was in the order of Pb (68.74%)>Co (60.54%)>Mn (59.28%) >Cd (53.54%) ≫Ni (23.36%) >Zn (22.73%)>Cu (14.93%)>V (11.81%)>Cr (9.78%). Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and As in the studied soil were related to soilforming parent materials, while Cu, Hg, Zn, Cd, Co, and Pb were associated with the application of plastic films, fertilizers, and pesticides, as well as traffic emissions and industrial fumes. Cr, Ni, V, and As presented low contamination levels, whereas Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn levels were moderate, and Cd and Hg were high. Ecological risk was low for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and As, with high risk observed for Cd and Hg. The overall pollution level and ecological risk of these heavy metals were high.

  14. Speciation, sources, and risk assessment of heavy metals in suburban vegetable garden soil in Xianyang City, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Tao, Wendong; Smardon, Richard C.; Xu, Xue; Lu, Xinwei

    2017-07-01

    Intensive anthropogenic activities can lead to soil heavy metal contamination resulting in potential risks to the environment and to human health. To reveal the concentrations, speciation, sources, pollution level, and ecological risk of heavy metals in vegetable garden soil, a total of 136 soil samples were collected from three vegetable production fields in the suburbs of Xianyang City, Northwest China. These samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma- atomic emission spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and Hg in vegetable garden soil were higher than the corresponding soil element background values of Shaanxi Province. The heavy metals studied in vegetable garden soil were primarily found in the residual fraction, averaging from 31.26% (Pb) to 90.23% (Cr). Considering the non-residual fractions, the mobility or potential risk was in the order of Pb (68.74%)>Co (60.54%)>Mn (59.28%) >Cd (53.54%) ≫Ni (23.36%) >Zn (22.73%)>Cu (14.93%)>V (11.81%)>Cr (9.78%). Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and As in the studied soil were related to soilforming parent materials, while Cu, Hg, Zn, Cd, Co, and Pb were associated with the application of plastic films, fertilizers, and pesticides, as well as traffic emissions and industrial fumes. Cr, Ni, V, and As presented low contamination levels, whereas Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn levels were moderate, and Cd and Hg were high. Ecological risk was low for Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, and As, with high risk observed for Cd and Hg. The overall pollution level and ecological risk of these heavy metals were high.

  15. A GIS technology based potential eco-risk assessment of metals in urban soils in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meie; Bai, Yanying; Chen, Weiping; Markert, Bernd; Peng, Chi; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2012-02-01

    Ecological risks of heavy metals in urban soils were evaluated using Beijing, China as an example. Cadmium, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Ni contents of 233 surface soils sampled by 1 min latitude × 1 min longitude grid were used to identify their spatial distribution patterns and potential emission sources. Throughout the city, longer the duration of urbanization greater was the accumulations of heavy metals especially, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The soil Zn mainly came from the wears of vehicular tires. Point source emissions of heavy metals were few and far in the downwind south-east quadrant of Beijing. The calculated risk indices showed potential median eco-risks in the ancient central city. No potential high eco-risk due to soil-borne heavy metals was found. The potential medium eco-risk areas in Beijing would expand from the initial 24 to 110 km(2) if soil pH were to reduce by 0.5 units in anticipation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Potentially toxic elements in soil of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and Tribal areas, Pakistan: evaluation for human and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddique, Umar; Muhammad, Said; Tariq, Mohsin; Zhang, Hua; Arif, Mohammad; Jadoon, Ishtiaq A K; Khattak, Nimat Ullah

    2018-03-22

    Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) contaminations in the soil ecosystem are considered as extremely hazardous due to toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulative nature. Therefore, this study was aimed to summarize the results of published PTEs in soil of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Tribal areas, Pakistan. Results were evaluated for the pollution quantification factors, including contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), ecological risk index (ERI) and human health risk assessment. The highest CF (797) and PLI (7.35) values were observed for Fe and ERI (857) values for Cd. Soil PTEs concentrations were used to calculate the human exposure for the risk assessment, including chronic or non-carcinogenic risks such as the hazard quotient (HQ) and carcinogenic or cancer risk (CR). The values of HQ were > 1 for the Cd, Co and Cr in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Tribal areas. Tribal areas showed higher values of ERI, HQ, and CR as compared to the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa that were attributed to the mining activities, weathering and erosion of mafic and ultramafic bedrocks hosting ophiolites. This study strongly recommends that best control measures need to be taken for soil PTEs with the intent to alleviate any continuing potential threat to the human health, property and environment, which otherwise could enter ecosystem and ultimately the living beings. Further studies are recommended to combat the soil PTEs concentrations and toxicity in the Tribal areas for a best picture of understanding the element effects on human, and environment can be achieved that will lead to a sustainable ecological harmony.

  17. Contaminant Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Lead-Zincs Melting Plant in Huize County, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xiao-yan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore history environmental problems of lead-zinc smelting, Huize County, Yunnan Province, forty-two surface soil samples were collected randomly from 14 sampling sites surrounding lead-zinc smelting plant. Heavy metals(Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg in all samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. Contamination characteristics of heavy metals in soils were observed on the basis of background values of comprehensive pollution index method. Potential risk was evaluated by using the geoaccumulation index(Igeo, potential ecological risk index(RI and health risk assessment method. The results indicated that the average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, As and Hg were 92.25, 226.81, 1 567.45, 65.16, 394.66, 1 451.63, 11.16, 43.81, 0.47 mg·kg-1, respectively. Based on the Environmental Quality Standard for Soil, the multiple super scale of Cd concentration was highest, more than 274 times. According to the Igeo, Cd ranged from partial severity to serious degree. The RI indicated that the soils around lead-zinc smelting plant were at the serious ecological hazard level. Health risk assessment showed that Pb and Cd in soils surrounding old site had potential health risk to children.

  18. Assessing the underlying breast cancer risk of Chinese females contributed by dietary intake of residual DDT from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mengling; Zhao, Meirong; Zhou, Shanshan; Chen, Kun; Zhang, Chunlong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-12-01

    The greatest concern over DDT exposure in China arose since the early 1990s for the rising breast cancer incidence, and the cause still remains to be elucidated. An extensive survey of DDT background in agricultural soils, covered the entire region of China, was conducted. DDT at concentrations greater than 100 ng/g (the China's Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards for Edible Agricultural Products) was found to impact 42.3 million Chinese population. Considering the geographical differences with diverse DDT contributions and different diet products and habits, the average daily dietary intake was modeled and estimated to be 0.34 μg/kg p,p'-DDE (the main bioactive constituent in DDT). Population attributable fraction derived from a case-control study from 78 women with breast cancer and 72 controls was used to assess the DDT exposure risk to breast cancer. Based on the estimated population attributable fraction with a median value of 0.6% (IQR 0.23-2.11%), the excess annual breast cancer incidence rate attributable to p,p'-DDE exposure averaged 0.06×10(-5) with significant spatial variations varying from 0.00021×10(-5) to 11.05×10(-5) in Chinese females. Exposure to DDT is a contributor to breast cancer, but the overall limited relative risk and population attributable fraction imply confounding factors for breast cancer in Chinese females. Exposure risk in a regional scale helps understand the cause and prevention of breast cancer. Our mapping and modeling method could be used to assess other environmental carcinogens and related cancer diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Assessment and Source Identification of 17 Metals and Metalloids on Soils from the Half-Century Old Tungsten Mining Areas in Lianhuashan, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Zhao, Weituo; Gu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Xinyun; Chen, Juan; Cheng, Shenggao

    2017-11-29

    Background: Mining activities always emit metal(loid)s into the surrounding environment, where their accumulation in the soil may pose risks and hazards to humans and ecosystems. Objective : This paper aims to determine of the type, source, chemical form, fate and transport, and accurate risk assessment of 17 metal(loid) contaminants including As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ag, B, Bi, Co, Mo, Sb, Ti, V, W and Sn in the soils collected from an abandoned tungsten mining area, and to guide the implementing of appropriate remediation strategies. Methods : Contamination factors ( CFs ) and integrated pollution indexes ( IPIs ) and enrichment factors ( EFs ) were used to assess their ecological risk and the sources were identified by using multivariate statistics analysis, spatial distribution investigation and correlation matrix. Results : The IPI and EF values indicated the soils in the mine site and the closest downstream one were extremely disturbed by metal(loid)s such as As, Bi, W, B, Cu, Pb and Sn, which were emitted from the mining wastes and acid drainages and delivered by the runoff and human activities. Arsenic contamination was detected in nine sites with the highest CF values at 24.70 next to the mining site. The Cd contamination scattered in the paddy soils around the resident areas with higher fraction of bioavailable forms, primarily associated with intense application of phosphorus fertilizer. The lithogenic elements V, Ti, Ag, Ni, Sb, Mo exhibit low contamination in all sampling points and their distribution were depended on the soil texture and pedogenesis process. Conclusions : The long term historical mining activities have caused severe As contamination and higher enrichment of the other elements of orebody in the local soils. The appropriate remediation treatment approach should be proposed to reduce the bioavailability of Cd in the paddy soils and to immobilize As to reclaim the soils around the mining site. Furthermore, alternative fertilizing way

  20. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in urban soil in the typical semi-arid city of Xi'an, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Liu, Mengmei; Tao, Wendong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Wang, Li; Shi, Xingmin; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Xiaoping

    2018-01-01

    A total of 62 urban soil samples were collected in the city of Xi'an in Northwest China, and analyzed for six U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority phthalate esters (PAEs). Unlike earlier studies on PAEs in agricultural soil as well as urban soil in humid climates, this paper for the first time comprehensively assessed pollution characteristics and health risks of human exposure to PAEs in urban soil in a typical semi-arid climate. The total concentrations of the six PAEs (Σ6PAEs) in the urban soil varied between 193.0 and 19146.4 μg kg -1 with a mean of 1369.3 μg kg -1 . The PAEs were dominated by di-n-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Magnetic susceptibility and soil texture were controlling factors influencing the concentrations of PAEs in the urban soil. The concentrations of benzyl butyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and Σ6PAEs increased from the first to third ring roads, while the concentrations of di-n-octyl phthalate decreased. Relatively higher levels of PAEs were observed in industrial, traffic, and residential areas. The PAEs in the urban soil originated mainly from the application of plasticizers or additives, use of cosmetics and personal care products, emissions of construction materials and home furnishings, industrial processes, and atmospheric deposition. The concentrations of some PAEs in the urban soil exceeded soil allowable concentrations and environmental risk levels. The non-cancer and carcinogenic risks of human exposure to the PAEs were relatively low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comprehensive assessment of soil erosion risk for better land use planning in river basins: Case study of the Upper Blue Nile River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Poesen, Jean; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Nyssen, Jan; Adgo, Enyew

    2017-01-01

    In the drought-prone Upper Blue Nile River (UBNR) basin of Ethiopia, soil erosion by water results in significant consequences that also affect downstream countries. However, there have been limited comprehensive studies of this and other basins with diverse agroecologies. We analyzed the variability of gross soil loss and sediment yield rates under present and expected future conditions using a newly devised methodological framework. The results showed that the basin generates an average soil loss rate of 27.5tha -1 yr -1 and a gross soil loss of ca. 473Mtyr -1 , of which, at least 10% comes from gully erosion and 26.7% leaves Ethiopia. In a factor analysis, variation in agroecology (average factor score=1.32) and slope (1.28) were the two factors most responsible for this high spatial variability. About 39% of the basin area is experiencing severe to very severe (>30tha -1 yr -1 ) soil erosion risk, which is strongly linked to population density. Severe or very severe soil erosion affects the largest proportion of land in three subbasins of the UBNR basin: Blue Nile 4 (53.9%), Blue Nile 3 (45.1%), and Jema Shet (42.5%). If appropriate soil and water conservation practices targeted ca. 77.3% of the area with moderate to severe erosion (>15tha -1 yr -1 ), the total soil loss from the basin could be reduced by ca. 52%. Our methodological framework identified the potential risk for soil erosion in large-scale zones, and with a more sophisticated model and input data of higher spatial and temporal resolution, results could be specified locally within these risk zones. Accurate assessment of soil erosion in the UBNR basin would support sustainable use of the basin's land resources and possibly open up prospects for cooperation in the Eastern Nile region. Copyright © 2016 Office national des forêts. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Medicago sativa L. and compost on organic and inorganic pollutant removal from a mixed contaminated soil and risk assessment using ecotoxicological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Charlotte; Hogland, William; Kaczala, Fabio; Jani, Yahya; Marchand, Lilian; Augustsson, Anna; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Several Gentle Remediation Options (GRO), e.g., plant-based options (phytoremediation), singly and combined with soil amendments, can be simultaneously efficient for degrading organic pollutants and either stabilizing or extracting trace elements (TEs). Here, a 5-month greenhouse trial was performed to test the efficiency of Medicago sativa L., singly and combined with a compost addition (30% w/w), to treat soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), Co and Pb collected at an auto scrap yard. After 5 months, total soil Pb significantly decreased in the compost-amended soil planted with M. sativa, but not total soil Co. Compost incorporation into the soil promoted PHC degradation, M. sativa growth and survival, and shoot Pb concentrations [3.8 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW)]. Residual risk assessment after the phytoremediation trial showed a positive effect of compost amendment on plant growth and earthworm development. The O2 uptake by soil microorganisms was lower in the compost-amended soil, suggesting a decrease in microbial activity. This study underlined the benefits of the phytoremediation option based on M. sativa cultivation and compost amendment for remediating PHC- and Pb-contaminated soils.

  3. Ecological and health risks assessment and spatial distribution of residual heavy metals in the soil of an e-waste circular economy park in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Gao, Guanghai; Geng, Jinyao; Li, Yao; Wang, Yingying

    2018-04-01

    Ziya Circular Economy Park is the biggest e-waste recycle park in North China before 2011, its function was then transformed in response to regulations and rules. In this paper, investigation was conducted to research the residual concentrations of 14 analytes (12 heavy metals and 2 non-metals) in the surface soil of Ziya Circular Economy Park and surrounding area. Both ecological and health assessments were evaluated using GI (geo-accumulation index) and NPI (Nemerow pollution index), and associated health risk was assessed by using USEPA model. According to the ecological risk assessment, Cu, Sb, Cd, Zn and Co were seriously enriched in the soil of the studied area. The health risk assessment proposed by USEPA indicated no significant health risks to the population. Soil properties, such as pH and organic matter, were found to correlate with the enrichment of heavy metals. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were found positively correlated to dead bacteria concentrations. Spatial distribution of heavy metals revealed that Ziya Circular Economy Park was the dominant pollution source in the studied area. Findings in this study suggest that enough attention should be payed to the heavy metal pollution in Ziya Circular Economy Park. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk Assessment and Source Identification of 17 Metals and Metalloids on Soils from the Half-Century Old Tungsten Mining Areas in Lianhuashan, Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Li; Zhao, Weituo; Gu, Xiaowen; Zhao, Xinyun; Chen, Juan; Cheng, Shenggao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mining activities always emit metal(loid)s into the surrounding environment, where their accumulation in the soil may pose risks and hazards to humans and ecosystems. Objective: This paper aims to determine of the type, source, chemical form, fate and transport, and accurate risk assessment of 17 metal(loid) contaminants including As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ag, B, Bi, Co, Mo, Sb, Ti, V, W and Sn in the soils collected from an abandoned tungsten mining area, and to guide the imple...

  5. The effects of preferential flow and soil texture on risk assessments of a NORM waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontedeiro, E.M.; Genuchten, M.Th. van; Cotta, R.M.; Simunek, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the environmental fate of radionuclide decay chains (specially the 238 U and 232 Th series) being released from a conventional mining installation processing ore containing natural occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). Contaminated waste at the site is being disposed off in an industrial landfill on top of a base of earth material to ensure integrity of the deposit over relatively long geologic times (thousands of years). Brazilian regulations, like those of many other countries, require a performance assessment of the disposal facility using a leaching and off-site transport scenario. We used for this purpose the HYDRUS-1D software package to predict long-term radionuclide transport vertically through both the landfill and the underlying unsaturated zone, and then laterally in groundwater. We assumed that a downgradient well intercepting groundwater was the only source of water for a resident farmer, and that all contaminated water from the well was somehow used in the biosphere. The risk assessment was carried out for both a best-case scenario assuming equilibrium transport in a fine-textured (clay) subsurface, and a worst-case scenario involving preferential flow through a more coarse-textured subsurface. Results show that preferential flow and soil texture both can have a major effect on the results, depending upon the specific radionuclide involved.

  6. Temporal Variation and Ecological Risk Assessment of Metals in Soil Nearby a Pb⁻Zn Mine in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Congcong; Wang, Li; Li, Hairong; Wei, Binggan; Yang, Linsheng

    2018-05-09

    Metal contamination in soil from tailings induces risks for the ecosystem and for humans. In this study, the concentrations and ecological risks of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil contaminated by a tailing from Yangshuo (YS) lead and zinc (Pb⁻Zn) mine, which collapsed for more than 40 years, were determined in 2015. The mean concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd were 1301.79, 768.41, 82.60, and 4.82 mg/kg, respectively, which, with years of remediation activities, decreased by 66.9%, 61.7%, 65.4%, and 65.3% since 1986, but still exceed the national standards. From 1986 to 2015, soil pH increased significantly, with available concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd decreasing by 13%, 81%, 77%, and 67%, respectively, and potential ecological risk indexes ( E r ) of the determined metals decreasing by more than 60%. Horizontally, total contents and percentages of available concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd decreased with the distance from the tailing heap in SD village, while pH values showed the reverse pattern. Vertically, Zn and Cd, Pb, and Cu showed similar vertical distribution patterns in the soil profiles. There was a slight downward migration for the determined metals in soil of M and H area and the mobility was in the order of Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu. It can be concluded that although concentrations and ecological risks of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil decreased significantly, SD village is still a high risk area, and the priority pollutant is Cd.

  7. Selenium and hazardous elements distribution in plant-soil-water system and human health risk assessment of Lower Cambrian, Southern Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yajun; Luo, Kunli; Ni, Runxiang; Hussain, Rahib

    2018-03-01

    The natural selenium poisoning due to toxic Se levels in food chain had been observed in humans and animals in Lower Cambrian outcrop areas in Southern Shaanxi, China. To find out the distribution pattern of selenium and other hazardous elements in the plant, soil and water of Lower Cambrian in Southern Shaanxi, China, and their possible potential health risk, a total of 30 elements were analyzed and the health risk assessment of 18 elements was calculated. Results showed that the soil, plant and natural water of Lower Cambrian all had relatively high Se levels. In Lower Cambrian, the soil was enriched with Se, As, Ba, Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, Ga, Cd and Cr (1.68 food intake was the major pathway. For minimizing potential health risk, the local inhabitants should use the mix-imported food with local growing foods.

  8. Mercury emissions from flooded soils and sediments in Germany are an underestimated problem: challenges for reliable risk assessments and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinklebe J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by mercury is a world-wide problem. Particularly floodplain ecosystems are frequently affected. One example is the Elbe River in Germany and its catchment areas; large amounts of Hg from a range of anthropogenic and geogenic sources have been accumulated in the soils of these floodplains. They serve as sink for Hg originating from the surface water of adjacent river. Today, the vastly elevated Hg contents of the floodplain soils at the Elbe River often exceed even the action values of the German Soil Conservation Law. This is especially important as Hg polluted areas at the Elbe River achieve several hundred square kilometres. Thus, authorities are coerced by law to conduct an appropriate risk assessment and to implement practical actions to eliminate or reduce environmental problems. A reliable risk assessment particularly with view to organisms (vegetation as green fodder and hay production, grazing and wild animals to avoid the transfer of Hg into the human food chain, requires an authentic determination of Hg fluxes and their dynamics since gaseous emissions from soil to atmosphere are an important pathway of Hg. However, reliable estimates of Hg fluxes from the highly polluted floodplain soils at the Elbe River and its tributaries, and its influencing factors are scarce. For this purpose, we have developed a new method to determine mercury emissions from soils at various sites. Our objectives were i to quantify seasonal variations of total gaseous mercury (TGM fluxes for floodplain soils at the Elbe River, ii to provide insights into physico-chemical processes regulating these TGM fluxes, and iii to quantify the impacts of the controlling factors soil temperature and soil water content on Hg volatilization from a typical contaminated floodplain soil within soil microcosm experiments under various controlled temperature and moisture conditions. Our study provides insight into TGM emissions from highly Hg

  9. Persistence and risk assessment of emamectin benzoate residues on okra fruits and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Chahil, G S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-08-01

    Emamectin benzoate, a synthetic derivative of abamectin, is found effective against fruit borer and jassid in okra crops. The present studies were carried out to study the dissipation pattern of emamectin benzoate on okra and to suggest a suitable waiting period for the safety of consumers. Following three applications of emamectin benzoate (Proclaim 5 SG) at 68.1 and 136.2 g a.i. ha-1, the average initial deposits of emamectin benzoate were observed to be 0.22 and 0.42mg kg-1, respectively. These residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.05 mg kg-1 after 5 days at both the dosages. Soil samples collected after 15 days did not reveal the presence of emamectin benzoate at LOQ of 0.05 mg kg-1. Acceptable daily intake (ADI) of emamectin benzoate is 0.0005 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, which means an adult of 55 kg weight can safely tolerate an intake of 27.50 microg emamectin benzoate. Assuming an average consumption of 80 g okra fruit and multiplying it by average and maximum residues observed on 0 day at recommended dosage, the intake of emamectin benzoate comes out to be about 20 Itg and these values are quite safe in comparison to its ADI. These studies, therefore, suggest that the use of emamectin benzoate at the minimum effective dosages do not seem to pose any hazards to the consumers if a waiting period of 1 day is observed.

  10. Risk assessment of heavy metal pollution for detritivores in floodplain soils in the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, taking bioavailability into account.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Floodplains of the European rivers Rhine and Meuse are heavily polluted. We investigated the risk of heavy metal pollution (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) for detritivores living in a floodplain area, the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, affected by these rivers. Total soil, pore water and 0.01 M CaCl

  11. Distribution, source identification and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in urban areas of Isfahan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Sharifi, Reza; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Kermani, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    The present study examines some heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) contents in urban soils of 23 cities in Isfahan province, central Iran. For this purpose, 83 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by ICP-MS. Results showed that the concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are higher than background values, while Co, Cr and Ni concentrations are close to the background. Compared with heavy metal concentrations in selected cities around the world, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in urban soils of Isfahan are relatively enriched. Moreover, natural background concentrations of Co, Cr and Ni in Isfahan province soil are high and the apparent enrichment relative to other major cities of the world is due to this high background contents. Calculated contamination factor (CF) confirmed that As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are extremely enriched in the urban soils. Furthermore, pollution load index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) highlighted that highly contaminated cities are mostly affected by pollution from traffic, industries and Shahkuh Pb-Zn mine. Based on hazard quotients (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR) calculated in this study, human health risk (particularly for Pb and Cd) have reached alarming scales. Results from principle component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) introduces three sources for soils heavy metals including mine and industries (mainly for Pb, Zn, Cd and As); urban activities (particularly for Cu, Pb and Zn); and geogenic source (Ni, Co and Cr).

  12. Introduction to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to risk assessment. It discusses the basic concepts of risk assessment, nuclear risk assessment process and products, the role of risk assessment products in nuclear safety assurance, the relationship between risk assessment and other safety analysis and risk assessment and safe operating envelope

  13. Cancer risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in former agricultural soils of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Yu Bon; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Wang, Hong Sheng; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Chow, Ka Lai; Wong, Ming H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electronic recycling site contain high concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in Hong Kong. → Changing of agricultural land use to electronic waste recycling sites can increase potential cancer risk on human. → High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PBDEs and PCBs more resistant to degradation. - Abstract: The major objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic risk posed to humans through PBDEs and PCBs of changing agricultural land use for recycling of e-waste and open burning of municipal waste. Nine locations were selected to represent 6 different types of land use such as e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)) and e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)). The total concentrations for PBDEs and PCBs, and the bioaccessibility of PCBs were determined using Soxhlet extraction and in vitro simulated gastric solution, respectively. Both total and bioaccessible concentrations were subsequently used to establish the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. It was found that very low cancer risk in all 6 types of different land use was caused by BDE-209. Nevertheless, at the 95th centile, the concentration of PCBs in EW (DW) and EW (OBS) indicate a low cancer risk to humans of 40 and 2.1 in a million, respectively, while the same was also observed for the bioaccessible PCBs in EW (DW) of 1.71 ± 2.96 in a million.

  14. [Distribution and risk assessment of mercury species in soil of the water-level-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Hong; Wang, Ding-Yong; Sun, Rong-Guo; Zhang, Jin-Yang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate pollution level and ecological risk of mercury in soils of the water-level-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, 192 surface soil samples from 14 counties (districts) in Chongqing were obtained. Concentrations of THg and Hg species, bioavailable Hg were analyzed and discussed. Geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) and Håkanson potential ecological risk index (E(r)) were applied to assess the pollution status and potential ecological risk of THg and Hg species, respectively. The results showed that significant differences in the concentration of THg were found in soils of water-level-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir. The THg concentration ranged from 22.4 to 393.5 microg x kg(-1), with an average of (84.2 +/- 54.3) microg x kg(-1). 76.6% of the samples' THg content was higher than the soil background value in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. The percentage of five mercury species (water-soluble Hg, HCl-soluble Hg, KOH-soluble Hg, H2O2-soluble Hg, residue Hg) in soils were 4.1%, 15.5%, 18.3%, 10.9%, 51.3%, respectively. The average concentrations of bioavailable mercury varied between 19.7-36.6 microg x kg(-1), and the percentage of bioavailable Hg was 22.1%-51.6% of THg. According to the geoaccumulation index, the soils were lightly polluted by Hg. Håkanson single potential ecological risk index evaluation showed that Hg species had a low potential ecological risk, moreover, soils of water-level-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir were at low ecological risk levels as evaluated by bioavailable Hg. While, the assessment results based on THg of soils was much higher than that based on the Hg species. Two methods of evaluation showed that the I(geo) and E(r) values calculated based on the Hg species better reflected the actual pollution levels of soils and its hazard to aquatic organisms.

  15. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in agricultural soils of the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Liang, Hong; Gao, Da-Wen

    2017-08-01

    This study looks at the pollution status of six priority control phthalate esters (PAEs) under different cultivation of agricultural soils in the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China. Results show the total concentration of PAEs ranged from 162.9 to 946.9 μg kg -1 with an average value of 369.5 μg kg -1 . PAE concentrations in three types of cultivated soils exhibited decreasing order paddy field (532.1 ± 198.1 μg kg -1 ) > vegetable field (308.2 ± 87.5 μg kg -1 ) > bean field (268.2 ± 48.3 μg kg -1 ). Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were the most abundant PAEs congeners. Compared with previous studies, agricultural soils in the Sanjiang Plain showed relatively low contamination levels. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation practices and industrial emissions were associated with the distribution pattern of PAEs. Furthermore, human health risks of PAEs were estimated and the non-cancer risk shown negligible but carcinogenic risk of DEHP exceeded the threshold limits value. PAE contaminants originated from cultivation practices and intense anthropogenic activities result in placing the agricultural soils under a potential risk to human health and also to ecosystems in the Sanjiang Plain. Therefore, the contamination status of PAEs in agricultural soil and potential impacts on human health should attract considerable attention.

  16. Ecological and human health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil of a municipal solid waste dump in Uyo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihedioha, J N; Ukoha, P O; Ekere, N R

    2017-06-01

    The study assessed the levels of some heavy metals in soils in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste dumpsite with a view to providing information on the extent of contamination, ecological risk of metals in the soils and human health risk to the residents in Uyo. Soil samples were collected in rainy and dry seasons and analyzed for metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni and Fe) using atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals (mg/kg) at the dumpsite in rainy season were Pb (9.90), Zn (137), Ni (12.56), Cr (3.60), Cd (9.05) and Mn (94.00), while in dry season, the concentrations were Pb (11.80), Zn (146), Ni (11.82), Cr (4.05), Cd (12.20) and Mn (91.20). The concentrations of metals in the studied sites were higher than that of the control site (P contamination than adult.

