WorldWideScience

Sample records for soil radioactivity emissions

  1. Gamma-emissions of some meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Evaluation of lunar soil radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.

    1966-01-01

    The gamma-emissions of some terrestrial rocks and of the following meteorites: Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes, and Dosso were studied by quantitative low background gamma spectrometry. These measurements and their interpretation lead to the evaluation of the possible gamma-emissions of several models of lunar soils. (author) [fr

  2. Radioactive air emissions 1992 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, L.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes, by radionuclide or product and by emitting facility, the Laboratory's 1992 radioactive air emissions. In 1992, the total activity of radionuclides emitted into the air from Laboratory stacks was approximately 73,500 Ci. This was an increase over the activity of the total 1991 radioactive air emissions, which was approximately 62,400 Ci. Total 1992 Laboratory emissions of each radionuclide or product are summarized by tables and graphs in the first section of this report. Compared to 1991 radioactive air emissions, total tritium activity was decreased, total plutonium activity was decreased, total uranium activity was decreased, total mixed fission product activity was increased, total 41 Ar activity was decreased, total gaseous/mixed activation product (except 41 Ar) activity was increased, total particulate/vapor activation product activity was increased, and total 32 P activity was decreased. Radioactive emissions from specific facilities are detailed in this report. Each section provides 1992 data on a single radionuclide or product and is further divided by emitting facility. For each facility from which a particular radionuclide or product was emitted, a bar chart displays the air emissions of each radionuclide or product from each facility over the 12 reporting periods of 1992, a line chart shows the trend in total emissions of that radionuclide or product from that facility for the past three years, the greatest activity during the 1990--1992 period is discussed, and unexpected or unusual results are noted

  3. Apparatus for measuring radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.C.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material comprises at least one radiation detector in a housing serving as a first radiation shield and in which at least one groove is formed to expose at least a portion of a receptor surface of the detector. The groove extends transverse to the direction of movement of the material over the detector. A second radiation shield may be located between at least a portion of the first shield and the detector. The material of the second shield is inherently less contaminated and emits secondary excitation radiation of lower energy than the first material. (author)

  4. Radioactive elements and earthworms in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Abdullayev, A.S.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Naghiyev, J.A.; Samadov, P.A.

    2010-11-01

    Earthworms are one of the indispensable soil animals which treat soil with letting it through their gut and help increasing soil fertility. The effect of radioactive elements and comparative effect of heavy metals to the vital functions of earthworms were determined in laboratory conditions. Experiments were continued for a month, and first of all, each soil type, grey-brown soil from Ramana iodine plant territory of Baku city, brown soil from Aluminum plant territory of Ganja city, aborigine grey-brown soil of Absheron peninsula, treated with Ra and U salts as model variants and brown soil of Ganja city was analyzed by gamma-spectrometer for radionuclide determining at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Earthworms (Nicodrilus Caliginosus Sav.trapezoides) aboriginal for Absheron peninsula and plant residues were added to the soil. At the end of the month the biomass, survival value, coprolite allocation value, food activity and catalase value in earthworms and in soil were determined. The gamma-spectrometric analysis results gave interesting values in coprolites, soils which had been treated through the earthworms' gut. In comparison with the initial variants in experimental results more percent of radioactivity was gathered in coprolites. By this way earthworms absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. During absorbing, some percents of radioactive elements were also gathered in gut cells of the earthworms. Thereby determination of some vital functions of earthworms was expedient. Thus, by the instrumentality of these experiments we can use earthworms for biodiagnosis and for bioremediation of contaminated soils with radionuclides and heavy metals.

  5. Ecological Role of Soils upon Radioactive Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetnov, Evgeny; Shcheglov, Alexei; Tsvenova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The ecological role of soils upon radioactive contamination is clearly manifested in the system of notions about ecosystems services, i.e., benefits gained by humans from ecosystems and their components, including soils (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). For the soils, these services are considered on the basis of soil functions in the biosphere that belong to the protective ecosystem functions within the group of soil functions known under the names of "Buffer and protective biogeocenotic shield" (at the level of particular biogeocenoses) and "Protective shield of the biosphere" (at the global biospheric level) (according to Dobrovol'skii & Nikitin, 2005). With respect to radionuclides, this group includes (1) the depositing function, i.e., the accumulation and long-term sequestration of radioactive substances by the soil after atmospheric fallout; (2) the geochemical function, i.e., the regulation of horizontal and vertical fluxes of radionuclides in the system of geochemically conjugated landscapes and in the soil-groundwater and soil-plant systems; and (3) the dose-forming function that is manifested by the shielding capacity of the soil with respect to the external ionizing radiation (lowering of the dose from external radiation) and by the regulation of the migration of radionuclides in the trophic chain (lowering of the dose from internal radiation). The depositing and geochemical functions of the soils are interrelated, which is seen from quantitative estimates of the dynamics of the fluxes of radionuclides in the considered systems (soil-plant, soil-groundwater, etc.). The downward migration of radionuclides into the lower soil layers proceeds very slowly: for decades, more than 90% of the pool of radionuclides is stored in the topmost 10 cm of the soil profile. In the first 3-5 years after the fallout, the downward migration of radionuclides with infiltrating water flows decreases from several percent to decimals and hundredths of percent from the

  6. Correlation between soil parameters and natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinska, M.; Niewiadomski, T.; Schwabenthan, J.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that a linear correlation exists between the concentration of natural elements U-238, Th-232 and K-40 contained in the upper layer of the soil, and the fraction (by weight) of particles of diameter less than 0.02 mm, i.e. the soil's mechanical composition. This hypothesis has been verified on a larger and statistically significant material of soils frequently occurring in Poland: chernozem, podzolic, muds, and anthropogenic, where for a given soil type, samples were chosen to represent various mechanical compositions. And it is concluded that the radioactivity concentrations of the head elements in the soil depend on its mechanical composition rather than on the type of soil. Thus, in principle, one is able to estimate dose rates from terrestrial sources directly from soil maps, without the need for outdoor measurements

  7. Radioactive emission from thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K [New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). Dept. of Applied Mathematics

    1981-07-01

    Radioactive hazards of the emissions and wastes of thermal power plants arising from fuel impurities of uranium and thorium are discussed. The hazard due to radioactive emission is calculated for an average Australian bituminous coal which contains 2 ppm of U and 2.7 ppm of Th. When the dust removal efficiency of a coal-fired power plant is 99%, the radioactive hazard is greater than that of a nuclear reactor of the same electrical output. After 500 years the radioactive toxicity of the coal waste will be higher than that of fission products of a nuclear reactor and after 2,000 years it will exceed the toxicity of all the nuclear wastes including actinides. The results of a recent calculation are shown, according to which the radioactive hazard of a coal-fired power plant to the public is from several hundred to several tens of thousands of times higher than that of a total fuel cycle of plutonium. It is found that in some regions, such as Japan, the hazard due to /sup 210/Po through seafood could be considerable.

  8. Assessment of radioactivity in soil from Nyala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuosif, M. E.

    2013-07-01

    In this study investigation of radioactivity of soil from Nyala city has been carried out. Thirty samples of soil are collected across the city randomly and measured, using gamma ray spectrometry system located in Khartoum. The investigations identify naturally occurring radionuclides from 238 U and 232 Th series in addition to to 40 K. The activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 Krange 15.9-84.5, 35.3-213.2 and 429.09-1630.5 Bq/Kg respectively. When compared with global data (UNSCEAR 2000), these values are relatively high. The investigation presents a preliminary survey of radioactivity content of a region (South Darfur State) which may be used baseline data for construction of maps of radioactivity of Sudan.(Author)

  9. Gamma-emissions of some meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Evaluation of lunar soil radioactivity; Emissions gamma de quelques meteorites et roches terrestres. Evaluation de la radioactivite du sol lunaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordemann, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    The gamma-emissions of some terrestrial rocks and of the following meteorites: Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes, and Dosso were studied by quantitative low background gamma spectrometry. These measurements and their interpretation lead to the evaluation of the possible gamma-emissions of several models of lunar soils. (author) [French] Les emissions gamma des meteorites Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes et Dosso et de quelques roches terrestres ont ete etudiees par spectrometrie gamma quantitative a faible mouvement propre. Ces mesures et leur interpretation permettent d'evaluer les principales contributions des emissions gamma du sol lunaire pour des modeles de compositions possibles variees. (auteur)

  10. Gamma-emissions of some meteorites and terrestrial rocks. Evaluation of lunar soil radioactivity; Emissions gamma de quelques meteorites et roches terrestres. Evaluation de la radioactivite du sol lunaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordemann, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    The gamma-emissions of some terrestrial rocks and of the following meteorites: Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes, and Dosso were studied by quantitative low background gamma spectrometry. These measurements and their interpretation lead to the evaluation of the possible gamma-emissions of several models of lunar soils. (author) [French] Les emissions gamma des meteorites Bogou, Eagle-Station, Granes et Dosso et de quelques roches terrestres ont ete etudiees par spectrometrie gamma quantitative a faible mouvement propre. Ces mesures et leur interpretation permettent d'evaluer les principales contributions des emissions gamma du sol lunaire pour des modeles de compositions possibles variees. (auteur)

  11. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  12. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, including uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking, a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  13. Airborne radioactive emission control technology. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoski, L.; Berlin, R.; Corby, D.; Clancy, J.; Hoopes, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report reviews the current and future control technology for airborne emissions from a wide variety of industries/facilities, includimg uranium mining and milling, other nuclear fuel cycle facilities, other NRC-licensed and DOE facilities, fossil fuel facilities, selected metal and non-metal extraction industries, and others. Where specific radioactivity control technology is lacking a description of any existing control technology is given. Future control technology is assessed in terms of improvements to equipment performance and process alterations. A catalogue of investigated research on advanced control technologies is presented

  14. Modelling seasonal variations of natural radioactivity in soils: A case study in southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guagliardi, Ilaria; Rovella, Natalia; Apollaro, Carmine; Bloise, Andrea; Rosa, Rosanna De; Scarciglia, Fabio; Buttafuoco, Gabriele

    2016-12-01

    The activity of natural radionuclides in soil has become an environmental concern for local public and national authorities because of the harmful effects of radiation exposure on human health. In this context, modelling and mapping the activity of natural radionuclides in soil is an important research topic. The study was aimed to model, in a spatial sense, the soil radioactivity in an urban and peri-urban soils area in southern Italy to analyse the seasonal influence on soil radioactivity. Measures of gamma radiation naturally emitted through the decay of radioactive isotopes (potassium, uranium and thorium) were analysed using a geostatistical approach to map the spatial distribution of soil radioactivity. The activity of three radionuclides was measured at 181 locations using a high-resolution ?-ray spectrometry. To take into account the influence of season, the measurements were carried out in summer and in winter. Activity data were analysed by using a geostatistical approach and zones of relatively high or low radioactivity were delineated. Among the main processes which influence natural radioactivity such as geology, geochemical, pedological, and ecological processes, results of this study showed a prominent control of radio-emission measurements by seasonal changes. Low natural radioactivity levels were measured in December associated with winter weather and moist soil conditions (due to high rainfall and low temperature), and higher activity values in July, when the soil was dry and no precipitations occurred.

  15. Top Soils Geochemical and Radioactivity Survey of Naples (Italy) Metropolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, R.; De Vivo, B.; Cicchella, D.

    2001-05-01

    The metropolitan area of Naples due to intense human activities is an emblematic area affected by various environmental pollution of soils and waters in addition to hydrogeological volcanic, seismic and bradyseismic hazards. The geology of the area is prevailing represented by volcanics erupted, from the Upper Pleistocene to Recent by Mt. Somma-Vesuvius on the east and the Campi Flegrei fields on the west. The morphology of the metropolitan area of Naples city can be subdivided in flat areas, constituted by reworked pyroclastic terrains, and by hills originated by the overlapping of different welded pyroclastic flows (i.e.: Campanian Ignimbrite and Neapoletan Yellow Tuff) intercalated with pyroclastic deposits of different origins (i.e.: Campi Flegrei, Mt. Somma-Vesuvius, Ischia) and ages. In order to compile a multi-element baseline geochemical and radioactivity mapping of the metropolitan area of the Napoli we have sampled for this study, in situ top soil and imported filling material (mainly soil, volcanic ash, pumice and scoriae). The sampling and radioactivity survey has been carried out on about 200 sampling sites covering an area of about 150 Km2, with a grid of 0.5 x 0.5 km in the urbanised downtown and 1 km x 1 km in the sub urban areas. In each site has been determined a radioactivity by a Scintrex GRS-500 at different emission spectra as total radioactivity (> 0.08 MeV and > 0.40 MeV), 238U (at 1.76 MeV mostly from 214Bi), 232Th (at 2.6 MeV mostly from 208Tl) and 40K (at 1.46 MeV mostly for 40K). The range of values of in situ soils are as follow for the in situ soils (Total radioactivity: 1327- 360 and 114- 47; 238U: 2.6- 1.3; 40K: 8.1- 3.1; 232U: 0.5- 0.1). Analyses of major, metallic elements and pH of each soil sample are in progress, while Pb isotopes compositions, for a selected number of samples, will be determined to discriminate the natural (geogenic) from the anthropogenic components in the soils by versus the anthropogenetic origin. The data

  16. MAPRAD: mapping of radioactivity in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Signorelli, Carla de A.; Conti, Claudio de C.; Lauria, Dejanira da C.; Ferreira, Ingryd M.; Carvalho, Laercio L. de; Rio, Monica A. Pires do; Trindade Filho, Octavio Luiz; Gonzalez, Sergio de A.; Silva, Tadeu Augusto de A.; Sousa, Wanderson de O.; Cunha, Fernanda G. da

    2011-01-01

    The MAPRAD Project main objective is to increase the knowledge of the distribution of natural radioactivity in soils of Brazilian national territory and to provide (among others) information which are essential for medical geology and environmental radiation safety researches and for decision-making process regarding soil contamination levels. It also aims to make available the generated information for researchers and for public, through an online database. Soil samples are collected by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) and are sent to the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), where they are processed and analyzed for determination of concentrations of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The results are inserted into a database containing the sample information as geographic coordinates of the samples and land use. After the sample analysis, results are made available for the scientific community access on Internet. (author)

  17. Radioactivity in Scottish soils and grassy vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.R.; Horrill, A.D.; Thomson, A.J.; Howson, G.

    1989-05-01

    In June 1987, soil and graminoid vegetation samples were collected from 159 randomly selected Scottish sites and analysed for radioactivity due to potassium-40, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Activity due to plutonium-238 and plutonium-239/240 was also measured in soils from 47 of the sites. The main aims of this survey were to determine: (a) the geographic distribution of radiocaesium activity due to fallout from the Chernobyl reactor disaster, (b) the pattern of radiation due to the naturally occurring isotope potassium-40, (c) the activity attributable to caesium-137 fallout from nuclear weapons testing prior to the Chernobyl deposition, (d) the uptake of caesium-137 by vegetation from different soil types. (author)

  18. Natural radioactivity levels in soils of Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garimella, S.; Kumar, A.; Prasad, U.; Jafar, M.

    1998-01-01

    A 10 cm (diameter) x 7.5 cm NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer with a low background shield has been used to measure the natural radioactivity levels in soils of Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji. From this, the external gamma-dose which is likely to be delivered to the local population in this region is computed and found to be 99 μGy a -1 . This is well below the world average, but it is comparable to that observed in Marshall Islands and the Micronesia

  19. Natural radioactivity levels in soils of Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garimella, S.; Kumar, A.; Prasad, U.; Jafar, M.

    1998-01-01

    A 10 cm (diameter) x 7.5 cm NaI(TI) gamma-ray spectrometer with a low background shield has been used to measure the natural radioactivity levels in soils of Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji. From this, the external gamma-dose which is likely to be delivered to the local population in this region is computed and found to be 99 microG a -1 . This is well below the world average, but it is comparable to that observed in Marshall Islands and the Micronesia. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure by radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1981-03-01

    On the basis of measurements of the radioactive emissions of a 300 MW coal-fired power plant and of a 600 MW lignite-fired power plant the expected activity increase in air and soil in the environment of both plants is estimated and compared with the normal, natural activity level. Due to these emissions it results for the point of maximum immission a committed effective dose equivalent per GW x a of about 0.2 mrem = 0.002 mSv for the coal-fired plant and of about 0.04 mrem = 0.0004 mSv for the lignite-fired plant. This dose is caused to nearly equal parts by inhalation, ingestion and external γ-radiation. The normalized effective dose equivalent in the environment of the modern coal-fired power plant is in the same order of magnitude like that of a modern pressurized water reactor. The total, collective effective dose equivalent commitment by the annual radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants in the F.R.Germany is estimated to 2000-6000 Man x rem = 20-60 Man x Sv. This corresponds to a mean per caput-dose in the population of the F.R.Germany of about 0.03-0.1 mrem = 0.0003-0.001 mSv; this is about 0.02-0.06% of the mean normal natural radiation exposure of the population. (orig.) [de

  1. Method of treatment of radioactive silts and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlakov, A.P.; Sobolev, I.A.; Barinov, A.S.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Karlin, S.V.; Flit, V.U.

    1997-01-01

    To solve the problem of silts and soils that are contaminated with radioactive and toxic substances, the following method has been developed at SIA RADON. The material is mixed with limestone and other components, including up to 70% (mass) of dried residue of liquid radioactive waste. The mixture is heated at 800 to 1,000 C, shredded, and used to form cement. This cementation process may be used to treat radioactive or other chemical waste. The work demonstrated that in the case of silts, for example, the product volume is reduced by a factor of 1.5 to 3 compared to the initial silts volume. A fast hardening, durable product is obtained, the quality of which is not inferior to that obtained by using the traditional binders. For some parameters, e.g., hardening rate and macroelement leaching, the current method is significantly better than the traditional cementation process. It has also been demonstrated that, over a wide range of parameters, when dry residue of liquid radioactive waste is used in the initial mixture, the part of NO x can be reduced to nitrogen, thereby reducing NO x emissions

  2. Soil invertebrate fauna affect N2O emissions from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, I.; Deyn, de G.B.; Thakur, M.P.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soils contribute significantly to global warming. Mitigation of N2O emissions is severely hampered by a lack of understanding of its main controls. Fluxes can only partly be predicted from soil abiotic factors and microbial analyses – a possible role for soil fauna

  3. Measurement of liquid radioactive materials for monitoring radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    This draft regulation applies to measuring equipment for liquid radioactive materials for the monitoring of the radioactive discharges from stationary nuclear power plants with LWR and HTR reactors. Demands made on the measuring procedure, methods of concentration determination, balancing, indication of limiting values, and inspections are layed down. The draft regulation deals with: 1) Monitoring liquid radioactive discharges: Water and similar systems; radionuclides and their detection limits, radioactively contaminated water (waste water); secondary cooling water; power house cooling water; primary cooling water; flooding water; 2) Layout of the measuring and sampling equipment and demands made on continuous and discontinuous measuring equipment; demands made on discontinuous α and β measuring equipment; 3) Maintenance and repair work; inspections; repair of defects; 4) Demands made on documentation; reports to authorities; 5) Supplement: List of general and reference regulations. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Distribution Of Natural Radioactivity On Soil Size Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van Luyen; Trinh Hoai Vinh; Thai Khac Dinh

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a distribution of natural radioactivity on different soil size particles, taken from one soil profile. On the results shows a range from 52% to 66% of natural radioisotopes such as 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K concentrated on the soil particles below 40 micrometers in diameter size. The remained of natural radioisotopes were distributed on a soil particles with higher diameter size. The study is available for soil sample collected to natural radioactive analyze by gamma and alpha spectrometer methods. (author)

  5. Decontamination of radioactive cesium in soil using nano-size metallic calcium dispersing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Fukuoka, Takezo; Matsue, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Hidemasa; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Kajitani, Mikio

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, the major concern on radioactive cesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) deposition and soil contamination due to the emission form the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant showed up after a massive quake on March 11, 2011. Soil contamination with radioactive cesium has a long-term radiological impact due to its long half-life (30 years for 137 Cs) and its high biological hazard. Therefore, much attention has been paid to decontaminate Cs-contaminated soil with washing and/or extraction by adopting solvents. However, such wet methods have some disadvantages, i.e. forming of secondary effluents and additional cost for their treatment. We have recently shown that the nano-size metallic calcium/calcium oxide/iron dispersing mixture (Fe-nCa) is most effective for heavy metals immobilization and volume reduction method under dry condition. Thus, we applied this method to treat real radioactive cesium contaminated soils in dry condition. Simple stirring of the contaminated soil with Fe-nCa achieved about above 90% of radioactive Cs decontamination rate and the volume reduction level also reached around 50-60%. In this paper, we showed the effectiveness of a Fe-nCa method for the rapid remediation and volume reduction method of real radioactive cesium contaminated soils under dry conditions and our challenges for sophistication applying machine and reagents. (author)

  6. Radioactivity measurement of radioactive contaminated soil by using a fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    A fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. The FORS was fabricated using an inorganic scintillator (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce), a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener, aluminum foil, and a plastic optical fiber. Before its real application, the FORS was tested to determine if it performed adequately. The test result showed that the measurements by the FORS adequately followed the theoretically estimated values. Then, the FORS was applied to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. For comparison, a commercial radiation detector was also applied to measure the same soil samples. The measurement data were analyzed by using a statistical parameter, the critical level to determine if net radioactivity statistically different from background was present in the soil sample. The analysis showed that the soil sample had radioactivity distinguishable from background.

  7. Radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubasov, Yu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The examples of radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions conducted in the USSR on the Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk test sites are considered. It is pointed out that in the case of evasive explosion in vertical wells without apparent radioactive gases emission the samples of subsurface gas must contain the traces of radioactive rare gases. Under the inspection of evasive explosion in horizontal workings of rock massif, one should guided by the analysis of atmospheric air samples in the inspected area [ru

  8. Soil invertebrate fauna affect N2 O emissions from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Imke; de Deyn, Gerlinde B; Thakur, Madhav P; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2013-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions from soils contribute significantly to global warming. Mitigation of N2 O emissions is severely hampered by a lack of understanding of its main controls. Fluxes can only partly be predicted from soil abiotic factors and microbial analyses - a possible role for soil fauna has until now largely been overlooked. We studied the effect of six groups of soil invertebrate fauna and tested the hypothesis that all of them increase N2 O emissions, although to different extents. We conducted three microcosm experiments with sandy soil and hay residue. Faunal groups included in our experiments were as follows: fungal-feeding nematodes, mites, springtails, potworms, earthworms and isopods. In experiment I, involving all six faunal groups, N2 O emissions declined with earthworms and potworms from 78.4 (control) to 37.0 (earthworms) or 53.5 (potworms) mg N2 O-N m(-2) . In experiment II, with a higher soil-to-hay ratio and mites, springtails and potworms as faunal treatments, N2 O emissions increased with potworms from 51.9 (control) to 123.5 mg N2 O-N m(-2) . Experiment III studied the effect of potworm density; we found that higher densities of potworms accelerated the peak of the N2 O emissions by 5 days (P soil aeration by the soil fauna reduced N2 O emissions in experiment I, whereas in experiment II N2 O emissions were driven by increased nitrogen and carbon availability. In experiment III, higher densities of potworms accelerated nitrogen and carbon availability and N2 O emissions, but did not increase them. Overall, our data show that soil fauna can suppress, increase, delay or accelerate N2 O emissions from soil and should therefore be an integral part of future N2 O studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction portable temporary radioactive air emission units - August 1998; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRITZ, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of three types of portable/temporary radionuclide airborne emission units (PTRAEUs). These three types are portable ventilation-filter systems (Type I), mobile sample preparation facilities (Type II), and mobile sample screening and analysis facilities (Type 111). Approval of the NOC application is intended to allow construction and operation of the three types of PTRAEUs without prior project-specific approval. Environmental cleanup efforts on the Hanford Site often require the use of PTRAEUs. The PTRAEUs support site characterization activities, expedited response actions (ERAs), sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities. The PTRAEUs operate at various locations around the Hanford Site. Radiation Air Emissions Program, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, requires that the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) be notified before construction of any new emission that would release airborne radioactivity. The WDOH also must receive notification before any modification of an existing source. This includes changes in the source term or replacement of emission control equipment that might significantly contribute to the offsite maximum dose from a licensed facility. During site characterization activities, ERAs, sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities, the PTRAEUs might require startup immediately. The notification period hampers efforts to complete such activities in an effective and timely manner. Additionally, notification is to be submitted to the WDOH when the PTRAEUs are turned off. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate several notifications monthly. The WDOH would be required to review and provide approval on each NOC as well as review the notices of discontinued sources. The WDOH regulation also allows facilities the opportunity to request a

  10. Biochar and soil nitrous oxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Brazão Vieira Alho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of biochar application on soil nitrous oxide emissions. The experiment was carried out in pots under greenhouse conditions. Four levels of ground commercial charcoal of 2 mm (biochar were evaluated in a sandy Albaqualf (90% of sand: 0, 3, 6, and 9 Mg ha-1. All treatments received 100 kg ha-1 of N as urea. A cubic effect of biochar levels was observed on the N2O emissions. Biochar doses above 5 Mg ha-1 started to mitigate the emissions in the evaluated soil. However, lower doses promote the emissions.

  11. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction portable/temporary radioactive air emission units - August 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRITZ, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of three types of portable/temporary radionuclide airborne emission units (PTRAEUs). These three types are portable ventilation-filter systems (Type I), mobile sample preparation facilities (Type II), and mobile sample screening and analysis facilities (Type III). Approval of the NOC application is intended to allow construction and operation of the three types of PTRAEUs without prior project-specific approval. Environmental cleanup efforts on the Hanford Site often require the use of PTRAEUs. The PTRAEUs support site characterization activities, expedited response actions (ERAs), sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities. The PTRAEUs operate at various locations around the Hanford Site. Radiation Air Emissions Program, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, requires that the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) be notified before construction of any new emission that would release airborne radioactivity. The WDOH also must receive notification before any modification of an existing source. This includes changes in the source term or replacement of emission control equipment that might significantly contribute to the offsite maximum dose from a licensed facility. During site characterization activities, ERAs, sampling and monitoring activities, and other routine activities, the PTRAEUs might require startup immediately. The notification period hampers efforts to complete such activities in an effective and timely manner. Additionally, notification is to be submitted to the WDOH when the PTRAEUs are turned off. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate several notifications monthly. The WDOH would be required to review and provide approval on each NOC as well as review the notices of discontinued sources. The WDOH regulation also allows facilities the opportunity to request a

  12. Registration for the Hanford Site: Sources of radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    This Registration Application serves to renew the registration for all Hanford Site sources of radioactive air emissions routinely reported to the State of Washington Department of Health (DOH). The current registration expires on August 15, 1993. The Application is submitted pursuant to the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246--247, and is consistent with guidance provided by DOH for renewal. The Application subdivides the Hanford Site into six major production, processing or research areas. Those six areas are in the 100 Area, 200 East Area, 200 West Area, 300 Area, 400 Area, and 600 Area. Each major group of point sources within the six areas listed above is represented by a Source Registration for Radioactive Air Emissions form. Annual emissions. for the sources are listed in the ''Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for the Hanford Site,'' published annually. It is a requirement that the following Statement of Compliance be provided: ''The radioactive air emissions from the above sources do meet the emissions standards contained in Chapter 173-480-040 WAC, Ambient Air Quality Standards and Emissions Limits for Radionuclides. As the Statement of Compliance pertains to this submittal, the phrase ''above sources'' is to be understood as meaning the combined air emissions from all sources registered by this submittal

  13. Transport of radioactive ions in soil by electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    An electrokinetic approach is being evaluated for in situ soil remediation at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The work discussed in this paper involves the development of a new method to monitor the movement of the radioactive ions within the soil during the electrokinetic process. A closed cell and a gamma counter were used to provide iii situ measurements of 137 Cs and 60 Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results show that for an applied potential of 200 V over approximately 200 hr, 137 Cs and 60 60 were transported a distance of 4 to 5 in. The monitoring technique demonstrated the feasibility of using electrokinetics for soil separation applications

  14. Sorption behaviour of radioactive technetium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Deying

    1996-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of technetium in different soils has been studied by batch experiments under aerobic conditions. The soil samples have been taken to study the characteristics and to derive the pH-Eh values. In addition, the activated carbon and reduced iron powder have been selected as additives to the JAERI sand according to the former research work, so that the technetium sorption behaviour in the artificial soils can be studied under similar conditions. The experimental results show that all these soil samples except for the gluey soil have a very small distribution coefficient for Tc, while the artificial soils have a very large distribution coefficient for Tc. Besides, for artificial soils, the distribution coefficient (R d ) values will become larger and larger when more additive is added and more contact time is allowed. The physico-chemical fixation processes and possible sorption modes have been discussed as well

  15. Radioactive decay of 223Ra by 14C emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashita, S.; Gregorich, K.; Ghiorso, A.

    1985-01-01

    Recently H.J. Rose and G.A. Jones at the University of Oxford reported the very difficult observation of an exotic radioactive decay mode in 233 Ra, its spontaneous disintegration by the emission of 14 C particles. The authors have confirmed their somewhat surprising discovery by an independent method. Within the present experimental accuracy the magnetic rigidity, energy and branching ratio support the assignment of 14 C emission from 223 Ra as proposed by the Oxford experiment

  16. Rapid immobilization of simulated radioactive soil waste by microwave sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Shu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Shunzhang; Yang, Huimin; Hou, Chenxi; Mao, Xueli; Chi, Fangting; Song, Mianxin; Lu, Xirui

    2017-09-05

    A rapid and efficient method is particularly necessary in the timely disposal of seriously radioactive contaminated soil. In this paper, a series of simulated radioactive soil waste containing different contents of neodymium oxide (3-25wt.%) has been successfully vitrified by microwave sintering at 1300°C for 30min. The microstructures, morphology, element distribution, density and chemical durability of as obtained vitrified forms have been analyzed. The results show that the amorphous structure, homogeneous element distribution, and regular density improvement are well kept, except slight cracks emerge on the magnified surface for the 25wt.% Nd 2 O 3 -containing sample. Moreover, all the vitrified forms exhibit excellent chemical durability, and the leaching rates of Nd are kept as ∼10 -4 -10 -6 g/(m 2 day) within 42days. This demonstrates a potential application of microwave sintering in radioactive contaminated soil disposal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Kocaeli basin, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakelle, B.; Oeztuerk, N.; Erkol, A.Y.; Koese, A.; Varinlioglu, A.; Yilmaz, F.

    2002-01-01

    The city of Kocaeli is in the western part of Anatolia in Turkey and has a population of approximately 1.000.000. There is no information about radioactivity in the Kocaeli soils samples so far. For this reason, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in soil samples from 27 different sampling stations in Kocaeli Basin and its surroundings have been determined. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils. The typical concentrations of 137 Cs, 238 U, 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th found in surface soil samples ranged from 2 ± 0.6 to 25 ± 6 Bq/kg, from 11 ± 4 to 49 ± 10 Bq/kg, from 161 ± 30 to 964 ± 127 Bq/kg, from 10 ± 4 to 58 ± 11 Bq/kg, and from 11 ± 3 to 65 ± 13 Bq/kg, respectively. (author)

  18. Radioactive air emissions from non-uranium mining operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silhanek, J.S.; Andrews, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Section 122 of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Public Law 9595, directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to review all relevant information and determine whether emissions of radioactive pollutants into ambient air will cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health. A section of this document presented a theoretical analysis of the radioactive airborne emissions from several non-uranium mines including iron, copper, zinc, clay, limestone, fluorspar, and phosphate. Since 1978 EPA's Las Vegas Laboratory has been gathering field data on actual radionuclide emissions from these mines to support the earlier theoretical analysis. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of those field measurements in comparison with the assumed values for the theoretical analysis

  19. Responses of the soil decomposer community to the radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlana, Maksimova

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge about biodiversity and about reasons and laws of dynamics of decomposer invertebrates has exclusively important (rather applied, or theoretical) significance for soil science. Earthworms and millipedes are probably the most important members of the soil biota and major contributors to total zoo-mass. Their activities are such that they are extremely important in maintaining soil fertility in a variety of ways. They play an important part in the redistribution of radionuclides accumulated in the natural biogeocenoses and accumulation of radionuclides in their bodies depends on their concentration in the habitat. Since radionuclides can limit biological activity, studies to estimate the tolerance of decomposer community to potentially toxic radiators are needed. The effect of radioactive contamination on the soil invertebrates and decomposition processes in the different biogeocenoses we intensively studied during 17 years after Chernobyl accident. The soil invertebrates were collected according to generally accepted method by M. Ghilyarov. Soil samples were 0,25 m 2 and animals were extracted from samples by hand sorting. Usually decomposition was affected by the presence of decomposer fauna. Considerable differences were found in the species number. The species composition of sites differed clearly. The study showed that the fauna was poorer under increasing levels of radioactive contamination. The higher radionuclide content was found to result in suppression of decomposer community. The results showed a vertical migration of earthworms to deeper soil layers with increasing of radioactive contamination. With the absence of decomposer fauna due to migration to the deeper layer and mortality, the layer of litter increased. The results show that the earthworms were of small size. Cocoon production decreased. Radioactive contamination altered the process of reproduction and age structure of decomposer fauna. The invertebrates collected from the

  20. Responses of the soil decomposer community to the radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetlana, Maksimova [Institute of Zoology of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2004-07-01

    The knowledge about biodiversity and about reasons and laws of dynamics of decomposer invertebrates has exclusively important (rather applied, or theoretical) significance for soil science. Earthworms and millipedes are probably the most important members of the soil biota and major contributors to total zoo-mass. Their activities are such that they are extremely important in maintaining soil fertility in a variety of ways. They play an important part in the redistribution of radionuclides accumulated in the natural biogeocenoses and accumulation of radionuclides in their bodies depends on their concentration in the habitat. Since radionuclides can limit biological activity, studies to estimate the tolerance of decomposer community to potentially toxic radiators are needed. The effect of radioactive contamination on the soil invertebrates and decomposition processes in the different biogeocenoses we intensively studied during 17 years after Chernobyl accident. The soil invertebrates were collected according to generally accepted method by M. Ghilyarov. Soil samples were 0,25 m{sup 2} and animals were extracted from samples by hand sorting. Usually decomposition was affected by the presence of decomposer fauna. Considerable differences were found in the species number. The species composition of sites differed clearly. The study showed that the fauna was poorer under increasing levels of radioactive contamination. The higher radionuclide content was found to result in suppression of decomposer community. The results showed a vertical migration of earthworms to deeper soil layers with increasing of radioactive contamination. With the absence of decomposer fauna due to migration to the deeper layer and mortality, the layer of litter increased. The results show that the earthworms were of small size. Cocoon production decreased. Radioactive contamination altered the process of reproduction and age structure of decomposer fauna. The invertebrates collected from the

  1. Accelerated physical modelling of radioactive waste migration in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmie, T.F.; De, A.; Mahmud, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    A 100 g-tonne geotechnical centrifuge was used to study the long-term migration of a contaminant and radioactive tracer through a saturated soil medium. The use of the centrifuge simulates the acceleration of travel time in the prototype, which is N times larger than the model, by N 2 , where N is the desired g level. For a 5 h run at 60 g, the test modelled a migration time of about 2 years for a prototype 60 times larger than the small-scale model tested. Iodine 131, used as the tracer, was injected onto the surface of the soil, and was allowed to migrate with a constant head of water through the saturated soil. End window Geiger-Mueller (G-M) tubes were used to measure the count rate of the radioactive tracer flowing through the soil. The time from the peak response of one G-M tube to the other denotes the travel time between the two points in the flow domain. The results obtained using the radioactive tracer are in good agreement with the test performed on the same model setup using potassium permanganate as tracer and with numerical flow net modelling. Radioactive tracers can be useful in the study of nonradioactive contaminants as well, offering a nonintrusive (nondestructive) method of measuring contaminant migration. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  2. Radioactivity in Soil Samples Collected in Southern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the attack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the focus effect was of Kosovo and Metohija and southern Serbia) in 1999, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. Cleaning action of depleted uranium was performed by Radiation and Environmental Protection Department of the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, during 2002?2007 at locations: Pljackovica, Bratoselce, Borovac and Reljan. At all locations underwent detailed dosimetric screening and decontamination was performed. Because of the loose soil, DU projectils were found to a depth of 1 m. Found missiles, contaminated soil and radioactive material has been collected and stored on radioactive waste. After cleaning the ground is leveled and another dosimetric prospecting was performed. Monitoring of radioactivity in southern Serbia included determination of gamma emitters as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activities in soil, water and plant. Sampling was carried out at Pljackovica, Borovac, Bratoselce and Reljan in July 2011. This paper presents only the results of measurement of gamma emitters in soil samples and showed the presence of natural radionuclides: 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). Also, the ratio between the 235U and 238U is given. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated. (author)

  3. A survey of radioactive caesium in British soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Baker, S.J.

    1990-08-01

    The accumulation of radioactive caesium-137 in soils under permanent grassland was measured by Harwell Laboratory in 1977. The objective was to provide at selected locations in Great Britain a reference of background radioactivity in soil resulting from depositions of nuclear weapons fallout over some thirty years. Following the Chernobyl reactor accident in April 1986, the Department of the Environment requested further measurements at the reference sites in 1987 to record changes and regional differences in the amounts present in soil caused by radioactive fallout. Results from the 1987 survey generally showed the highest accumulations of Cs-137 derived from both nuclear weapons and Chernobyl fallout in western and northern regions of Great Britain, owing to the effectiveness of rainfall on scavenging of radioactivity from the atmosphere. Thus the reference sites in south-west and central Scotland had the maximum accumulation of 26kBq Cs-137/m 2 to 30cm soil depth, at Burrow Head and Rannoch; at these locations the soil concentrations attained 256Bq/kg whereas at all sites in England levels were 2 . To 30cm depth, an average soil concentration in Scotland of ∼ 100Bq/kg was derived, which is 11% of the generalised derived limit (GDL). Comparison of 1987 results with decay-corrected 1977 data showed that nine locations in England receiving negligible Chernobyl fallout had a net loss of Cs-137 by soil erosion and/or leaching over the ten-years interval. At other locations in England a minimum of 6-40% of Cs-137 to 30cm depth was Chernobyl-derived, but this increased to 50-95% in Scotland where substantial accumulations of Cs-134 were also recorded. At the two peat sites in north-east Scotland the accumulated deposition of Cs-137 in 1987 was two and five-fold greater than in 1977. In peatland vegetation the concentrations of Cs-137 followed the order sphagnum mosses > heather > g

  4. Radioactively powered emission from black hole-neutron star mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Wanajo, Shinya; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Kiuchi, Kenta; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Detection of the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) sources is important to unveil the nature of compact binary coalescences. We perform three-dimensional, time-dependent, multi-frequency radiative transfer simulations for radioactively powered emission from the ejecta of black hole (BH)-neutron star (NS) mergers. Depending on the BH to NS mass ratio, spin of the BH, and equations of state of dense matter, BH-NS mergers can eject more material than NS-NS mergers. In such cases, radioactively powered emission from the BH-NS merger ejecta can be more luminous than that from NS-NS mergers. We show that, in spite of the expected larger distances to BH-NS merger events, the observed brightness of BH-NS mergers can be comparable to or even higher than that of NS-NS mergers. We find that, when the tidally disrupted BH-NS merger ejecta are confined to a small solid angle, the emission from BH-NS merger ejecta tends to be bluer than that from NS-NS merger ejecta for a given total luminosity. Thanks to this property, we might be able to distinguish BH-NS merger events from NS-NS merger events by multi-band observations of the radioactively powered emission. In addition to the GW observations, such electromagnetic observations can potentially provide independent information on the progenitors of GW sources and the nature of compact binary coalescences.

  5. Emission of radon from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, P.; Lindmark, A.; Rosen, B.

    1980-03-01

    The report deals with the measurement of radon daughters in the soil Radon migrates readily through the limestone which is superpositioned the alum shale. The level of gamma radiation is normal. Measurements have been made by the track etch technique and with Kodak film. The contents of radon daughters are shown to be due to the measuring depth. (G.B.)

  6. Fixation of Radioactive Strontium in Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregers-Hansen, Birte

    1964-01-01

    of the other long-lived fission products. Much work2–5 has, therefore, been concerned with the possibility of bringing down the strontium-90 uptake by plants through ploughing or through the addition of lime or fertilizer to the soil. Another factor, the effect of ageing on the availability of strontium, has...... been considered6,7. In general, these methods appear to be of little practical value, except for deep ploughing and the liming of acid soils, both of which will reduce the strontium uptake by a factor of 3–4....

  7. Biogenic volatile emissions from the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, J; Asensio, D; Tholl, D; Wenke, K; Rosenkranz, M; Piechulla, B; Schnitzler, J P

    2014-08-01

    Volatile compounds are usually associated with an appearance/presence in the atmosphere. Recent advances, however, indicated that the soil is a huge reservoir and source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs), which are formed from decomposing litter and dead organic material or are synthesized by underground living organism or organs and tissues of plants. This review summarizes the scarce available data on the exchange of VOCs between soil and atmosphere and the features of the soil and particle structure allowing diffusion of volatiles in the soil, which is the prerequisite for biological VOC-based interactions. In fact, soil may function either as a sink or as a source of bVOCs. Soil VOC emissions to the atmosphere are often 1-2 (0-3) orders of magnitude lower than those from aboveground vegetation. Microorganisms and the plant root system are the major sources for bVOCs. The current methodology to detect belowground volatiles is described as well as the metabolic capabilities resulting in the wealth of microbial and root VOC emissions. Furthermore, VOC profiles are discussed as non-destructive fingerprints for the detection of organisms. In the last chapter, belowground volatile-based bi- and multi-trophic interactions between microorganisms, plants and invertebrates in the soil are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Radioactive zinc in soil-plant relationship studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimian, N.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc is one of the elements whose essentiality for plant growth and development has been proved beyond any doubt. Plant life and consequently the crop yield is impossible without zinc. The results of chemical, greenhouse, and field experiments on soils of Shiraz show that their level of available zinc for some crops is inadequate, despite the fact that the total amount of zinc in these soils may be relatively high. Obtaining the maximum yield, therefore, requires that either supplemental zinc be applied as chemical fertilizers or make the endogenous zinc more available to plants through some management practices. One of the isotopes of zinc, i.e. 65 Zn, is radioactive and has a detectable radiation which makes it suitable for tracer studies of zinc in soil, water, plant and animal. These studies help in understanding the soil plant relationships of zinc which in turn help to determine the optimum conditions of obtaining maximum yield. This paper presents and analyzes the results of some selected experiments to show different techniques of using radioactive zinc in understanding the behavior of zinc in soil and plant. Suggestions are also made of using this radioisotope in understanding the reactions of zinc in soils of Iran

  9. Non-microbial methane emissions from soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Hou, Longyu; Liu, Wei; Wang, Zhiping

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, methane (CH4) is anaerobically formed by methanogenic archaea. However, non-microbial CH4 can also be produced from geologic processes, biomass burning, animals, plants, and recently identified soils. Recognition of non-microbial CH4 emissions from soils remains inadequate. To better understand this phenomenon, a series of laboratory incubations were conducted to examine effects of temperature, water, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on CH4 emissions under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using autoclaved (30 min, 121 °C) soils and aggregates (>2000 μm, A1; 2000-250 μm, A2; 250-53 μm, M1; and A2 > A1 > M2 and C-based emission an order of M2 > M1 > A1 > A2, demonstrating that both organic carbon quantity and property are responsible for CH4 emissions from soils at the scale of aggregate. Whole soil-based order of A2 > A1 > M1 > M2 suggests that non-microbial CH4 release from forest soils is majorly contributed by macro-aggregates (i.e., >250 μm). The underlying mechanism is that organic matter through thermal treatment, photolysis, or reactions with free radicals produce CH4, which, in essence, is identical with mechanisms of other non-microbial sources, indicating that non-microbial CH4 production may be a widespread phenomenon in nature. This work further elucidates the importance of non-microbial CH4 formation which should be distinguished from the well-known microbial CH4 formation in order to define both roles in the atmospheric CH4 global budget.

  10. Radioactivity in Northern Ireland soils - December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, D.W.K.

    1989-01-01

    The main objective of the survey was to establish the radionuclide content of permanent pasture soils. The extent of contamination from the Chernobyl accident was also studied with the use of Cs-134 as an indicator of Chernobyl fallout. A preliminary radiological assessment was performed by referring to the generalised derived limits. Results of the grassland grid survey show that Chernobyl-derived radiocaesium was widely spread throughout Northern Ireland with the exception of the East Coast where the deposition was more localised reflecting the showery-rainfall pattern on the 3rd May 1986. Accumulation of Chernobyl material showed a high correlation with rainfall on that day, which resulted in a substantial increase in Cs-137 levels compared to estimated pre-Chernobyl concentrations in many areas. The main areas affected lay in a band across the country from the North East to the South with a smaller incursion to the North. The plutonium content in soils from Northern Ireland arising from nuclear weapons fallout was similar to levels found in other surveys completed in Great Britain before Chernobyl. (author)

  11. Natural radioactivity in soils from Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, H. de.

    1988-01-01

    Using high resolution gamma spectrometry, the specific radioactivity of soils and rocks from Piracicaba, SP (Brazil) was determined. For this purpose, the Ra, Th and Ac natural series and some other nuclides such as sup(40)K and sup(137)Cs were considered. Soil samples representing the main Soil Groups were collected at 60-cm depth. Typical rock samples were also collected. After initial sample preparation, the sealed sample were allowed to rest until reaching the conditions approaching the secular equilibrium. Thereafter, counting was carried out, peak areas being the measurements basis. The mean ponderated values for soil specific activity were 24.1 and 34.8 Bq.kg sup(-1) for the sup(226)Ra and sup(232)Th, respectively. (author)

  12. Preparation and application of radioactive soil samples for intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zequan; Li Zhou; Li Pengxiang; Wang Ruijun; Ren Xiaona

    2014-01-01

    This article summarized the preparation process and intercomparison results of the simulated environmental radioactive soil samples. The components of the matrix were: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , MgO, CaO, NaCl, KCl and TiO 2 . All of the components were milled, oven-dried, sieved and then blended together. The homogeneity test was according to GB 15000. 5-1994, and no significant differences were observed. The 3 H analysis soils were spiked natural soils with the moisture content of 15%. Eight laboratories attended this intercomparison. The results proves that the preparation of the simulated soils were suitable for the inter-laboratories comparison. (authors)

  13. Natural radioactive environment of urban soils in Shihezi, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Benwei; Liu Anna

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclides, such as 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, can be found in urban soil. To evaluate the natural radioactivity in the environment, soil samples were collected form Shihezi city and radioisotope concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence. The dose rate of urban soil (mGy per year, mGy/a) was calculated. The results indicate that the U, Th and K concentrations of the urban soils were, respectively, 1.2-3.2 mg/kg, 6.4-12.3 mg/kg and 2.05%-2.24%, with the mean values of 2.47 mg/kg, 10.47 mg/kg and 2.16 %. Dose rates of urban soils were 10.04-19.55 mGy/a with the mean value of 16.31 mGy/a. This dose rate is the perfect and maximum value of natural radiation in soil and different with the air absorbed dose rate from terrestrial γ-rays. The mean value of air absorbed dose rate was about 57.42 nGy/h. The annual effective dose rate in air was about 0.07 mSv/a and the average value of Ra eq in urban soil was 120.37 Bq/kg. The relative contribution of α particle to the dose rate is higher than that derived from β- and γ-rays in the urban soils. (authors)

  14. Vitrification of radioactive contaminated soil by means of microwave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xun; Qing, Qi; Zhang, Shuai; Lu, Xirui

    2017-03-01

    Simulated radioactive contaminated soil was successfully vitrified by microwave sintering technology and the solidified body were systematically studied by Raman, XRD and SEM-EDX. The Raman results show that the solidified body transformed to amorphous structure better at higher temperature (1200 °C). The XRD results show that the metamictization has been significantly enhanced by the prolonged holding time at 1200 °C by microwave sintering, while by conventional sintering technology other crystal diffraction peaks, besides of silica at 2θ = 27.830°, still exist after being treated at 1200 °C for much longer time. The SEM-EDX discloses the micro-morphology of the sample and the uniform distribution of Nd element. All the results show that microwave technology performs vitrification better than the conventional sintering method in solidifying radioactive contaminated soil.

  15. In-situ vitrification of radioactively contaminated soils: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Fitzpatrick, V.F.

    1987-01-01

    The in-situ vitrification (ISV) process is a new technology that has been developed from its conceptual phase through selected field-scale application tests during the last six years. In situ vitrification converts contaminated soils and waste inclusions into a durable glass and crystalline waste form by in-place melting. Electrodes are inserted into the soil to be treated and an electrical current is passed through the soil to be treated and an electrical current is passed through the soil to melt it. After cooling, the process fixes (TRU) and fission product radionuclides making them relatively nonleachable, resistant to intrusion, and nondispersible when intentionally disturbed. Another application considered for isolation of radioactively contaminated soils, but not yet developed, is the generation of impermeable barrier walls to prevent ground water seepage into a site. The barrier technique could also be used over the surface of an existing disposal site to deter plant and animal intrusion. The development units have been extensively tested with many types of soils and waste inclusions such as concrete, buried metals, sealed containers, organic chemicals with high boiling points such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and inorganic chemicals, including toxic heavy metals, nitrates, and sulfates. Nitrates and organics are destroyed, while heavy metals and fluorides are retained to a high percentage within the molten soil during processing. At $200 to $300/m 3 for radioactive waste, the process is economically competitive with many alternative remediation processes. The ISV process has been developed to the point where it is ready for large-scale field testing at an actual TRU-contaminated soil site. 5 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  16. Radioactive concentrations of the Livingston Island soils (Antarctica). Dosimetry considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A; Rio, M del; Paniagua, J M [Facultad de Veterinaria, Ctra. de Trujillo, Caceres (Spain); Navarro, E; Rodriguez, M J; Sanchez, F [Centro Mixto Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular

    1994-06-01

    The radioactive concentrations of natural and man-made ([sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs) emitters were studied in soil samples collected from an area of 2.3 km[sup 2] around the Spanish Antarctic Base on Livingston Island in the South Shetlands. The levels of radiation detected, for natural radioisotopes, as well as consequently the measured levels of effective dose equivalent rate, are of the order of half the values commonly assigned as world averages for these magnitudes. (Author).

  17. Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim

    2013-01-01

    , the net result is complex and dependent on several factors such as nitrogen availability, organic matter content, oxygen status, soil moisture, pH and temperature. This paper reviews recent knowledge on processes forming NO in soils and the factors controlling its emission to the atmosphere. Schemes......Nitric oxide (NO) is a reactive gas that plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry by influencing the production and destruction of ozone and thereby the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. NO also contributes by its oxidation products to the formation of acid rain. The major sources...

  18. Estimation of radioactivity in some sand and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Monika; Chauhan, R.P.; Garg, Ajay; Kumar, Sushil; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is composed of the cosmogenic and primordial radionuclides. It is common in the rocks and soil that make up our planet, water and oceans, and in our building materials and homes. Natural radioactivity in sand and soils comes from 238 U and 232 Th series and natural 40 K. Radon is formed from the decay of radium which in turn is formed from uranium. The gaseous radioactive isotope of radon from natural sources has a significant share in the total quantum of natural sources exposure to the human bwings. Gamma radiation from 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K represents the main external source of irradiation of the human body. In the present study, the activity for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K is found to vary from 45 ± 1.2 to 97 ± 4.9 Bq/kg, 63 ± 2.0 to 132 ± 3.2 Bq/kg and 492 ± 5.9 to 1110 ± 10.5 Bq/kg, respectively in the soil samples while the variations have been observed from 63 ± 3.8 to 65 ± 3.7 Bq/kg, 86 ±2.5 to 96 ± 2.6 Bq/kg and 751 ± 7.7 to 824 ± 8.2 Bq/kg, respectively in the sand samples. (author)

  19. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , Cl - , S 2-

  20. Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive-waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from two currently operating commercial radioactive waste disposal sites; one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. Soil samples believed to be representative of the soil that will contact the buried waste were collected and analyzed. Earth resistivities (field measurements), from both sites, supply information to identify variations in subsurface material. Barnwell soil resistivities (laboratory measurements) range from 3.6 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 8.9 x 10 4 ohm-cm. Soil resistivities of the Hanford sample vary from 3.0 x 10 5 ohm-cm to 6.6 x 10 3 ohm-cm. The Barnwell and Hanford soil pH ranges from 4.8 to 5.4 and from 4.0 to 7.2 respectively. The pH of a 1:2 mixture of soil to 0.01 M CaCl 2 resulted in a pH for the Barnwell samples of 3.9 +- 0.1 and for the Hanford samples of 7.4 +- 0.2. These values are comparable to the pH measurements of the water extract of the soils used for the analyses of soluble ion content of the soils. The exchange acidity of the soils was found to be approximately 7 mg-eq per 100 g of dry soil for clay material from Barnwell, whereas the Hanford soils showed an alkaline reaction. Aqueous extracts of saturated pastes were used to determine the concentrations of the following ions: Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + , Na + , HCO 3 - , SO 4 /sup =/, and Cl - . The sulfide content of each of the soils was measured in a 1:2.5 mixture of soil to an antioxidant buffer solution. The concentrations of soluble ions found in the soils from both sites are consistent with the high resistivities

  1. Investigation of soil radioactivity of Alkhwai area central Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, R. H. A.

    2012-10-01

    The present study is the first of its type to be conducted in Alkhwai area aiming at thorough investigation of natural environmental radioactivity. Considerable variation in soil radioactivity with location is observed. Results show that the average concentrations of 2 38U , 2 32T h and 4 0K in soil were found to be 14.79± 2.43, 20.71± 3.59 and 162.09± 21.19 respectively and have the range 10.0-21.98, 13.89-28.55 and from 113.51 to 219.45 respectively. It is observed that there is strong correlation between Uranium-Thorium and fair correlation between Uranium-Potassium and Thorium-Potassium. The average value of calculated gamma radiation dose rate in Alkhwai district was estimated to be (26.10) n Gy h -1 comparable with the world average (59 n Gy/h). The average dose from gamma radiation dose rate to an individual assuming a tropical rural setting is estimated to be 32.03 μSv/year, which is considered to be within the normal range for doses from natural sources. Further measurements of ambient dose for more soil type at different geological features of Sudan are needed to establish a more comprehensive database on the relationship between gamma radiation dose and geological-soil information. (Author)

  2. Remediation Of Radioactive Contaminated Soil in Oil Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, A.A.; Hassib, G.M.; Ibrahim, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination by naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in evaporation pond has been evaluated. At several onshore oil field locations, the produced water is discharged to form artificial lagoons or ponds. Subsequently, the released waters drain to the ground leaving radioactive deposits associated with the soil that eventually require remedial action in accordance with radiation protection principles. The present study aims to investigate the remediation of contaminated soil in some oil fields and in this concern, two scenarios were proposed. The first scenario is studying the feasibility of using soil washing technique (a physical-chemical separation process) for removing radium-226 from the contaminated soil samples collected from an evaporating pond. The size/activity distribution analyses were carried out. The data obtained showed that almost 68 % of the investigated soil was coarse sand (≥ 300 μm), 28 % was medium and fine sand (≤300 μm and (≥75 μm) and only small fraction of 4 % was silt and clay (≤75 μm). A series of mild acids such as HCl and mild NaCl/HCl (chloride washing) were used for washing the investigated soil fractions. The obtained data showed that the coarse fraction ≥ 300 μm can be re mediated below a regulatory level of 1Bq/g. and the radium from this coarse fraction could be easily removed by screening and chloride washing. For the remediation of (≤ 300 μm and (≥ 75 μm soil fractions, a series of mild chloride washing experiments also showed that the chloride base (NaCl/HCl) was found to be potentially useful. However, there was a difficulty in achieving a low radium value in the fine (≥ 75 μm size fractions using chloride washing. The second scenario is to get rid of all contaminated soil and store it in a concrete basin through the program of radiological protection of personnel and environment. Preliminary gamma survey of contaminated soil showed that the significant area of the investigated

  3. Natural Radioactivity of Soil in Sabah and Sarawak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail Sulaiman; Muhamat Omar; Mohd Suhaimi Elias

    2015-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from 40 locations throughout Sabah and Sarawak and were analysed for natural radionuclides concentration. The mean soil concentrations of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th, "2"2"6Ra and "4"0K in Sabah were 22, 18, 24 and 216 Bq kg"-"1 respectively while corresponding values in Sarawak were 25, 25, 38 and 305 Bq kg"-"1 respectively. This study showed that the concentration of natural radionuclides (except "4"0K) in soil in Sabah and Sarawak were about one third of the respective values in Peninsular Malaysia. The results of the study can be used as baseline data of natural radioactivity for East Malaysia. (Author)

  4. Levels of concern for radioactive contaminations in soil according to soil protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, R.; Barkowski, D.; Machtolf, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the paper the question is examined whether the established soil protection standards for carcinogenic substances are also applicable to the assessment of radioactive soil contamination. Referring to the methods applied in soil protection for evaluation of dose-effectrelations and estimations of carcinogenic risks as well as the calculation methods for test values in soil protection ''levels of concern'' for soil contamination by artificial radionuclides are derived. The values obtained are significantly larger than the values for unrestricted clearance of ground according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV). The thesis that soil is protected according to environmental standards provided that radiation protection requirements are met needs further checks but can be probably confirmed if the radiation protection requirements are clearly defined.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  6. A literature review on radioactivity transfer to plants and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.J.

    1981-07-01

    The literature on transfer of radioactivity to plants and soil have been reviewed. Main emphasis has been placed on the transfer to plants. A general plant transfer model has been set up. Root uptake, dry deposition, wet deposition, weathering, resuspension, and translocation are the transfer processes discussed. Theory and experimental data for evaluating the different pathways are reported. Only iodine-131, strontium-90 and caecium-137 have been considered in the report. Recommendations of specific transfer parameters have been given as realistic as possible. Suggestions for further research have also been given. (author)

  7. Natural radioactivity in Swedish agricultural soils and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ake; Rosen, K.

    2000-01-01

    In this work we report on investigations in Sweden of the natural radioactivity of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th in the agricultural soils and of 226 Ra in the crops. In addition information is given on factors important for the plant availability of these nuclides to the crop plants. Also, from a number of works, background data on the transfer from soils to plants in different environments are presented. These works show that there is a large variation depending on local conditions and crop type in the accumulation of natural radioactive elements by the plants. Thus, concentration ratios (plant/soil) calculated for fresh crop weight and dry soil weight showed for 238 U in forage crops and in grain a range 0.001-0.005, for 226 Ra a range 0.001-0.03 and for 210 Pb a range 0.0004-0.2. The higher value was limit for vegetative plant parts and the lower value limit for generative parts, seeds and grain. In Swedish early studies, evidence was found that in field crops on the same soils the radium/calcium-ratio in grain was reduced according to the following order winter wheat>spring wheat> barley>oats. Variation among the crops on different soils showed ranges from 1-0.1 to 1-0.4. The radium/calcium-ratio in straw was 4 to 7 times higher than in grain. Also field experiments showed that proper liming on acid soils could reduce the radium/calcium ratio by 40 per cent. Our study shows that the average contents of the nuclides 226 Ra and 232 Th in Bq per kg dry weight is of the same size of order, 40, 50 and 80 Bq per kg in the southern, in the western and in the middle regions of Sweden, respectively. The difference between regions is not occasional. It depends on the type of the mother material and on the different clay contents of the soils, as is indicated also by the potassium content. Considering also the daughters of the nuclide series it is found that the total nuclide activity will reach a sum of 300-600 kBq per square meter of the plough layer. The total activity may

  8. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • There are radioactively contaminated soils having a radioactive cesium transfer of 0.01. • Micro-PIXE analysis has revealed an existence of phosphorus in a contaminated soil. • Radioactive cesium captured by phosphorus compound would be due to radioactive transfer. -- Abstract: Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ∼0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds

  9. Radioactivity in soils of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromoto, Goro; Peres, Ana C.; Taddei, Maria H. Tirolo; Soares, Marcio R.; Alleoni, Luis R. Ferracciu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: For proper management of soil and groundwater quality, background levels of toxic elements in a given ecosystem must be known. The main aim of the present study is to perform a radioactive characterization of representative soils from the Sao Paulo State, in order to determine background levels for some selected radionuclides, which could be used as a quality reference value. Soil types and sampling places were chosen according to their representativeness and spatial distribution in the State geological formations, taking also into account their nearness to large urban areas. Thirty samples were collected in areas presenting low antrophic perturbation - native vegetation or ancient reforestation -, minimizing the chances that selected areas could have sustained antrophic effects in recent past. Activity concentration of U-nat, Th-nat, 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 40 K were evaluated and correlated with soil mineralogical characteristics. The samples were measured by means of passive gamma spectrometry and spectrophotometry, employing Arsenazo III. Results showed a wide variation on background levels for natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, and very low concentration of 137 Cs from radioactive fallout, ranging from -1 for U-nat, 8 to 82 Bq.kg -1 for Th-nat, 4.8 to 120 Bq.kg -1 for 228 Th, 3.3 to 97.6 Bq.kg -1 for 228 Ra, 1.0 to 61.8 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra, -1 for 210 Pb, 0.8 to 4.1 Bq.kg -1 for 137 Cs and 15.3 to 516 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. No significant correlation could be observed between the clay, silt and sand content in the samples and the respective activity concentration of the radionuclides. (author)

  10. Reducing logistical barriers to radioactive soil remediation after the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K., E-mail: keizo.ishii@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fujishiro, F.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Arai, H.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H.; Nagakubo, K.; Sakurada, T. [Research Center for Remediation Engineering of Living Environments Contaminated with Radioisotopes, Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Yamazaki, H.; Kim, S. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2014-01-01

    We present an updated assessment of soil contamination due to the nuclear accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant on 11 March 2011. A safe limit for the spatial dose rate (micro-Sv/h) of gamma rays from {sup 134,137}Cs has been established in this work. Based on this value, the highly contaminated region within Fukushima Prefecture that must be decontaminated could be defined. Moreover, a conceptual model for the chemical speciation that occurred during the accident has been delineated. The compound model Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was found to be meaningful and practical (non-radioactive) to simulate contamination in our decontamination experiments. Finally, we explain the mechanism of action of our soil remediation technique, which effectively reduces the total volume of contaminated soil by isolating the highly Cs-adsorptive clay fraction. The adsorption of non-radioactive Cs atoms on clay particles with diameters <25 μm were analyzed using micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

  11. Puff models for simulation of fugitive radioactive emissions in atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Camila P. da, E-mail: camila.costa@ufpel.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica. Dept. de Matematica e Estatistica; Pereira, Ledina L., E-mail: ledinalentz@yahoo.com.b [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil); Vilhena, Marco T., E-mail: vilhena@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Tirabassi, Tiziano, E-mail: t.tirabassi@isac.cnr.i [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (CNR/ISAC), Bologna (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    A puff model for the dispersion of material from fugitive radioactive emissions is presented. For vertical diffusion the model is based on general techniques for solving time dependent advection-diffusion equation: the ADMM (Advection Diffusion Multilayer Method) and GILTT (Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique) techniques. The first one is an analytical solution based on a discretization of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in sub-layers where the advection-diffusion equation is solved by the Laplace transform technique. The solution is given in integral form. The second one is a well-known hybrid method that had solved a wide class of direct and inverse problems mainly in the area of Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics and the solution is given in series form. Comparisons between values predicted by the models against experimental ground-level concentrations are shown. (author)

  12. Nuclear spectroscopy with Geant4: Proton and neutron emission & radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, L. G., E-mail: Luis.Sarmiento@nuclear.lu.se; Rudolph, D. [Department of Physics, Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-07-07

    With the aid of a novel combination of existing equipment – JYFLTRAP and the TASISpec decay station – it is possible to perform very clean quantum-state selective, high-resolution particle-γ decay spectroscopy. We intend to study the determination of the branching ratio of the ℓ = 9 proton emission from the I{sup π} = 19/2{sup −}, 3174-keV isomer in the N = Z − 1 nucleus {sup 53}Co. The study aims to initiate a series of similar experiments along the proton dripline, thereby providing unique insights into “open quantum systems”. The technique has been pioneered in case studies using SHIPTRAP and TASISpec at GSI. Newly available radioactive decay modes in Geant4 simulations are going to corroborate the anticipated experimental results.

  13. Nuclear spectroscopy with Geant4: Proton and neutron emission & radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, L. G.; Rudolph, D.

    2016-07-01

    With the aid of a novel combination of existing equipment - JYFLTRAP and the TASISpec decay station - it is possible to perform very clean quantum-state selective, high-resolution particle-γ decay spectroscopy. We intend to study the determination of the branching ratio of the ℓ = 9 proton emission from the Iπ = 19/2-, 3174-keV isomer in the N = Z - 1 nucleus 53Co. The study aims to initiate a series of similar experiments along the proton dripline, thereby providing unique insights into "open quantum systems". The technique has been pioneered in case studies using SHIPTRAP and TASISpec at GSI. Newly available radioactive decay modes in Geant4 simulations are going to corroborate the anticipated experimental results.

  14. Puff models for simulation of fugitive radioactive emissions in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Camila P. da; Vilhena, Marco T.

    2009-01-01

    A puff model for the dispersion of material from fugitive radioactive emissions is presented. For vertical diffusion the model is based on general techniques for solving time dependent advection-diffusion equation: the ADMM (Advection Diffusion Multilayer Method) and GILTT (Generalized Integral Laplace Transform Technique) techniques. The first one is an analytical solution based on a discretization of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in sub-layers where the advection-diffusion equation is solved by the Laplace transform technique. The solution is given in integral form. The second one is a well-known hybrid method that had solved a wide class of direct and inverse problems mainly in the area of Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics and the solution is given in series form. Comparisons between values predicted by the models against experimental ground-level concentrations are shown. (author)

  15. Natural radioactivity content in soil and indoor air of Chellanam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, S; Rajagopalan, M; Abraham, J P; Balakrishnan, D; Umadevi, A G

    2012-11-01

    Contribution of terrestrial radiation due to the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil and air constitutes a significant component of the background radiation exposure to the population. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the soil and indoor air of Chellanam were investigated with an aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity level and radiation hazard to the population. Chellanam is in the suburbs of Cochin, with the Arabian Sea in the west and the Cochin backwaters in the east. Chellanam is situated at ∼25 km from the sites of these factories. The data obtained serve as a reference in documenting changes to the environmental radioactivity due to technical activities. Soil samples were collected from 30 locations of the study area. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in the samples were analysed using gamma spectrometry. The gamma dose rates were calculated using conversion factors recommended by UNSCEAR [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR (2000)]. The ambient radiation exposure rates measured in the area ranged from 74 to 195 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1). The significant radionuclides being (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K, their activities were used to arrive at the absorbed gamma dose rate with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1) and the radium equivalent activity with a mean value of 162 Bq kg(-1). The radon progeny levels varied from 0.21 to 1.4 mWL with a mean value of 0.6 mWL. The thoron progeny varied from 0.34 to 2.9 mWL with a mean value of 0.85 mWL. The ratio between thoron and radon progenies varied from 1.4 to 2.3 with a mean of 1.6. The details of the study, analysis and results are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process

  17. Assessment of Radioactivity in Soil from Trang Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessaratikoon, Prasong; Uthaikwankaew, Hataichanok; Ngampein, Jenjira; Youngchauy, Udorn

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Specific activities of primordial radionuclides 226 R a,232 T h and 40 K in 88 soil samples collected from every district in 10 amphurs of Trang province, were measured and evaluated using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization). The volume standard soil source (IAEA 375-soil) was used to compare and calculate specific activities. From the experimental data, it was found that the specific activity ranges from 16.35 - 889.99 Bq/kg for 226 R a, 0.47 - 298.18 Bq/kg for 232 T h and 58.23 - 1425.73 Bq/kg for40 K with mean values of 76.48±3.38 Bq/kg, 84.38±4.53 Bq/kg and 384.85±23.30 Bq/kg, respectively. The specific activities of these radionuclides were also compared with Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) research data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurements and evaluations. Furthermore, absorbed dose rates in air (D), Radium equivalent activities (Ra e q) and external hazard index (Hex) were calculated using the calculated data in soil samples collected. It was found that of all of these samples have a mean value of radium equivalent activities lower than the limit set in the OECD report (<370 Bq/kg). The mean value of all external hazard indices (Hex) was also found lower than the safety limits (<1.0). Moreover, the annual effective dose rate in air of all soil samples were also assessed and compared with the worldwide average values (UNSCEAR, 1988, 1993, 2000). It was found that the value is lower than 0.48 mSv/y

  18. HONO (nitrous acid) emissions from acidic northern soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljanen, Marja; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2015-04-01

    The photolysis of HONO (nitrous acid) is an important source of OH radical, the key oxidizing agent in the atmosphere, contributing also to removal of atmospheric methane (CH4), the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). The emissions of HONO from soils have been recently reported in few studies. Soil HONO emissions are regarded as missing sources of HONO when considering the chemical reactions in the atmosphere. The soil-derived HONO has been connected to soil nitrite (NO2-) and also directly to the activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria, which has been studied with one pure culture. Our hypothesis was that boreal acidic soils with high nitrification activity could be also sources of HONO and the emissions of HONO are connected with nitrification. We selected a range of dominant northern acidic soils and showed in microcosm experiments that soils which have the highest nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions (drained peatlands) also have the highest HONO production rates. The emissions of HONO are thus linked to nitrogen cycle and also NO and N2O emissions. Natural peatlands and boreal coniferous forests on mineral soils had the lowest HONO emissions. It is known that in natural peatlands with high water table and in boreal coniferous forest soils, low nitrification activity (microbial production of nitrite and nitrate) limits their N2O production. Low availability of nitrite in these soils is the likely reason also for their low HONO production rates. We also studied the origin of HONO in one peat soil with acetylene and other nitrification inhibitors and we found that HONO production is not closely connected to ammonium oxidation (nitrification). Acetylene blocked NO emissions but did not affect HONO or N2O emissions, thus there is another source behind HONO emission from these soils than ammonium oxidation. It is still an open question if this process is microbial or chemical origin.

  19. Functional requirements document for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Alvarez, J.L.; Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.C.; McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    This document states the general functional requirements for systems and procedures for measuring emissions of airborne radioactive materials from facilities administered by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The following issues are addressed in this document: lg-bullet definition of the program objectives lg-bullet selection of the overall approach to collecting the samples lg-bullet sampling equipment design lg-bullet sampling equipment maintenance and quality assurance issues. The following issues are not addressed in this document: lg-bullet air sampling in work areas or containments lg-bullet selection of specific on-line sample monitoring instrumentation lg-bullet analyzing collected samples lg-bullet reporting and interpreting results. The document provides equipment design guidance that is performance based rather than prescriptive. Locations from which samples are obtained should exhibit mixing of the contaminants with the airstream and acceptable air flow characteristics. Sample collection equipment and effluent and sample flow elements should meet defined performance standards. Quality control and assurance requirements specific to sample collection, equipment inspection, and calibration are presented. Key sample collection performance requirements are summarized in Section 5.4. The intent of this document is to assist WHC in demonstrating a high quality of air emission measurements with verified system performance based on documented system design, testing, inspection, and maintenance

  20. Radioactive cesium deposition on rice, wheat, peach tree and soil after nuclear accident in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Kobayashi, N.I.; Tanoi, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present how radioactive Cs was deposited on wheat, rice, peach tree and soil after nuclear accident in Fukushima. The deposition of radioactive Cs was found as spots at the surface of the leaves, branch or trunk of the trees, as well as in soil using one of the imaging method, autoradiography. The deposited radioactive Cs was not easily washed out, even with the treatment of acid solution. When the wheat was harvested 2 months after the accident, high radioactivity of Cs was found only on the leaves developed and expanded at the time of the accident. In the case of the rice grain, most of the radioactivity was found in bran and the radioactivity was drastically reduced in milled rice. Most of the radioactive Cs accumulation in rice plants was estimated from the absorption of the Cs ion dissolved in water, rather than Cs adsorbed in soil. (author)

  1. Radioactivity of soils in Mtskheta-Mtianeti region (Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Kekelidze

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the sphere of ecological researches is natural and technogenic environmental radioactivity. The purpose of the given work was radioactivity determination in various types of soil within the territory of Mtskheta-Mtianeti region (Georgia. Samples in 17 control points have been selected within this territory (soil types - mountain forest meadow, brown forest acid, and others. Up to 22 radionuclides were identified in these samples. Concentration of radionuclides of Th-232 family (in total 6 identified radionuclides was in limits from 17.6 to 54.9 Bq/kg with average value of 26.9 Bq/kg, U-238 family (in total 7 radionuclides – from 14.9 to 59.1 Bq/kg with average value of 25.4 Bq/kg, U-235 family (in total 6 radionuclides - from 0.65 to 2.7 Bq/kg with average value of 1.2 Bq/kg. Also individual radionuclides have been identified – Be-7 (activity concentration from less than minimal detectable activity to 23.1 Bq/kg with average value of 10.5 Bq/kg, K-40 (from 243 to 784 Bq/kg with average value of 464 Bq/kg and Cs-137 (from 0.3 to 53.3 Bq/kg with average value of 21.7 Bq/kg. Radium equivalent activity varied from 59.4 to 168 Bq/kg with average value of 94.9 Bq/kg, thus the greatest values were observed for mountain forest meadow and cinnamonic light soils, and the least value - for brown forest acid, alluvial carbonate and cinnamonic soils. Annual effective dose varied from 0.036 to 0.104 mSv/y with average value of 0.058 mSv/y. There were marked some features of radionuclides distribution, in particular, depending on the type of soil and sampling point's location. Several activity ratios of radionuclides were considered, in particular, U-238/U-235, U-238/Th-232, Ra-226/U-238 and Pb-210/Ra-226 (in the last case there were observed appreciable deviations in the greater way from equilibrium value – up to 8.73 with average value of 4.15, at the same time appreciable qualitative correlation with features of geotectonic

  2. Study of radioactive sr and Cs in soil and soil /plant system at Inshas region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, H.S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive fallout is considered one of the most major environmental problems that threats public health. The work presented in this thesis is carried out to investigate the level of radioactivity in different environmental samples of soils and vegetations collected from different locations around the NRC at Inshas area and the area nearby (about 30 km radius). Six different locations: Inshas, Shebeen, Abu-Zaabal, Al-Oboor in addition to two sites in the nuclear research center (old reactor and protection department sites) were chosen for the collection of the soil and plant samples. Most typical egyptian soils (sandy, sandyloam, clayey)from three different places (Al-Oboor, Abu-Zaabal, and Shebeen El-Kanatter) were selected for the experiments carried out under laboratory conditions. The plants investigated were grass, old trees and wheat. Cs 137 and Sr 90 were chosen to represent the most important long-lived radionuclides considering the human health, since these nuclides can enter human body via food chain and increase the radiation burden for many years. The following points are considered in this work: 1- Natural radionuclides concentration in different environmental samples of soil and plant especially (grasses and leaves of old trees) were determined using high resolution gamma-spectroscopic system (hyper-pure germanium detector). 2-Two groups of elements have been determined directly in two plant samples from each location (one grass, and the other old trees) together with their corresponding soils.3- Transfer factors (often used to describe the uptake of the radioisotope from soil to plant)of the log-lived radionuclides 137 Cs and 90 from soil to the wheat plant have been studied by radiotracer experiments .4- The sorption behavior of Cs and Sr radionuclides by the different soil types was investigated kinetically using batch techniques.

  3. Development of a pilot size of electrochemical flushing equipment for radioactive soil and concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Wang Kyu; Yang, Byeong Il; Shon, Jong Sik; Hong, Dae Seok

    2010-01-01

    A pilot size of electrochemical flushing equipment will be manufactured suitable to the contamination characteristics of radioactive soil and concrete stored in KAERI radioactive waste storage. An optimal reagent and an optimal decontamination conditions should be decided through many experiments. - Contamination characterises analysis of TRIGA radioactive soil and concrete - Manufacture of pilot-scale electrochemical flushing equipment - Manufacture and improvement of suitable electrochemical flushing equipment for contamination characteristics in pilot size - Decontamination experiments of electrochemical flushing equipment in a pilot scale

  4. Prognosis of radioactive wastes quantity in soils of new safety confinement foundation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Panasyuk, N.I.; Podbereznyj, S.S.; Skorbun, A.D.; Levin, G.V. and eds.

    2006-01-01

    or the first time a scientific founded calculation of radioactive wastes (radioactive soils) quantities at the places of New Safety Confinement foundation building has been given, and a map of bedding is shown. An example of construction of geoinformation system, created using ArcGIS 8.3 for analysing of soils radioactive contamination in the 'Ukryttya' object area of Chernobyl NPP have been examined

  5. Soil radioactivity study in littoral coast of Antalaha - Ambohitralanana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barijaona, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the soil radioactivity along Antalaha - Ambohitralanana littoral coast. The radionuclides measured are potassium- 40, uranium-238 and thorium-232. Fifty (50) soil samples were collected and measured by gamma spectrometry with NaI(Tl) detector at the Nuclear Analyses and Techniques Department at INSTN-Madagascar. The method developed by RYBACH was used for determining the three radionuclides activities. This method exploit the four regions of interest of lead-214, potassium-40, bismuth-214 and thallium-208 respectively at 352 keV, 1461 keV, 1764 keV and 2614 keV. Uranium-238 activities ranged from (4.6±0.3)Bq.kg -1 to (109±6)Bq.kg -1 with an average value of 23 Bq.kg -1 , thorium-232 varied from (9 ±6)Bq.kg -1 to (146±6) Bq.kg -1 with an average value of 31 Bq.kg -1 and potassium-40 ranged from (103±23)Bq.kg -1 to (1039±36)Bq.kg -1 with an average value of 338 Bq.kg -1 . The activities are thereafter compared with average worldwide value. Furthermore, different parameters such as the absorbed dose rate, the radium equivalent activity and the annual effective dose rate are also calculated. In the same way, the results are compared to worldwide values and annual effective dose limit rate for the public. The obtained values show a normal environmental radioactivity. It can be concluded that the health risk due to the gamma radiation is low. [fr

  6. Radioactivity in soils and sediments in and adjacent to the Los Alamos area, 1974-1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Peters, R.J.; Stoker, A.K.

    1980-02-01

    Soils and sediments are analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and total uranium as part of the continuing Environmental Monitoring Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. This report documents the levels of radioactivity of radionuclides in soils and sediments in northern New Mexico from natural sources and worldwide fallout as well as at seven on-site soil and sediment stations which contain radioactivity contributed by the Laboratory for the period 1974 through 1977

  7. Nitrous oxide emission from soils amended with crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Kuikman, P.J.; Oenema, O.

    2002-01-01

    Crop residues incorporated in soil are a potentially important source of nitrous oxide (N2O), though poorly quantified. Here, we report on the N2O emission from 10 crop residues added to a sandy and a clay soil, both with and without additional nitrate (NO3-). In the sandy soil, total nitrous oxide

  8. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 4 Caesium-137 and plutonium in soils of Cumbria and the Isle of Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.

    1980-08-01

    A network of soil sampling sites covering an area of some 2500 km 2 in Cumbria and the whole of the Isle of Man was selected and sampled in 1978. Soils from permanent grassland, coniferous woodland and deciduous woodland were examined, to a depth of 30 cm. The spatial distribution of sampling points is based on a grid of 10 km side. The objective of the study is to provide information on the integrated deposition of Cs-137, Pu-239+240 and Pu-238 from the atmosphere, and to determine the distribution of possible emissions from the nuclear establishment at Windscale in the presence of radioactivity deposited from nuclear weapons fallout, that is superimposed upon the natural background of radioactivity in soil. Results from soil samples collected in 1978 in Cumbria and the Isle of Man are compared with the average integrated deposition for UK soils from nuclear fallout. In the Isle of Man no radioactivity is observed in excess of nuclear weapons fallout, but in Cumbria excess levels of plutonium are detected in coastal lowland areas under permanent grassland probably due to the transport of radioactive material from sea to land. At three sampling sites on grassland and woodland within 2.3 km of the Windscale stacks, the excess plutonium and Cs-137 in soil could be attributed mainly to atmospheric discharges from Windscale. The observed deposition of radioactivity has little radiological significance, based on assessment of risk by inhalation of soil dust that contains plutonium. (author)

  9. Micrometeorological methods for measurements of mercury emissions over contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Lindberg, S.E.; Hanson, P.J.; Owens, J.; Myers, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a larger study involving development and application of field and laboratory methods (micrometeorological, dynamic enclosure chamber, and controlled laboratory chamber methods) to measure the air/surface exchange of Hg vapor, we performed a series of preliminary measurements over contaminated soils. From March--April 1993, we used the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method to measure emission rates of mercury over a floodplain contaminated with mercury near Oak Ridge, TN. The mercury emission rates measured from contaminated EFPC soils using the MBR method during early spring show that (1) in all cases, the contaminated soils acted as a source of mercury to the atmosphere with source strengths ranging from 17 to 160 ng m -2 h -1 ; and (2) the strengths of mercury emissions can be greatly influenced by the combined effects of surface soil temperature, residence time of air masses over the source area, and turbulence conditions. The mercury fluxes measured in a controlled flow chamber indicate that contaminated soils can exhibit up to an order of magnitude higher emission rates of Hg under conditions of elevated soil temperature, soil structure disturbance, and high turbulence. Mercury emissions from contaminated soils exceeded emissions from background soils by one to two orders of magnitude

  10. A study on Cs decontamination characterisitcs of radioactively contaminated soil using soil washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. W.; Son, J. K.; Kim, K. D.; Kim, H. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Kang, K. D.; Sin, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    To decontaminate radioactively contaminated soil, various characteristics of soil were investigated, and applied for the best decontamination method and requirement. The effects of several conditions such as decontamination solutions, temperature and time was investigated. Na 2 CO 3 , which is not toxic to environment, was used as primary decontamination solution. The efficiency of decontamination was increased approximately 9% when decontamination time was increased from 30 min to 120 min. The efficiency of decontamination was increased approximately 10% when decontamination temperature was increased from 25 .deg. C to 70 .deg. C. The efficiency of decontamination was increased approximately 7% when the ratio of decontamination solution and soil was increased from 5:1 to 10:1

  11. Mobility of radioactive cesium in soil originated from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Application of extraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikazu Kikawada; Takao Oi; Katsumi Hirose; Masaaki Hirose; Atsushi Tsukamoto; Ko Nakamachi; Teruyuki Honda; Hiroaki Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Extraction experiments on soil radioactively contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were conducted by using a variety of extractants to acquire knowledge on the mobility of radioactive cesium in soil. The experimental results revealed that cesium is tightly bound with soil particles and that radioactive cesium newly deposited on soil due to the accident had apparently a higher mobility than stable cesium commonly existing in soil. The results suggested that radioactive cesium deposited on soil hardly migrates via aqueous processes, although chemical and mineralogical conditions of soil affect their mobility. (author)

  12. Extraction and analysis of 14C-carbofuran radioactivity in soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maizatul Akmam Mhd Nasir; Nashriyah Mat

    2005-01-01

    Carbofuran insecticide or nematicide sprayed onto soil in the agroecosystem will be taken up by plant. Carbofuran residue will pollute the environment and organisms in the food chain. Extraction and analysis of 14 C-carbofuran in soil from lysimeter were carried out. The Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was used to measure radioactivity of 14 C-carbofuran in soil sample. (Author)

  13. A survey of radioactive caesium in soils of Cumbria and North Lancashire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.; Cawse, P.A.

    1990-09-01

    A network of soil sampling sites covering an area of some 2500km 2 in Cumbria was sampled by Harwell Laboratory in 1978. The spatial distribution of sampling points was based on a grid of 10km side, thus providing 30 sites under permanent grassland. In 1979, the grid was extended northwards to Carlisle and in a southerly direction to Fleetwood, Lancashire, giving a further 24 sites. This provided a reference baseline of background radioactivity, mainly arising from the accumulated atmospheric deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests over some 30 years, and also determined the distribution of emissions from the nuclear establishment at Sellafield that is superimposed upon the natural background of radioactivity in soil. The grid survey has now been repeated in 1988/89 to record increases in radioactive caesium caused by fallout from the accident at Chernobyl, USSR, in April 1986. The accumulated depositions of 137 Cs recorded to 30cm soil depth in 1988/89 were in the range 2.0 (at Bowness on Solway) to 28kBq/m 2 (at Eskmeals). A comparison of results obtained pre-Chernobyl (in 1978) with post-Chernobyl values assessed ten years later shows increases of 137 Cs accumulations at 18 of the surveys sites, 1.5 to 2-fold at 20 sites, 2 to 4 fold at 13 sites and 4 to 7 fold at St Bees, Harrington and Little Annaside (near Bootle, Cumbria). Ratios of Cs-137/Cs-134 at 0-15cm depth of soil were in the range 3.0 - 26.4 in 1988/89, compared with a ratio of ∼ 3.0 in Chernobyl fallout when decay-corrected. Lowest ratios occurred in west Cumbria which showed the highest accumulations of Cs-137 between 290-330km easting and 480-530km northing. The retention of Cs-137 by the top 15cm of soil in 1988/89 relative to the accumulation to 30cm depth averaged 87% compared with 78% in the pre-Chernobyl survey made in 1978/79, and is attributed to surface accumulation of debris from the accident. (author)

  14. Behaviour of radioactive and stable isotopes of calcium in the soil-solution-plant system at different soil humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavaeva, E.N.; Molchanova, I.V.

    1976-01-01

    The results of experiments performed to study the behaviour of radioactive and stable isotopes of Ca in soil - solution - plant system at different soil moistening are given. The experiments have been conducted in culture pans with two soils: soddy-meadow and soddy-podzolic differing in a number of physico-chemical properties. The solution of radioactive Ca( 45 CaCl 2 ) has been applied to soddy-meadow soil at the rate of 0.2 μcurie/kg, and to soddy-podzolic soil - at the rate of 0.1 μcurie/kg. The distribution and accumulation coefficients are estimated by the ratio to the total content of stable Ca and 45 Ca in soil. A direct relationship between distribution coefficients and the rate of soil moistening is observed. It has been established that 45 Ca and the natural stable isotopes of Ca applied to the soil differ in the type of distribution in soil - soil solution system and in accumulation by plants. However, a great similarity has been observed in behaviour of radioactive and stable isotopes of Ca depending on soil moistening

  15. Inhibition experiments on nitrous oxide emission from paddy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xingkai; Boeckx, Pascal; Zhou, Likai; Van Cleemput, Oswald

    2002-08-01

    Rice fields using nitrogen-based fertilizers play an important role in the global N2O budget. However, our knowledge is still limited with regard to the mechanisms affecting the N2O emission and to the measures that can reduce the emission. This paper reports a study of N2O emission from paddy soils. The effects of urea, hydroquinone (HQ, a urease inhibitor), and dicyandiamide (DCD, a nitrification inhibitor) have been studied in pot experiments with and without rice plants and with and without addition of wheat straw. With no wheat straw amendment, all treatments with inhibitors, especially with HQ + DCD, had a much smaller N2O emission during the rice growing period than the urea treatment, whereas a substantially increased N2O emission was observed from a rice-free soil with inhibitors. The N2O emission from the rice-planted soil was exponentially positive correlated with the NO3--N concentration in the rice aboveground biomass. By comparing the total N2O emission from the rice-free soil and from the rice-planted soil, we found that urea application alone might induce an apparent plant-mediated N2O emission, being 0.39 +/- 0.08% of the applied urea N. Wheat straw incorporated into the flooded surface layer soil could increase the plant-mediated N2O emission significantly. However, application of HQ + DCD could reduce this emission (0.27 +/- 0.08% of the applied urea N, compared with 0.89 +/- 0.18% in the urea treatment). It also reduced the N2O emission from the rice-free soil and from the rice-planted soil. Stepwise regression analysis indicates that denitrification in the flooded surface layer soil was the main source of N2O emission from this wetland rice cultivation, particularly when wheat straw was added. A significantly nonlinear negative relation was found between the N2O emission and the CH4 emission when no wheat straw was added, but it was hard to quantify this trade-off relation when wheat straw was incorporated into the flooded surface layer soil.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Gebetsroither, E.; Orthofer, R.

    2002-07-01

    This report documents the calculations of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Austria of the IPCC-sector 'Agricultural Soils' for the period 1980 to 2001. According to available information, CH 4 emissions from agricultural soils are very small and thus irrelevant. N 2 O emissions were calculated according to the IPCC method; emission sources considered include direct emissions from nitrogen inputs to soils (mineral and organic fertilizers, crop residues, sewage sludge application, biological fixation) as well as indirect emissions (from atmospheric nitrogen deposition and nitrogen leaching) plus emissions from nitrogen input through grazing animal excreta. NH 3 and NO x emissions were calculated according to the CORINAIR method; sources considered were nitrogen inputs through fertilization as well as emissions from unfertilized cultures. In the year 1990 total emissions were 5.680 t N 2 O-N, 24.628 t NH 3 -N and 1.376 t NO x N. In the period 1980-2001 there were considerable fluctuations of emissions, caused by an inter annual variability of crop production and fertilizer consumption data. However, there are no significant emission trends in the past 20 years. Uncertainties were determined through a Monte-Carlo-based simulation; the standard deviation of a normal uncertainty distribution is 24 % for N 2 O, 13 % for NH 3 , and 18 % for NO x . (author)

  17. SOA Formation Potential of Emissions from Soil and Leaf Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Vanderschelden, G. S.; Wen, M.; Cobos, D. R.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from natural sources exceed all anthropogenic sources combined. VOCs participate in oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere and impact the concentrations of ozone and particulate material. The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is particularly complex and is frequently underestimated using state-of-the-art modeling techniques. We present findings that suggest emissions of important SOA precursors from soil and leaf litter are higher than current inventories would suggest, particularly under conditions typical of Fall and Spring. Soil and leaf litter samples were collected at Big Meadow Creek from the University of Idaho Experimental Forest. The dominant tree species in this area of the forest are ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch. Samples were transported to the laboratory and housed within a 0.9 cubic meter Teflon dynamic chamber where VOC emissions were continuously monitored with a GC-FID-MS and PTR-MS. Aerosol was generated from soil and leaf litter emissions by pumping the emissions into a 7 cubic meter Teflon aerosol growth chamber where they were oxidized with ozone in the absence of light. The evolution of particle microphysical and chemical characteristics was monitored over the following eight hours. Particle size distribution and chemical composition were measured with a SMPS and HR-ToF-AMS respectively. Monoterpenes dominated the emission profile with emission rates up to 283 micrograms carbon per meter squared per hour. The dominant monoterpenes emitted were beta-pinene, alpha-pinene, and delta-3-carene in descending order. The composition of the SOA produced was similar to biogenic SOA formed from oxidation of ponderosa pine emissions and alpha-pinene. Measured soil/litter monoterpene emission rates were compared with modeled canopy emissions. Results suggest that during fall and spring when tree emissions are lower, monoterpene emissions within forests may be

  18. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  19. Analysis on the influence of forest soil characteristics on radioactive Cs infiltration and evaluation of residual radioactive Cs on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshitomo; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Fukutani, Satoshi; Ikegami, Maiko; Shimomura, Ryohei

    2018-03-29

    We investigated the depth profiles of radioactive Cs, ignition loss, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in five types of forest soils sampled using scraper plates. We then simulated the monitored depth profiles in a compartment model, taking ignition loss as a parameter based on experimental results showing a positive correlation between ignition loss and the CEC. The calculated values were comparable with the monitored values, though some discrepancy was observed in the middle of the soil layer. Based on decontamination data on the surface dose rate and surface contamination concentration, we newly defined a surface residual index (SRI) to evaluate the residual radioactive Cs on surfaces. The SRI value tended to gradually decrease in forests and unpaved roads and was much smaller in forests and on unpaved roads than on paved roads. The radioactive Cs was assumed to have already infiltrated underground 18 months after the nuclear power plant accident, and the sinking was assumed to be ongoing. The SRI values measured on paved roads suggested that radioactive Cs remained on the surfaces, though a gradual infiltration was observed towards the end of the monitoring term. The SRI value is thought to be effective in grasping the rough condition of residual radioactive Cs quickly at sites of decontamination activity in the field. The SRI value may be serviceable for actual contamination works after further research is done to elucidate points such as the relation between the SRI and the infiltration of radioactive Cs in various types of objects.

  20. Emission and Sink of Greenhouse Gases in Soils of Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozharova, N. V.; Kulachkova, S. A.; Lebed'-Sharlevich, Ya. I.

    2018-03-01

    The first inventory and zoning of the emission and sink of methane and carbon dioxide in the urban structure of greenhouse gases from soils and surface technogenic formations (STFs) (Technosols) on technogenic, recrementogenic, and natural sediments have been performed with consideration for the global warming potential under conditions of different formation rate of these gases, underflooding, and sealing. From gas geochemical criteria and anthropogenic pedogenesis features, the main sources of greenhouse gases, their intensity, and mass emission were revealed. The mass fractions of emissions from the sectors of waste and land use in the inventories of greenhouse gas emissions have been determined. New sources of gas emission have been revealed in the first sector, the emissions from which add tens of percent to the literature and state reports. In the second sector, emissions exceed the available data in 70 times. Estimation criteria based on the degree of manifestation and chemical composition of soil-geochemical anomalies and barrier capacities have been proposed. The sink of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and the internal (latent) sink of methane in soils and STFs have been determined. Ecological functions of soils and STFs have been shown, and the share of latent methane sink has been calculated. The bacterial oxidation of methane in soils and STFs exceeds its emission to the atmosphere in almost hundred times.

  1. A project for storing the radioactive sludges from Marcoule in the soil (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Gailledreau, C.

    1960-01-01

    A study of the feasibility of storing radioactive sludges in the soil. Special attention is paid to the case of the Marcoule plant, producing three kinds of sludges. The movement of the different fission products is given. (author) [fr

  2. Removal of radioactive cesium from soil by ammonium citrate solution and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwata, Shunji; Kitakouji, Manabu; Taga, Atsushi; Ogata, Fumihiko; Ouchi, Hidekazu; Yamanishi, Hirokuni; Inagaki, Masayo

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive cesium has strongly bound soil as time proceeded, which could not be cleaved in mild condition. We have found that serial treatment of ammonium citrate solution and ionic liquid removed radioactive cesium from soil effectively. The sequence of the treatment is crucial, since inverse serial treatment or mixture of two kinds of solution did not show such an effect, which suggested that ammonium citrate unlocked trapped cesium in soil and ionic liquid solved it. We also found that repeating serial treatment and prolonged treatment time additively removed cesium from soil. (author)

  3. The improvement of Pilot-scale Electrokinetic for Radioactive Soil Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Min; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Most nuclear facility sites have been contaminated by leakage of radioactive waste-solution due to corrosion of the waste-solution tanks and connection pipes by their long-term operation, set up around underground nuclear facilities. Therefore it was needed that the method to remediate a large volume of radioactive soil should be developed. Until now the soil washing method has studied to remediate soil contaminated with uranium, cobalt, cesium, and so on. But it has a lower removal efficiency of nuclide from soils and generated a large volume of waste-solution. And its application to the soil composed of fine particle is impossible. So, the electrokinetic method has been studied as a new technology for soil remediation recently. In this study, the original electrokinetic equipment of 50L suitable to soil contamination characteristics of Korean nuclear facility sites was manufactured for the remediation of soil contaminated with uranium. During experiment with the original electrokinetic equipment, many metal oxides were generated and were stuck on the cathod plate. Several methods to reduce the generation quantity of metal oxides in the electrokinetic equipment and to take off metal oxides from the cathod plate were improved. The soil with uranium was remediated with the improved electrokinetic equipment. The required time to remediate a radioactive soil to under a clearance concentration level was yielded through demonstration experiment with the improved electrokinetic equipment for its different radioactivity concentration

  4. The improvement of Pilot-scale Electrokinetic for Radioactive Soil Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Min; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Most nuclear facility sites have been contaminated by leakage of radioactive waste-solution due to corrosion of the waste-solution tanks and connection pipes by their long-term operation, set up around underground nuclear facilities. Therefore it was needed that the method to remediate a large volume of radioactive soil should be developed. Until now the soil washing method has studied to remediate soil contaminated with uranium, cobalt, cesium, and so on. But it has a lower removal efficiency of nuclide from soils and generated a large volume of waste-solution. And its application to the soil composed of fine particle is impossible. So, the electrokinetic method has been studied as a new technology for soil remediation recently. In this study, the original electrokinetic equipment of 50L suitable to soil contamination characteristics of Korean nuclear facility sites was manufactured for the remediation of soil contaminated with uranium. During experiment with the original electrokinetic equipment, many metal oxides were generated and were stuck on the cathod plate. Several methods to reduce the generation quantity of metal oxides in the electrokinetic equipment and to take off metal oxides from the cathod plate were improved. The soil with uranium was remediated with the improved electrokinetic equipment. The required time to remediate a radioactive soil to under a clearance concentration level was yielded through demonstration experiment with the improved electrokinetic equipment for its different radioactivity concentration

  5. Characterization and remediation of highly radioactive contaminated soil at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.; Erickson, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1,500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI/FS is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste sites within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. These data were then used. to develop remedial alternatives during the FS evaluation. The preferred alternative resulting from the RI/FS process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit is to construct a surface isolation barrier. The multi-layered earthen barrier will be designed to prevent migration of contaminants resulting from water infiltration, biointrusion, and wind and water erosion

  6. Measurement of radioactive soil contamination from the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loman, A.C.; Kuile, C.R. ter; Slaper, H.

    1990-09-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometry can be used to determine the qualitative and quantitative deposition of radioactive materials on the ground surface. By applying the in-situ spectrometry method using either a helicopter or an airplane, large areas can be scanned in a short period of time. In this report the results of in-situ gamma spectroscopic measurements taken from a helicopter are described. Measurements were carried out using a single point source, a field of 36 point sources, and using the present ground contamination due to fall-out from the Chernobyl accident and atom bombs. The results of these measurements were used to determine calibration factors, which were in agreement with a calibration obtained using more simple (and less expensive) laboratory measurements in combination with flux calculations. Detection limits for the measurement of surface contamination were determined. At a height of 50 meters above the surface and using a measurement time of 2 minutes, the minimally detectable surface contamination was 1.1 kBqm -2 for a Cs-137 contamination and 2.1 kBqm -2 for I-131 contamination. Fall-out determinations based on measurements taken at a height of 50 meters were in agreement with determinations taken at a height of 1 meter, and with the results obtained measuring soil samples. The in-situ gamma spectroscopy, using helicopter or airplane, is a fast and powerful method for mapping surface contamination. (author). 13 refs.; 18 figs.; 13 tabs

  7. Effects of soil stripping and dressing for decontamination of radioactive materials on soil fertility of agricultural land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Namiko; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Kunihito

    2015-01-01

    Farms that were highly contaminated with radioactive materials following the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident were decontaminated by removing topsoil and subsequently dressing with fresh soil. We investigated the chemical properties of soils following such decontamination on farms in Iitate village, Fukushima. The nitrogen content of dressed soil was considerably lower than that of the subsoil that was not stripped for decontamination, as a result of which the amount of dressed soil greatly affected the soil fertility of decontaminated farms. The potassium (K) content of soil differs markedly depending on the type of soil dressing material used; accordingly, the type of soil dressing material affected the soil K content on decontaminated farms. On most of the decontaminated farms where sandy soils were used as the soil dressing material, soil exchangeable K contents were less than 25 mg K_2O/100 g, which is the criterion value for inhibiting cesium absorption in rice and soybean cultivation. However, even in the soil dressing material from agricultural land, soil K content after soil dressing was generally lower than that before soil dressing. During fallow management and at the restart of cultivation on decontaminated farms, it is important to know in advance the chemical properties of soil and take the necessary measures based on this information. (author)

  8. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) for the 300 Area Process Sewer Cleanout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MENARD, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    This document serves as a NOC pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the cleanout of sections of the 300 Area PS. Approval of the NOC will allow the pressure washing of certain pipe sections, the sump in the TEDF lift station, and the cleaning of PS 16 of the 300 Area PS that contains low levels of radioactivity. Section 15.0 of this NOC discusses the estimated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) resulting from the unabated emissions from these cleaning activities. Using the currently approved unit dose conversion factors in HNF-3602, the estimated potential TEDE to the MEI resulting from the unabated, fugitive emissions from cleanout of the 300 Area PS is 4.70 E-05 millirem (mrem) per year. This dose was derived by conservatively estimating the doses from both the pressure washing and the use of the Guzzler(trademark) for removal of the liquid/soil mixture, as described in Section 5.0. and adding these doses together

  9. Observed effects of soil organic matter content on the microwave emissivity of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, P.E.; Jackson, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the significance of organic matter content on the microwave emissivity of soils when estimating soil moisture, a series of field experiments were conducted in which 1.4 GHz microwave emissivity data were collected over test plots of sandy loam soil with different organic matter levels (1.8%, 4.0%, and 6.1%) for a range of soil moisture values. Analyses of the observed data showed only minor variation in microwave emissivity due to a change in organic matter content at a given moisture level for soils with similar texture and structure. Predictions of microwave emissivity made using a dielectric model for aggregated soils exhibited the same trends and type of response as the measured data when adjusted values for the input parameters were utilized

  10. Artificial neural network models' application for radioactive substances' migration forecasting in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, V.I.; Khil'ko, O.S.; Kundas, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    The work is indicated to the use of artificial neural network (ANN) models in program complex SPS for radioactive substances' migration forecasting in soil. For the problem solution two ANN models are used. One of them forecasts radioactive substances' migration, another carries out forecasting of physical and chemical soil properties. Program complex SPS allows to achieve a low error of forecasting (no more than 5 %) and high training speed. (authors)

  11. Chloropicrin Emission Reduction by Soil Amendment with Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuxia; Yan, Dongdong; Liu, Pengfei; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Wensheng; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP) is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its emissions must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP emission, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP emission and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP’s bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w) greatly reduced total CP emission losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane) both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g-1. There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis) in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the emissions of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no negative effects

  12. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon

  13. Nitrous oxide emission inventory of German forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Bisping, Hubert; Brumme, Rainer; Priesack, Eckart

    2003-02-01

    Annual fluxes of N2O trace gas emissions were assessed after stratifying German forest soils into Seasonal Emission Pattern (SEP) and Background Emission Pattern (BEP). Broad-leaved forests with soil pH(KCl) ≤ 3.3 were assigned to have SEP, broad-leaved forests with soil pH(KCl) > 3.3 and all needle-leaved forests to have BEP. BEPs were estimated by a relationship between annual N2O emissions and carbon content of the O-horizon. SEPs were primarily controlled by temperature and moisture and simulated by the model Expert-N after calibration to a 9-year record of N2O measurements. Analysis with different climate and soil properties indicated that the model reacts highly sensitive to changes in soil temperature, soil moisture, and soil texture. A geographic information system (ARC/INFO) was used for a spatial resolution of 1 km × 1 km grid where land cover, dominant soil units, and hygro climate classes were combined. The mean annual N2O emission flux from German forest soils was estimated as 0.32 kg ha-1 yr-1. Broad-leaved forests with SEP had the highest emissions (2.05 kg ha-1 yr-1) followed by mixed forests (0.38 kg ha-1 yr-1), broad-leaved forests (0.37 kg ha-1 yr-1), and needle-leaved forests with BEP (0.17 kg ha-1 yr-1). The annual N2O emission from German forest soils was calculated as 3.26 Gg N2O-N yr-1. Although needle-leaved trees cover about 57% of the entire forest area in Germany, their contribution is low (0.96 Gg N2O-N yr-1). Broad-leaved forests cover about 22% of the forest area but have 55% higher emissions (1.49 Gg N2O-N yr-1) than needle-leaved. Mixed forests cover 21% of the area and contribute 0.81 Gg N2O-N yr-1. Compared to the total N2O emissions in Germany of 170 Gg N yr-1, forest soils contribute only 1.9%. However, there are some uncertainties in this emission inventory, which are intensely discussed.

  14. Application of soil washing system to the volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soils and automated treatment of sludge cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Mitsuo; Tsuchida, Mitsuru; Baba, Naoki; Nakajima, Takuma

    2013-01-01

    The pilot plant study was intended to evaluate; a) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs, b) the volume reduction rate of feed soils, c) the volumetric rate and concentration rate of discharged sludge cake, and d) the effect of radiation exposure reduction by automated filter press unit and automated packing unit of sludge cake. As a result of this study, following observations were made; 1) the radioactive Cs content of clean sands ranged 882∼2,940 Bq/kg as compared to the feed soils of 8,790 to 26,270 Bq/kg, 2) the removal efficiency of radioactive Cs ranged 84∼92% of feed soils, 3) the volume reduction rate of feed soils ranged 70∼86% (ave. 82%), and 4) the automated filter press unit and the automated packing system of sludge cake were helpful for workers in reducing radiation exposure. It is concluded that soil washing system can effectively reduce volume of radioactively contaminated soils and can be practically used in Fukushima for remediation of soils. (author)

  15. A study for natural radioactivity levels in some soil samples using gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Yousif Hassab El Rasoul

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a few selected soil samples and to study their natural radioactivity using gamma spectrometry. The first sample was a rock phosphate from Nuba mountains region which is being considered as a low cost fertilizer. Another sample came from Miri lake area (Nuba mountains) which is known to have elevated natural radioactivity level. The other four samples came from different other regions in Sudan for comparison. The idea was to identify the radioactive nuclides present in these soil samples, to trace their sources and to determine the activity present in them. (Author)

  16. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.

    1996-05-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines

  17. Methods evaluated to minimize emissions from preplant soil fumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suduan Gao

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Many commodities depend on preplant soil fumigation for pest control to achieve healthy crops and profitable yields. Under California regulations, minimizing emissions is essential to maintain the practical use of soil fumigants, and more stringent regulations are likely in the future. The phase-out of methyl bromide as a broad-spectrum soil fumigant has created formidable challenges. Most alternatives registered today are regulated as volatile organic compounds because of their toxicity and mobile nature. We review research on methods for minimizing emissions from soil fumigation, including the effectiveness of their emission reductions, impacts on pest control and cost. Low-permeability plastic mulches are highly effective but are generally affordable only in high-value cash crops such as strawberry. Crops with low profit margins such as stone-fruit orchards may require lower-cost methods such as water treatment or target-area fumigation.

  18. Offsetting China's CO2 Emissions by Soil Carbon Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil fuel emissions of carbon (C) in China in 2000 was about 1 Pg/yr, which may surpass that of the U.S. (1.84 Pg C) by 2020. Terrestrial C pool of China comprises about 35 to 60 Pg in the forest and 120 to 186 Pg in soils. Soil degradation is a major issue affecting 145 Mha by different degradative processes, of which 126 Mha are prone to accelerated soil erosion. Similar to world soils, agricultural soils of China have also lost 30 to 50% or more of the antecedent soil organic carbon (SOC) pool. Some of the depleted SOC pool can be re-sequestered through restoration of degraded soils, and adoption of recommended management practices. The latter include conversion of upland crops to multiple cropping and rice paddies, adoption of integrated nutrient management (INM) strategies, incorporation of cover crops in the rotations cycle and adoption of conservation-effective systems including conservation tillage. A crude estimated potential of soil C sequestration in China is 119 to 226 Tg C/y of SOC and 7 to 138 Tg C/y for soil inorganic carbon (SIC) up to 50 years. The total potential of soil C sequestration is about 12 Pg, and this potential can offset about 25% of the annual fossil fuel emissions in China

  19. Assessment of natural radioactivity and radiation hazard indices in different soil samples from Assiut governorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, S.A.M.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Hefni, M.A.; El-Kamel, A.H; Nesreen, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazard radiological levels. So, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks and to have a baseline for future changes in the environmental radioactivity due to human activities. Determine the radioactivity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in surface and 20 cm soil samples collected beside Assiut fertilizer plant, Assiut government in south Upper Egypt, to assess their contribution to the external dose exposure. The contents of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured in investigated samples by using gamma spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3”x 3”]. The total absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent, excess lifetime cancer risk and the external hazard index, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil, were calculated

  20. Radioactive contamination of soil-vegetation cover in some southern areas of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Zharikov, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    The nature of radioactive contamination of meadow-pasture lands in the south of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) has been studied using experimental data. Individual parameters of radionuclide transport from soil into plants depending upon soil type and sub-type, extent of land use for hay-making and pasturing, and other nature-climatic and anthropogenic factors have been determined. (author)

  1. The forming of the complexes of soil mezofauna in the zone of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    We carried out the pedobiological research in the different biogeocenoses in the zone of radioactive contamination. Based on the obtained data we can conclude a direct correlation between the viability of the soil invertebrates and the background gamma-radiation intensity. All the facts indicate that soil animal complexes in biogeocenoses exposed to radiation for a long time impact clearly noticeable suppression

  2. A simple approach to estimate soil organic carbon and soil co/sub 2/ emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, F.