  17. Challenges in Risk Assessment: Quantitative Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The process of risk analysis consists out of three components, risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. These components are internationally well spread by Codex Alimentarius Commission as being the basis for setting science based standards, criteria on food safety hazards, e.g. setting maximum limits of mycotoxins in foodstuffs. However, the technical component risk assessment is hard to elaborate and to understand. Key in a risk assessment is the translation of biological or...

  18. Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils: chemical availability as the central concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.R.; Cruz, N.; Coelho, C.; Henriques, B.; Carvalho, L.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO(3) (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl(2) (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral

  19. Heavy Metal Contamination and Ecological Risk Assessment of Swine Manure Irrigated Vegetable Soils in Jiangxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maolan; Liu, Ronghao; Lu, Xiuying; Zhu, Ziyi; Wang, Hailin; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Zhihua

    2018-05-01

    Heavy metal are often added to animal fodder and accumulate in the soils with swine manure. In this study, heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Cr) concentrations were determined in agricultural soils irrigated with swine manure in Jiangxi Province, China. Results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, As and Cr (32.8, 93.7, 21.3 and 75.8 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than the background values, while Pb and Cd (15.2 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the background values. Contamination factors [Formula: see text] indicated that they were generally moderate for Cu, Zn, As and Cr and generally low for Pb and Cd. The contamination degree (C d ) was calculated to be 7.5-10.0 indicating a moderate degree of contamination. The geoaccumulation index (I geo ) indicated that the soils were unpolluted with Zn, Cd and Pb, while unpolluted to moderately pollute with Cr, Cu and As. The single ecological risk factor [Formula: see text] revealed that the six heavy metals all belonged to low ecological risk. The ecological risk indices suggested that all the sampling sites were at low risk level.

  20. Selecting chemical and ecotoxicological test batteries for risk assessment of trace element-contaminated soils (phyto)managed by gentle remediation options (GRO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Bert, Valérie; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Eriksson, Jan; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Galazka, Rafal; Herzig, Rolf; Janssen, Jolien; Kidd, Petra; Mench, Michel; Müller, Ingo; Neu, Silke; Oustriere, Nadège; Puschenreiter, Markus; Renella, Giancarlo; Roumier, Pierre-Hervé; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Manier, Nicolas

    2014-10-15

    During the past decades a number of field trials with gentle remediation options (GRO) have been established on trace element (TE) contaminated sites throughout Europe. Each research group selects different methods to assess the remediation success making it difficult to compare efficacy between various sites and treatments. This study aimed at selecting a minimum risk assessment battery combining chemical and ecotoxicological assays for assessing and comparing the effectiveness of GRO implemented in seven European case studies. Two test batteries were pre-selected; a chemical one for quantifying TE exposure in untreated soils and GRO-managed soils and a biological one for characterizing soil functionality and ecotoxicity. Soil samples from field studies representing one of the main GROs (phytoextraction in Belgium, Sweden, Germany and Switzerland, aided phytoextraction in France, and aided phytostabilization or in situ stabilization/phytoexclusion in Poland, France and Austria) were collected and assessed using the selected test batteries. The best correlations were obtained between NH4NO3-extractable, followed by NaNO3-extractable TE and the ecotoxicological responses. Biometrical parameters and biomarkers of dwarf beans were the most responsive indicators for the soil treatments and changes in soil TE exposures. Plant growth was inhibited at the higher extractable TE concentrations, while plant stress enzyme activities increased with the higher TE extractability. Based on these results, a minimum risk assessment battery to compare/biomonitor the sites phytomanaged by GROs might consist of the NH4NO3 extraction and the bean Plantox test including the stress enzyme activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-07-15

    There is limited study focusing on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd) were measured in five types of vegetables, soil, root, and settled air particle samples from two sites (at a domestic waste incinerator and at 20km away from the incinerator) in Guangzhou, South China. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were greater than those in aerial parts of vegetables and roots, which indicated that vegetables bioaccumulated low amount of heavy metals from soil. The similar pattern of heavy metal (Cr, Cd) was found in the settled air particle samples and aerial parts of vegetables from two sites, which may suggest that foliar uptake may be an important pathway of heavy metal from the environment to vegetables. The highest levels of heavy metals were found in leaf lettuce (125.52μg/g, dry weight) and bitter lettuce (71.2μg/g) for sites A and B, respectively, followed by bitter lettuce and leaf lettuce for sites A and B, respectively. Swamp morning glory accumulated the lowest amount of heavy metals (81.02μg/g for site A and 53.2μg/g for site B) at both sites. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil ranged from Cr (2%) to Cu (71.78%). Risk assessment showed that Cd and Pb in soil samples resulted in the highest non-cancer risk and Cd would result in unacceptable cancer risk for children and risk. The non-dietary intake of soil was the most important exposure pathway, when the bioaccessibility of heavy metals was taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Concentrations, spatial distribution, and risk assessment of soil heavy metals in a Zn-Pb mine district in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianying; Zhang, Hailong; Li, Xiangping; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Gaosheng

    2016-07-01

    China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. Lead and zinc mining and smelting can release hazardous heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Zn, and As into soils, exerting health risks to human by chronic exposure. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As in soil samples collected from a Pb-Zn mining area with exploitation history of 60 years were investigated. Health risks of the heavy metals in soil were evaluated using US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommended method. A geo-statistical technique (Kriging) was used for the interpolation of heavy metals pollution and Hazard Index (HI). The results indicated that the long-term Pb/Zn mining activities caused the serious pollution in the local soil. The concentrations of Cd, As, Pb, and Zn in topsoil were 40.3 ± 6.3, 103.7 ± 37.3, 3518.4 ± 896.1, and 10,413 ± 2973.2 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The spatial distribution of the four metals possessed similar patterns, with higher concentrations around Aayiken (AYK), Maseka (MSK), and Kuangshan (KS) area and more rapidly dropped concentrations at upwind direction than those at downwind direction. The main pollutions of Cd and Zn were found in the upper 60 cm, the Pb was found in the upper 40 cm, and the As was in the upper 20 cm. The mobility of metals in soil profile of study area was classed as Cd > Zn ≫ Pb > As. Results indicated that there was a higher health risk (child higher than adult) in the study area. Pb contributed to the highest Hazard Quotient (57.0 ~ 73.9 %) for the Hazard Index.

  3. Risk assessment of potentially toxic element pollution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) in a typical area of the Yangtze River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang Xiaoshuai; Wang Huoyan; Zhou Jianmin; Ma Chengling; Du Changwen; Chen Xiaoqin

    2009-01-01

    Soil pollution with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) resulting from rapid industrial development has caused major concerns. Selected PTEs and their accumulation and distribution in soils and rice (Oryza sativa) collected from Changshu, east China, were analyzed to evaluate the potential health risk to the local population. The soils were primarily contaminated with Hg, followed by Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn. The concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cd of 46, 32, and 1 rice samples exceeded their national maximum allowable levels in foods, respectively. Spatial distributions of total Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd in soils shared similar geographical trends. The risk assessment of PTEs through rice consumption suggests that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd in some rice samples exceed their reference oral dose for adults and children. In general, there was no target hazard quotient value of any individual element that was greater than 1, but hazard index values for adults and children were 1.726 and 1.523, respectively. - Industrial development has led to increased risk from potentially toxic elements in soils and rice.

  4. Soil pH Errors Propagation from Measurements to Spatial Predictions - Cost Benefit Analysis and Risk Assessment Implications for Practitioners and Modelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, P. R.; Libohova, Z.; Seybold, C. A.; Wills, S. A.; Peaslee, S.; Beaudette, D.; Lindbo, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The measurement errors and spatial prediction uncertainties of soil properties in the modeling community are usually assessed against measured values when available. However, of equal importance is the assessment of errors and uncertainty impacts on cost benefit analysis and risk assessments. Soil pH was selected as one of the most commonly measured soil properties used for liming recommendations. The objective of this study was to assess the error size from different sources and their implications with respect to management decisions. Error sources include measurement methods, laboratory sources, pedotransfer functions, database transections, spatial aggregations, etc. Several databases of measured and predicted soil pH were used for this study including the United States National Cooperative Soil Survey Characterization Database (NCSS-SCDB), the US Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database. The distribution of errors among different sources from measurement methods to spatial aggregation showed a wide range of values. The greatest RMSE of 0.79 pH units was from spatial aggregation (SSURGO vs Kriging), while the measurement methods had the lowest RMSE of 0.06 pH units. Assuming the order of data acquisition based on the transaction distance i.e. from measurement method to spatial aggregation the RMSE increased from 0.06 to 0.8 pH units suggesting an "error propagation". This has major implications for practitioners and modeling community. Most soil liming rate recommendations are based on 0.1 pH unit increments, while the desired soil pH level increments are based on 0.4 to 0.5 pH units. Thus, even when the measured and desired target soil pH are the same most guidelines recommend 1 ton ha-1 lime, which translates in 111 ha-1 that the farmer has to factor in the cost-benefit analysis. However, this analysis need to be based on uncertainty predictions (0.5-1.0 pH units) rather than measurement errors (0.1 pH units) which would translate in 555-1,111 investment that

  5. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of radionuclides in soils around a coal-fired power plant: A case study from the city of Baoji, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Lijun; Wei Haiyan; Wang Lingqing

    2007-01-01

    Coal burning may enhance human exposure to the natural radionuclides that occur around coal-fired power plants (CFPP). In this study, the spatial distribution and hazard assessment of radionuclides found in soils around a CFPP were investigated using statistics, geostatistics, and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in soils range from 12.54 to 40.18, 38.02 to 72.55, and 498.02 to 1126.98 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patterns of radionuclides, and disjunctive kriging was used to quantify the probability of radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) higher than the threshold. The maps show that the spatial variability of the natural radionuclide concentrations in soils was apparent. The results of this study could provide valuable information for risk assessment of environmental pollution and decision support

  6. DSM for soil erosion risk in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro; McLeaod, Jim; Castellazzi, Marie; Baggio Compagnucci, Andrea; Irvine, Justin

    2017-04-01

    Soils play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, and modelling its risk of degradation is fundamental, especially in the context of climate change. In this work we used continuous 3D soil information derived from digital soil mapping (DSM) approaches to map sediment erosion and deposition patterns due to rainfall. The test area covers the whole of mainland Scotland, excluding the Northern Islands. Soil profiles data were interpolated using a geo-statistical hybrid Generalised Additive Models method for a range of soil properties such as organic matter, texture, soil depth and peat presence. The same method was used to interpolate climatic data and management information. Remote sensing data were integrated in the process and land use data included. Information on grazing (sheep and deer) pressure was taken into account in the modelling. The uncertainty was accounted and propagated across the whole process. The Scottish test case highlights the differences in roles between mineral and organic soils with an assessment adapted to each of them. The results and intermediate steps were compared with available continental scale results. The results show the importance of the use of DSM approaches for modeling soils and ecosystem functions and assessing uncertainty propagation.

  7. Spatial Patterns and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils in a Resource-Exhausted City, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; An, Jing; Wei, Shuhe; Gu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Northeast China is an intensive area of resource-exhausted city, which is facing the challenges of industry conversion and sustainable development. In order to evaluate the soil environmental quality influenced by mining activities over decades, the concentration and spatial distribution of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) in surface soils (0-20cm) of a typical resource-exhausted city were investigated by analyzing 306 soil samples. The results showed that the average concentrations in the samples were 6.17 mg/kg for As, 0.19 mg/kg for Cd, 51.08 mg/kg for Cr, 23.27 mg/kg for Cu, 31.15 mg/kg for Ni, 22.17 mg/kg for Pb, and 54.21 mg/kg for Zn. Metals distribution maps produced by using the inverse distance weighted interpolation method and results revealed that all investigated metals showed distinct geographical patterns, and the concentrations were higher in urban and industrial areas than in farmland. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations (pmetals, and As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were closely associated with the first principal component (PC1), which explained 39.81% of the total variance. Cu and As were mainly associated with the second component (PC2). Based on the calculated Nemerow pollution index, percentage for slightly polluted (1soils were reached 57.33%, while 42.65% topsoil samples are moderate polluted (2soil environmental function areas were classified and proper soil environmental management policy was proposed to decrease the environmental risks in the process of industrial city transformation. PMID:26413806

  8. Spatial Patterns and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils in a Resource-Exhausted City, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Chen

    Full Text Available Northeast China is an intensive area of resource-exhausted city, which is facing the challenges of industry conversion and sustainable development. In order to evaluate the soil environmental quality influenced by mining activities over decades, the concentration and spatial distribution of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and Zinc (Zn in surface soils (0-20cm of a typical resource-exhausted city were investigated by analyzing 306 soil samples. The results showed that the average concentrations in the samples were 6.17 mg/kg for As, 0.19 mg/kg for Cd, 51.08 mg/kg for Cr, 23.27 mg/kg for Cu, 31.15 mg/kg for Ni, 22.17 mg/kg for Pb, and 54.21 mg/kg for Zn. Metals distribution maps produced by using the inverse distance weighted interpolation method and results revealed that all investigated metals showed distinct geographical patterns, and the concentrations were higher in urban and industrial areas than in farmland. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis showed that there were significant positive correlations (p<0.05 between all of the metals, and As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were closely associated with the first principal component (PC1, which explained 39.81% of the total variance. Cu and As were mainly associated with the second component (PC2. Based on the calculated Nemerow pollution index, percentage for slightly polluted (1

    soils were reached 57.33%, while 42.65% topsoil samples are moderate polluted (2soil environmental function areas were classified and proper soil environmental management policy was proposed to decrease the environmental risks in the process of industrial city transformation.

  9. Risk Assessment and Source Identification of 17 Metals and Metalloids on Soils from the Half-Century Old Tungsten Mining Areas in Lianhuashan, Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mining activities always emit metal(loids into the surrounding environment, where their accumulation in the soil may pose risks and hazards to humans and ecosystems. Objective: This paper aims to determine of the type, source, chemical form, fate and transport, and accurate risk assessment of 17 metal(loid contaminants including As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ag, B, Bi, Co, Mo, Sb, Ti, V, W and Sn in the soils collected from an abandoned tungsten mining area, and to guide the implementing of appropriate remediation strategies. Methods: Contamination factors (CFs and integrated pollution indexes (IPIs and enrichment factors (EFs were used to assess their ecological risk and the sources were identified by using multivariate statistics analysis, spatial distribution investigation and correlation matrix. Results: The IPI and EF values indicated the soils in the mine site and the closest downstream one were extremely disturbed by metal(loids such as As, Bi, W, B, Cu, Pb and Sn, which were emitted from the mining wastes and acid drainages and delivered by the runoff and human activities. Arsenic contamination was detected in nine sites with the highest CF values at 24.70 next to the mining site. The Cd contamination scattered in the paddy soils around the resident areas with higher fraction of bioavailable forms, primarily associated with intense application of phosphorus fertilizer. The lithogenic elements V, Ti, Ag, Ni, Sb, Mo exhibit low contamination in all sampling points and their distribution were depended on the soil texture and pedogenesis process. Conclusions: The long term historical mining activities have caused severe As contamination and higher enrichment of the other elements of orebody in the local soils. The appropriate remediation treatment approach should be proposed to reduce the bioavailability of Cd in the paddy soils and to immobilize As to reclaim the soils around the mining site. Furthermore, alternative fertilizing

  10. AN OPERATING MODEL FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT APPLIED TO ITALIAN SITES OF COMMUNITY IMPORTANCE: IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL EFFECTS ON SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rastelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fast development of agro-biotechnologies asks for a harmonized approach in risk analysis of GMOs releases. An Italian experts group has elaborated an operating model for the environmental risk assessment (OMERA based on the assumption that the occurring of a risk is related to the presence of four components: source, diffusion factors, dispersal routes, receptors. This model has been further developed to become a Decision Supporting System based on Fuzzy logic (FDSS to assessors and notifiers. It is a web based Questionnaire that conducts the user through a decision tree from the source to the receptors and leads to the identification and assessment of the risks. The FDSS has been tested on case studies, simulating, as source, herbicide tolerant oilseed rape and insect resistant maize. The resulting identified potential effects on soil are changes to structure and microbial diversity.

  11. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  12. Bioavailability and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in garden edible vegetables and soils around a highly contaminated former mining area in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Vasileios; Shaheen, Sabry M; Boersch, Judith; Frohne, Tina; Du Laing, Gijs; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-01-15

    Although soil contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Europe has a history of many centuries, related problems are often considered as having been dealt with due to the enforcement of tight legislations. However, there are many unsolved issues. We aimed to assess PTE levels in highly contaminated soils and in garden edible vegetables using human health risk indices in order to evaluate the availability and mobilization of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). In four gardens in Germany, situated on, or in the vicinity of, a mine dump area, we planted beans (Phaseolus vulgaris ssp. nanus), carrots (Daucus sativus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa ssp. capitata). We examined soil-to-plant mobilization of elements using transfer coefficient (TC), as well as soil contamination using contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF), and bioaccumulation index (I geo ). In addition, we tested two human health risk assessment indices: Soil-induced hazard quotient (HQ S ) (representing the "direct soil ingestion" pathway), and vegetable-induced hazard quotient (HQ V ) (representing the "vegetable intake" pathway). The studied elements were highly elevated in the soils. The values in garden 2 were especially high (e.g., Pb: 13789.0 and Hg: 36.8 mg kg -1 ) and largely exceeded the reported regulation limits of 50 (for As), 40 (Cu), 400 (Pb), 150 (Zn), and 5 (Hg) mg kg -1 . Similarly, element concentrations were very high in the grown vegetables. The indices of CF, EF and I geo were enhanced even to levels that are rarely reported in the literature. Specifically, garden 2 indicated severe contamination due to multi-element deposition. The contribution of each PTE to the total of measured HQ S revealed that Pb was the single most important element causing health risk (contributing up to 77% to total HQ S ). Lead also posed the highest risk concerning vegetable consumption, contributing up to 77% to total HQ V . The

  13. Assessment of the risk of pollution by sulfur compounds and heavy metals in soils located in the proximity of a disused for 20 years sulfur mine (SE Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołek-Podwika, Katarzyna; Ciarkowska, Krystyna; Kaleta, Dorota

    2016-09-15

    The study assessed the long-term effects of anthropogenic pressure of the sulfur industry on turf-covered soils located in the vicinity of the sulfur mine Grzybów. The study assumes that 20 years which elapsed since the end of the exploitation of sulfur is a period sufficiently long for the content of sulfur compounds in soils not to exceed the permissible level and that soil of the region can be classified as not contaminated. A part of the study involved identification of changes in the contents Stot. and SSO4(2-) in soils collected in the 1970s and early twenty-first century. It was also traced the relationship between the content of sulfur compounds and selected soil properties and estimated risk of soil environment pollution by heavy metals. Mean contents of trace elements studied amounted to 10.2-10.8 mg kg(-1) for Pb, 14.3-39.4 mg kg(-1) for Zn, 0.2-0.4 mg kg(-1) for Cd, 3.8-32.2 mg kg(-1) for Cr, 2.7-15.1 mg kg(-1) for Cu and 2.9-18.7 mg kg(-1) for Ni. Based on the results of SSO4(2-) content in soils collected at a distance of 1 km from the mine, it was found out that despite the passage of years, the amount of this type of sulfur still is increased and exceeds 0.14 g kg(-1). As the distance from the mine grew lower (from 0.017 to 0.03 g kg(-1)) average content of the sulfur form was observed. In the studied soil material we found generally positive, strong correlation between the Stot. and SSO4(2-) content and analyzed trace elements. The degree of contamination of examined soils with heavy metals was estimated on the basis of the integrated pollution index, which pointed to a moderate and low level of antropogenization of this area. In addition, the relationship between the determined characteristics of soils (Corg. contents, the fraction heavy metals confirms that the trace elements present in soils do not occur in mobile forms in the soil solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative and Qualitative Assessment of Soil Erosion Risk in Małopolska (Poland), Supported by an Object-Based Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewiecki, Wojciech; Wężyk, Piotr; Pierzchalski, Marcin; Szafrańska, Beata

    2014-06-01

    In 2011 the Marshal Office of Małopolska Voivodeship decided to evaluate the vulnerability of soils to water erosion for the entire region. The quantitative and qualitative assessment of the erosion risk for the soils of the Małopolska region was done based on the USLE approach. The special work-flow of geoinformation technologies was used to fulfil this goal. A high-resolution soil map, together with rainfall data, a detailed digital elevation model and statistical information about areas sown with particular crops created the input information for erosion modelling in GIS environment. The satellite remote sensing technology and the object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach gave valuable support to this study. RapidEye satellite images were used to obtain the essential up-to-date data about land use and vegetation cover for the entire region (15,000 km2). The application of OBIA also led to defining the direction of field cultivation and the mapping of contour tillage areas. As a result, the spatially differentiated values of erosion control practice factor were used. Both, the potential and the actual soil erosion risk were assessed quantificatively and qualitatively. The results of the erosion assessment in the Małopolska Voivodeship reveal the fact that a majority of its agricultural lands is characterized by moderate or low erosion risk levels. However, high-resolution erosion risk maps show its substantial spatial diversity. According to our study, average or higher actual erosion intensity levels occur for 10.6 % of agricultural land, i.e. 3.6 % of the entire voivodeship area. In 20 % of the municipalities there is a very urgent demand for erosion control. In the next 23 % an urgent erosion control is needed. Our study showed that even a slight improvement of P-factor estimation may have an influence on modeling results. In our case, despite a marginal change of erosion assessment figures on a regional scale, the influence on the final prioritization of

  15. Cancer risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils determined using bioassay-derived levels of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Christine L; Long, Alexandra S; Lambert, Iain B; Lundstedt, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats; White, Paul A

    2015-02-03

    Here we evaluate the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) posed by 10 PAH-contaminated soils using (i) the currently advocated, targeted chemical-specific approach that assumes dose additivity for carcinogenic PAHs and (ii) a bioassay-based approach that employs the in vitro mutagenic activity of the soil fractions to determine levels of benzo[a]pyrene equivalents and, by extension, ELCR. Mutagenic activity results are presented in our companion paper.1 The results show that ELCR values for the PAH-containing fractions, determined using the chemical-specific approach, are generally (i.e., 8 out of 10) greater than those calculated using the bioassay-based approach; most are less than 5-fold greater. Only two chemical-specific ELCR estimates are less than their corresponding bioassay-derived values; differences are less than 10%. The bioassay-based approach, which permits estimation of ELCR without a priori knowledge of mixture composition, proved to be a useful tool to evaluate the chemical-specific approach. The results suggest that ELCR estimates for complex PAH mixtures determined using a targeted, chemical-specific approach are reasonable, albeit conservative. Calculated risk estimates still depend on contentious PEFs and cancer slope factors. Follow-up in vivo mutagenicity assessments will be required to validate the results and their relevance for human health risk assessment of PAH-contaminated soils.

  16. Stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization of uncertainty and variability in risk assessments: A case study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil at a petroleum-contaminated site in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yan; Wang, Zesen; Wen, Jingya; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Deal with environmental quality guidelines absence in risk characterization. • Quantitative represention of uncertainty from environmental quality guidelines. • Quantitative represention of variability from contaminant exposure concentrations. • Establishment of stochastic-fuzzy environmental risk characterization approach framework. - Abstract: Better decisions are made using risk assessment models when uncertainty and variability are explicitly acknowledged. Uncertainty caused by a lack of uniform and scientifically supported environmental quality guidelines and variability in the degree of exposure of environmental systems to contaminants are here incorporated in a stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization (SFERC) approach. The approach is based on quotient probability distribution and environmental risk level fuzzy membership function methods. The SFERC framework was used to characterize the environmental risks posed by 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil at a typical petroleum-contaminated site in China. This relied on integrating data from the literature and field and laboratory experiments. The environmental risk levels posed by the PAHs under four risk scenarios were determined using the SFERC approach, using “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental quality guidelines under “loose” and “strict” strictness parameters. The results showed that environmental risks posed by PAHs in soil are primarily caused by oil exploitation, traffic emissions, and coal combustion. The SFERC approach is an effective tool for characterizing uncertainty and variability in environmental risk assessments and for managing contaminated sites.

  17. Stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization of uncertainty and variability in risk assessments: A case study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil at a petroleum-contaminated site in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yan [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Zesen [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Wen, Jingya [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Institute of Hydropower and Environment Research, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Yu, E-mail: liyuxx8@hotmail.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Regional Energy Systems Optimization, Resources and Environmental Research Academy, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • Deal with environmental quality guidelines absence in risk characterization. • Quantitative represention of uncertainty from environmental quality guidelines. • Quantitative represention of variability from contaminant exposure concentrations. • Establishment of stochastic-fuzzy environmental risk characterization approach framework. - Abstract: Better decisions are made using risk assessment models when uncertainty and variability are explicitly acknowledged. Uncertainty caused by a lack of uniform and scientifically supported environmental quality guidelines and variability in the degree of exposure of environmental systems to contaminants are here incorporated in a stochastic fuzzy environmental risk characterization (SFERC) approach. The approach is based on quotient probability distribution and environmental risk level fuzzy membership function methods. The SFERC framework was used to characterize the environmental risks posed by 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil at a typical petroleum-contaminated site in China. This relied on integrating data from the literature and field and laboratory experiments. The environmental risk levels posed by the PAHs under four risk scenarios were determined using the SFERC approach, using “residential land” and “industrial land” environmental quality guidelines under “loose” and “strict” strictness parameters. The results showed that environmental risks posed by PAHs in soil are primarily caused by oil exploitation, traffic emissions, and coal combustion. The SFERC approach is an effective tool for characterizing uncertainty and variability in environmental risk assessments and for managing contaminated sites.

  18. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  19. Assessment of arsenic content in soil, rice grains and groundwater and associated health risks in human population from Ropar wetland, India, and its vicinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sakshi; Kaur, Inderpreet; Nagpal, Avinash Kaur

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, potential health risks posed to human population from Ropar wetland and its vicinity, by consumption of inorganic arsenic (i-As) via arsenic contaminated rice grains and groundwater, were assessed. Total arsenic (t-As) in soil and rice grains were found in the range of 0.06-0.11 mg/kg and 0.03-0.33 mg/kg, respectively, on dry weight basis. Total arsenic in groundwater was in the range of 2.31-15.91 μg/L. i-As was calculated from t-As using relevant conversion factors. Rice plants were found to be arsenic accumulators as bioconcentration factor (BCF) was observed to be >1 in 75% of rice grain samples. Further, correlation analysis revealed that arsenic accumulation in rice grains decreased with increase in the electrical conductivity of soil. One-way ANOVA, cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that both geogenic and anthropogenic sources affected t-As in soil and groundwater. Hazard index and total cancer risk estimated for individuals from the study area were above the USEPA limits of 1.00 and 1.00 × 10 -6 , respectively. Kruskal-Wallis H test indicated that groundwater intake posed significantly higher health risk than rice grain consumption (χ 2 (1) = 17.280, p = 0.00003).

  20. Predicting soil erosion risk at the Alqueva dam watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Vera; Panagopoulos, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is serious economic and environmental concern. Assessing soil erosion risk in the Alqueva dam watershed is urgently needed to conserve soil and water resources and prevent the accelerated dam siltation, taking into account the possible land-use changes, due to tourism development, intensification of irrigated farming and biomass production, as well as climate change. A comprehensive methodology that integrates Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and Geographic Info...

  1. Heavy metals and health risk assessment of arable soils and food crops around Pb-Zn mining localities in Enyigba, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiora, Smart C.; Chukwu, Anthony; Davies, Theophilus C.

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the heavy metals concentration in arable soils and associated food crops around the Pb-Zn mines in Enyigba, Nigeria, and metal transfer factors were calculated. Air-dried samples of the soils and food crops were analyzed for 8 known nutritional and toxic heavy metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) method. Eighty seven percent of all the 20 sampled soils contain Pb in excess of the maximum allowable concentration (MAC) set by Canadian Environmental Quality Guideline (CCME) and European Union (EU) Standard, while Zn in thirty-one percent of the samples exceeded the CCME for MAC of 200 mg/kg. All the food crops, with the exception of yam tuber, contain Pb which exceeded the 0.43 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg MAC standards of EU and WHO/FAO respectively, with the leafy vegetables accumulating more Pb than the tubers. The metal transfer factors in the tubers and the leafy vegetables were in the order: Mo > Cu > Zn > Mn > As > Cd > Cr > Ni > Pb and Cd > Cu > Zn > Mn > Mo > As > Ni > Pb > Cr, respectively. Risk assessment studies revealed no health risk in surrounding populations for most of the heavy metals. However, Pb had a high health risk index (HRI) of 1.1 and 1.3, in adults and children, respectively for cassava tuber; Pb had HRI > 1 in lemon grass while Mn also had HRI > 1 in all the leafy vegetables for both adult and children. This high level of HRI for Pb and Mn is an indication that consumers of the food crops contaminated by these metals are at risk of health problems such as Alzheimers' disease and Manganism, associated with excessive intake of these metals. Further systematic monitoring of heavy metal fluxes in cultivable soils around the area of these mines is recommended.

  2. Assessing the risk associated with the presence of emerging organic contaminants in sludge-amended soil: A country-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidi, Vasiliki S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Borova, Viola L; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2016-04-01

    Greece was used as case study and the environmental risk associated with the existence of 99 emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in sludge-amended soil was estimated using risk quotient (RQ) approach. Data on the concentration levels of EOCs in sewage sludge was collected after literature review. Chemical analyses were also conducted for 50 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in sludge samples from Athens Sewage Treatment Plant. Risk assessment was based on both terrestrial and aquatic acute toxicity data, using both the maximum and the average measured concentrations of the target compounds. EC50/LC50 values were collected through literature review or using the ECOSAR program in cases that experimental values were not available. Triclosan seems to pose an environmental risk on the soil environment, as its RQ values exceeded 1, both in terrestrial and aquatic toxicity data based risk assessment. Calculations based on aquatic toxicity data showed that another eleven compounds had RQs higher than 1, most of them belonging to the classes of synthetic phenolic compounds and siloxanes. Tetradecamethylhexasiloxane presented the highest RQ, while high RQs were also calculated for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane and caffeine. No environmental risk for the terrestrial environment is expected due to the individual action of illicit drugs, perfluorinated compounds and benzotriazoles. The sludge source and the day of sampling affected the estimated threat due to nonylphenolic compounds; however these factors did not affect the estimated risk for siloxanes, caffeine and ofloxacin. Calculation of RQ values for the mixture of EOCs, using either the maximum or the average concentrations, far exceeded 1 (253 and 209, respectively), indicating a presumable threat for the terrestrial environment due to the baseline toxicity of these compounds. Countries that reuse sludge for agricultural purposes should include specific EOCs in national monitoring campaigns and study more thoroughly on

  3. Methodology to assess the radiological sensitivity of soils: Application to Spanish soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Alonso, C.

    2005-01-01

    A methodology, based on standard physical and chemical soil properties, has been developed to estimate the radiological sensitivity of soils to a 137 C s and 90 S r contamination. In this framework, the soil radiological sensitivity is defined as the soil capability to mobilise or to retain these radionuclides. The purpose of this methodology is to assess, in terms of radiological sensitivity indexes, the behaviour of 137 C s and 90 S r in soils and their fluxes to man, considering two exposure pathways, the external irradiation exposure and the internal exposure from ingestion. The methodology is applied to the great variety of soil types found in Spain, where the soil profile is the reference unit for the assessment. The results for these soil types show, that their basic soil properties are the key to categorise the radiological sensitivity according to the risks considered. The final categorisation allows to identify soils specially sensible and improves the radiological impact assessment predictions. (Author)

  4. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Soils and Selected Crops in Zanjan Urban and Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afshari

    2016-02-01

    over time. With conventional monitoring of food quality produced in farms and presented in markets, excessive accumulation of heavy metals entering in to the human food chain can be prevented. Also, we can change the risk potential of heavy metals in the region by growing vegetables which accumulate heavy metals. Keywords: Agriculture products, Biological risk, Heavy metals, Soil, Zanjan province

  5. Dutch Risk Assessment tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, A.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Risico- Inventarisatie- en Evaluatie-instrumenten’ is the name for the Dutch risk assessment (RA) tools. A RA tool can be used to perform a risk assessment including an evaluation of the identified risks. These tools were among the first online risk assessment tools developed in Europe. The

  6. Toxicity of Pb-contaminated soil to Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and the use of the blood-dietary Pb slope in risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Chen, Yu; Henry, Paula; May, Thomas; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Sprague, Daniel; Weber, John

    2014-01-01

    This study relates tissue concentrations and toxic effects of Pb in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to the dietary exposure of soil-borne Pb associated with mining and smelting. From 0% to 12% contaminated soil, by weight, was added to 5 experimental diets (0.12 to 382 mg Pb/kg, dry wt) and fed to the quail for 6 weeks. Benchmark doses associated with a 50% reduction in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity were 0.62 mg Pb/kg in the blood, dry wt, and 27 mg Pb/kg in the diet. Benchmark doses associated with a 20% increase in the concentration of erythrocyte protoporphyrin were 2.7 mg Pb/kg in the blood and 152 mg Pb/kg in the diet. The quail showed no other signs of toxicity (histopathological lesions, alterations in plasma–testosterone concentration, and body and organ weights). The relation of the blood Pb concentration to the soil Pb concentration was linear, with a slope of 0.013 mg Pb/kg of blood (dry wt) divided by mg Pb/kg of diet. We suggest that this slope is potentially useful in ecological risk assessments on birds in the same way that the intake slope factor is an important parameter in risk assessments of children exposed to Pb. The slope may also be used in a tissue-residue approach as an additional line of evidence in ecological risk assessment, supplementary to an estimate of hazard based on dietary toxicity reference values.

  7. Evaluation the total exposure of soil sample in Adaya site and the obtain risk assessments for the worker by Res Rad code program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadi, A. M.; Khadim, A. A. N.; Ibrahim, Z. H.; Ali, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluation the total exposure to the worker in Adaya site risk assessment by using Res Rad code program. The study including 5 areas soil sample calculate in the site and analysis it by High Pure Germaniums (Hg) system made (CANBERRA) company. The soil sample simulation by (Res Rad) code program by inter the radioactive isotope concentration and the specification of the contamination zone area, depth and the cover depth of it. The total exposure of same sample was about 9 mSv/year and the (Heast 2001 Morbidity, FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.045 state every 100 worker in the year. There are simple different between Heast 2001 Morbidity and FGR13 Morbidity according to the Dose Conversion Factor (DCF) use it. The (FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.041 state every 100 worker in the year. (Author)

  8. Risk assessment of maize damage by wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) as the first step in implementing IPM and in reducing the environmental impact of soil insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, L; Contiero, B; Chiarini, F; Colauzzi, M; Sartori, E; Benvegnù, I; Fracasso, F; Giandon, P

    2017-01-01

    A survey of maize fields was conducted in northeast Italy from 1986 to 2014, resulting in a dataset of 1296 records including information on wireworm damage to maize, plant-attacking species, agronomic characteristics, landscape and climate. Three wireworm species, Agriotes brevis Candeze, A. sordidus Illiger and A. ustulatus Schäller, were identified as the dominant pest species in maize fields. Over the 29-year period surveyed, no yield reduction was observed when wireworm plant damage was below 15 % of the stand. A preliminary univariate analysis of risk assessment was applied to identify the main factors influencing the occurrence of damage. A multifactorial model was then applied by using the significant factors identified. This model allowed the research to highlight the strongest factors and to analyse how the main factors together influenced damage risk. The strongest factors were: A. brevis as prevalent damaging species, soil organic matter content >5 %, rotation including meadows and/or double crops, A. sordidus as prevalent damaging species, and surrounding landscape mainly meadows, uncultivated grass and double crops. The multifactorial model also showed how the simultaneous occurrence of two or more of the aforementioned risk factors can conspicuously increase the risk of wireworm damage to maize crops, while the probability of damage to a field with no-risk factors is always low (<1 %). These results make it possible to draw risk maps to identify low-risk and high-risk areas, a first step in implementing bespoke IPM procedures in an attempt to reduce the impact of soil insecticides significantly.

  9. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Gejiu Tin Ore and Other Metal Deposits of Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuran; Danek, Tomas; Cheng, Xianfeng; Huang, Qianrui

    2017-12-01

    This paper aims to study three main metal mining areas in Yunnan Province, to summarize and analyze the heavy metal pollution situation in each mining area, and to assess the ecological risk of the mining areas. The results showed that heavy metal pollution existed in different regions of the three mining areas with pollution elements of Cd, As, Cu, Pb, Zn. Risk level, besides Zhen Yuan mining area (class C), for the other two areas was class D, with Beichang mining area in Lanping as the most serious polluted mining area.

  10. Assessment of sulfide production risk in soil during the infiltration of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, L; Coudert, L; Gilbert, Y; Mercier, G; Blais, J F

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential of sulfide generation during infiltration through soil of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification process. Three types of soil with different permeability rates (K s = 0.028, 0.0013, and 0.00015 cm/s) were investigated to evaluate the potential risk of sulfur generation during the infiltration of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification system. These soils were thoroughly characterized and tested to assess their capacity to be used as drainages for wastewaters. Experiments were conducted under two operating modes (saturated and unsaturated). Sulfate, sulfide, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were determined over a period of 100 days. Despite the high concentration of sulfates (200 mg/L) under anaerobic conditions (ORP = -297 mV), no significant amount of sulfide was generated in the aqueous (soil permeability did not have a noticeable effect on the infiltration of domestic wastewater treated by a sulfur-utilizing denitrification system due to low contents of organic matter (i.e., dissolved organic carbon, DOC). The autotrophic denitrification process used to treat the domestic wastewater allowed the reduction of the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) below 5 mg/L, of DOC below 7 mg/L, and of COD below 100 mg/L.

  11. Assessment of health risk of trace metal pollution in surface soil and road dust from e-waste recycling area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Wu, Yousheng; Kim, Stephani; Reponen, Tiina; Dietrich, Kim N; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-09-01

    Informal recycling of e-waste and the resulting heavy metal pollution has become a serious burden on the ecosystem in Guiyu, China. In this investigation, we evaluated the trace metal concentration of community soil and road dust samples from 11 locations in Guiyu and 5 locations (consisting of residential areas, kindergarten/school, and farm field) in a reference area using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study spanned four seasons, 2012-2013, with a view to assess the risk associated with e-waste recycling in the study area. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn were 448.73, 0.71, 63.90, and 806.54 mg/kg in Guiyu soil and 589.74, 1.94, 69.71, and 693.74 mg/kg, in the dust, respectively. Pb and Cd values were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than the reference area, and the mixed model analysis with repeated seasonal measurements revealed soil Pb and Cd levels that were 2.32 and 4.34 times, while the ratios for dust sample were 4.10 and 3.18 times higher than the reference area. Contamination factor, degree of contamination, and pollution load index indicated that all sampling points had a high level of metal contamination except farm land and kindergarten compound. The cumulative hazard index of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Mn for children in exposed area was 0.99 and 1.62 for soil and dust, respectively, suggesting non-cancer health risk potential. The significant accumulation of trace metals in the e-waste recycling area predisposes human life, especially children, to a potentially serious health risk.

  12. Assessment of health risk of trace metal pollution in surface soil and road dust from e-waste recycling area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekeen, Taofeek Akangbe; Xu, Xijin; Zhang, Yuling; Wu, Yousheng; Kim, Stephani; Reponen, Tiina; Dietrich, Kim N.; Ho, Shuk-mei; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Informal recycling of e-waste and the resulting heavy metal pollution has become a serious burden on the ecosystem in Guiyu, China. In this investigation, we evaluated the trace metals concentration of community soil and road dust samples from 11 locations in Guiyu and 5 locations (consists of residential areas, kindergarten/school and farm field) in a reference area using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The study spanned four seasons, 2012–2013, with a view to assess the risk associated with e-waste recycling in the study area. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn were 448.73, 0.71, 63.90 and 806.54 mg/kg in Guiyu soil and 589.74, 1.94, 69.71 and 693.74 mg/kg, in the dust, respectively. Pb and Cd values were significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) than the reference area and the mixed model analysis with repeated seasonal measurements revealed soil Pb and Cd levels that were 2.32 and 4.34 times, while the ratios for dust sample were 4.10 and 3.18 times higher than the reference area. Contamination factor, degree of contamination and pollution load index indicated that all sampling points had high level of metal contamination except farm land and kindergarten compound. The cumulative hazard index of Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn for children in exposed area was 0.99 and 1.62 for soil and dust respectively, suggesting non-cancer health risk potential. The significant accumulation of trace metals in the e-waste recycling area predisposes human life, especially children, to a potentially serious health risk. PMID:27230155

  13. Bioavailability of potentially toxic elements in soil-grapevine (leaf, skin, pulp and seed) system and environmental and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Tijana; Urošević, Mira Aničić; Relić, Dubravka; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Popović, Aleksandar

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soil represents the first measure of caution regarding food safety, while research into element bioavailability should be a step forward in understanding the element transportation chain. This study was conducted in the grapevine growing area ("Oplenac Wine Route") for investigating element bioavailability in the soil-grapevine system accompanied by an assessment of the ecological implications and human health risk. Single extraction procedures (CH 3 COOH, Na 2 EDTA, CaCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 and deionised H 2 O) and digestion were performed to estimate the bioavailability of 22 elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, V and Zn) from the topsoil (0-30 cm) and subsoil (30-60 cm) to the grapevine parts (leaf, skin, pulp and seed) and wine. The extractants were effective comparing to the pseudo-total concentrations in following order Na 2 EDTA ˃ CH 3 COOH ˃ NH 4 NO 3  ˃ CaCl 2 , H 2 O 2 h and 16 h. The most suitable extractants for assessing the bioavailability of the elements from the soil to the grapevine parts were CaCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 and Na 2 EDTA, but deionised H 2 O could be suitable, as well. The results showed that Ba was the most bioavailable element in the soil-grapevine system. Contamination factor implied a moderate contamination (1  1), the influence of atmospheric deposition on the aerial grapevine parts (leaves and grape skin) was observed. Nevertheless, low adverse health risk effects (HI wine consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Standardized Approach for Assessing Potential Risks to Amphibians Exposed to Sediment and Hydric Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    different foods in amphibian tests. Possible foods considered for this study included boiled spinach, boiled lettuce , fish flakes, TetraMin...other foods such as boiled spinach or lettuce . • Sediment tests in flow-through chambers are preferable over static-renewal systems because of... hybridization may be possible. Amphibian Ecological Risk Assessment Guidance Manual Q:\\mw97\\Projects\\9070045\\419\\Appendix C\\appC-1

  15. RESRAD: an analysis method of the exposure via to ionizing radiation, used on radiological risk assessment in sites with problems of soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Loureiro, C. de; Yu, C.

    1995-01-01

    A microcomputer program, denominated RESRAD, was presented and described as an analytical tool to perform pathway analysis and radiological risk assessment. Nine exposure pathways are implemented in the code. They are the following: external radiation; dust inhalation; inhalation of radon; and, ingestion of plant, meat, milk, water, aquatic food, and soil. The U.S. Department of Energy (US-DOE) has recommended the use of RESRAD, as a radiological risk assessment package, for completing the pathway analysis needed to derive specific soil-guidelines and to support the ALARA evaluation. Since its conception, the RESRAD code has been continuously improved and updated to accommodate comments and suggestions from its users and to incorporate new features to improve its capability and flexibility. Version 5.0 consolidates the last major RESRAD updates. The package is intentionally user-friendly and operates with a menu system from which the user can access the data input screens, run the RESRAD calculations and view the output. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  16. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and Health Risks in the Soil-Plant-Human System in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Jia, Xiaolin; Hu, Jie; Xu, Dongyun; Xia, Fang; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metal (HM) contamination and accumulation is a serious problem around the world due to the toxicity, abundant sources, non-biodegradable properties, and accumulative behaviour of HMs. The degree of soil HM contamination in China, especially in the Yangtze River Delta, is prominent. In this study, 1822 pairs of soil and crop samples at corresponding locations were collected from the southern Yangtze River Delta of China, and the contents of Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, Cu, Hg, and Pb were measured. The single pollution index in soil (SPI) and Nemerow composite pollution index (NCPI) were used to assess the degree of HM pollution in soil, and the crop pollution index (CPI) was used to explore the degree of HM accumulation in crops. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was used to investigate the translocation of heavy metals in the soil-crop system. The health risks caused by HMs were calculated based on the model released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The SPIs of all elements were at the unpolluted level. The mean NCPI was at the alert level. The mean CPIs were in the following decreasing order: Ni (1.007) > Cr (0.483) > Zn (0.335) > Cd (0.314) > As (0.232) > Cu (0.187) > Hg (0.118) > Pb (0.105). Only the mean content of Ni in the crops exceeded the national standard value. The standard exceeding rates were used to represent the percentage of samples whose heavy metal content is higher than the corresponding national standard values. The standard exceeding rates of Cu, Hg, and Cd in soil were significantly higher than corresponding values in crops. Meanwhile, the standard exceeding rates of Ni, As, and Cr in crops were significantly higher than corresponding values in soil. The chronic daily intake (CDI) of children (13.8 × 10−3) was the largest among three age groups, followed by adults (6.998 × 10−4) and seniors (5.488 × 10−4). The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of all crops followed the order Cd (0.249) > Zn (0.133) > As (0.076) > Cu (0.064) > Ni

  17. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution and Health Risks in the Soil-Plant-Human System in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bifeng; Jia, Xiaolin; Hu, Jie; Xu, Dongyun; Xia, Fang; Li, Yan

    2017-09-10

    Heavy metal (HM) contamination and accumulation is a serious problem around the world due to the toxicity, abundant sources, non-biodegradable properties, and accumulative behaviour of HMs. The degree of soil HM contamination in China, especially in the Yangtze River Delta, is prominent. In this study, 1822 pairs of soil and crop samples at corresponding locations were collected from the southern Yangtze River Delta of China, and the contents of Ni, Cr, Zn, Cd, As, Cu, Hg, and Pb were measured. The single pollution index in soil (SPI) and Nemerow composite pollution index (NCPI) were used to assess the degree of HM pollution in soil, and the crop pollution index (CPI) was used to explore the degree of HM accumulation in crops. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was used to investigate the translocation of heavy metals in the soil-crop system. The health risks caused by HMs were calculated based on the model released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The SPIs of all elements were at the unpolluted level. The mean NCPI was at the alert level. The mean CPIs were in the following decreasing order: Ni (1.007) > Cr (0.483) > Zn (0.335) > Cd (0.314) > As (0.232) > Cu (0.187) > Hg (0.118) > Pb (0.105). Only the mean content of Ni in the crops exceeded the national standard value. The standard exceeding rates were used to represent the percentage of samples whose heavy metal content is higher than the corresponding national standard values. The standard exceeding rates of Cu, Hg, and Cd in soil were significantly higher than corresponding values in crops. Meanwhile, the standard exceeding rates of Ni, As, and Cr in crops were significantly higher than corresponding values in soil. The chronic daily intake (CDI) of children (13.8 × 10 -3 ) was the largest among three age groups, followed by adults (6.998 × 10 -4 ) and seniors (5.488 × 10 -4 ). The bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of all crops followed the order Cd (0.249) > Zn (0.133) > As (0.076) > Cu (0.064) > Ni

  18. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabre J. Coleman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.

  19. Representation and propagation of imprecise and uncertain knowledge: applied to risk assessments related by polluted sites and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudrit, C.

    2005-10-01

    Currently, decisions pertaining to the management of potentially polluted sites very often rely on the evaluation of risks for man and the environment. This evaluation is carried out with the help of models which simulate the transfer of pollutants from a source to a vulnerable target, for different scenarios of exposure. The selection of parameter values of these models is based as much as possible on the data collected at the time of on-site investigations (phase of diagnosis). However, due to time and financial constraints, information regarding model parameters is often incomplete and imprecise. This leads to uncertainty that needs to be accounted for the decision-making process. Uncertainty regarding model parameters may have essentially two origins. It may arise from randomness due to natural variability resulting from heterogeneity of population or the fluctuations of a quantity in time. Or it may be caused by impreciseness due to a lack of information resulting, for example, from systematic measurement errors or expert opinions. In risk assessment, no distinction is traditionally made between these two types of uncertainty, both being represented by means of a single probability distribution. So, uncertainty in risk assessment models is generally addressed within a purely probabilistic framework. This approach comes down to assuming that knowledge regarding model parameters is always of random nature (variability). Such knowledge is represented by single probability distributions typically propagated through the risk model using the Monte-Carlo technique. Even if this approach is well-known, the difficulty is to avoid an arbitrary choice of the shape of probability distributions assigned to model parameters. Indeed in the context of risk assessment related to pollutant exposure, knowledge of some parameters is often imprecise or incomplete. The use of single probability distribution to represent this type of knowledge becomes subjective and partly arbitrary

  20. Human Health Risk Assessment of a landfill based on volatile organic compounds emission, immission and soil gas concentration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martí, Vicenç; Jubany, Irene; Pérez, Consol; Rubio, Xavier; De Pablo, Joan; Giménez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • VOCs were quantified as emission fluxes, immission and soil–gas levels. • HHRA was performed with these measurements and admissible risk was obtained. • VOCs that contributed more to risk indexes were chlorinated aliphatics hydrocarbons. • The methodology approach can be applied to other landfills with potential risk. - Abstract: A Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) was required for a closed landfill located in Cerdanyola del Vallès (Barcelona, Spain). The HHRA had two objectives, to evaluate the present risk of the identified receptors in the area and to safely develop the future urban planning of the area, therefore 3 scenarios for the current situation and 4 for the future situation were developed. After reviewing the existing data and exploring the needs of information, the assessment in this study was focused on the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) fluxes from the subsoil (emission from the landfill at 5 points), concentrations of VOCs in the air (immission in 4 urban sites) and concentration of VOCs in soil–gas (measurements at 5 m below ground surface outside the landfill at 8 sites). Around 70 VOCs were analyzed by using multi-sorbent tubes and Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography (TD–GC–MS). The VOCs that were detected and quantified include alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ketones, halocarbons, aldehydes, esters, terpenoids, ethers and some nitrogenated and sulfur compounds, furans and carboxylic acids. Specific mercury flux measurements were performed in a hot spot by using carulite tubes, that were also analyzed by using Thermal Decomposition, Amalgamation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Results showed average values of volatile emission fluxes ranging from non-detected to 331 μg m −2 day −1 (dichlorodifluoromethane). In the case of immission, the concentration of VOCs measured in the air of populated area surrounding the landfill ranged values from non-detected to 42.0 μg m −3

  1. Monitoring of fumarole discharge and CO2 soil degassing in the Azores: contribution to volcanic surveillance and public health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Faria

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid geochemistry monitoring in the Azores involves the regular sampling and analysis of gas discharges from fumaroles and measurements of CO2 diffuse soil gas emissions. Main degassing areas under monitoring are associated with hydrothermal systems of active central volcanoes in S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa islands. Fumarole discharge analysis since 1991 show that apart from steam these gas emissions are CO2 dominated with H2S, H2, CH4 and N2 in minor amounts. Mapping of CO2 diffuse soil emissions in S. Miguel Island lead to the conclusion that some inhabited areas are located within hazard-zones. At Furnas village, inside Furnas volcano caldera, about 62% of the 896 houses are within the CO2 anomaly, 5% being in areas of moderate to high risk. At Ribeira Seca, on the north flank of Fogo volcano, few family houses were evacuated when CO2 concentrations in the air reached 8 mol%. To assess and analyse the CO2 soil flux emissions, continuous monitoring stations were installed in S. Miguel (2, Terceira and Graciosa islands. The statistical analysis of the data showed that some meteorological parameters influence the CO2 flux. The average of CO2 flux in S. Miguel stations ranges from 250 g/m2/d at Furnas volcano to 530 g/m2/d at Fogo volcano. At Terceira Island it is about 330 g/m2/d and at Graciosa 4400 g/m2/d.

  2. Risk assessment of historical soil contamination with cyanides; origin, potential human exposure and evaluation of Intervention Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster HW; LBG

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate, and indicate possible adjustment of, the current Dutch Intervention Values for cyanides (CN) a review has been made of sources of CN soil contamination, behaviour of CN species and present environmental concentrations related to soils contaminated before 1987. Knowledge on

  3. Soil erosion risk assessment along the main oil pipeline route using high resolution satellite imagery and geoinformation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djamalov, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the prediction possibilities of soil erosion processes along the main oil pipeline route were investigated that allows warning possible emergency consequences of these processes. Results of this research are the USLE model raster map for the test area and the table of estimation of soil loss intensity on the experimental area

  4. Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) analysis and risk assessment for soil compaction-A European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schjønning, Per; Akker, van den J.J.H.; Keller, Thomas; Greve, M.H.; Lamandé, Mathieu; Simojoki, Asko; Stettler, Matthias; Arvidsson, Johan; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Compaction of subsoil is a hidden but persistent damage that impairs a range of soil functions and ecosystem services. We analyzed the soil compaction issue in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) context. The driving force (DPSIR-D) is the farmers' efforts to sustain economic

  5. Improving ecological risk assessment by including bioavailability into species sensitivity distributions: an example for plants exposed to nickel in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenzin, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Marcomini, A.

    2007-01-01

    The variability of species sensitivity distribution (SSD) due to contaminant bioavailability in soil was explored by using nickel as metal of concern. SSDs of toxicity test results of Avena sativa L. originating from different soils and expressed as total content and available (0.01 M CaCl2)

  6. Assessment of cardiovascular risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-10-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death worldwide. Usually atherosclerosis is caused by the combined effects of multiple risk factors. For this reason, most guidelines on the prevention of CVD stress the assessment of total CVD risk. The most intensive risk factor modification can then be directed towards the individuals who will derive the greatest benefit. To assist the clinician in calculating the effects of these multiple interacting risk factors, a number of risk estimation systems have been developed. This review address several issues regarding total CVD risk assessment: Why should total CVD risk be assessed? What risk estimation systems are available? How well do these systems estimate risk? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current systems? What are the current limitations of risk estimation systems and how can they be resolved? What new developments have occurred in CVD risk estimation?

  7. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of 239,240 Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual 239 Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with 239,240 Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung

  8. Risk assessment of soil-based exposures to plutonium at experimental sites located on the Nevada Test Site and adjoining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Straume, T.