    2013-01-01

    SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) and soil CO/sub 2/ (Carbon Dioxide) emission are among the indicator of carbon sequestration and hence global climate change. Researchers in developed countries benefit from advance technologies to estimate C (Carbon) sequestration. However, access to the latest technologies has always been challenging in developing countries to conduct such estimates. This paper presents a simple and comprehensive approach for estimating SOC and soil CO/sub 2/ emission from arable- and forest soils. The approach includes various protocols that can be followed in laboratories of the research organizations or academic institutions equipped with basic research instruments and technology. The protocols involve soil sampling, sample analysis for selected properties, and the use of a worldwide tested Rothamsted carbon turnover model. With this approach, it is possible to quantify SOC and soil CO/sub 2/ emission over short- and long-term basis for global climate change assessment studies. (author)

  3. Carbon dioxide emissions from biochar in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Clauson-Kaas, Anne Sofie Kjærulff; Bobuľská, L.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of biochar in soil is of importance if it is to be used for carbon sequestration and long-term improvement of soil properties. It is well known that a significant fraction of biochar is highly stable in soil, but carbon dioxide (CO2) is also released immediately after application....... This study investigated the nature of the early release of CO2 and the degree to which stabilizing mechanisms protect biochar from microbial attack. Incubations of 14C-labelled biochar produced at different temperatures were performed in soils with different clay contents and in sterilized and non......-sterilized soils. It emerged that carbonate may be concentrated or form during or after biochar production, resulting in significant carbonate contents. If CO2 released from carbonates in short-term experiments is misinterpreted as mineralization of biochar, the impact of this process may be significantly over...

  4. Determination of radioactive emission origins based on analyses of isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devell, L.

    1987-01-01

    The nature of radioactivity emissions can be determined through gamma spectroscopy of air samples with good precision, which means that the type of source of the emission may be found, e.g. nuclear weapons test, of nuclear power plant accident. Combined with information on wind trajectories it is normally possible to recognize time and area for the emission. In this preliminary study, the knowledge of and preparedness for such measurements are described. (L.E.)

  5. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of emissivity of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Z.C.; Behari, J.

    1998-01-01

    A procedure for the rapid and safe analysis of soils with widely differing organic matter contents has been investigated and validated. Surface soils, totalling 295 and sampled on a grid basis, representing 22% of the land-base of the Republic of Ireland, have been analysed for cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc. Soil concentrations of cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel exhibit patterns of regionalised elevation. Implications of this elevation are considered in relation to sewage sludge application to land, future requirement for baseline surveys and concerns over concentrations in food products. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the increasing in the LRd soil natural radioactivity as result of phosphogypsum application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parreira, Paulo S.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Paula, Fernando R. de

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the detection sensitiveness for the radionuclides from 238 U and 232 Th series present in a LRd soil from the Londrina City region, to verify the amount of radioactivity increase in that soil due to the use of phosphogypsum, and as a preliminary phase for a detailed investigation on the behaviour of those elements in agricultural soils. (author). 11 refs., 3 tab

  8. Salt Efflorescence Effects on Soil Surface Erodibility and Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Zhang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Soluble salts resulting from weathering of geological materials often form surface crusts or efflorescences in areas with shallow saline groundwater. In many cases, the affected areas are susceptible to wind erosion due to their lack of protective vegetation and their flat topography. Fugitive dusts containing soluble salts affect the biogeochemistry of deposition regions and may result in respiratory irritation during transport. We created efflorescent crusts on soil trays by surface evaporation of single salt solutions and bombarded the resultant efflorescences with quartz abrader sand in a laboratory wind tunnel. Four replicate trays containing a Torrifluvent soil affected by one of nine salts commonly found in arid and semiarid streams were tested and the emissions were captured by an aspirated multi-stage deposition and filtering system. We found that in most cases the efflorescent crust reduced the soil surface erodibility but also resulted in the emission of salt rich dust. Two of the salts, sodium thiosulfate and calcium chloride, resulted in increased soil volume and erodibility. However, one of the calcium chloride replicates was tested after an outbreak of humid air caused hygroscopic wetting of the soil and it became indurated upon drying greatly decreasing the erodibility. Although saline affected soils are not used for agricultural production and degradation is not a great concern, the release of salt rich dust is an area of environmental concern and steps to control the dust emissions from affected soils should be developed. Future testing will utilize suites of salts found in streams of arid and semiarid regions.

  9. Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Yelagiri Hills, Tamil Nadu, India and the associated radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravisankar, R.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Vijayagopal, P.; Venkatraman, B.; Senthilkumar, G.; Eswaran, P.; Rajalakshmi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The natural radioactivity of soils at Yelagiri hills has been studied in this paper. The radioactivities of 25 samples have been measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K ranged from ≤2.17 to 53.23, 13.54 to 89.89 and from 625.09 to 2207.3 Bq kg −1 , respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with world average activity of soil. The average activity concentration of 232 Th in the present study is 1.19 times higher than world median value while the activity of 238 U and 40 K is found to be lower. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity Ra eq , the absorbed dose rate D R , the annual effective dose rate and the external hazard index (H ex ) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The study provides background radioactivity concentrations in Yelagiri hills. - Highlights: ► Soil radioactivity is used for base line data in future impact assessment. ► We report the results of radiation hazard parameters in soils of Yelagiri hills. ► The level of the natural radiation in the studied area does not exceed the norm.

  10. Radioactivity in soil and air near the Sillamaee tailings depository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realo, E.

    2002-01-01

    Radiological situation outside the Sillamaee plant and U/Th tailings depository is studied by soil monitoring and modelling methods. In the Sillamaee region, the reliable monitoring and assessment of the technological impact to public exposure is significantly interfered with the complex nature of natural background (e.g., elevated and variable soil concentrations of 226 Ra in the range of 40 .. 320 Bq kg -1 , high outdoor 222 Rn levels, etc.). The releases of radionuclides from the tailing depository to the ground and tap water are negligible. The major water pathway is the release to the Gulf of Finland and specifically the consumption of fish. The isotopes 234 U, 238 U (about 6.2 GBq a -1 or 0.025 % of the total U per year) and 210 Pb (∼ 0.05 GBq a -1 ) dominate in the source term. A compartmental modelling of this pathway has demonstrated a low radiological impact to the population with the individual and collective committed doses of 1 μSv and 1 manSv, respectively, for both current leakage and sudden dam collapse scenarios. We have determined the depth distribution of radionuclides in soil profiles to find an evidence for airborne radionuclide deposition. Samples collected in the Sillamaee town (up to 1 .. 2 km from the depository) have been analysed by using low background Ge(Li) and HPGe gamma spectrometry. The results demonstrate an enhanced (relative to the bottom layers) 226 Ra and 238 U content in the surface soil layers. A similar observation has been found near the oil-shale-fired power plants in NE Estonia, which we attributed to the long term deposition of fly-ash radionuclides. It should be noted that in the non-polluted locations over Estonia the 226 Ra concentration in the uppermost 0 .. 3 cm layer is about 11 % less than in the next 3 cm thick soil layers. In the ground level air, the mean dust loads of 0.23 mg m -3 (0.02 to 1.6 mg m -3 ) have been measured (V. Nossov, SILMET, 1997, private communication and [6]) with the aerosol beta

  11. Physical chemistry characterization of soils of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez T, U. O.; Fernandez R, E.; Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J.

    2011-11-01

    Any type of waste should be confined so that it does not causes damage to the human health neither the environment and for the storage of the radioactive wastes these actions are the main priority. In the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes the radioactive wastes generated in Mexico by non energy applications are storage of temporary way. The present study is focused in determining the physical chemistry properties of the lands of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes like they are: real density, ph, conductivity percentage of organic matter and percentage of humidity. With what is sought to make a characterization to verify the reaction capacity of the soils in case of a possible flight of radioactive material. The results show that there are different density variations, ph and conductivity in all the soil samples; the ph and conductivity vary with regard to the contact time between the soil and their saturation point in water, for the case of the density due to the characteristics of the same soil; for what is not possible to establish a general profile, but is necessary to know the properties of each soil type more amply. Contrary case is the content of organic matter and humidity since both are in minor proportions. (Author)

  12. Techniques of radioactive soil processing at rehabilitation of contamination territories - 59199

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, Victor; Chesnokov, Alexander; Danilovich, Alexey; Zverkov, Yury; Koltyshev, Sergey; Semenov, Sergey; Shisha, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Rehabilitation of nuclear- and radiation objects assumes dealing with and removal of considerable volumes of a radioactive soil. A similar situation was faced at the remediation of such sufficiently large objects, as old radioactive waste storages at the territory of 'Kurchatov Institute' and elimination of consequences of radiation accident at Podolsk plant of nonferrous metals. At rough estimates the volumes of a radioactive soil at territory of 'Kurchatov institute' were 15-20 thousand m 3 , volumes of a removed soil at carrying out of urgent measures in territory of Kirovo-Chepetsk chemical plant exceeded 20-25 thousand m 3 , volumes of a low active waste at the territory of Podolsk plant may reach 20 thousand m 3 . Such considerable volumes demand creation of technologies of their processing, an effective measuring technique of levels of their contamination and ways of considerable (in times) decrease of their volumes at the expense of decontamination or separation. Works have been aimed at the decision of these problems at carrying out of rehabilitation of territory 'Kurchatov institute'. During works technologies of radiation and water-gravitational separation of a radioactive soil have been offered and are realized in practice. A facility of water -gravitational separation of the soil was created and used within 5 years. It allowed decreasing of volumes of the low active waste in 5-6 times. In further the facility was supplied by a facility of radiation separation of the soil that has raised its efficiency. On turn there is a start-up question in experimental operation of facility of radiation separation of low active slag for Podolsk plant of nonferrous metals. The decision of these problems will allow to gain experience of creation of through technology of the processing of a radioactive soil and decrease in its volumes for using it as a design decisions for rehabilitation of other large scale radioactive-contaminated territories and industrial objects

  13. Coefficient of soil decontamination from strontium-90 at the territory of east Ural radioactive trace (EURT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhenov, A.V.; Volobuev, P.V.; Isymov, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The knowledge of coefficient of soil decontamination is necessary for predictions the dynamics in development of radioactive situation, for retrospective estimation and reconstruction of the initial radioactive contamination levels of territories. By effective coefficient of soil decontamination from radionuclides (CSD) we mean the multiple of a nuclide completely removed from the soil as a result of its physical decay, active removal of radionuclides from the ground into water ecosystems, as well as biogeochemical and wind migration beyond KURT borders. Its dimension can be expressed in the divisible relation (in how many times?), in percentage, as well as in periods of half-desintegration, if the process of desintegration is the exponent. The calculation is made on a complete nuclides supply in soil. The objective of the study is to calculate the effective coefficient of soil decontamination from 90 Sr on the basis of the analyzis of the experimental materials received at KURT territories in Sverdlovsk region. (author)

  14. Measurement of underground water-soil radioactivity at different depths in arsenic prone areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, D.; Deb, A.; Patra, K.K.; Sengupta, R.; Nag, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the presence of alpha emitting nuclides in the environment assume importance since they are found to be carcinogenic. Measurement of radioactivity in arsenic contaminated drinking water has already been reported. To perform a detail study we have undertaken a programme to measure radioactivity in drinking water and soil samples in three different places of North 24 Parganas in West Bengal, India, where arsenic contamination is severe. A detail investigation on soil samples at different depths and soil-water samples at same depth have been made with CR-39 plates -a Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) -a commonly used detector for alpha radiation. The data indicates high alpha activity in soil than water and this ratio is different at different places varying from 1.22 to 2.63. The dependence of the alpha activity in soil on depth is also different at different sites. The data shows some interesting results. (author)

  15. General decay law for emission of charged particles and exotic cluster radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Basudeb; Paira, Ramkrishna; Rath, Biswanath

    2013-01-01

    For the emission of charged particles from metastable nuclei, a general decay formula is developed based on the basic phenomenon of resonances occurring in quantum scattering process under Coulomb-nuclear potential. It relates the half-lives of monopole radioactive decays with the Q-values of the outgoing elements in different angular momentum states as well as the masses and charges of the nuclei involved in the decay. The relation is found to be a generalization of the Geiger–Nuttall law in α radioactivity and it explains well all known emission of charged particles including clusters, alpha and proton carrying angular momenta

  16. Actions to reduce radioactive emissions: prevention of containment failure by flooding Containment and Reactor Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornos Herrando, J.

    2013-01-01

    The reactor cavity of Asco and Vandellos II is dry type, thus a severe accident leading to vessel failure might potentially end up resulting in the loss of containment integrity, depending on the viability to cool the molten core. Therefore, significant radioactive emissions could be released to outside. In the framework of Fukushima Stress Tests, ANAV has analyzed the convenience of carrying out different actions to prevent failure of the containment integrity in order to reduce radioactive emissions. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the main phenomenological aspects associated with two of these actions: containment flooding and reactor cavity flooding.

  17. Use of radioactive sodium-22 to study the processes of soil salinization and desalinization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzubaidi, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    This study deals with the salinization of four undisturbed soil columns of silt loam soil, collected with special plexiglass columns. The salinization was effected by adding a certain volume of salt solution consisting of a mixture of NaCl, CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 and containing 0.5 mCi of sodium-22. The salt solution was added to the surface of the first two columns and then the soil columns were leached with distilled water, while for the other two columns, the salt solution was added from the bottom of the columns using a syphon technique. The first two columns represent a model for the desalinization process of saline soils, while the latter two columns represent a model for the salinization process under the effect of high groundwater table. The downward and upward movements of sodium through the soil columns were recorded by measuring sodium radioactivity periodically, using a special scanner which continuously and automatically detected the radioactivity of sodium with the help of a gamma spectrometer. The final distribution curves for sodium movement throughout these soil columns versus time were obtained by computer. The data obtained indicate that radioactive sodium can be used with success to study the movement of salts in soil. The results also bring a new and better understanding of the nature of the salt movement during the processes of salinization and desalinization, the most important soil processes in the arid and semi-arid regions. (author)

  18. Stocks of C in soils and emissions of CO2 from agricultural soils in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuikman, P.J.; Groot, de W.J.M.; Hendriks, R.F.A.; Verhagen, J.; Vries, de F.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents considerations for the choice of options to calculate and monitor stocks of carbon in all soils and emissions of CO2 from agricultural soils in the Netherlands for the Kyoto 1990 baseline and following years. The objective of the study was to prepare data for a national

  19. Removal of radioactivity and safe vegetables cultivation from highly radioactivity polluted soil in Fukushima using photosynthetic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Kei; Okagawa, Masakazu; Takeno, Kenji; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The soil pollution caused by radioactive substances released from the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has been still serious interference against agricultural reconstruction. This study used the soil contaminated with high radioactivity (13,602∼87,181 Bq/kg) in Namie Town, Fukushima Prefecture, and performed decontamination using photosynthetic bacteria in a simple outdoor practical test using a 60 L container. Using the soil after decontamination, the authors cultivated vegetables such as komatsuna (Japanese mustard spinach), and bok choy, the results of which are reported. As photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter shaerodes SSI species was used. This paper describes the cultivation method of bacteria, preparation method of immobilization grain, decontamination method, and cultivation method of vegetables. As a result of the experiment, the decontamination efficient of the soil was between 59.5 to 73.3%, and cultured vegetables passed the edible reference value (edible criteria for infants: 50 Bq/kg FW), which was the success of the experiment. (A.O.)

  20. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of crop management, soil type, and climate on N2O emissions from Austrian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Kasper, Martina; Kitzler, Barbara; Haas, Edwin; Wandl, Michael; Strauss, Peter; Poetzelsberger, Elisabeth; Dersch, Georg; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Amon, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Within the project FarmClim ("Farming for a better climate") we assessed recent N2O emissions from two selected regions in Austria. Our aim was to deepen the understanding of Austrian N2O fluxes regarding region specific properties. Currently, N2O emissions are estimated with the IPCC default emission factor which only considers the amount of N-input as an influencing factor for N2O emissions. We evaluated the IPCC default emission factor for its validity under spatially distinct environmental conditions. For this two regions for modeling with LandscapeDNDC have been identified in this project. The benefit of using LandscapeDNDC is the detailed illustration of microbial processes in the soil. Required input data to run the model included daily climate data, vegetation properties, soil characteristics and land management. The analysis of present agricultural practices was basis for assessing the hot spots and hot moments of nitrogen emissions on a regional scale. During our work with LandscapeDNDC we were able to adapt specific model algorithms to Austrian agricultural conditions. The model revealed a strong dependency of N2O emissions on soil type. We could estimate how strongly soil texture affects N2O emissions. Based on detailed soil maps with high spatial resolution we calculated region specific contribution to N2O emissions. Accordingly we differentiated regions with deviating gas fluxes compared to the predictions by the IPCC inventory methodology. Taking region specific management practices into account (tillage, irrigation, residuals) calculation of crop rotation (fallow, catch crop, winter wheat, barley, winter barley, sugar beet, corn, potato, onion and rapeseed) resulted in N2O emissions differing by a factor of 30 depending on preceding crop and climate. A maximum of 2% of N fertilizer input was emitted as N2O. Residual N in the soil was a major factor stimulating N2O emissions. Interannual variability was affected by varying N-deposition even in case

  2. Treatment of Radioactive Contaminated Soil and Concrete Wastes Using the Regulatory Clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Sik; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, T. K.; Shon, J. S.; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Bae, S. M.; Hong, D. S.; Ji, Y. Y.; Lee, B. C

    2008-11-15

    In the radioactive waste storage facilities at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejoen, there are thousands drums of radioactive contaminated soil and concrete wastes. The soil and concrete wastes were generated in 1988 during the decommissioning process of the research reactor and the attached radioactive waste treatment facility which were located in Seoul. The wastes were transported to Daejeon and have been stored since then. At the generation time, the radioactive contamination of the wastes was very low, and the radionuclides in the wastes was Co-60 and Cs-137. As the wastes have been stored for more than 20 years, the radioactivity concentration of the wastes has been decayed to become very extremely low. The wastes are needed to be treated because they take up large spaces at the storage facility. Also by treating the wastes, final disposal cost can be saved. So, the regulatory clearance was considered as a treatment method for the soil and concrete wastes with extremely low radioactivity concentration.

  3. A study on the assessment of treatment technologies for efficient remediation of radioactively-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jong Soon; Shin, Seung Su; KIm, Sun Il [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Soil can be contaminated by radioactive materials due to nuclide leakage following unexpected situations during the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Soil decontamination is necessary if contaminated land is to be reused for housing or industry. The present study classifies various soil remediation technologies into biological, physics/chemical and thermal treatment and analyzes their principles and treatment materials. Among these methods, this study selects technologies and categorizes the economics, applicability and technical characteristics of each technology into three levels of high, medium and low by weighting the various factors. Based on this analysis, the most applicable soil decontamination technology was identified.

  4. Disposal of the radioactive contaminated soils from the NPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusek, I.; Plsko, J.; Sajtlava, M.; Hulla, J.; Kovacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Disposal of contaminated soils at site of NPP is one of the most important task within the frame of research and development tasks of the NPP decommissioning. The works within this field can be seen in several areas. Considered soil activity monitoring, observation of its geo-technical and geo-chemical parameters, volume balance, research of the radio nuclides behaviour in the soil and simulation of their influence on the surrounding environment with special emphasis on underground water, project studies and construction of the disposal facility for contaminated soils. This work presents overview of gained results in the mentioned areas of the research and development. (author)

  5. Investigating the spatial anisotropy of soil radioactivity in the region of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe-Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabesiranana, N.; Rasolonirina, M.; Solonjara, A.F.; Raoelina Andriambololona

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted in the region of Vinaninkarena-Antsirabe, to investigate the spatial distrubition of the environmental radioactivity. Forty-two (42) top soil samples were collected from two different sampling points. They were analyzed for uranium and thorium series by gamma spectrometry. In order to determine radioactivity spatial structure, semi-variance analysis was used. From 82 samples and 840 paired data, semi-variances were computed, variograms charted and modelled. Results showed that spatial dependance ranges vary from 100 m to 300m. Moreover, spatial anisotropy is also detected. Such result allows optimizing sampling design for future mapping of the environmental radioactivity of the region.

  6. Positron emission medical measurements with accelerated radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llacer, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews in some detail the process by which a heavy ion accelerator can be used to inject positron emitting radioactive particles into a human body for a range of possible medical measurements. The process of radioactive beam generation and injection is described, followed by a study of the relationship between activity that can be injected versus dose to the patient as a function of which of the positron emitting ions is used. It is found that 6 C 10 and 10 Ne 19 are the two isotopes that appear more promising for injection into humans. The design considerations for a non-tomographic instrument to obtain images from beam injections are outlined and the results of 10 Ne 19 preliminary measurements with human phantoms and actual patients for the determination of end-of-range of cancer therapy ion beams is reported. Accuracies in the order of ±1 mm in the measurements of stopping point of a therapy beam with safe doses to the patient are reported. The paper concludes with a simple analysis of requirements to extend the technique to on-line verification of cancer treatment and to nuclear medicine research and diagnostics measurements. 17 refs.; 16 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Analysis on the influence of forest soil characteristics on radioactive Cs infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yoshitomo; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Shimomura, Ryohei; Fukutani, Satoshi; Ikegami, Maiko

    2017-01-01

    Soil core (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm) was collected in 5 points with different vegetation in Fukushima Prefecture in order to explore the permeability, field capacity and voidage. Depth profiles of radioactive Cs, ignition loss and CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity) in the 5 forest soils were also investigated, using scraper plate (at 0.5 cm intervals for 0-5 cm and at 1.0 cm intervals for 5-10 cm). Depth profiles in soil layers were totally different between forests and did not show explicit correlation with field capacity, voidage or ignition loss. On the other hand, CEC correlated weakly and permeability did strongly with infiltration of radioactive Cs. Compartment modeling was conducted, so as to reproduce the monitored depth profile, taking ignition loss as a parameter, based on the experiment result that ignition loss had positive correlation with CEC, which might influence the adsorption process on radioactive Cs in soil layer. However, the ignition loss alone failed to fully reproduce the depth profile. Considering the present results as well as the fact that permeability might have explicit relation with infiltration of radioactive Cs, factors related with precipitation or water flow in early stage after the accident could influence the depth profile, before adsorbed with negative charge in soil particles. (author)

  8. The natural radioactivity of soils in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannink, D.W.; Keen, A.; Koester, H.W.; Pennders, R.M.J.; Winkel, J.H. de

    1986-02-01

    Forty percent of the natural radiation exposure of man is caused by the primordial radionuclides - U-238, Th-232 and K-40 - and their daughters in the soil. It is shown that the activity concentrations of these nuclides vary between Dutch soils and that they lie within the normal range reported by the UNSCEAR committee. In linear regression models a clear link was found between the activity concentrations and the following soil properties: grain size distribution, organic matter and lime content, whether or not in combination with soil type. The same models are capable to predict the activity concentrations in various soils with reasonable precision. No improvement of the models was obtained by incorporating the pH and/or sampling depth. Possible further investigations to refine the models are suggested. (Auth.)

  9. Differentiation of nitrous oxide emission factors for agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesschen, Jan Peter; Velthof, Gerard L.; Vries, Wim de; Kros, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) direct soil emissions from agriculture are often estimated using the default IPCC emission factor (EF) of 1%. However, a large variation in EFs exists due to differences in environment, crops and management. We developed an approach to determine N 2 O EFs that depend on N-input sources and environmental factors. The starting point of the method was a monitoring study in which an EF of 1% was found. The conditions of this experiment were set as the reference from which the effects of 16 sources of N input, three soil types, two land-use types and annual precipitation on the N 2 O EF were estimated. The derived EF inference scheme performed on average better than the default IPCC EF. The use of differentiated EFs, including different regional conditions, allows accounting for the effects of more mitigation measures and offers European countries a possibility to use a Tier 2 approach. - Highlights: → We developed an N 2 O emission factor inference scheme for agricultural soils. → This scheme accounts for different N-input sources and environmental conditions. → The derived EF inference scheme performed better than the default IPCC EF. → The use of differentiated EFs allows for better accounting of mitigation measures. - Emission factors for nitrous oxide from agricultural soils are derived as a function of N-input sources and environmental conditions on the basis of empirical information.

  10. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T.

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  11. Measures against radioactive contamination due to Fukushima First Nuclear Power Plant accidents. Part 3. Removing and decontamination of contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the structure of radioactive cesium distribution in soil and found the exponential dependence. This behavior could be explained theoretically. We developed a useful method to decontaminate the soil contaminated with radioactive cesium atoms. We applied our method to the contaminated school yards of elementary schools of Marumori town and decontaminated total area of about 7000 m"2. (author)

  12. Effect of Radioactive and Toxic Metals Constituent in Fertilizers on Soil and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quraishi, S.B.; Khan, M.M.K.; Akhter, S.

    2007-01-01

    Various types of fertilizers are being extensively used for crop production and other agricultural purposes in Bangladesh. Trace elements present in chemical and organic fertilizers could play an important role in crop production and human health. Eleven fertilizers samples were collected from local market and were analyzed for some heavy, essential and toxic elements like Fe,Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd with Atomic absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and Al, Ba, Mo, and U with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The fertilizers sampled contained below detection limit of Pb with the exception of TSP and Foly Boron (38.73 and 46.15 mg/kg). The concentration of Cd only in organic fertilizer was high (1621 mg/kg) among eleven samples. The levels of chromium in 50% of the samples were above the detection limit and organic fertilizer contents the highest amount of Cr (266.35 mg/kg). The level of uranium, which is an element of radioactive nature, was found to be below the detection limit (<50.00 mg/kg) in most of the cases with the excepton of TSP and organic fertilizer. To make a background data information, total flux of these elements into the cultivable soils was estimated from the analytical results obtained from this study.(author)

  13. Modelling carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural soils in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Wang, Junye

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural soils are a leading source of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and are major contributors to global climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) makes up 20% of the total GHG emitted from agricultural soil. Therefore, an evaluation of CO 2 emissions from agricultural soil is necessary in order to make mitigation strategies for environmental efficiency and economic planning possible. However, quantification of CO 2 emissions through experimental methods is constrained due to the large time and labour requirements for analysis. Therefore, a modelling approach is needed to achieve this objective. In this paper, the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), a process-based model, was modified to predict CO 2 emissions for Canada from regional conditions. The modified DNDC model was applied at three experimental sites in the province of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the simulations of the modified DNDC model are in good agreement with observations. The agricultural management of fertilization and irrigation were evaluated using scenario analysis. The simulated total annual CO 2 flux changed on average by ±13% and ±1% following a ±50% variance of the total amount of N applied by fertilising and the total amount of water through irrigation applications, respectively. Therefore, careful management of irrigation and applications of fertiliser can help to reduce CO 2 emissions from the agricultural sector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radioactive contamination: atlas France and Europe. French soils contamination by Chernobyl accident fallouts - The lie evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Andre; Castanier, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    This document deals with the Chernobyl nuclear accident impacts and the authorities transparency. The first part is a reference document constituted by the CRIIRAD and showing how the authorities strove for minimizing the real contamination of French soils by the Chernobyl fallouts. In the second part, an atlas provides the detailed maps of the radioactive contamination of soils based on more than 3000 measurements carried out by a geologist, Andre Paris, assisted by the CRIIRAD laboratory

  15. Performance study and influence of radiation emission energy and soil contamination level on γ-radiation shielding of stabilised/solidified radionuclide-polluted soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falciglia, Pietro P.; Puccio, Valentina; Romano, Stefano; Vagliasindi, Federico G.A.

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of radionuclide-polluted soils at different 232 Th levels using Portland cement alone and with barite aggregates. The potential of S/S was assessed applying a full testing protocol and calculating γ-radiation shielding (γRS) index, that included the measurement of soil radioactivity before and after the S/S as a function of the emission energy and soil contamination level. The results indicate that setting processes are strongly dependent on the contaminant concentration, and for contamination level higher than 5%, setting time values longer than 72 h. The addition of barite aggregates to the cement gout leads to a slight improvement of the S/S performance in terms of durability and contaminant leaching but reduces the mechanical resistance of the treated soils samples. Barite addition also causes an increase in the γ-rays shielding properties of the S/S treatment up to about 20%. Gamma-ray measurements show that γRS strongly depends on the energy, and that the radioactivity with the contamination level was governed by a linear trend, while, γRS index does not depend on the radionuclide concentration. Results allow the calculated γRS values and those available from other experiments to be applied to hazard radioactive soil contaminations. - Highlights: • We assess the effects of 232 Th contamination on performance of S/S treated soil. • We assess the γ-radiation shielding of the S/S materials as a function of energy. • We report a full testing protocol for assessing S/S resistance performance. • Emission energy influences the γ radiation shielding of the S/S. • Barite gives high γ-radiation shielding and low contaminant leaching

  16. Electrokinetics for removal of low-level radioactivity from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States); Wittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in situ soil decontamination in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic, are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. The work presented here describes part of the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentrations of a selected heavy-metal salt solution. These metals included surrogate radionuclides such as Sr, Cs and U, and an anionic species of Cr. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. Removals of some metal species up to 99% were achieved at the anode or cathode end of the soil upon 24 to 48 hours of treatment or a maximum of 1 pore volume of water displacement toward the cathode compartment. Transient pH change through the soil had an effect on the metal movement, as evidenced by accumulation of the metals at the discharge ends of the soil specimens. This accumulation was attributed to the precipitation of the metal and increased cation retention capacity of the clay in high pH environment at the cathode end. In general, the reduced mobility and dissociation of the ionic species as they encounter areas of higher ionic concentration in their path of migration resulted in the accumulation of the metals at the discharge ends of the soil specimens.

  17. Nitric oxide emissions from soils amended with municipal waste biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelle, P.A.; Aneja, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Land spreading nitrogen-rich municipal waste biosolids (NO 3 - -N -1 dry weight, NH 3 -N∼23,080mg Nkg -1 dry weight, Total Kjeldahl N∼41,700mg Nkg -1 dry weight) to human food and non-food chain land is a practice followed throughout the US. This practice may lead to the recovery and utilization of the nitrogen by vegetation, but it may also lead to emissions of biogenic nitric oxide (NO), which may enhance ozone pollution in the lower levels of the troposphere. Recent global estimates of biogenic NO emissions from soils are cited in the literature, which are based on field measurements of NO emissions from various agricultural and non-agricultural fields. However, biogenic emissions of NO from soils amended with biosolids are lacking. Utilizing a state-of-the-art mobile laboratory and a dynamic flow-through chamber system, in-situ concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured during the spring/summer of 1999 and winter/spring of 2000 from an agricultural soil which is routinely amended with municipal waste biosolids. The average NO flux for the late spring/summer time period (10 June 1999-5 August 1999) was 69.4±34.9ngNm -2 s -1 . Biosolids were applied during September 1999 and the field site was sampled again during winter/spring 2000 (28 February 2000-9 March 2000), during which the average flux was 3.6±l.7ngNm -2 s -1 . The same field site was sampled again in late spring (2-9 June 2000) and the average flux was 64.8±41.0ng Nm -2 s -1 . An observationally based model, developed as part of this study, found that summer accounted for 60% of the yearly emission while fall, winter and spring accounted for 20%, 4% and 16% respectively. Field experiments were conducted which indicated that the application of biosolids increases the emissions of NO and that techniques to estimate biogenic NO emissions would, on a yearly average, underestimate the NO flux from this field by a factor of 26. Soil temperature and % water filled pore space (%WFPS) were observed

  18. Natural and artificial radioactivity in soils of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, E.; Segovia, N.; Gaso P, M.I.; Pena, P.; Morton, O.; Armienta, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Levels of 222 Rn, 40 K, 235 U, 226 Ra and 137 Cs were studied in soils of a forest zone located at 3000 m altitude in the central portion of Mexico. the radon concentrations in different soil horizons were determined with solid state nuclear track detectors and the concentrations of 40 K, 235 U, 226 Ra and 137 Cs in soil samples were measured with a gamma spectrometer at low level coupled to a High purity Ge detector. The results indicate differences of a magnitude order in the radon concentrations inside the studied area. The levels of 40 K, 235 U, 226 Ra and 137 Cs are discussed as function of the perturbation grade of the soil and atmospheric pollution. (Author)

  19. Survey of radioactivity levels of soil in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Lihua

    1993-01-01

    The gross α and β activities on soil were measured by a mode FJ-2600 air-flow type alpha and beta counter. 204 sampling points including 173 grid points and 31 special points were set in the whole city. The ranges of the gross α and β activities in soil at the grid points are 816.5-2056.1 Bq/kg and 633.2-896.4 Bq/kg respectively. All these values are within the normal range of background activities. Only few special points are beyond the normal range. The results of statistical test indicate that the gross α and β activities show a normal distribution and that the levels of gross activity correlate with the sampling point, soil type and the geomorphology. It seems that the wide range of background values is related to the differences in natural conditions, such as the terrestrial formation, the soil-forming parent materials, etc., and the human activity

  20. Influence on the long-term fertilizing on radioactivity soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubisic, M.; Stevanovic, D.; Stojanovic, M.; Vuletic, V.; Pantelic, G.

    2007-01-01

    Researching in this work need to give the answer in which degree application the mineral fertilizers, especially phosphate, contribute to the contamination of a soil because of long-term continually fertilizing (35 years) and differences of adopting from the corn culture and wheat nursing in monocultures. Like control, it is made measuring activity of radionuclides of a soil on experimental variety where wasn't fertilizing during the making the experiment, separately for both cultures. Based on that it is given accent only on chronic contamination of a soil by radionuclides by application mineral fertilizers at once and transport in the system of soil of different biocenoses. Based on measuring activity 40K, 137Cs, 238U, 235U, 226Ra, 232Th, 212Pb it is fortified differences in concentration of the activity of radionuclides of uranium row between the samples of smonica, fertilized and non-fertilized in the longer period. (author) [sr

  1. Influence of organic components onto state of radioactive strontium in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Cherevko, E.S.; Rubinchik, S.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    Influence of soil organic components onto radioactive strontium mobility in the soil medium has been analyzed. Distribution of the Sr 90 between various organic fractions of soils having different quantitative and qualitative composition of organic matter has been studied. The samples of mineral and organic soils contaminated by radionuclides of Chernobyl origin were used as the objects of investigation. Fulvic- and humic-acid fractions differed in solubility and mobility in a soil medium have been separated. Differentiation of soils on the Sr 90 mobility in accordance with portion of radionuclide in the immobile organic fractions has been fulfilled. New types of organic and organomineral additives decreased mobility and biological availability of the Sr 90 have been suggested on a base of obtained data. (authors)

  2. Method for assay of radioactivity in waste soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Willhoite, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil is a result of many nuclear operations. During facility decommissioning or site cleanup, it may be packaged for disposal. The waste soil must be assayed for contaminants to follow transport regulations and waste handling facility requirements. Methods used for assay include the following: (1) sampling the ground before excavation and assuming ground data apply to soil when packaged; (2) analyzing samples taken from the soil added to a package; (3) counting radiation at the exterior of the package; and (4) measuring neutron absorption by packaged waste soil. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) worked with Eberline Instruments Corporation (EIC) to develop an automated assay method for the waste stream in a plutonium-contaminated soil cleanup at Johnston Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. The perfected method uses a personal computer, an electronic weighing scale, and a programmable radiation counter. Computer programs get weight and radiation counts at frequent intervals as packages fill, calculate activity in the waste, and produce reports. The automated assay method is an efficient one-person routine that steadfastly collects data and produces a comprehensive record on packaged waste

  3. Soil acidification in China: is controlling SO2 emissions enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Duan, Lei; Xing, Jia; Larssen, Thorjorn; Nielsen, Chris P; Hao, Jiming

    2009-11-01

    Facing challenges of increased energy consumption and related regional air pollution, China has been aggressively implementing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and phasing out small inefficient units in the power sector in order to achieve the national goal of 10% reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions from 2005 to 2010. In this paper, the effect of these measures on soil acidification is explored. An integrated methodology is used, combining emission inventory data, emission forecasts, air quality modeling, and ecological sensitivities indicated by critical load. National emissions of SO(2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), particulate matter (PM), and ammonia (NH(3)) in 2005 were estimated to be 30.7, 19.6, 31.3, and 16.6 Mt, respectively. Implementation of existing policy will lead to reductions in SO(2) and PM emissions, while those of NO(X) and NH(3) will continue to rise, even under tentatively proposed control measures. In 2005, the critical load for soil acidification caused by sulfur (S) deposition was exceeded in 28% of the country's territory, mainly in eastern and south-central China. The area in exceedance will decrease to 26% and 20% in 2010 and 2020, respectively, given implementation of current plans for emission reductions. However, the exceedance of the critical load for nitrogen (N, combining effects of eutrophication and acidification) will double from 2005 to 2020 due to increased NO(X) and NH(3) emissions. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the benefits of SO(2) reductions during 2005-2010 will almost be negated by increased N emissions. Therefore abatement of N emissions (NO(X) and NH(3)) and deposition will be a major challenge to China, requiring policy development and technology investments. To mitigate acidification in the future, China needs a multipollutant control strategy that integrates measures to reduce S, N, and PM.

  4. A Surface Soil Radioactivity Mapping Has Been Carried Out at Muria Peninsula, Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soepradto-Tjokrokardono; Nasrun-Syamsul; Supardjo-AS; Djodi-R-Mappa; Kurnia-Setyawan W

    2004-01-01

    The air of this mapping is to gain exposure dose value of the soil surface of Muria Peninsula. Central Java, in the area of 75 km radius from Ujung Lemah Abang. Lemah Abang is the proposed site of the first indonesian nuclear Power Plant. A radioactivity data obtained in 1995/1996 to 1998/1999 researches has been used for input data. For further analysis, a conversation factor multiplication is applied. This conversation factor is obtained from linear regression equation of the relationship between radioactivity and exposure values gained from re-measured randomly 44 points which are representative for high, medium, and low radiation areas obtained in 1995/1996 to 1998/1999 activities and it taking soil samples. The conversation data result is being constructed of the Surface Exposure Dose Map of Muria Peninsula. Those data show that the exposure dose of northern slope of Muria Volcano is relatively higher than that of southern slope, it means be harmonizing to the soil sample radioactivity values. The maximum radioactivity value of the soil samples is 3,56.10 -2 Bq/gram (α radiation), 8,22.10 -1 Bq/gram (β radiation) and 6,20.10 -1 Bq/gram (γ radiation) and the minimum values are 4,44 10 -3 Bq/gram (α radiation), 1,50. 10 -1 Bq/gram (β radiation) and 4,09. 10 -2 Bq/gram (γ radiation). (author)

  5. Radioactivity of the soil in Vojvodina (northern province of Serbia and Montenegro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikit, I; Slivka, J; Conkić, Lj; Krmar, M; Vesković, M; Zikić-Todorović, N; Varga, E; Curcić, S; Mrdja, D

    2005-01-01

    The widespread public belief that during the bombardment of Vojvodina (Yugoslavia) this region was contaminated by depleted uranium has recently raised public concern with respect to the potential contamination of agricultural products due to soil radioactivity. Based on the gamma-spectrometric analysis of 50 soil samples taken from the region of Vojvodina we concluded that there is no increase of radioactivity that could endanger the food production. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not endanger the health safety of the produced food. No traces of depleted uranium have been found. The natural radioactivity levels are compared with the results form other countries.

  6. Radioactivity of the soil in Vojvodina (northern province of Serbia and Montenegro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Conkic, Lj.; Krmar, M.; Veskovic, M.; Zikic-Todorovic, N.; Varga, E.; Curcic, S.; Mrdja, D.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread public belief that during the bombardment of Vojvodina (Yugoslavia) this region was contaminated by depleted uranium has recently raised public concern with respect to the potential contamination of agricultural products due to soil radioactivity. Based on the gamma-spectrometric analysis of 50 soil samples taken from the region of Vojvodina we concluded that there is no increase of radioactivity that could endanger the food production. Taking into account the transfer factors of 137 Cs to plants, the measured activity concentrations of this isotope should not endanger the health safety of the produced food. No traces of depleted uranium have been found. The natural radioactivity levels are compared with the results form other countries

  7. Soil magnetic susceptibility as indicator of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curda, S.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic susceptibility is a method, which is used in many areas of research. The locality Ak-Tjuz is typical example of old ecological load. One of the negative effects represents radioactive contamination. This situation is caused by environmental disaster in 1964. For useful reparation it is really necessary to determinate the surface range of contamination. And measurement of the magnetic susceptibility could be the suitable method for that kind of monitoring. (author)

  8. Observation of heavy cluster emission from radioactive 230U nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qiangyan; Yuan Shuanggui; Yang Weifan; Li Zongwei; Ma Taotao; Guo Junsheng; Liu Mingyi; Liu Hongye; Xu Shuwei; Gan Zaiguo; Kong Dengming; Qiao Jimin; Luo Zihua; Zhang Mutian; Wang Shuhong

    1999-01-01

    230 Pa was produced with the reaction 232 Th (p, 3n) 230 Pa in the irradiation powder targets of ThO 2 with 35 MeV proton beam. Sources of 230 Pa→ 230 U + β - were prepared by radiochemical method. Using solid-state track registration detectors, two events of 230 U decay with heavy cluster emission have been observed. The preliminary branching ratio to α-decay comes out to be B = λ Ne /λ α = (1.3 ± 0.8) x 10 -14

  9. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil

  10. Treatment of radioactive silts and soils with organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Barinov, A.S.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Moscow SIA RADON is developing the ''Clinker'' method to treat radioactive silts and grounds. The ''Clinker'' method consists of radioactive silt (ground) mixed with lime and other components. This mixture is calcined at 800 to 1000 o C. The product is ground to a surface area size of 2500 to 4500 cm 2 /g, mixed with water at a water-to-cement ratio not less than 0.25, and aged to form a solid monolith. The ''Clinker'' method was compared to the traditional cementation methods. The ''Clinker'' method reduces the final volume and enhance the strength characteristics of the final product. The ''Clinker'' cement compound has higher hardening rate. Preliminary data show that it has higher cold resistance, sulfate and leaching corrosion durability in comparison to one prepared by the traditional cementation method. The range of applicability of the ''Clinker'' method is increased by the possibility of treating materials containing up to 80% (mass) of organic materials, such as turf, flora and fauna decomposition products, and manmade material, including natural materials, such as petroleum products and polymers. In addition, the ''Clinker'' method does not require expensive waste binders, i.e., cement. The ''Clinker'' cement can be used for cementation of other radioactive waste. (author)

  11. Minimal NOx emission by Lysinibacillus sphaericus in nutrient poor soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Sánchez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether nitrogen dioxide emissions by Lysinibacillus sphaericus exist in nutrient poor soil. First, we evaluated the presence of two genes involved in denitrification (nosF and nosD by PCR screening of five strains of L. sphaericus (III (37, OT4b.49, OT4b.25, OT4b.31 and CBAM5. We then applied a bacterial consortium made up by L. sphaericus III (37 and OT4b.49 into closed microcosms of soil and with minimum salts medium (MSM supplemented with ammonia to measure the concentration of produced nitrogen dioxide over time. The assays with closed microcosms showed a minimum level of nitrogen dioxide over time. The nosF and nosD primers amplified the expected fragment for the five strains and the sequenced nosF and nosD PCR product showed an ATPase domain and a copper-binding domain respectively, which was consistent with the function of these genes. The basal emission of nitrogen dioxide by L. sphaericus in soil is coupled to its ability to enhance the nitrogen bioavailability for soils deficient in nutrients. Therefore, our results indicate that this microorganism can be considered as a good candidate to validate the low emission of NOx in field and in the future as an alternative for biofertilization.

  12. Dust emission parameterization scheme over the MENA region: Sensitivity analysis to soil moisture and soil texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherboudj, Imen; Beegum, S. Naseema; Marticorena, Beatrice; Ghedira, Hosni

    2015-10-01

    The mineral dust emissions from arid/semiarid soils were simulated over the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) region using the dust parameterization scheme proposed by Alfaro and Gomes (2001), to quantify the effect of the soil moisture and clay fraction in the emissions. For this purpose, an extensive data set of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity soil moisture, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting wind speed at 10 m height, Food Agricultural Organization soil texture maps, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and erodibility of the soil surface were collected for the a period of 3 years, from 2010 to 2013. Though the considered data sets have different temporal and spatial resolution, efforts have been made to make them consistent in time and space. At first, the simulated sandblasting flux over the region were validated qualitatively using MODIS Deep Blue aerosol optical depth and EUMETSAT MSG (Meteosat Seciond Generation) dust product from SEVIRI (Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) and quantitatively based on the available ground-based measurements of near-surface particulate mass concentrations (PM10) collected over four stations in the MENA region. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the effect of soil moisture and clay fraction on the emissions flux. The results showed that soil moisture and soil texture have significant roles in the dust emissions over the MENA region, particularly over the Arabian Peninsula. An inversely proportional dependency is observed between the soil moisture and the sandblasting flux, where a steep reduction in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual reduction is observed at high friction velocity. Conversely, a directly proportional dependency is observed between the soil clay fraction and the sandblasting flux where a steep increase in flux is observed at low friction velocity and a gradual increase is

  13. Separate effects of flooding and anaerobiosis on soil greenhouse gas emissions and redox sensitive biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin McNicol; Whendee L. Silver

    2014-01-01

    Soils are large sources of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and both the magnitude and composition of soil gas emissions are strongly controlled by redox conditions. Though the effect of redox dynamics on greenhouse gas emissions has been well studied in flooded soils, less research has focused on redox dynamics without total soil inundation. For the latter, all that is...

  14. Estimative of the soil amount ingested by cattle in high natural radioactive region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Roosevelt; Silva, Lucia H.C.; Taddei, Maria H.T.

    1997-01-01

    Considering that Pocos de Caldas is a region of high natural radioactivity, where many environmental impacts have been studied, 27 samples of cattle faeces and 24 samples of local soil were collected and analyzed for Ti concentrations, during dry and rain periods. Using this element as an indicator, the percentage of soil ingestion by cattle were estimated for three management practices: confined, semi-confined and free. The results showed the management practices influence on the cattle soil ingestion percentage, and the importance of this pathway in the environmental impact assessment. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  15. Health problems in connection with radiation from radioactive matter in fertilizers, soils and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laag, J.

    1988-01-01

    Under the last world congress of the International Society of Soil Science in Hamburg in August 1986, the working group ''Soil and Geomedicine'' was set up. The symposium on health problems in connection with radiation from radioactive matter in fertilizers, soils and rocks was a joint arrangement of this working group and a permanent committe of The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. The book presents the full text of 13 of the papers presented at the symposium. Separate abstacts have been submitted for 12 of these papers

  16. Effluent monitoring Quality Assurance Project Plan for radioactive airborne emissions data. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for compiling Hanford Site radioactive airborne emissions data. These data will be reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the US Department of Energy, and the Washington State Department of Health. Effluent Monitoring performs compliance assessments on radioactive airborne sampling and monitoring systems. This Quality Assurance Project Plan is prepared in compliance with interim guidelines and specifications. Topics include: project description; project organization and management; quality assurance objectives; sampling procedures; sample custody; calibration procedures; analytical procedures; monitoring and reporting criteria; data reduction, verification, and reporting; internal quality control; performance and system audits; corrective actions; and quality assurance reports

  17. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction (NOC) Application for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BATES, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This NOC application is provided to update the description of amounts of material handled, and to update the calculation of potential for emissions and resultant calculation of offsite TEDE. This NOC also includes an updated description of the various emission units at WSCF, including use of portable tanks to receive and remove liquid waste contaminated with low levels of radioactive contamination. The resultant, adjusted estimate for TEDE to the hypothetical MEI due to all combined unabated emissions from WSCF is 1.4 E-02 millirem per year. The total adjusted estimate for all combined abated emissions is 2.8 E-03 millirem per year. No single emission unit at the WSCF Complex exceeds a potential (unabated) offsite dose of 2.7 E-03 millirem per year

  18. The changes in the ecology and physiology of soil invertebrates under influences of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, S.

    2006-01-01

    The soil biota is important in building and maintaining soil structure and fertility. Invertebrates are ideal as potential bio indicators of the environmental impact of radioactive contamination: they are widely distributed, often abundant and generally thought of as having low dispersive capacity. They can use as test organisms to detect the side-effects of radioactive contamination. The long-term analysis of ecological and physiological after-effects and biodiversity changes had been studied in the zone of radioactive contamination. Material was collected in the Gomel Region (Belarus), 30 km away from the CNPP in 1986-2004 applying usual pedobiological techniques (soil samples and Barber's pitfall traps) at reference points subjected to radioactive contamination. Soil samples were collected at 0 to 25 cm depth. Samples were taken in locations, which had received considerable radionuclide contaminations. These sites differed in contamination by the composition of fall-out, the forms of radionuclide content in soils, their intake into trophic chains and accumulation in animal and plant organisms. The impacts have been investigated at the: 1) organism and population levels , in terms of individual life histories (birth rate, growth, mortality) or species selection; 2) at the community level: to species diversity and to effects on trophic structure. The invertebrates were determined to species or genera, including juvenile stages. Radioactive contamination caused a distinct decrease in species number; the dominance structure of the community changed. The saprophagous are especially sensitive to environmental disturbances. An initial sharp reduction of animal biodiversity and simplification of the community structure of soil fauna were observed, followed by a long-term process of returning to the initial parameters. Changes in hemolymph, necroses of epithelium and cell structure in connective tissue were registered. The most drastic after-effects were manifested in

  19. Radioactivity level of soil around Baqiao coal-fired power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Chen, Cancan; Liu, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Natural radioactivity level of soil around Baqiao coal-fired power plant in China was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied soil samples range from 27.6 to 48.8, 44.4 to 61.4 and 640.2 to 992.2 Bq kg −1 with an average of 36.1, 51.1 and 733.9 Bq kg −1 , respectively, which are slightly higher than the average values of Shaanxi soil. The radium equivalent activity, the air absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose rate were calculated and compared with the internationally reported or reference values. The radium equivalent activities of the studied samples are below the internationally accepted values. The air absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose rate received by the local residents due to the natural radionuclides in soil are slightly higher than the mean value of Xi'an and worldwide. - Highlights: ► Natural radioactivity in soil around the coal-fired power plant was determined. ► Radiological parameters were used to assess radiation hazard. ► The coal-fired power plant has affected the local radioactivity level.

  20. Determination of the radioactive concentration of 137Cs in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    According to the latest Hungarian standard valid from January 1987 the activity concentration of 137 Cs in soil is determined based on the measurement of beta disintegration rate following the radiochemical separation of cesium ion. Soil samples are destructed with strong acid. Dissolved cesium is retained selectively by ammonium-molybdo-phosphate in a batch process. The inorganic ion-exchanger is dissoled with concentrated sodium-hydroxide, and, finally, cesium ion is precipitated with hexa-chloro-platinate. In the course of beta detection self-absoprtion of the precipitate must be corrected. (V.N.)

  1. Residual radioactivity in the soil of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, M; Tsukatani, T; Katayama, Y

    1996-08-01

    This paper deals with our efforts to survey residual radioactivity in the soil sampled at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site and at off-site areas in Kazakhstan. The soil was sampled at the hypocenter where the first Soviet nuclear explosion was carried out on 29 August 1949, and at the bank of the crater called "Bolapan," which was formed by an underground nuclear detonation on 15 January 1965 along the Shagan River. As a comparison, other soil was also sampled in the cities of Kurchatov and Almaty. These data have allowed a preliminary evaluation of the contemporary radioactive contamination of the land in and around the test site. At the first nuclear explosion site and at Bolapan, higher than background levels of 239,240Pu with weapons-grade plutonium were detected together with fission and activation products such as 137Cs, 60Co, 152Eu, and 154Eu.

  2. [Nationwide survey on radioactive waste management related to positron emission tomography in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Kida, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shinji

    2009-12-20

    A clearance system for medical radioactive solid waste has not yet been implemented in Japan. Since 2004 new regulations have allowed institutions using positron emission tomography(PET)to handle totally decayed radioactive waste as non-radioactive waste after decay-in-storage. It was expected that this new regulation would mediate the installation of clearance systems in Japan. In order to assess the current situation of radiation safety management in PET institutions, we conducted a nationwide survey. The study design was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted by questionnaire. The subjects of this survey were all the PET institutions in Japan. Among 224 institutes, 128 institutes are equipped with cyclotrons and 96 institutes are not. The number of returned questionnaires was 138. Among institutes that are using delivered radiopharmaceuticals, 80% treat their waste as non-radioactive according to the new regulation. The impact of new regulations for reducing radioactive waste in PET institutes without a cyclotron was estimated at about $400 thousand per year. The main concern of medical institutes was assessment of the contamination caused by by-products of radioactive nuclides generated in target water during the operation of a cyclotron. It was thought that a rational rule based on scientific risk management should be established because these by-products of radioactive nuclides are negligible for radiation safety. New regulation has had a good influence on medical PET institutes, and it is expected that a clearance system for medical radioactive waste will be introduced in the near future, following these recent experiences in PET institutes.