    1993-06-01

    In the late 1950s and early 1960s, a series of tests was conducted at or near the Nevada Test Site to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,240}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Access to the sites is strictly controlled; therefore, it does not constitute a threat to human health at the present time. However, because the residual {sup 239} Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), the sites could indeed represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, we defined three basic exposure scenarios that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,240}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision located at a test site, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility. Our screening analyses indicated that doses to organs are dominated by the intemal deposition of Pu via the inhalation pathway, and thus our risk assessment focused on those factors that affect inhalation exposures and associated doses, including inhalation rates, activity patterns, tenure at a residence or occupation, indoor/outdoor air relationships, and resuspension outdoors. Cancer risks were calculated as a function of lifetime cumulative doses to the key target organs (i.e., bone surface, liver, and lungs) and risk factors for those organs. Uncertainties in the predicted cancer risks were analyzed using Monte-Carlo simulations of the probability distributions used to represent assessment parameters. The principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  9. Relationships between soil erosion risk, soil use and soil properties in Mediterranean areas. A comparative study of three typical sceneries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Juan; Priego-Navas, Mercedes; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Generally, literature shows that the high variability of rainfall-induced soil erosion is related to climatic differences, relief, soil properties and land use. Very different runoff rates and soil loss values have been reported in Mediterranean cropped soils depending on soil management practices, but also in soils under natural vegetation types. OBJECTIVES The aim of this research is to study the relationships between soil erosion risk, soil use and soil properties in three typical Mediterranean areas from southern Spain: olive groves under conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-till practices, and soils under natural vegetation. METHODS Rainfall simulation experiments have been carried out in order to assess the relationship between soil erosion risk, land use, soil management and soil properties in olive-cropped soils under different types of management and soils under natural vegetation type from Mediterranean areas in southern Spain RESULTS Results show that mean runoff rates decrease from 35% in olive grove soils under conventional tillage to 25% in olive (Olea europaea) grove soils with minimum tillage or no-till practices, and slightly over 22% in soils under natural vegetation. Moreover, considering the different vegetation types, runoff rates vary in a wide range, although runoff rates from soils under holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia), 25.70%, and marginal olive groves , 25.31%, are not significantly different. Results from soils under natural vegetation show that the properties and nature of the organic residues play a role in runoff characteristics, as runoff rates above 50% were observed in less than 10% of the rainfall simulations performed on soils with a organic layer. In contrast, more than half of runoff rates from bare soils reached or surpassed 50%. Quantitatively, average values for runoff water losses increase up to 2.5 times in unprotected soils. This is a key issue in the study area, where mean annual rainfall is above 600 mm

  10. GM Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Penny A. C.

    GM risk assessments play an important role in the decision-making process surrounding the regulation, notification and permission to handle Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Ultimately the role of a GM risk assessment will be to ensure the safe handling and containment of the GMO; and to assess any potential impacts on the environment and human health. A risk assessment should answer all ‘what if’ scenarios, based on scientific evidence.

  11. Assessment of heavy metal pollution risks and enzyme activity of meadow soils in urban area under tourism load: a case study from Zakopane (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarkowska, Krystyna

    2018-05-01

    Effect of tourism, especially skiing activities, and urbanization on chemical and biochemical properties of soils in touristy town-Zakopane-was investigated. The concentration of heavy metals, nutrients, soil organic matter (SOM), dehydrogenase (DHA), invertase (IA) and urease (Ure) activities in soils from the town centre and out of the town centre was compared with the respective values of adjacent soils in protected areas (TNP). In order to evaluate a degree of contamination and risks of degradation enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk index (RI), Nemerov Pollution Index (PI Nemerov ) as well as enzyme activity index (EAI) were calculated. Soils in the centre of Zakopane were polluted with Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in a moderate degree when those of skiing areas were polluted with Pb and Cd in a high degree. Strong positive correlation between these metals and negative correlation between them and a distance from the main roundabout in town indicated their anthropogenic origin. Soils of both locations were also enriched in P, but depleted in SOM when compared to TNP soils. Soils of touristy areas (out of the centre) were additionally enriched in N. Activity of studied enzymes was also lowered in soils of Zakopane when compared to soils of TNP. Pollution indices, RI, PI Nemerov as well as EAI, indicated that soils of Zakopane are at risk of degradation. Soils of touristy areas are under stronger negative impact than soils of the centre because of the cumulative effect of transport of heavy metals from the city centre, pollution by skiing machinery and melting water from the artificial snow.

  12. Strategic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derleth, Jason; Lobia, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the attempt to develop and demonstrate a methodology for the comparative assessment of risks across the entire portfolio of NASA projects and assets. It includes information about strategic risk identification, normalizing strategic risks, calculation of relative risk score, and implementation options.

  13. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ≥ Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As.

  14. Ecological risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suter, Glenn W; Barnthouse, L. W. (Lawrence W)

    2007-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment is commonly applied to the regulation of chemicals, the remediation of contaminated sites, the monitoring of importation of exotic organisms, the management of watersheds...

  15. Risk Assessment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prassinos, Peter G.; Lyver, John W., IV; Bui, Chinh T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment is used in many industries to identify and manage risks. Initially developed for use on aeronautical and nuclear systems, risk assessment has been applied to transportation, chemical, computer, financial, and security systems among others. It is used to gain an understanding of the weaknesses or vulnerabilities in a system so modification can be made to increase operability, efficiency, and safety and to reduce failure and down-time. Risk assessment results are primary inputs to risk-informed decision making; where risk information including uncertainty is used along with other pertinent information to assist management in the decision-making process. Therefore, to be useful, a risk assessment must be directed at specific objectives. As the world embraces the globalization of trade and manufacturing, understanding the associated risk become important to decision making. Applying risk assessment techniques to a global system of development, manufacturing, and transportation can provide insight into how the system can fail, the likelihood of system failure and the consequences of system failure. The risk assessment can identify those elements that contribute most to risk and identify measures to prevent and mitigate failures, disruptions, and damaging outcomes. In addition, risk associated with public and environment impact can be identified. The risk insights gained can be applied to making decisions concerning suitable development and manufacturing locations, supply chains, and transportation strategies. While risk assessment has been mostly applied to mechanical and electrical systems, the concepts and techniques can be applied across other systems and activities. This paper provides a basic overview of the development of a risk assessment.

  16. Biosafety Risk Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, Susan Adele [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Salerno, Reynolds Mathewson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). International Biological Threat Reduction Program; Wagner, Stefan M. [Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health (CSCHAH); Shigematsu, Mika [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases (NIID), Tokyo (Japan); Risi, George [Infectious Disease Specialists, P.C, Missoula, MT (United States); Kozlovac, Joe [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA)., Beltsville, MD (United States); Halkjaer-Knudsen, Vibeke [Statens Serum Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark); Prat, Esmeralda [Bayer CropScience, Monheim am Rhein (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    Laboratories that work with biological agents need to manage their safety risks to persons working the laboratories and the human and animal community in the surrounding areas. Biosafety guidance defines a wide variety of biosafety risk mitigation measures, which include measures which fall under the following categories: engineering controls, procedural and administrative controls, and the use of personal protective equipment; the determination of which mitigation measures should be used to address the specific laboratory risks are dependent upon a risk assessment. Ideally, a risk assessment should be conducted in a manner which is standardized and systematic which allows it to be repeatable and comparable. A risk assessment should clearly define the risk being assessed and avoid over complication.

  17. Offshore risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

      Offshore Risk Assessment was the first book to deal with quantified risk assessment (QRA) as applied specifically to offshore installations and operations. Risk assessment techniques have been used for more than three decades in the offshore oil and gas industry, and their use is set to expand increasingly as the industry moves into new areas and faces new challenges in older regions.   This updated and expanded third edition has been informed by a major R&D program on offshore risk assessment in Norway and summarizes research from 2006 to the present day. Rooted with a thorough discussion of risk metrics and risk analysis methodology,  subsequent chapters are devoted to analytical approaches to escalation, escape, evacuation and rescue analysis of safety and emergency systems.   Separate chapters analyze the main hazards of offshore structures: fire, explosion, collision, and falling objects as well as structural and marine hazards. Risk mitigation and control are discussed, as well as an illustrat...

  18. Risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soils and maize tissues from selected districts in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwa, Ernest M.M.; Meharg, Andrew A.; Rice, Clive M.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the contamination of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) arsenic (As), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in Tanzanian agricultural soils and to evaluate their uptake and translocation in maize as proxy to the safety of maize used for human and animal consumption. Soils and maize tissues were sampled from 40 farms in Tanzania and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in the United Kingdom. The results showed high levels of PTEs in both soils and maize tissues above the recommended limits. Nickel levels of up to 34.4 and 56.9 mg kg −1 respectively were found in some maize shoots and grains from several districts. Also, high Pb levels >0.2 mg kg −1 were found in some grains. The grains and shoots with high levels of Ni and Pb are unfit for human and animal consumption. Concentrations of individual elements in maize tissues and soils did not correlate and showed differences in uptake and translocation. However, Ni showed a more efficient transfer from soils to shoots than As, Pb and Cr. Transfer of Cr and Ni from shoots to grains was higher than other elements, implying that whatever amount is assimilated in maize shoots is efficiently mobilized and transferred to grains. Thus, the study recommended to the public to stop consuming and feeding their animals maize with high levels of PTEs for their safety. - Highlights: ► High Ni and Pb levels above the allowable limits were found in maize grains. ► Also maize shoots unfit for animal use were found with high Ni concentrations. ► Mining activities were among the sources of soil contamination. ► The public advised to stop consuming maize with potentially toxic elements.

  19. A human health risk assessment of rare earth elements in soil and vegetables from a mining area in Fujian Province, Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Chen, Zhibiao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yonghe

    2013-10-01

    Contaminated food through dietary intake has become the main potential risk impacts on human health. This study investigated concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, vegetables, human hair and blood, and assessed human health risk through vegetables consumption in the vicinity of a large-scale mining area located in Hetian Town of Changting County, Fujian Province, Southeast China. The results of the study included the following mean concentrations for total and bio-available REEs of 242.92 ± 68.98 (135.85-327.56)μg g(-1) and 118.59 ± 38.49 (57.89-158.96)μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in agricultural soil, respectively, and total REEs of 3.58 ± 5.28 (0.07-64.42)μg g(-1) dw in vegetable samples. Concentrations of total REEs in blood and hair collected from the local residents ranged from 424.76 to 1274.80 μg L(-1) with an average of 689.74 ± 254.25 μg L(-1) and from 0.06 to 1.59 μg g(-1) with an average of 0.48 ± 0.59 μg g(-1) of the study, respectively. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between REEs in blood and corresponding soil samples (R(2)=0.6556, p0.05). Mean concentrations of REEs of 2.85 (0.59-10.24)μg L(-1) in well water from the local households was 53-fold than that in the drinking water of Fuzhou city (0.054 μg L(-1)). The health risk assessment indicated that vegetable consumption would not result in exceeding the safe values of estimate daily intake (EDI) REEs (100-110 μg kg(-1)d(-1)) for adults and children, but attention should be paid to monitoring human beings health in such rare earth mining areas due to long-term exposure to high dose REEs from food consumptions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil by co-cropping with chelator application and assessment of associated leaching risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z B; Guo, X F; Wu, Q T; Long, X X; Penn, C J

    2011-08-01

    Phytoextraction using hyperaccumulating plants is generally time-consuming and requires the cessation of agriculture. We coupled chelators and a co-cropping system to enhance phytoextraction rates, while allowing for agricultural production. An experiment on I m3 lysimeter beds was conducted with a co-cropping system consisting of the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and low-accumulating corn (Zea Mays, cv. Huidan-4), with addition ofa mixture of chelators (MC), to assess the efficiency of chelator enhanced co-crop phytoextraction and the leaching risk caused by the chelator. The results showed that the addition of MC promoted the growth of S. alfredii in the first crop (spring-summer season) and significantly increased the metal phytoextraction. The DTPA-extractable and total metal concentrations in the topsoil were also reduced more significantly with the addition of MC compared with the control treatments. However, mono-cropped S. alfredii without MC was more suitable for maximizing S. alfredii growth and therefore phytoextraction of Zn and Cd during the autumn-winter seasons. No adverse impact to groundwater due to MC application was observed during the experiments with three crops and three MC applications. But elevated total Cd and Pb concentrations among subsoils compared to the initial subsoil concentrations were found for the co-crop + MC treatment after the third crop.

  1. Operational risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Vicky L

    2017-06-01

    In the world of risk management, which encompasses the business continuity disciplines, many types of risk require evaluation. Financial risk is most often the primary focus, followed by product and market risks. Another critical area, which typically lacks a thorough review or may be overlooked, is operational risk. This category encompasses many risk exposure types including those around building structures and systems, environmental issues, nature, neighbours, clients, regulatory compliance, network, data security and so on. At times, insurance carriers will assess internal hazards, but seldom do these assessments include more than a cursory look at other types of operational risk. In heavily regulated environments, risk assessments are required but may not always include thorough assessments of operational exposures. Vulnerabilities may linger or go unnoticed, only to become the catalyst for a business disruption at a later time, some of which are so severe that business recovery becomes nearly impossible. Businesses may suffer loss of clients as the result of a prolonged disruption of services. Comprehensive operational risk assessments can assist in identifying such vulnerabilities, exposures and threats so that the risk can be minimised or removed. This paper lays out how an assessment of this type can be successfully conducted.

  2. Risk assessment [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis S. Ojima; Louis R. Iverson; Brent L. Sohngen; James M. Vose; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; David L. Peterson; Jeremy S. Littell; Stephen N. Matthews; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters; Gary W. Yohe; Megan M. Friggens

    2014-01-01

    What is "risk" in the context of climate change? How can a "risk-based framework" help assess the effects of climate change and develop adaptation priorities? Risk can be described by the likelihood of an impact occurring and the magnitude of the consequences of the impact (Yohe 2010) (Fig. 9.1). High-magnitude impacts are always...

  3. Chemical Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course is aimed at providing an overview of the fundamental guiding principles and general methods used in chemical risk assessment. Chemical risk assessment is a complex and ever-evolving process. These principles and methods have been organized by the National Research Cou...

  4. Overview of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimington, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper begins by defining some terms, and then refer to a number of technical and other difficulties. Finally it attempts to set out why risk assessment is important and what its purposes are. 2) First, risk and risk assessment - what are they?. 3) Risk is a subject of universal significance. Life is very uncertain, and we can achieve no object or benefit in it except by approaching nearer to particular hazards which lie between us and our objects. That approach represents acceptance of risk. 4) Risk assessment is a way of systematising our approach to hazard with a view to determining what is more and what is less risky. It helps us in the end to diminish our exposure while obtaining whatever benefits we have in mind, or to optimise the risks and the benefits

  5. Overview of risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimington, J D [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper begins by defining some terms, and then refer to a number of technical and other difficulties. Finally it attempts to set out why risk assessment is important and what its purposes are. 2) First, risk and risk assessment - what are they?. 3) Risk is a subject of universal significance. Life is very uncertain, and we can achieve no object or benefit in it except by approaching nearer to particular hazards which lie between us and our objects. That approach represents acceptance of risk. 4) Risk assessment is a way of systematising our approach to hazard with a view to determining what is more and what is less risky. It helps us in the end to diminish our exposure while obtaining whatever benefits we have in mind, or to optimise the risks and the benefits.

  6. [Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Farmland Soil in Du'an Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Xiao-yong; Lei, Mei; Gao, Ding; Qiao, Peng-wei; Du, Guo-dong

    2015-08-01

    For a comprehensive understanding of the pollution characteristics and ecological risk of heavy metals of farmland soil in Du'an Autonomous County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, this study evaluated the cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), copper (Cu) and lead ( Pb) pollution situation using the single factor index, the Nemerow pollution index and the Hakanson ecological risk index. The results showed that heavy-metal pollution of farmland soil in Du'an County was serious. 74.6% of the soil samples had heavy metals concentrations higher than the Grade II of National Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995). The over standard rates of Cd, As, Ni, Zn, Cr, Sb, Cu, Pb were 70.6%, 42.9%, 34.9%, 19.8%, 19.6%, 2.94%, 1.59%, 0.79%, respectively. Cd and As were the main contaminants in Du'an County, the pollution was far more serious than those of the national and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. In terms of the ecological risk, heavy metals of farmland soil in Du'an County showed a "middle" ecological risk, with Cd accounting for 88% of the total ecological risk. The north-west of Jiudu Town and the zone between Bao'an Town and Dongmiao Town were two areas with high ecological risk in Du'an County. The contamination of farmland soils in Du'an County was caused by two main sources, whereas the pollution of As and Sb of farmland soils near Diaojiang River was mainly caused by the upstream mining industry.

  7. State of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.

    1978-03-01

    In view of the growing importance assumed in recent years by scientific work on the calculation, quantification, evaluation and acceptance as well as behavior in the face of risks in general and more specifically, the risks of large industrial plants, the report attempts to provide a survey of the current situation, results and evaluation of this new branch of research, risk assessment. The emphasis of the report is on the basic discussion and criticism of the theoretical and methodological approaches used in the field of risk assessment (section 3). It is concerned above all with - methodical problems of determining and quantifying risks (3.1) - questions of the possibility of risk evaluation and comp arison (3.1, 3.2) - the premises of normative and empirical studies on decision making under risk (3.2, 3.3) - investigations into society's acceptance of risks involved in the introduction of new technologies (3.4) - attempts to combine various aspects of the field of risk assessment in a unified concept (3.5, 3.6, 3.7). Because risk assessment is embedded in the framework of decision theory and technology assessment, it can be implicitly evaluated at a more general level within this framework, as far as its possibilities and weaknesses of method and application are concerned (section 4). Sections 2 and 5 deal with the social context of origin and utilization of risk assessment. Finally, an attempt is made at a summary indicating the possible future development of risk assessment. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Home gardening near a mining site in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona: assessing arsenic exposure dose and risk via ingestion of home garden vegetables, soils, and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brusseau, Mark L; Beamer, Paloma; Maier, Raina M

    2013-06-01

    The human-health risk posed by gardening near a legacy mine and smelter in an arsenic-endemic region of Arizona was characterized in this study. Residential soils were used in a greenhouse study to grow common vegetables, and local residents, after training, collected soil, water, and vegetables samples from their home gardens. Concentrations of arsenic measured in water, soil, and vegetable samples were used in conjunction with reported US intake rates to calculate the daily dose, Incremental Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (IELCR), and Hazard Quotient for arsenic. Relative arsenic intake dose decreased in order: water>garden soils>homegrown vegetables, and on average, each accounted for 77, 16, and 7% of a residential gardener's daily arsenic intake dose. The IELCR ranges for vegetables, garden soils, and water were 10(-8) to 10(-4), 10(-6) to 10(-4), and 10(-5) to 10(-2), respectively. All vegetables (greenhouse and home garden) were grouped by scientific family, and the risk posed decreased as: Asteraceae≫Fabaceae>Amaranthaceae>Liliaceae>Brassicaceae>Solanaceae≫Cucurbitaceae. Correlations observed between concentrations of arsenic in vegetables and soils were used to estimate a maximum allowable level of arsenic in soil to limit the excess cancer risk to 10(-6). The estimated values are 1.56 mg kg(-1), 5.39 mg kg(-1), 11.6 mg kg(-1) and 12.4 mg kg(-1) for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Amaranthaceae families, respectively. It is recommended that home gardeners: sample their private wells annually, test their soils prior to gardening, and, if necessary, modify their gardening behavior to reduce incidental soil ingestion. This study highlights the importance of site-specific risk assessment, and the need for species-specific planting guidelines for communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PRECIS -- A probabilistic risk assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.M.; Knowlton, R.G. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A series of computer tools has been developed to conduct the exposure assessment and risk characterization phases of human health risk assessments within a probabilistic framework. The tools are collectively referred to as the Probabilistic Risk Evaluation and Characterization Investigation System (PRECIS). With this system, a risk assessor can calculate the doses and risks associated with multiple environmental and exposure pathways, for both chemicals and radioactive contaminants. Exposure assessment models in the system account for transport of contaminants to receptor points from a source zone originating in unsaturated soils above the water table. In addition to performing calculations of dose and risk based on initial concentrations, PRECIS can also be used in an inverse manner to compute soil concentrations in the source area that must not be exceeded if prescribed limits on dose or risk are to be met. Such soil contaminant levels, referred to as soil guidelines, are computed for both single contaminants and chemical mixtures and can be used as action levels or cleanup levels. Probabilistic estimates of risk, dose and soil guidelines are derived using Monte Carlo techniques

  10. Patient caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Fontana, Margherita

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an essential component in the decision-making process for the correct prevention and management of dental caries. Multiple risk factors and indicators have been proposed as targets in the assessment of risk of future disease, varying sometimes based on the age group at which...... they are targeted. Multiple reviews and systematic reviews are available in the literature on this topic. This chapter focusses primarily on results of reviews based on longitudinal studies required to establish the accuracy of caries risk assessment. These findings demonstrate that there is a strong body...... of evidence to support that caries experience is still, unfortunately, the single best predictor for future caries development. In young children, prediction models which include a variety of risk factors seem to increase the accuracy of the prediction, while the usefulness of additional risk factors...

  11. Soil structural quality assessment for soil protection regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Boivin, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Soil quality assessment is rapidly developing worldwide, though mostly focused on the monitoring of arable land and soil fertility. Soil protection regulations assess soil quality differently, focusing on priority pollutants and threshold values. The soil physical properties are weakly considered, due to lack of consensus and experimental difficulties faced with characterization. Non-disputable, easy to perform and inexpensive methods should be available for environmental regulation to be applied, which is unfortunately not the case. As a consequence, quantitative soil physical protection regulation is not applied, and inexpensive soil physical quality indicators for arable soil management are not available. Overcoming these limitations was the objective of a research project funded by the Swiss federal office for environment (FOEN). The main results and the perspectives of application are given in this presentation. A first step of the research was to characterize soils in a good structural state (reference soils) under different land use. The structural quality was assessed with field expertise and Visual Evaluation of the Soil Structure (VESS), and the physical properties were assessed with Shrinkage analysis. The relationships between the physical properties and the soil constituents were linear and highly determined. They represent the reference properties of the corresponding soils. In a second step, the properties of physically degraded soils were analysed and compared to the reference properties. This allowed defining the most discriminant parameters departing the different structure qualities and their threshold limits. Equivalent properties corresponding to these parameters but inexpensive and easy to determine were defined and tested. More than 90% of the samples were correctly classed with this method, which meets, therefore, the requirements for practical application in regulation. Moreover, result-oriented agri-environmental schemes for soil quality

  12. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Agricultural Soil-Maize System of a Gold Mining Area in Pingdu City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Lu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals pollution in agricultural soils easily occur in the gold mining area and thereby negatively impact ecosystem and human health. Therefore, this study selected the soil-maize system in the typical gold mining area of Pingdu City as the case study. The ecological risk of heavy metals in farmland soil was evaluated using geo -accumulation index method and Nemero index method. Human health risk was evaluated using target hazard quotients(THQmethod. The results showed that the potential ecological risk of the four heavy metals in agricultural soils had an order of Cd > Zn > Pb > Cr, which potentially induced mediate risk and/or above. Thereinto, the potential ecological risk of Cd was extremely heavy. The integrated pollution risk levels of the four heavy metals were all light and/or above. Thereinto, the integrated pollution risk levels of the four heavy metals in the half of the sampling sites potentially were medium and/or above. The potential health risk of a heavy metal(Cd, Zn, Pb or Crwas low to residents in the studied area when they ate maize and their products. However, there was a certain level of the integrated potential health risk, considering the total hazard index of 2.99×10-3 for adults and 7.13×10-3 for children. Cd contributed the most to the integrated potential health risk, with a contribution of 60.30%. The integrated potential health risk of the four heavy metals was greater to children than adults.

  13. Human health risk assessment of atrazine in water and soil in selected municipalities in Ashanti and Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, F. A.

    2013-06-01

    Atrazine, one of the triazine herbicides, helps control the growth of weeds through inhibition of photosynthetic reactions. It is used extensively because it is economical and effective in reducing crop losses due to weed interference. It has gained much attention because of its frequent detection in surface and groundwater supplies. Even though most countries have banned the usage of atrazine due to health risk and associated environmental contamination, its is still used in Ghana. Knowledge of levels of Atrazine in the environment is essential for the protection of human health and the environment. The main objective of the study is to do a health risk assessment to show the implications of atrazine levels on human population. This is aimed at informing policy makers in pesticide management, especially Atrazine, and also to assist in protecting water resources. The study areas were maize farms in Dormaa, Sunyani and Nkoranza Districts all in the Brong Ahafo Regions as well as Offinso District in Ashanti Region, where a lot of atrazine has been used in maize production over the past ten years. Thirty-six water samples and twelve soil samples were collected in December 2011 from surface and groundwater distributed in the study areas. The herbicide was extracted from the samples using sonication and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). There were no detectable concentrations of Atrazine in some water bodies however others ranged from 0.004µg/L to 0.105µg/L. The highest mean value occurred at Dandwe River with mean concentration of 0.076±0.023µg/L. The streams have concentrations between 0.033µg/L and 0.111µg/L with an average of 0.071µg/L. Out of the three streams sampled. two streams showed the presence of Atrazine with averages of 0.089µg/L and 0.053µg/L. Most of the hand dug wells did not contain Atrazine above the limit of determination of 0.001µg/L. It was only in the Sunyani 1 area that the wells recorded an average of 0.004µg

  14. Ecological risk assessment on a cadmium contaminated soil landfill-a preliminary evaluation based on toxicity tests on local species and site-specific information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-M.; Liu, M.-C.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, methodology of ecological risk assessment has been developed and applied frequently for addressing various circumstances where ecological impacts are suspected or have occurred due to environmental contamination; however, its practice is very limited in Taiwan. In 1982, brown rice from rice paddy fields in Da-Tan, Tau-Yuan, was found to be contaminated with Cd and Pb due to illegal discharges of wastewater, known as the 'Cd rice' incidence. Cadmium laden soil was transferred to a constructed landfill in an industrial park 15 years after the incident. Possible leakage of the landfill was suspected by committee members of a supervising board for the remediation process, and a preliminary ecological risk evaluation was requested. A possible risk scenario was that groundwater contamination due to the leachate containing Cd and Pb from the landfill could result in pollution of coastal water, and subsequently produce toxic effects to aquatic organisms. Chemical dissipation in groundwater systems was simulated and short-term chronic toxicity tests on larvae of three local aquatic species were also performed to determine the no-observed adverse-effect concentrations (NOAECs), as well as the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), of the two metals in the organisms tested. The hazard quotient (HQ), the ratio of predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) to PNECs, was used for risk characterization. A worst-case-scenario calculation showed that the maximum Cd concentration at 60 m and farther downstream from the site in the groundwater system would be 0.0028 mg l -1 with a maximum initial concentration of 0.65 mg l -1 in the leachate, while for Pb, the highest concentration of 0.044 mg l -1 would be reached at a distance of 40 m and farther, which was based on an initial concentration of 4.4 mg l -1 in the leachate; however, both cases would only occur 80 years after the initiation of leakage. A presumed dilution factor of 100 was used to calculate

  15. GAR Global Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskrey, Andrew; Safaie, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    Disaster risk management strategies, policies and actions need to be based on evidence of current disaster loss and risk patterns, past trends and future projections, and underlying risk factors. Faced with competing demands for resources, at any level it is only possible to priorities a range of disaster risk management strategies and investments with adequate understanding of realised losses, current and future risk levels and impacts on economic growth and social wellbeing as well as cost and impact of the strategy. The mapping and understanding of the global risk landscape has been greatly enhanced by the latest iteration of the GAR Global Risk Assessment and the objective of this submission is to present the GAR global risk assessment which contributed to Global Assessment Report (GAR) 2015. This initiative which has been led by UNISDR, was conducted by a consortium of technical institutions from around the world and has covered earthquake, cyclone, riverine flood, and tsunami probabilistic risk for all countries of the world. In addition, the risks associated with volcanic ash in the Asia-Pacific region, drought in various countries in sub-Saharan Africa and climate change in a number of countries have been calculated. The presentation will share thee results as well as the experience including the challenges faced in technical elements as well as the process and recommendations for the future of such endeavour.

  16. Sovereign default risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, H.A.; Altman, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach toward assessing sovereign risk by examining rigorously the health and aggregate default risk of a nation's private corporate sector. Models can be utilised to measure the probability of default of the non-financial sector cumulatively for five years, both as an absolute

  17. Maximum Permissible Risk Levels for Human Intake of Soil Contaminants: Fourth Series of Compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Apeldoorn ME van; Engelen JGM van; Schielen PCJI; Wouters MFA; CSR

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the human-toxicological risk assessment work done in 1996 and 1997 at RIVM's Centre for Substances and Risk Assessment within the scope of the RIVM project on soil intervention values for soil clean-up. The method used for derivation of the Maximum Permissible Risk, as

  18. Risk assessment methodologies for predicting phosphorus losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoumans, O.F.; Chardon, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment parameters are needed to assess the contribution of phosphorus (P) losses from soil to surface water, and the effectiveness of nutrient and land management strategies for the reduction of P loss. These parameters need to take into account the large temporal and spatial variation in P

  19. Prediction of the long term accumulation and leaching of copper in Dutch agricultural soils: a risk assessment study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Vries, de W.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a model study to assess whether current copper inputs on agricultural land lead to accumulation of copper and in time to an exceedance of a Predicted No Effect Concentration. A copper mass balance model was applied to the whole Netherlands. Future copper concentrations after

  20. Extent of Cropland and Related Soil Erosion Risk in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land conversion to cropland is one of the major causes of severe soil erosion in Africa. This study assesses the current cropland extent and the related soil erosion risk in Rwanda, a country that experienced the most rapid population growth and cropland expansion in Africa over the last decade. The land cover land use (LCLU map of Rwanda in 2015 was developed using Landsat-8 imagery. Based on the obtained LCLU map and the spatial datasets of precipitation, soil properties and elevation, the soil erosion rate of Rwanda was assessed at 30-m spatial resolution, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model. According to the results, the mean soil erosion rate was 250 t·ha−1·a−1 over the entire country, with a total soil loss rate of approximately 595 million tons per year. The mean soil erosion rate over cropland, which occupied 56% of the national land area, was estimated at 421 t·ha−1·a−1 and was responsible for about 95% of the national soil loss. About 24% of the croplands in Rwanda had a soil erosion rate larger than 300 t·ha−1·a−1, indicating their unsuitability for cultivation. With a mean soil erosion rate of 1642 t·ha−1·a−1, these unsuitable croplands were responsible for 90% of the national soil loss. Most of the unsuitable croplands are distributed in the Congo Nile Ridge, Volcanic Range mountain areas in the west and the Buberuka highlands in the north, regions characterized by steep slopes (>30% and strong rainfall. Soil conservation practices, such as the terracing cultivation method, are paramount to preserve the soil. According to our assessment, terracing alone could reduce the mean cropland soil erosion rate and the national soil loss by 79% and 75%, respectively. After terracing, only a small proportion of 7.6% of the current croplands would still be exposed to extreme soil erosion with a rate >300 t·ha−1·a−1. These irremediable cropland areas should be returned to mountain forest to

  1. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Samuel-Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density under different land uses (native forest, no-tillage and conventional agriculture on small family farms in Southern Brazil. The results showed that the five properties evaluated can be included in soil quality assessments and are not influenced by the clay and iron oxide contents. It was concluded that for little weathered 1:1 and 2:1 phyllosilicate rich-soils, if the difference between the maximum and the minimum clay content under the different land uses is less than about 200 g kg-1 and the iron oxide content less than about 15 g kg-1, the physico-chemical soil properties in the surface layer are determined mostly by the land use.

  2. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, H.M.; Wang, J.D.; Zhang, X.L.

    2006-01-01

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mg kg -1 ). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure. - Children were exposed to soil lead and the exposure was assessed by bioaccessibility using in vitro digestion model in a modified version

  3. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noli, Fotini, E-mail: noli@chem.auth.gr; Tsamos, Panagiotis, E-mail: pktsamos@chem.auth.gr

    2016-09-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  4. Concentration of heavy metals and trace elements in soils, waters and vegetables and assessment of health risk in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noli, Fotini; Tsamos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of agricultural soils, waters and products in the regions of lignite mines and fired power plants is of great importance. The concentration of As, Βa, Co, Cr, Sr, Sc, Th, U, Zn in soils and waters in the vicinity of a lignite-fired power plant in Northern Greece was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The determination frequency was every three months during a period of one year in order to evaluate the seasonal impact of the pollution to the environment. Measurements were performed in three locations around the lignite mine as well as in one reference location at a certain distance from the mine. The results, which exhibited a slight seasonal variation, were compared, where possible, with literature values from other countries. The obtained data in most of the cases did not exceed the normal levels and indicated that the investigated area was only slightly contaminated. The concentration of heavy and trace metals was also measured in three common garden crops (tomato, cucumber and parsley) grown in this area. The calculated transfer factors (TF) from soil to vegetables and health risk quotients (HQ) do not denote a health risk. - Highlights: • Seasonal variation of heavy metals concentrations in soils and waters in a lignite mining area. • The elevated concentrations detected by NAA indicating minor contamination of the studied area. • Determination of minor and trace elements in vegetables. • The transfer factors and health risk quotients indicating a possible slight contamination in the area.

  5. Accuracy of quantitative visual soil assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; Heuvelink, Gerard; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Wallinga, Jakob; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Essen, Everhard; Moolenaar, Simon; Verhoeven, Frank; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Visual soil assessment (VSA) is a method to assess soil quality visually, when standing in the field. VSA is increasingly used by farmers, farm organisations and companies, because it is rapid and cost-effective, and because looking at soil provides understanding about soil functioning. Often VSA is regarded as subjective, so there is a need to verify VSA. Also, many VSAs have not been fine-tuned for contrasting soil types. This could lead to wrong interpretation of soil quality and soil functioning when contrasting sites are compared to each other. We wanted to assess accuracy of VSA, while taking into account soil type. The first objective was to test whether quantitative visual field observations, which form the basis in many VSAs, could be validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The second objective was to assess whether quantitative visual field observations are reproducible, when used by observers with contrasting backgrounds. For the validation study, we made quantitative visual observations at 26 cattle farms. Farms were located at sand, clay and peat soils in the North Friesian Woodlands, the Netherlands. Quantitative visual observations evaluated were grass cover, number of biopores, number of roots, soil colour, soil structure, number of earthworms, number of gley mottles and soil compaction. Linear regression analysis showed that four out of eight quantitative visual observations could be well validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The following quantitative visual observations correlated well with standardized field or laboratory measurements: grass cover with classified images of surface cover; number of roots with root dry weight; amount of large structure elements with mean weight diameter; and soil colour with soil organic matter content. Correlation coefficients were greater than 0.3, from which half of the correlations were significant. For the reproducibility study, a group of 9 soil scientists and 7

  6. Chlorine transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautkaski, Risto; Mankamo, Tuomas.

    1977-02-01

    An assessment has been made on the toxication risk of the population due to the bulk rail transportation of liquid chlorine in Finland. Fourteen typical rail accidents were selected and their probability was estimated using the accident file of the Finnish State Railways. The probability of a chlorine leak was assessed for each type of accident separately using four leak size categories. The assessed leakage probability was dominated by station accidents, especially by collisions of a chlorine tanker and a locomotive. Toxication hazard areas were estimated for the leak categories. A simple model was constructed to describe the centring of the densely populated areas along the railway line. A comparison was made between the obtained risk and some other risks including those due to nuclear reactor accidents. (author)

  7. Assessment of fracture risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanis, John A.; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene V.

    2009-01-01

    Fractures are a common complication of osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis is defined by bone mineral density at the femoral neck, other sites and validated techniques can be used for fracture prediction. Several clinical risk factors contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD. These include age, prior fragility fracture, smoking, excess alcohol, family history of hip fracture, rheumatoid arthritis and the use of oral glucocorticoids. These risk factors in conjunction with BMD can be integrated to provide estimates of fracture probability using the FRAX tool. Fracture probability rather than BMD alone can be used to fashion strategies for the assessment and treatment of osteoporosis.

  8. Pollution and health risk assessment of industrial and residential area based on metal and metalloids contents in soil and sediment samples from and around the petrochemical industry, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relic, Dubravka; Sakan, Sanja; Andjelkovic, Ivan; Djordjevic, Dragana

    2017-04-01

    Within this study the investigation of pollution state of metal and metalloids contamination in soils and sediments samples of the petrochemical and nearby residential area is present. The pseudo-total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, As, Hg, and Se were monitored with ICP/OES. The pollution indices applied in this work, such as the enrichment factor, the pollution load index, the total enrichment factor, and the ecological risk index showed that some of the soil and sediment samples were highly polluted by Hg, Ba, Pb, Cd, Cr Cu and Zn. The highest pollution indices were calculated for Hg in samples from the petrochemical area: chloralkali plant, electrolysis factory, mercury disposal area, and in samples from the waste channel. The pollution indices of the samples from the residential area indicated that this area is not polluted by investigated elements. Besides the pollution indices, the metal and metalloids concentrations were used in the equations for calculating the health risk criteria. We calculate no carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for the composite worker and residential people by usage adequate equations. In analyzed samples, the no carcinogenic risks were lower than 1. The highest values of carcinogenic risk were obtained in sediment samples from the waste channel within the petrochemical industry and the metal that mostly contributes to the highest carcinogenic risk is Cr. Correlation analysis of pollution indices and carcinogenic risks calculated from the residential area samples showed good correlations while this is not the case for an industrial area.

  9. Lead and cadmium contamination and exposure risk assessment via consumption of vegetables grown in agricultural soils of five-selected regions of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir

    2017-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization result in serious contamination of soil with toxic metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), which can lead to deleterious health impacts in the exposed population. This study aimed to investigate Pb and Cd contamination in agricultural soils and vegetables in five different agricultural sites in Pakistan. The metal transfer from soil-to-plant, average daily intake of metals, and health risk index (HRI) were also characterized. The Pb concentrations for all soils were below the maximum allowable limits (MAL 350 mg kg−1) set by the State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA), for soils in China. Conversely, Cd concentrations in the soils exceeded the MAL set by SEPA (0.6 mg kg−) and the European Union (1.5 mg kg−1) by 62-74% and 4-34%, respectively. The mean Pb concentration in edible parts of vegetables ranged from 1.8-11 mgkg−1. The Pb concentrations for leafy vegetables were higher than the fruiting and pulpy vegetables. The Pb concentrations exceeded the MAL (0.3 mg kg−1) for leafy vegetables and the MAL for fruity and rooty/tuber vegetables (0.1 mg kg−1) set by FAO/WHO-CODEX.. Likewise, all vegetables except Pisum sativum (0.12 mg kg−1) contained Cd concentrations that exceeded the MAL set by SEPA. The HRI values for Pb and Cd were vegetable species except Luffa acutangula, Solanum lycopersicum, Benincasa hispada, Momordi charantia, Aesculantus malvaceae, Cucumis sativus, Praecitrullus fistulosus, Brassica oleracea, and Colocasia esculanta for children. Based on these results, consumption of these Pb and Cd contaminated vegetables poses a potential health risk to the local consumers. PMID:27939659

  10. Health risk assessment of heavy metals contamination in tomato and green pepper plants grown in soils amended with phosphogypsum waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad; Al-Khashman, Omar

    2015-04-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a waste produced by the phosphate fertilizer industry that has relatively high concentrations of some heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, V, and Zn). The present study was conducted to investigate heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetables (tomatoes and green peppers) and to evaluate the possible health risks associated with the consumption of vegetables grown in PG-amended soils. The enrichment factor values indicated that Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and V were depleted to minimally enriched, and Cd was moderately enriched. The pollution load index values indicated that the PG-amended soils were strongly polluted with Cd, moderately polluted with Cr and Ni, and slightly polluted with Pb, Cu, Zn and V. The geo-accumulation index values indicated that the PG-amended soils were uncontaminated with Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, and moderately contaminated with Cd. The trace metal transfer for Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn concentrations was below what are considered as acceptable limits ( Pb > Cd > Cr. The biological absorption coefficients in plants are, in order of highest to lowest, Pb > Zn > Cd > Cr, which suggests that Pb is more bioavailable to plants than Cd, Cr, and Zn. Furthermore, this study highlights that both adults and children consuming vegetables (e.g., tomatoes and green peppers) grown in PG-amended soils ingest significant amounts of the metals studied. However, the daily intake of metals (DIM) and the health risk index (HRI) values are contaminated soils, which were not included in this study.

  11. Sensitivity of soil phosphorus tests in predicting the potential risk of phosphorus loss from pasture soil

    OpenAIRE

    H. SOINNE; K. SAARIJÄRVI; M. KARPPINEN

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of urine and dung additions on the phosphorus (P) chemistry of pasture land and to compare the sensitivity of two soil extraction methods in assessing the P-loading risk. In a field experiment, urine and dung were added to soil in amounts corresponding to single excrement portions and the soil samples, taken at certain intervals, were analysed for pHH2O, acid ammonium acetate extractable P (PAc) and water extractable total P (TPw), and mo...

  12. Concerning ethical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckle, F.

    1991-01-01

    After a fundamental consideration of the concept of responsibility and 'long-term responsibility' for late sequelae, the problems of an ehtical assessment of risks were illustrated: The concept of risk itself poses three problems - predicting the probability of occurrence, assessing the damage = subjective classification of the degree of damage, determining whether the advantages outweigh the risks. It is not possible to weigh the advantages and risks against each other without assessing the goals and the priorities which have been set. Here ethics is called for, because it concerns itself with the reasonableness of evaluative decisions. Its task is to enable us to become aware of and comprehend our system of values in all of its complexity in reference to real life. Ethics can only fulfill its task if it helps us to adopt an integral perspective, i.e. if it centers on the human being. 'One must assess all technical and economic innovations in terms of whether they are beneficial to the development of mankind on a long-term basis. They are only to be legitimized insofar as they prove themselves to be a means of liberating mankind and contributing to his sense of dignity and identity, as a means of bringing human beings together and encouraging them to care for one another, and as a means of protecting the natural basis of our existence. (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Paddy Soil, Plants, and Grains (Oryza sativa L.) at the East Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Deepmala; Reddy, M. Vikram; Dhal, Soumya Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals known to be accumulated in plants adversely affect human health. This study aims to assess the effects of agrochemicals especially chemical fertilizers applied in paddy fields, which release potential toxic heavy metals into soil. Those heavy metals get accumulated in different parts of paddy plant (Oryza sativa L.) including the grains. Concentrations of nonessential toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) and the micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) were measured in the paddy field soil and plant parts. Mn and Cd are found to be accumulated more in shoot than in root. The metal transfer factors from soil to rice plant were significant for Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, and Zn. The ranking order of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for heavy metals was Zn > Mn > Cd > Cu > Cr > Pb indicating that the accumulation of micronutrients was more than that of nonessential toxic heavy metals. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be higher in paddy field soils than that of the nearby control soil but below permissible limits. The higher Health Index (HI) values of rice consuming adults (1.561) and children (1.360) suggest their adverse health effects in the near future. PMID:24995308

  14. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rachel [Consumer' s Association, Health and Safety Commission (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered.

  15. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered

  16. Integral risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1991-01-01

    The series of lectures which forms the basis of this book and took place in the winter of 1989/90 at the ETH in Zuerich were held for the purpose of discussing the stage of development of our system of ethics in view of the extremely fast pace of technological progress and the risks which accompany it. Legal, psychological and political aspects of the problem were examined, but the emphasis was placed on ethical aspects. The effects which are examined in conventional risk analyses can be considered as a part of the ethical and social aspects involved, and in turn, the consideration of ethical and social aspects can be viewed as an extension of the conventional form of risk analysis. In any case, among risk experts, the significance of ethical and social factors is uncontested, especially as regards activities which can have far-reaching repurcussions. Some objective difficulties interfere with this goal, however: - No generally acknowledged set of ethical values exists. - Cultural influences and personal motives can interfere. - Normally a risk assessment is carried out in reference to individual facilities and within a small, clearly defined framework. Under certain circumstances, generalizations which are made for complete technological systems can lead to completely different conclusions. One contribution deals with integral views of the risks of atomic energy from an ethical and social perspective. (orig.) [de

  17. Soil plate bioassay: an effective method to determine ecotoxicological risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, R; Roca-Pérez, L; Marimón, L

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metals have become one of the most serious anthropogenic stressors for plants and other living organisms. Having efficient and feasible bioassays available to assess the ecotoxicological risks deriving from soil pollution is necessary. This work determines pollution by Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in two soils used for growing rice from the Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Spain). Both were submitted to a different degree of anthropic activity, and their ecotoxicological risk was assessed by four ecotoxicity tests to compare their effectiveness: Microtox test, Zucconi test, pot bioassay (PB) and soil plate bioassay (SPB). The sensitivity of three plant species (barley, cress and lettuce) was also assessed. The results reveal a different degree of effectiveness and level of inhibition in the target organisms' growth depending on the test applied, to such an extent that the one-way analysis of variance showed significant differences only for the plate bioassay results, with considerable inhibition of root and shoot elongation in seedlings. Of the three plant species selected, lettuce was the most sensitive species to toxic effects, followed by cress and barley. Finally, the results also indicate that the SPB is an efficient, simple and economic alternative to other ecotoxicological assays to assess toxicity risks deriving from soil pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk assessment and risk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1978-01-01

    With the help of results of investigations and model calculations the risk of nuclear energy in routine operation is shown. In this context it is pointed out that the excellent operation results of reactors all over the world have led to the acceptability of risks from local loads no longer being in question. The attention of radiation protection is therefore focused on the emissions of long-living isotopes which collect in the atmosphere. With LWRs the risk of accidents is so minimal that statistical data is, and never will be available. One has to therefore fall back upon the so-called fault tree analyses. On the subject of risk evalution the author referred to a poll in Austria. From the result of this investigation one might conclude that nuclear energy serves as a crystallization point for a discussion of varying concepts for future development. More attention should be paid to this aspect from both sides, in order to objectify the further expansion of this source of energy. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Hazard waste risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

  20. Site remediation guided by risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, E.A.; Gowing, A.; Pieczonka, G.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Risk assessment (RA) provides an effective tool for identifying hazards with respect to human health and ecological receptors, hazards that arise from contaminants in the environment. Risk assessment relies upon: hazard identification/problem formulation; toxicity assessment; exposure assessment; and risk characterization. Hence, risk assessment provides an effective guide for site remediation through the identification of the associated risks arising from pre- and potential post-remediation activities. As a demonstration of this decision-making process, a site-specific risk assessment (SSRA) was performed on a chemical producing facility. Historical waste practices during the production of DDT compounds resulted in impacted site soils and sediment and soils of the creek passing through the facility. The purpose of the SSRA was to derive site-specific cleanup values for the impacted on-site soils, creek sediments, and embankment soils, incorporating human and ecological receptors associated with the environmental media. The human exposure pathways considered were dermal contact, incidental ingestion, and inhalation of the various soils. The potential human receptors were industrial workers, construction workers, trespassers, and off-site residents. Ingestion of fish from the creek by residents was also evaluated in the human health risk assessment (HHRA). Food web analyses were used to evaluate the impact of exposure to chemical compounds in aquatic sediments and related soils by ecological receptors such as the great blue heron, raccoon, and mink. The SSRA involved modelling the daily chemical intake by receptors and the transfer of chemicals to identified secondary media (e.g., ambient air or animal tissues) that are also potential exposure media. These models, while using the site-specific chemical data in the source media, possess uncertainties associated with default parameters that are only approximations and not site-specific (e.g., soil

  1. In-situ soil loss monitoring in a small Mediterranean catchment to assess the siltation risk of a limno-reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, E.; Bienes-Allas, R.; Martínez-Pérez, S.; Sastre-Merlín, A.

    2012-04-01

    The existence of large reservoirs under Mediterranean climate causes some negative impacts. The construction of small dams in the riverine zone of these reservoirs is an innovative idea designed to counteract some of those impacts, generating a body of water with a constant level which we have termed "limno-reservoirs". Pareja Limno-reservoir, located in the influence area of the Entrepeñas Reservoir (Guadalajara) is among the first limno-reservoirs built in Spain, and the first having a double function: environmental and recreational. The limno-reservoir basin (85.5 Km2) enjoys a Mediterranean climate, however, cold temperatures prevail in winter and maximum annual variation may be around 50 °C. Average annual precipitation is 600 mm, with high variability too. Most of the basin is dominated by a high limestone plateau, while a more erodible lithology surfaces in the hillsides of the Ompólveda River and its tributaries. These characteristics make the basin representative of central Spain. Despite the unquestionable interest of the initiative, it construction has raised some issues about its environmental viability. One of them is related to its siltation risk, as the area shows signs of high erosion rates that have been contrasted in previous empirical studies. An in-situ soil loss monitoring network has been installed in order to determine the soil loss and deposition rates in the limno-reservoir basin (85.5 km2). It includes 15 sampling plots for inter-rill erosion and 8 for sedimentation, each one containing 16 erosion sticks. Rill erosion was studied monitoring 8 rills with a needle micro-profiler, quantifying the sediment deposition in their terminal zone with sticks. These control points have been located in places where the soil type, land use and slope present are representative of the basin, in order to extrapolate the results to similar areas. In-situ monitoring has been performed for three years, starting in 2009 and carrying out sampling every 3

  2. Accumulation and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals in soil and plants of four different ecosystems in a former polymetallic ores mining and smelting area (Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demková, Lenka; Árvay, Július; Bobuľská, Lenka; Tomáš, Ján; Stanovič, Radovan; Lošák, Tomáš; Harangozo, Luboš; Vollmannová, Alena; Bystrická, Judita; Musilová, Janette; Jobbágy, Ján

    2017-04-16

    Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in soils and plants of four different ecosystems (forest, grassland, agro and urban ecosystem) at different distances from the source of the pollution were analyzed in order to assess and compare soil contamination in the various ecosystems and determine the potential accumulation of plants depending on the place they inhabit. Correlation relationships among heavy metals in soils differ depending on the ecosystem, and between soil and plant, the heavy metals showed significant correlation for Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Contamination factor (C f ), degree of contamination (C d ) and pollution load index (PLI) were used in order to determine the level of environmental contamination of the study area. All studied ecosystems were rated as moderately contaminated (except agroecosystem, which was found as low contamination ecosystem) according to C d and extremely polluted according to PLI. The highest pollution in both cases was found in urban ecosystem, and Cd, Cu and Fe were determined as the biggest pollutants.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhiza in soil quality assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, M.; Jakobsen, I.

    1998-01-01

    aggregates and to the protection of plants against drought and root pathogens. Assessment of soil quality, defined as the capacity of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant health, should therefore include both......Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi constitute a living bridge for the transport of nutrients from soil to plant roots, and are considered as the group of soil microorganisms that is of most direct importance to nutrient uptake by herbaceous plants. AM fungi also contribute to the formation of soil...... quantitative and qualitative measurements of this important biological resource. Various methods for the assessment of the potential for mycorrhiza formation and function are presented. Examples are given of the application of these methods to assess the impact of pesticides on the mycorrhiza....

  4. Non-destructive pollution exposure assessment in the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus): IV hair versus soil analysis in exposure and risk assessment of organochlorine compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havé, D' H.; Scheirs, J.; Covaci, A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Verhagen, R.; Coen, De W.

    2007-01-01

    Few ecotoxicological studies on mammals use non-destructive methodologies, despite the growing ethical concern over the use of destructive sampling methods. In the present study we assessed exposure of hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),

  5. Risk assessment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, F.G.; Jones, J.L.; Hunt, R.N.; Roush, M.L.; Wierman, T.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Probabilistic Risk Assessment Unit at EG ampersand G Idaho has developed this handbook to provide guidance to a facility manager exploring the potential benefit to be gained by performance of a risk assessment properly scoped to meet local needs. This document is designed to help the manager control the resources expended commensurate with the risks being managed and to assure that the products can be used programmatically to support future needs in order to derive maximum beneflt from the resources expended. We present a logical and functional mapping scheme between several discrete phases of project definition to ensure that a potential customer, working with an analyst, is able to define the areas of interest and that appropriate methods are employed in the analysis. In addition the handbook is written to provide a high-level perspective for the analyst. Previously, the needed information was either scattered or existed only in the minds of experienced analysts. By compiling this information and exploring the breadth of knowledge which exists within the members of the PRA Unit, the functional relationships between the customers' needs and the product have been established

  6. Risk characterization and remedial management of TPH-affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.; Von Burg, R.; Preslo, L.; Lakin, M.

    1994-01-01

    A risk-based remedial program for petroleum hydrocarbon affected soils has been implemented at a large land parcel in California. The site is the former location of a manufacturing facility that had been in operation since the 1940s. As a result of various activities related to parts manufacturing, several large areas of soil were found to contain various petroleum products. The primary sources of petroleum hydrocarbons included cutting oils, lubricating oils, fuels, and hydraulic oils associated with the site operations. Concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as high as 100,000 mg/kg were identified in soil. These high concentrations of TPH were identified at depths up to 60 feet below ground surface (bgs), with the vadose zone extending to depths of more than 150 feet bgs. Within California, traditional cleanup levels for TPH-affected soils typically range from 100 to 1,000 mg/kg. Because of the client's desire to sell the property for rapid development, the remedial alternative of excavation and off-haul was deemed too time consuming and costly. The estimated costs associated with this remediation which potentially involved soil removal to 100--120 feet exceeded $20 million and could take up to one year to complete. To meet the schedule requirements for site remediations as well as significantly reduce the overall project cost, the authors undertook a risk-based approach to assess if remediation of the TPH-affected soils was required

  7. 2007 TOXICOLOGY AND RISK ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced The 2007 Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference Cincinnati Marriott North, West Chester (Cincinnati), OHApril 23- 26, 2007 - Click to register!The Annual Toxicology and Risk Assessment Conference is a unique meeting where several Government Agencies come together to discuss toxicology and risk assessment issues that are not only of concern to the government, but also to a broader audience including academia and industry. The theme of this year's conference is Emerging Issues and Challenges in Risk Assessment and the preliminary agenda includes: Plenary Sessions and prominent speakers (tentative) include: Issues of Emerging Chemical ContaminantsUncertainty and Variability in Risk Assessment Use of Mechanistic data in IARC evaluationsParallel Sessions:Uncertainty and Variability in Dose-Response Assessment Recent Advances in Toxicity and Risk Assessment of RDX The Use of Epidemiologic Data for Risk Assessment Applications Cumulative Health Risk Assessment:

  8. Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Surgery Risk Assessment (SRA) database is part of the VA Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP). This database contains assessments of selected surgical...

  9. Sensitivity of soil phosphorus tests in predicting the potential risk of phosphorus loss from pasture soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SOINNE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effects of urine and dung additions on the phosphorus (P chemistry of pasture land and to compare the sensitivity of two soil extraction methods in assessing the P-loading risk. In a field experiment, urine and dung were added to soil in amounts corresponding to single excrement portions and the soil samples, taken at certain intervals, were analysed for pHH2O, acid ammonium acetate extractable P (PAc and water extractable total P (TPw, and molybdate reactive P (MRPw. Urine additions immediately increased soil pH and MRPw, but no such response was observed in PAc extraction due to the low pH (4.65 of the extractant enhancing the resorption of P. The PAc responded to the dunginduced increase in soil total P similarly as did Pw, which suggests that both tests can serve to detect areas of high P concentration. However, water extraction was a more sensitive method for estimating short-term changes in P solubility. In pasture soils, the risk of P loss increases as a result of the interaction of urination and high P concentration in the topsoil resulting from continuous dung excretion.;

  10. Assessment of technical risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, T A [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The safety of technical systems is so difficult to assess because the concept 'risk' contains technical-scientific factors as well as components of individual and social psychology. Immediate or short-term hazards of human life as i.e. caused by the operation of industrial plants and mediate and thus long-term hazards have to be distinguished. Characteristic for the second hazard groups is the great time-lag before the effect takes place. Thus a causal relationship can be recognized only late and not definitely. Even when the causes have been obviated the effects still show. The development of a systems-analytical model as a basis of decisive processes for the introduction of highly endangered large-scale technologies seems particularly difficult. A starting point for the quantification of the risk can still be seen in the product of the probability of realization and the extent of the damage. Public opinion, however, does not base its evaluations on an objective concept of risk but tends to have an attitude of aversion against great and disastrous accidents. On the other hand, plenty of slight accidents are accepted much more easily, even when the amount of deadly victims from accidents reaches dimensions beyond those of the rare large-scale accidents. Here, mostly the damage possible but not the probability of its occurence is seen, let alone the general use of the new technology. The value of the mathematical models for estimating risks is mainly due to the fact that they are able to clear up decisions.