  3. Interactions of low-level, liquid radioactive wastes with soils. 1. Behavior of radionuclides in soil-waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.; Polzer, W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of radioactive wastes and soils vary over a wide range. Liquid radioactive waste entering the environment will eventually contact the soil or geological matrix; interactions will be determined by the chemical and physical nature of the liquid, as well as the soil matrix. We report here the results from an investigation of certain of those characteristics as they relate to retention of radionuclides by soils. Three fractions were demonstrated in the waste as filterable, soluble-sorbable, and soluble-nonsorbable; the physical nature of each fraction was demonstrated using autoradiographic techniques. Isotopes of plutonium and uranium and americium-241 in the soluble fraction of the waste were shown to have a negative charge as determined by ion exchange techniques. In the soil-waste systems, the net charge for those radionuclides was shown to change from predominantly negative to predominantly positive. Nevertheless, cesium-137 was shown to be predominantly positited by TVA and approved by NRC (formerly AEC) since June 1973. This report is based upon the revisions, approved through the end of this reporting period

  4. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples from Raichur of Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajesh, S.; Kerur, B.R.; Anilkumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiations present in environment comprise the terrestrial and extraterrestrial radiations. Natural radioactivity measurement, radiation monitoring of the region, dose assessment and interpretation of radiological related parameters are crucial aspects from the public awareness and environmental safety point of view. It is found that values of the radiological parameters obtained for samples in the study area were found within acceptable or permissible limits. The estimated gamma absorbed dose rate was found to be in the range 32 - 162 nGy h -1 . Higher dose rate than that of the normal dose rate were observed in the regions where granitic, granitic gneiss and schist outcrops were prominent area

  5. Assessment of radioactivity concentration in soil of some mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K natural activity concentrations in surface soils/sediments of some mining areas in Central Nasarawa State Nigeria, using Sodium Iodide-Thallium Gamma Spectroscopy. Seven major sites were identified from the highly mining areas of the zone and a total of ...

  6. Assessment of Radioactivity Concentration in Soil of some Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A study was conducted to determine 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K natural activity concentrations in surface soils/sediments of some mining areas in Central Nasarawa State Nigeria, using. Sodium Iodide-Thallium Gamma Spectroscopy. Seven major sites were identified from the highly mining areas of the zone.

  7. Immobilization of radioactive strontium in contaminated soils by phosphate treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Ammons, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of in situ phosphate- and metal- (calcium, aluminum, and iron) solution treatment for 90 Sr immobilization was investigated. Batch and column experiments were performed to find optimum conditions for coprecipitation of 90 Sr with Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphate compounds in contaminated soils. Separate columns were packed with artificially 85 Sr-contaminated acid soil as well as 90 Sr-contaminated soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation. After metal-phosphate treatment, the columns were then leached successively with either tapwater or 0.001 M CaCl 2 solution. Most of the 85 Sr coprecipitated with the metal phosphate compounds. Immobilization of 85 Sr and 90 Sr was affected by such factors as solution pH, metal and phosphate concentration, metal-to-phosphate ratio, and soil characteristics. Equilibration time after treatments also affected 85 Sr immobilization. Many technology aspects still need to be investigated before field applications are feasible, but these experiments indicate that phosphate-based in situ immobilization should prevent groundwater contamination and will be useful as a treatment technology for 90 Sr-contaminated sites. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Correlation of radon and thoron concentrations with natural radioactivity of soil in Zonguldak, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koray, Abdullah; Akkaya, Gizem; Kahraman, Ayşegül

    2017-02-01

    Radon and thoron gases are produced by the decay of the radioactive elements those are radium and thorium in the soil. In this study, the correlations between soil radon and thoron concentration with their parent nuclide (226Ra and 232Th) concentrations in collected soil samples from the same locations were evaluated. The result of the measurement shows that the distribution of radon and thoron in soil showed the same tendency as 226Ra and 232Th distribution. It was found a weak correlation between the radon and the 226Ra concentration (R =0.57), and between the thoron and the 232Th concentration (R=0.64). No strong correlation was observed between soil-gas radon and thoron concentration (R = 0.29).

  9. [Composition and Density of Soil Fauna in the Region with Enhanced Radioactivity Level (Komi Republic, Vodnyi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, A A; Kudrin, A A; Konakova, T N; Taskaeva, A A

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the influence of high levels of radiation on soil fauna were carried out in 2012 in the territory formed as a result of the activity of the enterprise for extraction and production of radium from reservoir water and waste of uranium ore from 1931 to 1956. At present the local radioactive pollution in this area is caused by the presence of heavy natural radionuclides 226Ra, 238U and products of their disintegration in soils. The oppression of soil invertebrate.fauna in pine forests and meadows with high levels of radionuclides and heavy metals is revealed. Also shown is the decrease in the number and density of different taxonomic groups of invertebrates, reduction of the diversity and spectrum of trophic groups and vital forms in the area with a high content of radionuclides in soil. Our results are in agreement with the results obtained by the similar studies showing negative influence of high-level ionizing radiation on soil fauna.

  10. Bioavailability of caesium-137 from chernozem soils with high and low levels of radioactive contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Machaeva, Ekaterina; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Bioavailability of Cs-137 in "soil-plant" system of radioactively contaminated terrestrial ecosystems is the most important factor in the understanding of ecological situation. There are many factors affecting the features of Cs-137 biogeochemical cycle: period since an accident, type and intensity of radioactive fallout, general properties of landscape and the specifics of soil and plant covers, etc. In order to evaluate the importance of soil contamination level for the process of Cs-137 translocation from soil to plant the research in forest-steppe areas of Russia with similar natural properties, but contrasting high (Tula region) and low (Kursk region) levels of radioactive Chernobyl fallout (about 25 years after accident) was conducted. Soil cover of both sites is presented by chernozems with bulk density 1.1-1.2 g/cm3, 6-7% humus and neutral pH 6.5-7.2; plant cover under investigation consist of dry and wet meadows with bioproductivity 1.6-2.5 kg/m2 and 85-90% of biomass concentrated underground, that is typical for Russian forest-steppe landscapes. At the same time levels of soil regional contamination with Cs-137 differ by an order - 620-710 Bq/kg (210-250 kBq/m2) in Tula region and 30-55 Bq/kg (10-20 kBq/m2) in Kursk region. At a higher level of soil radioactive contamination specific activity of Cs-137 in vegetation of meadows is noticeably increased (103-160 Bq/kg in Tula region versus 12-14 Bq/kg in Kursk region) with correlation coefficient r 0.87. Increasing of Cs-137 in the underground parts of plants plays a decisive role in this process, while the specific radionuclide's activity in the aboveground parts of different sites is almost invariant (and ubiquitously roots contain 2-5 times more Cs-137 than shoots). The values of transfer factors for Cs-137 (the ratio of the specific Cs-137 activities in the plant tissue and in the soil) at various levels of soil radioactive contamination vary within a relatively narrow range 0.1-0.4, that confirms the

  11. Low-level radioactive wastes in subsurface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes will continue to be buried in shallow-land waste disposal sites. Several of the burial sites have been closed because of the problems that developed as a result of poor site characteristics, types of waste buried, and a number of other environmental factors. Some of the problems encountered can be traced to the activities of microorganisms. These include microbial degradation of waste forms resulting in trench cover subsidence, production of radioactive gases, and production of microbial metabolites capable of complexation, solubilization, and bioaccumulation of radionuclides. Improvements in disposal technology are being developed to minimize these problems. These include waste segregation, waste pretreatment, incineration, and solidification. Microorganisms are also known to enhance and inhibit the movement of metals. Little is known about the role of autotrophic microbial transformations of radionuclides. Such microbial processes may be significant in light of improved disposal procedures, which may result in reductions in the organic content of the waste disposed of at shallow-land sites. 102 references, 5 figures, 19 tables

  12. Characteristics of soil-to-plant transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roivainen, P.

    2011-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy generates large amounts of different types of radioactive wastes that can be accidentally released into the environment. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for the dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and is usually described by a concentration ratio (CR) between plant and soil concentrations in radioecological models. Our knowledge of the soil-to-plant transfer of many radionuclides is currently limited and concerns mainly agricultural species and temperate environments. The validity of radioecological modelling is affected by the accuracy of the assumptions and parameters used to describe soil-to-plant transfer. This study investigated the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements (cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)) relevant to radioactive waste at two boreal forest sites and assessed the factors affecting the CR values. May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) were selected as representatives of understory species, while rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) represented trees in this study. All the elements studied were found to accumulate in plant roots, indicating that separate CR values for root and aboveground plant parts are needed. The between-species variation in CR values was not clearly higher than the within-species variation, suggesting that the use of generic CR values for understory species and trees is justified. No linear relationship was found between soil and plant concentrations for the elements studied and a non-linear equation was found to be the best for describing the dependence of CR values on soil concentration. Thus, the commonly used assumption of a linear relationship between plant and soil concentrations may lead to underestimation of plant root uptake at low soil concentrations. Plant nutrients potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur were found to

  13. Characteristics of soil-to-plant transfer of elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roivainen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The use of nuclear energy generates large amounts of different types of radioactive wastes that can be accidentally released into the environment. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for the dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and is usually described by a concentration ratio (CR) between plant and soil concentrations in radioecological models. Our knowledge of the soil-to-plant transfer of many radionuclides is currently limited and concerns mainly agricultural species and temperate environments. The validity of radioecological modelling is affected by the accuracy of the assumptions and parameters used to describe soil-to-plant transfer. This study investigated the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements (cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)) relevant to radioactive waste at two boreal forest sites and assessed the factors affecting the CR values. May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) were selected as representatives of understory species, while rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) represented trees in this study. All the elements studied were found to accumulate in plant roots, indicating that separate CR values for root and aboveground plant parts are needed. The between-species variation in CR values was not clearly higher than the within-species variation, suggesting that the use of generic CR values for understory species and trees is justified. No linear relationship was found between soil and plant concentrations for the elements studied and a non-linear equation was found to be the best for describing the dependence of CR values on soil concentration. Thus, the commonly used assumption of a linear relationship between plant and soil concentrations may lead to underestimation of plant root uptake at low soil concentrations. Plant nutrients potassium, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus and sulphur were found to

  14. Studies of the effect of radioactive waste on the transport phenomena in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Reefy, A.I.A.F

    1992-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new concept in the field of soil mechanics. It is an integrated work between soil and radiation in the form of gamma-rays. Chapter II was introduced to cover the basics in geotechnical engineering so as to draw a clearer picture to radiologists. Similarly, Chapter III was introduced to enable geotechnical engineers to comprehend radioactive behaviour in general. Although these two chapters are for further reading they contain various points that will be referred to regularly in the latter pages. The aim of this work is to investigate: - The effect of γ -radiations on the transport phenomena in soil. This was carried out by studying the effect of the following factors on the transmission of γ -rays with different energies: 1) Soil sample thickness 2) Grain size 3)Water content 4) Degree of compaction. - The effect of γ -radiations on moisture movement through soil. -Using the -ray transmission method to determine the soil physical properties. - Improvement of soil to increase its ability to attenuate -radiations. Experimental work took place under strict conditions at the Hot Lab. Center located at Inchas. Soil sample was sought from a nearby site which eventually will be the actual radioactive disposal site. The physical properties of the soil sample were determined as well as its grain size distribution. Accurate and detailed data on the gamma rays transport phenomena in soils was obtained using an up to date γ -radiation measurement technique. Finally, the extensive data obtained throughout this research was recorded and analyzed to ultimately approach our aim

  15. The action and problem of the decontamination work of the radioactive contamination soil starting in earnest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Tomomi

    2011-01-01

    At the stage of just eight months after the time when a large amount of radioactivity was discharged by the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake, countermeasures for pollution due to radioactive substances have become the biggest challenge. The government made a cabinet decision on basic policy based on 'The Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials Discharged by the Nuclear Power Station Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - Off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake that Occurred on March 11, 2011 (The Act on Special Measures concerning the Handling of Radioactive Pollution).' By this, fiscal measures, regulatory measures, and role-sharing required for promoting the treatment of radioactivity-contaminated disaster waste and the decontamination measures of soil were clarified. At the same time as the enactment of the bill, 'Basic Policy for Emergency Response on Decontamination Work' and 'Guidelines for Municipal Decontamination Work' were issued, which helped a step toward full-scale decontamination activities with the backup of budgetary measures. This paper explains the following efforts of the government in implementing these actions. Installation of temporary storage sites for decontaminated soil, implementation of interim storage facilities, development of final disposal sites, and budgetary support. (O.A.)

  16. Progress of research and utilization of soil amendments in phytoremediation of radioactive contamination soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yangrui; Song Gang; Chen Yongheng

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing of soil pollution and degradation, it becomes more important to research and apply soil amendments in agriculture. This paper reviewed different kinds of soil amendments and their impacts on phytostabilization and phytoextraction techniques, and summarized the application of soil amendments in the radio-contaminated soils as well as their effects on the phytoremediation. The main repair mechanisms of the soil amendments are involved in adsorption, ion exchange, chelation, and complexation. The potential applications in the phytoremediation on radio-contaminated soils, as well as the main repair mechanisms and the existing problems were discussed. (authors)

  17. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools drive soil C-CO2 emissions from selected soils in Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, C V; Schaefer, C E R G; Hashigushi, A K; Thomazini, A; Filho, E I F; Mendonça, E S

    2017-10-15

    The ongoing trend of increasing air temperatures will potentially affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and soil C-CO 2 emissions in terrestrial ecosystems of Maritime Antarctica. The effects of SOM quality on this process remain little explored. We evaluated (i) the quantity and quality of soil organic matter and (ii) the potential of C release through CO 2 emissions in lab conditions in different soil types from Maritime Antarctica. Soil samples (0-10 and 10-20cm) were collected in Keller Peninsula and the vicinity of Arctowski station, to determine the quantity and quality of organic matter and the potential to emit CO 2 under different temperature scenarios (2, 5, 8 and 11°C) in lab. Soil organic matter mineralization is low, especially in soils with low organic C and N contents. Recalcitrant C form is predominant, especially in the passive pool, which is correlated with humic substances. Ornithogenic soils had greater C and N contents (reaching to 43.15gkg -1 and 5.22gkg -1 for total organic carbon and nitrogen, respectively). C and N were more present in the humic acid fraction. Lowest C mineralization was recorded from shallow soils on basaltic/andesites. C mineralization rates at 2°C were significant lower than at higher temperatures. Ornithogenic soils presented the lowest values of C-CO 2 mineralized by g of C. On the other hand, shallow soils on basaltic/andesites were the most sensitive sites to emit C-CO 2 by g of C. With permafrost degradation, soils on basaltic/andesites and sulfates are expected to release more C-CO 2 than ornithogenic soils. With greater clay contents, more protection was afforded to soil organic matter, with lower microbial activity and mineralization. The trend of soil temperature increases will favor C-CO 2 emissions, especially in the reduced pool of C stored and protected on permafrost, or in occasional Histosols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural radioactivity in soils of the province of Caceres (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A; Del Rio, M; Miro, C; Paniagua, J M [Extremadura Univ., Caceres (Spain). Facultad de Veterinaria

    1992-01-01

    Soils from all over the province of Caceres (Spain) were studied by gamma spectrometry to determine their [sup 226]Ra, [sup 232]Th and [sup 40]K concentrations. The rock types are fundamentally granites, shales and sedimentary materials. The analyses were designed for three different studies of the radionuclide concentration: at the surface, as a function of depth, and as a function of grain size. (author).

  19. Environmental radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic region in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.

    2007-02-01

    A part of the survey programme on the evaluation of environmental radioactivity in Cameroon has just been initiated. The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. 30 soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11 - 17 Bq kg -1 , 22 - 36 Bq kg -1 and 43 - 201 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The radioisotope 137 Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor were estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value (UNSCEAR, 1988, 2000). A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTDs), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7 - 10.8 kBq m -3 and 5.5 - 8.7 kBq m -3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal natural background radiation in normal living conditions. (author)

  20. Solute movement observation in the field soils by means of radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichner, L.

    1986-01-01

    The radioactive tracer method is discussed as applied to transfer velocity measurements of solutions in unsaturated soils, its applicability and the criteria for the choice of the tracer. The method is based on measurement of the radioactive tracer velocity in the field and on laboratory determination of the equilibrium distribution coefficients of the tracer and the solute in the same field soil. From these results and from the soil characteristics (porosity, bulk density) the solute transfer velocity in the field soil can be calculated. The results are presented of 131 I - velocity measurements in the loamy soil in the region of water source Cunovo near Bratislava, which equals 9.29x10 -9 m/s, and in the downstream slope of the earth dam Rozgrund near Banska Stiavnica where the velocity of 131 I - near the dam foot was found to be 2.03 - 2.86 times greater than near the top. Results are also presented of 131 I - , [ 60 Co-EDTA] - and 60 Co 2+ velocity measurements in clay-loam soil at the experimental field of the Research Institute of Irrigation in Most near Bratislava. The results are applicable to evaluation of surface damage to embankments and earth dams, to determination of the conservation zone around water sources, and the establishment of the level of ground water pollution from different sources (waste disposal, agriculture, etc.)

  1. Soil Radioactivity and the Radionuclides Content of an Indicator Specia in Tulcea District, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaela, I.; Corneanu, G. C.; Dobre, B.; Pasarin, I.; Cojocaru, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The natural radioactivity of the ground is variable in different places and is dependent on cosmic and environmental factors. Regarding on the vegetation radioactivity, each species absorbed in a different manner the radionuclides from the environment. In these researches were performed investigations in the Danube Delta and in the limitrophe region from the Tulcea district from Romania, on the soil and on the plants from the cosmopolite group, Taraxacum officinale. Also, were established the cytotaxonomical features (at the leaf level) of the plants from different populations (genotypes), as well as the correlations between the radionuclides concentration in plant and in soil. The radionuclide concentration in soil and plants was performed with gamma spectrometry of high resolution after a standard method. Differences regarding the radionuclides concentration in the soil and in the indicator plant, between different analysed places were recorded. Because of some morphological features of this plant (disposition in rosette of the leaves at the soil surface) and of the anatomical features of the leaves (stomata disposition), the plants from Taraxacum officinale group can absorb radionuclides from air (7B). So, it can be used as a radiobiological indicator. A positive significant correlation between the content in 7 B and 40 K in the plant leaves was established. In all analysed regions, was recorded a high content in 40 K, 226 Ra and 137 Cs radionuclides from soil and 137 Cs, 40 K and 7 B in Taraxacum officinale, the indicator plant. (author)

  2. Soil radioactivity levels and radiation hazard assessment for some populated areas, Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zeid, H.M; Abd-ElMaksoud, T.M; Nada, A; Awad, S; El-Nagar, T.

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by means of gamma ray spectrometry system ,on sixty two surface soil samples collected from different localities in Nasr City and Heliopolis for measuring the activity concentrations for 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K. The evaluation of environmental radioactivity and estimating the current radiation hazards to the population make this study an interesting issue. The output results referred to all these localities indicated that these regions are not hazardous from the environmental point of view.The results of the present study were discussed and compared with internationally recommended values.

  3. Soil radioactivity levels and radiation hazard assessment around a Thermal Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Pankaj; Sharma, Somdutt; Agrawal, Anshu; Kumar, Rajesh; Prajith, Rama; Sahoo, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Coal based thermal power plants further enhance the level of radioactivity in the environment, as burning of coal produces fly ash that can be released into the environment containing traces of 238 U, 232 Th and their decay products. Therefore, coal fired power plants are one of the major contributor towards the Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation (TENR). Keeping this in view, a study of natural radioactivity in the soil of twenty five villages within 5 km radius around the Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant, Aligarh, UP, India is going on under a BRNS major project, to know the radiological implications on general population living around this plant

  4. Use of radioactive 32P technique to study phosphate rock dissolution in acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahisarakul, J.; Mullins, G.L.; Chien, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the dissolution of six sources of phosphate rock in two acid soils (Ultisols): a sandy soil and a red clay soil. Labile P was determined using the radioactive 32 P technique for Pi extractable P and resin extractable P. Incubations were conducted for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks for 32 P exchangeable technique, 0 and 5 weeks for Pi technique and 5 weeks for resin technique. Rates of PR were 0 and 400 mgP/ha. The results showed that labile P in the sandy soil decreased from 0-1 weeks for all the PRs except Hahotoe PR and Hazara PR's. Between 1 and 5 weeks labile P remained relatively constant. The ranking of labile P from PRs was: North Carolina = Kouribga > Matam > Hahotoe = Hazara> Patos de Minas. In the red soil, labile P from all PRs appeared to be relatively unchanged during the 0-5 week incubation. Pi extractable P in sandy soil showed no significant differences due to incubation time. In the red clay soil, there was a significant decrease in Pi-P extracted from soil mixtures with PRs after 5 weeks as compared to 0 weeks. Results of the Resin-extractable P in both sandy and red soils were in agreement with labile P as measured by 32 P exchange technique. (author)

  5. Use of engineered soils beneath low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandford, T.C.; Humphrey, D.N.; DeMascio, F.A. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-03-01

    Current regulations are oriented toward locating low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities on sites that have a substantial natural soil barrier and are above the groundwater table. In some of the northern states, like Maine, the overburden soils are glacially derived and in most places provide a thin cover over bedrock with a high groundwater table. Thus, the orientation of current regulations can severely limit the availability of suitable sites. A common characteristic of many locations in glaciated regions is the rapid change of soil types that may occur and the heterogeneity within a given soil type. In addition, the bedrock may be fractured, providing avenues for water movement. A reliable characterization of these sites can be difficult, even with a detailed subsurface exploration program. Moreover, fluctuating groundwater and frost as well as the natural deposition processes have introduced macro features such as cracks, fissures, sand and silt seams, and root holes. The significant effect that these macro features have on the permeability and adsorptive capacity of a large mass is often ignored or poorly accounted for in the analyses. This paper will examine an alternate approach, which is to use engineered soils as a substitute for some or all of the natural soil and to treat the fractures in the underlying bedrock. The site selection would no longer be primarily determined by the natural soil and rock and could even be placed in locations with no existing soils. Engineered soils can be used for below- or aboveground facilities.

  6. Radioactivity distribution of the fruit trees ascribable to radioactive fall out (6). Effect of heterogeneity of caesium-137 concentration in soil on transferability to grape trees and fig trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Daisuke; Yasunaga, Eriko; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the heterogeneity of 137 Cs concentration in soil on transferability to shallow rooted fig and non-shallow rooted grapes. Three-year-old trees were planted into the pots filled with soil changed to the concentration of radioactivity Cs in surface (0 - 5cm) and deep soil (5 - 15cm). Transfer rate of radioactive 137 Cs to plants from the soil was higher in fig than in grapes when grown under the same conditions. In fig trees, transfer rate of radioactive 137 Cs to plants from the soil was higher the plants cultivated under high concentration of 137 Cs in surface soil than in deep soil. (author)

  7. Radioactive emission data from Canadian nuclear generating stations 1986 to 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    All nuclear generating station (NGSs) release small quantities of radioactivity in a controlled manner into both the atmosphere (as gaseous effluents) and adjoining water bodies (as liquid effluents). The purpose of this document is to report on the magnitude of these emissions for each operating NGS in Canada and to indicate how these emissions compare with the relevant limitations imposed by the AECB as part of its regulatory and licensing program. The data show that the levels of emissions of gaseous and liquid effluents from all currently operating NGSs are well below the values mandated by the AECB. In fact, since 1987 no emissions have exceeded 1% of those values. 3 tabs., 46 figs

  8. Analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. Part 1: integral transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romani, Z.V.; Cotta, R.M.; Perez-Guerreo, J.S.; Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.

    1997-01-01

    The migration of radioactive waste in soils and other porous media is studied through the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of the mass convection-diffusion equations for this phenomenon. Initially, a radionuclide leak function is derived to model the phenomenon that occurs after the failure of the engineering barriers of the repository. This function is obtained from a first order ordinary differential equation which is solved numerically. Subsequently, the migration of this radioactive waste through the soil and the aquifer below the repository is studied; the soil and the aquifer are modeled as two saturated and coupled porous media. The convection-diffusion equations obtained for the concentration field in each medium studied are solved through the use of the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (G.I.T.T.), which provides automatic error control and relatively low computational cost for a user-prescribed accuracy. This work is part of the joint project COPPE/CNEN on the analysis of radioactive waste contamination in soils. (author)

  9. Arctic emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds – from plants, litter and soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sarah Hagel

    -terpenoid BVOCs were dominating the emission profile from the soils and the magnitude of the soil emissions depended greatly on the soil water content and temperature. A warmer arctic climate will likely alter the composition of plant species, cause a thawing of permafrost soil and change soil characteristics...... in adsorbent cartridges and analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Ecosystem BVOC emissions were highly dominated by terpenoids but the composition of terpenoids differed between different plant species. Litter emissions were less dominated by terpenoids than the ecosystem emissions, however...... they still constituted approximately 50 % of the total emissions. I suggested that the litter emissions derived both from microbial soil processes and from stores inside the litter tissue and that the relative importance of these two sources were plant species specific. Furthermore, emissions of non...

  10. Emissions of naturally occurring radioactivity from aluminum and copper facilities. Report No. 6 (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, V.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report summarizes five surveys which were conducted at a Bauxite mining operation, an alumina reduction plant, an aluminum reduction plant, an underground copper mine and mill, and an open pit copper mine and concentrator. Process components and controlled source releases were sampled for naturally occurring radioactivity. Particular emphasis was given to radon-222, lead-210, and polonium-210 emissions from crushing and drying processes

  11. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  12. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yaping; Chen, Guangcheng; Ye, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO 2 -equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO 2 m −2 h −1 , which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m −2 h −1 , respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the same time increase soil carbon accumulation

  13. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yaping [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Guangcheng [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong.xmu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China)

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO{sub 2}-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO{sub 2} m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the

  14. Remediation of a radioactively contaminated soil using a mobile soil-washing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Lahoda, E.J.; Dietrich, A.J.; Weigle, D.H.; Keegan, C.P.; Sachse, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    In order to obtain free-release of a former uranium mining site in Texas, it was required that the surface soil meet specific radiological guidelines. The soil has been contaminated with uranium and radium as a result of the spillage of well-drilling material, process solutions, and ion exchange resins during mining. To meet the required guidelines, the contaminated soil had to be either removed and disposed of off-site or remediated. For economic and long-term liability reasons, remediation of the soil by soil washing was performed. The remediation of this site utilizing the Scientific Ecology Group's soil washing system is discussed in this paper

  15. Phytoremediation of radioactive contaminated soil research and feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianguo; Han Baohua; Ma Binghui; Wang Huijuan; Liang Yong; Liu Jie

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging environmental control technology with economic, environmental friendliness, etc., but also constrained by a variety of factors, such as difficulties of Hyperaccumulator screening, poor adaptability of plants, longer growing season and low biomass, which greatly limited the development and application of phytoremediation technology. This paper decribed the principles of phytoremediation for U, Sr and Cs contaminated soil, introduced research status involved, briefly nanlyzed the feasibility of phytoremediation techniques combined with the nuclear environmental remediation standards, and proposed suggestions for further researches. (authors)

  16. Effect of decontamination of planting soil using zeolite slurry that inhibits transition of radioactive cesium from soil to plant bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yutaka; Akita, Hiroyuki; Kikawada, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear energy plant by the tsunami resulting from the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused the radiation contamination of cultivated field in Fukushima Prefecture. Some decontamination techniques such as surface soil grab, deep cultivation, and adding zeolite to the soil were tested in the rice fields of Fukushima Prefecture. Zeolite is usually used in the form of particle. It inhibits the transition of radioactive cesium from soil to plant bodies. Here, zeolite slurry was also used. The inhibition effect of the zeolite slurry was checked not only in the field but also in a laboratory experiment using some vegetables. The laboratory test results proved the effect of decontamination for vegetable; however, the field test showed uncertainness owing to the low passage coefficient of rice. (author)

  17. Study of the migration of metallic micropollutants in the soils by means of radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquemet, P.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the migration of metallic micropollutants using radioactive tracers. Three experimental techniques were employed to show the interaction phenomena linked to these migrations. First, a simple batch characterization allows the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the sorption-desorption of the micropollutants on the soils. Next, an elution technique applied to soil columns was introduced to study the behavior of the pollutants in hydrodynamic conditions. Finally, a series of lysimetric pots were prepared to extend the experiment to systems which mimic a natural environment. The tests were conducted in a hot laboratory with five agricultural soils and seven pollutants ( 57 Co, 134 Cs, 123m Te, 109 Cd, 144 Ce, 85 Sr and 110m Ag). The batch measurements (kinetics, K d sorption ratio at equilibrium and isothermal measurements according to the Langmuir or Freundlich models) allowed for a better understanding of the sorption-desorption mechanisms of the micropollutants. Their migration on continuously percolated columns (breakthrough curves and determination of the radioactive profiles in the soils) was evaluated and expounded together with the results obtained from the batch characterization. The profiles of the radioactive tracers in the soils of the lysimeters (with or without vegetation) were also determined. All these observations were used to characterize the migration properties of the micropollutants in the investigated soils. A simple simulation model of the migration of interactive solutes in porous media based on dispersion and convection was also applied to the experimental data. The calculated profiles showed fairly good agreement with the experimental ones, especially in the case of unplanted systems. Several parametric adjustments were, however, necessary. It was shown, finally, that simulations, as perfect as they could be, can seldom replace the experimental studies of the behaviour of micropollutants in the

  18. Determination of 40K radioactivity in the soil using energy dispersive X ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiwei; Song Fuxiang; Zeng Liping; Lu Hongning

    2012-01-01

    The 40 K radioactive of' the pressed powder sample was determined by Epsilon 5 high-energy polarized energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. The correlation coefficient of the standard curve method was 0.9910, the precision was 2.98% and the relative deviation of the measurement standard samples was up to 6.40%, which showed that the precision and accuracy of the method were also good. Simultaneous measurement of seven soil samples using this method and γ-spectrometer were carried, the results of two analytical methods were compared using a paired t-test by SPSS program, which showed that there was no significant difference in the two sets of data, P>0.05. It indicated that EDXRF could be a potential simple method for analyzing 40 K radioactive in soil samples. (authors)

  19. Environmental radioactivity and its impact on agriculture. I. The behaviour of radionuclides in soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunold, E.; Horak, O.; Gerzabek, M.

    1986-08-01

    As a consequence of the reactor-accident of Tschernobyl the environmental radioactivity in Austria increased far above the level recorded before. Depending on the amount of precipitation the deposition of radioactive fallout showed great differences. By the contamination of agricultural products, the radionuclides, above all Cs-137 and Cs-134, can enter the foodchains. This paper reviews prevailing results concerning the behaviour of radionuclides in soil and their uptake by plants. Soil-plant transfer factors are presented for the most important types of crops. With reference to fresh weight and vegetative plant matter, the range for Cs is between 0.01 and 0.03, for Sr between 0.1 and 1.2. The application of transfer calculations in practice is discussed. (Author)

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity and heavy metals in water and soil around seismically active area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktay Baykara; Mahmut Dogru; Firat University, Elazig

    2010-01-01

    The natural radioactivity concentration and some heavy metals in various water and soil samples collected from seismically active area have been determined. Gross-alpha and beta concentrations of different 33 water samples and some heavy metal (Fe, Pb, Cu, K, Mn, Cr and Zn) concentration in 72 soil samples collected from two major fault systems (North and East Anatolian Active Fault Systems) in Turkey have been studied. This survey regarding gross-alpha and beta radioactivity and some heavy metals concentrations was carried out by means of Krieger method using a gross-alpha and beta-counting system and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), respectively. Also, gross annual effective dose from the average gross-alpha activity in waters were calculated. (author)

  1. Recent advances of numerical simulation studies for radioactive cesium adsorption on soil materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Masahiko; Nakamura, Hiroki; Machida, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Radiocesium (Cesium 134 and 137) emitted from destroyed Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Production Station is known mostly to remain for a long time on earth's surfaces and to become sources of radiation exposure to habitants. Large scale decontamination work carried out by national and local governments inevitably produces tremendous amount of radioactive wastes of soils whose volume must be effectively and economically reduced based on a scientifically reliable technique. This paper employs the atomic and molecular simulation method applied to adsorption mechanism of soils and cesium ions and presents the examples of proposals with the results of this field. (S. Ohno)

  2. Calculation of the effective dose from natural radioactivity sources in soil using MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Effective dose delivered by photon emitted from natural radioactivity in soil was calculated in this report. Calculations have been done for the most common natural radionuclides in soil as 238 U, 232 Th series and 40 K. A ORNL age-dependent phantom and the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4B were employed to calculate the energy deposited in all organs of phantom.The effective dose was calculated according to ICRP74 recommendations. Conversion coefficients of effective dose per air kerma were determined. Results obtained here were compared with other authors

  3. RADIOACTIVITY OF ROCKS, SOILS AND NATURAL WATERS OF DAGESTAN AND DUE TO THEIR EFFECTIVE DOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abdulaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of long-term radioecological studies in the mountainous areas of Dagestan. The data of the study of territorial exposure dose, determination of natural radioactive nuclides in rocks, soils and natural waters of Dagestan. The parameters of the correlation between alpha-and beta-activity of rocks, soil, and radon in water and indoor air. This paper discusses issues related to the formation of radiation dose from natural sources of ionizing radiation in the biosphere and as a result of this review - doses to man.

  4. Calculation of the effective dose from natural radioactivity in soil using MCNP code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, D; Nikezic, D

    2010-01-01

    Effective dose delivered by photon emitted from natural radioactivity in soil was calculated in this work. Calculations have been done for the most common natural radionuclides in soil (238)U, (232)Th series and (40)K. A ORNL human phantoms and the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP-4B were employed to calculate the energy deposited in all organs. The effective dose was calculated according to ICRP 74 recommendations. Conversion factors of effective dose per air kerma were determined. Results obtained here were compared with other authors. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering-scale tests of in situ vitrification to PCB and radioactive contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liikala, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology applicable to the remediation of hazardous chemical and radioactive contaminated soil and sludge sites. The ISV process utilizes electricity, through joule heating, to melt contaminated soil and form an inert glass and microcrystalline residual product. Applications of ISV to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclides have been demonstrated at engineering-scale in numerous tests (1,2,3). An updated evaluation of ISV applicability to treatment of PCBs and radionuclides, and recent test results are presented herein

  6. Radiometric assessment of natural radioactivity levels of agricultural soil samples collected in Dakahlia, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Shams A M

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the natural radioactivity has been carried out, by using a gamma-ray spectrometry [NaI (Tl) 3″ × 3″] system, in surface soil samples collected from various locations in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. These locations form the agriculturally important regions of Egypt. The study area has many industries such as chemical, paper, organic fertilisers and construction materials, and the soils of the study region are used as a construction material. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the natural radioactivity levels in soil to assess the dose for the population in order to know the health risks. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in the soil ranged from 5.7 ± 0.3 to 140 ± 7, from 9.0 ± 0.4 to 139 ± 7 and from 22 ± 1 to 319 ± 16 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose rate, radium equivalent (Req), excess lifetime cancer risk, hazard indices (Hex and Hin) and annual gonadal dose equivalent, which resulted from the natural radionuclides in the soil were calculated.

  7. Uptake of endogenous and exogenous 226Ra by vegetables from soils of a highly radioactive region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, V.T.; Penna-Franca, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas Plateau is a weathered alkaline igneous intrusion where several radioactive anomalies (U and Th series) exist. Not only the local soils but also the edible vegetables produced in the region can present 226 Ra concentrations up to 10 times higher than those from areas of normal radioactivity. The aim of this work is to evaluate through greenhouse experiments, the uptake of endogenous and exogenous 226 Ra by carrots, brown beans and kale grown from four paired local natural and contaminated farm soils. Simultaneously, sequential selective extractions were performed to estimate the partitioning of 226 Ra among six geochemical fractions. The results showed that concentration ratios (CRs), related to plant dry weight, for endogenous and exogenous 226 Ra in soils, were of the order of 10 -2 -10 -1 and 10 -2 -10 0 respectively. The averages of 226 Ra exchangeable and residual fractions in soils were: 3.2% and 50.2% for endogenous and 15.4% and 6.0% for exogenous radium. The CRs calculated either in relation to total 226 Ra or to the exchangeable fraction in soils showed about the same variability. (author)

  8. Mapping natural radioactivity of soils in the eastern Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, M A; Rubiano, J G; Alonso, H; Tejera, A; González, A; González, J; Gil, J M; Rodríguez, R; Martel, P; Bolivar, J P

    2017-01-01

    The Canary Islands archipielago (Spain) comprises seven main volcanic islands and several islets that form a chain extending for around 500 km across the eastern Atlantic, between latitudes 27°N and 30°N, with its eastern edge only 100 km from the NW African coast. The administrative province of Las Palmas comprises the three eastern Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria). An extensive study of terrestrial gamma dose rates in surface soils has been carried out to cover the entire territory of the province (4093 km 2 ). The average outdoor gamma dose rate in air at 1 m above ground is 73 nGyh -1  at Gran Canaria, 32 nGyh -1  at Fuerteventura, and 25 nGyh -1  at Lanzarote. To complete the radiological characterization of this volcanic area, 350 soil samples at 0-5 cm depth were collected to cover all the geologic typologies of the islands. These samples were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry to determine the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. The average values obtained were 25.2 Bq/kg, 28.9 Bq/kg, and 384.4 Bq/kg, respectively. Maps of terrestrial gamma activity, effective dose, and activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K for the region have been developed through the use of geostatistical interpolation techniques. These maps are in accord with the geology of the islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A project for storing the radioactive sludges from Marcoule in the soil (1960); Une solution de stockage dans le sol des boues radioactives de Marcoule (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P; Gailledreau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A study of the feasibility of storing radioactive sludges in the soil. Special attention is paid to the case of the Marcoule plant, producing three kinds of sludges. The movement of the different fission products is given. (author) [French] Etude de la possibilite de stocker dans le sol des boues radioactives. Le cas de la station de traitement des effluents de Marcoule, produisant trois types de boues, est etudie plus specialement. Le mouvement des divers produits de fission est precise. (auteur)

  10. The impact of slurry application technique on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthof, G.L.; Mosquera, J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from fertilized soils are generally estimated using emission factors. However, the emission factors for N2O emission of applied slurry are not well quantified. The effect of slurry application technique on N2O emission was quantified in field experiments in the

  11. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E.; Loureiro, C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications

  12. Environmental monitoring (water, soil, air, food) and some methodological aspects of radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balanel, Vasile; Boldescu, Victoria; Mesina, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents research results of radiological samples taken from various media (water, soil, air and some food). The study showed that concentrations of radionuclides Cs 137 and Sr 90 did not exceed the maximum permissible. A high level of radionuclides but within the norm occurred in some imported food. The research describes methodology used in radioactive decontamination in practice of the modern world. (authors)

  13. Measurement of density and humidity of soils using radioactive techniques and its application in civil work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando, E.; Torres, J.E.; Moreno, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform about the applications of radioactive techniques related with the measurement of humidity and density of soils. After a brief introduction which describes the basic equipment the main advantages and applications in relation with the conventional methods in engineering, agriculture and industry, it gives a description of the theory related with the basis of these techniques, such as transmission and detection

  14. Data collection handbook to support modeling the impacts of radioactive material in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.J.; Jones, L.G.; Wang, Y.Y.; Faillace, E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.; Loureiro, C. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Chia, Y.P. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Geology

    1993-04-01

    A pathway analysis computer code called RESRAD has been developed for implementing US Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), and material-related (soil, concrete) parameters are used in the RESRAD code. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, measurement methodologies, and input screen locations. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD, the discussions and values are valid for other model applications.

  15. The verification tests of residual radioactivity measurement and assessment techniques for buildings and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, T.; Ishikura, T.; Yoshimura, Yukio; Nakazawa, M.; Makino, S.; Urayama, K.; Kawasaki, S.

    1996-01-01

    According to the standard procedure for decommissioning a commercial nuclear power plant (CNPP) in Japan, controlled areas will be released for unrestricted use before the dismantling of a reactor building. If manual survey and sampling techniques were applied to measurement for unrestricted release on and in the extensive surface of the building, much time and much specialized labor would be required to assess the appropriateness of the releasing. Therefore the authors selected the following three techniques for demonstrating reliability and applicability of the techniques for CNPPs: (1) technique of assessing radioactive concentration distribution on the surface of buildings (ADB); (2) technique of assessing radioactive permeation distribution in the concrete structure of buildings (APB); (3) technique of assessing radioactive concentration distribution in soil (ADS). These tests include the techniques of measuring and assessing very low radioactive concentration distribution on the extensive surfaces of buildings and the soil surrounding of a plant with automatic devices. Technical investigation and preliminary study of the verification tests were started in 1990. In the study, preconditions were clarified for each technique and the performance requirements were set up. Moreover, simulation models have been constructed for several feasible measurement method to assess their performance in terms of both measurement test and simulation analysis. Fundamental tests have been under way using small-scale apparatuses since 1994

  16. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelet, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this book explains the why and how of the radioactivity, with a presentation of the different modes of disintegration. Are tackled the reports between radioactivity and time before explaining how the mass-energy equivalence appears during disintegrations. Two chapters treat natural radioisotopes and artificial ones. This book makes an important part to the use of radioisotopes in medicine (scintigraphy, radiotherapy), in archaeology and earth sciences (dating) before giving an inventory of radioactive products that form in the nuclear power plants. (N.C.)

  17. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  18. Natural and artificial radioactivity distribution In soil of Fars province (IR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, R.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Sina, S.

    2011-01-01

    Fars province is a large populated large province located in the southwest of Iran. This work presents a study of natural and radioactivity levels in soil samples of this province. For this purpose, 126 samples were gathered from different regions of the province and analysed by gamma spectroscopy to quantify radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides using a high-purity germanium detector and spectroscopy system. The results of this investigation show the average concentrations of 271 ± 28 Bq kg -1 , 6.37 ± 0.5 Bq kg -1 , 14.9 ± 0.9 Bq kg -1 and 26.3 ± 1.9 Bq kg -1 for 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U in soil, respectively. Finally, baseline maps were established for the concentrations of each of the radionuclides in different regions. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose (AED) were also calculated for the radionuclides according to the guidelines of UNSCEAR 2000. The average AED from the radioactivity content of soil in this province was found to be 39.9 ± 1.8 μSv. (authors)

  19. Determination of Heavy Metals and Radioactive Elements in Alluvial Soil using Atomic Absorption and Gamma Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, S.S.; Walley EI Dine, N.; Soliman, S.I.; Moussa, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes some methods dealing with measurements of some heavy and radioactive elements (U, Th and K) in Egyptian cultivated soil samples. Samples were collected from Toshka area. Also, soil and plant samples were collected from Kalube and EI - Gabal EI - Asfar to compare the obtained results from both region. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS),Neutron activation analysis (INAA) and Natural radioactivity techniques were followed. FAAS and INAA techniques agreed fairly well for the compared elements Co,Zn and Fe which determined by the two techniques. Also for K which was determined by FAAS and natural radioactivity. It was found that the concentration range in soil samples for Co, Fe, K and Zn lies between 4.18 and 29.2 μg/g, 3.0 and 3.8 mg/g, 3.49 and 13.28 mg/g and 120 and 663 μg/g respectively while in plant samples the concentration of Co was from 3.02 to 4.02 μg/g, Fe from 1.18 to 1.35 mg/g and Zn from 29.63 to 73.02 μg/g

  20. Worldwide biogenic soil NOx emissions inferred from OMI NO2 observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinken, G.C.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Maasakkers, J.D.; Adon, M.; Martin, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic NOx emissions from soils are a large natural source with substantial uncertainties in global bottom-up estimates (ranging from 4 to 15 Tg N yr-1). We reduce this range in emission estimates, and present a top-down soil NOx emission inventory for 2005 based on retrieved tropospheric NO2

  1. Worldwide biogenic soil NOx emissions inferred from OMI NO2 observations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinken, G.C.M.; Boersma, K.F.; Maasakkers, J.D.; Adon, M.; Martin, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic NOx emissions from soils are a large natural source with substantial uncertainties in global bottom-up estimates (ranging from 4 to 15 Tg N yr-1). We reduce this range in emission estimates, and present a top-down soil NOx emission inventory for 2005 based on retrieved tropospheric NO2

  2. Radioactive Cs in the Severely Contaminated Soils Near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, Makoto; Iwata, Hajime; Shiotsu, Hiroyuki; Masaki, Shota; Kawamoto, Yuji; Yamasaki, Shinya; Nakamatsu, Yuki; Imoto, Junpei; Furuki, Genki; Ochiai, Asumi [Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nanba, Kenji [Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Symbiotic System Science, Fukushima University, Fukushima (Japan); Ohnuki, Toshihiko [Advanced Science Research Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai (Japan); Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Geological Sciences, Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Utsunomiya, Satoshi, E-mail: utsunomiya.satoshi.998@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-09-01

    Radioactive Cs isotopes ({sup 137}Cs, t{sub 1/2} = 30.07 years and {sup 134}Cs, t{sub 1/2} = 2.062 years) occur in severely contaminated soils within a few kilometer of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant at concentrations that range from 4 × 10{sup 5} to 5 × 10{sup 7} Bq/kg. In order to understand the mobility of Cs in these soils, both bulk and submicron-sized particles elutriated from four surface soils have been investigated using a variety of analytical techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and analysis of the amount of radioactivity in sequential chemical extractions. Major minerals in bulk soil samples were quartz, feldspar, and minor clays. The submicron-sized particles elutriated from the same soil consist mainly of mica, vermiculite, and smectite and occasional gibbsite. Autoradiography in conjunction with SEM analysis confirmed the association of radioactive Cs mainly with the submicron-sized particles. Up to ~3 MBq/kg of {sup 137}Cs are associated with the colloidal size fraction (<1 μm), which accounts for ~78% of the total radioactivity. Sequential extraction of the bulk sample revealed that most Cs was retained in the residual fraction, confirming the high binding affinity of Cs to clays, aluminosilicate sheet structures. The chemistry of the fraction containing submicron-sized particles from the same bulk sample showed a similar distribution to that of the bulk sample, again confirming that the Cs is predominantly adsorbed onto submicron-sized sheet aluminosilicates, even in the bulk soil samples. Despite the very small particle size, aggregation of the particles prevents migration in the vertical direction, resulting in the retention of >98% of Cs within top ~5 cm of the soil. These results suggest that the mobility of the aggregates of submicron-sized sheet aluminosilicate in the surface environment is a key factor controlling the current Cs

  3. Transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants, rape blossoms and rape honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Klepsch, A.; Assmann-Wertmueller, U.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the test of atomic weapons and the accident in the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, the vegetation in Germany has been exposed to cesium contamination in the soil. It was to be expected that activity would migrate from soil to plants and to food products. In this work, the transfer of radioactive cesium from soil to rape plants (Brassica napus var. oleifera), rape blossoms and further to rape honey was investigated. By measuring the gamma activity of cesium using germanium detectors with measuring capacity up to 30 h per sample (limit of detection about 0.14 Bq/kg to 0.19 Bq/kg), we determined a mean transfer factor f cs = 0,116 ± 0,080 for the system soil-rape plant, f cs = 0.065 + 0.075 for the system soil-rape blossom and F!S = 0.098 + 0.044 for the system soil-rape honey (plants and honey wet mass, soil dry mass) (Table IV). Additionally, for the transfer of cesium from rape plants to rape honey, a factor of f cs = 2.04 ± 7.23 (both wet mass) was determined. Due to some environmental circumstances, which can hardly ever be taken into account, the results obtained sometimes differ considerably. Nevertheless, the mean transfer factors are within the range of values found in literature (Table V) [de

  4. Precise soil management as a tool to reduce CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosquera Losada, J.; Hol, J.M.G.; Rappoldt, C.; Dolfing, J.

    2007-01-01

    Soil compaction stimulates the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from agricultural soils. N2O and CH4 are potent greenhouse gases, with a global warming potential respectively 296 times and 23 times greater than CO2.. Agricultural soils are an important source of N2O. Hence there is

  5. Influence of ameliorating soil acidity with dolomite on the priming of soil C content and CO2 emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Wu, Lei; Peng, Qi-An; van Zwieten, Lukas; Chhajro, Muhammad Afzal; Wu, Yupeng; Lin, Shan; Ahmed, Muhammad Mahmood; Khalid, Muhammad Salman; Abid, Muhammad; Hu, Ronggui

    2017-04-01

    Lime or dolomite is commonly implemented to ameliorate soil acidity. However, the impact of dolomite on CO 2 emissions from acidic soils is largely unknown. A 53-day laboratory study was carried out to investigate CO 2 emissions by applying dolomite to an acidic Acrisol (rice-rapeseed rotation [RR soil]) and a Ferralsol (rice-fallow/flooded rotation [RF soil]). Dolomite was dosed at 0, 0.5, and 1.5 g 100 g -1 soil, herein referred to as CK, L, and H, respectively. The soil pH (H2O) increased from 5.25 to 7.03 and 7.62 in L and H treatments of the RR soil and from 5.52 to 7.27 and 7.77 in L and H treatments of the RF soil, respectively. Dolomite application significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased CO 2 emissions in both RR and RF soils, with higher emissions in H as compared to L dose of dolomite. The cumulative CO 2 emissions with H dose of dolomite were greater 136% in the RR soil and 149% in the RF soil as compared to CK, respectively. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased and reached at 193 and 431 mg kg -1 in the RR soil and 244 and 481 mg kg -1 in the RF soil by H treatments. The NH 4 - -N and NO 3 - -N were also increased by dolomite application. The increase in C and N contents stimulated microbial activities and therefore higher respiration in dolomite-treated soil as compared to untreated. The results suggest that CO 2 release in dolomite-treated soils was due to the priming of soil C content rather than chemical reactions.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides in soils and air of southern Mexico: Chemical profiles and potential for soil emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    The extent of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) contamination in southern Mexico was investigated in this study. Biweekly air samplings were carried out in two sites in the state of Chiapas (during 2002-2003), and one in each state of Veracruz and Tabasco (during 2003-2004). Corresponding to the air sampling locations, soil samples were also collected to gauge the soil-air exchange of OCs in the region. ∑DDTs in soils ranged from 0.057 to 360 ng g -1 whereas those in air ranged from 240 to 2400 pg m -3. DDT and metabolite DDE were expressed as fractional values, FDDTe = p, p'-DDT/( p, p'-DDT + p, p'-DDE) and FDDTo = p,p'-DDT/( p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT). FDDTe in soils ranged from 0.30 to 0.69 while those in air ranged from 0.45 to 0.84. FDDTe in air at a farm in Chiapas (0.84) was closer to that of technical DDT (0.95) which is suggestive of fresh DDT input. Enantiomer fractions (EF) of o,p'-DDT in air were racemic at all locations (0.500-0.504). However, nonracemic o,p'-DDT was seen in the soils (EFs = 0.456-0.647). Fugacities of OCs in soil ( fs) and air ( fa) were calculated, and the fugacity fraction, ff = fs/( fs + fa) of DDTs ranged from 0.013 to 0.97 which indicated a mix of net deposition ( ff 0.5) from soil among the sites. It is suggested that DDTs in Mexico air are due to a combination of ongoing regional usage and re-emission of old DDT residues from soils. Total toxaphene in soils ranged from 0.066 to 69 ng g -1 while levels in air ranged from 6.2 to 230 pg m -3. Chromatographic profiles of toxaphenes in both air and soil showed depletion of Parlar congeners 39 and 42. Fugacity fractions of toxaphene were within the equilibrium range or above the upper equilibrium threshold boundary. These findings suggested that soil emission of old residues is the main source of toxaphenes to the atmosphere. Results from this study provide baseline data for establishing a long-term OC monitoring program in Mexico.

  7. Nitrogen transformations and greenhouse gas emissions from a riparian wetland soil: An undisturbed soil column study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Leoz, Borja [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Antigueedad, Inaki [Department of Geodynamic, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48940 Leioa (Spain); Garbisu, Carlos [Department of Ecosystems, NEIKER-Tecnalia, E-48160 Derio (Spain); Ruiz-Romera, Estilita, E-mail: estilita.ruiz@ehu.es [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of the Basque Country, UPV/EHU, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Riparian wetlands bordering intensively managed agricultural fields can act as biological filters that retain and transform agrochemicals such as nitrate and pesticides. Nitrate removal in wetlands has usually been attributed to denitrification processes which in turn imply the production of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O). Denitrification processes were studied in the Salburua wetland (northern Spain) by using undisturbed soil columns which were subsequently divided into three sections corresponding to A-, Bg- and B2g-soil horizons. Soil horizons were subjected to leaching with a 200 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -} L{sup -1} solution (rate: 90 mL day{sup -1}) for 125 days at two different temperatures (10 and 20 {sup o}C), using a new experimental design for leaching assays which enabled not only to evaluate leachate composition but also to measure gas emissions during the leaching process. Column leachate samples were analyzed for NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration, NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentration, and dissolved organic carbon. Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) were determined in the undisturbed soil columns. The A horizon at 20 {sup o}C showed the highest rates of NO{sub 3}{sup -} removal (1.56 mg N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1}) and CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O production (5.89 mg CO{sub 2} kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1} and 55.71 {mu}g N-N{sub 2}O kg{sup -1} DW soil day{sup -1}). For the Salburua wetland riparian soil, we estimated a potential nitrate removal capacity of 1012 kg N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}, and potential greenhouse gas emissions of 5620 kg CO{sub 2} ha{sup -1} year{sup -1} and 240 kg N-N{sub 2}O ha{sup -1} year{sup -1}. - Research Highlights: {yields}A new experimental design is proposed for leaching assays to simulate nitrogen transformations in riparian wetland soil. {yields}Denitrification is the main process responsible for nitrate removal in the riparian zone of Salburua wetland. {yields

  8. Natural radioactivity levels and estimation of radiation exposure from soils in Bahi and Manyoni Districts in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkuba, Leonid L.; Nyanda, Pendo B.

    2017-01-01

    Soils from Bahi and Manyoni districts in Tanzania were analyzed for radioactivity. The radioactivity levels of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were measured by direct γ‐ray spectrometry using HPGe detector by Compton suppression method. The radioactivity concentration in soil were computed in arithmetic mean. The results from this study have been compared with those from other areas in Tanzania, different countries of the world and the world average radioactivity in the soil. To assess the radiological effects and hazards indices from natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K), the absorbed dose rate (DR), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR), the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the external (Hex), the alpha index (Iα) and the radioactivity level index (Iγ) were calculated. Except for DR in all the soil samples; Raeq, Hex and Iα exceeds the recommended limits due to high activity of 226 Ra in Membeta soils. Also Iγ was above the limits due to higher 226 Ra in soils from Membeta and 232 Th in Ilindi and Nala. Whilst the other radiological parameters (AEDE and ELCR) as well as the Raeq, Hex, Iα and Iγ in same areas were far below the recommended limits. However, this does not guarantee the safety. Therefore the probability of occurrence of the health effects from radiation is significant. The study recommends that the soils from Membeta should not be used as building material because they might expose the population to radiation. (author)

  9. Optimum Remediation Conditions of Vertical Electrokinetic-Flushing Equipment to Decontaminate a Radioactive Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gye Nam; Yang, Byeong IL; Moon, Jei Kwon; Lee, Kune Woo

    2009-01-01

    Vertical electrokintic-flushing remediation equipment was developed for the remediation of a radioactive soil near nuclear facilities. An optimum reagent was selected to decontaminate the radioactive soil near nuclear facilities with the developed vertical electrokintic-flushing remediation equipment, and the optimum remediation conditions were established to obtain a higher remediation efficiency. Namely, acetic acid was selected as an optimum reagent due to its higher remediation efficiency. When the electrokinetic remediation and the electrokinetic-flushing remediation results were compared, the removal efficiency of 4.6% and the soil waste solution volume of 1.5 times were increased in the electrokinetic remediation. When the potential gradient within an electrokinetic soil cell was increased by two times (4.0 V/cm), the removal efficiencies of Co 2+ and Cs + were increased by about 4.3%( Co 2+ : 98.9%, Cs + : 96.7%). Also, when the reagent concentration was increased from 0.01 M to 0.05 M, the removal efficiency of Co 2+ was increased but that of Cs + was decreased. Therefore, the optimum remediation conditions were that the acetic concentration was 0.01 M ∼ 0.05 M, the potential gradient was 4 V/cm, the injection of reagent 2.4 ml/g, and the remediation period was 20 days.

  10. Emission of CO2 Gas and Radioactive Pollutant from Coal Fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, N.Finahari; Djati-HS; Heni-Susiati

    2006-01-01

    Energy utilization for power plant in Indonesia is still depending on burning fossil fuel such as coal, oil and gaseous fuel. The direct burning of coal produces CO 2 gas that can cause air pollution, and radioactive pollutant that can increase natural radioactive dosage. Natural radionuclide contained in coal is in the form of kalium, uranium, thorium and their decay products. The amount of CO 2 gas emission produced by coal fired power plant can be reduced by equipping the plant with waste-gas treatment facility. At this facility, CO 2 gas is reacted with calcium hydroxide producing calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate then can be used as basic material in food, pharmaceutical and construction industries. The alternative method to reduce impact of air pollution is by replacing coal fuel with nuclear fuel or new and renewable fuel. (author)

  11. Residual radioactivity in the soil of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tsukatani, Tsuneo; Katayama, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with our efforts to survey residual readioactivity in the soil sampled at teh Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site and at off-site areas in Kazakhstan. The soil sampled at the hypocenter where the first Soviet nuclear explosion was carried out on 29 August 1949, and at the bank of the crater called open-quotes Bolapan,close quotes which was formed by an underground nuclear detonation on 15 January 1965 along the Shagan River. As a comparison, other soil was also sampled in the cities of Kurchatov and Almaty. These data have allowed a preliminary evaluation of the contemporary radioactive contamination of the land in and around the test site. At the first nuclear explosion site and at Bolapan, higher than background levels of 239,240 Pu with weapons-grade plutonium were detected together with fission and activation products such as 137 Cs, 60 Co, 152 Eu, and 154 Eu. 20 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Study of the migration of radioactive elements in soils ''in-place''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, P.; Grauby, A.

    The problems of medium protection against radioactive contamination hazards have led the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique--Service de Controle des Radiations et de Genie Radioactif to study the behavior of ions in soils. There are many theoretical researches and laboratory studies on the movement of radioelements in soil. But, with the difficulties for obtaining a similar result in field, we have developed a simple direct method of in place soil contamination. However, a principal drawback remains, the necessity to extrapolate from one or two reduced size samples to a large area. This is all the problem of sampling, which is not specific of our method. However, a choice justified by classical data, let us obtain a sufficient number of results and an accuracy which is suitable

  13. Radioactive contamination of the Dutch soil in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, H.W.; Mattern, F.C.M.; Pennders, R.M.J.

    1987-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl air, contaminated with radioactive materials, spread over the Netherlands. From 2nd May to 6th May, with dry and to a greater extent with wet deposits, important quantities of radionuclides came upon the earth surface. In this period the weather circumstances within the Netherlands differed strongly resulting in distinct variations in deposit. In this document a preliminary picture is given of the contamination of the Dutch bottom on the basis of soil samplings made in the first few months after the accident. No attention is paid to geographic differences in bottom contamination. The contamination of the bottom is expressed in Bq/kg dry soil as well as in Bq/m 2 soil. 5 refs.; 6 tabs. (H.W.)

  14. Instrumental basis utilizing a sodium iodide detector for radioactive soil evaluations for site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.I.

    1996-07-01

    This document provides the design rational for using a 5.08 by 5.08 cm (2 by 2 in.) sodium iodide detector to aid in boundary mapping of the radioactive contaminated soils at the Hanford Site. The detector can provide adequate response to a homogeneously contaminated soil volume of at least 1.22 to 1.52 m in diameter and up to 45.7 cm deep. The gamma activity basis is described by a soil column in a right circular cylinder that is uniformly isotopic. The detection techniques and characteristics are used to define contaminated areas requiring excavation by locating regions where gamma activities exceed cleanup standards. To determine the areas and boundary of contamination, the boundary and adjacent surfaces will be mapped using the detector operated in a windowed gross-gamma mode

  15. Study of the migration of radioactive elements in soils ''in-place''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovard, P.; Grauby, A.

    The problems of medium protection against radioactive contamination hazards have led the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique--Service de Controle des Radiations et de Genie Radioactif to study the behavior of ions in soils. There are many theoretical researches and laboratory studies on the movement of radioelements in soil. But, with the difficulties for obtaining a similar result in field, we have developed a simple direct method of in place soil contamination. However, a principal drawback remains, the necessity to extrapolate from one or two reduced size samples to a large area. This is all the problem of sampling, which is not specific of our method. However, a choice justified by classical data, let us obtain a sufficient number of results and an accuracy which is suitable.

  16. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activities range 24-231, 20-70, and 242-1434 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The geographic distribution of (238)U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of (238)U than of (232)Th. The (238)U activities become lower than (232)Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. (137)Cs activity ranges 0.4-86.8 kBq m(-2). The lowest activity of (137)Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The (137)Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to (137)Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Labile soil phosphorus as influenced by methods of applying radioactive phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaratnam, V.V.; Andersen, A.J.; Thomsen, J.D.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1980-03-01

    The influence of different methods of applying radioactive phosphorus on the E- and L-values was studied in four foil types using barley, buckwheat, and rye grass for the L-value determination. The four soils differed greatly in their E- and L-values. The experiment was carried out both with and without carrier-P. The presence of carrier-P had no influence on the E-values, while carrier-P in some cases gave a lower L-value. Both E- and L-values dependent on the method of application. When the 32 P was applied on a small soil or sand sample and dried before mixing with the total amount of soil, the E-values were higher than at direct application most likely because of a stronger fixation to the soil/sand particles. This was not the case for the L-values that are based on a much longer equilibrium time. On the contrary, the direct application of the 32 p-solution to the whole amount of soil gave higher L-values of a non-homogeneous distribution of the 32 p in the soil. (author)

  18. Evaluation of radioactive emissions of lignite-fired power plants in Turkey using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueke, Tayfun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive emissions of 13 lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these power plants, according to their radioactive emissions by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Control criteria are in particular 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 238 U emissions from the power plants. These control criteria are weighted according to the objective assessment. The calculations are repeated for three different objective assessments of control criteria namely the mortality risk coefficients for inhalation, ingestion, external exposure of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 238 U. It has been calculated that the Can lignite-fired power plant is ranking first while the Soma-B plant is ranking last according to the radioactive emissions of the power plants when the average of three different objective control criteria are used in the calculations. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of radioactive emissions of lignite-fired power plants in Turkey using the Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueke, Tayfun [Mugla Sitki Kocman Univ., Mugla (Turkey). Dept. of Energy Systems Engineering

    2013-11-15

    Radioactive emissions of 13 lignite-fired power plants in Turkey are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. The purpose of this study is to evaluate these power plants, according to their radioactive emissions by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Control criteria are in particular {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 238}U emissions from the power plants. These control criteria are weighted according to the objective assessment. The calculations are repeated for three different objective assessments of control criteria namely the mortality risk coefficients for inhalation, ingestion, external exposure of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 238}U. It has been calculated that the Can lignite-fired power plant is ranking first while the Soma-B plant is ranking last according to the radioactive emissions of the power plants when the average of three different objective control criteria are used in the calculations. (orig.)

  20. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  1. A Model for determination of screening levels for radioactive elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Ana C.; Hiromoto, Goro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: At the present, decision about clean-up of Brazilian sites contaminated with radioactive isotopes is addressed on a case-by-case basis, since there is no general guidance or recommendation to support actions in early phases of the problem identification. For chemicals, CETESB - the governmental organization responsible for preventing and controlling environmental pollution in Sao Paulo State - established quality reference values for prevention and intervention, as the first step to implement a remediation policy based on human health risk assessment. The aim of this study is to develop a methodology for the establishment of target values for radioactive soil contamination, as far as possible consistent and compatible with the approach adopted by CETESB for sites contaminated with chemicals. The following steps have been addressed in this study: conceptual scenario and model development; codification of the equations in an electronic spreadsheet; selection of proper input values; derivation of the intervention levels for selected radionuclides using Monte Carlo methods. The mathematical model developed was mainly based on the equations used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements for soil screening purposes. Results are presented for selected natural and man-made radioactive isotopes. (author)

  2. Natural Radioactivity in Soil and Water from Likuyu Village in the Neighborhood of Mkuju Uranium Deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat K. Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of high concentration uranium deposit at Mkuju, southern part of Tanzania, has brought concern about the levels of natural radioactivity at villages in the neighborhood of the deposit. This study determined the radioactivity levels of 30 soil samples and 20 water samples from Likuyu village which is 54 km east of the uranium deposit. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K were determined using low level gamma spectrometry of the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission (TAEC Laboratory in Arusha. The average radioactivity concentrations obtained in soil samples for 238U (51.7 Bq/kg, 232Th (36.4 Bq/kg, and 40K (564.3 Bq/kg were higher than the worldwide average concentrations value of these radionuclides reported by UNSCEAR, 2000. The average activity concentration value of 238U (2.35 Bq/L and 232Th (1.85 Bq/L in water samples was similar and comparable to their mean concentrations in the control sample collected from Nduluma River in Arusha.

  3. Effects of soil water content on the external exposure of fauna to radioactive isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2016-01-01

    Within a recent model intercomparison about radiological risk assessment for contaminated wetlands, the influence of soil saturation conditions on external dose rates was evidenced. This issue joined concerns of assessors regarding the choice of the soil moisture value to input in radiological assessment tools such as the ERICA Tool. Does it really influence the assessment results and how? This question was investigated under IAEA's Modelling and Data for Radiological Impacts Assessments (MODARIA) programme via 42 scenarios for which the soil water content varied from 0 (dry soil) to 100% (saturated soil), in combination with other parameters that may influence the values of the external dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) calculated for terrestrial organisms exposed in soil. A set of α, β, and γ emitters was selected in order to cover the range of possible emission energies. The values of their external DCCs varied generally within a factor 1 to 1.5 with the soil water content, excepted for β emitters that appeared more sensitive (DCCs within a factor of about 3). This may be of importance for some specific cases or for upper tiers of radiological assessments, when refinement is required. But for the general purpose of screening assessment of radiological impact on fauna and flora, current approaches regarding the soil water content are relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigations on the radioactive contamination of crop plants as a result of hydrogen-bomb detonation. I. Radioactive contamination of crop plants and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, S; Aso, S; Tensho, K; Kumazawa, K; Miyawaki, K

    1956-01-01

    Samples (74) of leaves, fruits, and other plant parts were collected in May 1955 after being subjected to radioactive fallout between March and May. Counts/min ranged from 1 to 259 on fresh samples. Radiation was strongest on rough-surfaced plants. Lower leaves of trees and grasses under trees showed only week radiation. Washing with H/sub 2/O was very effective but occassionally imperfect, indicating possible intake of fission products through roots and leaves. In August and September plant tissues were ashed extracted with HCl, and /sup 40/K precipitated with NH/sub 4/OH and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. Radioactivity ranged from 0 to 22 counts/min/10g dried plant material. No radioactivity was found in roots. Soil samples tested ranged from 2 to 47 counts/min for 5 g dry sample. Poorly drained soils were highest.

  5. Recycled scrap metal and soils/debris with low radioactive contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriker, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of large volume bulk shipments of materials with low radioactivity have characteristics that complicate compliance with normal transport regulations. Scrap metal for recycling sometimes contains radioactive material that was not known or identified by the shipper prior to it being offered for transport to a scrap recycle processor. If the radioactive material is not detected before the scrap is processed, radiological and economic problems may occur. If detected before processing, the scrap metal will often be returned to the shipper. Uranium mill-tailings and contaminated soils and debris have created potential public health problems that required the movement of large volumes of bulk material to isolated safe locations. Similarly, old radium processing sites have created contamination problems needing remediation. The US Department of Transportation has issued exemptions to shippers and carriers for returning rejected scrap metal to original shippers. Other exemptions simplify transport of mill-tailings and debris from sites being remediated. These exemptions provide relief from detailed radioassay of the radioactive content in each conveyance as well as relief from the normal requirements for packaging, shipping documents, marking, labelling, and placarding which would be required for some of the shipments if the exemptions were not issued. (Author)

  6. Offsetting global warming-induced elevated greenhouse gas emissions from an arable soil by biochar application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamminger, Chris; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Global warming will likely enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils. Due to its slow decomposability, biochar is widely recognized as effective in long-term soil carbon (C) sequestration and in mitigation of soil GHG emissions. In a long-term soil warming experiment (+2.5 °C, since July 2008) we studied the effect of applying high-temperature Miscanthus biochar (0, 30 t/ha, since August 2013) on GHG emissions and their global warming potential (GWP) during 2 years in a temperate agroecosystem. Crop growth, physical and chemical soil properties, temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (R s ), and metabolic quotient (qCO 2 ) were investigated to yield further information about single effects of soil warming and biochar as well as on their interactions. Soil warming increased total CO 2 emissions by 28% over 2 years. The effect of warming on soil respiration did not level off as has often been observed in less intensively managed ecosystems. However, the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration was not affected by warming. Overall, biochar had no effect on most of the measured parameters, suggesting its high degradation stability and its low influence on microbial C cycling even under elevated soil temperatures. In contrast, biochar × warming interactions led to higher total N 2 O emissions, possibly due to accelerated N-cycling at elevated soil temperature and to biochar-induced changes in soil properties and environmental conditions. Methane uptake was not affected by soil warming or biochar. The incorporation of biochar-C into soil was estimated to offset warming-induced elevated GHG emissions for 25 years. Our results highlight the suitability of biochar for C sequestration in cultivated temperate agricultural soil under a future elevated temperature. However, the increased N 2 O emissions under warming limit the GHG mitigation potential of biochar. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Stable and radioactive carbon in Indian soils: implications to soil carbon dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskar, A.H.; Yadava, M.G.; Ramesh, R.

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon is a very useful tool to study soil carbon dynamic. The mean residence time of SOC in Indian soils is about a century at the top 0-15 cm, increases linearly to reach values ranging from 2000 to 4000 yrs at a depth of 100 cm. It mainly depends on the clay content indicating that the clay is the main governing factor for SOC stabilization. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in soil carbonates and SOC are good proxies for paleoclimate and paleovegetation reconstruction. The present day sub-humid climate in the lower Narmada valley has been established prior to ∼ 3 ka. Two comparatively arid phases around 2.1 and 1.3 ka are recorded by oxygen isotopes of soil carbonates; consistent with other proxy records showing its regional significance

  8. Radioactivity. To better manage polluted soils and sites. Pargny-sur-Saulx, more than 15 years of interventions. Chef de Baie, radioactivity mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplin, Helene; Baumont, Genevieve; Tardieu, Laure; Brisson, Nicolas; Guillevic, Jerome; Serres, Christophe; Barrieu, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    A set of articles proposes an overview of the various actions performed by the IRSN for the management of sites and soils polluted by radioactive substances. A first article outlines the need for a national strategy to manage about forty polluted sites, the lack of a waste elimination sector (the storage is organised, but not the elimination), the action of the IRSN in mapping the radioactivity, in assessing the associated exposure, and in supporting decontamination actions. Costs, benefits, risks and actors are also evoked. A second article describes the various interventions organised over 15 years to manage a site which had been contaminated by the thorium from an ancient plant: site safety, interviews of personnel, elimination of all significant radioactivity. The last article addresses the case of another site, Chef de Baie in La Rochelle, which had been used as a deposit for contaminated materials produced by a neighbouring plant, and where the IRSN intervened to map the radioactivity

  9. Natural radioactivity levels of geothermal waters and their influence on soil and agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murat Saç, Müslim; Aydemir, Sercan; Içhedef, Mutlu; Kumru, Mehmet N; Bolca, Mustafa; Ozen, Fulsen

    2014-01-01

    All over the world geothermal sources are used for different purposes. The contents of these waters are important to understand positive/negative effects on human life. In this study, natural radioactivity concentrations of geothermal waters were investigated to evaluate the effect on soils and agricultural activities. Geothermal water samples were collected from the Seferihisar Geothermal Region, and the radon and radium concentrations of these waters were analysed using a collector chamber method. Also soil samples, which are irrigated with geothermal waters, were collected from the surroundings of geothermal areas, and natural radioactivity concentrations of collected samples (U, Th and K) were determined using an NaI(Tl) detector system. The activity concentrations of radon and radium were found to be 0.6-6.0 and 0.1-1.0 Bq l(-1), respectively. Generally, the obtained results are not higher compared with the geothermal waters of the world. The activity concentrations in soils were found to be in the range of 3.3-120.3 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra (eU), 0.3-108.5 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th (eTh), 116.0-850.0 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K (% K).

  10. Radioactivity measurement in soils, sediments and water from Salihli Basin, western Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakac, M.; Kumru, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Salihli Basin (about 3500 km 2 ), which is located latitude 38 deg 25' - 38 deg 35' North and longitude 27 deg 58' - 28 deg 25' East, is found on the river of Gediz the second longest river in Aegean Sea. The Gediz river originates in the vicinity of Murat Mountain and flows into the Aegean Sea in western Turkey. Gediz river carries industry effluents and mine discharges frequently inundates its flood plains. Salihli Basin is also one of the flood plain basins which has these properties The bedrock structure of the basin is composed mainly of metamorphic and volcanic rocks of the Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and Neogene ages. Uranium deposits in the Koprubasi area (Salihli Basin) of western Turkey occur in fluvial sedimentary rocks, which Lire underlaid by high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif. In the present study, soil, sediment and water samples were collected from the basin, its environment and riverbank. Sediment and soil samples were analysed for uranium, thorium and potassium by gamma-spectroscopy method; for radium by collector chamber method. Water samples were analysed for radium by collector chamber method. Moreover, groundwaters and streams' soils, sediments and waters within the basin were analysed for above natural radioactive elements. The objective of this, study is to determine the level of natural radioactivity in Salihli Basin. Uranium, thorium, potassium und radium concentrations and their frequency distributions were plotted graphically

  11. Radioactivity And Dose Assessment Of Rock And Soil Samples From Homa Mountain, Homa Bay County, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otwoma, D.; Patel, J.P.; Bartilol, S.; Mustapha, A.O.

    2013-01-01

    The in situ measured average outdoor absorbed dose rate in air was found to vary from 108.4 to 1596.4 n Gy h -1 at Homa Mountain area in southwestern Kenya. Rock and soil samples collected gave average values of the radioactivity concentrations of 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th of 915.6, 195.3 and 409.5 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The range of the annual effective dose for a person living in Homa Mountain area calculated varied from 28.6 to 1681.2, with a mean of 470.4 μSv. These results imply Homa Mountain have elevated levels of natural radioactivity thus the region is a high background radiation area

  12. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples in the Republic of Serbia for the period 1999-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremic Savkovic, M.; Pantelic, G.; Javorina, L.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vuletic, V.

    2002-01-01

    The soil is the basic environment of migration of radionuclides into plants, from which they reach the people and animals through food. The type of soil affects the distribution of radionuclides in the soil itself and their transfer into plants, respectively. Systemic testing of radioactivity of soils is performed on specific locations in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in particular time periods according to methods defined by regulations. As result of NATO aggression and use of ammunition with depleted uranium in 1999, the existing radioactivity monitoring program of Yugoslavia was modified. Besides measurement of activity of artificial radionuclides, that were present in living environment after Chernobyl accident in 1986, the testing of activity of natural radionuclides, especially of uranium, was carried out as well. Uranium in Serbia derives from natural sources, considering the geological composition of rocks and geochemical composition of soil, and their concentrations as well as the concentrations of its descendants represent the significant component of natural sources of ionizing irradiation. In Serbia, the major uranium sources are igneous, carbonic and sedimentary rocks, and granite. According to perennial geological investigation of uranium in our country, several geological regions have been found to have uranium in higher or lower concentration. The uranium concentration in these regions ranged from 0.003g/t for ultra basic rocks to 3.5g/t for igneous, sedimentary rocks and granite. One of considerable uranium sources is specific technological procedure in industry such as production and combustion of coal in thermal plants, production of phosphate mineral fertilizers, production of phosphoric acid, phosphoric plaster, etc

  13. Selection of innovative technologies for the remediation of soils contaminated with radioactive and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steude, J.; Tucker, B.

    1991-01-01

    The remediation of sites containing radioactive and mixed wastes is in a period of rapid growth. The state of the art of remediation is progressing to handle the shortcomings of conventional pump and treat or disposal technologies. The objective of this paper is to review the status of selected innovative technologies which treat soils contaminated with radioactive and mixed waste. Technologies are generally classified as innovative if they are fully developed, but lack sufficient cost or performance data for comparison with conventional technologies. The Environmental Protection Agency recommends inclusion of innovative technologies in the RI/FS screening process if there is reason to believe that they would offer advantages in performance, implementability, cost, etc. This paper serves as a compilation of the pertinent information necessary to gain an overview of the selected innovative technologies to aid in the RI/F'S screening process. The innovative technologies selected for evaluation are listed below. Bioremediation, although innovative, was not included due to the combination of the vast amount of literature on this subject and the limited scope of this project. 1. Soil washing and flushing; 2. Low temperature thermal treatment; 3. Electrokinetics; 4. Infrared incineration; 5. Ultrasound; 6. In situ vitrification; 7. Soil vapor extraction; 8. Plasma torch slagging; 9. In situ hot air/steam extraction; 10. Cyclone reactor treatment; 11. In situ radio frequency; 12. Vegetative radionuclide uptake; and 13. In situ soil heating. The information provided on each technology includes a technical description, status, summary of results including types of contaminants and soils treated, technical effectiveness, feasibility and estimated cost

  14. Gamma-ray measurements of natural radioactivity in cultivated and reclaimed soil, Upper Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.E.; Taha, S.

    2007-01-01

    Specific activity of primordial radionuclides in soil samples from 10 different locations in Qena governorate and wadi Elakita were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. A total of 50 soil samples were collected from different sorts of soil with depth ranged from 0 - 25 cm . The energy peaks used were: 352.0 KeV of 214 Pb and 609.3, 1120.3 and 1764.5 KeV of 214 Bi for 226 Ra. In the case of 232 Th the energy peaks used were: 238.6 KeV of 212 Pb, 2615 of 208 Ti and 911.1 KeV of 228 Ac. While the radioactivity of 40 K was obtained from the single photopeak of this isotope at 1460.75 KeV. The total uncertainty of the obtained values of the radioactivity was calculated from the systematic and the random error of the measurements. Concentrations of radionuclides in soils analyzed in this study ranged from 7.5 to 85.5, 7.2 to 19.3 and 77.3 to 267.5 with mean values are 18.8 ± 3.4, 11.4 ± 3.4 and 150.8 ±12.3 (Bq.kg -1 ) for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ,respectively. The results obtained were compared with those from other studies in the world. The radiological health implication to the population that may result from these values is found to be very low and almost insignificant. No artificial radionuclide, however, was detected in any of the samples, hence, measurements have been taken as representing baseline values of these radionuclides in the soil in studying areas

  15. Multivariate regulation of soil CO2 and N2 O pulse emissions from agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liyin L; Grantz, David A; Jenerette, G Darrel

    2016-03-01

    Climate and land-use models project increasing occurrence of high temperature and water deficit in both agricultural production systems and terrestrial ecosystems. Episodic soil wetting and subsequent drying may increase the occurrence and magnitude of pulsed biogeochemical activity, affecting carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we provide the first data to explore the responses of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes to (i) temperature, (ii) soil water content as percent water holding capacity (%WHC), (iii) substrate availability throughout, and (iv) multiple soil drying and rewetting (DW) events. Each of these factors and their interactions exerted effects on GHG emissions over a range of four (CO2 ) and six (N2 O) orders of magnitude. Maximal CO2 and N2 O fluxes were observed in environments combining intermediate %WHC, elevated temperature, and sufficient substrate availability. Amendments of C and N and their interactions significantly affected CO2 and N2 O fluxes and altered their temperature sensitivities (Q10 ) over successive DW cycles. C amendments significantly enhanced CO2 flux, reduced N2 O flux, and decreased the Q10 of both. N amendments had no effect on CO2 flux and increased N2 O flux, while significantly depressing the Q10 for CO2 , and having no effect on the Q10 for N2 O. The dynamics across DW cycles could be attributed to changes in soil microbial communities as the different responses to wetting events in specific group of microorganisms, to the altered substrate availabilities, or to both. The complex interactions among parameters influencing trace gas fluxes should be incorporated into next generation earth system models to improve estimation of GHG emissions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Monitoring soil greenhouse gas emissions from managed grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands in Central Europe are of enormous social, ecological and economical importance. They are intensively managed, but the influence of different common practices (i.e. fertilization, harvesting) on the total greenhouse gas budget of grasslands is not fully understood, yet. In addition, it is unknown how these ecosystems will react due to climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing precipitation will likely have an effect on productivity of grasslands and on bio-geo-chemical processes responsible for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the frame of the TERENO Project (www.tereno.net), a long-term observatory has been implemented in the Ammer catchment, southern Germany. Acting as an in situ global change experiment, 36 big lysimeters (1 m2 section, 150 cm height) have been translocated along an altitudinal gradient, including three sites ranging from 600 to 860 meters above sea level. In addition, two treatments have been considered, corresponding to different management intensities. The overall aim of the pre-alpine TERENO observatory is improving our understanding of the consequences of climate change and management on productivity, greenhouse gas balance, soil nutritional status, nutrient leaching and hydrology of grasslands. Two of the sites are equipped with a fully automated measurement system in order to continuously and accurately monitor the soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange. Thus, a stainless steel chamber (1 m2 section, 80 cm height) is controlled by a robotized system. The chamber is hanging on a metal structure which can move both vertically and horizontally, so that the chamber is able to be set onto each of the lysimeters placed on the field. Furthermore, the headspace of the chamber is connected with a gas tube to a Quantum Cascade Laser, which continuously measures CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O mixing ratios. The chamber acts as a static chamber and sets for 15 minutes onto each lysimeter

  17. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.

  18. Factors influencing U(VI adsorption onto soil from a candidate very low level radioactive waste disposal site in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Rui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of soil at disposal sites are very important for geological disposal of very low level radioactive waste in terms of U(VI. In this study, soil from a candidate very low level radioactive waste disposal site in China was evaluated for its capacity on uranium sorption. Specifically, the equilibrium time, initial concentration, soil particle, pH, temperature, and carbonate were evaluated. The results indicated that after 15-20 days of sorption, the Kd value fluctuated and stabilized at 355-360 mL/g. The adsorptive capacity of uranium was increased as the initial uranium concentration increased, while it decreased as the soil particle size increased. The pH value played an important role in the U(VI sorption onto soil, especially under alkaline conditions, and had a great effect on the sorption capacity of soil for uranium. Moreover, the presence of carbonate decreased the sorption of U(VI onto soil because of the role of the strong complexation of carbonate with U(VI in the groundwater. Overall, this study assessed the behavior of U(VI sorption onto natural soil, which would be an important factor in the geological barrier of the repository, has contribution on mastering the characteristic of the adsorption of uranium in the particular soil media for the process of very low level radioactive waste disposal.

  19. Determination of moisture content and natural radioactivity in soils using gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Hady, E E [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Qater University (Qatar); El-Sayed, A M.A.; Alaa, H B [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The gamma-ray transmission method has been used to study the soil-water properties in the laboratory as well as in the field. The present measurements were performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy system based on a 5 x 5 cm Nal (T 1) scintillation detector and combined sources ({sup 137} Cs and {sup 241} Am). The two sources are placed in a suitable lead collimator to obtain a pin beam of 1 mm diameter. Suitable samples of clay and sandy soils obtained from the local field were prepared to determine the water content and the soil bulk densities by the combined method for different moisture stages. From the results obtained, it is clear that the soil density at both stages (saturated and after drainage) remains the same. this is because the soil particles do not rearrange during the wetting and drying process. The full results will be presented in the text. Natural radioactivity of the investigated samples was also studied using gamma-ray spectrometer having HPGe detector. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of natural gamma radiations revealed the presence of {sup 40} K, {sup 214} Bi, {sup 208} TI and {sup 228} Ac in meaningful concentrations. 3 figs.

  20. Assessment and prediction of the scales of radioactive contamination of the environment by emissions from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elokhin, A.P.; Solovei, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    The assessment of radioactive contamination of the air basin and underlying surface in the direction of emission reduces to determining the volume activity of the radioactive impurity in air, the surface activity on the underlying surface of the radioactive impurity is known at least approximately (for example, it can be set on the basis of the technological regulations at the nuclear power plant or according to the criterion of levels during an accident), by using exposure-dose-rate sensors in a network of posts of the automatic system for monitoring the radiation environment (ASMRE), which are placed on the industrial area of the nuclear power plant, in the shielded zone and in the observation zone, it is possible to determine more accurately the magnitude of the emission and, therefore, to estimate the scale of the radioactive contamination of the medium

  1. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues

  2. Multidimensional flow of radioactive gases through the soil surrounding an underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkelacker, A.

    1980-01-01

    In connection with the underground siting of nuclear power plants the spreading of radioactive gases that are released into the soil coverage after a hypothetical accident is investigated. A physical model is presented that includes the isothermal one- and two-component flow of ideal gases through an inhomogeneous porous medium on the basis of Darcy's law. Based on this model a computer code has been developed that permits the calculation of transient pressure and concentration distributions in inhomogeneous porous media in one to three dimensions, as well as the determination of retention times. (orig.) [de

  3. Mechanistic modeling of reactive soil nitrogen emissions across agricultural management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Q. Z.; Miller, D. J.; Bash, J. O.; Venterea, R. T.; Cooter, E. J.; Hastings, M. G.; Cohan, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The global reactive nitrogen (N) budget has increased by a factor of 2-3 from pre-industrial levels. This increase is especially pronounced in highly N fertilized agricultural regions in summer. The reactive N emissions from soil to atmosphere can be in reduced (NH3) or oxidized (NO, HONO, N2O) forms, depending on complex biogeochemical transformations of soil N reservoirs. Air quality models like CMAQ typically neglect soil emissions of HONO and N2O. Previously, soil NO emissions estimated by models like CMAQ remained parametric and inconsistent with soil NH3 emissions. Thus, there is a need to more mechanistically and consistently represent the soil N processes that lead to reactive N emissions to the atmosphere. Our updated approach estimates soil NO, HONO and N2O emissions by incorporating detailed agricultural fertilizer inputs from EPIC, and CMAQ-modeled N deposition, into the soil N pool. EPIC addresses the nitrification, denitrification and volatilization rates along with soil N pools for agricultural soils. Suitable updates to account for factors like nitrite (NO2-) accumulation not addressed in EPIC, will also be made. The NO and N2O emissions from nitrification and denitrification are computed mechanistically using the N sub-model of DAYCENT. These mechanistic definitions use soil water content, temperature, NH4+ and NO3- concentrations, gas diffusivity and labile C availability as dependent parameters at various soil layers. Soil HONO emissions found to be most probable under high NO2- availability will be based on observed ratios of HONO to NO emissions under different soil moistures, pH and soil types. The updated scheme will utilize field-specific soil properties and N inputs across differing manure management practices such as tillage. Comparison of the modeled soil NO emission rates from the new mechanistic and existing schemes against field measurements will be discussed. Our updated framework will help to predict the diurnal and daily variability

  4. Discovery of the radioactive decay of 223Ra by 14C emission and experiments with the magnetic spectrometer Soleno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourani, E.; Hussonnois, M.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this report is to review the experiment of Rose and Jones (discovery in 1984 of radioactive decay of 223 Ra by 14 C nuclei emission) with the subsequent one of Alexandrov (et al) performed with the same technique. The experiments performed by the group at Orsay on 14 C radioactivity of radium isotopes with the magnetic spectrometer Soleno are also reviewed. This review comprises the presentation and comments of the original results and arguments taken in their historical context

  5. Use of engineered soils and other site modifications for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requires that low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities be designed to minimize contact between waste and infiltrating water through the use of site design features. The purpose of this investigation is to identify engineered barriers and evaluate their ability to enhance the long-term performance of an LLW disposal facility. Previously used barriers such as concrete overpacks, vaults, backfill, and engineered soil covers, are evaluated as well as state-of-the-art barriers, including an engineered sorptive soil layer underlying a facility and an advanced design soil cover incorporating a double-capillary layer. The purpose of this investigation is also to provide information in incorporating or excluding specific engineered barriers as part of new disposal facility designs. Evaluations are performed using performance assessment modeling techniques. A generic reference disposal facility design is used as a baseline for comparing the improvements in long-term performance offered by designs incorporating engineered barriers in generic and humid environments. These evaluations simulate water infiltration through the facility, waste leaching, radionuclide transport through the facility, and decay and ingrowth. They also calculate a maximum (peak annual) dose for each disposal system design. A relative dose reduction factor is calculated for each design evaluated. The results of this investigation are presented for concrete overpacks, concrete vaults, sorptive backfill, sorptive engineered soil underlying the facility, and sloped engineered soil covers using a single-capillary barrier and a double-capillary barrier. Designs using combinations of barriers are also evaluated. These designs include a vault plus overpacks, sorptive backfill plus overpacks, and overpack with vault plus sorptive backfill, underlying sorptive soil, and engineered soil cover

  6. Natural environmental radioactivity and estimation of radiation exposure from saline soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, N.; Tufail, M.; Ashraf, M.

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted for the investigation of amount of radioactivity in the barren and cultivated soil of Bio saline Research Station in Pakka Anna, established by Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology in 1990, 34 km. away from the city of Faisalabd, in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. The studies were done on an area of about 100 hectares of two types of virgin and fertilized saline soils. The technique of gamma ray spectrometry was applied using High Purity Germanium gamma ray detector and a P C based MCA. Activity concentration levels due to 40 K, 137 Cs, 226 Ra and 232 Th were measured in 250 saline soil samples collected at a spacing of about 4 hectares at the depth level of 0-25 cm. with a step of 5 cm. depth. Activity concentration ranges of the concerned radionuclides for both of the soils were as follows: 40 K, for virgin and cultivated saline soil was 500-610.2 and Bq/kg 560.2-635.6 respectively; 137 Cs, 3.57-3.63 and 1.98-5.15 Bq/kg 238 U, 26.3-31.6 and 30.6-38.7 Bq/kg, and 232 Th, 50.6-55.3 and 50.6-64.0 Bq/kg respectively. The absorbed dose rate in air lies in the region 63-73 nGyh -1 and 68-83 nGyh -1 for virgin and fertilized soils respectively. This indicates that this region lies in the area of higher radiation background, while comparing with the worlds' average. The slightly higher value of dose in the fertilized farm may be due to the use of fertilizers for cultivation. Before the radiometric measurements, chemical analysis for concentration of Na, Ca and Mg was also carried out along with the measurement of electrical conductivity and p H of the soil samples

  7. Characterization of waste products prepared from radioactive contaminated clayey soil cemented according to the GEODUR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.; Vinther, A.

    1990-11-01

    Radioactive contaminated soil may arise due to accidents of various types or may be detected during decommisioning of nuclear installations. Ordinary surface soil cannot normally be conditioned using conventional cementation processes since the content of humic materials retards or prevents the solidification. An additive available from the Danish firm Geodur A/S makes it possible to circumvent this difficulty and to produce a monolithic, nondusting waste type using rather small amounts of cement. The report describes work on characterization of such a cemented waste product prepared on basis of clayey top soil from the Risoe area. The claimed advantages of the process was verified, and data for the compression strength (low), hydraulic conductivity (satisfactory) and other pore structure-related properties are given for the obtained products. Unfortunately the behaviour of cesium and strontium, representing two of the most relevant radionuclides, was not too promising. The retention of cesium is satisfactory, but less good than for the untreated soil. Greatly improved cesium retention after drying of the materials was noticed. Good retention of strontium is only obtained after reaction of the material with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The behaviour of the two isotopes in other types of cemented waste is somewhat similar, but the decrease in retention compared with untreated soil makes the process less interesting as a possibility for remedial actions after accidents, etc. Some further studies of the cemented soil waste are beeing made within the frame of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Studies. Elements forming low solublity components in the high pH environment in the cemented soil will probably be retained quite efficiently. This was demonstrated in case of Zn. (author) 11 tabs., 22 ills., 8 refs

  8. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate of soil in southern Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; El-Bahi, S.M.; Ahmed, F.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The level of natural radioactivity in soil of 30 mining samples collected from six locations in southern Egypt was measured. Concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by γ-ray spectrometer using HPGe detector with a specially designed shield. The obtained results of uranium and thorium series as well as potassium (K-40) are discussed. The present data were compared with data obtained from different areas in Egypt. Also, a solid state nuclear track detector SSNTD (Cr-39) was used to measure the radon concentration as well as exhalation rate for these samples. The radon concentrations were found to vary from 1.54 to 5.37 Bq/kg. The exhalation rates were found to vary from 338.81 to 1426.47 Bq/m 2 d. The values of the radon exhalation rate are found to correspond with the uranium concentration values measured by the germanium detector in the corresponding soil samples

  9. Natural gamma radioactivity and of 137 Cs in soil of the Chimaltitan municipality, Jalisco, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay, A.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Rios, C.; Lugo, J.F.; Soriano, J.M.; Angoli, A.

    2003-01-01

    With the purpose of determining the activity due to the natural presence of the 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil samples, of the municipality of Chimaltitan Jalisco. A set of these samples was measured in a gamma ray spectrometric system based on a High-purity Germanium detector. It is well-known that approximately 87% of the dose of the received radiation by the population is due to sources of natural radiation and 13% of the anthropogenic radiation. The gamma radiation comes mainly from the 40 K and of those radionuclides of the series of radioactive decay of 238 U and 232 Th that its find dispersed thoroughly in the terrestrial crust. In this work its were analyzed twenty-two soil samples. It is enlarged the activity characterization for the radioisotopes of 226 Ra 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs. (Author)

  10. Natural Radioactivity Measurements in Soil and Phosphate Samples from El-Sabaea, Aswan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, S.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Abd El-Mageed, A.I.; Negm, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge on radioactivity content of the various radionuclides in the soil and rocks play an important role in health physics. The main aim of this work is to estimate the concentrations of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 232 Th and 40 k in soil and phosphate samples and, impact of the El-Sabaea phosphate factory on the human health. This can be investigated via gamma-ray spectroscopy by 2 x 2 inch NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The range of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40k were from 59.7±6.7 to 638.3±31.0, from 9.4±1.4 to 40.6±6.3, from 213.1±9.5 to 798.9±30.6 in Bq/kg respectively

  11. Sampling methods for pasture, soil and deposition for radioactivity emergency preparedness in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare sampling techniques for pasture, soil and deposition, planned for radioactivity surveillance in emergency situations in the Nordic countries. The basis of the survey was a questionnaire, sent to radiation protection authorities and laboratories. Sampling of pasture is performed with a cutting height between 1 and 5 cm above the ground from an area of about 1 m 2 . The sampling plots are usually randomly positioned. Soil samples, 3 to 20 cores in various patterns, are generally taken by a corer of varying diameter. For deposition sampling, precipitation collectors of different sizes are used. When comparing results, the differences between laboratories should be borne in mind so that proper corrections can be made. It is, however, important to consider that, especially in an emergency situation, the use of standardised methods may worsen the results if these methods are not part of the daily work. (orig.)

  12. Radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic area in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngachin, M. [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien, UMR7178 CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 rue de Loess, BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 02 (France)], E-mail: mngachin@yahoo.com; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA), 91 via Tavagnacco, 33100 Udine (Italy); Kwato Njock, M.G. [Center for Atomic, Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, University of Douala, P.O. Box 8580, Douala (Cameroon); Nourreddine, A. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert-Curien, UMR7178 CNRS-IN2P3 and Universite Louis Pasteur, 23 rue de Loess, BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 02 (France)

    2008-07-15

    The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. Thirty soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon Mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11-17 Bq kg{sup -1}, 22-36 Bq kg{sup -1} and 43-201 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, respectively. The radioisotope {sup 137}Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor was estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 1988. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. United Nations, New York; UNSCEAR, 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. United Nations, New York]. A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7-10.8 kBq m{sup -3} and 5.5-8.7 kBq m{sup -3} in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with {gamma}-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south

  13. Radioactivity level and soil radon measurement of a volcanic area in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngachin, M.; Garavaglia, M.; Giovani, C.; Kwato Njock, M.G.; Nourreddine, A.

    2008-01-01

    The radioactivity level of soils in a volcanic area in Cameroon was determined and discussed. Thirty soils samples were collected from Buea and Limbe cities located in the south-western Cameroon. These two regions are known for theirs volcanic grounds due to the presence of Mount Cameroon Mountain. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides as well as that of the fission product were evaluated by gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-purity germanium detector (HPGe). The ranges of concentrations in the surveyed soils were 11-17 Bq kg -1 , 22-36 Bq kg -1 and 43-201 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The radioisotope 137 Cs was also found but in a very small amount. The outdoor absorbed dose rate 1 m above ground with the corresponding annual effective dose rate, assuming a 20% occupancy factor was estimated. The radium equivalent and the external hazard index were also evaluated and results are compared with available data from other studies and with the world average value [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), 1988. Sources, Effects and Risks of Ionizing Radiation. Report to the General Assembly on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. United Nations, New York; UNSCEAR, 2000. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiations. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes. United Nations, New York]. A solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD), LR-115 was used for soil radon measurements at a depth of 50 cm. The ranges of soil radon concentrations were 6.7-10.8 kBq m -3 and 5.5-8.7 kBq m -3 in Buea and Limbe, respectively. A positive correlation was found between concentrations of radium measured with γ-spectrometry and the soil radon concentrations measured with the nitrate cellulose detectors. The results of this study provide the radioactivity level in soil of a volcanic area, which has been found to be within the safety limits. The south-western Cameroon can be considered as having normal

  14. Radioactivity measurements and risk assessments in soil samples at south and middle of Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kinani, A.; Al Dosari, M.; Amr, M.A.; Al-Saad, K.A.; Helal, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Health risks associated with the exposure to the natural radioactivity present in soil materials has great concern all over the world. Thus soil samples collected from an urban area at south and middle of Qatar in order to measure natural radioactivity, 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th and the artificial 137 Cs using gamma-ray spectrometry method.The soil activity concentrations ranges from 25.01- 40.31 for 226 Ra, 12.37- 4.99 for 232 Th and 133.8 - 250.1 for 40 K with mean values of 57, 87 and 207 Bq/ kg, respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides are compared with the available data from other countries. The average and ranges of activity concentration of 226 Ra in Qatar soil areas are very much comparable to the world Figures. However, the concentration for 232 Th is comparable to other Gulf area and lower than that for Egypt and the world figures.The concentration for 40 K is lower as compared with Egypt, world, and Kuwait figures but comparable to Oman figures.The radium equivalent activity (Ra eq) in these soil samples ranges from 74.45 Bq/ kg to 41.21 Bq/ kg) with mean value of 57.4 Bq/ kg which is far below the safe limit (permissible) limit (370 Bq/ kg). The calculated values for external hazard index Hex for the soil samples range from 0.102 - 0.21 and average concentration of 0.164 which is lower than other values reported .However these values are lower than unity; therefore, the soil from these regions is safe and can be used as a construction material without posing any significant radiological threat to population.The absorbed dose rate calculated from activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K ranges between 11.529 - 21.446, 2.383 - 11.744, and 5.304 -10.357 n Gy/ h, respectively and the total average absorbed dose rate 28.915 n Gy/ h which are lower than the world wide average absorbed dose rate 51 n Gy/ h. The total absorbed dose in the study area ranges from 20.146 - 40.389 n Gy/ h with an average value of 28.915 n Gy/ h .The

  15. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M.; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-01-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of 238 U, 232 Th, 137 Cs and 40 K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K activities range 24–231, 20–70, and 242–1434 Bq kg −1 respectively. The geographic distribution of 238 U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of 238 U than of 232 Th. The 238 U activities become lower than 232 Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. 137 Cs activity ranges 0.4–86.8 kBq m −2 . The lowest activity of 137 Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The 137 Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to 137 Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. - Highlights: • A monitoring campaign of agricultural soils was carried out in Lombardia, Italy. • 156 topsoils were sampled according to the European standard

  16. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil from heavy metals and cobalt radioactive isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Raouf, M.W.; Abdel Aziz, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present work presents a simple and inexpensive method for the in situ electrokinetic remediation of simulated contamined soil samples. Soil samples were collcted at inshas site (Egypt) at different depths 2-4, 4-6, and 6-8 m, purified from large and hard lumps, and characterized. To improve their hydraulic mobility, equal weights from the simulated soil and sand (0.5kg) were throughly mixed. The soil mixtures were dried under an infrared lamp, ground to a fine powder using a hand mortar. In this study, the soil samples were loaded separately by 250 ml CuSo 4 (1M) for Cu 2+ or CdCl 2 (1M) for Cd 2+ ,/or with simulated aqueous radioactive solution of 60 Co. Contaminated soil samples were left in contact with contaminant solutions for 48 hours in a closed container. Oven dried loaded soils samples were wasted five times by water to remove the free cations; then intial contaminant concentration of copper, calmium, and cobalt in soil samples was measured. To permit for the passage of electric current, loaded soil samples were wet with synthetic ground water (100 ml). A bench scale cell (13.0 cm x 6.0 cm x 6.5 cm) made from plexiglas was packed with 0.2 kg soil sample. A platinum sheet (4 cm x 0.5 cm x 0.05 cm) represented the anode; a graphite bar (iameter 0.5 cm and height 4 cm) represented the cathode, 6.0 cm apart from the anode. In the cell, the applied electric current and potential difference was kept constant at 60 mA and 10V, respectively for three hours treatment duration. The used electrodes were immersed into fired clay pottery bodies (net internal volume 15 ml) full with synthetic ground water. Percent of removal (P r ) of Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , and 60 Co obtained after three hours waslarger than 97% at current density 2.2mA.cm -2 , and energy consumption 0.12 W.h.kg -1 . The advantages of the applied technique included the close control over the direction of movement of water and dissolved contsminants, retention of the contaminants within a confined zone

  17. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  18. Interactions between microbial-feeding and predatory soil fauna trigger N2O emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thakur, M.P.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Kuiper, I.; Deyn, de G.B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that microbial-feeding invertebrate soil fauna species can significantly contribute to N2O emissions. However, in soil food webs microbial-feeding soil fauna interact with each other and with their predators, which affects microbial activity. To date we lack empirical tests

  19. The CO2 emission in urbanic soils in the conditions of intensive technogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviatova, Tatiana; Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena; Kramareva, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    Massive industrial pollution of the environment including soils leads to drastic changes in the vital activity of microorganisms, plants and animals. As objects of research was selected soils of the industrial and residential zones, farmland soils, forest soils. Comparative analysis showed that the emission of CO2 urbanizable increase compared to the suburban soils in recreational areas is 1.5 times, in the residential and industrial zones - in 3-5 times. In addition, identified a local point located in the vicinity of chemical plants, where soil CO2 emission increased up to 40 times compared to the suburban soils. Air technogenic pollution of soils by industrial emissions and transport enhances the mineralization of soil organic matter, increases its lability. These trends are associated with nonspecific adaptive reactions of the soil microbial complex in terms of pollution. Strengthening of the processes of mineralization may be due to the increase in the proportion of fungi in the microbial community. According to numerous reports they are more resistant to pollution compared to bacteria and actinomycetes. Admission to the soil organic matter of anthropogenic origin also increases the process of mineralization. According to the findings, low concentrations of petroleum products lead to increased "breathing" of the soil. Strengthening of the processes of mineralization and, consequently, of CO2 emissions, in the conditions of technogenic pollution of the soils identified in our studies, confirmed by numerous studies by other authors. According to reports in Russia the emission of CO2 from soils is 4.5 times higher than the industrial receipt of its atmosphere. The contribution of local anthropogenic CO2 emissions is not so significant compared to the indirect influence of soil pollution on increased CO2 emissions. Consequently, the expansion of technogenic contaminated soil is becoming a more significant factor adversely affecting the state of the atmosphere

  20. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the Waste Receiving And Processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Waste Receiving And Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility (also referred to as WRAP 1) includes: examining, assaying, characterizing, treating, and repackaging solid radioactive and mixed waste to enable permanent disposal of the wastes in accordance with all applicable regulations. The solid wastes to be handled in the WRAP 1 facility include low-level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, TRU mixed wastes, and low-level mixed wastes (LLMW). Airborne releases from the WRAP 1 facility will be primarily in particulate forms (99.999 percent of total unabated emissions). The release of two volatilized radionuclides, tritium and carbon-14 will contribute less than 0.001 percent of the total unabated emissions. Table 2-1 lists the radionuclides which are anticipated to be emitted from WRAP 1 exhaust stack. The Clean Air Assessment Package 1988 (CAP-88) computer code (WHC 1991) was used to calculate effective dose equivalent (EDE) from WRAP 1 to the maximally exposed offsite individual (MEI), and thus demonstrate compliance with WAC 246-247. Table 4-1 shows the dose factors derived from the CAP-88 modeling and the EDE for each radionuclide. The source term (i.e., emissions after abatement in curies per year) are multiplied by the dose factors to obtain the EDE. The total projected EDE from controlled airborne radiological emissions to the offsite MEI is 1.31E-03 mrem/year. The dose attributable to radiological emissions from WRAP 1 will, then, constitute 0.013 percent of the WAC 246-247 EDE regulatory limit of 10 mrem/year to the offsite MEI

  1. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants.

  2. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants

  3. Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process undertaken to define data needs for state and federal requirements associated with toxic, hazardous, and/or radiological air emissions under the jurisdiction of the River Protection Project (RPP). Hereafter, this document is referred to as the Air DQO. The primary drivers for characterization under this DQO are the regulatory requirements pursuant to Washington State regulations, that may require sampling and analysis. The federal regulations concerning air emissions are incorporated into the Washington State regulations. Data needs exist for nonradioactive and radioactive waste constituents and characteristics as identified through the DQO process described in this document. The purpose is to identify current data needs for complying with regulatory drivers for the measurement of air emissions from RPP facilities in support of air permitting. These drivers include best management practices; similar analyses may have more than one regulatory driver. This document should not be used for determining overall compliance with regulations because the regulations are in constant change, and this document may not reflect the latest regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements are also expected to change as various permits are issued. Data needs require samples for both radionuclides and nonradionuclide analytes of air emissions from tanks and stored waste containers. The collection of data is to support environmental permitting and compliance, not for health and safety issues. This document does not address health or safety regulations or requirements (those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) or continuous emission monitoring systems. This DQO is applicable to all equipment, facilities, and operations under the jurisdiction of RPP that emit or have the potential to emit regulated air pollutants

  4. Response of soil microorganisms to radioactive oil waste: results from a leaching experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskaya, P.; Biktasheva, L.; Saveliev, A.; Ratering, S.; Schnell, S.; Selivanovskaya, S.