  11. Risk assessment and risk management of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessment is the process of quantifying the magnitude and exposure, or probability, of a harmful effect to individuals or populations from certain agents or activities. Here, we summarize the four steps of risk assessment: hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Risk assessments using these principles have been conducted on the major mycotoxins (aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone) by various regulatory agencies for the purpose of setting food safety guidelines. We critically evaluate the impact of these risk assessment parameters on the estimated global burden of the associated diseases as well as the impact of regulatory measures on food supply and international trade. Apart from the well-established risk posed by aflatoxins, many uncertainties still exist about risk assessments for the other major mycotoxins, often reflecting a lack of epidemiological data. Differences exist in the risk management strategies and in the ways different governments impose regulations and technologies to reduce levels of mycotoxins in the food-chain. Regulatory measures have very little impact on remote rural and subsistence farming communities in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, where regulations are strictly enforced to reduce and/or remove mycotoxin contamination. However, in the absence of the relevant technologies or the necessary infrastructure, we highlight simple intervention practices to reduce mycotoxin contamination in the field and/or prevent mycotoxin formation during storage.

  12. Assessment of soil contamination--a functional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straalen, Nico M

    2002-01-01

    In many industrialized countries the use of land is impeded by soil pollution from a variety of sources. Decisions on clean-up, management or set-aside of contaminated land are based on various considerations, including human health risks, but ecological arguments do not have a strong position in such assessments. This paper analyses why this should be so, and what ecotoxicology and theoretical ecology can improve on the situation. It seems that soil assessment suffers from a fundamental weakness, which relates to the absence of a commonly accepted framework that may act as a reference. Soil contamination can be assessed both from a functional perspective and a structural perspective. The relationship between structure and function in ecosystems is a fundamental question of ecology which receives a lot of attention in recent literature, however, a general concept that may guide ecotoxicological assessments has not yet arisen. On the experimental side, a good deal of progress has been made in the development and standardized use of terrestrial model ecosystems (TME). In such systems, usually consisting of intact soil columns incubated in the laboratory under conditions allowing plant growth and drainage of water, a compromise is sought between field relevance and experimental manageability. A great variety of measurements can be made on such systems, including microbiological processes and activities, but also activities of the decomposer soil fauna. I propose that these TMEs can be useful instruments in ecological soil quality assessments. In addition a "bioinformatics approach" to the analysis of data obtained in TME experiments is proposed. Soil function should be considered as a multidimensional concept and the various measurements can be considered as indicators, whose combined values define the "normal operating range" of the system. Deviations from the normal operating range indicate that the system is in a condition of stress. It is hoped that more work

  13. Caries risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejàre, I; Axelsson, S; Dahlén, G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria...... predictors, baseline caries experience had moderate/good accuracy in pre-school children and limited accuracy in schoolchildren/adolescents. The period of highest risk for caries incidence in permanent teeth was the first few years after tooth eruption. In general, the quality of evidence was limited....... CONCLUSIONS: Multivariate models and baseline caries prevalence performed better in pre-school children than in schoolchildren/adolescents. Baseline caries prevalence was the most accurate single predictor in all age groups. The heterogeneity of populations, models, outcome criteria, measures and reporting...

  14. Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Steve

    2010-05-01

    Through unsustainable land use practices, mining, deforestation, urbanisation and degradation by industrial pollution, soil losses are now hypothesized to be much faster (100 times or more) than soil formation - with the consequence that soil has become a finite resource. The crucial challenge for the international research community is to understand the rates of processes that dictate soil mass stocks and their function within Earth's Critical Zone (CZ). The CZ is the environment where soils are formed, degrade and provide their essential ecosystem services. Key among these ecosystem services are food and fibre production, filtering, buffering and transformation of water, nutrients and contaminants, storage of carbon and maintaining biological habitat and genetic diversity. We have initiated a new research project to address the priority research areas identified in the European Union Soil Thematic Strategy and to contribute to the development of a global network of Critical Zone Observatories (CZO) committed to soil research. Our hypothesis is that the combined physical-chemical-biological structure of soil can be assessed from first-principles and the resulting soil functions can be quantified in process models that couple the formation and loss of soil stocks with descriptions of biodiversity and nutrient dynamics. The objectives of this research are to 1. Describe from 1st principles how soil structure influences processes and functions of soils, 2. Establish 4 European Critical Zone Observatories to link with established CZOs, 3. Develop a CZ Integrated Model of soil processes and function, 4. Create a GIS-based modelling framework to assess soil threats and mitigation at EU scale, 5. Quantify impacts of changing land use, climate and biodiversity on soil function and its value and 6. Form with international partners a global network of CZOs for soil research and deliver a programme of public outreach and research transfer on soil sustainability. The

  15. Risk assessment of mercury contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, M.

    1993-01-01

    At two sites, highly contaminated with mercury, risk assessment was executed. Methods were developed to determine organomercury compounds in water, air and soil. Toxicity tests demonstrated the high toxicity of organomercury compounds compared to inorganic mercury. Besides highly toxic methylmercury, ethylmercury was found in soils close to a chemical plant in Marktredwitz. In ultrafiltration-experiments mercury showed great affinity to high molecular substances in water. Lysimeter-experiments proved, that organomercury compounds are adsorbed and transformed to inorganic and elemental mercury. (orig.) [de

  16. Field sampling of soil pore water to evaluate trace element mobility and associated environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.moreno@uam.es [Departamento de Quimica Agricola, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Beesley, Luke [James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, PO Box 84 (New Zealand); Hartley, William [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Clemente, Rafael [Dep. of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, PO Box 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Monitoring soil pollution is a key aspect in sustainable management of contaminated land but there is often debate over what should be monitored to assess ecological risk. Soil pore water, containing the most labile pollutant fraction in soils, can be easily collected in situ offering a routine way to monitor this risk. We present a compilation of data on concentration of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in soil pore water collected in field conditions from a range of polluted and non-polluted soils in Spain and the UK during single and repeated monitoring, and propose a simple eco-toxicity test using this media. Sufficient pore water could be extracted for analysis both under semi-arid and temperate conditions, and eco-toxicity comparisons could be effectively made between polluted and non-polluted soils. We propose that in-situ pore water extraction could enhance the realism of risk assessment at some contaminated sites. - Highlights: > In situ pore water sampling successfully evaluates trace elements mobility in soils. > Field sampling proved robust for different soils, sites and climatic regimes. > Measurements may be directly related to ecotoxicological assays. > Both short and long-term monitoring of polluted lands may be achieved. > This method complements other widely used assays for environmental risk assessment. - In situ pore water sampling from a wide variety of soils proves to be a beneficial application to monitor the stability of pollutants in soils and subsequent risk through mobility.

  17. Methods of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (identification, quantification of risk); some approaches to risk evaluation (use of the 'no risk' principle; the 'acceptable risk' method; risk balancing; comparison of risks, benefits and other costs); cost benefit analysis; an alternative approach (tabulation and display; description and reduction of the data table); identification of potential decision sets consistent with the constraints. Some references are made to nuclear power. (U.K.)

  18. Coupling of phenological information and simulated vegetation index time series: Limitations and potentials for the assessment and monitoring of soil erosion risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring of agricultural used soils at frequent intervals is needed to get a sufficient understanding of soil erosion processes. This is crucial to support decision making and refining soil policies especially in the context of climate change. Along with rainfall erosivity, soil coverage by vegeta...

  19. Arsenic, copper, and zinc contamination in soil and wheat during coal mining, with assessment of health risks for the inhabitants of Huaibei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gao Ling; Lou, Lai Qing; Zhang, Shuai; Xia, Xue Wei; Cai, Qing Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to investigate arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) contamination in agricultural soils and wheat crops at two areas in Huaibei, China. Area A is in the proximity of Shuoli coal mine. In area B, three coal mines and a coal cleaning plant were distributed. The potential health risk of As, Cu, and Zn exposure to the local inhabitants through consumption of wheat grains was also estimated. The results showed that significantly higher (psoils collected from area B than in those from area A. Arsenic concentrations in wheat sampled from area A were negatively correlated with the distance from the coal mine (p<0.001). Concentrations of Cu and Zn in wheat seedlings and grains collected from area B were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in those collected from area A, with the exception of Zn in wheat seedlings. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in most wheat grain samples were above the permissible limits of Cu and Zn in edible plants set by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The hazard index of aggregate risk through consumption of wheat grains was 2.3-2.4 for rural inhabitants and 1.4-1.5 for urban inhabitants. The average intake of inorganic As for rural inhabitants in Huaibei was above 10 μg day(-1). These findings indicated that the inhabitants around the coal mine are experiencing a significant potential health risk due to the consumption of locally grown wheat.

  20. Risk assessments ensure safer power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-19

    A growth industry is emerging devoted to the study and comparison of the economic, social and health risks posed by large industrial installations. Electricity generation is one area coming under particularly close scrutiny. Types of risk, ways of assessing risk and the difference between experts' analyses and the public perception of risk are given. An example of improved risk assessment helping to reduce deaths and injuries in coal mining is included.

  1. Risk assessment - The future trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Many organizations today are faced with cleaning a site or facility, selecting appropriate remedial alternatives, or explaining the potential effects on human health and the environment caused by the releases of toxic compounds into the air, soil, and water, The use of risk assessment (RA) as a management tool is increasing because it offers an integrated approach to the analysis of toxicological, geological, physio-chemical, meteorological, statistical, and biological parameters that must be evaluated in the assessment of potential impacts to human health. The regulatory atmosphere in the 1990s is leaning toward the adoption of further laws requiring the completion of the RA process. Any industry involved in submitting permit applications to Air Quality Management Districts or complying with California's Proposition 65 and AB 2588 will be required to prepare RAs. Several guidance documents are available that support the RA process including the California Site Mitigation Decision Tree Manual published by the State Department of Health Services (DHS), which bases its approach on developing cleanup objectives (Applied Action Levels) on RA. This presentation focuses on the applications RA can have to the petroleum industry and the kinds of data that each case should develop to make maximum use of the RA process

  2. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  3. Ecotoxicological and human toxicological risk assessment of PAH-contaminated soils before and after biological treatment; Oekotoxikologische und humantoxikologische Risikobewertung PAK-belasteter Boeden vor und nach biologischer Behandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P.H.; Hanstein, W.G. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physiologische Chemie; Weissenfels, W.D. [RAG Umwelt Kommunal GmbH, Bottrop (Germany); Afferden, M. van [IMTA, Jiutepec, Mor. (Mexico); Pfeifer, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The goal of the present work is to assess the adverse effects of soil bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which remain in soils after biological remediation. We focus on risk assessment for mammalian species with respect to the oral uptake of contaminated soil particles and compare the results of a biomarker test with those of an ecotoxicological assay, the bioluminescence inhibition test with Vibrio fischeri. As a biomarker effect in mammals, we determined the liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A1 which is induced by PAH in exposed rats. After biological soil treatment, different amounts of PAH remain in the soil depending on the soil properties and initial pollutant composition. Particularly, higher condensated PAH resists biological treatment due to its hydrophobicity. In addition, high amounts of organic carbon in the soils affect remediation efficiency. In the bioluminescence inhibition test, eluates of all biologically treated soils studied do not reveal any or only low inhibitory effects. In contrast, the oral uptake of biologically treated contaminated soils leads to induction levels for CYP1A1 similar to those in the untreated samples. A good correlation is obtained between CYP1A1 levels and the amount of 5 and 6-ring PAH in the soil samples. The main result is that the remediation efficiency determined by the luminescence test is not reflected by the biomarker test, a finding which indicates the high bioavailability of residual PAH in soils. Consequently, new criteria for human risk assessment can be delineated. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, moegliche toxische Wirkungen PAK-belasteter Boeden vor und nach biologischer Sanierung zu erfassen. Hierbei liegt der Schwerpunkt auf der Abschaetzung des Risikos fuer Saeugetiere nach oraler Aufnahme von Bodenpartikeln. Als Biomarker-Effekt fuer die PAK-Aufnahme haben wir in Ratten die Induktion des lebermikrosomalen P450-Enzyms CYP1A1 bestimmt, dessen Expression durch PAK moduliert

  4. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C 10 and C 11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk assessment for halogenated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    A recent development in the cancer risk area is the advent of biologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models. These models allow for the incorporation of biological and mechanistic data into the risk assessment process. These advances will not only improve the risk assessment process for halogenated solvents but will stimulate and guide basic research in the biological area

  6. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  7. Uncertainties in risk assessment and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzec, Peter; Purucker, Tom; Stewart, Robert

    2008-02-01

    The general concept for risk assessment in accordance with the Swedish model for contaminated soil implies that the toxicological reference value for a given receptor is first back-calculated to a corresponding concentration of a compound in soil and (if applicable) then modified with respect to e.g. background levels, acute toxicity, and factor of safety. This result in a guideline value that is subsequently compared to the observed concentration levels. Many sources of uncertainty exist when assessing whether the risk for a receptor is significant or not. In this study, the uncertainty aspects have been addressed from three standpoints: 1. Uncertainty in the comparison between the level of contamination (source) and a given risk criterion (e.g. a guideline value) and possible implications on subsequent decisions. This type of uncertainty is considered to be most important in situations where a contaminant is expected to be spatially heterogeneous without any tendency to form isolated clusters (hotspots) that can be easily delineated, i.e. where mean values are appropriate to compare to the risk criterion. 2. Uncertainty in spatial distribution of a contaminant. Spatial uncertainty should be accounted for when hotspots are to be delineated and the volume of soil contaminated with levels above a stated decision criterion has to be assessed (quantified). 3. Uncertainty in an ecological exposure model with regard to the moving pattern of a receptor in relation to spatial distribution of contaminant in question. The study points out that the choice of methodology to characterize the relation between contaminant concentration and a pre-defined risk criterion is governed by a conceptual perception of the contaminant's spatial distribution and also depends on the structure of collected data (observations). How uncertainty in transition from contaminant concentration into risk criterion can be quantified was demonstrated by applying hypothesis tests and the concept of

  8. GS Soil - Assessment and strategic development of INSPIRE compliant Geodata-Services for European Soil Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Münier, Bernd

    facilities and long term observations as part of the Annex III theme "Environmental Monitoring Facilities", • Information about the soil related aspects of Annex III theme "Natural Risk Zones" as e.g. landslides, soil erosion, soil compaction, soil organic carbon decline, salinization, acidification and soil...

  9. HTGR accident and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silady, F.A.; Everline, C.J.; Houghton, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a synopsis of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) performed by General Atomic Company. Principal topics presented include: HTGR safety assessments, peer interfaces, safety research, process gas explosions, quantitative safety goals, licensing applications of PRA, enhanced safety, investment risk assessments, and PRA design integration

  10. Information needs for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, C.T.; Choudhury, H.; Schoeny, R.S.

    1990-12-31

    Risk assessment can be thought of as a conceptual approach to bridge the gap between the available data and the ultimate goal of characterizing the risk or hazard associated with a particular environmental problem. To lend consistency to and to promote quality in the process, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published Guidelines for Risk Assessment of Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity, Germ Cell Mutagenicity and Exposure Assessment, and Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. The guidelines provide a framework for organizing the information, evaluating data, and for carrying out the risk assessment in a scientifically plausible manner. In the absence of sufficient scientific information or when abundant data are available, the guidelines provide alternative methodologies that can be employed in the risk assessment. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Is the Total Concentration of a Heavy Metal in Soil a Suitable Tool for Assessing the Environmental Risk? Considering the Case of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Estévez, Manuel Arias

    2017-01-01

    National legislation concerning soil pollution by heavy metals in different countries is mostly based on the total heavy metal concentration levels allowed in different soils. As soil pollution is an issue of worldwide concern, here we develop a laboratory exercise for students in which they must check the suitability of a total metal…

  12. Exploration Health Risks: Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Charles, John; Hayes, Judith; Wren, Kiley

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of human health on long-duration exploration missions is a primary challenge to mission designers. Indeed, human health risks are currently the largest risk contributors to the risks of evacuation or loss of the crew on long-duration International Space Station missions. We describe a quantitative assessment of the relative probabilities of occurrence of the individual risks to human safety and efficiency during space flight to augment qualitative assessments used in this field to date. Quantitative probabilistic risk assessments will allow program managers to focus resources on those human health risks most likely to occur with undesirable consequences. Truly quantitative assessments are common, even expected, in the engineering and actuarial spheres, but that capability is just emerging in some arenas of life sciences research, such as identifying and minimize the hazards to astronauts during future space exploration missions. Our expectation is that these results can be used to inform NASA mission design trade studies in the near future with the objective of preventing the higher among the human health risks. We identify and discuss statistical techniques to provide this risk quantification based on relevant sets of astronaut biomedical data from short and long duration space flights as well as relevant analog populations. We outline critical assumptions made in the calculations and discuss the rationale for these. Our efforts to date have focussed on quantifying the probabilities of medical risks that are qualitatively perceived as relatively high risks of radiation sickness, cardiac dysrhythmias, medically significant renal stone formation due to increased calcium mobilization, decompression sickness as a result of EVA (extravehicular activity), and bone fracture due to loss of bone mineral density. We present these quantitative probabilities in order-of-magnitude comparison format so that relative risk can be gauged. We address the effects of

  13. Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil

    Xiaomei Yang

    Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within the

  14. [Forensic assessment of violence risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Robinat, Amadeo; Mohíno Justes, Susana; Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 20 years there have been steps forward in the field of scientific research on prediction and handling different violent behaviors. In this work we go over the classic concept of "criminal dangerousness" and the more current of "violence risk assessment". We analyze the evolution of such assessment from the practice of non-structured clinical expert opinion to current actuarial methods and structured clinical expert opinion. Next we approach the problem of assessing physical violence risk analyzing the HCR-20 (Assessing Risk for Violence) and we also review the classic and complex subject of the relation between mental disease and violence. One of the most problematic types of violence, difficult to assess and predict, is sexual violence. We study the different actuarial and sexual violence risk prediction instruments and in the end we advise an integral approach to the problem. We also go through partner violence risk assessment, describing the most frequently used scales, especially SARA (Spouse Assault Risk Assessment) and EPV-R. Finally we give practical advice on risk assessment, emphasizing the importance of having maximum information about the case, carrying out a clinical examination, psychopathologic exploration and the application of one of the described risk assessment scales. We'll have to express an opinion about the dangerousness/risk of future violence from the subject and some recommendations on the conduct to follow and the most advisable treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk assessment and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The approach to determining how safe is safe for the nuclear industry is to ensure that the risks are comparable with or less than those of other safe industries. There are some problems in implementing such an approach, because the effects of low levels of radiation are stochastic and assumptions are required in estimating the risks. A conservative approach has generally been adopted. Risk estimates across different activities are a useful indication of where society may be overspending or underspending to reduce risk, but the analysis has to take account of public preferences. Once risks have been estimated, limits may be chosen which the industry is expected to meet under normal and postulated accident conditions. Limits have been set so that nuclear risks do not exceed those in safe industries, and under normal conditions nuclear facilities operate at levels far below these specified limits

  16. Applying soil property information for watershed assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, V.; Mayn, C.; Brown, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Forest Service uses a priority watershed scheme to guide where to direct watershed restoration work. Initial assessment was done across the nation following the watershed condition framework process. This assessment method uses soils information for a three step ranking across each 12 code hydrologic unit; however, the soil information used in the assessment may not provide adequate detail to guide work on the ground. Modern remote sensing information and terrain derivatives that model the environmental gradients hold promise of showing the influence of soil forming factors on watershed processes. These small scale data products enable the disaggregation of coarse scale soils mapping to show continuous soil property information across a watershed. When this information is coupled with the geomorphic and geologic information, watershed specialists can more aptly understand the controlling influences of drainage within watersheds and focus on where watershed restoration projects can have the most success. A case study on the application of this work shows where road restoration may be most effective.

  17. Risk assessment of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, LAS, in agricultural soil revisited: Robust chronic toxicity tests for Folsomia candida (Collembola), Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta) and Enchytraeus crypticus (Enchytraeidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, P. H.; Lopez, C. V.; Cassani, G.

    2007-01-01

    To obtain robust data on the toxicity of LAS, tests with the collembolan Folsomia candida L., the oligochaetes Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny (earthworm) and Enchytraeus crypticus Westheide and Graefe (enchytraeid) were performed in a sandy loam soil. Additionally limited tests with LAS spiked...... to sewage sludge, and subsequently mixed into soil, were performed. For the endpoint of interest, reproduction in soil, we found an EC10 of 205 mg LAS kg-1 soil [8.6-401] [95% confidence limits] for F. candida and an EC10 of 46 mg LAS kg-1 soil [13-80] for A. caliginosa after 28 days. E. crypticus...... was not affected by concentrations up to 120 mg LAS kg-1 soil. When adding (low contaminated) non-spiked sludge to soil, high stimulation of reproduction was ob-served for E. crypticus and A. caliginosa but not for F. candida. We argue that this difference in stimulative response between the tested species...

  18. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  19. Using risk assessment in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Alan J

    2014-08-01

    Risk assessment has become a regular feature in both dental practice and society as a whole, and principles used to assess risk in society are similar to those used in a clinical setting. Although the concept of risk assessment as a prognostic indicator for periodontal disease incidence and activity is well established in the management of periodontitis, the use of risk assessment to manage the practical treatment of periodontitis and its sequelae appears to have less foundation. A simple system of initial risk assessment - building on the use of the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), clinical, medical and social factors - is described, linked to protocols for delivering care suited to general dental practice and stressing the role of long-term supportive care. The risks of not treating the patient are considered, together with the possible causes of failure, and the problems of successful treatment are illustrated by the practical management of post-treatment recession.

  20. Soil erosion assessment - Mind the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongho; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Fatichi, Simone

    2016-12-01

    Accurate assessment of erosion rates remains an elusive problem because soil loss is strongly nonunique with respect to the main drivers. In addressing the mechanistic causes of erosion responses, we discriminate between macroscale effects of external factors - long studied and referred to as "geomorphic external variability", and microscale effects, introduced as "geomorphic internal variability." The latter source of erosion variations represents the knowledge gap, an overlooked but vital element of geomorphic response, significantly impacting the low predictability skill of deterministic models at field-catchment scales. This is corroborated with experiments using a comprehensive physical model that dynamically updates the soil mass and particle composition. As complete knowledge of microscale conditions for arbitrary location and time is infeasible, we propose that new predictive frameworks of soil erosion should embed stochastic components in deterministic assessments of external and internal types of geomorphic variability.

  1. Assessment of Soil Nutrient Status of Identified Soil Units in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Technology and Education in Nigeria ... Assessment of Soil Nutrient Status of Identified Soil Units in Selected Communities in Three Local Government Areas ... Available phosphorus content in the soils is generally high with values ...

  2. Sampling for Soil Carbon Stock Assessment in Rocky Agricultural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem-Miller, Jeffrey P.; Kong, Angela Y. Y.; Ogle, Stephen; Wolfe, David

    2016-01-01

    Coring methods commonly employed in soil organic C (SOC) stock assessment may not accurately capture soil rock fragment (RF) content or soil bulk density (rho (sub b)) in rocky agricultural soils, potentially biasing SOC stock estimates. Quantitative pits are considered less biased than coring methods but are invasive and often cost-prohibitive. We compared fixed-depth and mass-based estimates of SOC stocks (0.3-meters depth) for hammer, hydraulic push, and rotary coring methods relative to quantitative pits at four agricultural sites ranging in RF content from less than 0.01 to 0.24 cubic meters per cubic meter. Sampling costs were also compared. Coring methods significantly underestimated RF content at all rocky sites, but significant differences (p is less than 0.05) in SOC stocks between pits and corers were only found with the hammer method using the fixed-depth approach at the less than 0.01 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 5.80 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 4.74 kilograms C per square meter) and at the 0.14 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site (pit, 8.81 kilograms C per square meter; hammer, 6.71 kilograms C per square meter). The hammer corer also underestimated rho (sub b) at all sites as did the hydraulic push corer at the 0.21 cubic meters per cubic meter RF site. No significant differences in mass-based SOC stock estimates were observed between pits and corers. Our results indicate that (i) calculating SOC stocks on a mass basis can overcome biases in RF and rho (sub b) estimates introduced by sampling equipment and (ii) a quantitative pit is the optimal sampling method for establishing reference soil masses, followed by rotary and then hydraulic push corers.

  3. Pollution and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the soil-plant system and the sediment-water column around a former Pb/Zn-mining area in NE Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azhari, Abdellah; Rhoujjati, Ali; El Hachimi, Moulay Laârabi; Ambrosi, Jean-Paul

    2017-10-01

    This study discussed the environmental fate and ecological hazards of heavy metals in the soil-plant system and sediment-water column around the former Pb-Zn mining Zeïda district, in Northeastern Morocco. Spatial distribution, pollution indices, and cluster analysis were applied for assessing Pb, Zn, As, Cu and Cd pollution levels and risks. The geo-accumulation index (I geo ) was determined using two different geochemical backgrounds: i) the commonly used upper crust values, ii) local geochemical background calculated with exploratory data analysis. The soils in the vicinity of the tailings, as well as the sediments downstream of the latter, displayed much higher metal concentrations, I geo, and potential ecology risk coefficient values than other sites, classifying these sites as highly contaminated and severely hazardous. The concentrations of Pb in contaminated sediment samples also exceeded the PEC limits and are expected to cause harmful effects on sediment-dwelling organisms. Based on the comparison with the toxicity limits, the most contaminated plant samples were found around the tailings piles. The metal concentrations in both raw and filtrated water samples were overall below the drinking water standards in samples upstream and downstream of the mining center, indicating that heavy metals levels in the Moulouya River surface waters were not affected by the tailings spill. Cluster analysis suggest that: i) Pb and Zn in sediments were derived from the abandoned tailings and are mainly stored and transported as particle-bound to the bedload, ii) Pb, Zn, and Cu in the soil-plant system were related to the dispersion of tailings materials while As and Cd originated primarily from natural geological background in both the soil-plant and the water-sediment systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Landfill disposal risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininni, G.; Passino, R.; Spinosa, L.

    1993-01-01

    Landfill disposal is the most used waste disposal system in Italy, due to its low costs and also to the great opposition of populations towards new incineration plants and the adjustment of the existing ones. Nevertheless, landfills may present many environmental problems as far as leachate and biogas are concerned directly influencing water, air and soil. This paper shows the most important aspects to be considered for a correct evaluation of environmental impacts caused by a landfill of urban wastes. Moreover, detection systems for on site control of pollution phenomena are presented and some measures for an optimal operation of a landfill are suggested

  5. Delayed degradation in soil of foliar herbicides glyphosate and sulcotrione previously absorbed by plants: Consequences on herbicide fate and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Doublet, Jeremy; Mamy, Laure; Barriuso Benito, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Following application, pesticides can be intercepted and absorbed by weeds and/or crops. Plants containing pesticides residues may then reach the soil during the crop cycle or after harvest. However, the fate in soil of pesticides residues in plants is unknown. Two commonly used foliar herbicides, glyphosate and sulcotrione, 14C-labeled, were applied on leaves of oilseed rape and/or maize, translocation was studied, and then soil incubations of aerial parts of plants containing herbicides res...