    2015-06-01

    Oil wastes produced in large amounts in the processes of oil extraction, refining, and transportation are of great environmental concern because of their mutagenicity, toxicity, high fire hazardousness, and hydrophobicity. About 40% of these wastes contain radionuclides; however, the effects of oil products and radionuclides on soil microorganisms are frequently studied separately. The effects on various microbial parameters of raw waste containing 575 g of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg-1 waste, 4.4 of 226Ra, 2.8 of 232Th, and 1.3 kBq kg-1 of 40K and its treated variant (1.6 g kg-1 of TPH, 7.9 of 226Ra, 3.9 of 232Th, and 183 kBq kg-1 of 40K) were examined in a leaching column experiment to separate the effects of hydrocarbons from those of radioactive elements. The raw waste sample (H) was collected from tanks during cleaning and maintenance, and a treated waste sample (R) was obtained from equipment for oil waste treatment. Thermal steam treatment is used in the production yard to reduce the oil content. The disposal of H waste samples on the soil surface led to an increase in the TPH content in soil: it became 3.5, 2.8, and 2.2 times higher in the upper (0-20 cm), middle (20-40 cm), and lower (40-60cm) layers, respectively. Activity concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th increased in soil sampled from both H- and R- columns in comparison to their concentrations in control soil. The activity concentrations of these two elements in samples taken from the upper and middle layers were much higher for the R-column compared to the H-column, despite the fact that the amount of waste added to the columns was equalized with respect to the activity concentrations of radionuclides. The H waste containing both TPH and radionuclides affected the functioning of the soil microbial community, and the effect was more pronounced in the upper layer of the column. Metabolic quotient and cellulase activity were the most sensitive microbial parameters as their levels were changed 5

  5. France / impact of Chernobyl 29 years after. In the Alps, some soils are still 'radioactive wastes'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This report presents and comments sample collections and radioactivity measurements performed in the Mercantour Park, in July 2015 at altitudes between 2.440 and 2.540 meters. It appears that radioactivity at one meter above soil level is still twice higher than normal, and is due to soil residual contamination by caesium 137 which is mainly due to nuclear fallouts associated with the Chernobyl accident. Moreover, in some areas, radioactivity at the soil level presents values which can be tens times higher than natural level. The author therefore outlines that the situation has not evolved a lot since measurements performed at the end of the 1990's. Tables of radiation measurements are provided

  6. Screening of plant species for comparative uptake abilities of radioactive Co, Rb, Sr and Cs from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouthu, S.; Arie, T.; Ambe, S.; Yamaguchi, I.

    1997-01-01

    In case of radioactive fallout, persistence of long lived nuclides in soil and subsequent transfer into the food chain through plants over a long period is the key factor. The possibility of 'phytoremediation'is suggested to reduce the radionuclides in soil. To exploit the natural potential of some plants in absorbing or accumulating certain radionuclides and depleting the soil radioactivity, thirty-two plant species were tested under laboratory conditions for their comparative ability in taking up radioactive Rb, Co, Sr and Cs. Broccoli and tomato for Co; tomato, chard, sunflower and cucumber for Rb; cucumber, sunflower and turnip (Kyona) for Sr; and tomato, chard and cucumber for Cs were found to be effective compared to other species tested. (author)

  7. Screening of plant species for comparative uptake abilities of radioactive Co, Rb, Sr and Cs from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouthu, S; Arie, T; Ambe, S; Yamaguchi, I [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    In case of radioactive fallout, persistence of long lived nuclides in soil and subsequent transfer into the food chain through plants over a long period is the key factor. The possibility of `phytoremediation`is suggested to reduce the radionuclides in soil. To exploit the natural potential of some plants in absorbing or accumulating certain radionuclides and depleting the soil radioactivity, thirty-two plant species were tested under laboratory conditions for their comparative ability in taking up radioactive Rb, Co, Sr and Cs. Broccoli and tomato for Co; tomato, chard, sunflower and cucumber for Rb; cucumber, sunflower and turnip (Kyona) for Sr; and tomato, chard and cucumber for Cs were found to be effective compared to other species tested. (author). 13 refs.

  8. Natural radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluations in soil samples with a high content of NORM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; Durante, G.; Trozzo, R.; Fullone, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Belmusto, G.

    2017-01-01

    In this article natural radioactivity measurements and dosimetric evaluations in soil samples contaminated by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) are made, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard for the population and for workers professionally exposed to ionizing radiations. Investigated samples came from the district of Crotone, Calabria region, South of Italy. The natural radioactivity investigation was performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. From the measured gamma spectra, activity concentrations were determined for 226Ra , 234-mPa , 224Ra , 228Ac and 40K and compared with their clearance levels for NORM. The total effective dose was calculated for each sample as due to the committed effective dose for inhalation and to the effective dose from external irradiation. The sum of the total effective doses estimated for all investigated samples was compared to the action levels provided by the Italian legislation (D.Lgs.230/95 and subsequent modifications) for the population members (0.3mSv/y) and for professionally exposed workers (1mSv/y). It was found to be less than the limit of no radiological significance (10μSv/y).

  9. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III

    1995-12-01

    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  10. Monitoring of Natural Soil Radioactivity with Portable Gamma-Ray Spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Løvborg, Leif; Kirkegaard, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Two portable NaI(Tl) spectrometers with four energy windows were used for the recording of gamma-ray counts over soil and rock of differing natural radioactivity. The exposure rates at the field sites were simultaneously measured with a high-pressure argon ionization chamber. Background measureme......Two portable NaI(Tl) spectrometers with four energy windows were used for the recording of gamma-ray counts over soil and rock of differing natural radioactivity. The exposure rates at the field sites were simultaneously measured with a high-pressure argon ionization chamber. Background...... measurements at sea were carried out in order to estimate the non-terrestrial contributions to the instrument readings. Counts recorded in the three high-energy windows of the spectrometers were converted into radiometrically equivalent concentrations of thorium, uranium, and potassium in the ground. Large....... The theoretical exposure rates deducible from the experimental radioelement concentrations at the field sites were in good agreement both with the ionization-chamber readings (corrected for cosmic-ray background) and with the exposure rates measured by total gamma-ray counting. From this and other results...

  11. Soil humic-like organic compounds in prescribed fire emissions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalbot, M.-C.; Nikolich, G.; Etyemezian, V.; Dubois, D.W.; King, J.; Shafer, D.; Gamboa da Costa, G.; Hinton, J.F.; Kavouras, I.G.

    2013-01-01

    Here we present the chemical characterization of the water-soluble organic carbon fraction of atmospheric aerosol collected during a prescribed fire burn in relation to soil organic matter and biomass combustion. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we observed that humic-like substances in fire emissions have been associated with soil organic matter rather than biomass. Using a chemical mass balance model, we estimated that soil organic matter may contribute up to 41% of organic hydrogen and up to 27% of water-soluble organic carbon in fire emissions. Dust particles, when mixed with fresh combustion emissions, substantially enhances the atmospheric oxidative capacity, particle formation and microphysical properties of clouds influencing the climatic responses of atmospheric aeroso. Owing to the large emissions of combustion aerosol during fires, the release of dust particles from soil surfaces that are subjected to intense heating and shear stress has, so far, been lacking. -- Highlights: •We characterized the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of fire emissions by NMR. •Distinct patterns were observed for soil dust and vegetation combustion emissions. •Soil organic matter accounted for most of WSOC in early prescribed burn emissions. -- Humic-like soil organic matter may be an important component of particulate emissions in the early stages of wildfires

  12. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms-the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs.

  13. Radioactivity measurements of soil samples in the Region Vranje (Bratoselce Village) for the period 2001-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremic-savkovic, M.; Pantelic, G.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vuletic, V.; Javorina, L.

    2006-01-01

    Systematic examination of radioactive contamination of soil samples was established at the Institute for Occupational and Radiological Health. With the bombing of our country (Spring 1999) the monitoring of radioactivity has changed. We also measured the activities of uranium and it descendants. This paper presents the results of radioactivity monitoring of the soil in small area 700 m near village Bratoselce in region Vranje during the period 2001 - 2004. From 2001 to 2004, we collected different samples from this fenced area as well as outside this area assuming not to be contaminated, before, during and after decontamination. Some soil samples were made as a mix of small samples from a large area of location. Other samples were taken at the points formerly designated as contaminated or from shell-craters seen on the fenced area surface. All samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and measurements of alpha and beta activity. On the basis of measurements of soil activities, analysis of 238 U and 235 U, as well as in comparison with natural activity ratio being 21.4, it may be concluded that depleted uranium contamination was present both in the fenced area and outside it, because this ratio in the samples of soil was found to be 34 to 73. Natural activity in soil samples was slightly higher in relation to mean soil activity in Serbia. (authors)

  14. The Efficiency of Strontium-90 Desorption Using Iron (III) Solutions in the Decontamination Process of Radioactive Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Vladimirovna Cheremisina; Vasiliy Sergeev; Varvara Alabusheva; Alexander Fedorov; Alexandra Iliyna

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the investigation on the estimated efficiency of iron (III) chloride solutions in the decontamination process of radioactive soils with 90 Sr, according to kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the desorption process. The specific 90 Sr radioactivity of soil samples was (3.9±0.3)·104 Bq·g. The adsorption isotherms of Sr 2+ and Fe 3+ are described with the Langmuir equation. The values of Gibbs energy G0298 = -4.65 kJ·mol -1 and equilibrium ion exchange constant ...

  15. Top soil radioactivity assessment in a high natural radiation background area: the case of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe-Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabesiranana, Naivo; Rasolonirina, Martin; Terina, Franck; Solonjara, Asivelo F; Andriambololona, Raoelina

    2008-11-01

    The village of Vinaninkarena, Antsirabe, Madagascar (47 degrees 02'40''E, 19 degrees 57'17''S) is located in a high natural radioactivity area. In order to evaluate the natural radionuclide content in soil, sampling was done on-site by the transect method (85 soil samples) and off-site through transects across and beyond the region (up to a range of 100 km), to determine the natural radioactivity variation within vs. outside the region, and to detect significant differences, taking into account spatial variability.

  16. Analysis of determination modalities concerning the exposure and emission limits values of chemical and radioactive substances; Analyse des modalites de fixation des valeurs limites d'exposition et d'emission pour les substances chimiques et radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieber, C.; Schneider, T

    2002-08-01

    This document presents the generic approach adopted by various organizations for the determination of the public exposure limits values to chemical and radioactive substances and for the determination of limits values of chemical products emissions by some installations. (A.L.B.)

  17. Measuring and modeling of soil N2O emissions - How well are we doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Ralf, K.; Werner, C.; Wolf, B.

    2017-12-01

    Microbial processes in soils are the primarily source of atmospheric N2O. Fertilizer use to boost food and feed production of agricultural systems as well as nitrogen deposition to natural and semi-natural ecosystems due to emissions of NOx and NH3 from agriculture and energy production and re-deposition to terrestrial ecosystems has likely nearly doubled the pre-industrial source strength of soils for atmospheric N2O. Quantifying soil emissions and identifying mitigation options is becoming a major focus in the climate debate as N2O emissions from agricultural soils are a major contributor to the greenhouse gas footprint of agricultural systems, with agriculture incl. land use change contributing up to 30% to total anthropogenic GHG emissions. The increasing number of annual datasets show that soil emissions a) are largely depended on soil N availability and thus e.g. fertilizer application, b) vary with management (e.g. timing of fertilization, residue management, tillage), c) depend on soil properties such as organic matter content and pH, e) are affected by plant N uptake, and e) are controlled by environmental factors such as moisture and temperature regimes. It is remarkable that the magnitude of annual emissions is largely controlled by short-term N2O pulses occurring due to fertilization, wetting and drying or freezing and thawing of soils. All of this contributes to a notorious variability of soil N2O emissions in space and time. Overcoming this variability for quantification of source strengths and identifying tangible mitigation options requires targeted measuring approaches as well as the translation of our knowledge on mechanisms underlying emissions into process oriented models, which finally might be used for upscaling and scenario studies. This paper aims at reviewing current knowledge on measurements, modelling and upscaling of soil N2O emissions, thereby identifying short comes and uncertainties of the various approaches and fields for future

  18. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for the 105N Basin Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenenberg, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The 105N Basin (basin) Stabilization will place the basin in a radiologically and environmentally safe condition so that it can be decommissioned at a later date. The basin is in the 105N Building, which is located in the 100N Area. The 100N Area is located in the Northern portion of the Hanford Site approximately 35 miles northwest of the city of Richland, Washington. The basin stabilization objectives are to inspect for Special Nuclear Material (SNM) (i.e., fuel assemblies and fuel pieces), remove the water from the basin and associated pits, and stabilize the basin surface. The stabilization will involve removal of basin hardware, removal of basin sediments, draining of basin water, and cleaning and stabilizing basin surfaces to prevent resuspension of radioactive emissions to the air. These activities will be conducted in accordance with all applicable regulations

  19. Monitoring program for evaluating radionuclide emissions from incineration of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmer, S.C.; Solomon, H.F.

    1984-01-01

    The implementation of an incineration program for low-level radioactive waste is a complex task, especially in the area of obtaining environmental permits. To provide assurance to the appropriate regulatory agencies involved with environmental permitting and others that an incineration program is properly conducted, emissions monitoring to identify radionuclides and their fate may be needed. An electronic spreadsheet software program Lotus 1-2-3 (Lotus Development Corporation) on an IBM Personal Computer has been used to perform data reduction for test results from such a monitoring program and to present them graphically to facilitate interpretation. The sampling technique includes: (1) the use of an EPA Method 5 stack sampling train modified to exclude the dry-catch filtration assembly with ethanolamine used to scrub incinerator gas at depressed temperatures and (2) a continuous composite liquid sampler for incinerator wet scrubber discharge to the sanitary sewer. Radionuclides in the samples are assayed using scintillation spectrometry

  20. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions along a high arctic soil moisture gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sarah Hagel; Lindwall, Frida; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    emissions of BVOCs were found from vegetation communities dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, which had emission profiles dominated by isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively. These results show that emissions of BVOCs are highly dependent on the plant cover supported by the varying soil...

  1. Estimation of N2O emission factors for soils depending on environmental conditions and crop management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Velthof, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes 8% to anthropogenic global warming, of which about one third are direct emissions of agricultural soils. These N2O emissions are often estimated using the default IPCC 2006 emission factor of 1% of the amount of N applied for mineral fertilizer, manure and crop

  2. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, M.; Rinne, J.; Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Spring time nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest were measured with eddy covariance (EC) and chamber techniques. The aim was to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions and link the emissions to soil environmental parameters...

  3. Natural radioactivity levels and estimation of radiation exposure from soils in Bahi and Manyoni Districts in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkuba, Leonid L.; Nyanda, Pendo B., E-mail: leonid_nkuba@yahoo.co.uk [Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission, Directorate of Radiation Control, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Soils from Bahi and Manyoni districts in Tanzania were analyzed for radioactivity. The radioactivity levels of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured by direct γ‐ray spectrometry using HPGe detector by Compton suppression method. The radioactivity concentration in soil were computed in arithmetic mean. The results from this study have been compared with those from other areas in Tanzania, different countries of the world and the world average radioactivity in the soil. To assess the radiological effects and hazards indices from natural radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K), the absorbed dose rate (DR), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR), the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the external (Hex), the alpha index (Iα) and the radioactivity level index (Iγ) were calculated. Except for DR in all the soil samples; Raeq, Hex and Iα exceeds the recommended limits due to high activity of {sup 226}Ra in Membeta soils. Also Iγ was above the limits due to higher {sup 226}Ra in soils from Membeta and {sup 232}Th in Ilindi and Nala. Whilst the other radiological parameters (AEDE and ELCR) as well as the Raeq, Hex, Iα and Iγ in same areas were far below the recommended limits. However, this does not guarantee the safety. Therefore the probability of occurrence of the health effects from radiation is significant. The study recommends that the soils from Membeta should not be used as building material because they might expose the population to radiation. (author)

  4. Elastic and plastic soil deformation and its influence on emission of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Christoph; Holthusen, Dörthe; Mordhorst, Anneka; Lipiec, Jerzy; Horn, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Soil management alters physical, chemical and biological soil properties. Stress application affects microbiological activity and habitats for microorganisms in the root zone and causes soil degradation. We hypothesized that stress application results in altered greenhouse gas emissions if soil strength is exceeded. In the experiments, soil management dependent greenhouse gas emissions of intact soil cores (no, reduced, conventional tillages) were determined using two experimental setups; CO2 emissions were determined with: a dynamic measurement system, and a static chamber method before and after a vertical soil stress had been applied. For the latter CH4 and N2O emissions were analyzed additionally. Stress dependent effects can be summed as follows: In the elastic deformation range microbiological activity increased in conventional tillage soil and decreased in reduced tillage and no tillage. Beyond the precompression stress a release of formerly protected soil organic carbon and an almost total loss of CH4 oxidizability occurred. Only swelling and shrinkage of no tillage and reduced tillage regenerated their microhabitat function. Thus, the direct link between soil strength and microbial activity can be applied as a marker for soil rigidity and the transition to new disequilibria concerning microbial activity and composition.

  5. Biochar-mediated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from soil amended with anaerobic digestates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Sarah L.; Clarke, Michèle L.; Othman, Mukhrizah; Ramsden, Stephen J.; West, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation examines nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes from soil with simultaneous amendments of anaerobic digestates and biochar. The main source of anthropogenic emissions of N 2 O is agriculture and in particular, manure and slurry application to fields. Anaerobic digestates are increasingly used as a fertiliser and interest is growing in their potential as sources of N 2 O via nitrification and denitrification. Biochar is a stable product of pyrolysis and may affect soil properties such as cation exchange capacity and water holding capacity. Whilst work has been conducted on the effects of biochar amendment on N 2 O emissions in soils fertilised with mineral fertilisers and raw animal manures, little work to date has focused on the effects of biochar on nitrogen transformations within soil amended with anaerobic digestates. The aim of the current investigation was to quantify the effects of biochar application on ammonification, nitrification and N 2 O fluxes within soil amended with three anaerobic digestates derived from different feedstocks. A factorial experiment was undertaken in which a sandy loam soil (Dunnington Heath series) was either left untreated, or amended with three different anaerobic digestates and one of three biochar treatments; 0%, 1% or 3%. Nitrous oxide emissions were greatest from soil amended with anaerobic digestate originating from a maize feedstock. Biochar amendment reduced N 2 O emissions from all treatments, with the greatest effect observed in treatments with maximum emissions. The degree of N 2 O production and efficacy of biochar amelioration of gas emissions is discussed in context of soil microbial biomass and soil available carbon. - Highlights: • Nitrous oxide was emitted from anaerobic digestates applied to soil. • Simultaneous amendment of soil with biochar and anaerobic digestate reduced N 2 O emissions. • Soil nitrate accumulation occurred but was digestate dependent

  6. Emission of nitrous acid from soil and biological soil crusts as a major source of atmospheric HONO on Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusel, Hannah; Tamm, Alexandra; Wu, Dianming; Kuhn, Uwe; Leifke, Anna-Lena; Weber, Bettina; Su, Hang; Lelieveld, Jos; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-04-01

    Elucidation of the sources and atmospheric chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO) is highly relevant, as HONO is an important precursor of OH radicals. Up to 30% of the OH budget are formed by photolysis of HONO, whereas major fractions of HONO measured in the field derive from yet unidentified sources. Heterogeneous conversion of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to HONO on a variety of surfaces (soot, humic acid aerosol) is assumed to be a major HONO source (Stemmler et al., 2007, Ammann et al., 1998). In rural regions, however, NO2 concentrations were found to be too low to explain observed HONO concentrations, as e.g., in the case of a recent field study on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus (Meusel et al., 2016). In this study a good correlation between missing sources of HONO and nitrogen oxide (NO) was found indicating a common origin of both reactive nitrogen compounds. Simultaneous emission of HONO and NO from soil was reported earlier (Oswald et al., 2013), and enhanced emission rates were found when soil was covered by biological soil crusts in arid and semi-arid ecosystems (Weber et al., 2015). In the present study we measured HONO and NO emissions of 43 soil and soil crust samples from Cyprus during full wetting and drying cycles under controlled laboratory conditions by means of a dynamic chamber system. The observed range of HONO and NO emissions was in agreement with earlier studies, but unlike the study of Weber et al. (2015), we found highest emission from bare soil, followed by soil covered by light and dark cyanobacteria-dominated biological soil crusts. Emission rates correlated well with the nitrite and nitrate contents of soil and biological soil crust samples, and higher nutrient contents of bare soil samples, as compared to the previous biological soil crust study, explain the higher bare soil emissions. Integrating the emission rates of bare soil and the different types of biological soil crusts, based on their local relative abundance, the calculated

  7. The use of ligneous plants for controlling the radioactive contamination of a soil; Utilisation des vegetaux ligneux au controle de la pollution radioactive d'un sol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnaire, J; Heuze, C; Aubert, M T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A method for checking on the possible radioactive pollution of CEN-G. soil, by taking samples of tissue of ligneous plants cultivated on the land in question, is proposed and investigated during the vegetation period. A preliminary study on the retention capacity of the CEN-G. soil for solutions containing {sup 32}P and chemical composition is given. (author) [French] Une methode de controle de la pollution radioactive eventuelle du sol du CEN-G., a l'aide de prelevements de tissus de vegetaux ligneux, cultives sur ce terrain est proposee et etudiee pendant la periode vegetative. Une etude preliminaire du pouvoir de retention du sol du CEN-G, vis-a-vis de solutions contenant du {sup 32}P et de composition chimique, est exposee. (auteur)

  8. Soil radioactivity levels, radiological maps and risk assessment for the state of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazemi, N; Bajoga, A D; Bradley, D A; Regan, P H; Shams, H

    2016-07-01

    An evaluation of the radioactivity levels associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials has been undertaken as part of a systematic study to provide a surface radiological map of the State of Kuwait. Soil samples from across Kuwait were collected, measured and analysed in the current work. These evaluations provided soil activity concentration levels for primordial radionuclides, specifically members of the (238)U and (232)Th decay chains and (40)K which. The (238)U and (232)Th chain radionuclides and (40)K activity concentration values ranged between 5.9 ↔ 32.3, 3.5 ↔ 27.3, and 74 ↔ 698 Bq/kg respectively. The evaluated average specific activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K across all of the soil samples have mean values of 18, 15 and 385 Bq/kg respectively, all falling below the worldwide mean values of 35, 40 and 400 Bq/kg respectively. The radiological risk factors are associated with a mean of 33.16 ± 2.46 nG/h and 68.5 ± 5.09 Bq/kg for the external dose rate and Radium equivalent respectively. The measured annual dose rates for all samples gives rise to a mean value of 40.8 ± 3.0 μSv/y while the internal and internal hazard indices have been found to be 0.23 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.01 respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of natural radioactivity and 222Rn exhalation rate in soil samples for the assessment of average effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangotra, P.; Mehra, R.; Jakhu, R.; Sahoo, B.K

    2016-01-01

    The natural radioactivity in soil is usually determined from the 226 Ra (Radium), 232 Th (Thorium) and 40 K (potassium). 222 Rn and 220 Rn are produced in soil as a result of the presence of these radionuclides. As 226 Ra decay, the newly created 222 Rn radionuclide recoil from the parent grain and then exhale through the soil. Since 98.5% of radiological effects of 238 U series are produced by 226 Ra and its daughter products. The assessment of gamma radiation dose from natural sources is of particular importance as natural radiation is the largest contributor to the external dose of the world population. Authors are advised to maximize the information content utilizing the full space available. The main objective of the present study is to measure the level of natural radioactivity 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 222 Rn exhalation rate in the soil samples for health risk assessment

  10. [Effects of diurnal warming on soil N2O emission in soybean field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng-Hua; Zhou, Ying-Ping; Cui, Hai-Ling; Chen, Shu-Tao; Xiao, Qi-Tao; Liu, Yan

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the impact of experimental warming on N2O emission from soil of soybean field, outdoor experiments with simulating diurnal warming were conducted, and static dark chamber-gas chromatograph method was used to measure N2O emission fluxes. Results indicated that: the diurnal warming did not change the seasonal pattern of N2O emissions from soil. In the whole growing season, comparing to the control treatment (CK), the warming treatment (T) significantly enhanced the N2O flux and the cumulative amount of N2O by 17.31% (P = 0.019), and 20.27% (P = 0.005), respectively. The significant correlations were found between soil N2O emission and soil temperature, moisture. The temperature sensitivity values of soil N2O emission under CK and T treatments were 3.75 and 4.10, respectively. In whole growing stage, T treatment significantly increased the crop aboveground and total biomass, the nitrate reductase activity, and total nitrogen in leaves, while significantly decreased NO3(-) -N content in leaves. T treatment significantly increased soil NO3(-) -N content, but had no significant effect on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents. The results of this study suggested that diurnal warming enhanced N2O emission from soil in soybean field.

  11. Spatio-temporal variation in soil derived nitrous oxide emissions under sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Grace, Peter; Mengersen, Kerrie; Weier, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a significant greenhouse gas with a global warming potential that is 300 times than that of carbon dioxide. Soil derived N 2 O emissions usually display a high degree of spatial and temporal variability because of their dependence on soil chemical and physical properties, and climate dependent environmental factors. However, there is little research that incorporates spatial dependence in the estimation of N 2 O emissions allowing for environmental factors in the same model. This study aims to examine the impact of two environmental factors (soil temperature and soil moisture) on N 2 O emissions and explore the spatial structure of N 2 O in the sub-tropical South East Queensland region of Australia. The replicated data on N 2 O emissions and soil properties were collected at a typical sugarcane land site covering 25 uniform grid points across 3600 m 2 between October 2007 and September 2008. A Bayesian conditional autoregressive (CAR) model was used to model spatial dependence. Results showed that soil moisture and soil temperature appeared to have substantially different effects on N 2 O emissions after taking spatial dependence into account in the four seasons. There was a substantial variation in the spatial distribution of N 2 O emission in the different seasons. The high N 2 O emission regions were accompanied by high uncertainty and changed in varying seasons in this study site. Spatial CAR models might be more plausible to elucidate and account for the uncertainty arising from unclear variables and spatial variability in the assessment of N 2 O emissions in soils, and more accurately identify relationships with key environmental factors and help to reduce the uncertainty of the soil parameters. - Highlights: → Soil moisture and soil temperature have substantially different effects on N 2 O emissions across four seasons of emissions. → High N 2 O emissions were associated with high uncertainty and varied between seasons.

  12. Spatial variability of soil CO2 emission in different topographic positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane de Figueiredo Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of soil CO2 emission is controlled by several properties related to the production and transport of CO2 inside the soil. Considering that soil properties are also influenced by topography, the objective of this work was to investigate the spatial variability of soil CO2 emission in three different topographic positions in an area cultivated with sugarcane, just after mechanical harvest. One location was selected on a concave-shaped form and two others on linear-shaped form (in back-slope and foot-slope. Three grids were installed, one in each location, containing 69 points and measuring 90 x 90 m each. The spatial variability of soil CO2 emission was characterized by means of semivariance. Spatial variability models derived from soil CO2 emission were exponential in the concave location while spherical models fitted better in the linear shaped areas. The degree of spatial dependence was moderate in all cases and the range of spatial dependence for the CO2 emission in the concave area was 44.5 m, higher than the mean value obtained for the linear shaped areas (20.65 m. The spatial distribution maps of soil CO2 emission indicate a higher discontinuity of emission in the linear form when compared to the concave form.

  13. Impact of drought and increasing temperatures on soil CO2 emissions in a Mediterranean shrubland (gariga)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dato, Giovanbattista Domenico; De Angelis, Paolo; Sirca, Costantino

    2010-01-01

    the soil and air night-time temperatures and to reduce water input from precipitation. The objective was to analyze the extent to which higher temperatures and a drier climate influence soil CO2 emissions in the short term and on an annual basis. The microclimate was manipulated in field plots (about 25 m2...... temperature probe. The seasonal pattern of soil CO2 efflux was characterized by higher rates during the wet vegetative season and lower rates during the dry non-vegetative season (summer). The Warming treatment did not change SR fluxes at any sampling date. The Drought treatment decreased soil CO2 emissions...... on only three of 10 occasions during 2004. The variation of soil respiration with temperature and soil water content did not differ significantly among the treatments, but was affected by the season. The annual CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by the treatments. In the semi-arid Mediterranean...

  14. Fire increases the risk of higher soil N2O emissions from Mediterranean Macchia ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhu, Kristiina; Dannenmann, M.; Kitzler, B.

    2015-01-01

    on climate change. However, the potential importance of indirect GHG emissions due to changes in soil biological and chemical properties after fire is less well known. Increased soil mineral nitrogen (N) concentrations after fire pose a risk for increased emissions of gaseous N, but studies on the post......-fire N2O production and soil N turnover rates (mineralization, nitrification, microbial immobilization, denitrification) are still rare. We determined N2O production, rates of N turnover and pathways for N2O production from the soil of burned and unburned plots of a Macchia shrubland in central Spain...... using a 15N labelling approach. Measurements were initiated before the controlled burning and continued for up to half a year after fire. Fire markedly increased the risk of N2O emissions from soil through denitrification (N2O production rate was 3 to ≈30 times higher in burned soils compared to control...

  15. Emissions of nitrous oxide from Irish arable soils: effects of tillage and reduced N input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, M.; Jones, M.B.; Ambus, Per

    2010-01-01

    and reduced N fertilizer on seasonal fluxes and emission factors of N2O and to study the relationship between crop yield and N-induced fluxes of N2O. The soil is classified as a sandy loam with a pH of 7.4 and a mean organic carbon and nitrogen content at 15 cm of 19 and 1.9 g kg(-1) dry soil, respectively....... Reduced tillage had no significant effect on N2O fluxes from soils or crop grain yield. Multiple regression analysis revealed that soil moisture and an interaction between soil moisture and soil nitrate are the main significant factors affecting N2O flux. The derived emission factor was 0...... nitrogen fertilizer by 50% compared to the normal field rate, N2O emissions could be reduced by 57% with no significant decrease on grain yield or quality. This was consistent over the 2 years of measurements....

  16. Biological hazards of radioactivity and the biological consequences of radionuclide emissions from routine operation of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stendig-Lindberg, G.

    1978-01-01

    The biological hazards of radioactivity and the biological consequences of radionuclide emissions from the routine operation of nuclear power reactors are reviewed. ICRP and Scandinavian recommendations for the limitation of annual radiation doses are presented. The contribution of environmental conditions to radiation hazard is also discussed. It is concluded that a review of the justification of nuclear power is urgently needed. (H.K.)

  17. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The

  18. Soil radioactivity and its possible relationship with fertilizers in Araras region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jocelyn L. de; Ferreira, Francisco J.F.; Mantovani, Luiz E.; Rocha, Helio O. da

    1997-01-01

    Fertilizers are widely used in agriculture, particularly in tropical regions, where weathering of soil nutrients is more intense. Uranium is commonly present in phosphate rocks and, consequently, in fertilizers. The exploitation, processing and persistent use of large amounts of phosphate fertilizers lead the environment to be contaminated by U, Th and other trace element resulting from radioactive decay. In the present study, airbone gamma-ray spectrometry, remote sensing, digital imagery and geographic information systems were used to integrate geophysical, geological, topographical pedological and drainage data in order to interpret radiometric (K, U and Th) anomalies in the region of Araras, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. These anomalies occur in soils developed from basic rocks (diabase sills), which are known to normally contain low concentrations of radionuclides. Owing to their high fertility, these soils have been historically used for important crops such as coffee and sugar cane, but an increasing amount of fertilizers has been used there over the last thirty years. The radiometric anomalies (U, Th) are attributed to impurities in phosphates, whereas the 40 K anomalies result both from the use potash and agricultural residues like those from the sugar cane industry, in which up to 0.7 g/l of K 2 O is present. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs

  19. Simulating emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene after soil fumigation under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S R; Ashworth, D J

    2018-04-15

    Soil fumigation is an important agricultural practice used to produce many vegetable and fruit crops. However, fumigating soil can lead to atmospheric emissions which can increase risks to human and environmental health. A complete understanding of the transport, fate, and emissions of fumigants as impacted by soil and environmental processes is needed to mitigate atmospheric emissions. Five large-scale field experiments were conducted to measure emission rates for 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), a soil fumigant commonly used in California. Numerical simulations of these experiments were conducted in predictive mode (i.e., no calibration) to determine if simulation could be used as a substitute for field experimentation to obtain information needed by regulators. The results show that the magnitude of the volatilization rate and the total emissions could be adequately predicted for these experiments, with the exception of a scenario where the field was periodically irrigated after fumigation. In addition, the timing of the daily peak 1,3-D emissions was not accurately predicted for these experiments due to the peak emission rates occurring during the night or early-morning hours. This study revealed that more comprehensive mathematical models (or adjustments to existing models) are needed to fully describe emissions of soil fumigants from field soils under typical agronomic conditions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Accounting for Carbon Stocks in Soils and Measuring GHGs Emission Fluxes from Soils: Do We Have the Necessary Standards?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bispo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil is a key compartment for climate regulation as a source of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions and as a sink of carbon. Thus, soil carbon sequestration strategies should be considered alongside reduction strategies for other greenhouse gas emissions. Taking this into account, several international and European policies on climate change are now acknowledging the importance of soils, which means that proper, comparable and reliable information is needed to report on carbon stocks and GHGs emissions from soil. It also implies a need for consensus on the adoption and verification of mitigation options that soil can provide. Where consensus is a key aspect, formal standards and guidelines come into play. This paper describes the existing ISO soil quality standards that can be used in this context, and calls for new ones to be developed through (international collaboration. Available standards cover the relevant basic soil parameters including carbon and nitrogen content but do not yet consider the dynamics of those elements. Such methods have to be developed together with guidelines consistent with the scale to be investigated and the specific use of the collected data. We argue that this standardization strategy will improve the reliability of the reporting procedures and results of the different climate models that rely on soil quality data.

  1. Effects of dicyandiamide and dolomite application on N2O emission from an acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Muhammad; Wu, Yupeng; Peng, Qi-an; Lin, Shan; Mo, Yongliang; Wu, Lei; Hu, Ronggui; Zhou, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Soil acidification is a major problem for sustainable agriculture since it limits productivity of several crops. Liming is usually adopted to ameliorate soil acidity that can trigger soil processes such as nitrification, denitrification, and loss of nitrogen (N) as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The loss of N following liming of acidic soils can be controlled by nitrification inhibitors (such as dicyandiamide). However, effects of nitrification inhibitors following liming of acidic soils are not well understood so far. Here, we conducted a laboratory study using an acidic soil to examine the effects of dolomite and dicyandiamide (DCD) application on N2O emissions. Three levels of DCD (0, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1); DCD0, DCD10, and DCD20, respectively) were applied to the acidic soil under two levels of dolomite (0 and 1 g kg(-1)) which were further treated with two levels of N fertilizer (0 and 200 mg N kg(-1)). Results showed that N2O emissions were highest at low soil pH levels in fertilizer-treated soil without application of DCD and dolomite. Application of DCD and dolomite significantly (P ≤ 0.001) reduced N2O emissions through decreasing rates of NH4 (+)-N oxidation and increasing soil pH, respectively. Total N2O emissions were reduced by 44 and 13% in DCD20 and dolomite alone treatments, respectively, while DCD20 + dolomite reduced N2O emissions by 54% when compared with DCD0 treatment. The present study suggests that application of DCD and dolomite to acidic soils can mitigate N2O emissions.

  2. Atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials according to the local weather and emission conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hye Yeon; Kang, Yoon Hee; Kim, Yoo Keun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sang Keun [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study evaluated the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material according to local weather conditions and emission conditions. Local weather conditions were defined as 8 patterns that frequently occur around the Kori Nuclear Power Plant and emission conditions were defined as 6 patterns from a combination of emission rates and the total number of particles of the {sup 137}Cs, using the WRF/HYSPLIT modeling system. The highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 0900 LST under the ME4{sub 1} (main wind direction: SSW, daily average wind speed: 2.8 ms{sup -1}), with a wide region of its high concentration due to the continuous wind changes between 0000 and 0900 LST; under the ME3 (NE, 4.1 ms{sup -1}), the highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 1500 and 2100 LST with a narrow dispersion along a strong northeasterly wind. In the case of ME4{sub 4} (S, 2.7 ms{sup -1}), the highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 0300 LST because {sup 137}Cs stayed around the KNPP under low wind speed and low boundary layer height. As for the emission conditions, EM1{sub 3} and EM2{sub 3} that had the maximum total number of particles showed the widest dispersion of {sup 137}Cs, while its highest mean concentration was estimated under the EM1{sub 1} considering the relatively narrow dispersion and high emission rate. This study showed that even though an area may be located within the same radius around the Kori Nuclear Power Plant, the distribution and levels of {sup 137}Cs concentration vary according to the change in time and space of weather conditions (the altitude of the atmospheric boundary layer, the horizontal and vertical distribution of the local winds, and the precipitation levels), the topography of the regions where {sup 137}Cs is dispersed, the emission rate of {sup 137}Cs, and the number of emitted particles.

  3. Levels of concern for radioactive contaminations in soil according to soil protection standards; Besorgniswerte fuer Radionuklide in Boeden nach bodenschutzrechtlichen Massstaeben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, R. [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Barkowski, D.; Machtolf, M. [IFUA-Projekt-GmbH Bielefeld (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the paper the question is examined whether the established soil protection standards for carcinogenic substances are also applicable to the assessment of radioactive soil contamination. Referring to the methods applied in soil protection for evaluation of dose-effectrelations and estimations of carcinogenic risks as well as the calculation methods for test values in soil protection ''levels of concern'' for soil contamination by artificial radionuclides are derived. The values obtained are significantly larger than the values for unrestricted clearance of ground according to the German Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV). The thesis that soil is protected according to environmental standards provided that radiation protection requirements are met needs further checks but can be probably confirmed if the radiation protection requirements are clearly defined.

  4. Spatial gradient of human health risk from exposure to trace elements and radioactive pollutants in soils at the Puchuncaví-Ventanas industrial complex, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani-Ghabeshi, S; Palomo-Marín, M R; Bernalte, E; Rueda-Holgado, F; Miró-Rodríguez, C; Cereceda-Balic, F; Fadic, X; Vidal, V; Funes, M; Pinilla-Gil, E

    2016-11-01

    The Punchuncaví Valley in central Chile, heavily affected by a range of anthropogenic emissions from a localized industrial complex, has been studied as a model environment for evaluating the spatial gradient of human health risk, which are mainly caused by trace elemental pollutants in soil. Soil elemental profiles in 121 samples from five selected locations representing different degrees of impact from the industrial source were used for human risk estimation. Distance to source dependent cumulative non-carcinogenic hazard indexes above 1 for children (max 4.4 - min 1.5) were found in the study area, ingestion being the most relevant risk pathway. The significance of health risk differences within the study area was confirmed by statistical analysis (ANOVA and HCA) of individual hazard index values at the five sampling locations. As was the dominant factor causing unacceptable carcinogenic risk levels for children (sampling locations which are closer to the industrial complex, whereas the risk was just in the tolerable range (10 -6 - 10 -4 ) for children and adults in the rest of the sampling locations at the study area. Furthermore, we assessed gamma ray radiation external hazard indexes and annual effective dose rate from the natural radioactivity elements ( 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K) levels in the surface soils of the study area. The highest average values for the specific activity of 232 Th (31 Bq kg -1 ), 40 K (615 Bq kg - 1 ), and 226 Ra (25 Bq kg -1 ) are lower than limit recommended by OECD, so no significant radioactive risk was detected within the study area. In addition, no significant variability of radioactive risk was observed among sampling locations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early drainage mitigates methane and nitrous oxide emissions from organically amended paddy soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tariq, Azeem; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; de Tourdonnet, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    Elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly of methane (CH4) from flooded rice production systems contribute to global warming. Different crop management strategies, such as drainage of paddy soils and climate-smart residue management, are essential in order to mitigate GHG emissions from...... flooded rice systems, but they often conflict with practical management preferences.The aim of this study was to assess the potential of early-season drainage for mitigating CH4 and N2O emissions from soils with and without added organic amendments in relation to native soil organic carbon (SOC). Rice...

  6. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  7. Spatial oxygen distribution and nitrous oxide emissions from soil after manure application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Kun; Bruun, Sander; Larsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The availability and spatial distribution of oxygen (O2) in agricultural soil are controlling factors in the production and emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere, but most experiments investigating the effects of various factors on N2O emissions in soil have been conducted without...... to interpret data on N2O emissions following a uniform or layered amendment of manure to agricultural soil. The spatial distribution of O2 and gas emission rates were monitored for 12 h. An anoxic layer formed rapidly around the layered manure, whereas the uniformly distributed manure led to a more widespread...... anoxia. Nitrous oxide emissions increased immediately after depletion of O2 in the manure-amended treatments. Greater understanding and improved knowledge of the spatial distribution of O2 is clearly beneficial and can be used to devise improved application strategies for mitigating N2O emissions from...

  8. Radioactive Contamination of Alluvial Soils in the Taiga Landscapes of Yakutia with 137Cs, 226Ra, and 238U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevychelov, A. P.; Sobakin, P. I.

    2017-12-01

    The concentrations and distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils (Fluvisols) of the upper and middle reaches of the Markha River in the northwest of Yakutia and 226Ra and 238U in alluvial soils within the El'kon uranium ore deposit in the south of Yakutia have been studied. It is shown that the migration of radiocesium in the permafrost-affected soils of Yakutia owing to alluviation processes extends to more than 600 km from the source of the radioactive contamination. The migration of 137Cs with water flows is accompanied by its deposition in the buried horizons of alluvial soils during extremely high floods caused by ice jams. In the technogenic landscapes of southern Yakutia, active water migration of 238U and 226Ra from radioactive dump rocks. The leaching of 238U with surface waters from the rocks is more intense than the leaching of 226Ra. The vertical distribution patterns of 238U and 226Ra in the profiles of alluvial soils are complex. Uranium tends to accumulate in the surface humus horizon and in the buried soil horizons, whereas radium does not display any definite regularities of its distribution in the soil profiles. At present, the migration of 238U and 226Ra with river water and their accumulation in the alluvial soils extend to about 30 km from the source.

  9. The impact of soil amendments on greenhouse gas emissions: a comprehensive life cycle assessment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil amendments, such as compost and manure, can be applied to grasslands to improve soil conditions and enhance aboveground net primary productivity. Applying such amendments can also lead to soil carbon (C) sequestration and, when materials are diverted from waste streams (e.g., landfills, manure lagoons), can offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, amendment production and application is also associated with GHG emissions, and the net impact of these amendments remains unclear. To investigate the potential for soil amendments to reduce net GHG emissions, we developed a comprehensive, field-scale life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The LCA includes GHG (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) emissions of soil amendment production, application, and ecosystem response. Emissions avoided by diverting materials from landfills or manure management systems are also considered. We developed the model using field observations from grazed annual grassland in northern California (e.g., soil C; above- and belowground net primary productivity; C:N ratios; trace gas emissions from soils, manure piles, and composting), CENTURY model simulations (e.g., long-term soil C and trace gas emissions from soils under various land management strategies), and literature values (e.g., GHG emissions from transportation, inorganic fertilizer production, composting, and enteric fermentation). The LCA quantifies and contrasts the potential net GHG impacts of applying compost, manure, and commercial inorganic fertilizer to grazing lands. To estimate the LCA uncertainty, sensitivity tests were performed on the most widely ranging or highly uncertain parameters (e.g., compost materials, landfill emissions, manure management system emissions). Finally, our results are scaled-up to assess the feasibility and potential impacts of large-scale adoption of soil amendment application as a land-management strategy in California. Our base case results indicate that C sinks and emissions offsets associated with

  10. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon budgeting in a short-hydroperiod floodplain wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Jackie; Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Krauss, Ken W.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the controls on floodplain carbon (C) cycling is important for assessing greenhouse gas emissions and the potential for C sequestration in river-floodplain ecosystems. We hypothesized that greater hydrologic connectivity would increase C inputs to floodplains that would not only stimulate soil C gas emissions but also sequester more C in soils. In an urban Piedmont river (151 km2 watershed) with a floodplain that is dry most of the year, we quantified soil CO2, CH4, and N2O net emissions along gradients of floodplain hydrologic connectivity, identified controls on soil aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and developed a floodplain soil C budget. Sites were chosen along a longitudinal river gradient and across lateral floodplain geomorphic units (levee, backswamp, and toe slope). CO2 emissions decreased downstream in backswamps and toe slopes and were high on the levees. CH4 and N2O fluxes were near zero; however, CH4emissions were highest in the backswamp. Annual CO2 emissions correlated negatively with soil water-filled pore space and positively with variables related to drier, coarser soil. Conversely, annual CH4 emissions had the opposite pattern of CO2. Spatial variation in aerobic and anaerobic respiration was thus controlled by oxygen availability but was not related to C inputs from sedimentation or vegetation. The annual mean soil CO2 emission rate was 1091 g C m−2 yr−1, the net sedimentation rate was 111 g C m−2 yr−1, and the vegetation production rate was 240 g C m−2 yr−1, with a soil C balance (loss) of −338 g C m−2 yr−1. This floodplain is losing C likely due to long-term drying from watershed urbanization.

  11. [Effects of understory removal on soil greenhouse gas emissions in Carya cathayensis stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Chen, Xue-shuang; Wu, Jia-sen; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-03-01

    CO2, N2O and CH4 are important greenhouse gases, and soils in forest ecosystems are their important sources. Carya cathayensis is a unique tree species with seeds used for high-grade dry fruit and oil production. Understory vegetation management plays an important role in soil greenhouse gases emission of Carya cathayensis stands. A one-year in situ experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal on soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions in C. cathayensis plantation by closed static chamber technique and gas chromatography method. Soil CO2 flux had a similar seasonal trend in the understory removal and preservation treatments, which was high in summer and autumn, and low in winter and spring. N2O emission occurred mainly in summer, while CH4 emission showed no seasonal trend. Understory removal significantly decreased soil CO, emission, increased N2O emission and CH4 uptake, but had no significant effect on soil water soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. The global warming potential of soil greenhouse gases emitted in the understory removal. treatment was 15.12 t CO2-e . hm-2 a-1, which was significantly lower than that in understory preservation treatment (17.04 t CO2-e . hm-2 . a-1).

  12. Immobilization of simulated radioactive soil waste containing cerium by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianhe; Qin, Zhigui; Yuan, Xiaoning; Wang, Chunming; Cai, Xinan; Zhao, Weixia; Zhao, Kang; Yang, Ping; Fan, Xiaoling

    2013-11-01

    A simulated radioactive soil waste containing cerium as an imitator element has been immobilized by a thermite self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process. The compositions, structures, and element leaching rates of products with different cerium contents have been characterized. To investigate the influence of iron on the chemical stability of the immobilized products, leaching tests of samples with different iron contents with different leaching solutions were carried out. The results showed that the imitator element cerium mainly forms the crystalline phases CeAl11O18 and Ce2SiO5. The leaching rate of cerium over a period of 28 days was 10-5-10-6 g/(m2 day). Iron in the reactants, the reaction products, and the environment has no significant effect on the chemical stability of the immobilized SHS products.

  13. Reduction of radioactive waste from remediation of uranium-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Gook; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Gye Nam; Han, Gyu Seong; Choi, Jong Won [Decontamination and Decommissioning Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Great amounts of solid radioactive waste (second waste) and waste solution are generated from the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil. To reduce these, we investigated washing with a less acidic solution and recycling the waste solution after removal of the dominant elements and uranium. Increasing the pH of the washing solution from 0.5 to 1.5 would be beneficial in terms of economics. A high content of calcium in the waste solution was precipitated by adding sulfuric acid. The second waste can be significantly reduced by using sorption and desorption techniques on ampholyte resin S-950 prior to the precipitation of uranium at pH 3.0.

  14. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P., E-mail: godiva@cdtn.br, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  15. Immobilization of simulated radioactive soil waste containing cerium by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xianhe; Qin, Zhigui; Yuan, Xiaoning; Wang, Chunming; Cai, Xinan; Zhao, Weixia; Zhao, Kang; Yang, Ping; Fan, Xiaoling

    2013-01-01

    A simulated radioactive soil waste containing cerium as an imitator element has been immobilized by a thermite self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process. The compositions, structures, and element leaching rates of products with different cerium contents have been characterized. To investigate the influence of iron on the chemical stability of the immobilized products, leaching tests of samples with different iron contents with different leaching solutions were carried out. The results showed that the imitator element cerium mainly forms the crystalline phases CeAl 11 O 18 and Ce 2 SiO 5 . The leaching rate of cerium over a period of 28 days was 10 −5 –10 −6 g/(m 2 day). Iron in the reactants, the reaction products, and the environment has no significant effect on the chemical stability of the immobilized SHS products

  16. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  17. Reduction of radioactive waste from remediation of uranium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Il Gook; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Gye Nam; Han, Gyu Seong; Choi, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    Great amounts of solid radioactive waste (second waste) and waste solution are generated from the remediation of uranium-contaminated soil. To reduce these, we investigated washing with a less acidic solution and recycling the waste solution after removal of the dominant elements and uranium. Increasing the pH of the washing solution from 0.5 to 1.5 would be beneficial in terms of economics. A high content of calcium in the waste solution was precipitated by adding sulfuric acid. The second waste can be significantly reduced by using sorption and desorption techniques on ampholyte resin S-950 prior to the precipitation of uranium at pH 3.0

  18. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities

  19. Natural radioactivity and external dose assessment of surface soils in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huy, N. Q.; Hien, P. D.; Luyen, T. V.; Hoang, D. V.; Hiep, H. T.; Quang, N. H.; Long, N. Q.; Nhan, D. D.; Binh, N. T.; Hai, P. S.; Ngo, N. T.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, natural radioactivity in surface soils of Vietnam and external dose assessment to human population, deduced from activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K nuclides, were determined. From 528 soil samples collected in 63 provinces of Vietnam, including five centrally governed cities, the average activities were obtained and equal to 42.77 ± 18.15 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 59.84 ± 19.81 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 411.93 ± 230.69 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. The outdoor absorbed dose rates (OADRs) in air at 1 m above the ground level for 63 provinces were calculated, and their average value was 71.72 ± 24.72 nGy h -1 , with a range from 17.45 to 149.40 nGy h -1 . The population-weighted OADR of Vietnam was 66.70 nGy h -1 , which lies in the range of 18-93 nGy h -1 found in the World. From the OADRs obtained, it was estimated that the outdoor annual effective dose and indoor annual effective dose to the population were 0.082 and 0.458 mSv, which are higher than the corresponding values 0.07 and 0.41 mSv, respectively, of the World. The radium equivalent activity Ra eq and the external hazard index H ex of surface soils of Vietnam are lower than the corresponding permissible limits of 370 Bq kg -1 and 1, respectively. Therefore, soil from Vietnam is safe for the human population when it is used as a building material. (authors)

  20. Natural Radioactivity and External Dose Assessment of Surface Soils in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huy, N.Q.; Hien, P.D.; Hoang, D.V.; Quang, N.H.; Long, N.Q.; Binh, N.T.; Hai, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, natural radioactivity in surface soils of Vietnam and external dose assessment to human population, deduces from activities of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K nuclides, were determined. From 528 soil samples collected in 63 provinces of Vietnam, including five centrally governed cities, the average activities were obtained and equal to 42.77 ± 18.15 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 59.84 ± 19.81 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 411.93 ± 230.69 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. The outdoor absorbed dose rates (OADRs) in air at 1 m above the ground level for 63 provinces were calculated, and their average value was 71.72 ± 24.72 nGy h -1 , with a range from 17.45 to 149.40 nGy h -1 . The population-weighted OADR of Vietnam was 66.70 nGy h -1 , which lies in the range of 18-93 nGy h -1 found in the World. From the OADR obtained, it was estimated that the outdoor annual effective dose and indoor annual effective dose to the population were 0.082 and 0.458 mSv, which are higher than the corresponding values 0.07 and 0.41 mSv, respectively, of the World. The radium equivalent activity Ra eq and the external hazard index H ex of surface soils of Vietnam are lower than the corresponding permissible limits of 370 Bq kg -1 and 1, respectively. Therefore, soil from Vietnam is safe for the human population when it used as a building material. (author)

  1. Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, S; Fortenberry, Gamola Z; Julius, Afolabi; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Alva, A K

    2008-02-01

    Increase in concentrations of various greenhouse gases and their possible contributions to the global warming are becoming a serious concern. Anthropogenic activities such as cultivation of flooded rice and application of waste materials, such as sewage sludge which are rich in C and N, as soil amendments could contribute to the increase in emission of greenhouse gases such as methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) into the atmosphere. Therefore, evaluation of flux of various greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge is essential to quantify their release into the atmosphere. Two soils with contrasting properties (Candler fine sand [CFS] from Florida, and Ogeechee loamy sand [OLS] from Savannah, GA) were amended with varying rates (0, 24.7, 49.4, 98.8, and 148.3 Mg ha(-1)) of 2 types of sewage sludge (industrial [ISS] and domestic [DSS] origin. The amended soil samples were incubated in anaerobic condition at field capacity soil water content in static chamber (Qopak bottles). Gas samples were extracted immediately after amending soils and subsequently on a daily basis to evaluate the emission of CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O. The results showed that emission rates and cumulative emission of all three gases increased with increasing rates of amendments. Cumulative emission of gases during 25-d incubation of soils amended with different types of sewage sludge decreased in the order: CO(2) > N(2)O > CH(4). The emission of gases was greater from the soils amended with DSS as compared to that with ISS. This may indicate the presence of either low C and N content or possible harmful chemicals in the ISS. The emission of gases was greater from the CFS as compared to that from the OLS. Furthermore, the results clearly depicted the inhibitory effect of acetylene in both soils by producing more N(2)O and CH(4) emission compared to the soils that did not receive acetylene at the rate of 1 mL g(-1) soil. Enumeration of microbial population by fluorescein diacetate

  2. Functional diversity of soil invertebrates: a potential tool to explain N2O emission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Ingrid; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Drake, Harold; Hunger, Sindy; Oppermann, Timo; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2017-04-01

    Soil biota play a crucial role in the mineralization of nutrients from organic material. However, they can thereby increase emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Our current lack of understanding of the factors controlling N2O production and emission is impeding the development of effective mitigation strategies. It is the challenge to control N2O emissions from production systems without reducing crop yield, and diversity of soil fauna may play a key role. A high functional diversity of soil invertebrates is known to stimulate nitrogen mineralization and thereby plant growth, however, it is unknown whether a high functional diversity of soil invertebrates can concurrently diminish N2O emissions. We hypothesized that increased functional diversity of soil invertebrates reduces faunal-induced N2O emissions by facilitating more complete denitrification through (i) stimulating the activity of denitrifying microbes, and (ii) affecting the distribution of micro and macro pores, creating more anaerobic reaction sites. Using state-of-the-art X-ray tomography and next-generation sequencing, we studied effects of functional diversity on soil structural properties and the diversity of the microbial community (16S rRNA genes and 16S rRNA), and linked these to soil N2O emissions. In a 120-day study we found that the functional composition of the soil invertebrate community determined N2O emissions: earthworm activity was key to faunal-induced N2O emissions (a 32-fold increase after 120 days, Pstructural properties (mean pore size, pore size distribution) were found to be radically altered by earthworm activity. We conclude that the presence of a few functional groups (ecosystem engineers) is more important than overall increased functional diversity in explaining faunal-affected N2O emissions.

  3. A model for determination of screening level for radioactive elements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Ana Claudia

    2007-01-01

    At the present, decision about clean-up of Brazilian sites contaminated with radioactive isotopes is addressed on a case-by-case basis, since there is no general guidance or recommendation to support actions in early phases of the problem identification. For chemicals, CETESB - the governmental organization responsible for preventing and controlling environmental pollution in Sao Paulo State - established background values, prevention and intervention, as the first step to implement a remediation actions based on human health risk assessment. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the establishment of target values for radioactive soil contamination, as far as possible consistent and compatible with the approach adopted by CETESB for sites contaminated with chemicals. The following steps have been addressed in this study: conceptual scenario and model development; codification of the equations in an electronic spreadsheet; selection of proper range and statistical distribution of the input values; derivation of the intervention levels for selected radionuclides using Monte Carlo methods. The mathematical model developed was mainly based on the equations used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for soil screening purposes. Intervention and prevention values are presented for adult and 10 years old child, for each 3 exposure scenarios: agricultural, residential and industrial; the following radionuclides were considered: 3 H, 14 C, 32 P, 35 S, 45 Ca, 51 Cr, 90 Sr, 125 I, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U, 239 Pu and 241 Am. Quality reference values were determined for 40 K, 137 Cs, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, Th-nat e U-nat. Results obtained in this study showed a good agreement with those reported by NCRP, considering that the equations and the input data used in both models are not the same ones.(author)

  4. Data Collection Handbook to Support Modeling Impacts of Radioactive Material in Soil and Building Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Charley [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kamboj, Sunita [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Cheng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This handbook is an update of the 1993 version of the Data Collection Handbook and the Radionuclide Transfer Factors Report to support modeling the impact of radioactive material in soil. Many new parameters have been added to the RESRAD Family of Codes, and new measurement methodologies are available. A detailed review of available parameter databases was conducted in preparation of this new handbook. This handbook is a companion document to the user manuals when using the RESRAD (onsite) and RESRAD-OFFSITE code. It can also be used for RESRAD-BUILD code because some of the building-related parameters are included in this handbook. The RESRAD (onsite) has been developed for implementing U.S. Department of Energy Residual Radioactive Material Guidelines. Hydrogeological, meteorological, geochemical, geometrical (size, area, depth), crops and livestock, human intake, source characteristic, and building characteristic parameters are used in the RESRAD (onsite) code. The RESRAD-OFFSITE code is an extension of the RESRAD (onsite) code and can also model the transport of radionuclides to locations outside the footprint of the primary contamination. This handbook discusses parameter definitions, typical ranges, variations, and measurement methodologies. It also provides references for sources of additional information. Although this handbook was developed primarily to support the application of RESRAD Family of Codes, the discussions and values are valid for use of other pathway analysis models and codes.

  5. Renewed soil erosion and remobilisation of radioactive sediment in Fukushima coastal rivers after the 2013 typhoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Cerdan, Olivier; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-04-03

    Summer typhoons and spring snowmelt led to the riverine spread of continental Fukushima fallout to the coastal plains of Northeastern Japan and the Pacific Ocean. Four fieldwork campaigns based on measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine riverine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand were conducted between November 2011 and May 2013 to document the spread of fallout by rivers. After a progressive decrease in the fresh riverine sediment doses rates between 2011 and early spring in 2013, a fifth campaign conducted in November 2013 showed that they started to increase again after the occurrence of violent typhoons. We show that this increase in dose rates was mostly due to remobilization of contaminated material that was temporarily stored in river channels or, more importantly, in dam reservoirs of the region during the typhoons. In addition, supply of particles from freshly eroded soils in autumn 2013 was the most important in areas where decontamination works are under progress. Our results underline the need to monitor the impact of decontamination works and dam releases in the region, as they may provide a continuous source of radioactive contamination to the coastal plains and the Pacific Ocean during the coming years.

  6. The emission of nitrous oxide upon wetting a rice soil following a dry season fallow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, B. H.; Holt, L. S.; Austin, E. R.

    1993-12-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to measure nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a soil, which had been planted to flooded transplanted rice, as it was rewetted to simulate the end of a dry season fallow period. The pots of soil had been cropped to transplanted rice with two commonly used nitrogen (N) fertilizer treatments and a control, and the soil had been puddled before transplanting. Large amounts of nitrate N accumulated in the soils during the dry season fallow, and the N fertilizers applied to the previous crop had little effect on nitrate accumulation. There was little N2O emission during the nitrification period. With water additions meant to simulate rainfall events at the beginning of a wet season, the soil redox dropped slightly, and large amounts of N2O began to be emitted. Large emissions began 5 days after each of the two simulated rainy season watering events and stopped abruptly at soil saturation, even though considerable amounts of nitrate still remained in the soil after saturation. Total measured emissions amounted to 6 to 7 kg N2O-N ha-1 for the period. Although these measurements were made in a system which may have favored nitrate accumulation, they are the first known measurements of N2O made from a rice soil as it is wetted. Nitrous oxide emitted from the flooding of rice soils that have accumulated nitrate during a dry season fallow may be a major source of N2O additions to the atmosphere.

  7. Element interactions and soil properties affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roivainen, Paeivi; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    Cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), uranium (U), and zinc (Zn) are among the elements that have radioactive isotopes in radioactive waste. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for possible adverse effects if these radionuclides are accidentally released into the environment. The present study aimed at investigating factors affecting such transfer in boreal forest. The plant species studied were blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the chemical composition and physical properties of soil on the soil-to-leaf/needle concentration ratios of Co, Mo, Ni, Pb, U and Zn. Soil potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) concentrations were the most important factors affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of the elements studied. Soil clay and organic matter contents were found to significantly affect plant uptake of Mo, Pb and U. Knowledge of the effects of these factors is helpful for interpretation of the predictions of radioecological models describing soil-to-plant transfer and for improving such models. (orig.)

  8. Element interactions and soil properties affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of six elements relevant to radioactive waste in boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roivainen, Paeivi; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, Kuopio (Finland)

    2012-03-15

    Cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), uranium (U), and zinc (Zn) are among the elements that have radioactive isotopes in radioactive waste. Soil-to-plant transfer is a key process for possible adverse effects if these radionuclides are accidentally released into the environment. The present study aimed at investigating factors affecting such transfer in boreal forest. The plant species studied were blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), May lily (Maianthemum bifolium), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the chemical composition and physical properties of soil on the soil-to-leaf/needle concentration ratios of Co, Mo, Ni, Pb, U and Zn. Soil potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) concentrations were the most important factors affecting the soil-to-plant transfer of the elements studied. Soil clay and organic matter contents were found to significantly affect plant uptake of Mo, Pb and U. Knowledge of the effects of these factors is helpful for interpretation of the predictions of radioecological models describing soil-to-plant transfer and for improving such models. (orig.)

  9. Extreme emission of N2O from tropical wetland soil (Pantanal, South America)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Liengård; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleter, but the global budget of N(2)O remains unbalanced. Currently, ~25% of the global N(2)O emission is ascribed to uncultivated tropical soils, but the exact locations and controlling mechanisms are not clear. Here we present...... the first study of soil N(2)O emission from the Pantanal indicating that this South American wetland may be a significant natural source of N(2)O. At three sites, we repeatedly measured in situ fluxes of N(2)O and sampled porewater nitrate [Formula: see text] during the low water season in 2008 and 2009....... In 2010, 10 sites were screened for in situ fluxes of N(2)O and soil [Formula: see text] content. The in situ fluxes of N(2)O were comparable to fluxes from heavily fertilized forests or agricultural soils. An important parameter affecting N(2)O emission rate was precipitation, inducing peak emissions...

  10. Influence of soil agrochemical properties for 90Sr uptake by cereals in radioactive contaminated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putyatin, Yu.V.; Vetrova, N.N.

    2001-05-01

    The adequate estimation of necessity of carrying out of protective measures is one of most prominent aspects of conducting agro-industrial production in a period after Chernobyl NPP failure in conditions of a deficit of the investments. The problem of diminution of dose loadings on the population is solved first of all by complex of agricultural protective measures, as about 70 percents of a collective dose is shaped at the expense of entering radionuclide uptake of in an organism with foodstuff. The application of protective measures in agriculture allows essentially to lower the radionuclide content in foodstuff. The liming, extra rates of potassium and phosphorus fertilizers are basic elements of the plant production technology in radioactive contaminated zone, which results in essential change of soil agrochemical properties. Main purpose of the study was on the basis of the experimental data to establish threshold soil parameters, which excess does not provide of 90 Sr uptake reduction in grain. The mathematical processing of results of 90 Sr radiochemical analysis with samples of sod-podsolic loamy sand soil and cereals selected from trial plots of Gomel and Mogilev regions has shown, that the inhibiting action of 90 Sr uptake decrease in grain is noted at pH (1N KCl) - 6,4 for rye, spring wheat -- 6,7, barley -- 6,7. The quantity of reliability of approximating -R 2 for rye has made 0,55, summer wheat 0,49 and barley 0,72. As a whole, the levels of soil acidity correspond to optimal parameters for production of maximal yields. The liming of soil by dolomite is accompanied with rising of exchangeable Ca and Mg contents. The correlation analysis has shown, that R 2 for the Ca content in soil and 90 Sr accumulation by rye was -- 0,38, spring wheat -- 0,69 and barley -- 0,47. The impairment of influence of calcium concentration of soil is noted at 1420 ppm for rye and 781 ppm Ca for barley. For exchangeable Mg is noted limits for rye --140(R 2 -- 0.54), spring

  11. The Efficiency of Strontium-90 Desorption Using Iron (III Solutions in the Decontamination Process of Radioactive Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Cheremisina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the investigation on the estimated efficiency of iron (III chloride solutions in the decontamination process of radioactive soils with 90 Sr, according to kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the desorption process. The specific 90 Sr radioactivity of soil samples was (3.9±0.3·104 Bq·g. The adsorption isotherms of Sr 2+ and Fe 3+ are described with the Langmuir equation. The values of Gibbs energy G0298 = -4.65 kJ·mol -1 and equilibrium ion exchange constant Keq = 6,5 confirm the hypothesis of strontium removal from soils with iron (III cations. The effectiveness of the method is substantiated by experimental and calculated results of this study samples of radioactive soils are deactivated in 90% after 9.5 hours, whereas the kinetic constant is 6.77·10 s -1 . The suggested method of soil cleanup with 0.2 M Fe 3+ solutions is optimal and complies with the environmental requirements.

  12. Emissions of N2O from peat soils under different cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Lisbet; Berglund, Örjan; Berglund, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Drainage of peatlands for agriculture use leads to an increase in nitrogen turnover rate causing emissions of N2O to the atmosphere. Agriculture contributes to a substantial part of the anthropogenic emissions of N2O therefore mitigation options for the farmers are important. Here we present a field study with the aim to investigate if the choice of cropping system can mitigate the emission of N2O from cultivated organic soils. The sites used in the study represent fen peat soils with a range of different soil properties located in different parts of southern Sweden. All sites are on active farms with good drainage. N2O emissions from the soil under two different crops grown on the same field, with the same soil type, drainage intensity and weather conditions, are compared by gas sampling. The crops included are oat, barley, carrot, potato and grassland. Three or four sampling occasions during the growing season in 2010 were carried out with static chambers. The N2O emission is calculated from the linear increase of gas concentration in the chamber headspace during the incubation time of 40 minutes. Parallel to the gas sampling soil temperature and soil moisture are measured and some soil properties determined. The result from the gas sampling and measurements show no significant difference in seasonal average N2O emission between the compared crops at any site. There are significant differences in N2O emissions between the compared crops at some of the single sampling occasions but the result vary and no crop can be pointed out as a mitigation option. The seasonal average N2O emissions varies from 16±17 to 1319±1971 μg N2O/m2/h with peaks up to 3317 μg N2O/m2/h. The N2O emission rate from peat soils are determined by other factors than the type of crops grown on the field. The emission rates vary during the season and especially between sites. Although all sites are fen peat soil the soil properties are different, e.g. carbon content varies between 27-43% and

  13. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N_2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N_2O and CH_4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N_2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH_4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N_2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH_4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al"3"+ toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N_2O and CH_4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH_4 emissions and, under CT, abate N_2O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N_2O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N_2O and CH_4 emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT. • NT and liming provide an opportunity for N_2O and CH_4 mitigation.

  14. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Marco, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalosrodriguez@wur.nl [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Espejo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.espejo@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallejo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.vallejo@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio, E-mail: i.mariscal@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N{sub 2}O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N{sub 2}O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH{sub 4} emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N{sub 2}O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH{sub 4} oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al{sup 3+} toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH{sub 4} emissions and, under CT, abate N{sub 2}O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N{sub 2}O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT

  15. Mobility and plant availability of radioactive Cs in natural soil in relation to stable Cs, other alkali elements and soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varskog, P.; Steinnes, E.; Naeumann, R.

    1994-01-01

    The mobility and plant availability of radioactive Cs from the Chernobyl accident in natural soil-plant systems of varying fertility were studied at three sampling locations situated in subalpine areas of central Norway. The soil samples included litter, humus (0-2 cm and 2-5 cm depth), and mineral soil (8-12 cm and 20-30 cm depth), and the plant species studied were Betula nana, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Juncus trifidus. The lichen Cetraria nivalis was also sampled. The sampling took place in the middle of the growth season during the period 1987-1989. The soil and vegetation samples were analysed with respect to total radiocaesium ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs), Rb, stable Cs and exchangeable 137 Cs (in soil only), K, Ca and Mg. (Author)

  16. Tillage effects on N2O emission from soils under corn and soybeans in eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorich, E.G.; St-Georges, P.; McKim, U.F.; Chan, C.; Rochette, P.

    2008-01-01

    New research has suggested that no-till agricultural practices will result in higher levels of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions due to increased levels of denitrification. This study was evaluated and compared N 2 O emissions from tilled and no-till soils. Data used in the study were comprised of more than 1500 flux measurements of N 2 O taken between April and October over a period of 3 years at a site in Ottawa, Ontario. Soybean and corn crop rotations were used. Treatment effects of tillage, crop, and time of season on N 2 O fluxes were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. The study evaluated the responses of tillage during periods when soil temperatures were above 0 degrees C. Results of the studies demonstrated that fertilization management practices contributed to the higher N 2 O emissions observed in soils planted with corn when compared with soils planted with soybeans. Biological nitrogen (N) fixation in soybeans did not contribute to annual N 2 O emissions, and the effects of tillage on N 2 O emissions varied from year to year. The tilled soils typically had better aeration, higher temperatures, and lower water content than no-till soils. N 2 O emissions from no-till soils were lower than rates observed in tilled soils in 2 of the 3 years studied. Higher emissions observed in no-till soils were attributed to timing and the method of fertilizer placement. It was concluded that further studies are needed to develop methods of improving N use efficiency within tillage systems. 30 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Characterization and influence of biochars on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Hao; Luo, Ye; Deng, Xia; Herbert, Stephen; Xing, Baoshan

    2013-01-01

    Extensive use of biochar to mitigate N 2 O emission is limited by the lack of understanding on the exact mechanisms altering N 2 O emissions from biochar-amended soils. Biochars produced from giant reed were characterized and used to investigate their influence on N 2 O emission. Responses of N 2 O emission varied with pyrolysis temperature, and the reduction order of N 2 O emission by biochar (BC) was: BC200 ≈ BC600 > BC500 ≈ BC300 ≈ BC350 > BC400. The reduced emission was attributed to enhanced N immobilization and decreased denitrification in the biochar-amended soils. The remaining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in low-temperature biochars (300–400 °C) played a major role in reducing N 2 O emission, but not for high-temperature biochars (500–600 °C). Removal of phenolic compounds from low-temperature (200–400 °C) biochars resulted in a surprising reduction of N 2 O emission, but the mechanism is still unknown. Overall, adding giant reed biochars could reduce N 2 O evolution from agricultural soil, thus possibly mitigating global warming. -- Highlights: ► C content of biochar increased with temperature but O and H content decreased. ► Biochars produced at 200–600 °C reduced N 2 O emissions from agricultural soil. ► PAHs in biochars (300–400 °C) seem a dominant factor for the reduced N 2 O emission. ► Phenolic compounds in biochars ( 2 O emission. -- Biochars (200–600 °C) produced from giant reed reduced N 2 O emissions from a soil due to enhanced N immobilization and decreased denitrification

  18. Radioactivity levels and heavy metals in the urban soil of Central Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, B; Stajic, J M; Gulan, Lj; Zeremski, T; Nikezic, D

    2015-11-01

    Radioactivity concentrations and heavy metal content were measured in soil samples collected from the area of Kragujevac, one of the largest cities in Serbia. The specific activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in 30 samples were measured by gamma spectrometry using an HPGe semiconductor detector. The average values ± standard deviations were 33.5 ± 8.2, 50.3 ± 10.6, 425.8 ± 75.7 and 40.2 ± 26.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (137)Cs have shown normal distribution. The annual effective doses, radium equivalent activities, external hazard indexes and excess lifetime cancer risk were also estimated. A RAD7 device was used for measuring radon exhalation rates from several samples with highest content of (226)Ra. The concentrations of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were measured, as well as their EDTA extractable concentrations. Wide ranges of values were obtained, especially for Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. The absence of normal distribution indicates anthropogenic origin of Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn. Correlations between radionuclide activities, heavy metal contents and physicochemical properties of analysed soil were determined by Spearman correlation coefficient. Strong positive correlation between (226)Ra and (232)Th was found.

  19. Effect of biochar and liming on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a temperate maize cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.

    2015-12-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesised mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize cropping system, we set up a field trial with a 20t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment (pH 6.5), and a control treatment without any addition (pH 6.1). An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg N ha-1 in three applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg N ha-1 as ammonium nitrate. Cumulative N2O emissions were 52 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.27) because of the large variability in the data set. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. There is no evidence that reduced N2O emissions with biochar relative to the control is solely caused by a higher soil pH.

  20. Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Anderson, B.

    1993-07-01

    INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

  1. Formation of Microbial Mats and Salt in Radioactive Paddy Soils in Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Tazaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas in Minami-soma City, Fukushima, Japan, were seriously damaged by radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP accident that caused multiple pollution by tsunami and radionuclide exposure, after the Great East Japan Earthquake, on 11 March 2011. Some areas will remain no-go zones because radiation levels remain high. In Minami-soma, only 26 percent of decontamination work had been finished by the end of July in 2015. Here, we report the characterization of microbial mats and salt found on flooded paddy fields at Karasuzaki, Minami-soma City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan which have been heavily contaminated by radionuclides, especially by Cs (134Cs, 137Cs, 40K, Sr (89Sr, 90Sr, and 91 or 95Zr even though it is more than 30 km north of the FDNPP. We document the mineralogy, the chemistry, and the micro-morphology, using a combination of micro techniques. The microbial mats were found to consist of diatoms with mineralized halite and gypsum by using X-ray diffraction (XRD. Particular elements concentrated in microbial mats were detected using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. The objective of this contribution is to illustrate the ability of various diatoms associated with minerals and microorganisms which are capable of absorbing both radionuclides and stable isotopes from polluted paddy soils in extreme conditions. Ge semiconductor analysis of the microbial mats detected 134Cs, 137Cs, and 40K without 131I in 2012 and in 2013. Quantitative analysis associated with the elemental content maps by SEM-EDS indicated the possibility of absorption of radionuclide and stable isotope elements from polluted paddy soils in Fukushima Prefecture. In addition, radionuclides were detected in solar salts made of contaminated sea water collected from the Karasuzaki ocean bath, Minami-soma, Fukushima in 2015, showing high Zr content associated

  2. Linking organic carbon, water content and nitrous oxide emission in a reclaimed coal mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure-based organic amendments can restore soil quality and allow for intensive sustained biomass production on degraded lands. However the large quantities of nitrogen and organic carbon added with such amendments could create soil conditions favorable for nitrous oxide production and emissions. T...

  3. L-Band Microwave Emission of Soil Freeze-Thaw Process in the Third Pole Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Donghai; van der Velde, R.; Su, Z.; Zeng, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Soil freeze-thaw transition monitoring is essential for quantifying climate change and hydrologic dynamics over cold regions, for instance, the Third Pole. We investigate the L-band (1.4 GHz) microwave emission characteristics of soil freeze-thaw cycle via analysis of tower-based brightness

  4. A simulation model for methane emissions from landfills with interaction of vegetation and cover soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Rongxing; Xin, Danhui; Chai, Xiaoli

    2018-01-01

    Global climate change and ecological problems brought about by greenhouse gas effect have become a severe threat to humanity in the 21st century. Vegetation plays an important role in methane (CH 4 ) transport, oxidation and emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills as it modifies the physical and chemical properties of the cover soil, and transports CH 4 to the atmosphere directly via their conduits, which are mainly aerenchymatous structures. In this study, a novel 2-D simulation CH 4 emission model was established, based on an interactive mechanism of cover soil and vegetation, to model CH 4 transport, oxidation and emissions in landfill cover soil. Results of the simulation model showed that the distribution of CH 4 concentration and emission fluxes displayed a significant difference between vegetated and non-vegetated areas. CH 4 emission flux was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than bare areas in simulation conditions. Vegetation play a negative role in CH 4 emissions from landfill cover soil due to the strong CH 4 transport capacity even though vegetation also promotes CH 4 oxidation via changing properties of cover soil and emitting O 2 via root system. The model will be proposed to allow decision makers to reconsider the actual CH 4 emission from vegetated and non-vegetated covered landfills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radioactivity in soil from the city of Kavadarci (Republic of Macedonia) and its environs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimovska, Snezana; Stafilov, Trajce; Sajn, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentrations and distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in soils from the city of Kavadarci, Republic of Macedonia, and its environs were investigated. The purpose of the study, the first of this kind in this region was to evaluate the environmental radioactivity and radiological health hazard, as well as to determine the connection between the concentration of natural radionuclides and the geology of the terrain. A total of 45 surface soil samples were collected from evenly distributed sampling sites. Gross alpha and gross beta activity measurements were made using a gas flow proportional counter, while the activity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides were measured using a high purity germanium detector. The average activity concentrations of ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ¹³⁷Cs were found to be 546±118, 38.8±14.6, 43.7±18.4 and 41.5±40 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The mean values of gross alpha and gross beta activities were 522±192 and 681±146 Bq kg⁻¹. The mean total absorbed dose rate in air calculated from the concentration of the natural radionuclides was 67.1±20.9 nGy h⁻¹, and the corresponding annual effective dose rate outdoors was 0.082±0.026 mSv y⁻¹. The results of the analysis show strong correlation between the abundance of the natural radionuclides in soils and their geological origin.

  6. Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the New Brunswick Site, Middlesex County, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.; Kamboj, S.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1996-02-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the New Brunswick Site, located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides of concern and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the New Brunswick Site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines. The guidelines derived in this report are intended to apply to the remediation of these remaining residual radioactive materials at the site. The primary radionuclides of concern in these remaining materials are expected to be radium-226 and, to a lesser extent, natural uranium and thorium. The DOE has established generic cleanup guidelines for radium and thorium in soil; however, cleanup guidelines for other radionuclides must be derived on a site-specific basis

  7. Improving and disaggregating N_2O emission factors for ruminant excreta on temperate pasture soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krol, D.J.; Carolan, R.; Minet, E.; McGeough, K.L.; Watson, C.J.; Forrestal, P.J.; Lanigan, G.J.; Richards, K.G.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle excreta deposited on grazed grasslands are a major source of the greenhouse gas (GHG) nitrous oxide (N_2O). Currently, many countries use the IPCC default emission factor (EF) of 2% to estimate excreta-derived N_2O emissions. However, emissions can vary greatly depending on the type of excreta (dung or urine), soil type and timing of application. Therefore three experiments were conducted to quantify excreta-derived N_2O emissions and their associated EFs, and to assess the effect of soil type, season of application and type of excreta on the magnitude of losses. Cattle dung, urine and artificial urine treatments were applied in spring, summer and autumn to three temperate grassland sites with varying soil and weather conditions. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from the three experiments over 12 months to generate annual N_2O emission factors. The EFs from urine treated soil was greater (0.30–4.81% for real urine and 0.13–3.82% for synthetic urine) when compared with dung (− 0.02–1.48%) treatments. Nitrous oxide emissions were driven by environmental conditions and could be predicted by rainfall and temperature before, and soil moisture deficit after application; highlighting the potential for a decision support tool to reduce N_2O emissions by modifying grazing management based on these parameters. Emission factors varied seasonally with the highest EFs in autumn and were also dependent on soil type, with the lowest EFs observed from well-drained and the highest from imperfectly drained soil. The EFs averaged 0.31 and 1.18% for cattle dung and urine, respectively, both of which were considerably lower than the IPCC default value of 2%. These results support both lowering and disaggregating EFs by excreta type. - Highlights: • N_2O emissions were measured from cattle excreta applied to pasture. • N_2O was universally higher from urine compared with dung. • N_2O was driven by rainfall, temperature and soil moisture deficit. • Emission

  8. Enhancing soil infiltration reduces gaseous emissions and improves N uptake from applied dairy slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandral, R; Bittman, S; Kowalenko, G; Buckley, K; Chantigny, M H; Hunt, D E; Bounaix, F; Friesen, A

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infiltration of liquid manure into the soil reduces emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) into the atmosphere. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of two low-cost methods of assisting infiltration of applied dairy slurry on emissions of NH(3), nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and on crop N uptake. The two methods were removing of solids by settling-decantation to make the manure less viscous and mechanically aerating the soil. Ammonia emissions were measured with wind tunnels as percentage of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) while emissions of N(2)O were measured with vented chambers. Mechanically aerating the soil before manure application significantly reduced emissions of NH(3) relative to the nonaerated soil in spring (38.6 to 20.3% of applied TAN), summer (41.1 to 26.4% of applied TAN) and fall (27.7 to 13.6% of applied TAN) trials. Decantation of manure had no effect on NH(3) emissions in spring, tended to increase emissions in summer and significantly decreased emissions in fall (30.3 to 11.1% of applied TAN). Combining the two abatement techniques reduced NH(3) emission by 82% in fall, under cool weather conditions typical of manure spreading. The two abatement techniques generally did not significantly affect N(2)O emissions. Uptake of applied N by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was generally significantly greater with decanted than from whole manure but the effect of aeration was generally small and not significant. The study shows that low cost methods that assist manure infiltration into the soil may be used to greatly reduce ammonia loss without increasing N(2)O emissions, but efficacy of abatement methods is affected by weather conditions.

  9. Industries processing naturally occurring radioactive materials: twenty years of emission data in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the dose assessment of discharges to air of two industries processing NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) in the Netherlands. An industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus (thermal process, unique within Europe) reports since 1987 its emission data to the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (VROM: Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment). This plant accounts for the highest release of Po-210 to air in the Netherlands, with a yearly average of approximately 500 GBq. Other significant NORM discharges to air arise from an industrial plant with blast-furnaces for steel production. Yearly discharges fall under permit, and are reported, since 1993. RIVM, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, is tasked by the Ministry to assess the dose to the general public arising from these discharges to air. Air transport modelling is used to determine both air concentration (for inhalation exposure) and deposition rate of the radionuclides. A (conservative) committed ingestion dose is determined by modelling the uptake of radionuclides from contaminated farmland, and assuming a food basket to be fairly representative for the population of the Netherlands. Discharges to water in the Netherlands have decreased in the past twenty years, due both to the closure of two phosphoric acid plants a decade ago and the improved treatment of waste fluids by other NORM industries. The collective dose assessed from discharges to air since 1987 is presented here. (author)

  10. Predicting nitrous oxide emissions from manure properties and soil moisture: An incubation experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Arthur, Emmanuel; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    Field-applied manure is a source of essential plant nutrients, but benefits may be partly offset by high rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, as modified by manure characteristics and soil properties. In a 28-d incubation experiment we quantified short-term emissions of N2O from a sandy loam...

  11. Biochar's role in mitigating soil nitrous oxide emissions: a review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, M.L.; Zwieten, van L.; Singh, B.P.; Jeffery, S.L.; Roig, A.; Sánchez-Monedero, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    More than two thirds of global nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions originate from soil, mainly associated with the extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in agriculture. Although the interaction of black carbon with the N cycle has been long recognized, the impact of biochar on N2O emissions has only

  12. Nitrous oxide emission hotspots and acidic soil denitrification in a riparian buffer zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 296 CO2 equivalents and is involved in the depletion of the ozone layer. Through studies on emission sources it was revealed that natural and agricultural soils are important sources of N2O emissions and are responsible for

  13. Seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 emission in the boreal forests in Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhnykina, A. V.; Prokishkin, A. S.; Zyryanov, V.; Verkhovets, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    A large amount of carbon in soil is released to the atmosphere through soil respiration, which is the main pathway of transferring carbon from terrestrial ecosystems (Comstedt et al., 2011). Considering that boreal forests is a large terrestrial sink (Tans et al., 1990) and represent approximately 11 % of the Earth's total land area (Gower et al., 2001), even a small change in soil respiration could significantly intensify - or mitigate - current atmospheric increases of CO2, with potential feedbacks to climate change. The objectives of the present study are: (a) to study the dynamic of CO2emission from the soil surface during summer season (from May to October); (b) to identify the reaction of soil respiration to different amount of precipitation as the main limiting factor in the region. The research was carried out in the pine forests in Central Siberia (60°N, 90°E), Russia. Sample plots were represented by the lichen pine forest, moss pine forest, mixed forest and anthropogenic destroyed area. We used the automated soil CO2 flux system based on the infrared gas analyzer LI-8100 for measuring the soil efflux. Soil temperature was measured with Soil Temperature Probe Type E in three depths 5, 10, 15 cm. Volumetric soil moisture was measured with Theta Probe Model ML2. The presence and type of ground cover substantially affects the value of soil respiration fluxes. The carbon dioxide emission from the soil surface averaged was 5.4 ±2.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The destroyed area without plant cover demonstrated the lowest soil respiration (0.1-5.6 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The lowest soil respiration among forested areas was observed in the feathermoss pine forest. The lichen pine forest soil respiration was characterized by averages values. The maximum soil respiration values and seasonal fluctuations were obtained in the mixed forest (2.3-29.3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). The analysis of relation between soil CO2 efflux and amount of precipitation showed that the site without any

  14. Passive Gamma-Ray Emission for Soil-Disturbance Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    technical reports published by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/CRREL TR-16-10 August 2016...area should be relatively constant if landform and provenance are known and con- trolled . As the soil dries out, the gamma-ray spectra should change...attenuation-pathway con- trolled (Figure 3). The attenuation is a function of the mass attenuation coefficients of the soil constituents (i.e., soil, water

  15. Transfer Factor of Radioactive Cs and Sr from Egyptian Soils to Roots and Leafs of Wheat Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Khadra, S.A.; Abdel Fattah, A.T.; Eissa, H.S.; Abdel Sabour, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Transfer factors (TFs) of long lived radionuclide such as 137 Cs and 90 Sr from three different Egyptian soils type to wheat plant have been studied by radiotracer experiments. Most typical Egyptian soils (sandy, sandy loam and clayey) from three different locations (Al -Oboor, Abu- Zaabal and Shebeen cities) were selected for the experiments carried out under outdoor conditions. The plant selected was wheat because the high consumption of wheat in Egypt. In the present study radioactive strontium and caesium uptake from different types of soil was investigated .These radionuclide showed a considerable difference in their distribution within the plant .The results showed that soil type influences the transfer factors. Sandy soil resulted in the highest transfer factor for both (Cs and Sr) from soil to wheat. TFs for leafs were higher than those for roots in case of 90 Sr (for all types of soil). However, TFs of ( 137 Cs) for roots were higher than those for leafs for all soils. Grains of the wheat showed the lowest transfer factor for the Cs and Sr (for all types of soil)

  16. [Effect of Biochar on Soil Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Semi-arid Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-liang; Wang, Dan-dan; Zheng, Ji-yong; Zhao, Shi-wei; Zhang, Xing-chang

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of biochar addition on the emission of greenhouse gases from farmland soil in semi-arid region. Through an in-situ experiments, the influence of sawdust biochar(J) and locust tree skin biochar (H) at three doses (1%, 3%, and 5% of quality percentage) on C2, CH4 and N2O emissions were studied within the six months in the south of Ningxiaprovince. The results indicated that soil CO2 emission flux was slightly increased with the addition doses for both biochars, and the averaged CO2 emission flux for sawdust and locust tree skin biochar was enhanced by 1. 89% and 3. 34% compared to the control, but the difference between treatments was not statistically significant. The soil CH4 emission was decreased with the increasing of biochar doses, by 1. 17%, 2. 55%, 4. 32% for J1, J3, J5 and 2. 35%, 5. 83%, 7. 32% for H1, H3, H5, respectively. However, the difference was statistically significant only for J5, H3 and H5 treatments (P effect on soil N2O emission. Our study indicated that the biochar has no significant influence on soil CO2 and N2O emissions within six months in semi-arid region and can significantly influence soil CH4 emissions (P < 0. 05). As for biochar type, the locust tree skin biochar is significantly better than the sawdust biochar in terms of restraining CH4 emission(P = 0. 048).

  17. Determination of natural radioactivity and the concentration of elements in soil and plants at Krau Wildlife Reserve, Temerloh, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz Hadzori

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the natural radioactivity and the concentration of elements in soil and plants at Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang. Soil and plant samples collected were air dried and heated in the oven at temperature of 100 degree Celsius. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-Spectrometer (ICP-MS) was used to determine the natural radioactivity and elemental contents of each sample. Results showed that the concentration of U-238 and Th-232 varied from each sampling site. The concentration of Th-232 is higher than of U-238. For soil and plants samples, the natural radioactivity for both radionuclides were below 72 Bq/ kg. 15 elements present in both soil and plant samples, among other are Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ca, Zn, Co, Cd and As. The concentration of each elements differs for every sampling site. The elements with higher concentration are Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Mn. This study showed that monocotyledon taking up more Mg than dicotyledons whereas dicotyledon plants taking up more Al. (author)

  18. Implementation of a laboratory apparatus based on a NaI(Tl) spectrometer: application to the characterization of soil radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianjafitrimo

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory apparatus based on a NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer for the assessment of radionuclides naturally occurring in environmental samples was established. This detection system is devoted to the quantitative determination of uranium, thorium and potassium in soils and rocks samples.The IAEA reference materials, RG S ET was used for calibration of the spectrometer. The photopics at 1460, 1765 and 2614 keV due to 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th, respectively, were used for the corresponding activity measurements. The radioactivity characterization of soils was performed on primordial radionuclides distribution and radon emanation according to the grain-size. Because of social and economical interest that present the collected samples (mineralized sands and soils rich in uranium), their radiation protection aspects was considered in this work. Discussions was made on factors restricting the approach based on scintillation spectrometry, such as radioactive equilibrium and radon encapsulation in the one hand, and in the other hand, on the assessment of soils characterization, among other things, grain-size effects. The present work has also shown that radioactivity levels of building and fabrication materials can be reduced by the removal of fines or fraction having higher concentrations by sieving. [fr

  19. Role of organic amendment application on greenhouse gas emission from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangarajan, Ramya, E-mail: thary008@mymail.unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Bolan, Nanthi S. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Tian, Guanglong [Environmental Monitoring and Research Division, Monitoring and Research Dep., Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, 6001, Pershing Road, Cicero, IL 60804 (United States); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Kunhikrishnan, Anitha [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science,10 Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Globally, substantial quantities of organic amendments (OAs) such as plant residues (3.8 × 10{sup 9} Mg/yr), biosolids (10 × 10{sup 7} Mg/yr), and animal manures (7 × 10{sup 9} Mg/yr) are produced. Recycling these OAs in agriculture possesses several advantages such as improving plant growth, yield, soil carbon content, and microbial biomass and activity. Nevertheless, OA applications hold some disadvantages such as nutrient eutrophication and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Agriculture sector plays a vital role in GHG emission (carbon dioxide— CO{sub 2}, methane— CH{sub 4}, and nitrous oxide— N{sub 2}O). Though CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are emitted in less quantity than CO{sub 2}, they are 21 and 310 times more powerful in global warming potential, respectively. Although there have been reviews on the role of mineral fertilizer application on GHG emission, there has been no comprehensive review on the effect of OA application on GHG emission in agricultural soils. The review starts with the quantification of various OAs used in agriculture that include manures, biosolids, and crop residues along with their role in improving soil health. Then, it discusses four major OA induced-GHG emission processes (i.e., priming effect, methanogenesis, nitrification, and denitrification) by highlighting the impact of OA application on GHG emission from soil. For example, globally 10 × 10{sup 7} Mg biosolids are produced annually which can result in the potential emission of 530 Gg of CH{sub 4} and 60 Gg of N{sub 2}O. The article then aims to highlight the soil, climatic, and OA factors affecting OA induced-GHG emission and the management practices to mitigate the emission. This review emphasizes the future research needs in relation to nitrogen and carbon dynamics in soil to broaden the use of OAs in agriculture to maintain soil health with minimum impact on GHG emission from agriculture. - Highlights: ► A comprehensive overview for the first time on GHG emission from

  20. Evidence for denitrification as main source of N2O emission from residue-amended soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Sørensen, Peter; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    -leguminous species (ryegrass). Plant material was placed in a discrete layer surrounded by soil in which the nitrate View the MathML source pool was enriched with 15N to distinguish N2O derived from denitrification and nitrification. Net N mineralisation from leguminous catch crops was significant (30–48 mg N kg−1....... Emission of N2O occurred at all moisture levels, but was higher at 50 and 60% WFPS than at 40% in soil with leguminous residues. The 15N enrichment of N2O indicated that denitrification was the dominant source independent of moisture level and residue type. We conclude that catch crop residues...... will stimulate N2O emissions via denitrification over a wide range of soil moisture conditions, but that emission levels may depend significantly on residue quality and soil moisture....

  1. Manure distribution as a predictor of N2O emissions from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Baral, Khagendra Raj; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Predicting nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from manure-amended soil remains a challenge. One reason may be that spatial heterogeneity in distribution of manure is not accounted for in models of N2O emission, but experimental results suggest that both manure and soil properties affect the distribution...... of manure constituents after field application in a systematic way. Key to predicting the fate of labile carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in manure is to acknowledge that the liquid phase, and a corresponding fraction of labile C and N, is partly absorbed by the bulk soil in response to the water potential...... gradient, and partly retained by particulate manure organic matter. Therefore, boundary conditions for subsequent transformations of C and N may be better described as two separate compartments. In this study, N2O emissions were determined in a 42-day experiment that included two soils (7.5% and 17% clay...

  2. Objective and subjective evaluation of power plants and their non-radioactive emissions using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzimouratidis, Athanasios I.; Pilavachi, Petros A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-nuclear power plant emissions are of great concern to the public and to scientists alike. As energy demand tends to rise rapidly, especially in the developing countries, the negative effects to human health and to the environment from gaseous emissions together with hazardous particulate matter released by power plants can no longer be ignored. In this study, the impact of non-radioactive emissions is evaluated with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) by synthesizing objective and subjective criteria. There are five main emissions to be evaluated, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC), carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 -eq), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and particulates or particulate matter (PM). Objective evaluation is achieved by expressing the impact of each emission released in monetary terms following generally accepted market rules, international agreements and protocols. That is, the Euro per kilogram of each emission exceeding a specific limit that should be paid as a penalty for environmental pollution and human health damage. Subjective assessment requires an intuitive expression of the percentage of damage to human health and to the ecosystem that each emission causes. Sensitivity analysis is then used in order to examine how change of input data affects final results. Finally, 10 main types of power plant are evaluated according to the level and kind of emissions they release. These types are coal/lignite, oil, natural gas turbine, natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), nuclear, hydro, wind, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal

  3. Radioactive Emissions from Fission-Based Medical Isotope Production and Their Effect on Global Nuclear Explosion Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, T.; Saey, P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of medical isotopes, such as Tc-99m, is widespread with over 30 million procedures being performed every year, but the fission-based production of isotopes used for medical procedures causes emissions into the environment. This paper will show that gaseous radioactive isotopes of xenon, such as Xe-133, are released in high quantities, because they have a high fission cross section and they are difficult to scrub from the processes used to produce the medical isotopes due to their largely unreactive nature. Unfortunately, the reasons that large amounts of radioactive xenon isotopes are emitted from isotope production are the same as those that make these isotopes the most useful isotopes for the detection of underground nuclear explosions. Relatively recently, the nuclear explosion monitoring community has established a provisional monitoring network for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) that includes radioactive xenon monitoring as a major component. This community has discovered that emissions from medical isotope production present a more serious problem to nuclear explosion monitoring than thought when the network was first conceived. To address the growing problem, a group of scientists in both the monitoring and the isotope production communities have come together to attempt to find scientific and pragmatic ways to address the emissions problems, recognizing that medical isotope production should not be adversely affected, while monitoring for nuclear explosions should remain effective as isotope production grows, changes, and spreads globally. (author)

  4. Novel Approach for the Remediation of Radioactive Cesium Contaminated Soil with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO Dispersion Mixture in Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallampati S. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study, first time we developed a nano-Fe/Ca/CaO dispersion mixture based remediation and volume reduction method of real radioactive cesium contaminated soils. After soil samples treated with 10wt% of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO dispersion mixtures, emitting radiation intensity was reduced from 4.00 μSv/h to 0.95 μSv/h in non-magnetic fraction soils. While, after treatment, about 30wt% magnetic and 70wt% nonmagnetic fraction soils were separated, and it’s condensed radioactive cesium concentration was about 80% and 20%, respectively. By this way, cesium contaminated soil volume can be reduced. These preliminary results appear to be very promising and the simple mixing with the addition of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO may be considered potentially applicable for the remediation and separation of radioactive Cs contaminated soil in dry conditions.

  5. Soil emissions of gaseous reactive nitrogen from North American arid lands: an overlooked source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J. P.; McCalley, C. K.; Strahm, B. D.

    2008-12-01

    The biosphere-atmosphere exchange and transformation of nitrogen has important ramifications for both terrestrial biogeochemistry and atmospheric chemistry. Several important mechanisms within this process (e.g., photochemistry, nitrogen deposition, aerosol formation) are strongly influenced by the emission of reactive nitrogen compounds from the Earth's surface. Therefore, a quantification of emission sources is a high priority for future conceptual understanding. One source largely overlooked in most global treatments are the soil emissions from arid and semi-arid landscapes worldwide. Approximately 35-40% of global terrestrial land cover is aridland and emission of reactive nitrogen from soils in these regions has the potential to strongly influence both regional and global biogeochemistry. Here we present estimates of soil emission of oxidized (NO, total NOy including NO2 and HONO) and reduced (NH3) forms of reactive nitrogen from two North American arid regions: the Mojave Desert and the Colorado Plateau. Soil fluxes in these regions are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. Soil moisture is largely driven by pulsed rain events with fluxes increasing 20-40 fold after a rain event. Using field measurements made across seasons under an array of moisture conditions, precipitation records, and spatially explicit cover type information we have estimated annual estimates for the Mojave Desert (1.5 ± 0.7 g N ha-1 yr-1), the shale derived (1.4 ± 0.9 g N ha-1 yr-1), and sandy soil derived (2.8 ± 1.2 g N ha-1 yr-1) regions of the Colorado Plateau. The chemical composition of soil emissions varies significantly both with season and soil moisture content. Emissions from dry soils tend to be dominated by ammonia and forms of NOy other than NO. In contrast, NO becomes a dominant portion of the flux post rain events (~30% of the total flux). This variability in chemical form has significant implications for the tropospheric fate of the emitted N. NO and other

  6. Simulating soil greenhouse emissions from Swiss long-term cropping system trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Skinner, Colin; Büchi, Lucie; Berner, Alfred; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Wittwer, Raphael; Gattinger, Andreas; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify and evaluate management practices for their bio-physical potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The cost and time required for direct management-specific GHG measurements limit the spatial and temporal resolution and the extent of data that can be collected. Biogeochemical process-based models such as DayCent can be used to bridge data gaps over space and time and estimate soil GHG emissions relevant to various climate change mitigation strategies. Objectives of this study were (a) to parameterize DayCent for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices using the Swiss long-term experimental data collected at four sites (Therwil, Frick, Changins, and Reckenholz); (b) to evaluate the model's ability to predict crop productivity, long-term soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems; (c) to calculate a net soil GHG balance for all treatments (except for bio-dynamic) studied in long-term field experiments in Switzerland; and (d) to study the management effects and their interactions on soil GHG emissions at each experimental site. Model evaluation indicated that DayCent predicted crop productivity (rRMSE=0.29 r2=0.81, n=2614), change in soil carbon stock (rRMSE=0.14, r2=0.72, n=1289) and cumulative N2O emissions (rRMSE=0.25, r2=0.89, n=8) satisfactorily across all treatments and sites. Net soil GHG emissions were derived from changes in soil carbon, N2O emissions and CH4 oxidation on an annual basis using IPCC (2014) global warming potentials. Modelled net soil GHG emissions calculated for individual treatments over 30 years ranged from -594 to 1654 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. The highest net soil GHG emissions were predicted for conventional tillage and slurry application treatment at Frick, while soils under organic and reduced tillage management at Reckenholz acted as a net GHG sink. The statistical analyses using linear MIXED models indicated that net soil GHG

  7. Factors controlling regional differences in forest soil emission of nitrogen oxides (NO and N2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pilegaard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil emissions of NO and N2O were measured continuously at high frequency for more than one year at 15 European forest sites as part of the EU-funded project NOFRETETE. The locations represent different forest types (coniferous/deciduous and different nitrogen loads. Geographically they range from Finland in the north to Italy in the south and from Hungary in the east to Scotland in the west. The highest NO emissions were observed from coniferous forests, whereas the lowest NO emissions were observed from deciduous forests. The NO emissions from coniferous forests were highly correlated with N-deposition. The site with the highest average annual emission (82 μg NO-N m−2 h−1 was a spruce forest in South-Germany (Höglwald receiving an annual N-deposition of 2.9 g m−2. NO emissions close to the detection limit were observed from a pine forest in Finland where the N-deposition was 0.2 g N m−2 a−1. No significant correlation between N2O emission and N-deposition was found. The highest average annual N2O emission (20 μg N2O-N m−2 h−1 was found in an oak forest in the Mátra mountains (Hungary receiving an annual N-deposition of 1.6 g m−2. N2O emission was significantly negatively correlated with the C/N ratio. The difference in N-oxide emissions from soils of coniferous and deciduous forests may partly be explained by differences in N-deposition rates and partly by differences in characteristics of the litter layer and soil. NO was mainly derived from nitrification whereas N2O was mainly derived from denitrification. In general, soil moisture is lower at coniferous sites (at least during spring time and the litter layer of coniferous forests is thick and well aerated favouring nitrification and thus release of NO. Conversely, the higher rates of denitrification in deciduous forests due to a compact and moist litter layer lead to N2O production and NO consumption in the soil. The two factors soil moisture and soil temperature are

  8. Effects of radioactive fallout on soil animal populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutzkij, D.A.; Pokarzhevskij, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Studies were carried out during July and September 1986, April 1987 and October 1988. Radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl atomic power station (APS) accident induced catastrophic effects on populations of small pine-litter faunae within the 30km zone around the station. Effects on soil faunae were not so marked due to shielding by the soil, or on litter faunae at the edge of the 30km zone due to distance from the source. Thirty-gray doses did not directly affect adult animals in the soil and litter, but impacted their eggs and juveniles. Resident populations recovered slowly during the first year after the accident. Insect migration into the contaminated area was the primary source of soil animal population recovery. After 2-2.5 year, marked differences between populations in the contaminated and control areas were no longer found. (author). 5 refs.; 6 tabs

  9. Monitoring of the vegetable garden open air spinach and soil radioactivity in Beijing during the Japan Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiang; Xu Cuihua; Tuo Fei; Zhang Jing; Li Wenhong; Zhang Qing; Zhang Weijun; Zhang Jianfeng; Su Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect artificial radionuclide content in the spinach and soil in open air vegetable garden in Beijing during Fukushima nuclear accident and to study the radioactive contamination characteristics of the samples. Methods: 6 spinach samples and 3 soil samples in open air vegetable garden were obtained through continuously sampling. High-purity germanium (HPGe) γ spectrometry was used to analyze activity concentrations of artificial radionuclide 131 I etc in these samples. Results: Artificial radionuclide 131 I was detected in the 6 open air spinach samples. Artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was detected in 3 vegetable garden soil samples, trace amount of 131 I was detected in 1 open-air surface soil sample alone. Conclusions: Following the Fukushima nuclear accident, spinach in Beijing's open-air vegetable garden was slightly polluted by artificial radionuclide 131 I, with the highest values of pollution appeared around April 4, 2011, but it could not cause harm to human health. (authors)

  10. Environmental assessment of heavy metal and natural radioactivity in soil around a coal-fired power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei Lu; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an; Wen Liu; Caifeng Zhao; Cancan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals and natural radionuclides in soil around a major coal-fired power plant of Xi'an, China were determined by using XRF and gamma ray spectrometry, respectively. The measured results of heavy metals show that the mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Co and Cr in the studied soil samples are higher than their corresponding background values in Shaanxi soil, while the mean concentrations of Mn, Ni and V are close to the corresponding background values. The calculated results of pollution load index of heavy metals indicate that the studied soils presented heavy metal contamination. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied soil samples range from 27.6 to 48.8, 44.4 to 61.4 and 640.2 to 992.2 Bq kg -1 with an average of 36.1, 51.1 and 733.9 Bq kg -1 , respectively, which are slightly higher than the average of Shaanxi soil. The air absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose equivalent received by the local residents due to the natural radionuclides in soil are slightly higher than the mean values of Shaanxi. Coal combustion for energy production has affected the natural radioactivity level and heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Co and Cr) concentrations of soil around the coal-fired power plant. (author)

  11. Distribution of natural and artificial radioactivity in soils, water and tuber crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Godfred; Faanu, Augustine; Akoto, Osei; Acheampong, Akwasi; Goode, Eric Jude; Gyamfi, Opoku

    2015-06-01

    Activity concentrations of radionuclides in water, soil and tuber crops of a major food-producing area in Ghana were investigated. The average gross alpha and beta activities were 0.021 and 0.094 Bq/L, respectively, and are below the guidelines for drinking water and therefore not expected to pose any significant health risk. The average annual effective dose due to ingestion of radionuclide in water ranged from 20.08 to 53.45 μSv/year. The average activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in the soil from different farmlands in the study area was 23.19, 31.10, 143.78 and 2.88 Bq/kg, respectively, which is lower than world averages. The determined absorbed dose rate for the farmlands ranged from 23.63 to 50.51 nGy/year, which is within worldwide range of 18 to 93 nGy/year. The activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in cassava ranges from 0.38 to 6.73, 1.82 to 10.32, 17.65 to 41.01 and 0.38 to 1.02 Bq/kg, respectively. Additionally, the activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs in yam also ranges from 0.47 to 4.89, 0.93 to 5.03, 14.19 to 35.07 and 0.34 to 0.89 Bq/kg, respectively. The average concentration ratio for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in yam was 0.12, 0.11 and 0.17, respectively, and in cassava was 0.11, 0.12 and 0.2, respectively. None of the radioactivity is expected to cause significant health problems to human beings.

  12. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remortel, R. D. Van; Lee, Y. J.; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates, and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  13. Soil Characterization Database for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Remortel, R. D. Van; Snyder, K. E.

    2005-01-01

    Soils were characterized in an investigation at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. Data from the investigation are presented in four parameter groups: sample and site characteristics, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) particle size fractions, chemical parameters, and American Society for Testing Materials-Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM-USCS) particle size fractions. Spread-sheet workbooks based on these parameter groups are presented to evaluate data quality, conduct database updates,and set data structures and formats for later extraction and analysis. This document does not include analysis or interpretation of presented data

  14. Observation of radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I, {sup 129}I) in cropland soil after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Hideshi, E-mail: hfuji@affrc.go.jp

    2016-10-01

    During the early stages of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the temporal variations of {sup 131}I deposited on the ground and of {sup 131}I accumulated in cropland soil were monitored at a fixed location in Japan. Moreover, concentrations of long-lived radioactive iodine ({sup 129}I) in atmospheric deposits and soil were measured to examine the feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing {sup 131}I levels from the levels of accident-derived {sup 129}I. The exceptionally high levels of {sup 131}I in deposits and soil were attributed to rainfall-related deposition of radionuclides. In the crop field studied, the losses of deposited {sup 131}I and {sup 129}I due to volatilization were small. The atomic ratio {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I in the topsoil corresponded to the same ratio in deposits. The {sup 131}I concentrations measured in the topsoil were very consistent with the {sup 131}I concentrations reconstructed from the {sup 129}I concentrations in the soil. - Highlights: • A high level of {sup 131}I contamination occurs through rainfall-related deposition. • Only a small loss of deposited radioactive iodine occurs via volatilization. • The {sup 129}I/{sup 131}I ratio in soil corresponds to the ratio in atmospheric deposit. • The feasibility of retrospectively reconstructing {sup 131}I is confirmed.