  6. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  7. Managing long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils: a risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Luchun; Naidu, Ravi; Thavamani, Palanisami; Meaklim, Jean; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of contaminants that consist of two or more aromatic rings fused together. Soils contaminated with PAHs pose significant risk to human and ecological health. Over the last 50 years, significant research has been directed towards the cleanup of PAH-contaminated soils to background level. However, this achieved only limited success especially with high molecular weight compounds. Notably, during the last 5-10 years, the approach to remediate PAH-contaminated soils has changed considerably. A risk-based prioritization of remediation interventions has become a valuable step in the management of contaminated sites. The hydrophobicity of PAHs underlines that their phase distribution in soil is strongly influenced by factors such as soil properties and ageing of PAHs within the soil. A risk-based approach recognizes that exposure and environmental effects of PAHs are not directly related to the commonly measured total chemical concentration. Thus, a bioavailability-based assessment using a combination of chemical analysis with toxicological assays and nonexhaustive extraction technique would serve as a valuable tool in risk-based approach for remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this paper, the fate and availability of PAHs in contaminated soils and their relevance to risk-based management of long-term contaminated soils are reviewed. This review may serve as guidance for the use of site-specific risk-based management methods.

  8. Using high-resolution radar images to determine vegetation cover for soil erosion assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiel, D; Herrmann, S; Jadczyszyn, J

    2013-07-30

    Healthy soils are crucial for human well-being. Because soils are threatened worldwide, politicians recognize the need for soil protection. For example, the European Commission has launched the Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection, which requests the European member states to identify high risk areas for soil degradation. Most states use the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to assess soil erosion risk at the national scale. The USLE includes different factors, one of them is the vegetation cover and management factor (C factor). Modern satellite-based radar sensors now provide highly accurate vegetation cover data, enabling opportunities to improve the accuracy of the C factor. The presented study proves the suitability for C factor determination based on a multi-temporal classification of high-resolution radar images. Further USLE factors were derived from existing data sources (meteorological data, soil maps, digital elevation model) to conduct an USLE-based soil erosion assessment. The resulting map illustrates a qualitative assessment for soil erosion risk within a plot of about 7*12 km in an agricultural region in Poland that is very susceptible to soil erosion processes. A high erosion risk of more than 10 tonnes per ha and year was assessed to occur on 13.6% (646 ha) of the agricultural areas within the investigated plot. Further 7.8% (372 ha) of agricultural land is threaten by a medium risk of 5-10 tonnes per ha and year. Such a spatial information about areas of high or medium soil erosion risk are crucial for the development of strategies for the protection of soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  10. Toxic heavy metal contamination assessment and speciation in sugarcane soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Deng, Chaobing; Yin, Juan; Tang, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    The increasing heavy metal pollution in the sugarcane soils along the Great Huanjiang River was caused by leakage and spills of Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) tailing dams during a flood event. Copper (Cu), Zn, Pb, Cadmium (Cd), and Arsenic (As) concentrations of soil samples collected from 16 different sites along the Great Huanjiang River coast typical pollution area were analyzed by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and As in the sugarcane soils were 151.57 mg/kg, 0.33 mg/kg, 155.52 mg/kg, 14.19 mg/kg, and 18.74 mg/kg, respectively. Results from the analysis of heavy metal speciation distribution showed that Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd existed in weak acid, reducible, and oxidizable fractions, and the sum of these fractions accounted for significant proportions in sugarcane soils. However, the residual fraction of As with high proportion of reducible fraction indicated that this trace element still poses some environmental risk in the sugarcane soils because of its high content. Assessments of pollution levels revealed that the highest environmental risk was arouse by Pb. In addition, moderate to strong Cd and Zn pollution were found, while As has zero to medium level of pollution and Cu has zero level.

  11. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  12. Assessing the bioavailability and risk from metal-contaminated ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to contaminated soil and dust is an important pathway in human health risk assessment. Physical and chemical characteristics, as well as biological factors, determine the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of soil and dust contaminants. Within a single sample, contamination may arise from multiple sources of toxic elements that may exist as different forms (species) which impact bioavailability. In turn, the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of soil and dust contaminants has a direct impact on human health risk assessment and risk management practices. Novel research efforts focusing on development and application of in vitro and in vivo methods to measure the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of metal contaminated soils have advanced in the past few years. The objective of this workshop was to focus on recent developments in assessing the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of arsenic contaminated soils, metal contamination in urban residences in Canada and potential children’s exposures to toxic elements in house dust, a community-based study known as the West Oakland Residential Lead Assessment , studies of the bioavailability of soil cadmium, chromium, nickel and mercury and human exposures to contaminated Brownfield soils. These presentations covered issues related to human health and bioavailability along with the most recent studies on community participation in assessing metal contamination, studies of exposures to residential contamination, and

  13. Tooele Army Depot Revised Final Site-Wide Ecological Risk Assessment. Volume IV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Partial Contents: Soil samples, Biota Samples, Risk Assessment, Historic, Hazard, Herbicides, Metals, Pesticides, Dioxins, Furans, Invertebrate Data, Toxicity, Detection, Exposure, Bioaccumulation Models...

  14. Implications of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullingford, M.C.; Shah, S.M.; Gittus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is an analytical process that quantifies the likelihoods, consequences and associated uncertainties of the potential outcomes of postulated events. Starting with planned or normal operation, probabilistic risk assessment covers a wide range of potential accidents and considers the whole plant and the interactions of systems and human actions. Probabilistic risk assessment can be applied in safety decisions in design, licensing and operation of industrial facilities, particularly nuclear power plants. The proceedings include a review of PRA procedures, methods and technical issues in treating uncertainties, operating and licensing issues and future trends. Risk assessment for specific reactor types or components and specific risks (eg aircraft crashing onto a reactor) are used to illustrate the points raised. All 52 articles are indexed separately. (U.K.)

  15. Quadrant III RFI draft report: Appendix J, Baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In accordance with the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (U. S.EPA 1989), which states that background risk should be calculated separately from site-related risk in order to provide important information to the risk manager, this appendix assesses the human health risks associated with background levels of naturally occurring compounds in soil at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). This appendix is organized as follows: Background Conditions, in which the results of Geraghty ampersand Miller's work on characterizing background levels of naturally occurring compounds in soils is summarized; Identification of Exposure Pathways; Estimation of Environmental Concentrations; Estimation of Human Intake; Toxicity Assessment, and Risk Characterization, in which numerical estimates of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk are calculated for each naturally occurring compound and potential exposure pathway

  16. Spectral Assessment of Soil Properties: Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Soil Properties Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D...ERDC 6.2 GRE ARTEMIS STO-R DRTSPORE ERDC TR-17-9 August 2017 Spectral Assessment of Soil Properties Standoff Quantification of Soil Organic...Matter Content in Surface Mineral Soils and Alaskan Peat Stacey L. Jarvis, Karen L. Foley, Robert M. Jones, Stephen D. Newman, and Robyn A. Barbato

  17. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  18. Integrated climate change risk assessment:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessments of flooding in urban areas during extreme precipitation for use in, for example, decision-making regarding climate adaptation, are surrounded by great uncertainties stemming from climate model projections, methods of downscaling and the assumptions of socioeconomic impact models...... to address the complex linkages between the different kinds of data required in assessing climate adaptation. It emphasizes that the availability of spatially explicit data can reduce the overall uncertainty of the risk assessment and assist in identifying key vulnerable assets. The usefulness...... of such a framework is demonstrated by means of a risk assessment of flooding from extreme precipitation for the city of Odense, Denmark. A sensitivity analysis shows how the presence of particularly important assets, such as cultural and historical heritage, may be addressed in assessing such risks. The output...

  19. Carcinogen risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelwoold, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed

  20. Probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinaishin, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    The objective of this work is to provide the tools necessary for clear identification of: the purpose of a Probabilistic Risk Study, the bounds and depth of the study, the proper modeling techniques to be used, the failure modes contributing to the analysis, the classical and baysian approaches for manipulating data necessary for quantification, ways for treating uncertainties, and available computer codes that may be used in performing such probabilistic analysis. In addition, it provides the means for measuring the importance of a safety feature to maintaining a level of risk at a Nuclear Power Plant and the worth of optimizing a safety system in risk reduction. In applying these techniques so that they accommodate our national resources and needs it was felt that emphasis should be put on the system reliability analysis level of PRA. Objectives of such studies could include: comparing systems' designs of the various vendors in the bedding stage, and performing grid reliability and human performance analysis using national specific data. (author)

  1. Probabilistic risk assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinaishin, M A

    1988-06-15

    The objective of this work is to provide the tools necessary for clear identification of: the purpose of a Probabilistic Risk Study, the bounds and depth of the study, the proper modeling techniques to be used, the failure modes contributing to the analysis, the classical and baysian approaches for manipulating data necessary for quantification, ways for treating uncertainties, and available computer codes that may be used in performing such probabilistic analysis. In addition, it provides the means for measuring the importance of a safety feature to maintaining a level of risk at a Nuclear Power Plant and the worth of optimizing a safety system in risk reduction. In applying these techniques so that they accommodate our national resources and needs it was felt that emphasis should be put on the system reliability analysis level of PRA. Objectives of such studies could include: comparing systems' designs of the various vendors in the bedding stage, and performing grid reliability and human performance analysis using national specific data. (author)

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This book contains 158 papers presented at the International Topical Meeting on Probabilistic Risk Assessment held by the American Nuclear Society (ANS) and the European Nuclear Society (ENS) in Port Chester, New York in 1981. The meeting was second in a series of three. The main focus of the meeting was on the safety of light water reactors. The papers discuss safety goals and risk assessment. Quantitative safety goals, risk assessment in non-nuclear technologies, and operational experience and data base are also covered. Included is an address by Dr. Chauncey Starr

  3. Risk assessment in maritime transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C. Guedes; Teixeira, A.P.

    2001-01-01

    A review is presented of different approaches to quantify the risk in maritime transportation. The discussion of several accident statistics provides a global assessment of the risk levels and its differentiation in ship types and main types of ship losses. Early studies in the probability of ship loss by foundering and capsizing are reviewed. The approaches used to assess the risk of structural design are addressed. Finally a brief account is given of recent development of using formal safety assessments to support decision making on legislation applicable internationally to maritime transportation

  4. Framework for ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, D.; Norton, S.

    1992-02-01

    Increased interest in ecological issues such as global climate change, habitat loss, acid deposition, reduced biological diversity, and the ecological impacts of pesticides and toxic chemicals prompts this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, A Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment ('Framework Report'). The report describes basic elements, or a framework, for evaluating scientific information on the adverse effects of physical and chemical stressors on the environment. The framework offers starting principles and a simple structure as guidance for current ecological risk assessments and as a foundation for future EPA proposals for risk assessment guidelines

  5. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  6. Quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert M (Inventor); Smidts, Carol S (Inventor); Mosleh, Ali (Inventor); Chang, Yung-Hsien (Inventor); Swaminathan, Sankaran (Inventor); Groen, Francisco J (Inventor); Tan, Zhibin (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A quantitative risk assessment system (QRAS) builds a risk model of a system for which risk of failure is being assessed, then analyzes the risk of the system corresponding to the risk model. The QRAS performs sensitivity analysis of the risk model by altering fundamental components and quantifications built into the risk model, then re-analyzes the risk of the system using the modifications. More particularly, the risk model is built by building a hierarchy, creating a mission timeline, quantifying failure modes, and building/editing event sequence diagrams. Multiplicities, dependencies, and redundancies of the system are included in the risk model. For analysis runs, a fixed baseline is first constructed and stored. This baseline contains the lowest level scenarios, preserved in event tree structure. The analysis runs, at any level of the hierarchy and below, access this baseline for risk quantitative computation as well as ranking of particular risks. A standalone Tool Box capability exists, allowing the user to store application programs within QRAS.

  7. [Assessment of Soil Fluorine Pollution in Jinhua Fluorite Ore Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qun-feng; Zhou, Xiao-ling

    2015-07-01

    The contents of. soil total fluorine (TF) and water-soluble fluorine (WF) were measured in fluorite ore areas located in Jinhua City. The single factor index, geoaccumulation index and health risk assessment were used to evaluate fluorine pollution in soil in four fluorite ore areas and one non-ore area, respectively. The results showed that the TF contents in soils were 28. 36-56 052. 39 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 8 325.90 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 1 555. 94 mg.kg-1, and a median of 812. 98 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of TF was 172. 07% . The soil WF contents ranged from 0. 83 to 74. 63 mg.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 16. 94 mg.kg-1, a geometric mean of 10. 59 mg.kg-1, and a median of 10. 17 mg.kg-1. The variation coefficient of WF was 100. 10%. The soil TF and WF contents were far higher than the national average level of the local fluorine epidemic occurrence area. The fluoride pollution in soil was significantly affected by human factors. Soil fluorine pollution in Yangjia, Lengshuikeng and Huajie fluorite ore areas was the most serious, followed by Daren fluorite ore area, and in non-ore area there was almost no fluorine pollution. Oral ingestion of soils was the main exposure route. Sensitivity analysis of model parameters showed that children's weight exerted the largest influence over hazard quotient. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was found among the three kinds of evaluation methods.

  8. Spatial and vertical distribution and risk assessment of natural radionuclides in soils surrounding the lignite-fired power plants in Megalopolis basin, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthymiou, H V; Manousakas, M; Fouskas, A; Siavalas, G

    2013-01-01

    Twenty soil profile samples and fourteen surface soil samples collected from the vicinity of the lignite-fired power plants in the Megalopolis basin (Greece) were analysed for their natural radionuclide concentration and (137)Cs, since fossil fuels are associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials and hence with radiological impact. No significant enhancement of surface soil radioactivity levels in the vicinity of lignite-fired plants was observed. A downcore decreasing trend of (137)Cs was observed in a number of cores reflecting its atmospheric origin, whereas the uniform distribution observed in a number of other cores gave information on the mechanical alteration of the soil. The average dose rate value was found to be 63 ± 22 nGy h(-1), while the annual average effective dose from the terrestrial gamma radiation was found to be 0.08 ± 0.03 mSv.

  9. Comparison of soil sampling and analytical methods for asbestos at the Sumas Mountain Asbestos Site—Working towards a toolbox for better assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Established soil sampling methods for asbestos are inadequate to support risk assessment and risk-based decision making at Superfund sites due to difficulties in detecting asbestos at low concentrations and difficulty in extrapolating soil concentrations to air concentrations. En...

  10. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime

  11. Risk assessment: An employer's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K C [Exxon International (United States)

    1992-07-01

    There is no question that a careful assessment of risk is essential for safe industrial operations. For that reason, a thoughtful analysis of the effectiveness of available risk assessment technologies is prerequisite for responsible corporate decision making. An 'employer's' perspective on risk assessment cannot be constrained by any artificial restrictions which that term may imply. In reality, all those who are involved in the execution of an industrial enterprise: managers, regulators, the affected public, and especially those employees exposed to hazards, are necessarily partners in assessment of risk. The perspective of this paper is that of the oil and gas industry, in which the author's organization, Exxon Company, International, participates. The paper addresses what Exxon requires to assess and manage risk in its worldwide operations. The author is aware, however, through contacts with industry colleagues, that some of Exxon's initiatives are representative of similar actions being taken by others. 1992 is the European Year of Safety, Health and Hygiene, coinciding with the United Kingdom's Presidency of the European Council. It is also the year in which new 'goal-setting' regulations covering safety in the U.K. offshore oil industry were put forward by the Health and Safety Commission. These regulations, based largely on Lord Cullen's recommendations following the Piper Alpha tragedy, set the pace for safety in the British North Sea and will significantly impact the safety of offshore oil installations worldwide. The requirement for risk assessment, using a systematic process of analysing and evaluating risk, is a key component of this safety regime.

  12. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines. PMID:26301217

  13. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems - examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  14. Building better environmental risk assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eLayton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERA for genetically modified (GM crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data, and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines.

  15. Risk assessment in international operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricklin, Daniela L.

    2008-01-01

    During international peace-keeping missions, a diverse number of non-battle hazards may be encountered, which range from heavily polluted areas, endemic disease, toxic industrial materials, local violence, traffic, and even psychological factors. Hence, elevated risk levels from a variety of sources are encountered during deployments. With the emphasis within the Swedish military moving from national defense towards prioritization of international missions in atypical environments, the risk of health consequences, including long term health effects, has received greater consideration. The Swedish military is interested in designing an optimal approach for assessment of health threats during deployments. The Medical Intelligence group at FOI CBRN Security and Defence in Umea has, on request from and in collaboration with the Swedish Armed Forces, reviewed a variety of international health threat and risk assessment models for military operations. Application of risk assessment methods used in different phases of military operations will be reviewed. An overview of different international approaches used in operational risk management (ORM) will be presented as well as a discussion of the specific needs and constraints for health risk assessment in military operations. This work highlights the specific challenges of risk assessment that are unique to the deployment setting such as the assessment of exposures to a variety of diverse hazards concurrently

  16. An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

  17. Assessment and perception of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daglish, J

    1981-01-01

    A recent two-day meeting was called by the Royal Society to discuss all types of risks, but symptomatic of the concerns of most of those present, the discussion centred mainly on the risks inherent in energy production and use. Among the subjects considered were public perception of differing risks, and how these are ranked, and risks versus benefits. Quotations from and summaries of many of the papers presented show that it was generally felt that scientists must be very careful in the way that they use numerical assessments of risk and that they should pay more attention than they have to social and political factors.

  18. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2017-07-01

    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  19. Assessment of soil compaction properties based on surface wave techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihan Syamimi Jafri, Nur; Rahim, Mohd Asri Ab; Zahid, Mohd Zulham Affandi Mohd; Faizah Bawadi, Nor; Munsif Ahmad, Muhammad; Faizal Mansor, Ahmad; Omar, Wan Mohd Sabki Wan

    2018-03-01

    Soil compaction plays an important role in every construction activities to reduce risks of any damage. Traditionally, methods of assessing compaction include field tests and invasive penetration tests for compacted areas have great limitations, which caused time-consuming in evaluating large areas. Thus, this study proposed the possibility of using non-invasive surface wave method like Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) as a useful tool for assessing soil compaction. The aim of this study was to determine the shear wave velocity profiles and field density of compacted soils under varying compaction efforts by using MASW method. Pre and post compaction of MASW survey were conducted at Pauh Campus, UniMAP after applying rolling compaction with variation of passes (2, 6 and 10). Each seismic data was recorded by GEODE seismograph. Sand replacement test was conducted for each survey line to obtain the field density data. All seismic data were processed using SeisImager/SW software. The results show the shear wave velocity profiles increase with the number of passes from 0 to 6 passes, but decrease after 10 passes. This method could attract the interest of geotechnical community, as it can be an alternative tool to the standard test for assessing of soil compaction in the field operation.

  20. Deterministic quantitative risk assessment development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jane; Colquhoun, Iain [PII Pipeline Solutions Business of GE Oil and Gas, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Current risk assessment practice in pipeline integrity management is to use a semi-quantitative index-based or model based methodology. This approach has been found to be very flexible and provide useful results for identifying high risk areas and for prioritizing physical integrity assessments. However, as pipeline operators progressively adopt an operating strategy of continual risk reduction with a view to minimizing total expenditures within safety, environmental, and reliability constraints, the need for quantitative assessments of risk levels is becoming evident. Whereas reliability based quantitative risk assessments can be and are routinely carried out on a site-specific basis, they require significant amounts of quantitative data for the results to be meaningful. This need for detailed and reliable data tends to make these methods unwieldy for system-wide risk k assessment applications. This paper describes methods for estimating risk quantitatively through the calibration of semi-quantitative estimates to failure rates for peer pipeline systems. The methods involve the analysis of the failure rate distribution, and techniques for mapping the rate to the distribution of likelihoods available from currently available semi-quantitative programs. By applying point value probabilities to the failure rates, deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides greater rigor and objectivity than can usually be achieved through the implementation of semi-quantitative risk assessment results. The method permits a fully quantitative approach or a mixture of QRA and semi-QRA to suit the operator's data availability and quality, and analysis needs. For example, consequence analysis can be quantitative or can address qualitative ranges for consequence categories. Likewise, failure likelihoods can be output as classical probabilities or as expected failure frequencies as required. (author)

  1. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd.

  2. Soil ecotoxicity assessment using cadmium sensitive plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Youn-Joo

    2004-01-01

    The crop plants, sorghum and cucumber, can be used as indicator species to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by cadmium. - Four crop plant species (sweet corn, Zea may; wheat, Triticum aestivum; cucumber, Cucumis sativus; and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor) were tested to assess an ecotoxicity in cadmium-amended soils. The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The presence of cadmium decreased the seedling growth. The medium effective concentration values (EC50) for shoot or root growth were calculated by the Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Due to the greater accumulation of Cd to the roots, root growth was a more sensitive endpoint than shoot growth. Bioavailability and transport of Cd within plant were related to concentration and species. The ratio of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) in the shoots to the roots indicated high immobilization of Cd in the roots. Seed germination was insensitive to Cd toxicity, and is not recommended for a suitable assay. Among the test plants and test endpoints, root growth of sorghum and cucumber appears to be a good protocol to assess ecotoxicity of soils contaminated by Cd

  3. Modern biogeochemistry environmental risk assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    Most books deal mainly with various technical aspects of ERA description and calculationsAims at generalizing the modern ideas of both biogeochemical and environmental risk assessment during recent yearsAims at supplementing the existing books by providing a modern understanding of mechanisms that are responsible for the ecological risk for human beings and ecosystem

  4. Risk assessment future cash flows

    OpenAIRE

    Chachina H. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article is about risk assessment in planning future cash flows. Discount rate in DCF-model must include four factors: risk cash flow, inflation, value of investments, turnover assets. This has an influence net present value cash flow and make his incomparable.

  5. Test reactor risk assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, R.H.; Rawlins, J.K.; Stewart, M.E.

    1976-04-01

    A methodology has been developed for the identification of accident initiating events and the fault modeling of systems, including common mode identification, as these methods are applied in overall test reactor risk assessment. The methods are exemplified by a determination of risks to a loss of primary coolant flow in the Engineering Test Reactor

  6. Anthropic Risk Assessment on Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piragnolo, M.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.; Salogni, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for risk assessment of anthropic activities on habitats and species. The method has been developed for Veneto Region, in order to simplify and improve the quality of EIA procedure (VINCA). Habitats and species, animals and plants, are protected by European Directive 92/43/EEC and 2009/147/EC but they are subject at hazard due to pollution produced by human activities. Biodiversity risks may conduct to deterioration and disturbance in ecological niches, with consequence of loss of biodiversity. Ecological risk assessment applied on Natura 2000 network, is needed to best practice of management and monitoring of environment and natural resources. Threats, pressure and activities, stress and indicators may be managed by geodatabase and analysed using GIS technology. The method used is the classic risk assessment in ecological context, and it defines the natural hazard as influence, element of risk as interference and vulnerability. Also it defines a new parameter called pressure. It uses risk matrix for the risk analysis on spatial and temporal scale. The methodology is qualitative and applies the precautionary principle in environmental assessment. The final product is a matrix which excludes the risk and could find application in the development of a territorial information system.

  7. Cloud computing assessing the risks

    CERN Document Server

    Carstensen, Jared; Golden, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Cloud Computing: Assessing the risks answers these questions and many more. Using jargon-free language and relevant examples, analogies and diagrams, it is an up-to-date, clear and comprehensive guide the security, governance, risk, and compliance elements of Cloud Computing.

  8. Improving pandemic influenza risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing the pandemic risk posed by specific non-human influenza A viruses remains a complex challenge. As influenza virus genome sequencing becomes cheaper, faster and more readily available, the ability to predict pandemic potential from sequence data could transform pandemic influenza risk asses...

  9. Evaluation of thermal risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, J.J.; Perry, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    Risk assessment was done in 1983 to estimate the ecological hazard of increasing the generating load and thermal output of an electric generating station. Subsequently, long-term monitoring in the vicinity of the station allowed verification of the predictions made in the risk assessment. This presentation will review the efficacy of early risk assessment methods in producing useful predictions from a resource management point of view. In 1984, the Chalk Point Generating facility of the Potomac Electric Power Company increased it's median generating load by 100%. Prior to this operational change, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia synthesized site specific data, model predictions, and results from literature to assess the risk of additional waste heat to the Patuxent River subestuary of Chesapeake Bay. Risk was expressed as the number of days per year that various species of fish and the blue crab would be expected to avoid the discharge vicinity. Accuracy of these predictions is assessed by comparing observed fish and crab distributions and their observed frequencies of avoidance to those predicted. It is concluded that the predictions of this early risk assessment were sufficiently accurate to produce a reliable resource management decision

  10. Pathology and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Programs for providing basic data for use in evaluating the hazard to man from exposure to radiation and other energy-related pollutants are reviewed. A computer program was developed that takes the existing mortality and fertility data on a given population and applies dose-response coefficients and estimated increments of exposure to chemical or radioactive effluents and derives the excess deaths by age and sex for 5-year intervals. The program was used in an analysis of the health effects of airborne coal combustion effluents. Preliminary results are reported from a study of the influence of products of fossil fuel combustion on the spontaneous activity patterns and daily metabolic cycles of mice as a factor of age, environment, and genetic constitution. Preliminary results are reported from studies on the early and late effects of polycyclic hydrocarbons on the immune competence of mice. Studies to determine the risk to human populations from radionuclides released to the environment from nuclear energy facilities use relative toxicity and dose response data from laboratory animals of different body size and life span and comparisons of the effects of internal exposure with those of external exposure to fission neutrons or gamma sources

  11. Taking the Risk Out of Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The ability to understand risks and have the right strategies in place when risky events occur is essential in the workplace. More and more organizations are being confronted with concerns over how to measure their risks or what kind of risks they can take when certain events transpire that could have a negative impact. NASA is one organization that faces these challenges on a daily basis, as effective risk management is critical to the success of its missions especially the Space Shuttle missions. On July 29, 1996, former NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin charged NASA s Office of Safety and Mission Assurance with developing a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tool to support decisions on the funding of Space Shuttle upgrades. When issuing the directive, Goldin said, "Since I came to NASA [in 1992], we've spent billions of dollars on Shuttle upgrades without knowing how much they improve safety. I want a tool to help base upgrade decisions on risk." Work on the PRA tool began immediately. The resulting prototype, the Quantitative Risk Assessment System (QRAS) Version 1.0, was jointly developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, its Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, and researchers at the University of Maryland. QRAS software automatically expands the reliability logic models of systems to evaluate the probability of highly detrimental outcomes occurring in complex systems that are subject to potential accident scenarios. Even in its earliest forms, QRAS was used to begin PRA modeling of the Space Shuttle. In parallel, the development of QRAS continued, with the goal of making it a world-class tool, one that was especially suited to NASA s unique needs. From the beginning, an important conceptual goal in the development of QRAS was for it to help bridge the gap between the professional risk analyst and the design engineer. In the past, only the professional risk analyst could perform, modify, use, and perhaps even adequately understand PRA. NASA wanted

  12. Bioassay-based risk assessment of complex mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, K.C.; Huebner, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The baseline risk assessment often plays an integral role in various decision-making processes at Superfund sites. The present study reports on risk characterizations prepared for seven complex mixtures using biological and chemical analysis. Three of the samples (A, B, and C) were complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted from coal tar; while four samples extracted from munitions-contaminated soil contained primarily nitroaromatic hydrocarbons. The chemical-based risk assessment ranked sample C as least toxic, while the risk associated with samples A and B was approximately equal. The microbial bioassay was in general agreement for the coal tar samples. The weighted activity of the coal tar extracts in Salmonella was 4,960 for sample C, and 162,000 and 206,000 for samples A and B, respectively. The bacterial mutagenicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene contaminated soils exhibited an indirect correlation with chemical-based risk assessment. The aqueous extract of sample 004 induced 1,292 net revertants in Salmonella, while the estimated risk to ingestion and dermal adsorption was 2E-9. The data indicate that the chemical-based risk assessment accurately predicted the genotoxicity of the PAHs, while the accuracy of the risk assessment for munitions contaminated soils was limited due to the presence of metabolites of TNT degradation. The biological tests used in this research provide a valuable compliment to chemical analysis for characterizing the genotoxic risk of complex mixtures

  13. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  14. Land use change and soil loss risk assessment by using geographical information system (GIS): A case study of lower part of Perak River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yusof, Fasihah; Rohaizah Jamil, Nor; Inthano a/p Cha Laew, Nyvee; Aini, Norfadilah; Abd Manaf, Latifah

    2016-06-01

    The developing mode of the nation enhance more land area being exploited to generate economy income. Objectives of this study were to analyse the land use changes from year 2010 to 2013 and soil erosion potential rate for year 2013 of lower part of Perak river basin. All of the spatial analysis work were carried out in the GIS environment using the ArcGIS version 9.3 software. Land use maps were obtained from Department of Agriculture and been digitized accordingly. The total area was 2914.91 km2 and land use categories were clustered into various classes. Based on land use change analysis, oil palm plantation recorded some increment from year 2010 to 2013. While, area of forest depleting from 95.54km2 to 86.01 km2 indicating that the forest area were being exploited and shifted to other land use type. In the other hand, the rubber plantation decrease due to land conversion into palm oil plantation. Urban area showed some increment in coverage proving the current blooming number of population occurs rapidly. In context of cleared land, 2013 recorded higher coverage of cleared land compared to the year 2010 which recorded a shifting from 8.89km2 in 2010 to 21.24 km2 in 2013. By adopting the RUSLE model, in 2013, the soil erosion potential was categorised as very low (0-1 tons/ha/year) with some soil erosion hotspot spotted within the study area. The soil erosion range from very low to extreme class. A very low soil erosion potential class (0-1 ton/ha/yr) recorded the majority of 61% (1765.60 km2) of total area. The extreme classes (>100 ton/ha/yr) recorded about 18% (536.19km2) of the total area. According to the result, it can be concluded that the middle part of study area experience low to severe classes of potential soil erosion.