  15. Experimental analysis of CO2 emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO 2 emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230–250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120–150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250–270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120–150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO 2 emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO 2 emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO 2 emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO 2 emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO 2 emissions from soils during the

  16. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions along a high arctic soil moisture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Sarah Hagel; Lindwall, Frida; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2016-12-15

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from terrestrial ecosystems are important for the atmospheric chemistry and the formation of secondary organic aerosols, and may therefore influence the climate. Global warming is predicted to change patterns in precipitation and plant species compositions, especially in arctic regions where the temperature increase will be most pronounced. These changes are potentially highly important for the BVOC emissions but studies investigating the effects are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality and quantity of BVOC emissions from a high arctic soil moisture gradient extending from dry tundra to a wet fen. Ecosystem BVOC emissions were sampled five times in the July-August period using a push-pull enclosure technique, and BVOCs trapped in absorbent cartridges were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species compositions were estimated using the point intercept method. In order to take into account important underlying ecosystem processes, gross ecosystem production, ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem production were measured in connection with chamber-based BVOC measurements. Highest emissions of BVOCs were found from vegetation communities dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, which had emission profiles dominated by isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively. These results show that emissions of BVOCs are highly dependent on the plant cover supported by the varying soil moisture, suggesting that high arctic BVOC emissions may affect the climate differently if soil water content and plant cover change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kocman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4–417 μg g−1 and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m−2 h−1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  18. EPA's technical methodology for the development of cleanup regulations for radioactively-contaminated soils and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, H.B.; Doehnert, M.; Wolbarst, A.; Mauro, J.J.; Ralston, L.

    1995-01-01

    The total number of sites contaminated with radionuclides in the United States is in the thousands. These sites range in size from corners of laboratories to sprawling nuclear weapons facilities covering many square miles of land. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing regulations for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The rule will apply to site under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. In support of this rulemaking, EPA is conducting a comprehensive technical analysis which will provide information on the volumes of soil requiring remediation at various possible dose and risk levels. The analysis will also provide information at different cleanup levels on the number of potential adverse health effects among people living or working on or near a site following the cleanup of its radioactive contamination. This paper summarizes the overall approach for the technical analysis. (author)

  19. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-100 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-00 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. the exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. the test sample was a soil containing environmental levels of K-40, Ra-226, Ac-228, Sr-90, Cs-137, Cs-134, Pu (239-240) y Am-241. the Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona prepared the material and reported adequate statistical studies of homogeneity. The results of the exercise were computed for 30 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the u-score approach. A raised percentage of satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for all the analysis, being the best performance in gamma measurements. The exercise has drawn that several laboratories have difficulties in the evaluation of combined uncertainty, mainly in analysis involving radiochemical steps. The study has shown an homogeneous inter-laboratory behaviour, and the improvement achieved through subsequent exercises in the quality of the data they are producing. (Author) 10 refs

  20. Hotspots of soil N2O emission enhanced through water absorption by plant residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Toosi, E.R.; Guber, A.K.; Ostrom, N.E.; Yu, J.; Azeem, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Robertson , G.P. (UAF Pakistan); (UC); (Hubei); (MSU)

    2017-06-05

    N2O is a highly potent greenhouse gas and arable soils represent its major anthropogenic source. Field-scale assessments and predictions of soil N2O emission remain uncertain and imprecise due to the episodic and microscale nature of microbial N2O production, most of which occurs within very small discrete soil volumes. Such hotspots of N2O production are often associated with decomposing plant residue. Here we quantify physical and hydrological soil characteristics that lead to strikingly accelerated N2O emissions in plant residue-induced hotspots. Results reveal a mechanism for microscale N2O emissions: water absorption by plant residue that creates unique micro-environmental conditions, markedly different from those of the bulk soil. Moisture levels within plant residue exceeded those of bulk soil by 4–10-fold and led to accelerated N2O production via microbial denitrification. The presence of large (Ø >35 μm) pores was a prerequisite for maximized hotspot N2O production and for subsequent diffusion to the atmosphere. Understanding and modelling hotspot microscale physical and hydrologic characteristics is a promising route to predict N2O emissions and thus to develop effective mitigation strategies and estimate global fluxes in a changing environment.

  1. Nitrosospira sp. Govern Nitrous Oxide Emissions in a Tropical Soil Amended With Residues of Bioenergy Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Késia S. Lourenço

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic vinasse, a residue produced during bioethanol production, increases nitrous oxide (N2O emissions when applied with inorganic nitrogen (N fertilizer in soil. The present study investigated the role of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB community on the N2O emissions in soils amended with organic vinasse (CV: concentrated and V: non-concentrated plus inorganic N fertilizer. Soil samples and N2O emissions were evaluated at 11, 19, and 45 days after fertilizer application, and the bacterial and archaea gene (amoA encoding the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme, bacterial denitrifier (nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes and total bacteria were quantified by real time PCR. We also employed a deep amoA amplicon sequencing approach to evaluate the effect of treatment on the community structure and diversity of the soil AOB community. Both vinasse types applied with inorganic N application increased the total N2O emissions and the abundance of AOB. Nitrosospira sp. was the dominant AOB in the soil and was correlated with N2O emissions. However, the diversity and the community structure of AOB did not change with vinasse and inorganic N fertilizer amendment. The results highlight the importance of residues and fertilizer management in sustainable agriculture and can be used as a reference and an input tool to determine good management practices for organic fertilization.

  2. A Worldwide Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Drained Organic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nicola Tubiello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of organic soils, including peatlands, in the global carbon cycle, detailed information on regional and global emissions is scarce. This is due to the difficulty to map, measure, and assess the complex dynamics of land, soil, and water interactions needed to assess the human-driven degradation of organic soils. We produced a new methodology for the comprehensive assessment of drained organic soils in agriculture and the estimation of the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Results indicated that over 25 million hectares of organic soils were drained worldwide for agriculture use, of which about 60% were in boreal and temperate cool areas, 34% in tropical areas, and 5% in warm temperate areas. Total emissions from the drainage were globally significant, totaling nearly one billion tonnes CO2eq annually. Of this, the CO2 component, about 780 million tonnes, represented more than one-fourth of total net CO2 emissions from agriculture, forestry, and land use. The bulk of these emissions came from a few tropical countries in Southeast Asia, and was linked to land clearing and drainage for crop cultivation. Geospatial data relative to this work were disseminated via the FAO geospatial server GeoNetwork, while the national aggregated statistics were disseminated via the FAOSTAT database.

  3. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reistad, O.; Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, O. G.; Standring, W. J. F.; Hustveit, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Sorlie, A.

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site

  4. Emission and soil distribution of fumigants in forest tree nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong Wang; Jennifer Juzwik; Stephen Fraedrich

    2005-01-01

    Production of tree seedlings in the majority of forest nurseries in the USA has relied on soil fumigation with methyl bromide (MeBr) to control soil-borne plant pathogens, weeds, parasitic nematodes and insects. Since the announcement of the scheduled MeBr phase-out, a number of nurseries throughout the United States have participated in research programs on MeBr...

  5. Effects of Biochar Addition on CO2 and N2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to a Cultivated Grassland Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Chen

    Full Text Available Carbon (C sequestration potential of biochar should be considered together with emission of greenhouse gases when applied to soils. In this study, we investigated CO2 and N2O emissions following the application of rice husk biochars to cultivated grassland soils and related gas emissions tos oil C and nitrogen (N dynamics. Treatments included biochar addition (CHAR, NO CHAR and amendment (COMPOST, UREA, NO FERT. The biochar application rate was 0.3% by weight. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions differed according to biochar addition and amendments. CO2 emissions from the COMPOST soils were significantly higher than those from the UREA and NO FERT soils and less CO2 emission was observed when biochar and compost were applied together during the summer. Overall N2O emission was significantly influenced by the interaction between biochar and amendments. In UREA soil, biochar addition increased N2O emission by 49% compared to the control, while in the COMPOST and NO FERT soils, biochar did not have an effect on N2O emission. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the higher N2O emissions upon biochar addition to UREA soil than other soils. Labile C in the biochar may have stimulated microbial N mineralization in the C-limited soil used in our study, resulting in an increase in N2O emission. Biochar may also have provided the soil with the ability to retain mineral N, leading to increased N2O emission. The overall results imply that biochar addition can increase C sequestration when applied together with compost, and might stimulate N2O emission when applied to soil amended with urea.

  6. Effects of Biochar Addition on CO2 and N2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to a Cultivated Grassland Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingjing; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoo, Gayoung

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration potential of biochar should be considered together with emission of greenhouse gases when applied to soils. In this study, we investigated CO2 and N2O emissions following the application of rice husk biochars to cultivated grassland soils and related gas emissions tos oil C and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Treatments included biochar addition (CHAR, NO CHAR) and amendment (COMPOST, UREA, NO FERT). The biochar application rate was 0.3% by weight. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions differed according to biochar addition and amendments. CO2 emissions from the COMPOST soils were significantly higher than those from the UREA and NO FERT soils and less CO2 emission was observed when biochar and compost were applied together during the summer. Overall N2O emission was significantly influenced by the interaction between biochar and amendments. In UREA soil, biochar addition increased N2O emission by 49% compared to the control, while in the COMPOST and NO FERT soils, biochar did not have an effect on N2O emission. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the higher N2O emissions upon biochar addition to UREA soil than other soils. Labile C in the biochar may have stimulated microbial N mineralization in the C-limited soil used in our study, resulting in an increase in N2O emission. Biochar may also have provided the soil with the ability to retain mineral N, leading to increased N2O emission. The overall results imply that biochar addition can increase C sequestration when applied together with compost, and might stimulate N2O emission when applied to soil amended with urea.

  7. An improved SOIL*EX trademark process for the removal of hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, R.R.; Bonnema, B.E.; Navratil, J.D.; Falconer, K.L.; Van Vliet, J.A.; Diel, B.N.

    1995-01-01

    Rust's patented SOIL*EX process is designed to remove hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and a matrix of other materials while destroying volatile organic compounds often associated with contaminated soil and debris. The process is comprised of three major process operations. The first operation involves the dissolution of contaminants that are chemically or mechanically bonded to the solid phase. The second process operation involves separation of the solid phase from the dissolution solution (mother liquor), which contains the dissolved contaminants. The final operation concentrates and removes the contaminants from the mother liquor. A pilot-scale SOIL*EX system was constructed at Rust's Clemson Technical Center for a Proof-of-Process demonstration. The demonstration program included the design, fabrication, and operation of pilot scale and demonstration equipment and systems. The pilot plant, an accurate scaled-down version of a proposed full-scale treatment system, was operated for five months to demonstrate the efficiency of the overall process. The pilot plant test program focused on demonstrating that the SOIL*EX process would remove and concentrate the contaminants and destroy volatile organic compounds. The pilot plant processed nearly 20 tons of soils and sludges, and test results indicated that all contaminants of concern were removed. Additionally, Rust completed numerous bench scale tests to optimize the chemistry. This paper discusses the pilot plant test criteria and results along with the salient design features of the SOIL*EX system and planned improvements

  8. EFFECT OF RICE STRAW AND NITRATE LEVELS IN SOIL SOLUTION ON NITROUS OXIDE EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlos Cruz Copetti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide (N2O is considered important, in view of a global warming potential 296 times greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO2 and its dynamics strongly depend on the availability of C and mineral N in the soil. The understanding of the factors that define emissions is essential to develop mitigation strategies. This study evaluated the dynamics of N2O emissions after the application of different rice straw amounts and nitrate levels in soil solution. Pots containing soil treated with sodium nitrate rates (0, 50 and 100 g kg-1 of NO−3-N and rice straw levels (0, 5 and 10 Mg ha-1, i.e., nine treatments, were subjected to anaerobic conditions. The results showed that N2O emissions were increased by the addition of greater NO−3 amounts and reduced by large straw quantities applied to the soil. On the 1st day after flooding (DAF, significantly different N2O emissions were observed between the treatments with and without NO−3 addition, when straw had no significant influence on N2O levels. Emissions peaked on the 4th DAF in the treatments with highest NO−3-N addition. At this moment, straw application negatively affected N2O emissions, probably due to NO−3 immobilization. There were also alterations in other soil electrochemical characteristics, e.g., higher straw levels raised the Fe, Mn and dissolved C contents. These results indicate that a lowering of NO−3 concentration in the soil and the increase of straw incorporation can decrease N2O emissions.

  9. The dynamics of radioactive contamination of soils and plants of natural complexes in unsettled zone of the Chernobyl NPP in the territory of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakushev, B.I.; Martinovich, B.S.; Rakhteenko, L.I.; Savel'ev, V.V.; Piskunov, V.S.; Kuz'mich, O.T.; Sak, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    The data of measuring of radioactivity of soils and plants in unsettled zone of Chernobyl NPP having been made since 1986 are discussed. It revealed that the radioactivity of plants remained at high level and it was under strong annual influence of the weather conditions

  10. Soil biochemical properties of grassland ecosystems under anthropogenic emission of nitrogen compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrevatykh, Irina; Ivashchenko, Kristina; Ananyeva, Nadezhda

    2016-04-01

    Inflow of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems nowadays increases dramatically, that might be led to disturbance of natural biogeochemical cycles and landscapes structure. Production of nitrogen fertilizers is one of the air pollution sources, namely by nitrogen compounds (NH4+, NO3-, NO2-). Air pollution by nitrogen compounds of terrestrial ecosystems might be affected on soil biochemical properties, which results increasing mineral nitrogen content in soil, changing soil P/N and Al/Ca ratios, and, finally, the deterioration of soil microbial community functioning. The research is focused on the assessment of anthropogenic emission of nitrogen compounds on soil properties of grassland ecosystems in European Russia. Soil samples (Voronic Chernozem Pachic, upper 10 cm mineral layer, totally 10) were taken from grassland ecosystem: near (5-10 m) nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), and far from it (20-30 km, served as a control) in Tula region. In soil samples the NH4+ and NO3- (Kudeyarov's photocolorimetric method), P, Ca, Al (X-ray fluorescence method) contents were measured. Soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was analyzed by substrate-induced respiration method. Soil microbial respiration (MR) was assessed by CO2 rate production. Soil microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) was calculated as MR/Cmic ratio. Near NFF the soil ammonium and nitrate nitrogen contents were a strongly varied, variation coefficient (CV) was 42 and 86This study was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research Grant No. 14-04-00098, 15-44-03220, 15-04-00915.

  11. Dust emission and soil loss due to anthropogenic activities by wind erosion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Swet, Nitzan; Tanner, Smadar

    2017-04-01

    Wind erosion is major process of soil loss and air pollution by dust emission of clays, nutrients, and microorganisms. Many soils throughout the world are currently or potentially associated with dust emissions, especially in dryland zones. The research focuses on wind erosion in semi-arid soils (Northern Negev, Israel) that are subjected to increased human activities of urban development and agriculture. A boundary-layer wind tunnel has been used to study dust emission and soil loss by simulation and quantification of high-resolution wind processes. Field experiments were conducted in various surface types of dry loess soils. The experimental plots represent soils with long-term and short term influences of land uses such as agriculture (conventional and organic practices), grazing, and natural preserves. The wind tunnel was operated under various wind velocities that are above the threshold velocity of aeolian erosion. Total soil sediment and particulate matter (PM) fluxes were calculated. Topsoil samples from the experimental plots were analysed in the laboratory for physical and chemical characteristics including aggregation, organic matter, and high-resolution particle size distribution. The results showed variations in dust emission in response to surface types and winds to provide quantitative estimates of soil loss over time. Substantial loss of particulate matter that is < 10 micrometer in diameter, including clays and nutrients, was recorded in most experimental conditions. Integrative analyses of the topsoil properties and dust experiment highlight the significant implications for soil nutrient resources and management strategies as well as for PM loading to the atmosphere and air pollution.

  12. Soil contamination. part 1. changes in the humidity of non saturated soils after reject in a limited space. part 2. movements of radioactive ions in non saturated soils after reject in a limited space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, D.

    1969-01-01

    An important feature in radiological safety studies of sites is the knowledge of water movements in the unsaturated layer surmounting aquifer; this zone of aerated soil can be effective as a protection against aquifer contamination. Utilizing a neutron-moisture meter, a method was developed permitting to build graphically the hydric states of soil and the moistened volume evolution with time in the particular case of a limited feeding surface. It is also possible to measure moisture gradients, drying kinetics, the retention capacity of soil and the gravific water content achieved by a given water head. The initial hydric state has an effect only upon the infiltration rate and neither upon the moistened front position nor upon the volume of moistened soil; consequently, the storable water amount in soil can be calculated. When water feeding has been stopped, the volume of moistened soil increases to an equilibrium state restricted by the moistened front and all the other water movements occur exclusively inside this volume. Consequently in case of radioactive waste disposal, the ionic pollution will be confined inside a measurable volume, the moistened front being the maximum limits of this volume. Part 2. Following up the report on water movements in non-saturated s o i l s after reject on a limited space - CEA R 3635 (1) - the radioactive ions movements in these soils are studied in using an anion and a cation of reference: iodine 131 and strontium 85. The experimental method is founded on the simultaneous measurements of moisture and radioactivity fronts by means of a neutrons moisture meter and an specially conceived radioactivity probe. It has so been possible to measure: the relative velocities of moisture and radioactivity fronts; the contaminated soil volume inside the moistened oil volume; the concentration gradients; the contamination changes upon watering; the effect of chemical composition of water upon this ions movements and the effect of soil moisture

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions respond differently to mineral and organic nitrogen sources in contrasting soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, David E; Chantigny, Martin H; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Rieux, Christine; Vanasse, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The use of various animal manures for nitrogen (N) fertilization is often viewed as a viable replacement for mineral N fertilizers. However, the impacts of amendment type on NO production may vary. In this study, NO emissions were measured for 2 yr on two soil types with contrasting texture and carbon (C) content under a cool, humid climate. Treatments consisted of a no-N control, calcium ammonium nitrate, poultry manure, liquid cattle manure, or liquid swine manure. The N sources were surface applied and immediately incorporated at 90 kg N ha before seeding of spring wheat ( L.). Cumulative NO-N emissions from the silty clay ranged from 2.2 to 8.3 kg ha yr and were slightly lower in the control than in the fertilized plots ( = 0.067). The 2-yr mean NO emission factors ranged from 2.0 to 4.4% of added N, with no difference among N sources. Emissions of NO from the sandy loam soil ranged from 0.3 to 2.2 kg NO-N ha yr, with higher emissions with organic than mineral N sources ( = 0.015) and the greatest emissions with poultry manure ( < 0.001). The NO emission factor from plots amended with poultry manure was 1.8%, more than double that of the other treatments (0.3-0.9%), likely because of its high C content. On the silty clay, the yield-based NO emissions (g NO-N kg grain yield N) were similar between treatments, whereas on the sandy loam, they were greatest when amended with poultry manure. Our findings suggest that, compared with mineral N sources, manure application only increases soil NO flux in soils with low C content. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of radioactive decontamination effect for paddy soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Masayuki; Yoshimoto, Shuhei; Ishida, Satoshi; Okushima, Shuji; Yuuki, Youichi; Hirata, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute for Rural Engineering performed decontamination of radioactivity at the experimental sites in Iitate Village where paddy fields were contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011 by means of three methods as follows; (1) topsoil removal using soil hardener, (2) removal of soil after paddling with water draining suspended contaminated soil by pumping without manual assistance, and (3) removal of soil after paddling with water draining suspended contaminated soil by pumping with manual assistance. The three methods were evaluated using decontamination factors (DFs) that were determined by applying a variant of inverse analysis using the calculation system for the estimation of decontamination effects (CDE). Input data were provided by surveys using a low-level balloon and a radio-controlled helicopter. The DF values of the three methods were determined on the basis of the Euclidean distances between the simulated and measured dose rates after decontamination. The resulting DFs were > 60 for topsoil removal using soil hardener, 1.4 for slurry pumping, and 2.2 for manually assisted slurry pumping. The area decontaminated by the soil hardening method may have been fully decontaminated, because the distribution of measured dose rates was consistent with the distribution of dose rates calculated for a fully decontaminated area within 20 m in radius. (author)

  15. Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether 137 Cs and 90 Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with 137 Cs and 90 Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. - Highlights: ► We observed the impact of contamination with Cs-137 and Sr-90 on soil functions. ► Microbial community was altered slightly. ► Mineralization of wheat straw was not affected. ► Microbes growing on applied straw compete for nutrients with soil microbes.

  16. Mercury emission and dispersion models from soils contaminated by cinnabar mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Willians; Kocman, David; Higueras, Pablo; Horvat, Milena

    2011-12-01

    The laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) and dispersion models were used to investigate the kinetics of mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentration (26-9770 μg g(-1)) surrounding a decommissioned mercury-mining area (Las Cuevas Mine), and a former mercury smelter (Cerco Metalúrgico de Almadenejos), in the Almadén mercury mining district (South Central Spain), were collected. Altogether, 14 samples were analyzed to determine the variation in mercury emission flux (MEF) versus distance from the sources, regulating two major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature and solar radiation. In addition, the fraction of the water-soluble mercury in these samples was determined in order to assess how MEF from soil is related to the mercury in the aqueous soil phase. Measured MEFs ranged from less than 140 to over 10,000 ng m(-2) h(-1), with the highest emissions from contaminated soils adjacent to point sources. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. Strong positive effects of both temperature and solar radiation on MEF was observed. Moreover, MEF was found to occur more easily in soils with higher proportions of soluble mercury compared to soils where cinnabar prevails. Based on the calculated Hg emission rates and with the support of geographical information system (GIS) tools and ISC AERMOD software, dispersion models for atmospheric mercury were implemented. In this way, the gaseous mercury plume generated by the soil-originated emissions at different seasons was modeled. Modeling efforts revealed that much higher emissions and larger mercury plumes are generated in dry and warm periods (summer), while the plume is smaller and associated with lower concentrations of atmospheric mercury during colder periods with higher wind activity (fall). Based on the calculated emissions and the model implementation, yearly emissions from

  17. Soil moisture and temperature profile effects on microwave emission at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, S.; Chanzy, A.; Wigneron, J.P.; Calvet, J.C.; Kerr, Y.; Laguerre, L.

    1995-01-01

    Soil moisture and temperature vertical profiles vary quickly during the day and may have a significant influence on the soil microwave emission. The objective of this work is to quantify such an influence and the consequences in soil moisture estimation from microwave radiometric information. The analysis is based on experimental data collected by the ground-based PORTOS radiometer at 1.4, 5.05, and 10.65 GHz and data simulated by a coherent model of microwave emission from layered media [Wilheit model (1978)]. In order to simulate diurnal variations of the brightness temperature (TB), the Wilheit model is coupled to a mechanistic model of heat and water flows in the soil. The Wilheit model is validated on experimental data and its performances for estimating TB are compared to those of a simpler approach based on a description of the soil media as a single layer (Fresnel model). When the depth of this single layer (hereafter referred to as the sampling depth) is determined to fit the experimental data, similar accuracy in TB estimation is found with both the Wilheit and Fresnel models. The soil microwave emission is found to be strongly affected by the diurnal variations of soil moisture and temperature profiles. Consequently, the TB sensitivity to soil moisture and temperature profiles has an influence on the estimation, from microwave observations, of the surface soil moisture in a surface layer with a fixed depth (05): the accuracy of θs retrievals and the optimal sampling depth depends both on the variation in soil moisture and temperature profile shape. (author)

  18. The economics of soil C sequestration and agricultural emissions abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P.; Paustian, K.; Smith, P.; Moran, D.

    2015-04-01

    Carbon is a critical component of soil vitality and is crucial to our ability to produce food. Carbon sequestered in soils also provides a further regulating ecosystem service, valued as the avoided damage from global climate change. We consider the demand and supply attributes that underpin and constrain the emergence of a market value for this vital global ecosystem service: markets being what economists regard as the most efficient institutions for allocating scarce resources to the supply and consumption of valuable goods. This paper considers how a potentially large global supply of soil carbon sequestration is reduced by economic and behavioural constraints that impinge on the emergence of markets, and alternative public policies that can efficiently transact demand for the service from private and public sector agents. In essence, this is a case of significant market failure. In the design of alternative policy options, we consider whether soil carbon mitigation is actually cost-effective relative to other measures in agriculture and elsewhere in the economy, and the nature of behavioural incentives that hinder policy options. We suggest that reducing the cost and uncertainties of mitigation through soil-based measures is crucial for improving uptake. Monitoring and auditing processes will also be required to eventually facilitate wide-scale adoption of these measures.

  19. Benzo(a)pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkova, Svetlana; Minkina, Tatiana; Kizilkaya, Ridvan; Mandzhieva, Saglara; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Bauer, Tatiana; Gulser, Coskun

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0-20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg-3.1-5.0%, pH-7.3-7.6, ECE-31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3-0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay - 51-67% and clay - 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds

  20. BOREAS TGB-5 Biogenic Soil Emissions of NO and N2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.; Winstead, E. L.; Parsons, D. A. B.; Scholes, M. C.; Cofer, W. R.; Cahoon, D. R.; Sebacher, D. I.; Scholes, R. J.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study Trace Gas Biogeochemistry (BOREAS TGB)-5 team made several measurements of trace gas concentrations and fluxes at various NSA sites. This data set contains biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide that were measured over a wide range of spatial and temporal site parameters. Since very little is known about biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from the boreal forest, the goal of the measurements was to characterize the biogenic soil fluxes of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from black spruce and jack pine areas in the boreal forest. The diurnal variation and monthly variation of the emissions was examined as well as the impact of wetting through natural or artificial means. Temporally, the data cover mid-August 1993, June to August 1994, and mid-July 1995. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  1. Frozen cropland soil in northeast China as source of N2O and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shujie; Qiao, Yunfa; Han, Xiaozeng; Brancher Franco, Roberta; Burger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural soils are important sources of atmospheric N2O and CO2. However, in boreal agro-ecosystems the contribution of the winter season to annual emissions of these gases has rarely been determined. In this study, soil N2O and CO2 fluxes were measured for 6 years in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in northeast China to quantify the contribution of wintertime N2O and CO2 fluxes to annual emissions. The treatments were chemical fertilizer (NPK), chemical fertilizer plus composted pig manure (NPKOM), and control (Cont.). Mean soil N2O fluxes among all three treatments in the winter (November-March), when soil temperatures are below -7°C for extended periods, were 0.89-3.01 µg N m(-2) h(-1), and in between the growing season and winter (October and April), when freeze-thaw events occur, 1.73-5.48 µg N m(-2) h(-1). The cumulative N2O emissions were on average 0.27-1.39, 0.03-0.08 and 0.03-0.11 kg N2O_N ha(-1) during the growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The average contributions of winter N2O efflux to annual emissions were 6.3-12.1%. In all three seasons, the highest N2O emissions occurred in NPKOM, while NPK and Cont. emissions were similar. Cumulative CO2 emissions were 2.73-4.94, 0.13-0.20 and 0.07-0.11 Mg CO2-C ha(-1) during growing season, October and April, and winter, respectively. The contribution of winter CO2 to total annual emissions was 2.0-2.4%. Our results indicate that in boreal agricultural systems in northeast China, CO2 and N2O emissions continue throughout the winter.

  2. Complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of the Chornobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, Oleg; Fadeev, Mykhaylo; Kireev, Serhiy; Proskura, Mykola

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this work a general procedure of establishment the criterion of complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of alone areas of the Chornobyl exclusion zone is represented by the following three stages, namely: 1) Justification of the dose criterion of complete release by applying the fundamental approaches of regulating the prolonged exposure of the public on a basement of ICRP Publication No. 82; 2) Justification of a procedure for establishment of dose constraint through evaluation of the statistical distribution of a controlled radiation value through determination of the high boundary of the confidence interval; 3) Generalization of conversion coefficients (via the density of radioactive contamination of soil) and coverage coefficients for the dose forming factors of the public (inhalation intake of transuranium radionuclides both at natural and technogenic dust resuspension, peroral intake of 137 Cs and 90 Sr via food stuff, external exposure from 137 Cs); on a basis of these coefficients average doses and dose constraint of a critical group of the public are calculated. As it is shown in the work, the generalized criterion of complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of the Chornobyl exclusion zone can be defined by dividing the recommended ICRP dose clearance level for situation of the post-accidental prolonged exposure of a critical group of the public, namely, 0.3 mSv·year -1 to the dose conversion coefficient (i.e. transfer from the superficial soil contamination of radioactivity to the dose constraint for the Chornobyl exclusion zone), namely, 12.9 μSv·year -1 /((kBq·M -2 ). Thus, a level of the density of radioactive contamination of soil, that provides the complete release from regulatory control makes 23.3 kBq·M -2 . For completion of the work on justification of the criterion of complete territory release in the conditions of

  3. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  4. [Contribution of fungi to soil nitrous oxide emission and their research methods: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Long, Xi-En

    2014-04-01

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas. Soil is one major emission source of N2O, which is a by-product of microorganisms-driven nitrification and denitrification processes. Extensive research has demonstrated archaea and bacteria are the predominant contributors in nitrification and denitrification. However, fungi may play a predominant role in the N transformation in a certain soil ecosystem. The fungal contribution to N2O production has been rarely investigated. Here, we reviewed the mechanism of N2O production by soil fungi. The mechanisms of denitrification, autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification and their key microbes and functional genes were described, respectively. We discriminated the differences in denitrification between bacteria and fungi and discussed the methods being used to determine the contribution of fungi to soil N2O emission, including selective inhibitors, 15N stable isotope probing, isolation and pure culturing and uncultured molecular detection methods. The existing problems and research prospects were also presented.

  5. Technical feasibility study for the electrochemical treatment of Phaeozem soil contaminated with radioactive organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdovinos G, V.

    2014-01-01

    The application of radioisotopes in medicine and research generates radioactive waste. A large part of these wastes are composed by scintillation liquid (mixtures of organic solvents, as toluene and xylene, fluorescent materials and surfactants) contaminated with radioisotopes such as 3 H (12.3 y), 14 C (5730 y), 238 U (4.468 x 10 9 y), 232 Th (1.41 x 10 10 y), 204 Tl (3.7 y) or 22 Na (2.6 y). In Mexico during the 80 s, these wastes were absorbed on soil to decrease their hazardous behavior during interim storage. However, these wastes must be removed for reprocessing and final landscaping. Therefore, the objective of this thesis is to study the technical feasibility of the electrochemical treatment of soils types Phaeozem contaminated with radioactive organic liquid waste (ROLW). For this study, an electrochemical treatment at laboratory level was applied, giving it an electrokinetic tracking. Control samples were prepared with different scintillation liquid (INSTAL Gel- XF, ULTIMA Gold AB TM and ULTIMA Gold XR TM as support electrolyte and polarization curves were constructed to select the current with the highest mass transfer. An analysis of the liquids and solids, before and after the application of the different potentials; the liquid phase was characterized by Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Ionized Detector (GC-FID) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Ft-Irs), and the solids by Ft-Irs. From the fourteen supports electrolytes studied, eleven did not have a stable diffusion current and the other three showed a diffusion current plateau in 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 m A·cm -2 . From polarization curves, the following experimental conditions were chosen for the treatment: electrodes (meshes of titanium as anode and rod of stainless steel as cathode), scintillation liquid (ULTIMA Gold XR TM : water, 1:1) and a current of 0.06 m A·cm -2 . Subsequently, radioactive control samples were prepared with soil-scintillation liquid, labeled with 24 Na, 99m Tc

  6. Calibration of new measuring systems to detect emissions of radioactive noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelmann, I.; Kreiner, H.J.

    1977-12-01

    This report describes the calibration of different systems for the integral measurement of radioactive noble gases and the calibration of a measuring chamber for the detection of individual nuclides of radioactive noble gases in the gaseous effluent of nuclear power plants. For these measuring chambers the calibration factors for Kr-85 and Xe-133 are given as well as the detection limits to be obtained with these measuring systems for several radioactive noble gases present in the gaseous effluent at the stack of nuclear power plants. Calibration factors for Kr-85 and Xe-133 and the detection limits of this measuring method for the detections of individual nuclides of radioactive noble gases in air samples are defined taken wirh a high pressure compressor in pressure flasks an measured on a Ge(Li)-semiconductor spectrometer (pressure flask measuring method). A measuring equipment is described and calibrated which allows simultaneous measurement of activity concentration of radioactive noble gases and radioactive aerosols with a sensitivity of 2 x 10 -7 Ci/m 3 for radioactive gases and 1 x 10 -9 Ci/m 3 for radioactive particulates at a background radiation of 1 R/h. This paper is an additional report to our STH-Bericht 3/76, 'Calibration of measuring equipment for monitoring of gaseous effluents from nuclear power plants', which specifies a procedure for the calibration of measuring chambers for monitoring of gaseous radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants /1/. The calibration system used here makes it possible to simultaneously calibrate several noble gas measuring devices. (orig.) [de

  7. Carbon dioxide emissions from peat soils under potato cultivation in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jenny; Langan, Charlie; Smith, Jo

    2017-04-01

    Organic wetland soils in south western Uganda are found in valley bottom wetlands, surrounded by steep, mineral soil hill slopes. Land use change in these papyrus dominated wetlands has taken place over the past forty years, seeing wetland areas cleared of papyrus, rudimentary drainage channel systems dug, and soil cultivated and planted with crops, predominantly potatoes. There has been little research into the cultivation of organic wetlands soils in Uganda, or the impacts on soil carbon dynamics and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This study used two rounds of farmer interviews to capture the land management practices on these soils and how they vary over the period of a year. Three potato fields were also randomly selected and sampled for CO2 emissions at four points in time during the year; 1) just after the potato beds had been dug, 2) during the potato growing period, 3) after the potato harvest, and 4) at the end of the fallow season. Carbon dioxide emissions, soil and air temperatures, water table depth, vegetation cover and land use were all recorded in situ in each field on each sampling occasion, from both the raised potato beds and the trenches in between them. There appeared to be a delay in the disturbance effect of digging the peat, with heterotrophic CO2 emissions from the raised beds not immediately increasing after being exposed to the air. Excluding these results, there was a significant linear relationship between mean emissions and water table depth from the raised beds and trenches in each field over time (pgaps which need to be addressed with future studies.

  8. Evaluation of ambient dose equivalent rates influenced by vertical and horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium in soil in Fukushima Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malins, Alex; Kurikami, Hiroshi; Nakama, Shigeo; Saito, Tatsuo; Okumura, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The air dose rate in an environment contaminated with (134)Cs and (137)Cs depends on the amount, depth profile and horizontal distribution of these contaminants within the ground. This paper introduces and verifies a tool that models these variables and calculates ambient dose equivalent rates at 1 m above the ground. Good correlation is found between predicted dose rates and dose rates measured with survey meters in Fukushima Prefecture in areas contaminated with radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. This finding is insensitive to the choice for modeling the activity depth distribution in the ground using activity measurements of collected soil layers, or by using exponential and hyperbolic secant fits to the measurement data. Better predictions are obtained by modeling the horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium across an area if multiple soil samples are available, as opposed to assuming a spatially homogeneous contamination distribution. Reductions seen in air dose rates above flat, undisturbed fields in Fukushima Prefecture are consistent with decrement by radioactive decay and downward migration of cesium into soil. Analysis of remediation strategies for farmland soils confirmed that topsoil removal and interchanging a topsoil layer with a subsoil layer result in similar reductions in the air dose rate. These two strategies are more effective than reverse tillage to invert and mix the topsoil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil Protection in the EU According to the Directive on Industrial Emissions (IED and Croatian Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pilaš

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Soil protection against pollution in EU is mostly covered in a new Directive on industrial emissions (IED, adopted on November 24, 2010 as a follow up of the IPPC Directive. For all industrial facilities that fall under IED, the Directive obliges the establishment of a complex system of management of contaminated soil at the national level, in order to facilitate the implementation of the principle of “polluter pays” furthermore to reduce the risk of contamination of soil and groundwater. Material and Methods: This paper presents an overview of soil management system that should be established in each EU country to fulfil IED requirements. It consists of a meta-analysis of IED requirements and current state and drawbacks of soil protection in Croatia including present state of legislation, responsibility of authorities, soil surveys and remediation activities. Results and Conclusions: IED set the obligation on the industrial operator before the start of production to prepare a report on the initial state of soil as a necessary requirement for obtaining environmental permit. It set obligations for monitoring of soil and groundwater status in the location of industrial facility for a period of ten (soil and five years (groundwater. After the cessation of production, and in the case of exceeding critical limits of pollution, the operator is obliged to perform remediation or restitution of land in the state as it was at the beginning of production. Management of contaminated soil according to IED requirements obliges the Croatian government to establish a complex multi-level system. At first it requires better definition of responsibilities between two ministries; Ministry of Environmental and Nature protection and Ministry of Agriculture. IED requires enactment of adequate legal basis (i.e. Soil protection act and the establishment of operational instruments for the implementation of soil protection, such as a register

  10. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization strongly affect co2 emissions following lime application to acidic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, M.; Peng, Q.; Lin, S.; Wu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Emission of greenhouse gases from agricultural soils has main contribution to the climatic change and global warming. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen mineralization can affect CO/sub 2/ emission from soils. Influence of DOC and nitrogen mineralization on CO/sub 2/ emissions following lime application to acidic soil was investigated in current study. Laboratory experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions with 25% moisture contents (66% water-filled pore space) at 25 degree C in the dark conditions. Different treatments of lime were applied to acidic soil as follows: CK (control), L (low rate of lime: 0.2g lime / 100 g soil) and H (high rate of lime: 0.5g lime /100g soil). CO/sub 2/ emissions were measured by gas chromatography and dissolved organic carbon, NH4 +-N, NO/sub 3/ --N and soil pH were measured during incubation study. Addition of lime to acidic soil significantly increased the concentration of DOC and N mineralization rate. Higher concentrations of DOC and N mineralization, consequently, increased the CO/sub 2/ emissions from lime treated soils. Cumulative CO/sub 2/ emission was 75% and 71% higher from L and H treatments as compared to CK. The results of current study suggest that DOC and N mineralization are critical in controlling gaseous emissions of CO/sub 2/ from acidic soils following lime application. (author)

  11. [Key microbial processes in nitrous oxide emissions of agricultural soil and mitigation strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Xu, Hui-Juan; Jia, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas, which does not only have a strong influence on the global climate change but also depletes the ozone layer and induces the enhancement of ultraviolet radiation to ground surface, so numerous researches have been focused on global climate change and ecological environmental change. Soil is the foremost source of N2O emissions to the atmosphere, and approximately two-thirds of these emissions are generally attributed to microbiological processes including bacterial and fungal denitrification and nitrification processes, largely as a result of the application of nitrogenous fertilizers. Here the available knowledge concerning the research progress in N2O production in agricultural soils was reviewed, including denitrification, nitrification, nitrifier denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and the abiotic (including soil pH, organic and inorganic nitrogen, organic matter, soil humidity and temperature) and biotic factors that have direct and indirect effects on N2O fluxes from agricultural soils were also summarized. In addition, the strategies for mitigating N2O emissions and the future research direction were proposed. Therefore, these studies are expected to provide valuable and scientific evidence for the study on mitigation strategies for the emission of greenhouse gases, adjustment of nitrogen transformation processes and enhancement of nitrogen use efficiency.

  12. Mitigation potential of soil carbon management overestimated by neglecting N2O emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugato, Emanuele; Leip, Adrian; Jones, Arwyn

    2018-03-01

    International initiatives such as the `4 per 1000' are promoting enhanced carbon (C) sequestration in agricultural soils as a way to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions1. However, changes in soil organic C turnover feed back into the nitrogen (N) cycle2, meaning that variation in soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions may offset or enhance C sequestration actions3. Here we use a biogeochemistry model on approximately 8,000 soil sampling locations in the European Union4 to quantify the net CO2 equivalent (CO2e) fluxes associated with representative C-mitigating agricultural practices. Practices based on integrated crop residue retention and lower soil disturbance are found to not increase N2O emissions as long as C accumulation continues (until around 2040), thereafter leading to a moderate C sequestration offset mostly below 47% by 2100. The introduction of N-fixing cover crops allowed higher C accumulation over the initial 20 years, but this gain was progressively offset by higher N2O emissions over time. By 2060, around half of the sites became a net source of greenhouse gases. We conclude that significant CO2 mitigation can be achieved in the initial 20-30 years of any C management scheme, but after that N inputs should be controlled through appropriate management.

  13. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Research on soil and litter arthropod food chains, concerning measurement of nutrient flow using radioisotope techniques and investigations of the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the ecosystem-level processes of decomposition and mineralization of nutrients is described. Laboratory measurements of radiotracer turnover by predaceous macroarthropods are reported, as well as the status of research with microarthropod turnover of radioactive tracers. Implications of results are evaluated in context of current understanding of nutrient flows along arthropod food chains. The interactions of soil fauna and mycorrhizal fungi are also under investigation. Field work has been completed on granitic outcrop projects, and a synthesis of results is summarized. Input-output budgets revealed that granitic outcrop island ecosystems are essentially in balance as regards nutrient flows. The ecosystems showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, following an applied chemical perturbation and a natural one

  14. Examination of radioactive contamination in the soil-plant system and their transfer to selected animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibowski, S.; Gladysz, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates gamma emitter radioactivity in a system consisting of soil and plants. Some selected sample of tissues of animals fed with the plants from these sites were also measured. In soil and plant samples artificial ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and natural (thorium and uranium series) isotopes were detected. Despite the relatively high content of the natural isotopes in plants and their seeds, their accumulation in animal tissues was not detected.The 40 K isotope was transferred in the chain soil-plant-animal in the highest degree. From the group of the natural isotopes, only 212 Pb was detected in examined animal tissue samples. Other natural isotopes were below detection level. In the samples heavy metal content was also examined. In any sample no element concentration was noticed above trade acceptable limit. (author)

  15. Evaluation of uranium and arsenic retention by soil from a low level radioactive waste management site using sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, G.J.; Dhoum, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    The European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) and Chunguo sequential extraction procedures were employed to evaluate the retention of U and As by a soil contaminated with low level radioactive waste. Modifications were made to both procedures to optimize the measurement of soil and extractant samples using epithermal neutron activation analysis. Based on the BCR procedure, approximately 20% of the U appeared to be bound to the carbonate fraction, 10% to the mineral oxide fraction and 20% to the organic fraction. In the case of As, the majority was strongly bound in the residue fraction. The results obtained with the Chunguo procedure supported these conclusions to some extent, in that the majority of the U and As was found to be strongly bound to the soil in a manner consistent with its presence in the residue fraction. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Radioactive tracer studies of soil and litter arthropod food chains. Progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossley, Jr, D A

    1979-07-15

    Research on soil and litter arthropod food chains, concerning measurement of nutrient flow using radioisotope techniques and investigations of the role of soil arthropods as regulators of the ecosystem-level processes of decomposition and mineralization of nutrients is described. Laboratory measurements of radiotracer turnover by predaceous macroarthropods are reported, as well as the status of research with microarthropod turnover of radioactive tracers. Implications of results are evaluated in context of current understanding of nutrient flows along arthropod food chains. The interactions of soil fauna and mycorrhizal fungi are also under investigation. Field work has been completed on granitic outcrop projects, and a synthesis of results is summarized. Input-output budgets revealed that granitic outcrop island ecosystems are essentially in balance as regards nutrient flows. The ecosystems showed a strong resistance component of stability, as opposed to resilience, following an applied chemical perturbation and a natural one (drought).

  17. Effects of sewage sludge stabilization on fertilizer value and greenhouse gas emissions after soil application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Nielsen, Martin P.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    was therefore to investigate the effect of sewage sludge stabilization techniques on the C and N mineralization and gaseous emissions from soil. A soil incubation was conducted to determine the rate of C and N mineralization and N2O and CH4 emissions of sewage sludge stabilized using different techniques....... Unstabilized sludge released up to 90% of their C content as CO2, part of which could be caused by release of CO2 from carbonates. Compared with this, sludge stabilization including anaerobic digestion and drying resulted in a reduction of the C mineralization rate of about 40%. Liming reduced C mineralization...... the value of the sludge as a fertilizer. Emissions of CH4 were also reduced through sludge stabilization and mainly occurred after application of easily degradable sludge types, which is likely to have enhanced the creation of anaerobic microsites. The stabilization processes also decreased emissions of N2O...

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from managed peat soils: is the IPCC reporting guidance realistic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Couwenberg

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Drainage of peatlands leads to the decomposition of peat, resulting in substantial losses of carbon and nitrogen to the atmosphere. The conservation and restoration of peatlands can provide a major contribution to the mitigation of climate change. Improvements to guidance and capacity for reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from peatlands will be valuable in the context of the current negotiations towards a post-2012 climate agreement. This article evaluates IPCC approaches to greenhouse gas emissions from managed organic (peat soils and presents a summary table comparing IPCC default values with best estimates based on recent literature. Inconsistencies are pointed out with regard to the IPCC definitions of organic soils and climate zones. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines use a definition of organic soil that is not totally consistent with FAO definitions, use climate zones that are not fully compatible, present default CO2 values that are substantially (often an order of magnitude too low, and present a default N2O value for tropical cropland that is also an order of magnitude too low. An update of IPCC default values is desirable. The IPCC Emission Factor Database offers a platform for establishing more accurate emission factors, but so far contains little information about emissions from peat soils.

  19. Effect of different fertilization measures on soil CO2 emissions of spring corn in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shicai; Qiao, Shaoqing

    2018-04-01

    To research the sustainability of efficient utilization approaches and modes of nitrogen in spring corns. Taking different fertilization measures to research the influence on soil respiration and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen; the experiment takes the spring corns and black soil of Harbin in Northeast China as research objects. It researches the influence of 4 different fertilization measures by using field long-term located experiment on soil respiration of the spring corns and analyzes the yield. The four measures are as follows: farmer's fertilization practice FP; Tl mode of decreasing 20% of nitrogenous fertilizer on the basis of FP; T2 mode of 20% of Tl nitrogenous fertilizer replaced by organic fertilizer and other 20% replaced by slow-release nitrogen fertilizer; T3 mode of adding 2t/hm2 of corn stalk carbon on the basis of T2. There are significant differences of CO2 emission flux in spring corn soil with four fertilization measures (PTl>T2>FP and the yield rank of spring corns is: T3>T2>Tl>FP. (1) The rational nitrogen-decrease fertilization measure has no obvious influence on spring corn yield and the replacement of organic fertilizer and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer and the addition of active carbon can improve the spring corn yield. (2) Utilization of organic fertilizer can accelerate the emission of CO2 from the soil. (3) Addition of biological carbon can promote the emission of CO2 from soil during the growing period of spring corns.

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized soil: Can we manage it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropped fields in the upper Midwest have the potential to emit nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) gases resulting from soil transformation of nitrogen (N) fertilizers applied to crops such as corn and potatoes. Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse and also an important in ozone depleting che...

  1. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Terrestrial gamma radioactivity levels and their corresponding external exposure of some soil samples from Elba protective area, Southeastern of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Arabi, A.M.; Ahmed, N.K.; Salahel Din, K.; Tykva, R.

    2007-01-01

    The study of natural gamma radioactivity was made to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil. Fifty four surface soil samples collected from three different cites (Wadi Daeeb , Wadi Sarara and Wadi Hodein) in Elba protective area, Southeastern of Egypt, were analyzed by Nal(Tl) detector to determine the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. The mean activity concentration of radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 20.9±1.6, 13.5 ± 1.1 and 477 ± 24 Bq kg -1 , respectively for Wadi Daeeb soils. The corresponding values for Wadi Sarara and Wadi Hodein soils are 27.8 ± 2.6, 17.8 ± 1.4 and 735.3 ± 29.8 Bq kg -1 and 20.3 ± 1.5, 12 ± 1 and 664.2 ± 20 Bq kg -1 , respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ) and gamma activity concentration index (I) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. The average annual effective doses outdoors, indoors and in total are estimated to be 0.046, 0.26 and 0.30 mSv, respectively for Wadi Daeeb soils. For Wadi Sarara and Wadi Hodein soils the corresponding values are 0.066, 0.37 and 0.44 mSv and 0.054, 0.30 and 0.36 mSv, respectively. Also the annual gonadal dose equivalent was calculated and found to be within safe limit

  3. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.R. Fresquez; M.W. McNaughton; M.J. Winch

    2005-10-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U for soils and {sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239,240}Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards.

  4. Radionuclide Concentration in Soils and Vegetation at Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; McNaughton, M.W.; Winch, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples were collected at 15 locations and unwashed overstory and understory vegetation samples were collected from up to nine locations within and around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Soil and plant samples were also collected from the proposed expansion area west of Area G for the purpose of gaining preoperational baseline data. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for radionuclides that have shown a history of detection in past years; these included 3 H, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U for soils and 3 H, 238 Pu, and 239,240 Pu for plants. As in previous years, the highest levels of 3 H in soils and vegetation were detected at the south portion of Area G near the 3 H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of the Pu isotopes were detected in the northern and northeastern portions near the pads for transuranic waste. All concentrations of radionuclides in soils and vegetation, however, were still very low (pCi range) and far below LANL screening levels and regulatory standards

  5. Transfer factors of some selected radionuclides (radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn) from soil to leaf vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yanagisawa, Kei

    1995-01-01

    Transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to leaf vegetables (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, komatsuna, spinach and lettuce) have been studied by radiotracer experiments using Andosol as a representative of Japanese soils. The transfer factors of radioactive Cs, Sr, Mn, Co and Zn for edible parts of vegetables (average of five vegetables) were 0.11, 0.24, 0.61, 0.05 and 0.52, respectively. These values should be used in safety assessment for Japanese agricultural environment. The transfer factors of Mn, Co and Zn for spinach were higher than those for the other vegetables. The transfer factors of Cs for different organs of the leaf vegetables were rather homogeneous. The transfer factors of Sr and Mn were higher for older (outer) leaves than younger (inner) ones. In contrast to Sr and Mn, transfer factors of Zn for younger leaves were higher than those for older ones. The distribution ratios of the elements between soil-solution and soil were in the order Sr>Mn>Cs>Co>Zn, whereas the distribution ratios of the elements between plant and soil-solution were in the order Zn>Cs>Mn>Co>Sr. These results indicate that the selectivity for Sr by plants from the soil-solution was low and that for Zn was very high. (author)

  6. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from a chinampa soil or floating gardens in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz-Cornejo, Nadia Livia; Luna-Guido, Marco; Rivera-Espinoza, Yadira; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Dendooven, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture in chinampas or 'floating gardens', is still found on the south of Mexico City, it is a high yield pre-Columbian cultivation system, which has soils enriched with organic matter. The objective of this research was to determine the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a chinampa soil cultivated with amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.), maize (Zea mays L.) or uncultivated. The soil was characterized and fluxes of GHG (CO2, N2O and CH4) were monitored for one year. The chinampa s...

  8. Gaseous elemental mercury emissions and CO2 respiration rates in terrestrial soils under controlled aerobic and anaerobic laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrist, Daniel; Fain, Xavier; Berger, Carsen

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) levels in terrestrial soils are linked to the presence of organic carbon (C). Carbon pools are highly dynamic and subject to mineralization processes, but little is known about the fate of Hg during decomposition. This study evaluated relationships between gaseous Hg emissions from soils and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) respiration under controlled laboratory conditions to assess potential losses of Hg to the atmosphere during C mineralization. Results showed a linear correlation (r 2 = 0.49) between Hg and CO 2 emissions in 41 soil samples, an effect unlikely to be caused by temperature, radiation, different Hg contents, or soil moisture. Stoichiometric comparisons of Hg/C ratios of emissions and underlying soil substrates suggest that 3% of soil Hg was subject to evasion. Even minute emissions of Hg upon mineralization, however, may be important on a global scale given the large Hg pools sequestered in terrestrial soils and C stocks. We induced changes in CO 2 respiration rates and observed Hg flux responses, including inducement of anaerobic conditions by changing chamber air supply from N 2 /O 2 (80% and 20%, respectively) to pure N 2 . Unexpectedly, Hg emissions almost quadrupled after O 2 deprivation while oxidative mineralization (i.e., CO 2 emissions) was greatly reduced. This Hg flux response to anaerobic conditions was lacking when repeated with sterilized soils, possibly due to involvement of microbial reduction of Hg 2+ by anaerobes or indirect abiotic effects such as alterations in soil redox conditions. This study provides experimental evidence that Hg volatilization, and possibly Hg 2+ reduction, is related to O 2 availability in soils from two Sierra Nevada forests. If this result is confirmed in soils from other areas, the implication is that Hg volatilization from terrestrial soils is partially controlled by soil aeration and that low soil O 2 levels and possibly low soil redox potentials lead to increased Hg volatilization from soils.

  9. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction and application for approval to construct the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Hanford Site is owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. The Hanford Site manages and produces dangerous waste and mixed waste. (containing both radioactive and dangerous components). The US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office, currently stores mixed waste, resulting from various processing operations, in underground storage tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be constructed and operated to process the high-activity fraction of mixed waste stored in these underground tanks. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will solidify pretreated tank waste into a glass product that will be packaged for disposal in a national repository. Emissions from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant will be regulated by both the federal and state Clean Air Acts. The proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant represents a new source of radioactive air emissions. Construction of the plant will require approval from both federal and state agencies. The Notice of Construction and Application for Approval to Construct the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant contains information required under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 61; and Chapter 246-247 of the Washington Administrative Code for a proposed new source of radioactive air emissions. The document contents are based on information contained in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Reference Conceptual Design Report, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, Revision 0, and subsequent design changes made before August 1, 1992. The contents of this document may be modified to include more specific information generated during subsequent detailed design phases. Modifications will be submitted for regulatory review and approval, as appropriate

  10. External costs of cadmium emissions to soil: a drawback of phosphorus fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; C.R. Smart, James; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    are exposed to cadmium through their diet causing potential adverse health impacts. Future scenarios for cadmium emissions to soil via agricultural applications of inorganic and organic fertilizers in Denmark were defined. A simplified fate and speciation model allowed the increase in soil cadmium......Abstract: In this study the Impact-Pathway Approach methodology was applied for monetary valuation of health impacts due to cadmium emitted to soil as a micro-pollutant present in phosphorus fertilizers. Due to the high persistency of cadmium in soil, and high soil-to-plant transfer rates, humans...... ammonium phosphate) and mineral fertilizer produced the lowest external health costs, followed by the fertilizer products wastewater sludge and pig manure. The external cost estimates produced in this study could be used to design economic policy instruments to encourage use of cleaner fertilizer products....

  11. Determining Original Inventory Amount of Radioactive Substances from Unmonitored Radionuclide Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.T.; Blunt, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to determine the air emissions inventory of the Savannah River Site. To satisfy regulatory requirements, a new equation has been developed to determine original inventory amounts from unmonitored radionuclide emissions