  15. Competing risk theory and radiation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groer, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    New statistical procedures are applied to estimate cumulative distribution functions (c.d.f.), force of mortality, and latent period for radiation-induced malignancies. It is demonstrated that correction for competing risks influences the shape of dose response curves, estimates of the latent period, and of the risk from ionizing radiations. The equivalence of the following concepts is demonstrated: force of mortality, hazard rate, and age or time specific incidence. This equivalence makes it possible to use procedures from reliability analysis and demography for radiation risk assessment. Two methods used by reliability analysts - hazard plotting and total time on test plots - are discussed in some detail and applied to characterize the hazard rate in radiation carcinogenesis. C.d.f.'s with increasing, decreasing, or constant hazard rate have different shapes and are shown to yield different dose-response curves for continuous irradiation. Absolute risk is shown to be a sound estimator only if the force of mortality is constant for the exposed and the control group. Dose-response relationships that use the absolute risk as a measure for the effect turn out to be special cases of dose-response relationships that measure the effect with cumulative incidence. (H.K.)

  16. Minimizing the Health Risks from Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soils by Using Electric Field-Based Treatment for Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aura Istrate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the assessment of human health risk from soil contaminated with total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs due to crude oil pollution, with a particular focus on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH group of carcinogenic and toxic substances. Given that the measured risk for human health exceeded the accepted level, the study considered an electrochemical remediation method. The laboratory-scale experiments were conducted by using an electric field-based treatment as a possible solution for the remediation of contaminated soil. After 20 days of treatment, while the voltage applied was 15 V (specific voltage of 1 V/cm, the hydrocarbon content was significantly reduced. The parameters measured to determine the overall remediation efficiency were pH, redox potential, ionic strength, soil characteristics, voltage gradient, and zeta potential. The remediation degree observed during the experiments was around 50% for TPHs and 46% for PAHs. The applied remediation method resulted in significant removal efficiency of the tested contaminants from the soil. Consequently, the human health risk assessment for the new degree of contaminants in the soil was achieved. This data demonstrated to what extent the application of the remediation applied technology ensured an acceptable risk under the same exposure conditions for the industrial workers.

  17. Caries risk assessment in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To summarise the findings of recent systematic reviews (SR) covering caries risk assessment in children, updated with recent primary studies. METHODS: A search for relevant papers published 2012-2014 was conducted in electronic databases. The systematic reviews were quality assessed...... displayed a high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present summary of literature, it may be concluded: (1) a caries risk assessment should be carried out at the child's first dental visit and reassessments should be done during childhood (D); (2) multivariate models display a better accuracy than...... the use of single predictors and this is especially true for preschool children (C); (3) there is no clearly superior method to predict future caries and no evidence to support the use of one model, program, or technology before the other (C); and (4) the risk category should be linked to appropriate...

  18. Assessing Risk of Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allgood, GO

    2001-01-01

    Today's manufacturing systems and equipment must perform at levels thought impossible a decade ago. Companies must push operations, quality, and efficiencies to unprecedented levels while holding down costs. In this new economy, companies must be concerned with market shares, equity growth, market saturation, and profit. U.S. manufacturing is no exception and is a prime example of businesses forced to adapt to constant and rapid changes in customer needs and product mixes, giving rise to the term ''Agile Manufacturing''. The survival and ultimate success of the American Manufacturing economy may depend upon its ability to create, innovate, and quickly assess the impact that new innovations will have on its business practices. Given the need for flexibility, companies need proven methods to predict and measure the impact that new technologies and strategies will have on overall plant performance from an enterprise perspective. The Value-Derivative Model provides a methodology and approach to assess such impacts in terms of energy savings, production increases, quality impacts, emission reduction, and maintenance and operating costs as they relate to enabling and emerging technologies. This is realized by calculating a set of first order sensitivity parameters obtained from expanding a Taylor Series about the system's operating point. These sensitivity parameters are invariant economic and operational indicators that quantify the impact of any proposed technology in terms of material throughput, efficiency, energy usage, environmental effects, and costs. These parameters also provide a mechanism to define metrics and performance measures that can be qualified in terms of real economic impact. Value-Derivative Analysis can be applied across all manufacturing and production segments of our economy and has found specific use in steel and textiles. Where economic models give the cost of conducting a business, Value-Derivative Analysis provides the cost to conduct

  19. Risk assessment research and technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albach, H.; Schade, D.; Sinn, H.

    1991-01-01

    The concepts and approaches for technology assessment, the targets and scientific principles, as well as recognizable deficits and recommendations concerning purposeful strategies for the promotion of this research field require a dialog between those concerned. Conception, deficits, and the necessary measures for risk assessment research and technology assessment were discussed as well as ethical aspects. The problematic nature of using organisms altered through genetic engineering in the open land, traffic and transport, site restoration, nuclear energy, and isotope applications were subjects particularly dealt with. (DG) [de

  20. Risk assessment for transport operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Miles, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The world-wide safety of the transport of radioactive material is based on the IAEA Transport Regulations. Risk assessment can provide quantitative data to help in the demonstration, understanding and improvement of the effectiveness of the Regulations in assuring safety. In this Paper the methodology, data and computer codes necessary and available for transport risk assessment are reviewed. Notable examples of assessments carried out over the past 15 years are briefly described along with current research, and the benefits and limitations of the techniques are discussed. (author)

  1. Assessment of some heavy metals in the surrounding soils of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OYELEKE PETER

    soils of an automobile battery factory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Peter Olaoye Oyeleke ... The levels of heavy metals (Pd, Zn, Cr, Cd, Fe and Cu in mg/kg) in soils were assessed with respect to distance in ... potential health risk. ..... Management, Nigeria (2004). ... heavy metals in sediments in the vicinity of Ashaka Cement Factory,.

  2. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal

  3. Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals and a Metalloid in Agricultural Soils in Tarkwa, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Nakayama, Shouta M. M.; Akoto, Osei; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Baidoo, Elvis; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals and a metalloid in agricultural soils in 19 communities in Tarkwa were analyzed to assess the potential ecological risk. A total of 147 soil samples were collected in June, 2012 and analyzed for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn. Mean concentrations (mg/kg dw) of heavy metals in the communities decreased in order of Zn (39) ˃ Cr (21) ˃ Pb (7.2) ˃ Cu (6.2) ˃ As (4.4) ˃ Ni (3.7) ˃ Co (1.8) ˃ Hg (0.32) ˃ Cd (0.050). Correlations among heavy metals and soil properties indicated that soil organic matter could have substantial influence on the total contents of these metals in soil. From the results, integrated pollution (Cdeg) in some communities such as, Wangarakrom (11), Badukrom (13) and T–Tamso (17) indicated high pollution with toxic metals, especially from As and Hg. Potential ecological risk (RI) indices indicated low (Mile 7) to high risks (Wangarakrom; Badukrom) of metals. Based on pollution coefficient (Cif), Cdeg, monomial ecological risk (Eir) and RI, the investigated soils fall within low to high contamination and risk of heavy metals to the ecological system especially plants, soil invertebrates and/or mammalian wildlife. This represented moderate potential ecological risk in the study area, and mining activities have played a significant role. PMID:26378563

  4. Risk assessment and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of risk assessment techniques in the field of environment protection. I will argue that in some important instances the development of environment policy has been a source of fruitful development of a risk based methodologies. In other cases the importation of risk assessment techniques has proved much more problematic. As the scope of environmental regulation increases so does the possibility of inconsistent and arbitrary solutions to problems. The need for a more systematic approach to the development of environmental regulation has never been stronger, so it is important to understand the reasons for the mixed success of risk assessment. This applies equally to those nations with long traditions of the regulation of private sector industry and those just beginning on this course. The way ahead may be to extend our ideas of how to express risk and uncertainty. Some of the recent cause celebres of environment policy show this challenge very clearly. As an example, this paper will look at the problem of assessing the risk of man-made climate change

  5. Risk assessment and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, D J [Department of the Environment (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    This paper reviews the use of risk assessment techniques in the field of environment protection. I will argue that in some important instances the development of environment policy has been a source of fruitful development of a risk based methodologies. In other cases the importation of risk assessment techniques has proved much more problematic. As the scope of environmental regulation increases so does the possibility of inconsistent and arbitrary solutions to problems. The need for a more systematic approach to the development of environmental regulation has never been stronger, so it is important to understand the reasons for the mixed success of risk assessment. This applies equally to those nations with long traditions of the regulation of private sector industry and those just beginning on this course. The way ahead may be to extend our ideas of how to express risk and uncertainty. Some of the recent cause celebres of environment policy show this challenge very clearly. As an example, this paper will look at the problem of assessing the risk of man-made climate change.

  6. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments.

  7. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments

  8. Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Resources Assessing Your Weight and Health Risk Assessment of weight and health risk involves using ... risk for developing obesity-associated diseases or conditions. Risk Factors for Health Topics Associated With Obesity Along ...

  9. Aspects regarding explosion risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Părăian Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive risk occurs in all activities involving flammable substances in the form of gases, vapors, mists or dusts which, in mixture with air, can generate an explosive atmosphere. As explosions can cause human losses and huge material damage, the assessment of the explosion risk and the establishment of appropriate measures to reduce it to acceptable levels according to the standards and standards in force is of particular importance for the safety and health of people and goods.There is no yet a recognized method of assessing the explosion risk, but regardless of the applied method, the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere occurrence has to be determined, together with the occurrence of an efficient ignition source and the magnitude of foreseeable consequences. In assessment processes, consequences analysis has a secondary importance since it’s likely that explosions would always involve considerable damage, starting from important material damages and up to human damages that could lead to death.The purpose of the work is to highlight the important principles and elements to be taken into account for a specific risk assessment. An essential element in assessing the risk of explosion in workplaces where explosive atmospheres may occur is technical installations and personal protective equipment (PPE that must be designed, manufactured, installed and maintained so that they cannot generate a source of ignition. Explosion prevention and protection requirements are governed by specific norms and standards, and a main part of the explosion risk assessment is related to the assessment of the compliance of the equipment / installation with these requirements.

  10. Risk assessment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodansky, D.

    1982-01-01

    The range of risk perceptions involving nuclear power is so great that there is little hope of bridging extreme positions, but a consensus based upon reasoned discussion among uncommitted people could determine a sensible path. Our concerns over the uncertainties of risk assessment have made it increasingly difficult to make responsible decisions fast enough to deal with modern needs. The result is an immobility in energy matters that can point to a 2% reduction in oil use as its only triumph. The risk of nuclear war as a result of military action over energy issues suggests to some that the solution is to abolish nuclear power (however impractical) and to others that a rapid spread of nuclear power will eliminate energy as an incentive for war. If nuclear war is the major risk to consider, risk assessments need to include the risks of war, as well as those of carbon dioxide buildup and socio-economic disruptions, all of which loom larger than the risks of nuclear-plant accidents. Energy choices should be aimed at diminishing these major risks, even if they include the use of nuclear power. 26 references

  11. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HRS Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... people of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  12. The use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and structure-activity modeling for screening and preliminary risk assessment of organic contaminants in soil, sediment, and surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira Bastos, Patricia; Haglund, Peter [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This article aims to investigate the use and benefits of using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) and structure-activity relationship modeling for screening and prioritization of organic contaminants in complex matrices. The benefit of applying comprehensive screening techniques to samples with high organic contaminant content is primarily that compounds with diverse physicochemical properties can be analyzed simultaneously. Here, a heavily contaminated industrial area was surveyed for organic pollutants by analyzing soil, sediment, and surface water samples. The hazard of the pollutants were ranked using SARs. Material and methods: The water samples were liquid-liquid extracted using dichloromethane and directly analyzed by GC x GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TofMS). Soil and sediment samples were extracted with dichloromethane in an ultrasonic bath and subjected to gel permeation chromatography to eliminate lipids and humic matter. The low molecular weight fraction was then analyzed with GC x GC-TofMS. Results and discussion: More than 10,000 components were found in each sample, of which ca. 300 individual compounds were unambiguously identified using the National Institute of Standards and Technology mass spectra library and authentic reference standards. Alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalates were generally the most abundant and were found in all matrices. In contrast, chlorinated compounds such as chlorophenols, biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides were only detected in samples from a few hotspot regions. The toxicities of the most frequently detected compounds and of the compounds detected at the highest concentrations in samples from hotspot regions were estimated by ecological structure-activity relationships. The ratio of the measured concentration to the predicted toxicity level was then calculated for each compound and used for an initial risk assessment in order to prioritize compounds

  13. (AJST) AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SOIL-CONDITIONING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT:- This study assesses the soil conditioning capacity of tree gums based on the level of resistance to ... enable their destruction by microorganism and (2) minimize soil loss .... and moulded into a cylindrical core using a small plastic.

  14. ASSESSING SOIL ARSENIC BIOAVAILABILITY IN THE LABORATORY MOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation among soils in the bioavailability of arsenic can be a critical determinant of the risk posed by exposure to these soils. Although in vitro techniques can provide vital data on aspects of bioavailability of metals and metalloids from soils, these results must be valida...

  15. Human reliability assessment and probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Lucas, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Human reliability assessment (HRA) is used within Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to identify the human errors (both omission and commission) which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. There exist a variey of HRA techniques and the selection of an appropriate one is often difficult. This paper reviews a number of available HRA techniques and discusses their strengths and weaknesses. The techniques reviewed include: decompositional methods, time-reliability curves and systematic expert judgement techniques. (orig.)

  16. Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramov, A. A.

    In this paper, various aspects of modern nanotechnologies and, as a result, risks of nanomaterials impact on an environment are considered. This very brief review of the First International Conference on Material and Information Sciences in High Technologies (2007, Baku, Azerbaijan) is given. The conference presented many reports that were devoted to nanotechnology in biology and business for the developing World, formation of charged nanoparticles for creation of functional nanostructures, nanoprocessing of carbon nanotubes, magnetic and optical properties of manganese-phosphorus nanowires, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films, and nanophotonics communications in Azerbaijan. The mathematical methods of simulation of the group, individual and social risks are considered for the purpose of nanomaterials risk reduction and remediation. Lastly, we have conducted studies at a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials), located near Baku. Assessments have been conducted on the individual risk of person affection and constructed the map of equal isolines and zones of individual risk for a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials).

  17. Probabilistic risk assessment: Number 219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a methodology for analyzing the safety of nuclear power plants. A historical overview of plants in the US is provided, and past, present, and future nuclear safety and risk assessment are discussed. A primer on nuclear power plants is provided with a discussion of pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR) and their operation and containment. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), utilizing both event-tree and fault-tree analysis, is discussed as a tool in reactor safety, decision making, and communications. (FI)

  18. Risk assessment using probabilistic standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, R.

    2004-01-01

    A core element of risk is uncertainty represented by plural outcomes and their likelihood. No risk exists if the future outcome is uniquely known and hence guaranteed. The probability that we will die some day is equal to 1, so there would be no fatal risk if sufficiently long time frame is assumed. Equally, rain risk does not exist if there was 100% assurance of rain tomorrow, although there would be other risks induced by the rain. In a formal sense, any risk exists if, and only if, more than one outcome is expected at a future time interval. In any practical risk assessment we have to deal with uncertainties associated with the possible outcomes. One way of dealing with the uncertainties is to be conservative in the assessments. For example, we may compare the maximal exposure to a radionuclide with a conservatively chosen reference value. In this case, if the exposure is below the reference value then it is possible to assure that the risk is low. Since single values are usually compared; this approach is commonly called 'deterministic'. Its main advantage lies in the simplicity and in that it requires minimum information. However, problems arise when the reference values are actually exceeded or might be exceeded, as in the case of potential exposures, and when the costs for realizing the reference values are high. In those cases, the lack of knowledge on the degree of conservatism involved impairs a rational weighing of the risks against other interests. In this presentation we will outline an approach for dealing with uncertainties that in our opinion is more consistent. We will call it a 'fully probabilistic risk assessment'. The essence of this approach consists in measuring the risk in terms of probabilities, where the later are obtained from comparison of two probabilistic distributions, one reflecting the uncertainties in the outcomes and one reflecting the uncertainties in the reference value (standard) used for defining adverse outcomes. Our first aim

  19. Assessment of environmental soil quality around Sonepur Bazari mine of Raniganj coalfield, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, R. E.; Sheik, S.; Nehru, G.; Selvi, V. A.; George, J.; Ram, L. C.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of soil quality is one of the key parameters for evaluation of environmental contamination in the mining ecosystem. To investigate the effect of coal mining on soil quality, opencast and underground mining sites were selected in the Raniganj coalfield area, India. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters of the soils, and trace metals and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soils were evaluated. Soil dehydrogenase (+79 %) and fluorescein (+32 %) activities were significantly higher in underground mine (UGM) soil, whereas peroxidase activity (+57 %) was higher in opencast mine (OCM) soil. Content of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb was significantly higher in OCM soil, whereas Cd was higher in UGM. In general, the PAHs contents were higher in UGM soils, probably due to the natural coal burning at these sites. The observed values for the above properties were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and the scores were integrated into an environmental soil quality index (ESQI). In the unscreened index (ESQI-1) all the soil parameters were included and the results showed that the quality of the soil was better for UGM (0.539) than the OCM (0.511) soils. Principal component analysis was employed to derive ESQI-2 and accordingly, total PAHs, loss on ignition, bulk density, Be, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, and microbial quotient (respiration: microbial biomass ratio) were found to be the most critical properties. The ESQI-2 was also higher for soils near UGM (+10.1 %). The observed indicators and the ESQI results revealed that soil quality assessment for these coal mining soils is largely depended on soil PAHs and potentially toxic trace metals. The proposed ESQI may be further refined by incorporating specific parameters related to human exposure risks and exposure pathways.

  20. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  1. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent F Kim

    Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  2. Dynamical systems probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ames, Arlo Leroy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the primary tool used to risk-inform nuclear power regulatory and licensing activities. Risk-informed regulations are intended to reduce inherent conservatism in regulatory metrics (e.g., allowable operating conditions and technical specifications) which are built into the regulatory framework by quantifying both the total risk profile as well as the change in the risk profile caused by an event or action (e.g., in-service inspection procedures or power uprates). Dynamical Systems (DS) analysis has been used to understand unintended time-dependent feedbacks in both industrial and organizational settings. In dynamical systems analysis, feedback loops can be characterized and studied as a function of time to describe the changes to the reliability of plant Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs). While DS has been used in many subject areas, some even within the PRA community, it has not been applied toward creating long-time horizon, dynamic PRAs (with time scales ranging between days and decades depending upon the analysis). Understanding slowly developing dynamic effects, such as wear-out, on SSC reliabilities may be instrumental in ensuring a safely and reliably operating nuclear fleet. Improving the estimation of a plant's continuously changing risk profile will allow for more meaningful risk insights, greater stakeholder confidence in risk insights, and increased operational flexibility.

  3. Probabilistic risk assessment as an aid to risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments are providing important insights into nuclear power plant safety. Their value is two-fold: first as a means of quantifying nuclear plant risk including contributors to risk, and second as an aid to risk management. A risk assessment provides an analytical plant model that can be the basis for performing meaningful decision analyses for controlling safety. It is the aspect of quantitative risk management that makes probabilistic risk assessment an important technical discipline of the future

  4. Methodology for technical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waganer, L.M.; Zuckerman, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for and applied to the assessment of the technical risks associated with an evolving technology. This methodology, originally developed for fusion by K. W. Billman and F. R. Scott at EPRI, has been applied to assess the technical risk of a fuel system for a fusion reactor. Technical risk is defined as the risk that a particular technology or component which is currently under development will not achieve a set of required technical specifications (i.e. probability of failure). The individual steps in the technical risk assessment are summarized. The first step in this methodology is to clearly and completely quantify the technical requirements for the particular system being examined. The next step is to identify and define subsystems and various options which appear capable of achieving the required technical performance. The subsystem options are then characterized regarding subsystem functions, interface requirements with the subsystems and systems, important components, developmental obstacles and technical limitations. Key technical subsystem performance parameters are identified which directly or indirectly relate to the system technical specifications. Past, existing and future technical performance data from subsystem experts are obtained by using a Bayesian Interrogation technique. The input data is solicited in the form of probability functions. Thus the output performance of the system is expressed as probability functions

  5. Multimedia risk-based soil cleanup at a gasoline-contaminated site using vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.B.; Johnson, K.M.; Liu, S.; Loh, J.Y.; Lew, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    At a utility service center, gasoline from an underground storage tank had leaked into subsurface vadose zone soils for several years. To remediate the site, a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system was installed and operated. At the completion of the SVE operation, gasoline-containing residues in several confirmation soil borings exceeded agency-mandated cleanup levels. Rather than continue with SVE, a risk-based approach was developed to evaluate what levels of gasoline-containing residues could be left in the soil and still protect human health. The risk-based approach consisted of simulating the fate of chemical residues through the vadose zone and then into both the ground water and atmosphere. Receptor point concentrations were predicted, and health risks were assessed. The risk assessment concluded that ingestion of contaminated ground water and inhalation of air while showering were the largest potential contributors to risk, and that risks associated with inhalation of vapor-containing ambient air are small. However, all predicted risks are below the acceptable risk levels of 10 -6 individual cancer risk probability and 1.0 hazard index. Therefore, the lead agency accepted the recommendation that the site requires no further remediation. The service center continues normal operations today

  6. Ecological risk assessment: Lessons learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This conference was held November 14--18, 1993 in Houston, Texas for the purpose of providing a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on ecological risk assessment. This book is comprised of the abstracts of the presentations at this symposium. Individual abstracts have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  7. Where You Live: Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where you live page shows visitors to the risk assessment website how to contact their local regional office by state. Since these link to pages maintained by the local offices they will have the most up-to-date contact information.

  8. Assessing soil quality indicator under different land use and soil erosion using multivariate statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Kazem

    2013-04-01

    Soil degradation associated with soil erosion and land use is a critical problem in Iran and there is little or insufficient scientific information in assessing soil quality indicator. In this study, factor analysis (FA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were used to identify the most sensitive indicators of soil quality for evaluating land use and soil erosion within the Hiv catchment in Iran and subsequently compare soil quality assessment using expert opinion based on soil surface factors (SSF) form of Bureau of Land Management (BLM) method. Therefore, 19 soil physical, chemical, and biochemical properties were measured from 56 different sampling sites covering three land use/soil erosion categories (rangeland/surface erosion, orchard/surface erosion, and rangeland/stream bank erosion). FA identified four factors that explained for 82 % of the variation in soil properties. Three factors showed significant differences among the three land use/soil erosion categories. The results indicated that based upon backward-mode DA, dehydrogenase, silt, and manganese allowed more than 80 % of the samples to be correctly assigned to their land use and erosional status. Canonical scores of discriminant functions were significantly correlated to the six soil surface indices derived of BLM method. Stepwise linear regression revealed that soil surface indices: soil movement, surface litter, pedestalling, and sum of SSF were also positively related to the dehydrogenase and silt. This suggests that dehydrogenase and silt are most sensitive to land use and soil erosion.

  9. An empirical approach to estimate soil erosion risk in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Luis; Martínez-Núñez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important factors in land degradation and influences desertification worldwide. In 2001, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment launched the 'National Inventory of Soil Erosion (INES) 2002-2012' to study the process of soil erosion in Spain. The aim of the current article is to assess the usefulness of this National Inventory as an instrument of control, measurement and monitoring of soil erosion in Spain. The methodology and main features of this National Inventory are described in detail. The results achieved as of the end of May 2010 are presented, together with an explanation of the utility of the Inventory as a tool for planning forest hydrologic restoration, soil protection, erosion control, and protection against desertification. Finally, the authors make a comparative analysis of similar initiatives for assessing soil erosion in other countries at the national and European levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An approach to risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L.; Lund, S. P.; Hass, Ulla

    1998-01-01

    of Ministers with the task to propose criteria for neurotoxicity. Functional effects on the nervous system, such as reduction in memory and learning ability, decrease in attention, and alteration of behavior due to toxic chemicals in the environment is now being acknowledged as an important public health...... indicate that numerous persons are exposed in the working as well as in the general environment to several chemicals, for which almost no data on the effect on subtle neurophysiological functions are available. Development of an approach to risk assessment dealing with this problem is a major challenge...... in the nineties. Different approaches to risk assessment are discussed, the quality of the databases available for hazard assessment are evaluated, and the needs for further research are identified. (C) 1996 Intox Press, Inc....

  11. Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, J; Ibáñez, R; Lijzen, J P A; Irabien, Á

    2013-11-30

    Different oil products like gasoline, diesel or heavy oils can cause soil contamination. The assessment of soils exposed to oil products can be conducted through the comparison between a measured concentration and an intervention value (IV). Several national policies include the IV based on the so called total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) measure. However, the TPH assessment does not indicate the individual substances that may produce contamination. The soil quality assessment can be improved by including common hazardous compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aromatic volatile hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). This study, focused on 62 samples collected from different sites throughout The Netherlands, evaluates TPH, PAH and BTEX concentrations in soils. Several indices of pollution are defined for the assessment of individual variables (TPH, PAH, B, T, E, and X) and multivariables (MV, BTEX), allowing us to group the pollutants and simplify the methodology. TPH and PAH concentrations above the IV are mainly found in medium and heavy oil products such as diesel and heavy oil. On the other hand, unacceptable BTEX concentrations are reached in soils contaminated with gasoline and kerosene. The TPH assessment suggests the need for further action to include lighter products. The application of multivariable indices allows us to include these products in the soil quality assessment without changing the IV for TPH. This work provides useful information about the soil quality assessment methodology of oil products in soils, focussing the analysis into the substances that mainly cause the risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 24 CFR 35.315 - Risk assessment.<